Pt. 1. Prelude: The Forebears of Brown. I. Charles Sumner: Argument in Roberts v. City of Boston (1849). II. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): The Bad Seed. 1. Brief for Plaintiff / Albion Tourgee. 2. Brief for Plaintiff / Samuel F. Phillips. 3. Majority Opinion of Justice Henry Brown. 4. Justice John Marshall Harlan, Dissenting. III. Brief by Charles H. Houston and Thurgood Marshall: University of Maryland v. Murray (1936). IV. Gunnar Myrdal: An American Dilemma (1944). V. The NAACP's Brief: Sweatt v. Painter (1950). VI. Sweatt v. Painter (1950) and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950) -- Pt. 2. The Trial Level. I. The Doll Man and His Critics. 1. Testimony of Kenneth Clark - Briggs Trial. 2. "Jurisprudence" (1955) / Edmond Cahn. 3. Note: "Grade School Segregation: The Latest Attack on Discrimination" - Yale Law Journal (1952). 4. The Fabric of Society (1957) / Ernest van den Haag and Ralph Ross. 5. Reply by Kenneth Clark - Prejudice and Your Child (1963). II. The Social Scientists Speak. 1. Brown Trial / Louisa Holt. 2. Briggs Trial / David Krech. 3. Davis Trial / M. Brewster Smith. 4. Brown Trial / Wilbur B. Brookover. 5. Davis Trial / Isidor Chein. 6. Brown Trial / Hugh W. Speer. III. Rebuttal in Virginia. 1. John Nelson Buck. 2. William H. Kelly. 3. Henry Garrett. 4. Colgate Darden. IV. Mr. Moore's Antics. 1. Cross-Examination of Kenneth Clark. 2. Cross-Examination of Isidor Chein. 3. Cross-Examination of John Julian Brooks. V. The Preliminary Decisions. 1. Briggs v. Elliott. 2. Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. 3. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. 4. Belton v. Gebhart -- Pt. 3. At the Bar of the Supreme Court: The First Argument. I. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. 1. Appellants' Brief. 2. Appellees' Brief. 3. Oral Argument. II. Briggs v. Elliott. 1. Appellants' Brief. 2. Appellees' Brief. 3. Oral Argument. III. Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. 1. Appellees' Brief. 2. Appellants' Brief. 3. Oral Argument. IV. Postscript: Belton v. Gebhart: What Happens When You Win? 1. NAACP Brief. 2. Oral Argument / Louis Redding. V. A Friend of the Court: Brief of the American Jewish Congress -- Pt. 4. The Supreme Court: Reargument. I. The Controversy Over "whr" 1. "A Random Thought on the Desegregation Cases" 2. Rehnquist's Letter to Senator James O. Eastland, December 8, 1971. 3. The Brooke Memorandum. II. A Slight Digression: The Matter of Original Intent. 1. "The Constitution, Economic Rights and Original Intent" (1986) / Robert Bork. 2. "Constitutional Interpretation" (1981) / Terrance Sandalow. III. Double Perspectives. 1. "An Inside View of Brown v. Board of Education" (1961) / Alfred Kelly. 2. "The Fourteenth Amendment Reconsidered: The Segregation Question" (1956) / Alfred Kelly. 3. Letter to Justice Frankfurter (1953) / Alexander Bickel. 4. "The Original Understanding and the Segregation Decision" (1955) / Alexander Bickel. 5. Endnote - Kelly's Rebuttal to Bickel (1956). IV. Reargument: The Central Conflict. 1. Briggs v. Elliott - Appellees' Brief on Reargument. 2. Reargument Brief - Davis v. County School Board. 3. Appellants' Brief on Reargument - The Constitutional Issue. 4. The Oral Argument. V. Reargument: The Remedy. 1. Supplemental Brief for the United States on Reargument. 2. Oral Argument on Behalf of the United States / J. Lee Rankin. 3. Appellants' Brief on Reargument - The Remedy. 4. "The Solicitor General's Office, Justice Frankfurter, and Civil Rights Litigation, 1946-1960: An Oral History" (1987) / Phillip Elman -- Conclusion: The Riddle of Brown. I. Countdown to May 17, 1954. 1. Memorandum by Justice Robert H. Jackson (March 15, 1954). 2. Undated Memorandum / Felix Frankfurter. 3. "The Solicitor General's Office, Justice Frankfurter, and Civil Rights Litigation" / Phillip Elman. 4. Brown v. Board of Education (1954). II. The Debate Over Brown. 1. "Toward Neutral Principles of Constitutional Law" (1959) / Herbert Wechsler. 2. "Racial Discrimination and Judicial Integrity: A Reply to Professor Wechsler" (1959) / Louis H. Pollak. 3. "Segregation Litigation and the Schools," Part II: "The General Northern Problem" (1963) / John Kaplan. 4. "The Lawfulness of the Segregation Decisions" (1960) / Charles L. Black. 5. "Racial Imbalance in the Public Schools: The Constitutional Concepts" (1965) / Owen M. Fiss. III. Bolling v. Sharpe: The Court's Commentary on Brown? 1. Brief for Petitioners - Bolling v. Sharpe. 2. Bolling v. Sharpe (1954). 3. Rejoinder / Owen M. Fiss
The information below has been drawn from sources outside of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries. In most instances, the information will be from sources that have not been peer reviewed by scholarly or research communities. Please report cases in which the information is inaccurate through the Contact Us link below.