This website contains the complete contents of the 12-volume Jewish Encyclopedia, which was originally published between 1901-1906. The Jewish Encyclopedia, which recently became part of the public domain, contains over 15,000 articles and illustrations. This online version contains the unedited contents of the original encyclopedia. Since the original work was completed almost 100 years ago, it does not cover a significant portion of modern Jewish History (e.g., the creation of Israel, the Holocaust, etc.). However, it does contain an incredible amount of information that is remarkably relevant today. The scope of the Jewish Encyclopedia is to demonstrate the role that Jews and Judaism have played in diverse areas of general culture, such as science, art, literature, industry, and commerce. The editor wanted it to be scientific in method and without any religious bias. It would serve as a compendium for scholars and as a guide for the Jewish and general public. It is intended to contain a complete survey of Jewish history, literature, and theology, plus material on Jewish communities, sociology, and archeology as well as biographies of prominent Jewish scholars, theologians, poets, businessmen, and physicians. Subject areas of history, biography, sociology, and anthropology comprise the greatest number of articles.It strives to be ecumenical by improving the mutual understanding of Christian and Jew.