Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-4 : Species and Subjects

~ueresulted aIi.r 
as 1etn~    dxt. 
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The Mule Deer: Drift. The improssiin is quite universal among spor ksmon

that both males and females spend the winter together and that they do not

disband until spring. Observations made during the past three winters indi-

cate that the mature bucks subsequent to the rut have a strong tendency to

separate from tha does, fawns and young males, especially if weather condi-

tions are not severe. There Yere excaptions, of course, and most bands of

deer having 15 head or more would ordinarily have V. grown buck or two, but

it was very noticeable that the older bucks wore inclined to isolate them-

selves iiuto small groups of from 2 to 10 hjead, the most common being 2
or 3 
together. The acras selected by the bucks were, so for as could be noticed,

no different from those occupied by the other deer, the bands both ranging

in the same locality but rnainy in separate bunches. Deep snow will cause

both groups to band together irrespective Of age or sex, Following a heavy

snow storm in early February 193" we found 694 head huddled in one band
although the bucks made up bu  about 25% of the herd, yet as t~ey moved 
across an open ridge it was an imposing sight - the silhouotting antlers
it appear as a "herd of antlers." (To be continued) 
From Orange A. 01sen's reportb"The Mule Deer" - Region 4 Daily
Field:  Shoemnker, Musgrave, Jones (Kaibab)   Sick: Lemg 
Visitor: Goergens (Washington) R0      Leave: French, Harley 
lctinm :  Rand los 

rDeerE at j~  sj0ur; The storc h2 of a door recently k ifled for scienItif
/purposes was: found-to contain 40%larkspua   The plant does not seem to

be poisonous to all -animals,  Intermounitain Roei on,. 
Deer .Damcage In New'England: Deer in New Englahd are doing considerable

damage to forests; particularly to young plaihtations, according to a re-

port of a conittee appointed by the Society of Lmerican4Forestors. Deer 
wore found to' be quite plentiful throughout the rural sections. The 
greatest dr-mago occurs when the ground is covered with snow, (N.Y.Tinos
Market Hunter Nabbed: Oh September 11 Ranger'Boone. of the Lincoli arrested

Edwin Roed of Cloudroft for having killed' a buck deer. He was engaged in

the butchering of it in his garage at the time of arrest, The ciso was 
tried before Mrs, S Shids at Marcia ~hd fleed was found guilty and fined

$50.VO and costs. Apprently the game was being supplied to out of state 
parties, a practice that has been going on i. an'd around Cloudcroft for
tumber of year's., 
Doe 'Whips A Bull Dog: While the crew of the Gu'ard Training Camp on the

7hiteman Forec--  _f. Region 6 was busily engaged in analyzing each step
t- .- 
ken in suppre6&.'un of a fire, Ranger Bloom's bulldog decided to take
stroll, He cvilontly came upon a fawn and either took hold of it or at 
least gave it such a fright that it began to squeal. The firefighters, 
looking in the diretion of the disturbrice, saw a few whit6 flashes and 
a brown streak flitting through the brush and heading for thf _row@. Then.

came the dog as fast as his short logs could carry him, and right 1ehind

came the doe, her mouth open, hair on end, and slashing out with her sharp

front feet at every jump. If it had not been for sano expert dodging on 
the part of the dog, Bloom's bull wouldn't have had any more head than he

had tail. The old doe foilwed the dog right into the crowvd before giving

up the chase, and then stuck around evidently with the intention of chas-

ing him back every time he ventured outside of the circle of men. 
Jusiper Browse Normal Der Food: It is the tendency to become Elarmea whemt

it is noticed thrt deer are browsing juniper. W7e have irmediately con- 
cluded that we ere getting an over-population of deer, The results of 
recent analysis of stomach contents tend to show that a deer will natural-

ly consume a large anount of juniper even when there is otheo naturc deer

feed avilable.  11r. Liusgrave is of the opinion that juniper h,Xs alwaya

constituted an important part of a deer's diet. If such is the case Wo 
may reasonably expect some juniper damage on areas -h ore there is only d

small percentage of juniper in the type.  Often 'it is the habit of deer

to bed down enad concentrate in small areas protected from the wind eid 
whero there is on abundanoe  of juniper, In such instances it is not un-

common to see juniper trimmed up when othor junipers on the dor range as

a whole are und'nagod. The ldagdalena mountains have not been rocognizol,

as coming ithin the pale of good hunting grounds, yet Ranger Smith occa-

sionnlly comes across a juniper that has been unmistakably hrowsed by deer.

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11U(  ~. ,L  +~ k  - 
Springs and 1M1ack C-nyon Refuses, the brows'Ing of junipor is not -in indica-

tion of deer evorgrazing,. Robert V. Boyle in the Datil Bulletin.