Great Basin Branch Station. 
                                   Forest Service, 
                                   Ephraim, Utah, 
                                   June 28, 1938 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
University of Wisconsin, 
1adison, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
SThe Colorado State Antelope Refuge in northeastern Lar- 
imer County Colorado contains ( according to the State Game 
Commission I some 500 antelope. As these animals are spread 
over an area of 69,000 acres, they haye an approximate dens- 
ity over the area of one to every 138 acres. 
      The range is shortgrass prairie, although I am certain 
that under the most ideal range conditions there wpuld be a 
considefable amount of wheatgrass and other tall grasses. In 
its present condition it is over-run by sheep, which utilize 
the range for winter and spring grazing. The country is flat 
to rolling, water i~s scarce unless one digs for it, and tree 
growth is almost totally absent. 
      The antelope themselves on the area are very shy, and 
contrary to what I have read in numerous publications, they 
never indicate any desire to " race " alongside anyone. I 
speak, of course, for the antelope on the area in question. 
It m     be said that they are gun-shy, although I have never 
seen a gun used on the area. The largest single bunch I have 
seen there is forty-five or so. The smallest umber lIhavb 
run across is an accassional animal, and the usual number seems 
to be from five to ten or fifteen. These figures also seem to 
hold true for the mating season. I'ith all these known factors 
would you say that the antelope had reached his " point of re- 
gistance " on the area ? Predators are wanting, An occasional 
eagle is seen, but coyotes are surprisingly scarce ( if there 
are any at all ). The area is an antelope refuge in name only, 
for the pronghorn receive no greater protection there than in 
any other part of Colorado. Sheep afford them too strict a com- 
petition, and the only reason they exist in greater numbers there 
than in other parts of the State is because the area is still 
range, and has never felt the plow or intensive barb-wire.