Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-3 : County, State and Foreign Files

				
 
 
 
cord wood size and leaving the tops and slash piled on bent 
over sprout growths. This procedure will create excellent 
rabbit and grouse habitat. If it is desirable to make plant- 
ings, white cedar might well be used. 
 
               Silvics as exemplified by the several types of 
 cuttings help the forest and give sprouts for food and slash 
 for cover. A proper distribution of these cuttings is equally 
 important and should be in accord with the crop tree age class, 
 thereby supplying a diversification of browse and cover. 
 
               In making cleanings, only those trees which have 
 done or are about to do mechanial injury to the surrounding 
 stand should be removed, even though some of those left are 
 considered to be of an inferior species (such as gray birch, 
 aspen, or red maple). VThere trees have blown down, they 
 should be allowed to remain if possible, as the upturned roots, 
 with soil attached, sup)ly winter grit, and the trunks form 
 run and escape ways, drunmiing logs, and nesting sites. Hollow 
 trees should be allowed to stay mas long as they are not a 
 source of injury to the surrounding forost, for they provide 
 dens, hives, and nests.  In making liberation cuttings by the 
 three prevailing methods - low, crown, or selection, the 
 operations should be carried out so that the forest will be 
 opened as much as is consistent with good forestry practice. 
 Where the two latter methods are used, scattered clumps of 
 non-crop-producing seecdings or sprouts should be allowed to 
 remain. By bending them over and piling slash on top, open- 
 ings are thus formed undGrneath, which create escape and 
 shelter cover for birds and small animals, and, as the vege- 
 tation decays, the soil becomes enriched. 
 
              All softwood slash should be burned in scattered 
piles as the ashes and charcoal sweeten the ground and are 
used by the birds. Slash should be re .ovod frog brooks and 
springs, as the decaying vegetation soiotiotes poisons the 
waters and unduly impedeJs its passage, or it Yay, if present 
in quantity, retard the flow of water to a degree causing the 
brook to back up and overflow an adjacent meadow. This illay 
be harmful by causing the water te..perature to rise to a de- 
gree unsuitable to the fish life present, and will undbubtedly 
lessen the supply of oxygen in the water, along with changing 
the character of the vegetation where flooded. 
 
              Areas in the state forests which are inaccess- 
ible due to topographical or other hinderances should be set 
aside as natural or primitive areas. No forestry or other 
operation should be perx.itted here, with the possible excep- 
tion of pest control work and then only when it is seen to 
be endangering the adjoining forest. Nature alone should 
hold full sway. These tracts should be used only for observa- 
tion and study. A record of growth, natural pruning, soil 
conditions, disease and insect damage, mechanical injury, 
under-story, and all other factors connected with forest eco- 
logy should be made in ten year periods. Many of our citizens 
would take pleasure in viewing a natural progression and such 
areas would fulfill their desires. Its study as wild life 
 
  

					
				
					
 
 
 
 
 
 
habitat, particularly its desirability as such during the 
different periods, would undoubtedly tell us much that we 
do not now know. 
 
              Good forestry helps wild life; poor or unplanned 
forestry injures both,° therefore there can be no conflict be- 
tween the two. Both have their roots in the earth and have 
boon ;edfellows for millions of years, and lack of knowledge 
on the part of man can only cause discord amongst men, never 
between forest and wild life. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                              ERNEST J. DEAN 
                              COMMISSION12R OF CONSERVATION 
 
 
Policy adopted February 1, 1937