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the manufacturer out of the credit busi-/ ness by lending their customers the money to pay cash for what once was carried on a term-settlement basis. Research is being used to ascertain how the banks can sell themselves more thor- oughly to the public as an essential, con- structive, contributing factor in the com- munity, as opposed to the view that a bank is a necessary evil for the conduct of business with which one has to make his peace against a day of need. Here is a nation of 130,000,000 people, wealthier than all others; more alert to progress and modern ideas; full to over- Sflowing with natural resources; equipped with modern machinery for mass produc- tion. The banks are bulging with billions of dollars that they are anxious to hire out for use in putting our 12,000,000 un- employed to work. Research is being resorted to by the banks to ascertain how they can be useful and instrumental in working out programs to apply to our raw materials that we have in such abundance, and the labor that is so ready to be employed in converting this supply into usable wealth. The capital is here; management is available. There is lacking a profitable, feasible method whereby the combination of labor, capital, management, and raw material, can be co6rdinated to the end that our living con- ditions be improved day by day and decade by decade for an ever widening circle of the people. Banking is awakening to its responsi- bility and opportunity. Through research it is setting forth to study the immediate local communities as to ways and means whereby the credit with which it is charged as custodian may be utilized in developing each community. It is seeking to imple- ment these opportunities to their fullest extent, whether they be in personal en- deavor, private enterprise, or public under- taking. With much is banking charged. Of it much can be expected through the development of its research programs. T HIS, THEN, IS HELD TO BE THE DUTY OF THE MAN OF WEALTH: To set an example of modest, unostentatious living, shunning display or extravagance; to pro- vide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him; and, after doing so, to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer, and strictly bound as a matter of duty to ad- minister in the manner which in his judg- ment, is best calculated to produce the most beneficial results for the community. -Andrew Carnegie. NOVEMBER, 1938 G OOD NEWS comes with the announce- ment of the creation in Virginia of a 1,400,000-acre state and federal wild- life management area, designed to as- sure improvement in the wildlife and fish populations and their environmental con- ditions in the mountainous sections of the Old Dominion. Sportsmen and conserva- tionists have already marked this venture and are looking forward with confidence as Virginia joins with the U. S. Forest Service in pioneering the largest, most cohesive, most promising wildlife man- agement program in the East. At the last session of the General As- sembly of Virginia a law was passed authorizing the Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries to enter into a co6perative agreement with the federal Forest Service to define the means and methods to be taken to improve the fish and game re- sources of Virginia. This law came into being by reason of untiring efforts and co- operation among sportsmen, sponsors of wildlife, and nature loving citizens. On June 3, 1938, the co6perative agreement was signed by Carl H. Nolting, chairman of the Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries, and R. M. Evans, regional for- ester of the Eastern Region of the United States Forest Service. This agreement takes advantage of the wildlife possibilities and the work already being done on the mil- lion and a half acres of the George Wash- ington and Jefferson National Forests in the uplands of western Virginia, and by combining authorities and responsibilities creates the largest managed open public hunting ground east of the Mississippi. THE PROGRAM GIVES PROMISE OF GENU- ine conservation of natural resources. Let us go back a few years and review the steps that made it possible. In 1911 ac- tion was initiated under federal and state acts to acquire land in the mountains of Virginia for forested areas to protect the watersheds and conserve the growing timber. These areas for the most part had been logged over. Many landowners had cut the timber and were no longer inter- ested in the land or forests. Spring and fall these forests were afire, each fire further devastating and denuding the land, destroying soil and timber. Besides the loss of remaining or potential timber, the natural habitat of wildlife and fish was disappearing. The silt from rapid stream runoff and the ashes from forest fires reduced fish populations. Man was tracking the last vestiges of the wild things remaining. Wildlife was being destroyed. 15 Hunters report their results at roadside contact stations Virginia s Wildlife Future Contributed by the GEORGE WASHINGTON and JEFFERSON NATIONAL FORESTS
Federal funds and the co6peration of the state accounted for the purchase of this forest land. Public-spirited cobperation by the people living within and adjacent to the National Forests, together with the pro- tection and rebuilding being carried on by federal Forest Service forces, has so re- duced forest fires and improved the for- ests during the past two decades that the wildlife habitat is rapidly being restored. The United States Forest Service con- trols the land. The Virginia Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries controls the wildlife. The relatively few private ownerships that are importantly involved in the game problem of these extensive rugged upland areas are generally sympa- thetic and co6perative. Now we are ready to set definite upland wildlife objectives and ready for all forces to work together to accomplish them. SECTION 24-A OF THE VIRGINIA GAME Law provides, in addition to the regular resident or nonresident license required by law, that everyone desiring to hunt, fish, or trap on the lands of the National Forest Co6perative Area shall purchase a Na- tional Forest Permit Stamp costing $1. The funds derived from the sale of this stamp will make possible the effective pro- tection, restocking, and development of this huge public hunting area. These stamps, issued by the Game Commission, can be obtained from any county or city clerk. One of the essentials to the success of the new program will be that sports- men and nature lovers purchase this stamp, even those who may not intend to hunt or fish in the National Forest area at this time. The area embraces the lands of the George Washington and Jefferson Na- tional Forests, located in whole or in part in thirty of Virginia's 100 counties. Game laws applying to the area are formulated by the Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries and can be found in the state game laws booklet, obtainable from the Game Commission or from any county game warden. THE IDEA BEHIND THE JOINT MANAGE- ment plan is to assure the proper protec- tion and progressive development of the wildlife resources of this vast public hunt- ing area. The three immediate objectives are: (1) restocking the area with wildlife and fish, (2) protection, and (3) improve- ment of the environment. These objectives will be accomplished and supplemented in the long run by seven major efforts: To effect, insofar as possi- ble, a natural balance of all wild birds and 16 animals; to maintain sufficient breeding stock of all species so that there will be provided the maximum surplus of game animals, fur bearers, birds, and fish for annual harvest by sportsmen and trappers; to increase and stabilize the carrying ca- pacity by improving the environment; to maintain animal populations not to exceed the maximum natural carrying capacity for any one species; to effect and maintain wildlife populations in harmony with all other forest users; to protect and preserve the esthetic value of wild animals and birds of both the game and nongame spe- cies; and last, to control the number of undesirable species where and when it is necessary in order to effect -a good eco- logical and biological balance. Wildlife Stocking.-At the present time a wildlife survey of the management area shows twenty-one small herds of deer and a turkey range extending over half of the area. During the next five years it is planned to join these deer herds by the additional stocking of approximately 2,000 deer. This method of stocking will assure uniform distribution and more favorable hunting when the open season is permitted. As fast as turkeys become available it is planned to extend the present range to cover all of the area. Through stocking, beaver colonies will be established on streams suitable for beaver but not con- sidered good fishing streams. Beaver res- toration will bring back to Virginia one of its most valuable fur bearers. Fish Stocking.-The plans for fish stocking provide for the correlation of state and federal fish planting. In the past these activities have been carried on sym- pathetically but almost independently of one another. Under the new plan each agency will have a fish resource map show- ing the portion of each stream assigned to it for stocking. Each year the number of fish to be stocked will be determined. This map will also show fishing intensity, mak- ing it possible for both agencies better to distribute the fish to take care of heavily fished sections of streams. The number and size of fish to be stocked will be propor- tioned to the revenue received from the purchase of the National Forest special permit stamp. Law Enforcement.-The two National Forests are divided into nine ranger dis- tricts of approximately 160,000 acres each. In the past these large areas were covered for game purposes by thirty county ward- ens who could devote but a small part of their time to the National Forest area be- cause each had an entire county to patrol. It is now planned to augment these ward- ens by deputizing all qualified Forest Serv- ice officers. As funds are available from sale of the special permit for hunting, fish- ing, and trapping in these National Forest areas additional local men will be em- ployed on the protective force. Each year the law enforcement organization in each of the nine ranger districts will meet to review the past year's accomplishments and through detailed planning bring about improved efficiency in the protection work for the coming year. Wildlife Improvements.-In carrying out the objectives of the wildlife restora- tion program one of the most important jobs is wildlife range improvement. This work will be accomplished largely by the aid of the Civilian Conservation Corps, under the direction of the United States Forest Service. The program involves a multitude of jobs, including the construc- THE COMMONWEALTH