Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-3 : County, State and Foreign Files

General Plan For The Selection, Development, And Maintenance 
Of Wild Life Areas For Massachusetts State Forests. 
        The primary purpose of establishing theseo areas is 
to protect, cultivate, and increase useful wild life as a 
valuable resource of the forest. This will provide a place 
where they can increase to the point where it will overflow 
to the adjacent land to produce normal breeding stock thereon. 
This in turn will enhance the surrounding territory by bene- 
fiting the farmer and providing recreation for the nature 
lover and sportsman. 
        Wild life is a product of environment, and as we im- 
prove this for any given species, a natural increase in that 
species will follow. 
        Because of the vastly different geographic topography 
found in various sections and the resulting difference in 
the Flora and launa, each wild life area must be worked dif- 
ferently in detail. 
        The choice of an area to be developed should be governed 
by the following guides- 
        It should be centrally located in relation to the area 
to be enhanced. 
        Its boundaries should be established upon well defined 
roads, or upon terrain where gravel or dirt roads can be 
easily constructed. 
        There should be a varied topography but not abruptly 
 so, gentle slopes and valleys are to be preferred. 
        There should be a year round water supply well dis- 
         The Flora should consist of food and cover interspersed 
with mixed forest types and clearings. 
         Enough native Fauna should be habitant to act as breed- 
 ing stock to fill the covers as they are developed. 

         dAlhile cvuislnng to find the most advantageous area a 
 general idea is for oed of the general layout. The use of a 
 topographical mrnp is advised. As soon as afinl selection 
 has been made, however, a management i,,ap should be drawn 
 designating existing and proposed openings such as boundaries, 
 grid lines, fire lanes, tote roads, vi'ood trails, spot clear- 
 iyls, brush patches, etc. 
         It should show all strearns, ponds, swamps, and springs, 
 as well as knolls an2 ridges. 
         It should be a type map showing location and species 
 of native Flora already established there. 
         Grid lines should be run at this time to improve ac- 
 curacy of locat7ion. 
         This map should be accoipanied by a written work plan 
 covering the improveiients to be made, i.e. fire lanes, plant- 
 ings, cuttings, water holes, etc.  (see development) 
                         DEVL I PM INT 
 Forest Fire Protection - 
         Brush out a strip thirty to fifty feet wide around 
 boundaries of the wild life area. If cover conditions are 
 good, burn all slash, if not, pile on area but clear of strip. 
         Construct gravel or dirt roads seven to nine feet 
 wide through center of brushed striT to make all parts of the 
 area accessible and provide grit and dust for birds. 
         Construct .iater holes at stratel-ic points easily 
 Winter Cover Plantin and Improvement - 
         Plant white pine and spruce on unproductive knolls, 
spotplant slopes using not over five hundred trees per plan- 
         Plant hemloch- on edges of swamps and kettle holes and 
white cedar in swarns. 
        Plant red cedar in small : Zroups in brush patches and 
in openings along -wood trails. 
        Plant ground juniper adjacent to food patches and 
Food Strips and Pa.tches - 
        Use old woods trails and roads where possible and 
heavy. thin from thirty to fifty feet wide.