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41', COMMONW2EALTH OF iLi.ýi.JrUSETTS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION General Plan For The Selection, Development, And Maintenance Of Wild Life Areas For Massachusetts State Forests. The primary purpose of establishing theseo areas is to protect, cultivate, and increase useful wild life as a valuable resource of the forest. This will provide a place where they can increase to the point where it will overflow to the adjacent land to produce normal breeding stock thereon. This in turn will enhance the surrounding territory by bene- fiting the farmer and providing recreation for the nature lover and sportsman. Wild life is a product of environment, and as we im- prove this for any given species, a natural increase in that species will follow. Because of the vastly different geographic topography found in various sections and the resulting difference in the Flora and launa, each wild life area must be worked dif- ferently in detail. SELECTION The choice of an area to be developed should be governed by the following guides- It should be centrally located in relation to the area to be enhanced. Its boundaries should be established upon well defined roads, or upon terrain where gravel or dirt roads can be easily constructed. There should be a varied topography but not abruptly so, gentle slopes and valleys are to be preferred. There should be a year round water supply well dis- tributed. The Flora should consist of food and cover interspersed with mixed forest types and clearings. Enough native Fauna should be habitant to act as breed- ing stock to fill the covers as they are developed.
-2- MAPPING dAlhile cvuislnng to find the most advantageous area a general idea is for oed of the general layout. The use of a topographical mrnp is advised. As soon as afinl selection has been made, however, a management i,,ap should be drawn designating existing and proposed openings such as boundaries, grid lines, fire lanes, tote roads, vi'ood trails, spot clear- iyls, brush patches, etc. It should show all strearns, ponds, swamps, and springs, as well as knolls an2 ridges. It should be a type map showing location and species of native Flora already established there. Grid lines should be run at this time to improve ac- curacy of locat7ion. This map should be accoipanied by a written work plan covering the improveiients to be made, i.e. fire lanes, plant- ings, cuttings, water holes, etc. (see development) DEVL I PM INT Forest Fire Protection - Brush out a strip thirty to fifty feet wide around boundaries of the wild life area. If cover conditions are good, burn all slash, if not, pile on area but clear of strip. Construct gravel or dirt roads seven to nine feet wide through center of brushed striT to make all parts of the area accessible and provide grit and dust for birds. Construct .iater holes at stratel-ic points easily reached. Winter Cover Plantin and Improvement - Plant white pine and spruce on unproductive knolls, spotplant slopes using not over five hundred trees per plan- tation. Plant hemloch- on edges of swamps and kettle holes and white cedar in swarns. Plant red cedar in small : Zroups in brush patches and in openings along -wood trails. Plant ground juniper adjacent to food patches and strips. Food Strips and Pa.tches - Use old woods trails and roads where possible and heavy. thin from thirty to fifty feet wide.