Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-4 : Species and Subjects

The Mule Deer: Age0  Data concerning the age of deer in their natural habitat

are woofully lacking. In captivity they may attain the age of 20 years or

more, but whether this removal from their wild state away from the anxiety

of encnies and the hardships of winter tends to sharton or extend longevity

is not known.  g     years ago a rancher on th. South Fork of the Payette
picked up a male fawn and bottle raised it. ""Buck" mingles
with other deer 
in the nearby woods and on the brushy slopes. His mode of living is quite

similar to the wild state except when the winter snows deepen and feed becomes

scarce he "bums" handouts from the neighboring ranchers.  "Buck"
appears to be 
still in the prime of life, showvs no symptoms of physical decline. His teethi

when examined last year, were in perfect shape - not spread or broken. Rec-

ords bearing on the age of mule deer are extremely few, but F T. Seton, gives

this information concerning the White-tail and probably the same xzuld apply

to the mule deer: "To what age does the white-tail ottain, bar all these

diseases,  accidents and overstrong enemies? Lpplying the rule of 5 times

the years ne6ded for full growth, we expect that 10 to 15 years woulf be
span of life. The prime is about 7 or 8. Then its powers are the highest;

- - In parks, where they nre protdcted from the commong danger of their race,

they live from 20 to 25 years.  This, however, is abnormal. In a state of

nature, they are on the down grade at 10; and few are likely to escapa their

natural enemies uf ter once their powers begin to wne." Lives of Game
Seton, Volume 3, Part 1, p. 295. (To be continued)          Region 4 Bulletin.

Field: Calkins (Coconino); Koogler (Cibola) 
Act ng: Jones 

The Ie Deer- Does Have Antlers. Ordinarily only the males have antlers, 
but occasionally does do. In the office of the Utah State Fish & Game
missioner at Salt Lake City hangs the mounted head of a 4-point doe, During

the 1932 hunting season in the Salmon River country of Idaho, State Game
den G. K. Scott reported that to antlered does were killed and brought 
through his checking station. The one doe was mature and had tvio points

still in the velvet. The other was also mature but Tas only a "spike".
did not examine the deer to see if they vwere sexually normal or to deter-

mine if they had ever fawned.   E. P. Cronailhr, Suparvisor of the Modoc

National Forest, iTrotoe the following: "Tvo does who had the misfortune
gror antlers, are listed amng the missing fran the DevilIs Garden District
during the 1931 season. Both carried fine antlers, being 6 and 28 inches

in spread, respectively, While all the bucks had rubbed and polished their

antlers at the time those were killed both does were in the velvet, which
however, thoroughly dry, indicating perhaps that does when bearir antlers

do not rub them. Other male characteristics vere evident on one animal and

boh were ovidently without fawns,"  To be continued)    R-4 Bulletin.