Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-4 : Species and Subjects

				
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FARMERS  BULLETIN 1644 
 
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Common name 
 
Juniper; redcedar ----- 
Greenbrier ------------ 
Bayberry ------------- 
Hackberry ------------ 
Mulberry ----------- 
Pokeberry ....-.--- 
Spicebush ------------ 
Sassafras  ------------- 
Strawberry ----------- 
Raspberry; black- 
berry. 
 
R ose  ------------------ 
Mountain-ash -------- 
Chokeberry ---------- 
Hawthorn, or red haw 
Dwarf apples ------- 
 
Shadblow, or 
berry. 
Wild cherry 
 
June- 
 
Sumac     - - 
 
Scientific name 
Juniperus ------- 
Sm ilax  ---------- 
Myrica -------- 
Celtis ----------- 
Morus --------- 
Phytolacca --- 
Benzoin ------ 
Sassafras ........ 
Fragaria -- ----- 
Rubus --------- 
 
Rosa ---- 
Sorbus -. 
Aronia-... 
Crataegus_ 
Mains ----- 
 
Amelanchier.- 
Pruns -------- 
 
Rhus 8 -----.-- 
 
Number 
of species 
of birds  Kinds of birds among those desirable to attract that 
known to                are most fond of the fruit 3 
eat the 
fruit 
 
I Barberries (Berberis), buckthorn (Rhamnus), and gooseberries and currants
(Ribes) are omitted be- 
cause they serve as alternate hosts of rusts attacking wheat, oats, and white
pine, respectively. 
2 When 10 or more. 
3 Included on the basis of field observation or because fruit was found in
10 or more stomachs. 
'Thirty-eight kinds of birds are known to feed on apples of various sorts,
but it is not known Just how 
many seek the small-fruited flowering apples, which are the best to plant
for birds. 
6 Only nonpoisonous species of sumac are considered. 
 
Yellow-shafted flicker, European starling, evening 
grosbeak, pine grosbeak, purple finch, cedar wax- 
wing, myrtle warbler, mocking bird, robin, eastern 
bluebird. 
Cardinal, mocking bird, brown thrasher, catbird, 
hermit thrush, robin. 
Bobwhite, downy woodpecker, yellow-shafted flicker, 
eastern phoebe, European starling, meadow lark, 
chewink, tree swallow, white-eyed vireo, myrtle 
warbler, brown thrasher, catbird, Carolina wren, 
black-capped chickadee, hermit thrush, eastern 
bluebird. 
Yellow-bellied sapsucker, yellow-shafted flicker, star- 
ling, cardinal, cedar waxwing, mocking bird, brown 
thrasher, robin, eastern bluebird. 
Yellow-billed cuckoo, red-headed woodpecker, red- 
bellied woodpecker, downy woodpecker, kingbird, 
starling, Baltimore oriole, orchard oriole, cardinal, 
purple finch, scarlet tanager, cedar waxwing, red- 
eyed vireo, yellow warbler, mocking bird, catbird, 
wood thrush, robin. 
Mourning dove, yellow-shafted flicker, kingbird, star- 
ling, cardinal, mocking bird, catbird, hermit thrush, 
gray-chceked thrush, olive-backed thrush, robin, 
eastern bluebird. 
Kingbird, red-eyed vireo, wood thrush, veery. 
Bobwhite, kingbird, red-eyed vireo, catbird, veery, 
robin. 
Chewink, catbird, brown thrasher, wood thrush, 
robin. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, red-headed woodpecker, 
yellow-shafted flicker, kingbird, European starling, 
Baltimore oriole, orchard oriole, pine grosbeak, song 
sparrow, fox sparrow white-throated sparrow, che- 
wink, California towhee, spurred towhee, cardinal, 
rose-breasted grosbeak, black-headed grosbeak, 
cedar waxwing, red-eyed vireo, mocking bird, cat- 
bird, brown thrasher, tufted titmouse, wren tit, 
olive-backed thrush, wood thrush, robin, eastern 
bluebird. 
Ruffed grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, prairie chicken, 
bobwhite. 
Red-headed woodpecker, Baltimore oriole, evening 
grosbeak, pine grosbeak, cedar waxwing, Bohemian 
waxwing, catbird, brown thrasher, robin. 
Meadow lark, brown thrasher. 
Ruffed grouse, pine grosbeak, purple finch, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, ringneek pheasant, red crossbill, pine 
grosbeak, purple finch, cedar waxwing, mocking 
bird, robin. 
Yellow-shafted flicker, Baltimore oriole, cedar wax- 
wing, catbird, hermit thrush, veery, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, mourning dove, red-headed 
woodpecker, yellow-shafted flicker, kingbird, Euro- 
pean starling, Bullock's oriole, Baltimore oriole, 
orchard oriole, evening grosbeak purple finch, rose- 
breasted grosbeak, black-headeA grosbeak, Louisi- 
ana tanager, red-eyed viroo, cedar waxwing, mock- 
ing bird, catbird, brown thrasher, olive-backed 
thrush, wood thrush, ro        ern bluebird. 
Ruffed grouse bbwhite       [e        downy wood- 
pecker, red-ellied woo        ,     hafted flicker, 
yellow-shafted flicker, phoebe, European starling, 
goldfinch, golden-crowned sparrow, chewink, white- 
eyed vireo, Audubon's warbler, mocking bird, cat- 
bird, California thrasher, brown thrasher, Carolina 
wren, black-capped chickadee, Carolina chickadee, 
wren tit, hermit thrush, robin, eastern bluebird. 
 
rr-- - I -Preferen- -f hird8 amo   -era of Weshy 1!ruit 
 
 

					
				
					
LOCAL BIRD REFUGES 
 
TABLE 1.-Preference of birds amomg genera of fleshy fruits--Continued 
 
Common name 
 
keppertree ...... 
H olly  ----------- 
Supplejack .... 
Wild grape -- _- 
 
Virginia creeper-. 
Buffaloberry -------- 
Silverberry, Russian- 
olive, etc. 
Wild-sarsaparilla.. 
Dogwood ------------- 
 
Tupelo, or sour gum-_ 
Crowberry ----.--- 
Bearberry ------------ 
Huckleberry ......... 
Blueberry ----------- 
Beautyberry, or Mexi- 
can mulberry. 
Partridgeberry. 
E lder   ---------. -.... 
Snowberry ----------- 
Blackhaw ------------ 
Honeysuckle -------- 
 
Number 
of species 
of birds 
Scientific name known to 
eat the 
fruit 
 
Rchinus --------- 
 
IBIerceix 
 
Berchemia ------ 
V itis  ------------ 
Parthenocissus_ 
 
Lepargyrea. 
Elaeagnus_ 
Aralia ------ 
Cornus..... 
 
Nyssa ........... 
Empetrunm ------ 
Aretostaphylos. 
Gaylussacia ---- 
Vaccinium ...... 
Callicarpa ------- 
Mitchella   ----- 
Sambucus ------ 
Symphoricarpos. 
Viburnum ------ 
Lonicera -------- 
 
9Data given are based entirely on field observations; total number of birds
eating the various species of 
Elaeagnus unknown. 
MUNICIPAL PARKS AND PICNIC AND FAIR GROUNDS 
Picnic grounds, fairgrounds, and parks may be improved as 
places of public gatherings, recreation, and education by increasing 
their bird population.    Moreover, the alterations that improve a 
park as a bird haven may, and should, themselves be made to add 
 
ll x 
 
Kinds of birds among those desirable to attract that 
are most fond of the fruit 
Cedar waxwing, phainopepla, hermit thrush, varied 
thrush, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, valley quail, yellow-bellied 
sapsucker, yellow-shafted flicker, cedar waxwing, 
mocking bird, catbird, brown thrasher, hermit 
thrush, robin, eastern bluebird. 
Mocking bird, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, pileated woodpecker, red- 
bellied woodpecker red-shafted flicker, yellow- 
shafted flicker, kingbird, European starling, cardi- 
nal, cedar waxwing, mocking bird, catbird, brown 
thrasher, wood thrush, veery, robin, western blue- 
bird, eastern bluebird. 
Red-headed woodpecker, red-bellied woodpecker, 
yellow-bellied sapsucker, yellow-shafted flicker, 
European starling, evening grosbeak, purple finch, 
scarlet tanager, red-eyed vireo, mocking bird, brown 
thresher, tufted titmouse, hermit thrbsh, olive- 
backed thrush, gray-cheeked thrush, robin, eastern 
bluebird. 
Sharp-tailed grouse, pine grosbeak. 
Sharp-tailed grouse, prairie chicken, cedar waxwing, 
catbird, robin. 
Bobwhite, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite downy woodpecker, yel- 
low-shafted flicker, red-shafted flicker, kingbird, 
European starling, evening grosbeak, pine gros- 
beak, purple finch, white-throated sparrow, song 
sparrow cardinal, cedar waiwing, warbling vireo, 
red-eyed  vireo, mocking bird, catbird, brown 
thrasher, hermit thrush, olive-backed thrush, gray- 
cheeked thrush, wood thrush, robin, eastern blue- 
bird. 
Yellow-shafted flicker, European starling, purple 
finch, cedar waxwing, gray-cheeked thrush, olive- 
backed thrush, robin. 
Pine grosbeak, snowflake. 
Ruffed grouse, dusky grouse, valley quail, mountain 
quail, fox sparrow, wren tit. 
Pi grosb#                   in. 
Ruffed grouse,      sI_     ingbird, orchard oriole, 
pine grosbea ,    ewm   , cedar waxwing, catbird, 
brown thrasher, black-capped chickadee, tufted tit- 
mouse, hermit thrush, robin, eastern bluebird. 
Mocking bird, brown thrasher. 
-headed woodpecker, yellow-shafted 
er kingbird, Arkansas kingbird, black 
phoebe, European starling, California towhee, 
white-crowned sparrow, rose-breasted grosbeak 
black-headed   grosbeak, phainopepla, red-eyed 
vireo, mocking bird, catbird brown thrasher, 
California thrasher, wren tit, olive-backed thrush, 
robin, western bluebird, eastern bluebird. 
Sharp-tailedgrouse, evening grosbeak, pine grosbeak, 
varied thrush. 
Ruffed grouse, yellow-billed cuckoo, yellow-shafted 
flicker, European starling, purple finch, rose- 
breasted grosbeak, cedar waxwing, catbird, brown 
thrasher, robin, eastern bluebird. 
Bobwhite, pine grosbeak, white-throated sparrow, 
catbird, brown thrasher, hermit thrush, robin.