Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-3 : County, State and Foreign Files

				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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                                     424 Uiversity Pa& PIOo 
                                     March   , 1942 
 
 
 
 
Mr, Donald Brown 
7Tkndship, WiscoonIn 
 
Dear Dona.d: 
 
I am plased bupt not surprised that Dr. Fuller responded 
promptly to your eathusiasm and local knowledge. 
 
I agree with yo# that I  ud not rob a sanhbill crane nest, 
even for scientific purpses. I would lik. y   to read m 
crane paper but am out of copies. It a       in the October, 
1937 Is    of Aerioca Forests, and I am orderg you a copy 
from which you can clip this paper for y  collectioa. It 
will reach you before long. 
 
 
You could perform a valiable servic by reoxrding the number 
of broodng pairs  in your earsh each year, an the  ziuaa 
number of migrants each fall and opriain;. I have often watahed 
them in Pilot Knob Mawrh durin gose hunting eeason, and I 
confess I went up there more to see the crane* than to hut 
the grouwe. 
I enjoyed gtting acquinted, with your brother, ad cut on 
seeing you when you oome dwn to M4ison. 
 
                             With beet, regrds, 
 
 
                             Aldo Leopold 
 
 
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                          ~424 Univ4ersity Pam. Place 
                          Janury 2T, 194i2 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Donald Bro.W 
Friendship, Wisconsin 
Dear Donald; 
I am glad to hear from you s~ta, and I am glad 
t~o know that yuare now in t~ouh with John Qurtle. 
I cont on seeing you and your region with John 
sometime next rumer. 
Thank you very mch for the snapshot. 
                      With beat rwds 
 
 
      Aldo Lepold 
Professor of Wildlife 
 
 
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                                  241'5 Univeruity 7&rm Place 
                                  Doember 13, 1941 
 
 
Mr~. Donld Brown 
7eship, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Donald: 
 
I ws muh pleas4 to get your letter an4 to not$ how muh 
thining you had been don of your own accord 
 
I know the southern part of Adams County very well bease 
I have a farm Just southeast of the Dells, a &o a good deal 
of grouse hunting up in das. In your part of the couaty 
I know only the Pilot Knob Marsh an th  region around 
Colon&. 
 
In wild flowers I as just an amteur, although intensely 
interested. Or real authority is John T. Curtis of the 
Botany Department, to whom I an sening your letter. I keew 
that both Curtis and myself would like to keep in touch with 
you. Please tell your btother that I would be 4.4 to have 
him drop in. Re will fin4 me in the O14 ntolo     building 
between the ghouo and the         ilra   t  k*. 
 
I am ptting you on x7 list to recive pblictioas. You 
are also invited to atten m  seainars, a revised sceedle 
for whih will be sent you shortly. The trip would, of course, 
be too long unlss you happene  to be in town for some other 
purpose. 
 
Some time when we can talk I wish you would remember to give 
ms the exact location of the breediug cranes. 
 
If you can use me or m library for yo    tuire development along 
conseration lns, please remember that that's what I an here 
for. 
 
Next time I get up your way, I will call on you, but I contemplate 
no immeiate trips. You migt, however, toll me the roads to 
your farm. 
                                With best regards, 
 
 
 
                                Aldo Leopold 
o0 Curtis               Professor of Wildlife Management 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
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a~my  r  stw* tha ho plo~ted *2 shart4)* La Jamw, 1533 
in ppoitel     socivA . 5,Makfit. Tomashp# M.w Qenty. 
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                                    The "uincy Nurseries, 
                                    Friendship, Wis. 
                                    Jan.2V, 1941. 
 
 
  Prof. Aldo Leopold, 
  Game Management Specialist, 
  University of Wis. 
  Madison, Wis. 
 
  Dear Prof. Leopold, 
 
  Just in case you would be interested, I am sending you 
  a few facts about white tailed deer in these parts. 
  Also a rough scoetch of a region near us. This tract of 
  land usually contains two or more white tails the year 
  around, upon which some~young are reared. 
 
  In the fall, before snow covers the ground, the rye fields 
  located near brushy thickets, are frequently visited. As 
  the deer seem to relish the tender green shoots of either 
  clover or rye in fall, before snow covers it. If there 
  is any soybean patch nearby, that It also very inviting, 
  For some reason they like soybeansvvayrywll,after a good 
  frost, for I have seen as many as four or five in a small 
  patch at one time. And of course after snow any neglected 
  unhusk'ed corn shocks are another means of food. Which 
  you likely already know. Maybe this is all old to you. 
 
  We have a fair crop of quail ,thts wintnr. Snow--hasn't 
  been deep so far. However, the put down many of the weeds 
  so quail do frequent the farm buildings for any spilled 
  grains by hen coup or corn crib. 
 
II Cotton tail rabbits are pretty scarce, and what few there 
  are seem -4& thin and full of flees. If there should be 
  anything more you would wish to know about the game 
  situation or trees of this locality, please let me know 
  as I would be only too glad to help you in any way T 
  could. I also have lots of little trees suitable for 
  windbreak or cover. If you know of any who could use 
  some, I would surely be very greatful to you if you 
  would mail me their names, in that I may send them my 
  price lists. Sending you my best regards, I remain,- 
                                 Yours very truly, 
                                 Allan Troemner. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
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    CONSOLIDATED WATER POWER & PAPER CO. 
                             GENERAL OFFICES 
                        WISCONSIN RAPIDS, WIS. 
 
 
                             December 7, 1935 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
New Soils Building 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
It is with regret that I write y u about the Monroe Center Game Cooperative

and my inability to keep it going. In view of discontinuing activity in 
that area I would like to report what has been done during the past two 
years, not as an alibi for things which have not been done but that it may

help in some small degree toward avoiding or solving these problems in the

future. 
 
In the winter of 1935-54, seventeen wire basket shelters were set up for

quail feeding stations, most of which were occupied by birds. That, as you

know, was a light, open winter and the mortality would not have been great,

even without the feeding. 
 
During the next summer, 1934, buckwheat, sorghum, and seed corn was furnished

to several farmers, and six food patches were planted by them. Most of these

were destroyed by straying stock or completely snowed under during the follow-

ing winter, 1954. 
 
Hunting has been prohibited to date, but no steps have been taken for predator

control. It is my guess that the quail population has been decreased more
by 
predatory birds and animals than by the severity of the winters. 
 
There are several direct reasons for wishing to discontinue work in the area.

The first is that it really never has been a cooperative in the sense that
it 
shouldbto insure success. Most farmers in that area have little money and
are 
so busy trying to make a living that they have neither time nor interest
for 
active help in developing the game possibilities. 
 
Secondly, we have no money to carry on the work, without which feed must
come 
from company farms outside the area and receive no benefits from it. It is

also true, of course, that the actual building of feeders and other work
must 
be done by myself and I cannot handle it in connection with my present work.

 
Ye are honored and indebted to you, Mr. Leopold, for your interest in this

area, and look forward with pleasure to seeing you when you are in this part

of the country. 
 
 
                              oSncerely yoi 
L.V. Murtfeldt 
IL 
 
 
AF 
 
 
 
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Mr. L.W. I, 
olidate      W  Poe & A.Pape 0. 
1istan Raid, isconuin 
 
 
         I aprcit you writin no an I entirly 
 
I m vy        ine tt I h      e no   more t  to 
work      . wil o ntoe problemsU I st~l ovroi  te 
without assistant*. 
 
         I appreate ve       t *at y have done an 
hp   nts this winte to be able to stop ee fr a 
throg discusuion of you o.eri*ew wit food patches, 
fee4.p  eta. I also hope tht ym will eontinue to drp 
in on m down here meo you get a he. 
 
         With beet roqe., 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                         Poft    o Gamea,   vwr 
 
 
it 
 
 
Decomber 10. 1935 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                    File: cottontail 
 
                                                          cycle 
 
                                             1~eabe 3, 1931t 
 
-amo for 1Wi 
 
            Fal:ij& So~idt tells ae tha~t cottonlails are ,nlentiful
on the 
Cardo fam- on the east s.ije of -)hprock Marsh inAa-Mes 00. 50 rabbi.ts 
have bem killed on 300(?) aces alreay, tt the    wrfo still lOts Of 
tracks mi a limit of 5 rbbits was kil1ed "cently b  on of he 'Card 
boys in tu hours. T14otly the cyle hts not yet hit the cttontails 
in thin 1ecsl1'v, 
 
          rAirioe ciJadkes on the Cerdo film ar  re m lentifri thi £
winter 
than last, but     trstailn less s. 
 
          2xe oranes left the $hi-pro*k Marsh shortly bqfbre October 20.

Thq were still there on Octdber 13. The mat      =  oroccured ýhxrlng

the shooting smomabx October 1. when an hiji as 100 erei seen in the 
sAr sigutnosy 
 
 
AOL* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
CONSOLIDATED WATER POWER & PAPER Co. 
                        GENERAL OFFICES 
                   WISCONSIN RAPIDS, WIS. 
 
                       September 12, 1954 
 
 
 
   Mr. Aldo Leopold 
   New Soils Building 
   Madison, Wisconsin 
 
   Dear Sir: 
 
   I went over the Monroe Center Game Area recently, to get a general 
   idea of the quail and grouse population. 
 
   There seem to be a great many quail, most of which are fairly good 
   sized. I do not know whether the increase has been greater on the 
   area because of last winter's feeding or not, as there are more 
   quail than last year over the whole district. 
 
   I would like to post the area as soon as possible and arrive at a 
   census by using dogs to flush the birds. If there are enough birds 
   I think it would be a good plan to start controlled shooting this 
   year, just to get things started and find out how it will work. 
   If there are not enough birds, we will have to wait longer, of 
   course. 
 
   Will the State furnish signs with which to post the area? 
 
                                   Sincerely, 
 
 
 
 
 
  L.W. Murtfeldt 
  LL 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
New Soils Building 
September 18, 1931I 
 
 
Mr. L. W. Murtfeldt 
Consolidated Water Power & Paper Co. 
Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Martfeldt: 
 
 
          Ihe Department has promised me the signs 
week and I will rash them to you just as soon as I 
on them. 
 
 
for this 
lay hands 
 
 
          I am delighted to know that the quail crop looks 
good, and if there are plenty of birds I see no reason why 
controlled shooting should not be allowed this year. I will 
drop in on you sometime within the next 10 days in ease you 
wish to talk these things over. 
 
 
                           Yours sincerely. 
 
 
 
                                      Ald~o Leopold 
                                 In Charge, Game Research 
 
  

					
				
				
A - 
 
 
The Wisconsin River Marshes 
 
                    By ALDO LEOPOLD 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                       Reprinted from the 
                    NATIONAL WALTONIAN 
           Official publication of the Izaak Walton League of America 
                        September 1934 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
The Wisconsin River Marshes 
 
                                 By ALDO LEOPOLD 
 
 
         Herein the author describes a typical marsh area which has been

         ditched, drained, and burned until now a hundred thousand acres

         lie in ruin. Can you provide solutions to some of the unanswered

         questions which must be solved before a ruined marsh area can be

                                    rebuilt for wildlife? 
 
 
A N INSTRUCTIVE example of how economic 
      forces and public sentiment play basketball with 
      conservation is found in the marshland district 
of central Wisconsin. 
  These marshes are strung out on both sides of the 
Wisconsin River and cover about half a million acres in 
five counties. They consist of peat-filled basins which 
represent the deeper parts of an ancient glacial lake. 
The lake was originally formed when an arm of the 
glacier plugged the Wisconsin River at its previous out- 
let through the Baraboo Hills. In the course of cen- 
turies the lake gradually drained, choked with vegeta- 
tion, and became a series of sphagnum bogs. These 
finally filled up with peat, which, in part, grew up to 
tamarack. Interspersed with the tamaracks were open 
bog-meadows, representing the deeper peats, and nu- 
merous sandy oak-covered ridges, representing bumps in 
the lake-bottom. Such was the marsh as the first white 
man found it. 
  Contrary to popular belief, the virgin marsh was 
probably not very productive of wildlife.    Prairie 
chickens had not yet entered Wisconsin. There were 
doubtless a few sharptailed grouse, deer, and partridge 
on the oak "islands," but the solid tamarack stands 
were probably devoid of game. On the treeless bog- 
meadows, however, sandhill cranes and waterfowl 
nested in considerable numbers. 
  The optimum conditions for game came after settlers 
had begun to farm the surrounding hill country. The 
settlers burned large openings in the tamaracks and used 
them as hay meadows. Every farmer who owned a quar- 
ter-section in the hills also owned a forty in the marsh, 
where he repaired every August to cut his hay. In win- 
ter, when frost had hardened the marsh, he hauled the 
hay to his farmstead. 
  The open haymeadows, separated by stringers of grass, 
oak, and popple, and by occasional remnants of tama- 
rack, were better crane, duck, and sharptail range than 
the primeval bogs. The grain and weeds on the farms 
abutting the marsh acted as feeding stations for prairie 
chickens, -which soon became so abundant as to take 
a considerable part of any grain left in the fields. These 
were the golden days of wildlife abundance. Fires 
burned parts of the marsh every winter, but the water 
table was so high that the horses had to wear "clogs" 
at mowing time, hence no fire ever "bit" deep enough to 
do any lasting harm. 
  Then in the gay nineties came the drainage dredge, the 
land shark, the urge for more acreage, and all the other 
paraphernalia of what we fondly called "the march of 
empire." Ditches ten feet deep were cut through the peat, 
lowering the water table many feet. Farming, except in 
the northeast corner of the area, failed. Drainage bonds 
sank about as low as the water. There was, however, no 
immediate serious damage to the game. Drainage as 
such, of course, eliminated the ducks, but it sweetened 
 
 
the soil, augmented the growth of weeds, and thereby 
benefited the chickens-until the first severe drought 
allowed the dry peat to burn. From then on, during 
each dry period, fires literally consumed the peat beds. 
In 1930 a single fire lifted two or three feet of peat from 
an area of several townships. 
  These deep-burning fires present a new and puzzling 
problem. For the first two years after a fire the ashes 
produce an exuberant crop of smartweed and ragweed, 
which in turn produces an exuberant crop of prairie 
chickens and sharptails. The weedy interlude following 
the 1930 fires happened to fall on the high of the cycle. 
It is doubtful if these marshes ever carried such a stand 
of birds as was found there in 1932. If they did, no 
hunter of the present generation remembers it. Ruffed 
grouse also swarmed along the unburned stream bot- 
toms. Apparently the golden age of abundant game 
had come back. 
  But not for long. The ashes were soon leached out 
or blown away, whereupon the food-bearing weeds dis- 
appeared, and in their place sprang up uncountable mil- 
lions of aspen seedlings. Aspen is apparently the only 
plant capable of growing in the raw peat after the ashes 
are gone. By now these aspens which followed the 1930 
fire are tall enough to exclude both chickens and sharp- 
tails. The raw peat on which they grow does not carry 
enough undergrowth to make a partridge range. It is 
doubtful if deer can thrive on aspen without tamaracks 
to winter in, and the tamarack remnants were of course 
largely wiped out by the post-drainage fires. So here 
we are with nearly a hundred square miles of aspen 
thicket which threatens to become, for at least a gen- 
eration, a wildlife desert. To burn out the aspen would 
only aggravate the trouble-in fact, it would consume the 
remainder of the peat, expose the underlying sand, and 
thus create a sand dune, which might engulf the sur- 
rounding counties. 
  Not all of the marsh area, of course, is in such dire 
straits. There is much good range left, but until the fires 
are stopped, the entire drained area is threatened with 
ultimate destruction. What to do? 
  It is clear that the first move is to plug the ditches so 
as to raise the water table, and thus prevent any more 
deep-burning fires. But this cannot be done without 
money, men, and the consent of the organized landown- 
ers or drainage districts. 
               Marshland Economics 
  Most of the drained lands have passed through several 
salesman-farmer-sheriff cycles of ownership, and now 
repose in the lap of the county. Some are still held by 
actual farmers, some by cranberry growers, some by 
absentee investors. The remaining farmers are so scat- 
tered that it is excessively costly for the counties to sup- 
ply them with roads and schools. It would be to every- 
body's advantage if these farmers holding down poor 
 
  

					
				
				
 
land could move to some really good 
land in some compact community, 
where road and school service would 
be less expensive. It would be actual 
economy for the public to offer them 
a good improved farm in exchange 
for the one evacuated. The AAA 
now offers the machinery for accom- 
plishing just such evacuation and re- 
settlement, if the farmers wish to use 
it. The CCC and FERA camps offer 
the labor necessary  to dam   the 
ditches, reflood the marsh, and install 
the food patches, plantings, and other 
improvements needed to check fire 
and restore wildlife on the evacuated 
lands. The Biological Survey offers 
to buy out the odd parcels of unoc- 
cupied holdings, but all federal par- 
ticipation is contingent on the State 
Conservation Department agreeing, 
once the area is completed, to oper- 
ate it at its own expense. This will 
call for a tri-lateral "treaty" whereby 
the federal government and county 
pool their holdings, for administration 
by the state, as a great public "Con- 
servation District." 
  Overtures looking to the consum- 
mation of this great reorganization of 
land-use on 100,000 acres of marsh 
are now under way. The federal 
government and the Conservation 
Department are already committed. It 
remains to be seen whether the coun- 
ties and the farmers are willing to 
perform their respective parts, and 
under what terms. It is a less ex- 
pensive, less paternalistic, and more 
flexible plan for creating public game 
 
 
areas than the out-and-out federal 
purchase employed in such projects as 
the Upper Mississippi Refuge. But being a cooperative 
enterprise, it also requires the participation of many 
diverse groups, and this may not be forthcoming unless 
local conservation groups interest themselves in the en- 
terprise. 
  Many details are still obscure, even in the minds of 
those in charge. It may, for example, be unnecessary to 
evacuate all going farms; some scattered farms may be 
needed to put in food patches, patrol the area, etc. Again, 
if the state assumes all the operating expense, it may 
have to seek some income from wildlife crops, especially 
fur crops, not so much to recoup itself as to give the 
county some income for the use of county lands. Will 
the public bý willing to pay some nominal fee for the 
use of a public area? If not, there can hardly be any 
expansion of the idea in the shape of additional districts. 
  The local people will of course benefit, not only from 
the direct revenues from wildlife crops, but from the 
tourist trade which the existence of such crops will cre- 
ate. The precarious national situation in waterfowl will 
make it inadvisable to allow any duck shooting for a 
long time to come, but the upland game and fur ought to 
return a legitimate harvest soon after actual management 
begins. 
                Management Questions 
   It sounds simple to reflood a marsh and let the wild- 
life take it, but it isn't. Here are some of the unan- 
swered questions: 
   How shall the dam-building job be divided between 
the engineers and the beavers? Obviously where there 
 
 
counties 
  6     11 - toIS 
 
 
Map Showing Central Wisconsin Game Area 
are no aspens the engineers must do it, also on all lower 
reaches where gates are needed to regulate the level of 
the impounded water. Can all aspen-lined headwater 
ditches be left to the beavers? 
  Will cattails tend to choke the pondage above each dam 
and spoil it for duck-nesting? If so, are muskrats a 
remedy? If so, what precautions are needed to prevent 
these muskrats from puncturing the dams? 
  With higher water-levels, will grass again get a foot- 
hold on the burned area now lost to aspen? Could snow- 
shoe rabbits be reintroduced to thin the aspen thickets? 
  What about hay meadows? Isn't a partly-hayed coun- 
try more favorable to prairie chickens than one entirely 
uncut? 
  Do the deer need tamaracks for winter cover? If so, 
can such wintering thickets be artifically planted? 
  What grain can be used for food patches in "frost- 
holes" where buckwheat is liable to summer killing? 
  White birch is necessary for winter budding of grouse, 
but in the heavily burned marshes is all gone. Will it 
grow in burned peat or sand, even if planted? 
  What can be done to build up the remnant of breed- 
ing sandhill cranes? No one knows what they eat, or 
what is the weak spot in their present environment. 
  Certain grasses, notably "rip-gut," are now known 
to form ideal chicken roosts. Where such roosts are lack- 
ing, how can the vegetation be manipulated to build up 
this particular grass for chicken-roost purposes? 
  With higher water levels, will the acidity of the soil 
again increase? What changes in vegetation and animal 
life will this induce? 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
  It is easy to foresee that the administration of this 
great area will be a technical task of no mean magnitude, 
requiring not only executive capacity, but exceptional 
skill in diagnosing these and a hundred other ecological 
questions. The soils, climate, plants, and animals are all 
 
 
unusual, so that rules-of-thumb will oftener than not 
prove wrong. But I can think of few tasks more worth- 
while. It means restoring 100,000 acres, now destined to 
become a sand dune, to the varied productivity which it 
enjoyed in the old hay-meadow days. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Report on Inspection of Monroe Center Quail Area. 
 
 
       Inspection was made in company with Mr. Murtfelt and ID. %enika. 
 
 Census: Enumeration of birds has been hampered by lack of snow. Mr. 
 Murtfelt is certain there are from 15 to 18 coveys, or a total of from 
 180 to 216 quail on the two section area. Census work is to be 
 continued if snow conditions permit. Further work without snow is 
 scarcely justi fie d. 
 
 FeedingProgram: Mr. Murtfelt's feeding stations are well built and 
 of a very satisfactory type. Quail have used a number of them but 
 food conditions have been favorable so far this winter. Several fields 
 of corn at stregic points are available to quail; there is a good growth

 of ragweed; acorns and a good variety of weeds are present. The presence

 of Tree Sparrows, Juncoes, Evening Grosbeaks and Blue Jays indicates 
 that general food conditions must be quite satisfactory during open 
 periods at least. The problem of feeding on this area comes down to 
 one in time of emergency. Hogs have proved troublesome at a number of 
 the feeding stations, owing to the fact that the open winter has permitted

 them to range almost as in summer. Hogs prevent the operation of several

 stations, unless heavy snow occurs, but fortunately food conditions 
 are satisfactory even so. I suggested that no undue expense or effort 
 be incurred at this time in combatting hogs but that plans be laid now 
 to handle intensive emergency feeding in storm periods. Enough corn 
 can be put out at once following a blizzard to bring the quail through 
 to the next open spell, or if snow remains the hog problem may solve 
 itself. Regarding the construction of a type of station which would be 
 hog-proof, Mr. Murtfelt's idea of a slab shack, with hog wire on the 
 front, sounds very good to me. The elevated feeder is worth thinking 
 further about but is very likely impractical. 
 
 Predator Situation: Since the size of the coveys has been observed 
 to diminish, we discussed the possible role of predators in bringing 
 this about. Two Red Tailed Hawks were seen. They are probably feeding 
 almost entirely on rabbits and squirrels, both of which are abundant. 
 I doubt if they have any effect on quail at this time, or so long as 
 quail food conditions are satisfactory. We found the remains of a 
 Blue Jay and of an Evening Grosbeak and I am inclined to charge this 
 up to one of two birds: Either a winter Cooper's Hawk, or a Goshawk. 
Mr. Murtfelt is going to watch for these birds and see if he can 
identify the hawk he has observed near his stations. Either one of 
these hawks may be reducing the coveys, and either one should be 
shot if found. Request to preserve the hawk for identification was 
made. 
 
     This is what I should call ideal Great Horned Owl country of the 
contiguous type. There is a vast reservoir of woodland owl range, with 
 
 
February 14, 1934 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Report- Monroe Center 
 
 
an abundant supply of rabbits and squirrels. I know of no adequate 
observations on the effect of Great Horned Owls on the quail population 
under similar conditions of large contiguous range. It is perfectly 
possible that owls up here may get 10* or 15% of the quail instead of the

5% recorded for woodlot country in Southern Wisconsin. Tiis possibility 
should be borne in mind, and any observations as to owl abundance or 
depratation should be recorded. 
 
     With the exception of a possible Cooper's Hawk or Goshawk, and 
unless Great Horned Owls are of considerable importance here, I should 
not consider there is any special predator hazard involved. If one, 
or all three, of these predators are taking quail, the decrease in 
coveys may be accounted for. 
 
     Poaching does not seem to be a factor on the area. 
 
Roadside Coverts: Mr. Murtfelt has kept in touch with local 
clean-up activities and has in mind the preservation of the roadside 
cover which is now present. 
 
Additional Acreage: It might be advantageous to take in the prairie 
Chicken area down toward the river, with the idea of putting in a 
planted feeding station next spring. This is isolated from hogs and 
might do well. If so, it would no doubt attract Prairie Oickens to 
the area and help hold them over winter. 
 
Planted Stations for Quail: While planted stations are the best 
and are most utilized by quail, I question whether the expense involved 
would be justified in view of the hog and cattle population. Fencing 
would be absolutely necessary against both. If the fencing item were 
taken care of, planted stations would surely be desirable. The next 
beat thing, in my opinion, is to arrange with farmers for lenving 
strips of crops in locations where the hog and cow hazard is not too 
great. 
 
General Comment: I was much impressed with the area as a game 
tract, and also with Mr. Murtfelth interest and energy in the matter. 
I have no doubt whatever that we can increase quail in this area if 
the present plans are carried out. 
 
 
                            Respectfully submitted, 
 
 
                                 Wallace Grange 
                               Grouse Investigation 
 
 
-2- 
 
  

					
				
				
11/17/33 
 
 
                              MAN~AGEMEN2T PLAN 
 
                       MONROE CENTER GAME COOPERATIVE 
 
 
                         Aldo Leopold,Game Manager 
 
                         College of Agriculture 
 
 
Objects. The object of this test area is to prove that on favorable ground

 
bobwhite quail can be produced in shootable quantities even,- the extreme

 
northern limit of its range. 
 
     The strip of ground along the Wisconsin River, in which this area lies,

 
is believed to be the most favorable part of Adams County for quail, and

 
Adams County is believed to be the most favorable of the border counties
in 
 
Wisconsin. 
 
 
Organization. The area embraces about three sections in the southwest part

 
of Township 19 north, range 4 east. Part of it consists of flowage holdings

 
owned by the Consolidated Water Power and Paper Company of Wisconsin Rapids.

 
These flowage holdings are rented to farmers. The remainder of the area 
 
consists of adjoining farms not owned by the company. L. W. Murtfeldt, who

 
operates these lands for the Consolidated, is the game manager in charge.

 
 
Winter Feeding. The irmediate need is to prevent starvation of the existing

 
stock during the coming winter. Since the corn is already cut and most of
it 
 
moved into the barn, wire feeders will have to be erected for each covey.
Each 
 
feeder will consist of a cylinder of woven wire 18" in diameter filled
with 
 
ear corn and staked down to keep deer from upsetting it. To exclude crows
and 
 
furnish shelter for the quail, a lean-to roof, thatched with marsh hay or
corn 
 
stalks, should be erected over the feeder. The lean-to should face south
or 
 
southeast, and should be built stout enough to last several years and serve
as 
 
  

					
				
				
-2- 
 
 
a dry dusting ground in suwmer. 
 
     The feeding station should be located on the south or east side of the

 
densest thicket occupied by the birds this winter. The location of each covey

 
can be determined from the farmers, or by finding the tracks in the snow.
The 
 
station should be located as far as possible from large timber, so that 
 
squirrels will not eat up the corn. 
 
     Beginning with next year, i/9 acre of standing corn should be left in
lieu 
 
of the wire feeder wherever corn is available. Where not available a food

 
patch should be installed next spring consisting of one-third sorghum, one-third

 
soy beans, and one-third fallow to grow ragweed. I will go over the area
some- 
 
time before spring and map out the proposed system of food patches. The com-

 
ponents of each food patch should, of course  be rotated from year to year.
The 
 
object of the soy beans is to enrich the soil and also farnish food. The
soybean 
 
seed will need inoculation, but this is obtainable from seed dealers or the

 
University. 
 
 
Census. The scientific as well as educational value of the demonstraticn
will 
 
depend on an accurate census to be made each winter. Mr. Murtfeldt is to
prepare 
 
a map on which this year's coveys are indicated. Each covey may be calculated

 
at 15 birds each. I will check his census before the end of the winter. 
 
     The indications are that the area now averages between one and two coveys

 
per quarter-section. The standard toward which management is directed should
be 
 
five to six coveys per quarter-section. 
 
 
Cover Improvements. Farmers should be asked to refrain from burning or cutting

 
out fencrows without consulting the manager. Ordinary cordwood or saw timber

 
cuttings, if not followed by grazing, will benefit, rather than injure, the
area. 
 
     If the company lands contain any old fields not to be used for farm
crops, 
 
it will be a good idea to plan thkm with patches of plum, grape, and white
spruce. 
 
A plan for such improvements will be drawn by me before next spring. 
 
  

					
				
				
-3- 
 
 
Predators. Farmers should be asked to dispose of excess cats.   Some responsible

 
trapper should be asked to trap the area this winter for fur. 
 
 
Shooting. The area should be posted before the beginning of the 1934 hunting

 
season. As soon as a good stock of birds has been established the Commission

 
should be asked for a special open season. The proposed maximum kill for
each 
 
year should be set in advance, and shooting up to the amount of the maximum
kill 
 
should be available to any responsible hunter at 25 cents per bird. Some
one 
 
farm should be selected as the entrance point for hunters to check in and
check 
 
out and register their kill. It is an unsettled question whether any charge

 
should be made for rabbits, and how the shooting receipts are to be pro-rated

 
among the landowners. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                           BA. R.Albrt 
 
       ringth         l    prprti    of the IA aa is ths six mile 
 
squar which is e~ither non-Mrisau.tural, ver poor, or poor agim   tualt 
 
land. ai the wall prctae of fair and sligtt         better gicultual ln,

 
it would be necessar if one deision had to be made for the entire~a 
 
to pronoune the trao on biss onuiusl~~turl. land.an better suited for 
 
forest  op.       wholesale             is not, howevr, a solution of 
 
the prblem. Conit ios now pro    , am*se inhabitans, iprvints, 
 
cleared land. M~swa, fire hasars, *to., and will santtne to exist. 
 
ftrthermr, it to not at all impossible that a greater need for utilizmation

 
of LadM=   devlop before the aloe* of the asafw, andItt Is not certain 
 
that the forest prseets which might be eaelssive2y produed in this are 
 
under adequate and effectively suervised planting an fire hasad control 
 
at plie or privat exense woaul be & profitable vmtwr. 
 
       It ae     that the most eeeuoiotaZI  deirale us. wich w be m 
 
of this ma siiiar ara  i  the co-binsd use* for frest crop, frm crop, a 
 
gine sprowtiet pures. J& a      mbintion e, however, houl be 
 
subjeted to certan dfinite pur.s.ul planing, either pblie or piva&t,,

 
fo? the mtual bfit ef the three Wistriet. 
 
       Tber gr      should be left or established Is locatio   to pmls 
 
protectio i ga inst *an  setms devatating to crops sal ero   lans, inouIdut,

 
fire lans, hih uwa or wa not be oppod, should be so locae        a to uttlse

 
the lan most favorble therto for crop production, while siealtaneesly 
 
servin to restrict fires which escape early detectotn aa control. The presence

 
of resu  t 1ad oers or -pblic      ey s c hste  ealy fire detetion aid 
 
control, an riaee       to gms b predator aimals both wild and deoestic.

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
?arm weed and wte               t     od for went of whih Sam c      t 
exist in 9utty in &am&e timber. 3peelal feetdn wi  l somtimes be

 
necessa   in winter. In this  artiolar ar. water is feoud pmnently 
nly along the vst side; elsewhere in  ry period&i i   m er lck of 
 
water, preludoes bun  st g   rprodutien, unless waer is atfiiall 
 
provided b  resides. 
 
        he intd      en    f thee three industrise uo   the mest 
 
suessefl an   eceoomieml prosetion of *eh will beco. elearor with 
 
dlscussimo herein. But isn*try mut eontribeeto tthe utmot permitted 
 
by natural conitio   toward eash m4 .stoitoe   re venue of thoes .eng 
 
therism. Foret$ will proide. pulwood. mad some lvbe  for cash r~ons 
 
eand fue.1 peets, small timbers, and usoe lwber for far sad fern family 
 
uaintsan. 1m eraps should be diversifiedt within lim          imposed by

 
natral dofiieseies to provid the mat-, subsistence for farmers, their 
 
nimals, and g   . Te surplus would be ued for cash revenue. Sale of 
 
gap* hatt   privilges either by fezos, sections, or towaships would presde

 
cas  revns emi resident huters would aid in filling the family 1.rr, 
 
Very farmer wold be a         game vwaren without pabli. compenstion. 
 
                             Lmke, a& mit Tregt gnI 
 
        It mut be rspinteei that corp landin I  this are. vill alwqW be 
 
esubJet to the itwowth hasard, has lew natural fertility, andt will sever

 
produee mauim= yields of crops, with the result that the fm operator must

 
till more land an eq hee to subsist with # lower stand       of living than

 
is found upon the better soils, unles he Vi-rweme the three indutries to

 
contribute mere sbstatntially to his well bein. The general am shou_    be
to 
 
retain meet of the presest timber an establish asmuh a * of more merchant-

 
able species as possible, consistent with aequate fire protectios aei without

 
imosin on the forest crop the entire cost of reforeetation aid fire 
 
protectieo. ?his mea   a rather low population for nsh es". 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                      -e- 
        breet crop  will, in tiew  of lo fart mc  prodution. prie 
employmt id4 wvnue for the fam help In off years aund   lac season 
 
and will pro'vide teal, poet wood, and some limber. to help webee* farm 
 
sintce costs at all times. 
        oe trac.s of ses-awealtarl or ver poor gricultural land 
within this ae  have bees cleared and abadond while sme     re still farmed.

 
Thes. Imre bUM recorneaded for reforeetratica In blocks. There A We 
odd .reers of peer l=& ow worse whiceh sod be pleated to squ        
up fields 
 
bettor thea they we. 
                      ho    -   IMA lad hm   Coc 
 
        @vr a long peiod of t$.im it will probably boo"* soeesa  for
every 
agiltural einmity to p       Its aft VW. Aprouiately, expenuiturss 
**nt be grater than the production In     . Therofore the st    r of livien

will be Etterrised ,b the surplus morat of commodity eout-o whtah ca be 
 
effected Is oxchae for the necessitie. a comforte of livelihood. ?ops&a-

tinms   t beo kept low. All items of fars expenee whic ean be reduted as

cash out-g  VI prod  etien upon the trritowt  met be encoaged. iare land

should be utilised for forest or tam corps. At the present tive a god deal

 
of cleared lad bas not been produuiag crope for ycea, - bandee land. 
Another c         *niderabe port ion is  i-ab d d. being cropped ne o*at
of two, 
three, or four years, eat in man eases, an outsider Is paying the taxes .u4

cring the mortgage load.    letter greultawal practie*s upon the land area

whic is moe  dosirable for farmig became the 'sail Is of fair quality or

because It it saeeee   fo  the proteetion of timer land, will do such to

 
lmp.oe the geneal well-beiug in the oare. 
        4lf&IfA is eeerally roguised as en* of the very best crop   
 for 
 
san   lend, but the aere of alfalfa In this esady area it far too small.

In 1932, there were thirty-two alfalfa fields rging In eise from oue to 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
twonty-fivo s   ,ree. totalin  180 &a"e. With the  eeption of  e
  s eloave 
 
fams alfalfa production has not progreoee4 beyond the one or two ase trial

 
stag. Them 180 ces wild bee      fair  req. asletment for five or sis 
 
 
        If ftai    s to p  ide a better livelihood there wmst be fm 
 
   200to    sores &"aOf alfalfa, Nt O&VIRU o mes etings, £9
ve   h70 
acres r  osde    for f   cp p     otio. Other fam prtteoo of k 
merit wat also be aped mmre rapidy thn heretofore. 
        Is planning the v" of lan In this ar  eOstdosi tion w"s
given to 
 
the prest sontieos    of sover, the fertility of the soil, the toghy 
of the ea.sco, co  eitiom of prevailin bslldaM , eto. %*o ma" b   w

lines s   a     timber froo cropped laud ae usually wra perallel to forty

 
l1nes, Imt 13 pratics wol fellow to a largeoextent the *kysie'l diaretosr

prevailin in the fiold, wit  t u       too m    t  ar       tty of 
 
faem fields. 
        It is noessaq7 for  t  fare family to opate  o lss than In  mors

 
of cop lnd. O    this besis the seven thousand &ore* of erop land would
ca 
reriately fifty to sxty, faers. It is quite probable that those fifty 
to sixty far    nigt also provide the loeal abor for the oare of fire Uses

 
and bihiwes, .spoeotsl) if they'a  1-3 worin 'bays. 3w% occasional 
"ploymot wold materially aid than in rehabilitating iA mAinatnaiui 
   their 
 
 
        Of the 10 sore of eop 1. there yeah    b  fm twty to thirty 
 
acre. of caltimted cops, the em   asmost of grain s", the ame amsist
of 
logi    (preferbly alfalfa) or other m       heyr crop, te*t to thirty 
 
sore. of plowable asture, lan.   r twety to thirty acres of laEd evoted 
 
either to fallow or g       rIn   p  So*. A discion of saad soil 
rotatien* m A  atd ftn practices is not is order here. 
 
 
A. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
       Ther are a   t 350 aor** of ma     land in this ae.     ih shmld sot

 
be tle-4we   4,Wt kept as po  eit hay sows. 
 
       1917 reeent ti~alh Indicate the adatability and high pradutivmene0

 
of ft       arygas  Ths grass    be ue to pro   a Uettor quality Of 
 
hey than the preset Soft* grass*     n  alder brush cous  ing these marh
land. 
 
Yawi.us fam  eontigmus to *&rbes *shal& hav    a sutable portion.
of ueah 
 
lest to operte in eeajesotion with th    upland. Apliation*e of poteas 
 
phosphate fartilisere as marsh** todesirable. 
     :10ii Ittnli                    1We ien &on 
 
 
       Th  p  oee of fire Iae* i to pride a suitablo lie for $bas 
 
tl    O ug  su ch fie as e0e  e0arly dtetioa  etuintion. !hq restrict 
 
the dangr area. the mut be acoeesiblo to wheelet traffic and maintained 
fallow In the firO Reason or ele b. in intertilleo or grea frm     cos sot

 
Oubjoet to firs. Continuity of fire Imes is important and It boars repetition

 
that their .saitanes, is a, if not more. imrtt t           any other 
 
activity In this area, fer the proteotion of the forest orop eat gae. proution

 
industries, as well as far   fie   pro toties ainst w    tm. 
 
       To r.Asoe the aro of poor lint 4eto4. to crop, their maximu width

 
shod     abot 2 ros. unless the altis of fair    ng value eat sootot to 
 
provide sfficit tillale lat for the oep.3t of the violaity. As          
  uin 
 
that fire Ian** will    errs about 2- ros wi, their establismt mtit 
 
bring -umor cultivation about 20-      .0mces  The plean cosfines timuber
Weas of 
 
about 80-160 ass within fire lame*, sin     prst         wo. farm fieldse,
asn 
 
fir Ir e  to be establisht. If an.    premt hhtwero   e abmone   for 
 
public roead they should be cavertsd Into five lavoc. 
 
       lire I"e. will need to be established ely in the solid stade
of timber. 
 
erevr fields nw exist the fire Imse weuld be establishetd uo         that
side of 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                   4-6 
 
the 1lne faee ftro of timber. Wheor timbr is fmat wes both side       of

 
the ltser fences eWhoe fire lease are to 'be established, the way *saw 
 
spac. on each side of t5 fenc but fom the staotut of operation nd. 
 
 
that the farers will maitain those firs lanss with saw aposeation from 
state or    ty. ley wot have the prvilee of ptting crop* us       them 
 
which preeted ". fire     ,a"  a    he  ,e t return seoo  frm the
crop. 
Vith eva* duasI ,tilimatiou in mind$ the fir. lane* a" not always located

 
directly voa latd lines but Wherever *eil condition ake fer expectation 
 
of laer returns to the perss ** saintain this. hI some lstanee* the 
 
fire loe* or pertloss thereof we entirely Iaitbl. for e    ng a" 
 
woult be sipl saintained as 'bae load. 
        Ikn    *las fo   the moaisease of pproximtely 54 milos of fire 
 
lane in the   a". Of this total prelb*)    about fifty per east *&&It
havie 
 
to be new  Oetablslh*  In exlsting tiber  t the Waimea merely require 
 
"inaite"40. 
 
 
        In order to rete the Areage of poor sgriovatm       plow-ea- , *bolter

 
belts should be sastaimet at a stism width of two rods without a set 
 
owmytim. Unde certain .esItitnse the fire lanes may be wide3ed. is order
to 
 
provite for neededa rop Uea, but shelter bets shoild never be reduced below

tw. rods is width to be most offestiie. 
 
        Whi stheter 'belts are full grow, oem aleag the vest site of every

 
forty would proh5bly provite adequte protoetios. U~mvew, in order to provide

 
j~il proteetios and in order to r#m     the #AM    of gtor Iaa In egoaa 
 
the location of two *belter belts per forty has 1boe #movralliy rsssediet
on 
 
the land  e map. 
 
        mo fros widstoerms to fields    ed crops is sot alwms apparent. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
rimtal results      emwe4 at the Seo* 3xP#Amat Asmt .-eva that 
 
the cas m   be InJ  d    wiM   tome   m still mk a sta, bet the ieolds 
 
y U     rued ot   Slo mor s  . Dm- to corn ti the most noticeble, bat 
 
other rp   a   ese InJt,4 b   drifting aa*. lot only Is the irrogalar 
 
but certainnuy o ore     a seros en, bat the lees of the finer 
 
partiales of .eil *ad the blosi out of orgic atter whe the sufacs, M 
 
rft*s w   imrtt fertility loss       ich should be redud. In ether 
 
words. smdst m   to damage st 0y17     a    crops are, u  the field, bat

 
also whe the *11 is ~exose In the w1Ater se*W. Msttinuos *eve with 
 
gow UiAt    cos will reatfly ros. suah bloswn of *an, but th       sell 
 
ot be *xpaod while fittin   for plantin an St times it itosirable to 
 
UA, the land fall plowe, and the plnting of pemanet shelter belts is the

beet available **the& of poteetion. 
 
        belter belts shu&l be of a mixed patin of cotceh snd bNrway 
 
pVias or       a       pius* with Jac or  eeth pine or the outside an 
 
Norw   pieoa the iside.     #e spacin isa this teitor shuld b a little 
 
*iAer than usual, probably *i4*t IV eight feet, the plas beag stagered ina

 
alternte ros. th niali     width of shelter belts should be fou r ows with

 
some . wa fixed. If the planting of shelter belts be wider than four rows
It 
 
should be ma. ia ulte  te platin   of      a    Scotob or Ja  pins, 
 
because survival of the Rwa pins voa some of the pem or drier soils of 
 
Wei ara is not a seltaia mattor. h writeor believes that lNorwa pino should

 
be planted for tbo paoupe* of fimickia small ttubue, eto., to fstwro 
 
semations bat that the s-ncee, ffietiene, mad   rati  of t   shelter 
 
belt shouldt not depen  entirly upon the. In aition to field proteetion 
 
thes of iving timber (*nw tre    ) proteetion of highewas qagaist sum 
 
blockades *shoul be consitewet. fte plan provides the mdas ro#a with sNaw

 
fonoos* or solid timber protectien teoept is a for ease*. 1ho loodside "w
of 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                    4". 
 
 troes shuld 'be planted so a- to provEs' living pOsts 0 which the fs.r can

 
 s   d   bmg his roa  fenco. 1s 3-5 ro   strip of l  between sar fetens 
 and hitaw shouder would be imfenea, cultivated crp jazi. 
 
        In like mnner the plntoM shelter belts ea provid living fence 
 
posts for futute us*, If Lsire4. 
        A-.a buaildnV sho.li by all usn be protoed by tiuber in orer to 
 
meoerate sover* wiWattmw, both I% sehr MA    winter, .mE for proteetion 
 
aainst col4 winds m       bleedce fteMas in the winter. When timber 
shelterimg buildis  &Miets or Is & Part of a larger timber belt fire
lasso 
should be pride   aroun the bleok  urouning the 'buldings. 
 
        A~rdiNg to the pln as made this ere, would seae dEq have eproeuinato1y

 15,000 acres of timber 10, 7000 as fe eorop lea, approlInately 350 acres

 of mar  loaE, ineluding oeedeE hlghWqs. The timber lan    above given iselvses

 
 the &are   in fire lanes, mad the orop load insludes the acreae in shelter

 
 belts. 1h sereqes of farm land may be rodueod at my time by increasing the

 width of shelter belts. This might be a desirable stop is abeat tvewty-five

 
 years so that in seuree of time those leas established as shelter belts

 wti   th next &*ode, 'wold in about sem ty-five yw   be meeuod Mi as

 
 orop laoE. In other words, It woEld be a long-time timber oreaaad rotation.

 
        Aprximately thirty-two miles of shelter belt me snowe, Tee.&

needed to eomplte the plan. Te   inim=areage figuring two reds in width 
would reve from cultivaton 123 acres.  he writer thinks that this shoeld

 
b  increased as much as the imedte falities pereit on those lands classified

 
  aspoor agricultural land. 
       About 5 mtles of fire la s. I% adition to protest fields maE public

 
ro*s a"a alled for in the plen. Without questioa this shoald be the
first 
 
step of public polic i the planned uee of this sa. Private ownership 
 
should also coosibr the step. bwh a progam seen. like       troendovs task,

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
espeetally when the recollection of man is short fr the deam      ec  u 
 
from the elements. Hwever, it must be 4itttnotly rembere   that subh 
 
protetion for buildings, highwas, ad fam   fields and crops, when one* 
 
setablished, becmes e    mstely & ine mtter of msintussa. reo iriut 
 
practially no work. Uer selotive cuttin     the beefits are there for 
 
very long times. 
 
        It takes f   forty to seventy-five years to produce a timber rorp.

 
If ever  fire which stats an   anM suffiotent ho*AW  rves & sectton 
 
or   quarter of a setin, the loss is too great. With my amont of travel 
 
thr.o*n w     of this kin the fire hazard Is ertaisnly prsent a  fires 
 
one- stared   r seldom put out until, attet by back fires, they barn thom

 
solves out upon soe well defined line.  he proble of fire cntrol is 
 
Confinement to & small ae&. 
 
 
        In this and similar  eas lae tracts support only serab o  or 
 
pine. Dotter groth is proludeA by low soil, nitrog   ad oranic satter 
 
"suppflis. The function of 1ues in nature is wall aerstoot. It 
 
absen. of lmes on              land, in 4o.eo pVia timber, ead in srcb o~k

 
openin   esp  atly those areas owpt by fires. is notiesable. The soil 
 
being naturally d-outhy, ait, and low in humus, the legaNe basteria perish

 
with the logus pluto and natural rvegetatin b    esm a  extrmely 
 
fortuitous ar    tane, whereby seat. bacteria. ad adequate moisture intro-

 
duatiso mut occur concurre.tly to bring about reestablitshent of £

 
leawnous population. Ti.s migt be pronounced Impossible, bat probably It

 
it would occur in a .eat=7 or two,   R      i2:8 fi  me" w ept out.

 
        Rhe production of soo4 of native luminous plant speeos for planting

 
on ar" to be "ftorested 2-5 years prior to setting trees, or eve
at the 
 
"s. time trees as set out. shoul-d recive the serious sonsideration
of thoe* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                   -10- 
 
eoneemi with r.ecvering with forst the li*t seil aea of this st&to. 
 
fth* foremte kr   that the    & sucesionu of speoies em vey poor lan,

 
bqginin with Ja   Pine or ?oplar ad eotinuing throug to more merchantable

 
species.  Thqe stion is    eod he ah to whether this effect is not due to

 
th   rda1 &c    lation of nitroen in and uner Jaek ?ie forest which ight

 
be suffiienatly hastened with native l e  to at least seemueeritable 
 
leek Fine productioe, if not actually pemit the early plamting of mor 
 
moraJtableo species, thus sai  a few decades of tim requred to &Tow 
 
teirable timber lsee and s*peoies. 
 
        In    !l'eeien. it must be etated that the emeesseft pjenet sue of

 
lent involves toe reat a csut umo the Imeiate   ner of the lan or locai 
 
taxing unit. Public seeur emt 'h7   ager pulitical sv-ivisions than 
 
townhips shuld be given. All aceages of laed of whatever ehqe at aelse 
 
tow sligibe to entry undr the forest crop lw shoud be msate eliible b 
 
revisi n of the lw fer entry thereuer or throug    "   other 1w whic
hill 
 
rein., taes thereon vaill a corp io secured. fTe writer believes that the

 
too ceats an &r charge to the ower of the land is too hig. A pert of
that 
 
should be absorbed by the ounty or the state, with a cowrroponn Increase,
in 
 
the, evemoec tax. 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
      Moose 
 
 
 
 
 
AmblaldaCo 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
Please return to Robert McCabe, i42)4 Univ. Parm Pl., Madison 6, Wis. 
 
 
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        MAP OF 
BARRON COUNTY 
SrTATIE HICHWAY COMMISIJON 
      OP VWISCONSIN 
STATEOIC oMCOAitJILDIN41I. MADISON. WHI. 
  SCAL E        MII"L 
 
 
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        LEGEND 
           U., S'TAl  COUNTY 
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L date. He describea dt 
ýf land which is now under 
iment for the game farm 
a 30-acre area between 
on and Barron. 
iately planned   for the 
ation of all kinds of game 
s, the conmmittee has de- 
upon a specialization at 
n pheasants. This county 
.iginally been a favorable 
fov the birds, but they 
been largely the victims 
Lter-kill and the weather 
there are few remaining 
mts in the county. Accord- 
Neil McDonald-of Turtl 
one of the Game Farm's 
t boosters since the beg- 
and also a member of 
nservatlon Committee, the 
do not    become   scarce 
ily as victims of foxes 
.and other predators, a 
   3e  eieved, but are lout 
 
 
 
physiral development of 
fuge. Pens, water systems 
- arrangementsiands aor 
uheds and   a caxetaker'd 
must be built. The funids 
are allocated by the sou 
oard not being sufficient' 
,er the initial expenses of 
uctlon, memberships and 
)utions are being accepted. 
pdefray these costs. The 
ýrland Civic Club voted to 
aute the amount of $256 
Game Farm Fund. 
expected that perations 
ýgin at the game frmthis 
Birds are furnished free 
E State Conservation De 
ent, with 8 weeks feed 
5 to 7 thousand of the 
will be raised. When the 
are sufficiently grown s 
ýhey can run wild, about 
will be equally distributed 
I the county. During the 
nt season an equal num 
full-grown birds will be 
4d for hunters. Inasmuch 
-asants cannot be tamed 
a no cruelty in the method 
ach birds will be equally 
it as targets as birds who 
seen wild. After each sea- 
number of adult pheasants 
e liberated for propaga, 
urposes. 
ie Warden Jim Scolmar 
sized the county - wide 
of the project, and pointed 
at birds will be distributec 
Sregardless of the origi- 
of contributions. 
interesting point mention- 
the Warden also was thai 
'nts seem to thrive better 
cs of drier weather. It is 
probable that we are to 
a dry cycle of years now 
Le time is opportune for 
SBarron County back on 
tof fine pheasant hunting 
 
  

					
				
				
                                                      Met, Jackrabbit 
                                                            W&AA 0o.

                                                            Barro Co. V 
                                                            Polk C. 
 
 
 
(Prom Wisconsln onservation Buletin, Vol. III, N. T, July, 1938, p. 23.)

 
 
 
 
 
          Who i          the first Jack abbits into Wisoonsin? 
          %y Humb      chairman of the Wapa a ount coxAs vation emttee, 
writes to the Bulletins 
          *1 believe in this centra section that W. A, B   of Wautoma 
and Ws.1f were the first and only ones to put the out. as we Cot a shipment

of 12, tour uiles and eight females from Nebras  the latter part of arch,

1900, and reease them a'bout fur niles north of Wautoma on a large r'e field.

W were ptioular to gt the at that particular month as the shiper repr 
seate( that the femaes would be bred then, .M from the fast that there was

ocasionlly one of these killed each *eason thereafter there in no doubt lt

hat this planting uS sucessful. 
          "01 have learned of their being released in the northwest
pert of 
the state an one or two occasion'ap in Barron and Polk counties, but thesis

plantings were along about 1920, and I understand there were quite a good
x 
rabbits up that w   to show for it. 
 
          ou s= have data on other Introction* as to the tine and place 
and as this atnil seems now destined to be with us and to often help out

the sporton''s bag, it mght be Interesting to r    hunters to learn how thw

came there.0 
 
 
0 
 
  

					
				
				
 
    In 
 
 
 
                                       1532 University Avsin. 
                                       Y.ra7 19, 193S 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. M - A. Do*io 
 
 
 
 
        It is &lmys go m  to   ea    fSesp@W4smo o 
 
wtLot t   Int   ti  of o     s. I woiud lik to d* 
tshingt  n o powe t    b y  up. 
 
        I do not knw our rgionu in d.tl, I considor the 
Woo Couny, Ohl* set-u as the mos promsingq~am exoiut oftis 
kind nv ud  w. I JMu4 from yv  wrte-p thaat  have al 
the availablo infom oa tn   it. kis Information eas be Obtane 
in & set of wsqrphs trom Lwrne 5. Rik, Ohio     toe Unvnrity, 
0oubl s, eM by 4eoe       to te following paper 'by Risks I& th. 
Sy  tiem in Nothwttr fto 0     mlf          e, 
e~mt     e e lb.l O e.M 5 d Mhe4 11  fte  stfre  23? 
 
 
        1 am sonding y a gonraisedaM mlysi. of taawr"tr-porew 
**-W  whic migt be of *on va2Ise. 
 
        I s   enclose the seoti Les dm  u this yew 
ley ova riLle Goe . we 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      MCI                Professor of Owss Uinoemot 
 
  

					
				
				
 
F J MOSR PISN.CIPAI                                         MA A DOSE 
 
 
                                   February 11, 1938 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
Prof. of Game Management 
College of Agriculture 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
     You may remember that I called at your office a 
year or two ago regarding the possibility of organizing 
a group of farmers near Cumberland on a co-operative 
game preserve project. Although I have found it impos- 
sible to devote much time to it since then, I have thought 
considerably more about it and have contacted a number of 
farmers to determine their reaction to such a proposition. 
Just recently Ralph Hopkins, who now has a position at 
the State Game Farm starting March 1, has been working 
with me. With his help on technical information and his 
special interest in the project we have come to the con- 
clusion that the layout is favorable and the interest 
sufficient to go ahead with the necessary preliminary 
organization work. 
     The situation as we see it is about as follows: 
(1) The area under consideration consists of about 5,760 
    acres, on which there is a very favorable distribution 
    of farm land, timber, swamps, and lakes. 
(2) The area was once an excellent natural grouse section 
    and although the grouse are less numerous than formerly 
    they seem to be on the "up cycle". 
(3) The area is well adapted to pheasants providing the 
    farmers can be encouraged to allow some feed to remain 
    standing in the fields. (Our observation has been 
    that feed seems to be a bigger factor in survival than 
    cold weather. Dead birds brought in were extremely 
    emaciated.) 
(4) The farmers in the proposed area are progressive, co- 
    operative, high type people. 
(5) The key man in the community, the owner and manager of 
    a country mercantile, automobile, and farm machinery 
    business, and who has control of over 700 acres of 
    land, is highly favorable to the project. He is a very 
    capable leader in the community and is universally 
    thought highly of. 
 
 
Agrtrulturr 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
   partm             f             al Agrtuturr 
 
                  CUMBE     ý(4G  CHOOL 
                  CUMBE-         CONSIN 
 
 
 
(6) Practically all of the farmers in the proposed area 
    are enthusiastic sportsmen. There is little or no 
    evidence of poaching. 
 
    We are using the Wood county, Ohio project as a 
pattern for our plan., No doubt you know of this set up 
but I am enclosing a copy of a magazine article on the 
project. The article appeared in the October issue of 
the "Country Home". We appreciate, of course, that 
conditions there are not entirely the same as ours, but 
parts of their plan seem applicable to our situation. 
 
     Our present plan is to send copies of the Ohio plan 
to every farmer in the proposed district along with a 
few brief comments regarding the proposition. We will 
then follow up with a visit to each farmer. If the 
sentiment seems to be favorable we plan to hold a 
meeting to which all the farmers would be invited to 
attend. The proposition would be discussed from various 
angles. If the group seemed ready for it a tentative 
organization might be set up. -This would be followed by 
one or two meetings or until a full understanding of the 
problems and possibilities would be reached. 
 
     We would like very much to have present at one of 
the early meetings a man from the State Game Farm, the 
Conservation Commission, College of Agriculture who could 
help us on some of the technical as well as practical 
problems involved. In the meantime if you have any sug- 
gestions--favorable or adverse, we would be pleased to 
have them. 
 
     Thanking you for your assistance, I am 
 
                                   Very truly yours, 
 
 
 
                                   M. A. Doser 
 
Enc. 1 
 
 
MAD: ET 
 
 
F. J. MOSER, PRINCIPAL 
 
 
M. A DOSER INSTRUCTOR 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Jaak Halo of Miz, Baro County, giesthefllw 
.t of the cye a      , tall of 19341 
   &J~gA  M~be H s senoly one 'bir al1 fall in territoywere~ 
           ould kill a sa ia     . Th fnw 'birds which 
have be"R killdbyloa hutr a" reported to b all1 oldan 
iested with tape.' Th few yon 'irare wak and hw. 
their heads covre with 'lio.1 ~ The1 loaluters sa btha 
It to Hrow's trson that the d  e   Is dtai*ed4  &.eve 90, 
aa        Nt plOetftl. perhap 7 as as as last yew, bat 
 
        :Abundat. Radical Inreas daring the past thre years# 
.    g the  h   been ecaio.a phesto ts fo years. Ther 
is no -   b them to inter on and it ti his Impressin that the 
wiater oam   On the sth hillide. 
%k1M' No distint reprt. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
File Barron Co. V 
     Cycle 
     Fuffed Grouse 
     Sharptail 
 
 
Octobe 13, 13 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
The Past and Presnt Vegetation                                 of the 
                Brule River Watershed                               %   
     ot 
 
           By JOHN W. THOMSON, JR. and N. C. FASSETAW 1O lCOpO 1 
                 Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin 
 
 
  (An abstract of two technical papers of 
the Brule River survey, a cooperative proj- 
ect of the Wisconsin Conservation Commis- 
sion and the University of Wisconsin.) 
  The Brule River has long been notable 
as a trout fishing stream, and as part of 
the recent survey initiated by the Depart- 
ment of Conservation, in cooperation with 
the University of Wisconsin, a study of 
the vegetation of the watershed has been 
carried on. This study had as its purpose 
the determination of the changes which 
might have taken place in the drainage 
basin, and which might be responsible for 
changes in the stream proper to alter the 
environment of the fish. 
  In the years 1852 to 1856,' government 
surveyors laid out the section lines for this 
region. By taking the notes made by these 
surveyors, and mapping the types of trees 
and other vegetation which they com- 
mented upon in their survey, it was pos- 
sible to reconstruct a very good idea of 
what the cover of the watershed was like 
before the extensive logging of the late 
nineteenth century. The work on these sur- 
vey notes was done by Professors N. C. 
Fassett and J. T. Curtis of the University 
of Wisconsin. A comparison of these notes 
and maps with the present day vegetation 
was carried on by these men and J. W. 
Thomson, Jr. 
  The Brule River basin may be divided 
conveniently into four general areas-the 
gorge of the upper Brule from Lake St. 
 
 
Croix to Winneboujou, the sand barrens 
which lie to both sides of the upper Brule, 
the watershed of Nebagamon Creek and 
Lake, and the lower Brule which runs 
from the Copper Range to Lake Superior. 
              The Brule Bog 
  The upper Brule is remarkable in that 
it flows north-eastward in the ancient 
channel of a much larger stream. This an- 
cient stream, which was the outlet of 
Glacial Lake Duluth, occupied what is now 
the west end of Lake Superior. During the 
time that the great ice sheets were melt- 
ing back from the state of Wisconsin, this 
outlet stream flowed south-westward to 
the present St. Croix River, and finally to 
th1e Mississippi. The channel of this stream 
was cut through the sandy deposits left 
by the glaciers, leaving a gorge which is 
now occupied by a continuous bog. When 
lower outlets to the east were opened, the 
Brule River took its present course flow- 
ing north-eastward. 
  On every section line crossing the river 
in this channel region, the surveyors of 
1852-56 recorded the fact that they en- 
countered a   bog, covered largely with 
white cedar, tamarack, and black spruce. 
The descriptions written by these survey- 
ors, of nearly one hundred years ago, 
are as applicable today as they were at 
that time. The bog is still dominated by 
an untouched and almost impenetrable 
 
 
In meandering central portion of Brule below Highway 2 bridge. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-4- 
 
 
growth of white cedar, black spruce, tam- 
arack, balsam, and white birch. In its 
shade grow many rare and, interesting 
plants such as the sundew, pitcher plant, 
yellow lady's slipper orchid, leafy orchid, 
blunt-leaf orchid, crested shield fern, dwarf 
rattlesnake plantain, one-flowered pvrola. 
 
 
cedars, spruce, balsam, and tamarack-for 
pulp-wood and fence posts. When the tree 
cover is cut from the conifer bog and the 
sunlight penetrates to the organic material 
which composes the soil, this dries out. The 
soil itself oxidizes and disintegrates rather 
ranidlv. The shade over the streamn is re- 
 
 
  In some 
tunately ha 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-5- 
 
 
Bridge. These are, of course, most abundant 
in the exposed portions, and are almost 
lacking when the overhanging alders cut 
out the light filtering directly from above. 
  Below Stone's Bridge the stream has been 
changed. Clearing of the obstructions in 
the stream, caused by fallen logs and over- 
hanging alders, has been carried on with 
the intent of improving the stream for fish- 
ing. In place of fallen logs, artificial ob- 
structions in the form of deflectors, wing 
dams, and the like, have been constructed. 
The stream is exposed for the most part, 
and it does not have the cover and shade 
of the upper section. Immediately below 
Stone's Bridge there is a great abundance 
of aquatic plants including water crowfoot, 
waterweed or anacharis, bur-reed, and sev- 
eral species of pondweed and long filaments 
of algae, mostly water-net and pbnd scum. 
There may be some question as to whether 
or not these large submerged aquatic plants 
are too abundant in this portion of the 
stream. 
  Just below Cedar Island the river widens 
into the two spreads known as Big Lake 
and Lucius Lake. In both of these wide- 
spreads of the stream, the river has dropped 
quantities of a soft organic muck. Water- 
weed, water crowfoot, muskie weed, sago 
Dondweed. Richardson's pondweed, and 
 
 
observed browsing among the aquatic plants 
in the shallow water. It is not certain what 
influence they may have upon the plants, 
but as J. R. Jacobson has written in a previ- 
ous article in the October issue of the 
Conservation Bulletin, they may have a 
very considerable influence on the land bog 
plants. Along the shores of this lake, the 
browse line is very conspicuous. In Sucker 
Lake, a small, shallow, sandy, spread above 
the rapids at the head of Big Lake, there 
were few higher aquatic plants in 1943. 
In 1944, following the deer hunting season 
of autumn, 1943, an abundance of aquatics 
were seen. 
  In the shallow stagnant part, the water 
warms up considerably, and although the 
main stream flows through i more or less 
definite channel, there is some mixing of 
these waters with consequent warming of 
the stream. If it seems desirable to con- 
fine still further the cool waters flowing into 
these lakes, to keep them from warming up, 
it might be possible to achieve this by the 
planting of wild rice in the lakes. David 
Dale Owen, in 1848, commented upon the 
abundance of wild rice in what he called 
first and second Flag Lakes, or as we now 
know them, Big and Lucius Lakes. No wild 
rice grows at present in these lakes 
although it grows in the slough at the 
 
 
Looking across the upper Brule bog. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-6-- 
 
 
             The Brule Barrens 
   The barrens developed chiefly on an out- 
 wash sand plain and originally extended for 
 several miles on each side of the upper 
 Brule. The early surveyors found very little 
 timber in the barrens, and that which was 
 present consisted chiefly of small jack pines. 
 The monotony of the jack pines was occa- 
 sionally broken by a few scattered Norway 
 pines towering above the brush. The signifi- 
 cant thing about the jack pine in the bar- 
 rens was the uniformity of size in many re- 
 gions. For example, in township "45 north, 
 range 10 west, there was a large area where 
 almost all of the trees were nearly five inches 
 in diameter. In township 46 north, range 
 10 west, there was another large area of 
 uniformity, tife trees here being six inches. 
 The pines were spaced rather far apart, 
 approximately 80 feet in some sections. The 
 large areas of trees of uniform size, and 
 therefore uniform age, were due to the abil- 
 ity of the jack pine to repopulate an area 
 after a fire. Following the fire the trees 
 would all spring up at about the same time, 
 so that here we have good evidence that the 
 barrens, even in the pre-historic period, 
 were subject to burning. Occasionally an 
 oak reached a diameter of ten inches, but 
most of them were described as oak brush. 
The Brule barrens of ninety years ago 
 
 
then, were regions of frequent fires, covered 
with small jack pine of uniform sizes in 
large areas. The size depended upon the 
time elapsed since the last severe fire. Oak 
trees and oak brush sometimes replaced the 
pines. 
   The barrens, as they appear today, have 
-not greatly changed since they were first 
discovered by the white man. They are fr 
quently burned, and over large areas, such 
as that of the great fire of 1936, are nearly 
treeless, but even today they are covered 
with small jack pine of uniform     size 
many areas, just as they were describe 
by the surveyors of 1850. Occasionally 
few large scattered Norývay pines ar 
present. 
   In the barrens the drainage is near] 
 vertical; that is, all of the water falling a 
 rain upon the sand, or contributed b 
 melted snow and ice, seeps straight dow 
 into the soil to become ground wate= 
 Eventually this water flows into the valle 
 below through the springs which are th 
 sources of the Brule. It does not appea 
 that any treatment of the barrens woul 
 much affect the flow of the springs or th 
 Brule River. As a matter of fact, if thera 
 
 were more vegetation upon the barrens 
 there might possibly be greater evapora 
 tion of the rain waters directly from th 
 
 
Brul, river near Cedar isaund. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-7- 
 
 
vegetation and less seepage into the soil 
to contribute to the Brule. 
     The Nebagamon Creek Watershed 
  The surveyors' notes described the area 
which drains into Lake Minnisuing, Lake 
Nebagamon, and Nebagamon C r e e k, as 
being timbered with oak, red maple, sugar 
maple, aspen, and pine, with a dense un- 
dergrowth of hazel and aspen. The surface 
is rolling and the soil poor and bouldery. 
Bogs and kettlehole lakes dissect the area. 
Under such conditions, fires, which seem to 
have been the major factor in setting back 
the succession of trees, were doubtless 
much less widespread than on the broad flat 
sandy barrens. Much of the region suffered 
from fire and was largely in aspen. But 
where somewhat protected from fires, in the 
neighborhood of lakes and bogs, a forest of 
mixed pine and hardwoods developed, or 
the succession even went to what is called 
a climax forest of maple, yellow birch, and 
basswood. 
  A comparison of the land cover of this 
area at the present time with that 6f 1852 
to 1856 shows considerable change. Much of 
the land has been cleared, particularly in 
the vicinity of the larger lakes. Consider- 
able portions of the bogs seem to have had 
their flora altered so that some parts are 
now better classed as black ash, red maple, 
and elm, or tag alder, willow, and dogwood 
than as tamarack. This is still, however, a 
difficult po'nt to judge, for all these species 
were doubtless present on the bogs when 
the surveyors traversed them and all are 
present now. A close study of the surveyors' 
notes and then of the Land Economic In- 
ventory maps of 1933 and of the areas 
themselves, indicates that there have been 
changes in some areas in the proportions 
of each species from a predominance of bog 
conifers to a predominance of broad leaf 
species. Comparison of the bog areas also 
shows that much of what the surveyors in- 
dicated as bog is now covered with aspen. 
Besides the possible destruction of much of 
the bog area, another result of the occupa- 
tion of this region for about a century has 
been the degradation of the forests so that 
most of what was mixed pine-hardwood is 
now aspen scrub. There are but few small 
remaining spots of white pine, mixed forest, 
or sugar maple. 
   Below the junction of the Brule River 
 and its tributary, Nebagamon Creek, the 
 stream as far as Co-op Park assumes a 
 placid winding character, with the excep- 
 tion of the rapids near the Ranger station. 
 It meanders through muddy bottoms with 
 very heavy silting and very few higher 
 
 
aquatic plants. Water milfoil, waterweed, 
water crowfoot, and a few pondweeds find 
it possible to survive in the greatly changed 
stream. The bottomlands are covered with 
a vegetation dominated by elm, ash, and 
alder. Here and there tiny meadows, mostly 
of bluejoint grass and sedges, dot the 
valley beside the stream. 
  There are so many bogs all through the 
Nebapramon Creek watershed, and the area 
is still so covered with forest growth, that 
at present there has not been too serious a 
destructive influence on the stream. The 
large lakes also act as settling basins which 
remove much of the silt and other eroded 
material that would otherwise enter the 
Brule, but it is obvious that accelerated 
removal of the protective forest cover 
would necessitate the use of very careful 
erosion control measures. 
 
             The Lower Brule 
  The soil in the lower Brule basin is red 
clay, deposited under the waters of Glacial 
Lakes Duluth and Algonquin. This region 
was, in the past, the most heavily wooded 
of all the Brule basin, and here grew the 
largest individuals of white pine, balsam 
fir, and aspen. Widths of trees which the 
surveyors mentioned in order of frequency 
were: white pine, up to 30 inches, and av- 
eraging 18 inches; spruce, up to 16 inches 
and averaging 11 inches; white birch, up 
to 19 inches and averaging 11 inches; black 
ash, up to 16 inches; white cedar up to 14 
inches; Norway pine, up to 20 inches; bal- 
sam fir, up to 12 inches; tamarack up to 
16 inches; red maple up to 12 inches; aspen, 
up to 22 inches; and black oak. 
   With the exception of very few, and 
small, areas this forest has been destroyed 
by lumbering, fires, and agriculture so that 
much of the area is now cleared, and the 
rest has a scrubby growth of alders, wil- 
lows, and red-osier dogwood, grading to 
aspen and small balsam firs on the higher 
ground. 
   From a short distance above Co-op Park, 
the stream begins the series of rapids 
which, alternating with short quiet pools, 
continues until about three-fourths of a 
mile from the mouth of the river. There 
are almost no higher aquatic plants in this 
section of the stream. Filamentous algae, 
clinging to the rocks in the rapids where 
the velocity of the stream is such as to 
prevent deposition of the silt burden, are 
the only conspicuous aquatic plants. The 
stream is yellowed with silt, and erosion of 
the vegetation by the silt in suspension in 
the water may be a considerable factor in 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-8- 
 
 
the ecology. The banks in this section are 
dominated by alder, but there are many 
other conspicuous plants. Balsam poplar, 
white birch, white spruce, white pine, wil- 
low, red-osier dogwood, white cedar, red 
maple, elm, balsam, and black ash are com- 
mon in the mixture of trees covering the 
bank. 
  This lower section of the stream is in 
the poorest condition of any part of the 
Brule. Quantities of silt are being con- 
tributed to the river by the numerous, large 
cut banks which the stream is rapidly erod- 
ing. Some thirty of these active, raw cuts 
appear on aerial photographs of the Brule. 
The Brule undercuts the bank at a bend, 
removing the clay soil, and seeping water 
from above the bank causes a large land- 
slide to slump down. Trees may remain up- 
right on the slumping bank whose base is 
being removed and the vegetation cover 
does not appear to be sufficient to hold the 
soil and prevent the loss of the bank. Such 
erosion is normal upon a stream rapidly 
cutting through clay material and it is very 
difficult and expensive to control. Some de- 
gree of control is possible through planting 
of willows along the slumping bank, and 
construction of deflectors in the stream, 
but no major alteration of the course of 
the stream is recommended. Protection of 
the vegetative cover of the immediate banks 
of the stream is of course one of the essen- 
tial practices which will help, but it will 
not entirely prevent continued cutting of 
these slump banks. A serious type of ero- 
sion, entirely a result of man's activity, is 
the erosion caused by roadside ditches and 
the erosion of the many access roads lead- 
ing to cottages along the lower Brule. It is 
obvious that measures which will help to 
stabilize the soil in such danger spots will 
help to reduce the silt load carried down 
into the Brule. 
                 Summary 
  By studying witness trees and field notes 
recorded by the government surveyors of 
1852 to 1856, and a comparison of them 
with the present day vegetation, a study 
has been made of the changes in the land 
cover of the drainage basin of the Brune 
River. 
   The bog.whieh borders the upper Brule 
and is about a mile w~de and ten miles 
long, is extremely imnortant in manave- 
ment of the watershed. It is in nearly 
its original condition, except for the corn 
plete cutting and burning of a few small 
portions and the removal o scattered larve 
pines. In order to maintain this bog, it 
will be necessary to stop completely cutting 
of any trees and to remove no fallen tim- 
 
 
ber, in order that the trees that fall may 
contribute to the woody peT*t which forms 
the underlying organic soil. In this area 
the alder swamp should be allowed to re- 
sume growth in the upper section of the 
stream, below Stone's Bridge, to give it 
cover. It is recommended that no "improve- 
ments" be placed in the head water swamp 
area as these are regarded as detrimental 
to the forest by drying and deterioration of 
the organic soil. 
  The sandy barrens to each side of the 
upper Brule are not essentially changed 
from their character of former growth. 
They are frequently burned over and have 
a usually sparse cover of small jack pines 
and scrub oaks. No management of this 
area seems at present to be necessary. 
  The watershed of the principal tributary, 
Nebagamon Creek, originally had a lan 
cover varying from pine barrens and aspen 
scrub to mixed pines and hardwoods, and 
maple forest. Because it was so dissected 
by lakes and bogs, the fires were local 
rather than widespread as in the barrens. 
Much of this area is now cleared; patches 
of maple and pine are much reduced, and 
aspen scrub has largely replaced the bet- 
ter types of forest. The persistence of this 
scrub forest over a large area of the Ne- 
bagamon Creek watershed, and the settling 
basins of the lakes have largely protected 
the Brule, but if there is extension of farm- 
ing in this drainage area, the institution 
erosion control practices would be highl 
desirable. 
  The red clay district bordering Lake Su- 
"perior was covered with a dense forest of 
mixed conifers and hard woods. Cutting, 
burning, and pasturing have left most of 
this area with a shrubby growth of alder, 
hazel, red-osier, and willow, with some 
patches of aspen and fir trees. Erosion in 
this area does not seem to be as important 
from the farms as from the slipping and 
eroding banks upon the river and from the 
highway ditches. To protect the river from 
any further extension of erosion it would 
seem desirable to protect the forests along 
the immediate banks of the river from 
cutting. The rapidly eroding slump banks 
may be protected wherever possible, but no 
major alteration of the course of the stream 
is recommended. The institution of wiser 
roadside ditch maintenance is very neces- 
sary in any reduction of the load of silt 
moving down into the river. 
   More complete information on the vege- 
 tation of the Brule River watershed may be 
 obtained in papers by N. C. Fassett and 
 J. W. Thomson, Jr. to be published in the 
 Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of 
 Science, Arts, and Letters. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-9- 
 
 
Distribution of Forest Trees 
                 (Revised Procedure) 
 
 
  With a view of encouraging reforestation  a greater percentage of the moisture
that 
and the planting of trees for forestry pur- falls in the form of snow. Hence,
shelter- 
poses on both public and privately-owned    belts are planted in fields.
Transplant size 
lands in Wisconsin, the conservation depart- trees are generally recommended
for these 
ment distributes planting stock annually as types of planting. 
 
 
lanted on privately-owned 
al or corporate ownership) 
ased at prevailing prices, 
t a nominal or cost of pro- 
Applications under this head- 
iade direct to the Wisconsin 
epartment, Madison, Wis. 
ig prices for all species are 
and for two-year seedlings; 
and for three-year seedlings; 
thousand for four and five- 
ransplanted trees. However, 
pment (50,000 or more) is 
revious arrangement trucks 
or the consignment, thereby 
need for baling or crating, 
;% from the prevailing price 
 
 
     B. Procedure For Semi-Public Lands 
  By semi-public lands is meant the lands 
owned by semi-public groups such as con- 
servation clubs, garden clubs, boy or girl 
scouts, Legion posts and similar non-profit 
organizations. 
  The conservation department will fur- 
nish trees, without cost, except for trans- 
portation, to such organizations when they 
are planted on publicly-owned lands or 
lands owned by them, but if planted on 
private lands by such organizations, the 
trees will be paid for at the prevailing 
prices. 
  All applications under this heading will 
be made to the Wisconsin Conservation 
Department, Madison, Wisconsin. 
 
   C. Procedure For Publicly-Owned Lands 
1. County Forests 
  Trees will be furnished at a cost of one- 
half of the prevailing price, and the county 
concerned will furnish transportation. Ap- 
plications will clear through the district 
forester of the conservation department. 
2. School Forests 
  Trees will be furnished free of charge. 
Applications will be sent to and the work 
done under the supervision of the state 4-H 
Club leader, College of Agriculture, Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin. It is intended that trans- 
planted stock will be used for this type of 
planting. 
3. Other Community Forests 
  Trees for forestry purposes will be fur- 
nished free of charge, except for the cost 
of transportation, to cities, villages, towns, 
school districts, state institutions, and coun- 
ties which do not receive aids under the 
forest crop law. Applications under this 
heading will be made to the Wisconsin Con- 
servation Department, Madison, Wisconsin. 
4. Federal Lands 
  Trees will be furnished at one-half the 
prevailing price, and the federal depart- 
ment concerned will furnish transportation. 
Applications will be made direct to the 
Wisconsin Conservation Department, Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
--1 
 
 
5. Publio Highways 
   Trees will be furnished free to any high- 
 way officials for living snow fences or 
 similar types of specialized forest planting 
 affecting highways under land arrange- 
 ments made by them. Applications will be 
 made to the Wisconsin Conservation 
 Department, Madison, Wisconsin. 
            General Information 
 
   On or about December 1 annually the con- 
 servation department issues a forest nurs- 
 ery application blank and price list (Form 
 F-146) of the species and ages of stock 
 available for the succeeding year. The 
 minimum order acceptable by the depart- 
 ment is a total of 500 trees. 
   These blanks may be obtained from the 
Wisconsin Conservation Department, Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin, the county agricultural 
agents, the state forest nurseries, and other 
offices concerned with the reforestation 
program. 
   The prevailing prices previously referred 
to include packaging charges. 
   Trees may be purchased in the fall, but 
the department strongly recommends spring 
planting for the best results. 
  Cash (preferably check or money order) 
must accompany the application for trees 
for planting on privately-owned lands. A 
receipt for the remittance will be promptly 
sent the applicant. 
  The trees distributed are intended and 
useful for forestry work. They are not to 
be used for landscape or ornamental 
planting. 
  Unless other arrangements are specified, 
shipments will be made express collect. 
  Trees are lifted as soon as the frost goes 
out of the ground in the spring (about 
April 20) and shipment is made as soon as 
possible thereafter. Notice of shipment, by 
post card, is given several days in advance. 
  If information is desired concerning the 
white pine blister rust or injury to trees 
from insects or diseases, write to the 
state entomologist, State Capitol, Madison, 
Wisconsin. 
  It is the intention of the conservation 
commission in adopting the policy of fur- 
nishing trees desirable for forestry pur- 
poses at nominal prices or free, to deal with 
landowners or organizations seriously in- 
terested in tree planting as a means of 
improving their own property or to im- 
prove publicly-owned lands or for other 
community benefits. Requests may be denied 
whenever there are indications that trees 
applied for will be improperly handled or 
used for purposes other than outlined above. 
 
 
Conservation Commiss 
           Meeting 
 
 
   The commission met in the conferer 
 room of the conservation department, sti 
 office building, Madison. Commission( 
 present were Chairman W. J. P. Abe: 
 James A. Corcoran, Virgil L. Dickins( 
 Aldo Leopold and John 0. Moreland. 
 The Waubesa widespread of the Yaha 
 river, the upper Yahara river, Six M 
 creek, Winnequah bay       and Pheasa 
 Branch creek of Dane county were estU 
 lished as fish refuges, as was also Nor 
 bay of Door county. 
 Little Burns creek of La Crosse coun 
 and Nixon lake of Vilas county were i 
 established as fish refuges. Sawyer's hE 
 bor of Door county and Weber lake 
 Vilas county were added to the fish refu 
waters. 
  Smith lake, Richland county, Long lal 
Sauk county, Squirrel river, Oneida coun 
and Little Brule river, Douglas coun 
were dropped from the list of fish refugi 
  The commission authorized the purcha 
of tree seeds at a cost up to $2,676 for t 
operation of the tree nurseries and a 
proved an outlined sale of county timb 
by Marinette and Price counties. 
  The commission terminated the use 
state land by the Ethel Powell estate wi 
buildings to be removed by June 15. 
  A financial adjustment of the payme 
 
 
une contract was approven. 
  The commission approved the followi 
land purchases in Peninsula state park: 
  Tavern and one acre of land owned 
August Lautenback of Egg Harbor 1 
$3,300; one acre from Frank Gureski, C1 
cago for $200; one acre at $250 from 0.' 
Scott, Chicago; 22.4 acres at $4,000 fr 
Cornils estate. 
  Three forties of land in the Americ, 
Legion state forest were purchased fr( 
W. A. Brown, Rhinelander, for $400. 
  The following land purchases in t 
Flambeau River state forest were approve 
  27 acres with 2,000 feet river fronta 
at $850 from J. C. Yarnell and wife. 
  6.75 acres with 730 feet of river froi 
age and timber at $1,000 from Mrs. An: 
Haasl, Park Falls. 
  27.64 acres with 1,400 feet of river froi 
age and building at $1,200 from Leo: 
Johnson, Winter. 
  Four descriptions with river frontage 
$800 from Harry J. Rhyner, Stetsonvil 
 
  

					
				
				
 
owlan 
streaz 
rdraý 
Inago 
 
 
\i!~f 
 
 
7 
 
 
drai~nc c laiks 
v~ ~A . 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
L&U W1U     AU 
 
 
/ OP 
 
 
                    SVFZL:ý'CUITY*WISCQNSfIN 
 
 
 
                  '.CPOMPUS4 in 1931; 
                    revised in 11938 by 
           I)LviB~on o f Land Economico InVentol'y, 
         -~         SW~te of Wisconsin 
                Sobn-$. Bordner, Director 
                   M~ orris, Forester 
                johmý H. Steenist. In charge of fiel4. patrty."

                Thxss~ell S&Afords Assistant 
                Lewit Posekany, 'arasitologiat 
                Yer~e Walling, -ITA Assistant 
 
'  C orro~borat-6rs 
   Fred Minoxi, Depvtw: ConservatioQn Wardens, Iron Ri5vers Wise- 
   ,Lu~dwig Tiave I  , Gounty Clerlc of Bayfield County 
   ,Otis Berting and'Sid Gordon, izi charge of 
                       5. 4Lake qznd Stream Improveme~nt 
   U. B. FPorest Serdce - Lake and Stream Su~rvey 
B iology Division*~ State Deatmu      of Conservation 
  "Wiszonsin Geological1 and. Natural. History Siurveyr 
 
 
1'. 
 
 
/ 
 
 
41 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                         The Lkke8 ofjBayfijed County 
 
    Bayfietd ccunty-fro. ýi ts .Cen'tr-1 Iighiid7 ' drains north ~ind-
e--ýt t -5ugh tbe- Ijon ePid ,tmru 
smaller riVers '(trouit Tinter) . iiito - Lake Superiar! . othnast- throuFgh-
t Ve white River' m 1ny  I( r-'s and 
 
 
hequamegan:-DaYý,en, sout1wrest_ throu h the CO-dppewa,, Nep7is,*g~on
'and n~u 
r 4,k'r d .tronit 15trerns.) to th  Gulf~ of . Mexico.. The ?our. ýjimpi~~
1Thke 
~re ý?Fm4~n .'dr Chi'pea. The~1 tou ClnirýI_ an   nuimerous-~th

i- pr-rt df haC~ouxity-,,reý the d~eei.ýr !kqd lineid, dep~essions
o i'tb,..lacial 
 
 
"Barrens Ln)ke" which during the period of glpcil recession'  
   d      !,rs,7id s PDlin. i 'o yf eof  county 
and coui.tc'of the h. .The... "       on .     .hkte .-           re
 ti1 t     r Ire left 
by'theý 1-,t g'lrc-ier.'- 'This moraine extends f~rom the -vicin~ity
9f Ia  Rve  ouh  n 'as  wrrd 
Clam Lk ",.        .'-, . -                        ',-.'.   . 
     Lke'u oft*h4 &Ounty 4a~nry-g.-re,-tl~y..f LDindlocked -or lttl-e
leakes ,gne~1y er ilyIrve  1er AVEX 
 soft wator'. Lrkes with ri3-lets And :outlets .tha"-v mediiium. to
hard -water and cre nort.r.!=.s   The 
 
 tn_ýhe~ii      earhi~tliflesm sad,ýn cgrve~qy beaciýe8
to pQciptQbe11 9ýs'~k      nd 
 low wet bogs. Most of these lakes have some shore line adequate for good
bathing 5e'6ds, There 
 are approximately 300 lakes in BayfirL;  GAi  41,:.*:qi.  six hundred mile
shore line. The number is, 
 however, decreasing as the shallow kettles lose their water. Bayfield county
also hos an extensive 
 sh6re-dnO_ sn i~ke Siipeiior; with              clif'fa and. woter--wori
.cnves.. 
     'The4SIE-ak  ihnVtov~f  thsrevtevp~ 1?5 o ~t hk,; rger aid icc yI'*f-his
rop"'tcooýae s'.ot 
einciuded'r-46 'smnll'. k(ýtlez Ia1s-. .endp.ond.  ng f     £.f.ivQ
to.q orty'..o" 1nb  a6r6$ in'-rer  and 
  nori-rnly- ihae'eeAý;Iblej, thouigh f requenVt.y,'n .w~ithou~t~
f  :WiY~r scoih ho. -a    i May,  timber 
  is 'removed antV Oxes~ive evaporation followrs..  Te.se,   ll' Pae.,hr
     ceth~~~~~'j 
"-other -i'ndleoked l.ike, h-wVe c   tr,-soft wnter-.,a splr@.e.p  h
  Lquti6 v.igettiona'adnl'fited fish 
        '~~6."  S~i~f'~h:~i~.besz rre;da to.,~ su~ch lakes. Vnd, tire
usup,'y praentV 
     Certain do.ta t'bulltion in this repor req e his.e ..i..     ....ee.
        the 
 n 7rq -b-s-t off Icc. -.nd trzading. -point. ar'e estim-tes.  ~(Ac~tv'r4di-ýtrnces
výry:!V  rcý ý,Or:  S."ne 
 to~ist: -)mT   tif:*v .n:tteinpt has been: m.ade to give, a fair. piicture.
o -:  l c e.  'Undr 
 rable distance to the num~erouis small1 lakes.-- --Fp-r exarnple, rhere
smnwlIl 1,-kesT  'renb-"1~ hed, n1ly by 
 -verl~nnd trni~ls, touristc.'smr)ý jpu~ ql     asnn    r nmn'r~&~srr
Ih        re4" 
 excellent tourist fncilities on 7ll the lrger 1;-4ess and fzym t1iese trips
c,",nh  er-ed to smaller 
 nnd less nccf.ssible lpkes. Under fish suitfble for pl'-ntihg !t'le rporE
_p' oes 'n'ot xnecoml1mefid  nting 
 excent "ithre the Conservption Wardens find - low fish populption or
where there is an unbalanced 
 eonditi-)n such as nrediminince of wvll-.eyed nike in P smnll landlocked
lake, or toy rdvise for other 
 rev sons. (A smrll l.-ndlocked lnke with wall-ýyed pike domintnt
h-s obviously been stocked with a 
 fish which belongs in larger lpkes thet hrve both -n inlet -nd outlet, i.e.
ch-nnel Inkes.) 
     Under Innd cover surrounding lrkes the inventory uses three genernl
clpssific-ntions of forest' 
 cover, viz., brush, young forest~saplings), and forest (timber over 12 inches
in diameter). The type 
 prevailing is Plso given, viz., pine, spruce, swnmp, hardwood, etc. 
 
 
p 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                               TrtJ   'ARIN -tYFIIELlVCCUNTY 
     ... -. Tznt. wata Is..e vey extqn.iVe 1n, .field. County.  iprzximneltV35O
miles' 6 sprLn&- 
 
 "fed brook.s curr.se through deep, . nharowa vviane-1lk.  valeys froi-thbnoZrthe
r'hghlmi)_  and - some 
 flow. from spring holes through rdlel.vely flat land 1n the-   e    aifiiige:.Thor
a.e'aso 
 a few small cold wir (sprinfalem. "tt.'e Iws. .   These brooks in -eir.
. hve.t co11 oWion : 
 .  threaded.their v.oy. t.rugh flands s. brish     - iLnqg9Ing-d :fire have~modified
this '-brook 
 envic. Te (a) .by rr.i%  g  r'otoctif ao n      ,sisv6 e44#6rction 6ind'heAt,
 (b) by* 
          ~~~~eajL~~~~ g~~ w.o~ e-.~6tanriting .i. n the.41ltin~g in,'of
68eý'Pobls, ad  c 
 ° by Inc~i    z$ OIe l varion i   :o teerrta. eprcLtureO nd-fobd supply
for trout . 
      A gaaI dP1 of 'stream iraprovemenft work has been dofie in the last
few years.. TheJ Fish 
  Stream Iuprpvem.nt Hanbook issued by the Federal Forest Service, 1936,
sumnrizes the .rdquike1- 
  ments, for a good trout tr~ezrk'.s follows: (a) pure wnter, -b)-fVora-lerae"
of-waiter 'temera- 
  tura, (c) breeding 4       (d) adequatQ sheltert .() abun...t fbo4;s1Ip.'
(f) protection'$" 
 
      To 6 a-A rppor and eveh improve s'treas thi.s Ikan-bo~k groups i4roe('emeftt
davicet £~i. 
             ......... . .. ow . ( dam-s, (b) deflectors, .a. (c) shelters.
Im  betw t   nxrlow 
 aps i n cr ea" , -sa - v&Vbl   ivoi tu t' eatly increasing sum,,.er
terL''erattrej , Deflectors increase 
 velocity and'Lnearti.n of'atb andý r~dce' 211ting. Shelter, in the
f orm. of overhax~4-ng- treesq, 
 br-, - and st -ch'o red driftvwoo offers protection    . al so shade,. 
    .   .T, a' v ery b .doo1  y be obt * Pal  ro' the" U. S. Yorest
er Ivi -"e epajrtmeiA of 
 .ýgricu~ltuxre, Washngton .  C.,. jt should, be int'-Oe 'Ibrn~ry
of every c~inty Con'servati-on -Coninittoe* 
 
      U 1he  t-Ipo~rtat -tural. f          tbise which have part or :ill
of  ýieir- lif6',histo- 
 
- in the water. Exztm-ple: Ir                               - tzeles a~i
lis n ~rio forms of tWo-winged 
-flies; z.also. c  teostoas forms ._sch  fresh water shrinp, 'crawfi'sh 'd
sow bugs, molllis~cs'in. 
  thp* fom.o~ f,  Is j.and, clamns.;_small1fishes, and- frzesh water ec~rth
'worms. Next come terrestrial 
  jrmsT,, which f'all -iri.tQ.the Fater by a.deiceent, such  earth viormns-
grass hoppor~s,ýbeds, wsps, 
  "furni shed as . .. h              ng sme :c i,,y: "fValtha CI
..' a O " "' ingI 6sunner' months. B -1 -hade d.'Aioreb1nae, -arn-

    slmo-nre ladf orms t2hrn do op~en shor-el1n*. 
      "IWhI~le we~b. e bel-vao ptokiný, -t o b e o f major izportaznce
whar a s hort,,Ze o f youn fI~ ish   thE"U 
  pri"ncipal lim" "  ........rit.-s' apparenlt :that -±here
food supply Ti i the predominant limiti=ng 
  fatrsokjgq; acrýls no useful' p*ýrpqs.e.A**- 
      Fro Btreai of Fiseres - Instituto'for Mb~e~m an L&6   aa%2ZýWr2'.

   .           ani . lc~tl ,.f~tlirp ii. t, i.. 54 p' r. , . ..    ..   
   ... 
     an                   ...p .ý 0 r 19e, 0,           W 
 
  

					
				
				
       iBAYFIL   CO. 
           Nof lak 
         Name Qf lake. 
         L~ke in section 
 
     Tr2ading& ointi - 
        .and porit of'fi&e 
 
 
 
- Area in- acres 
 
        Maxm= depth. in ft. 
 
        Gaem fish in  7 
        l aelr -n o w   1 
 
 
 
        Fishi suitable 
        fo.r 'planting, 
 
        Ia-ke has outlet 
        ,r. is lndlocked_'- 
        "Water is 
 
 
 
 
 
        Land cover            o 
      _-surroumding lake    o 
 
 
      -Swimming beaches' O 
 
 
V 
 
t 
 
 
     . 
6, 
 
ClamLake 
10 miles 
 
Ydir 
 
so 
 
10 
 
 
13 ..."- 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15    '" 
 
 
 
 
L.M. ý.Bas 
 
 
 
 
  Perch 
 
 
  L.19 -B  ] 
  eP 
S.--.B  t 
 
 
L . M.-Ba~s 
Sunf i SI 
Perch " 
 
 
 
L. M1. Bass 
Sunfish - 
 
 
adlocd 
 
 
Clear 
Very s~f t; 
 
 
  sor~ 
 
 
lardwood 
orest- cl 
Zeana 
 
 
'C"r6e 
prace 's amp 
 
 
aood         Ri r 
 
 
I 
 
 
SC J~nf  oh.16 t 
 
 
Brown 
Medium 
 
 
Scarce 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
Swamp, and* 
young har'd-. 
wood forest 
 
 
-Bas 
Basslack Duck              Buftl 
 
 
so 
 
 
iardwood 
 
 
A" 
 
 
    -~  ~ ~L.IChinppewa 
 
 35           15,163,22 
 Cl'in' QLJe  Clam Lae 
 3 ,m ilep '  6  rnule 8 
 
 Vait         Fair' 
 
              264j 
19            11 . . .. ... 
 
 
ia-rdwood- 
ore st- - 
 
 
_135 
 
 
L   M  B4 a~s s _ 
 
Porch 
 
 
 
 
 
L.I. 14  r 
 
 
I 
 
 
m 
 
 
i 
 
 
N 
 
 
22, 
Clm1 
 
 
 
;Id 
 
 
Pergh 
 
 
 
 
L. M_- Bass. 
 
 
Landlocked.* 
 
F, .. ,: . . .. . . . 
lear 
 
 
L . M.'Bass 
"_S._ M. 7Ia~s 
 
 
Bul lhea~ 
L. M5. Ba~ss 
-S.- _K    s 
 
 
:L:andlocke'd 
 
 
I 
 
 
. 
 
 
L. M. Bas 8 
Sunf.i sh..".... 
Perch-I 
 
 
 
  M. Bass 
  M. -Bas-ý:' 
  f 1, 134 
 
  ndlocked 
 
 
Clear.. 
Sof t 
 
 
J ..... 
? 
 
 
air 
 
 
Poor 
 
 
oft,......  ..i. . 
 
    arq_ý, 
 
 
ungS ......... 'l 
 
 
Fairly . .... 
 
 
7 
 
 
B 
 
 
J. 
 
 
& 
 
 
Town 43 North - Range 5 'Test 
 
 
- 
 
 
Tourist accommodatio Fair 
 
 
oor 
 
 
ood 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
   Nm--t .:h~                     pring- Hidden md~..771. 
 
 -Lake -in seetxiZ6h      33325  34~    29, 30 
 
 
 and. posot-of~fi 6e 6-1e z5nlles 3 14lbi11     _an~lea,. 
                      .5. ..les,                  es' 
  Acasib~i44ty -.-..-Good - Good.,      F1?~d ~f~ ai- Di 
 
 
      Ara -In                       ..re 15 643-4,lc 
    Mxm-dphiif--2LY              10     15. 
 
 
 lake now:ý                                -Bass~i~ Bevn e r6i  -

 
 
 
 
 Fis -sialeBs      L. Mý Bass N7one IL -3La s Bss    - 
 f or, plcM~n -                 ...ev-g S.ig~ 41 ýýs-Sif 
 
 
 take -has -ou--tle t O'Uitle't Lacakd Lnlq and.locked v Jdo-ac1ý!d
Ladoe 
        Ll.ri*6d                                andno''o*64 
 or is Tadocrd 
 
 -Water-is~        Clear~ Clear,- Clear - Cledr C~lear 
                     Very,.i #Qf  o     Very-seoft Soft 
 
   Autc eeatt-A an - Abu~nda~a- S Ca;c a S $cace i- bao 
 
 
 Land cover,-- '~-pi-n andI'- pon~pple Poppo - pIu& - Hardwood"
Yo-unp op'le 
 surrounding'- -: I         , 1QOd an4 'bP4w*ld . _Ld pig o Pe 
    l a k er  e .f- o      r sifr  e t           s o r 
    l a k    -. ' t .        5- 
SSwimuming beaches Fhr - air.: None- None., Fairi                - 
 
Touriwst acccxnmoda~iiox'Good F )air_. None - No ne..- None - 5oor 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                Namekagon1     Rocky          Twins5 
 
                Spread ~across 29             17,2 
                township 
                Cable          Cable          Cable   . 
                9 miles        9 miles        7 miles 
 
                Excellent      Difficult      Excellent 
 
S3256                          12  .S 
 
                    46         30             15 
 
                 L.& S.M. Bass- ass           N. Pike 
                 Muskelunge..  Snfish        Sunf ish 
                 Sunfish       Perch          Crap:pie , 
                 "N.& W.X. Pike               B"llheaa- 
                 Crappie' 
 
                 W. E. Pike    t M, 'Ba"ss    L   .-.Bass 
                 Muiskelunge -- Sunf ish 
 
 
                 Inlet "     -    loc- d      Lanwoeced.- 
        *        Outle,t' 
 
                Brown          Clear          Brown 
                Mte'diumwja~rd Very- spf t    Soft 
 
                Abundant       Scarce         Abundant 
 
 
                Young hard-    Young          Hardwood 
                wood lpihe and hardwoo d      pine forest 
                hardwood for., pine forest    f . 
 
                "Excellent     None           Fair 
 
"__E .xcellent                 None           Fair 
 
 
H~anson        Murph2yt Is  petty         Price 
     * ." , ,  Pock t;, 
 
 
Cable          Cable        Cable         Cable 
2miles         3 miles      1.5 mile   " 1.5 miles 
 
Fair           Fair         Good          Good 
 
30-      -     14¢,         SO S0 .. 
 
31            .13:            1           16               - 
 
L. M. Bass     L. M. Bass   LVM;. Bass    L, ML. Bass 
Sunf ish       N. Pike                    W. E. Pike 
    * .        Sunfish ,.Crappie 
                      Per~ch              Sunf i h 
 
 
LM,-. Bass,                 L. M. Bas    L. M. Bass 
           - *- -.Sunfish                 Sunfi sh 
 
 
.Ladlocked    Outlet       Landlocked    Landlocked 
 
 
"016ar         Brow,         Clear        Clear 
Very soft      Soft .    " - Very soft    Very soft 
 
"Sarce         Abundant''    Very         Scarce 
                             scarce             . 
Young po-pple  Pine         pine and      Pine and 
forrest        forest.      hardwood      hardwood 
                       "..   forest       forest 
 
Fair           None          Good,        Good. 
 
Fair           Fair         Fair,              ________ 
 
 
Town 13 North - Range 7 West 
 
  

					
				
				
S.-'....                         ,.,-----'---.-.---,--.--"-'...--- -.
'---I'. 
 
 
..   5...,     I 
 
 
Name of-lake 
 
Lake in ~seCaotio. 
 
Tradin~g pointv 
'and -pst- of fiee- 
 
 
 
Area' in~adre~s 
 
Maximumz Aaptb. ii: ~tt 
 
G am e f i sh -it 
lake now 
 
 
 
  -- h 'si ta~ble 
  for plhnting'j' 
 
 
  Lake has outltes-t 
  or is IU1;Qnlafkmd 
 
  Wbator is 
 
 
  Aquatic~ vagetati qn 
 
 
- 'and.-cover 
  surrounding,. 
  lake 
 
  Switriing beaches, 
 
 
Rosa.    - 
 
 
 
Cab le~ 
2-ý5-, mi 1&e 
 
 
 
 
 
33 
 
S. YL. Bahs 
Crappie 
 
 
 
 
 
Suailf ish 
 
 
Landl~bded 
 
 
 
 
 
Moder~kt41y 
*abundaný 
 
Pine and 
har~dwo~od 
,forest, 
 
Tair 
 
 
li-z 1T.t - Rmw IVAFt 
 
 
WYilliams 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30i-- '-- 
 
 
 
 
 
S. ML. B a s 
 
 
 
 
L. -M., Bass 
 
 
 
La'ndID"1ed 
 
 
 
very ao~t 
 
Sca~rd-o 
 
 
Pinean. 
bhardw~oq. 
foreStj 
 
Fair 
 
 
Cable     K 
 
 
 
Cab 1e, 
.1. 5. mile a,:_ 
 
 
.GOO& 
 
 
 
L.& S.M. :Pass 
W. E.& N.' Pike 
Crappla 
 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Medium hard 
 
 
 
 
*Youn-gl-pi~ae ax 
  poppla-foreel 
.cedar awtmp - 
 
Fair 
 
 
enry        Ole 
 
     j      27pZS 
 
 
     Milesmle 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   &'S'aN. Pike        , 
unf ish I   Sunf ish 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1arnUjoc~rd  Landlockea 
 
 
9WnM         Clear 
dedium       Very soft', 
 
             Scarce 
 
 
             pine. '44dL. 
    swa~j    PoppIle. 
 
 -Pl o.__    fo~ut 
 
 
 IYone . _  I None 
 
 
Thuri et accoinmodatic Fair        Pair         Gc Fod 
 
 
Fair 
 
 
Ip,  YL N      7p 
 
 
15,2 
 
 
 
     44 
 3 5........ 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 5r 
 
 hardwoods, 
 
 
Go 
 
 
Tourist accommodatio. 
 
 
Fair 
 
 
L_ 
 
 
od 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
         To tagetic. 
 
         22.3Q-31,332 
 
7        Cable 
        8 miles.. 
 
 
 
        560 
 
        6 
 
 
        Perch _. - -' 
        Bullhead.:* 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        !Tnlet 
        Outlet 
 
        Brown 
        Medium t 
 
        Abundant 
 
 
        SHardwood 
        forest and 
        swamp 
 
        None 
 
 
Town 44 North - Range 5 West 
 
 
Atkins 
 
19,20 
 
-Grandview* 
'12 mi1eB 
 
 
 
2o6 
61- 
 
L.&.S,M,1&?3as, 
N. Pike 
~S1nf ish 
.Rock Bass 
Perch 
 
L. M. Bass 
$.   .-Bas  , 
Sunf i sh 
 
"-Outlet 
 
 
Clear 
Soft t 
 
Abundant 
 
  Hardwood 
 
     forest.- 
 
 
Good 
 
 
Coffea.-. 
 
13,241 
 
Grandview 
"114. miles 
 
Poor       - 
 
120 
 
16 
 
L. 14. Bass 
Perch., 
 
 
 
 
.      .... ..Bass.... - 
S. M. Bass 
Sunf i h 
 
 
 
 
'Green 
iledium hard 
 
A~bundanit 
 
 
Young 
hardwood. 
forest 
 
None 
 
 
,.Taylor'- 7, 
 
S30 
 
Grandview. 
13 miles 
 
 
 
1214- 
 
15 
 
"N,, Pike 
'Sunfish 
;Bullhead. 
 
 
 
L. M.13 Bass 
-Crappie.. 
 
 
-Outlet- 
 
 
 
Soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Your, popple 
and. hardwood 
forest 
 
None 
 
 
'Bass 
 
241 
 
Grandview 
14 miles 
 
Poor 
 
so 
 
33 
 
N. Pike 
sunf is1i 
Perch 
-Bullhead 
 
   -.I.Bass. 
.Crappie  " 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
.Clear 
-Medium har~d 
 
Abundant 
 
 
Young popple 
forest and 
spruce swamp 
 
None 
 
 
*Club 
 
13 
 
Grandview 
14 miles 
.Poor 
 
48 
 
 
 
N. Pike 
C.rappie 
Perch 
Sunf ish. 
 
 
L'.O   . Bas 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
'Clear 
'Very soft 
'Scarce 
 
 
'Youn 
hazrdwouod 
forest- 
 
None 
 
 
.Cranberry 
314. ,    ...   + \ .. ...  * 
 
 
A8 miles 
 
 
 
"go 
19   - 
 
;L.M . ýBajss .. 
N. Pike 
W. E. Pike 
Crappie 
Sunf i sh 
 
 
 
 
 
.Outlet. 
 
 
 
Medium hard ": " 
 
Abundýf 
and varied 
 
Hardwood 
brush 
 
 
None 
 
 
Town,44 North - Range 6 West 
 
 
Fair 
 
 
Good 
 
 
Poo~rT., 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Namxe of lake 
 
fake in section 
 
Trding point 
and. post off~ice 
 
Access Iilility- 
 
Area in acres 
 
Maximum   epth in ft-, 
 
 
lake now 
 
 
 
Ftshsuaitable 
for planting 
 
 
 
or is landlockefd" 
  Wter i-s 
 
 
 
 
  *Land 'cver 
  surounding 
  leake 
 
  Swimm-ingz beaches 
 
  Touriust accom~modation 
 
 
Crystal 
 
32 
 
Cable 
!10 miles-. 
 
'Good 
 
!72 
 
 
1. M 
tS. M . Bass 
Sunf i s 
!Rock Bass 
Perch 
 
L.   .  ;ass-: 
"!$un-ýish 
 
 
,Landlced 
 
 
Xlear 
 
 
 
,Young popple 
land hardwoo~d 
,forest. - 
:Good 
 
 
Diamond 
 
29,32 
 
Cable. 
-10 miles 
 
 
 
'315 
 
 
 
L.& S.M. B-asE 
lullhe'a 
W. Pike' 
1Sunf.sh 
Perch 
 
  M. B~4ass 
ms. il. 
 
 
'Outlet, 
 
 
Clear 
Medium hard 
 
 
 
ou.on andd 
mature -po-Dols 
 
 
Good 
 
 
Jackson 
 
;33 
 
Cable 
10 miles 
 
Grood,, 
 
176 
 
13 
 
IL.& S.M.-Bass 
Muskelwse'. 
N.& WT.I. Pike 
 
:Crappie 
 
VW. E. Pike 
 
 
 
 
 
"~Clear 
Medium hard, 
 
and varied 
 
Young and 
Snatiwe pine, 
and. popple - 
 
 
*ILothing 
 
21,22 
 
,Grandview .. 
*8 mile~s 
 
,Fair 
 
,140 
 
141 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
tanTito cke . 
 
 
sClear 
 
.S carc ......... 
 
 
.Young popple 
forest 
 
 
TPorcupine 
 
17,19,19-,20 
 
G'randview 
8 miles- 
 
1Fair 
 
'159 
 
 
 
L.& S.M. Bass 
N. Pike 
Sunf sh 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
-7own -I 
 
Medium    . 
 
and varied, 
 
hardwo   ....., 
 
forest      * 
 
11oAor -. 
 
 
Good      Good Good       h'atr                     pair 
 
 
Trapper 
 
'26,27 
 
Grandview 
9 miles 
 
.Good 
 
80 
 
 
 
Bass 
N. Pike 
Sunfish 
;Rock Bass 
Terch 
 
;L. M. Bas          . 
:S. M. Bass 
Sunfish 
 
Outlet 
 
 
Brown 
-Mediuia 
-7carce. 
 
 
Young- .ar.... 
-wood f ore-st 
clered.fland: 
 
Fair-.- 
 
 
-F ir 
 
 
;Good 
 
 
Good 
 
 
,Fair-. 
 
 
Good 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
Town 44 North - Range 7 West 
 
 
   eWst .Lake 
 
 
 
   Cable 
   11. miles 
 
   Fair 
 
   48 
 
 
 
   Bass 
   Sunfish 
   'Pefdh 
 
 
 
   .L. , Bass. 
   Sunfish 
 
 
   "Landlocked 
 
 
   Clear 
.. . Soft . . . . 
 
   "Scarce 
 
 'Young popple 
   forest 
 
 
   None, 
   ....None 
 
 
Bass -         East           Mill Pond     Mud           'North East 
 
15             54,55 55                      26,55          25,26 
 
Drummond       Cable          Drummond      Cable*          Cable 
*7 miles       6, miles       .5mile        7 miles         8 miles 
 
Fair         * Good                         Good            Fair 
 
48             168           '80 
 
26             19            Very shallow   7               59 
 
BaSs           Bass                                         Bass 
Sunfish        Perch                                        Sunfish 
Perch            "Perch 
"Bullhead                                                   Bullhead

 
 
S.             LM..Bass      Should have    Good for ducks. S. M. Ba s s

                             regulatory dam Coontail -should 
                             and a planting be planted 
     _ .. ...___,___of           -duck food                 'Landloc e d

 Landlocked    Landlocked    Outlet         -Landlocked    Landlocked 
 
 
 Clear         Clear         Brown                         Clear 
 Very soft     Very soft    'Medium hard    Medium hard    Medium hard 
 Scarce        Scarce         carce         Abundant       Fairly. 
 
              " __, _...._____"                            abundant

 
 Hardwood and  Yo.ung.pine &. Young pine    Young pine.    Young pine

 pine forest   hardwood for. and hardwood   and hardwood   and hardwood 
   ' 
              & cleared land forest         forest         forest 
 
 Fair         Good                                         None 
 
.Fair         Good                                         Poor 
 
 
-.1L 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Name of lake 
 
Lnke in Section 
 
Trading point 
and post office 
Accessib~Iity 
 
Area in acros 
 
Maximum depth in ft. 
 
Game fish in 
lake now 
 
 
1Drimmond 
.and Cable 
5 .mniles 
 
 
Fish suitable 
for planting 
 
 
Lake  has      *- ... . .. 
or is landlocked 
 
Water is 
 
 
Aquatic vegetation 
 
 
Land cover 
surrounding 
lake 
 
Swimming beaches 
 
loiwiat      d   to 
 
 
T2 97O" 
 
 
Ex"e 
 
1596 
 
 
L. -M. Bass 
S!M. Bass 
*      E. Pike 
 
Sunfish--,*"* 
 
S., M. Base, 
W. E. Pike . 
Crappie 
 
Ou2tlet 
 
 
C:Lear 
Medi, n b.ard 
 
 
ant and. varied 
 
Fineand 
hardwood 
forest-..   - 
 
Good...       . 
 
 
North 'Bow 
 
25 36 
 
 
Diummond 
10 miles 
 
 
Eass, 
R. Pike 
Perch 
 
 
None,' 
 
 
 
)utlet 
 
 
Browne  - :" 
medium" hard" 
 
 
Cedai , ad 
t, m:d a-, d a 
 
sw.mp 
!'Ione .. 
 
 
25 
 
 
Cable 
5 miles 
 
 
[Fair 
 
 
1.S 
 
 
45 
 
 
Bass 
Sunfish 
 
 
L. M. *Bass 
 
Sunfish 
 
Landlocked -- 
 
 
Clear 
Very soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Youfsg- 
berdwood-. 
 
 
Wil *ir . _._ 
 
 
Cable 
vrmilesý 
o4    ... 
 
 
 
25, 
 
 
T 'VIrm+ 
 
 
S.......... . "  *   ,L , A                . 
 
 
4  . .   . " . . . . . . .C L 'L :: IUri 'll .l 7  . : . . . . . . ..
" . . 
 
 
r" 
 
 
Bony- 
 
 
 
Druimndzi 
* -miie  ' 
 
Good-...... 
 
220-- -. - 
 
54 - 
 
 
5 miles 
 
Good 
 
68 
 
59 
 
L. M. Bass 
N. Pike 
Sunfish 
 
 
 
L. M. Babs 
Sunf'ish 
 
 
Landloodkd 
 
 
Clear, 
Very'soft 
 
Scarce' 
 
 
Young, 
Mrd&'d6d, 
f,'rest i!.. 
 
 
I 
 
 
-' - , 1  ^ 
 
 
Btulieac 
L. M. Ba6s 
SunfiSh 
 
 
Lan~diocked 
 
 
Clear,. 
Very soft  
 
Scarce,    , 
 
 
 
and hardwood 
fG(rest . -6 .. 
 
 
L. M. Bass 
SuPe sh 
P~erch 
 
 
L. 19. Bass.. 
   S-..ass 
Sunfish 
 
Outlet'. 
 
 
Clear 
Medium hard 
 
Alnundant- 
and vaied 
 
Y o u n g   i o ,p e . .. 
and ha-fdwood 
forest       . 
 
Good" 
 
 
L2.M. Ba 
. Pike 
Cirappie 
Sunfish 
 
 
v,; , ý 7T __1 - - "I                      I 
 
 
ý44-ýý -ý;- R7-9 W 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Paui~ Claire 
--Lower 
 
 
V:1, 5U 
 
 
4 
 
 
lau Claire' 
  IMiddle 
 
 
5,1(, U 
Dr'wximond 
 
 
Eau Claire 
  'Upper 
 
 
2,3,9,10,11 
 
 
  "" Druý=nond ''' 
  15 miles 
 
  "Goo& 
 
  529i: 
 
 
 
  L. U. Bass 
 
  Sunfi sh 
  Rock Bass 
  Perch 
 
    Crappie 
 
 
 
    Outlet 
 
 
    Clear 
"  Medium hard 
 
   Abundant 
   ....and varied 
 
   -Young piliei 
   6nd"hardwood 
   foresst 
 
   Good. 
 
   Excellent 
 
 
Mad 
 
 
3,14,9 
])rumniond 
 
 
1PLmiles" 
 
Good 
 
 
 
 
 
:L;.' S.M. Bass 
N1SrW.E. Pike 
-Sun1fish 
Rock Bass 
Perch 
l; E. Pike 
Crappie 
 
 
Outlet 
 
 
"Clear       . 
'Me ditt hard 
 
Abundant 
and varied 
 
Pine and 
",a~rdwood 
forest-. 
 
Good 
 
 
Pickerel 
 
 
4,5 
 
 
Drummond" 
13 miles 
 
Good 
 
osb.8 
 
 
 
N. Pike 
Sunfish 
Rock, Bass 
Perch 
L.& S.M. Bass 
 
L. M. Bass 
S. M. Bass 
 
Outlet 
 
 
~tlear 
Me64ium hard 
 
Abundant 
Iand varie.d 
 
Pine and 
hardwood 
forest' 
 
Good 
 
 
Excellent 
 
 
Robinson 
 
 
3,4 
 
 
Drummond 
15; miles 
 
Good 
 
i1 
 
 
 
L., M. Bass'' 
N. Pike 
 
 
Perch 
 
None 
 
 
 
Outlet 
Spring fed- 
 
 
Me di-=m 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Y6ung pine 
and popple 
forest 
None  . .   . 
 
 
Drumnmond" 
15 miles''*' 
 
 
 
96 
 
38. 
 
L. U. Bass' 
S. U. Bass 
N. Pike 
Crappie 
Sunfish 
 
L. U. Bass 
S. M. Bass 
Sunfish 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Scrub oak 
brush and 
small pine 
 
Pair' 
 
 
"Drunmond__ - 
"15'miles 
 
lair' 
 
 
 
35 
 
"LM M. Bass 
N. Pike 
Sunfish 
ock Pýss 
Perch & Crappie 
 
L. M. Bass 
S. M. Bass 
Crappie 
 
Outlet 
 
Clear 
Hard 
 
Abundant 
 
 
Young oak 
,and jack pine 
!Torest 
 
Fair 
 
 
F -'. 'r 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Name o f lake'         Smi th'       Sweet 
 
Lake in. zction       .2              ,2        " 
 
Trading point         Drummond .      I.." ond  ... rummond. 
and post office ..       miles .     14miles       1 ,miles 
 
Accessibility          alir                        Fair Fair 
 
Area in acres -O .'                '   6           20 
 
Maximum d~epth, inft; 9              39             1 
 
Game fish in          L.& S.M. Bass Perch        --o report,, 
lake now              N.& T%.E.Pike  Sunfish- 
                "  "  Orappie.-     "Crappie 
 
                      Perch-         L.& S.M. Bass 
 
Fish suitable 
for planting 
 
 
Lake has outlet .     Inlet --and    Outlet     - Lndloked       , 
or is landlocked'      outlet,,.     'Spring- lake 
                   Spring lake 
"Water is I S         Clear          clear       'ear. 
                      "Medium h1ard  Medium hard  Very soft 
 
Aquatic vegatat16n    Abundant,      Abundant     Scarce 
 
 
Land cover            Young popple   Scrub oak    Young jack 
surrounding lake      forest         and young    pine, forest- 
                                     Jack pine 
 
Swimming beaches      None           None         None 
Tourist accommoatjqo N...               e...      No..e 
 
 
23           3- 
 
Grandview    'Granaview . 
8 miles_     9 miles 
 
Good.T..     Good 
   o "      35 
 
-31          25 
 
L. M. Bas    L.M Bass 
Orappie      N. Pike   :.. 
             SE. Pike 
             Sunfish 
*            Perch 
 
L. M-.. Bas  L. M. Bass 
S. M. Bass. Grappie 
 
 
Landlooked .Outlet 
 
 
 
Soft*.       Medium hard 
 
Fairly.      Abundant 
abundant, 
 
Young       Young popple. 
popple       forest and 
forest       swamp 
 
Fair         Fair 
 
N,,one      None 
 
 
Armstrong 
 
19,20 
 
Drummond 
3 miles 
 
Fair.. 
 
69 
 
 
.. 14 Bass 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
Sunfish 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Very soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Young 
hardwood 
forest             J 
 
Fair 
gone 
 
 
T 9N- R7 T 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
           Bass No. 1 
 
           21 
 
           Drumond 
           2 miles 
 
           "Fair 
S. . .. . .... .. .. 8 8 . .. ... . . . 
 
 
58. 
 
 
Perch, , 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TLandlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Very soft 
 
 
Sc, 
 
 
Young - 
ýhardwood 
forezat 
 
Fair 
 
 
None, 
 
 
Bass No. 2 
 
20 - 21 
 
Druammond. 
3 miles. 
 
Fair 
 
 
48' 
 
 
L. MA. Bass 
Sunfish h. 
Perch - 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
very-soft 
 
 
Scarced 
 
 
i Yo1ng" 
 
forest+ 
 
Fc ir 
 
 
NJ >-2 1 
 
 
Bass No. 3   | 
 
15 - 16 
 
Drumxnoid 
4 miles     " 
 
Fair 
 
43 
 
 
49 
 
 
L. KM. ass 
-N -Pi,' W . ... 
Crapp'ie 
Sunfish .... 
Perchli 
-S.  M., ,B ss 
 
 
 
 
Outlet 
 
 
Green 
Ha rd 
 
 
and vwried 
 
Popple : 
brush 
 
 
,None 
 
 
None 
 
 
Bass No. 4  IFlynn 
 
15          . 30 
 
 
Drummond 
5 miles 
 
Fair 
-64 .. . ..  . 
 
 
24 
 
 
L. M. Bess 
N.Pike- 
Crappie 
Perch 
Bullhied, 
 
S. :M. Bass 
 
 
 
O outlet 
 
 
Brown 
HT rd 
 
 
 
 
Popple 
-brush 
 
 
Noneý 
 
 
Drumriond 
19 rni-es 
 
Fair 
 
74 
 
 
19 
 
 
Bass 
SunfishP 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
La-ndlocked.. 
 
 
Cle-ar 
Very soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Young oine 
and hard- 
wood forest 
 
None 
 
 
N one 
 
 
Millpond 
 
29 -32 
 
Drummond 
1 mile, 
 
Good 
 
80 ,. . 
 
 
17 
 
 
N. Pike-. 77- 
 
 
 
 
Crapnie 
Sunfish 
 
 
Outlet 
 
 
Green 
Medium 
 
 
ha rd 
 
 
Abundant, 
not vwried 
 
Young poopTl 
forest t.,nd 
*brushf ......... 
 
 
None 
 
None 
 
 
Perch 
 
5-8 
 
Drummond 
6 miles 
 
Difficult 
 
72ý 
 
 
36 
 
 
Bacss    ... 
Sunfish 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
CleSr 
 
 
Scaree 
 
 
Young 
ho, r d 
!forest., 
 
None- 
 
INone 
 
 
4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
Name of lake 
 
Lake in section 
 
Trading point 
and post office 
 
Accessibility 
 
Area in acres 
 
Maximum depth in ft. 
 
Game fish in 
lake now 
 
 
 
 
Fish suitnble 
for plenting 
 
 
Lake has outlet 
or is landlocked 
 
rater is 
 
 
Aqup tic vegetation 
 
 
Lend cover 
surrounding lake 
 
 
Swimming beaches- 
 
 
Seven         Star 
 
 
7 
 
Dr ur, moni 
5 miles 
 
Difficult 
 
80 
 
Not sounded 
 
No report 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Young 
ard" zod 
fore~st 
 
 
None 
 
 
9,. 0.1!,15 
 
Drun-mondt 
5 miles 
 
Fair 
 
320 
 
27 
 
L.& S. M. Bass 
N. Pike 
Crappie 
Sunfish 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
 
Inlet 
 
 
Cies r 
CKeCaum hrr1 
 
 
Abundant 
and v;-rieo 
 
Har'dtwood oitd 
roppfle br-sh 
 
 
IAlil 
 
 
T 45 N - R 8 
 
 
W 
 
 
T 45 N - R 9 W 
 
 
Pigeon 
 
26,27, 54,55 
 
Drummond 
4 mjiles 
 
Good 
 
150 
 
19 
 
Perch 
Rock Bass 
Crappie 
W. E. Pike 
L.& S. M. Bass 
 
 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Medium hard 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Young pine 
and hard- 
wood forest 
 
Fair 
 
 
Ellison 
 
 
 
Drummond 
15 miles 
 
Good 
 
95 
 
17 
 
L. M. Bass 
W. E. Pike 
Sunfish 
Perch 
 
 
L. M. Bass 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Medium hrard 
 
Abundant 
and varied 
 
Jack pine 
forest 
 
 
Good 
 
Good 
 
 
Good 
 
 
Island 
 
7,8,17,18 
 
Iron River 
16 miles 
 
Good 
 
11l 
 
47 
 
L. M. Bass 
Rock.. Bess 
Perch 
 
 
 
L. M. Bsss 
S. M. Bass 
Sunfish 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Pine 
forest 
 
 
Good 
 
 
vQfl            -- 
 
 
Tourist accommodation 
 
 
Non'e 
 
 
Kelly 
 
23,26 
 
Drummond 
10 miles 
 
Good 
 
56 
 
14 
 
L. M. Bass 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
None 
 
 
 
Lvnelocked 
 
 
Clear 
Very soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Young pine 
and popple 
forest 
 
 
I a./ %    i¸   
 
 
LGood, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Pil.:e       1 - t,-.tka,,kk 
 
 
 
-14 m        14. -iles 
 
 
S. . .. .....F -air. . ....- . :-, 
 
 
.          .. .... 
Perchki : 
 
 
 
 
.1 M.-Bass. 
S. M. :Bss 
 
 
.Landlocked., 
 
 
:Cltear' 
 
Me....r 
 
 
Oak .. uý3r. .... 
 
 
Town 40 North - RJnge 7 West 
 
 
Bass 
 
28,29 
 
 
Delta 
2 miles 
 
 
QQQd 
 
 
Fair... .... 
 
 
120 
 
 
 
Sunfish. 
Perch: 
 
 
 
 
L. - M. Bas 
 
 
 
    Indocked 
 
 
 Cleanr 
 .Medi ,. .... 
 
 IAbuicadrht 
 
 
 Oak .brush.. 
 
 
Spruce.... 
swamp and 
popple 
 
 
.F ir 
 
 
Nc.        I Dime         __   _______ 
 
 
Bull head 
 
8 
 
 
Deltv 
 
 
Poo r     o 
 
 
L   M, .B ss 
'. E. Pike 
 
Percoh 
 
 
..Keep..,pike... 
 
 
 
Landlocýked 
 
 
Cl ef,: r 
Very6soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
None 
 
 
ne 
 
 
Bullheid 
 
 
 
 
 
None,... 
 
 
 
Lnndlocked 
 
 
Very soft 
 
 
Sca'rce" 
 
 
Young. pine... 
and. hardwood 
forest 
 
 
None 
 
 
4 
 
 
Young. 
hardwood 
forest 
 
 
None 
 
 
Delta 
 
1.7918 
 
 
Camp-I 
  4~ 15 
 
Delta 
 
 
Diff'icult- 
 
64 
 
5 5 -.. 
 
L. M. Bess 
Sunfish .. 
Perch 
 
 
 
L. M. B-ss 
 
 
 
Inlet and 
jbutlet 
Brown 
Very, -sft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Good 
 
 
* ' , ' * ' .  * 
 
 
Young pine 
"and hvrdwood 
forest 
 
 
Good 
 
 
Ut.,~ nFa i r 
 
 
4 
 
 
A 
 
 
(rA 
 
 
very ii.iac. 
 
50 
 
56 
 
LK M. BPýs 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunfish 
 
 
 
Lnndlocked 
 
 
 
"Very, soft: 
 
S.rce    , 
 
 
272 
 
58 
 
BPS$ 
N., Pike 
W. E. Pike. 
Sunfish 
Perch 
 
Crappie 
 
 
 
Outlet 
 
 
clear 
Medium hsr     ' 
 
Abundant 
 
 
-L-L 
 
 
Good 
 
 
Ti r 
 
 
None. 
 
 
Delta 
 
 
Delta 
"l mile 
 
 
.?opple 
brush 
 
 
 
 
 
A 
 
 
#one 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
Name of lake 
 
Lake in section 
 
Trading point 
Pnd post office 
 
Accessibility 
 
Area. in acres 
 
Maximum depth in ft. 
 
Game fish in 
lake now 
 
 
 
 
Fish suitable 
for planting 
 
 
Lake has outlet 
or is landlocked 
 
Water is 
 
 
Aquatic vegetation 
 
 
Land cover 
surrounding lake 
 
 
Swimming beaches 
 
Tourlst aocommodcation 
 
 
Dollar 
 
8 
 
Delta 
1. 5 miles 
 
Fair 
 
6 
 
Not sound 4 
 
Bass 
Sunfis" 
 
 
 
 
None 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Brown 
Medium 
 
Abundant 
 
 
Young pine 
and hardwood 
forest 
 
None 
 
.-Fir 
 
 
Everett 
 
18 
 
Delta 
1 mile 
 
Good 
 
32 
50 
 
L. M. Bass 
N. Pike 
W. E. Pike 
Sunfish 
Perch 
 
L. M. Bass 
S. M. Bass 
 
 
La.nd9cked 
 
 
Clear 
Medium 
 
Abundrnt 
 
 
Pine- nd 
popple, 
forest 
 
Good     - 
 
Fair 
 
 
Kern 
 
27,54 
 
Delta 
4 miles 
 
Fair 
 
136 
 
14 
 
Bass 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
None 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Very soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Popple 
brush 
 
 
Fair 
 
Fair 
 
 
Long 
 
29 
 
Delta 
5 miles 
 
Fair 
 
80 
 
52 
 
Bass 
W. k. Pike 
Sunfish 
Perch 
 
 
S. M. Bass 
L. M. Bass 
Sunfish 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Medium 
 
Abundant 
 
 
Hemlock and 
hardwood 
forest 
 
Fair 
 
Fair 
 
 
Pantheon 
 
6 
 
Delta 
2 miles 
 
Difficult 
54 
 
58 
 
Bass 
N. Pike 
Sunfish 
Perch 
 
 
L. M. Brss 
S. M. Bass 
Sunfish 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Very soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Young pine 
and popple 
.forest 
 
Fair 
 
None 
 
 
Fair . 
 
Private    - 
 
 
Spring 
(private) 
19,20 
 
Delta 
2 miles 
 
Good 
 
214 
 
10 
 
Trout 
 
 
 
 
 
None 
 
 
 
Inlet and 
outlet, spring 
fed, fish hole 
Clear 
Medium hard 
 
Abundant 
 
 
Young pine 
and hardwood 
forest 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
In In a,  al W.  + ~4 
 
 
Ttowfl 45 iorrUn - -,    rI- 
 
 
      S.. ..iiBa swood . . 
 
 
 
S. . .       Delta- 
 
              5 miles 
 
     S.       Goo.- 
 
 
 
 
 
              Bpss 
              --N-. 'Pic 
              Sunfi~sh 
              Perch 
 
 
p 
 
 
  inlet and 
  butlet.. 
,,Spring fed 
 
  Medium bard 
 
  Ab,,dant 
 
 
Young 
hardwood 
 
 
-7 forest 
 
None 
 
 
Bell 
 
 
 
Del'ta" 
 
 
Fair < 
 
 
 
 
 
Bass 
N. -Pikte - 
Sunfish 
-Perc~h, 
 
 
L. M. Bass- 
Stnti~sh 
 
 
SLandlocked 
 
 
 
Very soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Hardwood 
ýbrush 
 
 
Good 
 
 
Canthook 
eHapi,1e) 
 
 
elta, 
7 miles 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bas" 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
SM. Bass 
SL 1M4 Bass. 
 
 
tdlocked 
 
 
-Clear 
Soft 
 
unfish 
 
 
 
LM. Bass 
S. M. Bass 
3unfish 
 
andockod. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Young pine 
and hardwoo 
forest 
 
Fair 
 
Fair 
 
 
lurry., 
 
 
 
.e..a-   - 
m.&ýles, 
 
Fair 
 
 
 
15, 
 
Bullhead 
NPxnch & Muskie 
Sunfih... 
Crappie 
U.& W.9. Pike 
L..& S.M. Bass 
W. E. Pike 
Crappie. 
Muskie 
 
pnlet Pand 
Outlet~ 
 
Clear-t -. 
Medium hard.', 
 
Abundfnt . 
 
 
Young pine 
and hardwood 
forest 
 
fair 
 
Fair 
 
 
Ai 77. 
 
 
Crappie 
Perhch 
 
 
Crappie 
 
 
Outlet 
 
Clear ... 
Medium hard 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Hardwood 
forest 
 
 
Fair 
 
 
5, mile' 
 
 
 
 
4o0d 
 
 
N--- 
 
 
BPss 
N. Pike 
 
 
Go-ed, 
 
 
OUT'le ý, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Name of lake          Swede        Trout 
 
 
Lake in section 
 
Tradingpoint.. 
and post .'Office 
 
AccessibITU'.,t.. 
 
Area in arfed; 
 
maximum, depth:in.. ft.. 
 
Gtowf fish in--. 
lake now 
 
 
 
 
Fish stittbl        . 
for ri6ltingt-I 
 
 
Loke ish o   Pt-ee .t : 
or is:, 1rdlked 
 
 
Water is 
 
 
Aquatic vegetation 
 
 
Lýnd aovoV' 
surrounding lake 
 
 
Siming- bekCheS- 
 
 
12 
 
e eta 
Fela. ir. ..... 
Fair  
 
48* 
 
20 . 
 
Sunfishb 
Roek Bpss . 
Pereh' 
 
 
Ti.ocBnss 
 
 
 
LaIorlockedý 
 
 
leyt 
Very. $oft, 
 
 
Stzrtce 
 
 
bHarduhod 
brush 
 
 
'Fair" 
 
 
Steel head) 
9 
 
Delta'.._.. 
6 miles 
 
 
 
 
  7." 
 
 
Basse !.... ..... 
PeroW 
 
 
   j, Brok 
 
 
 
 
 
t.rdldocked 
 
 
.Very. aoft 
 
 
Scar ce 
 
 
Hardwood, 
brush. 
 
 
None -. 
 
 
T-46 N -j{B_9 
 
East 8 Mile 
 
54 
 
Iron-,iver 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14  . j .   : 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   of pike 
LqQdl.remowkl 
 
Ltfdilo.Cked 
 
 
Clear t 
Soft 
 
 
sca-e! 
 
 
Y    R 7 1W 
 
 
leer Lodge 
 
2 
 
:ron River- 
.. miles 
 
0)ific~ilt 
 
 
 
 
 
U. M ' Bass 
 
'erch: 
 
 
 
Lr. M.ý Bass 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Very soft 
 
Sca~re, 
 
 
jaz'dwood 
brush 
 
 
None 
 
 
XXILb            Flar.L         oneLL                      qoe 
 
 
Snag 
 
19 
 
 
,10 ilesi . ... 
 
Fair 
 
 
 
 
 
Lý! vM Bass 
Perch - 
 
 
 
 
Liý M. Bass 
tunfish 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Very soft 
 
 
"birish 
 
None 
 
I None 
 
 
pider 
 
L5,22 
 
rPn River 
L4"miIt' 
Good 
 
26, ' 
 
 
 
U- M, Bass 
N. ,Pike.. 
W. E. Pike 
Perch- 
 
 
L.M. Boss 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Very soft 
9,"rce 
 
 
 
Firh 
 
Fa ir 
 
 
dr 
 
 
'n P 
 
 
ouriit 
    - 
 
 
N 
 
 
C e,ý,tr 
 
 
Cl1ear' 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
Tom l4T North -- Range 8 West 
 
 
Twin --ea 
 
 
,-.Tro.- " 
E..l- miles 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  L. Me Bass 
 
 
 
    Z  ;d~cked 
 
 
 
  Very soft 
 
 
      S#a " 
 
 
  axd ja6.c 
  pine fOrept 
  O.0: 4  :: :,: 
 
 
Wntv 
 
 
Angus 
 
 
Bass 
 
 
33 
 
 
aZ,-n River 
3 ,42Le ..... 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
L. Ii. 'Bass 
 
 
 
 
La Me, Bass 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
  Clear 
  Very,-soft- 
 
 
 
 
  Young oak 
.aad ja.k 
  pime- 'forest, 
 
  pair 
 
 
Bismarck 
 
 
1-9 - 30 
 
 
Iron River 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
Clear 
,Soft, 
-Scareb 
 
 
Young pine 
and hardwvood 
 
 
N~one- "- 
 
 
F air 
 
 
Bu.skoy 
 
 
aL - 
IrQ. River 
 
 
Cilea- 
 
1017 
 
 
spuc 
swamp a 
 
 
:roo ed.. 
 
 
2.-36 
 
 
195 5 
 
 
 
L3.. "    .Bass 
 
N. Pike 
 
Sunfish, Perch 
 
-AAY ge~w fi sh 
.istable for.. 
    WbR iver,-ý,- 
 
 OutlO-t 
 
 
 olear 
 
 
 
 
 
 .oung. pine. 
 ndlardwood 
   $cst 
 
 Goodi 
 
 
'ive 
 
 
>52 7- 
 
 
Iron'River. 
   Iates 
Fr~. r ...... 
 
1t75-- .. .. . 
 
NIot-Soune,. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Very'.: oft 
 
-Scarce 
 
 
Y otn pine 
,and haidwoo( 
.forest- 
 
None . 
AA , - . - 
loner- .: 
 
 
F124-2 
 
 
I 
 
 
i 
 
 
Iron. 1v-, -a 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Clear     . .. - 
Very sor t 
 
 
 
o, .:ug "p" 
azd& haj0'awd 
f6rest 
 
 
 
kone 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
X ie of, lake 
 
Lce .In. -sectit 
 
Trading point 
and post office 
 
Accessibility 
 
Atrea in acres 
 
 
 
Geaz fisla in . 
liIIe nowZr - 
 
 
 
!ish suitable 
for -planting' 
 
 
 
or is- t1ndlckvd 
 
Water i s 
 
 
AqWlac* vegetation 
 
 
LImd cover- 
 
 
Touri",t aceoma00dati on 
 
 
Long           Millicent 
 
 
Izo ný River 
 
U. miles 
 
Pair 
 
 
 
 
 
.r        -. Pike 
W.   fo riem 
Snnfish 
 
 
 
S.", M* Bass 
 
 
   I1doc~ked 
 
 
Cleax 
 
 
Abau~dntr 
 
 
Yo~ug oak a.A' 
pine forest 
 
 
21 - 22 
 
Iron River 
5 Jiles 
 
 
 
 
53 
 
 
 
La Ia 
 
 
 
-An game fish 
-dui tabl e for 
White'River 
 
.O~itlet 
 
 
_Cear_ 
Medium 
 
4ndt an       - 
 
 
fTtinig pine 
andi hardwood-- 
fcrest 
 
 
Good, 
 
 
Rath           Spider or 
    i          ialenhoff 
 
 
Moon 
 
17,18 
 
Iron River 
I mile 
 
 
 
 
 
19 
 
 
Perch 
 
 
 
   ~ .Bass 
 
Sunzfi sh 
 
dockued 
 
 
 
 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Young pine 
end PoppeIO 
1041est 
Exdea lent 
 
 
31 
 
Iron River 
6 miles    - ee 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3e ar 
Very scift--:,_.. 
 
Scarce 
 
Yug pine# 
 
 
l    ioced L . 
 
 
18,19,20 
 
Iron River 
3 miles 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ss M...ss 
N, Pi e   ;-./*:: 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
outlet 
 
 
Clear 
Id t 
 
Scarce 
 
 
you* popple,. 
jleclk pine,$* 
,cleared -Ind 
 
 
fl .' .-     - -      - 
 
 
Twin Bear 
 
33#3~4 
 
Iron FB±sr 
9 mile s 
 
Fair 
 
200 
 
 
 
Same As 
.Baskey 
 
 
 
See 
-_Buskoey 
 
 
Cutlet 
 
 
Qoar 
-Mdi~um bard 
 
Abuzdant 
 
 
Yquug pine 
Srhardwood 
$cost 
 
 
Fair 
 
 
4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
North - Re 9 West                                            T14&N-6I

 
 
Wiehe or 
  EBf1e 
 
 
Young rl'n2 
and h-f1_'iCr)Lw14 
forest 
 
Good 
, ,  , & ,  , , , 
 
 
tal 
 
 
LL s 
 
 
Iron :Id ve 
5 T 
 
Fair 
 
 
 
56 
 
Same as 
Millicent 
 
 
 
 
"Se e Ia .. 
 
 
 
Cu~tle4i  
 
 
Clear 
Med... L ba'rd 
 
OuAe'datt 
 
 
    -And 
rpC1O 
 
 
Deep 
 
 
io0- 
 
 
 
A. Pike 
W, E. Pike 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.A2jz~dant 
 
 
Iron 
 
 
Iron liver- 
3 n 
 
Good- 
 
 
,VL .. 2 -.- 
 
 
Le M. Bass 
N. Piloe 
Sunfish 
,Perch 
 
 
"L. M. Bass 
 
 
 
Ia,¶-aocked 
 
 
 
  0 -7 soft 
SSca ce . .. 
 
 
 
 
brush 
 
Good 
 
 
Pest house 
 
 
3 ifes 
 
 
 
2~40 
 
 
 
' i;Bass 
N. Pike 
Sunfish 
'Perch, 
 
 
L. M.: Bass 
 
 
 
Citldt.. 
 
 
Browm stain 
.-SQEV. 
 
Abundant.. 
 
 
 
popple 
for est 
 
Good--,- 
 
 
Sun or 
Hostrase r Is 
 
 
59 
 
 
 
L.M.   ass 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
* -, 4. Bass 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Cear 
  ,Very L-soft* 
  Scarc 
 
 
:Yojjtj pine, 
d Lexdwoo& 
onreot 
NVone 
 
 
Long- 
 
 
-                              I 
 
 
S miles 
 
 
5 iies. -; ... 
 
Fair 
 
"15. 
 
 
 
SCr a.i 
SL,. aCi sh 
Perch 
 
 
L. M. Bass 
 
 
 
Landlcoked 
 
 
 
   Viyg oft - 
 
,Scarceg 
 
 
Spopple. 
f or   . st 
 
 
$ 
 
 
* . .. . . . . . 
 
 
C) .. . -i n.     9_' West 
 
 
,,r ,  ...j 
 
 
,            "                   I 
 
 
_ 111- .. .. . .  - ... . ... . 
 
 
T 49 N - R 6 It 
 
 
I 
 
 
14 f1 
 
 
I..: ; .. 
 
 
23, 5 
 
 
_19, 
  -1 8 .. ... .,-. ..... . 
 
  L. Me. Bpss.p 
  Sunfish 
  Perch 
 
 
 
  L. M.; Bas '  - 
  S. M. Bass 
 
 
 
 
 
  Cloar. 
 
 
  Scarce 
 
  "!o."k.." :- ...: 
  andjack pine 
 
0fore t - , I '' 
 
 
IT "M 
 
 
f'oed" 
 
 
Good 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
N ame of lako 
 
Lake in section 
 
Trading point 
and post office 
 
Acces sibility' 
 
Area in acres.' 
 
Maxia    de pthe in ft. 
 
Gam   fshtun 
lake now 
 
 
 
 
Wish-suitable 
for stlanting 
 
 
Lake- has outlet-__ 
or is lamMd1'cked 
 
Water is 
 
 
Aquatic Vegetation 
 
 
..,land cover 
su~rrounding-lake 
 
 
Swimming, becE~s 
 
Tourist accommodation 
 
 
Toung pine 
forest 
 
 
Good 
 
None 
 
 
T 44$ N - R -7 T 
 
Bladder 
 
31 
 
Iron River 
$ mile a 
 
Tair 
 
 
 
 
 
L' M.' Bass 
 
Perch, 
 
 
 
Lo Me Bass 
 
 
 
Ijandl cked 
 
Clear 
Very -sft t 
 
Scare 
 
 
Twin 1ake 
 
36 
 
Washburn 
10 -miles 
 
 
 
70. 
 
 
 
 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
Lo I.Bass 
S. Mo -Bass 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear,  , 
 
 
 
 
 
Young. pine fZi- 
and -hardwood 
bnrsh 
 
 
None 
 
 
-Young 
popple 
-fatest 
 
 
None . 
 
Sone 
 
 
,T_ 50 N - R,6 w 
 
 
Lenewee 
 
21ý 
 
Iron liv er 
15.-miles 
 
Fair~ 
 
 
 
23.- 
 
t;: . Bass 
SoxTish 
Perch 
 
 
 
  LoIS Bas s 
 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
Clear 
V&ry scf t 
 
Scarce 
 
 
hardwood 
forest 
 
 
None 
 
None 
 
 
Perch 
 
 
 
Cornucopia 
5 miles 
Fair 
 
 
 
 
 
L.t. i Bass 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
L. 11 Bass 
Sunfish 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
Very soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
Young hardwood. 
-forest -and 
sDrace Swe=m) 
 
 
Good 
 
Good. 
 
 
Siskowit 
 
20,21 
 
Cornucopi.     . 
6 miles 
46od...; 
 
336 
 
 
 
X.,IS. Bass 
Perch 
 
 
 
 
L9 Ma Bass 
Sunfish 
 
 
Slight 
drainage 
Brown stain 
,Very soft 
 
Scarce 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
LOD FOR IMCBRATION- 
 
 
      Land belongs to all the people. Where great groups of pe6ople moveA
intoci-ties t work, they soon 
 begin to real e.- a   opothing.within. tbimis .calling-1forland. - It,.may-not.
be for the same king. of 
 land, but the call is, there. The rippling brook of childhood- beckons for
a ret "with "od and fly to 
 match wits with the wary -rout. The chattering sqtirrel in his forest haunts
gathering his winter's 
 food, is ever a lure to small boys wha seek his storage of nuts, and grown
men sometimes with guns 
 challenge his right to.,the. lad. ".'.The buadding willows by the road
side-to-the-family- Itak&ng a ride" 
 announce that spring has returned. Theo hiker seekg-thd :--ways with vine
grown fences and7 friendly 
 birds. Even chipmunks are friendlyr tosuch places.:. Cth.rs seek the high
lands where sight has faf 
 range. The clouds and the shimmering haze over distat fields, thý
cattle in the pastureos and fields 
 of growing grain are, restful to the eyes, that daily' 6tnre at columns
of figures, black and often red; 
 or in the grimy noir factory tire-keeping machines working and materials
in place. - -Sme 'distant lakes 
 the home of the loon, calls alikew' the family from the densely populated
city and isolate& farm, It is 
 their lake for the day. The row boat .carries young.-and old over the rippling
waters. Some follow the 
 loon; others row to ,he beds of ,Imase:i, weeds; and why? Youth auimaiden
seek the 'lily beds, where 
 immaculate blossoms of pure creaW. white ride the water*s As the sun slowly
drops from-sight aZd the 
 twilight deepens over the lilies,.the trumpet note of the bronzed 'X-rog
on a nearby.. lily pA, announces 
 that this is his hoe, and the lovers tzlk of their home which is .yet to
be. What is this-, but recrea- 
 tion of that in the lives of people, which combined, these people cherish,
almost a' -uch a's life itself. 
     The past century has led to a deniided landscape, erosion by wind and
water, a lowered water table, 
 streams and lakes drying up, and. the gmwral disturbance, of plant and animal
life. The- r6cent years have 
 sobered people, so that now we .re'not: .thinking of :taking and destroying
but of conseerig and improving#, 
 and public jorests in Wisconsin where -ttck trails, fire towerd, and telephone
systemsi-ow malm it 
 possible to conserve against fire; rescaie fish stranded-by, floods .in
bayous and. ,wales#..ýaj with hay 
 and grain, protect deer and birds- from-he rigors of, severe cold and deep
snow, are restoring our 
 recreational lands.                                     - 
     We are nw-boccibmaniti"gtelli      l    -sbf ttre  r ei   6inI
 I   W  -   iiio0ecreational 
land use, todayAy                                           a jp1Ie th -h1~~i
J d h63er habi'rea iis-conzerved and 
managed by maii and kept" at its best-. ITh  s s'ow beii  dono in Bayfield
County. 
                                           -      -JFORESTS ANID L.AKES,

     The importance of a forzest cover in - lake region, an not be over emphasized*.,
becaus#. it makes the 
lake region more attractive for ca   . az4 le.sene' the. evaporation ot..water,
.ths- inrea i the supply for 
        _game#. ands les spne the evprtono...r'                         
        n    6 *U 
lakes.  This is particularly true in sandy regions, where many lakes have-driled
up. enti-rly. The thousands 
of lakes remaining in Minnesota, Wiscqnsn and MichMoffer a variety of environments
for fish and game. 
Observation of dacks on lakes indicate that the presence of cover, such as
sedges, rushes and wild rice is 
as important for attracting ducks as is food. Some aquatic plants such as
wild rice furnish both food and 
protection. Many lakes possessing abundant duck foods, such as the numerous
pond woods are not good duck 
lakes because these plants do not furnish the necessary cover. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
          Lake improvement work on the following lakes in Bayfield County
is reported 
 
   _  by State wid Yedral lake.' Improvement Agencies., 
 
      ......... ..oved Sect on .,T wn an.d ý I a                .
...ltP 
 
 
      .. ... .. . .. . .                 16.- "  BB     .    , ..  -

      R".th              . 31"_La4 N. 1      -101.. ..: - -.0 "
. 
 
      SJe        "Lakb 14 ... .. . -  . ..   go-  22  3. . 
. .                   23                     125, 73 .250. 
     * .ý e                   4N3q 7w  *.2 
            ..4W'' -34 
 
      Twi Be5                            26  ,125:15 
 
 
          -...4.. ..                   ' 21  .3-. T.' 2- m 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 - .   - .. S  wJn -,ig e  . . ... . . -.jii:  p t stiobam ir r V om e u
Flork . hou 
            Nam-k'go   :6     41N : "v   -8 - -40- 
          Sso-2              -4~d        1o6,sosi.- 
                                5Y  7-W. 
                       UpperEau laii65N 9 
 
  

					
				
				
              .BAYFIEID- COUNTY 
 
See "Deer Hunting in Bayfield County."  Irven 0. Buss. 
Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin, February, 1911. 
Vol. VI, No. 2. pp. 27-29 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T. 51N. R.frjW.- 1928. 
 
 
- T51N R7W 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   IV,- 
 
 
4' 
 
 
                                                Legend 
     Upad      FEwl-d- 
 
                                          O      Mile        I 
   -   Land   Cover   -                                         I 
   --Cover Boundor4 A4-Tog-alderWillow,  -  Roads and Improvements -    
      --Shore I 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc.                                     'W'
BogShoi 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh          Improved Gravel, or        I-E--
Strand 
BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow           Crushed Stone Road           
 Bonk Ii 
   some Conifers D4.Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road          ,
Flat,du 
CI-Popple withsome Bog                     Unimproved Dirt Road         
  wide.e 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn       ....-Trail     Il School          St-Shoal

0l-Scrub-oak(most- O-Open Land (No    Occupied House *JRural Church     G
-Shoal 
   IlScarlet)and   forest growth)    DUnoccupied House VPost Office     B
-Shoal 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm    rSurnmer Home  *ISummer Hotel      C
- Shoal 
El- R n-cherrg     Crop Land         ' TelephoneLine _-_ Power Line     Y
-Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land    +k++ Railroad  -:'L Along Road     b-Shoal

   Hardwoods      with stumps       - - -÷ Abandoned Railroad    
      R -Shoal 
BZ-White Pine   PP-Permanent Posture A Fire Tower   c Saw Mill 
C2-Norwa4 Pine  AP-Stump Pasture    U Rural Store  ICreameru            -
 Aqua! 
DO-.TacK Pine   CO-Urbon Propertl;    Logging Camp it Cheese Factorg    P-Plonkt

A3-BlacKAshMape f-Commercial Ordhrd                                    SA-Submer

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbatWon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   F'P-Duckwe

B3-White Cedar     edFarm Land      o-3  A                             SP-Submei

C-Tamrack         n    of Stand     36Dameter Class 
                Density              6-1Z for Area, in Inches.         EP-Rooted

O3-Spruceoko Waik] Fair Mi~um 1gr   Etc.)                               
  or Eme 
                        WsDc0pt-of Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol.
and Nat. Historqj SorveN. 
 
 
N 
 
 
mad          Lae  and 
ban L. rid pin  Pod 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
Line    L - Lake 
re Line  P- Beaver Pond 
loft.wide -[. Bathing Beach 
Oft, highle- 
e to water recession 75ft 
3ank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, GravellJ 
Bottom, Stony 
 
tic Veqetation - 
on (Lake Blooming) 
ged Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rged Pondweeds 
lWater Plants with floamnc 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.N.R.5W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
LCqnliU 
 
 
oetwland 
Fores  I I  Forest j 
 
 
SLand  Cover 
 
 
.. -Cover Boundarl 
Al-Hordwood w;th 
   some Basswood 
 B1-Hardwood with 
   some Conifers 
 C1-Popple with some 
   White Birch 
 DI-Scrub-oak (nost- 
    1qScarlet) and 
    some Red Maple 
 EI-Pin- cherry 
 AZ-Hemlock with 
   Hardwoods 
 5?2-White Pine 
 C2-Norwoy Pine 
 DZ-3aeK Pine 
 A3-Black Ash, Maple 
    and Elm 
 53-White Cedar 
 C3-Tamaraook 
 03-SpruceElnowatdi- 
 
 
A4-Tog-alder.Willow, 
   Red Dogwood, etc. 
B4-Cat-tail Marsh 
C4-Grass Meadow 
DILeather Leaf 
   Bog 
DS-Recent Burn 
O-Open Land (No 
   forest growth) 
C- Cleared Farm 
   Crop Land 
C-Farm Crop Land 
   with stumps 
PP-Permaofent Posture 
aP-Stump Pasture 
CY-Urban Propertj 
I'-Commercial Orchard 
A-Idle orAbandon- 
   ed Farm Land 
Densitg of Stand 
Fair Medium Poor 
 
 
       0      Mile 
 
-Roads and Improven 
 
-        Improved Gravel 
        Crushed Stone R 
        Improved Dirt F 
        Unimproved Dirt 
        Trail    i Schoo 
 l Occupied House  Rural C 
 0 Unoccupied House  Post Of 
 GlSummer Home   6Summer 
     Telephone Line s-s- Powe 
 +4.+ Railroad  12*5 Alor 
 - - - Abandoned Railroad 
 A Fire Tower   ic Sw M 
    Rural Store I pCreamn 
 * Logcjing Camp F8Cheese 
 
 Diameter Classes of Forest 
 3-b 6 Average Diameter C 
 6-Ez ( for Area, in Inches. 
 Etc .. 
 
 
Wisc.Deptof Agriculture in cooperation with the 
 
 
nents 
Sor 
oad 
Road 
Road 
 
hurch 
fice 
Hotel 
r Line 
ig Road 
1ill 
 
Facto rg 
 
Cover 
loss 
 
 
-  Lake Mapping - 
 
 
-nore Line       L-LaKe 
 
 
-Shore L ine,     L. - La ke. 
-- BogShore Line BP- Beaver Pond 
Az_ Strand lOft.wide -1-w Bathing Beach 
.0 
'- Bank toft.high 
,Z9 Flatdue to water recession 75ft, 
    wide. Bank loft. high. 
St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
G -Shoal Bottom  of Marl 
B-Shoal Bottom   of Muck 
C - hoal Bottom  of Clao 
Y-Shoal Bottom   of Sand 
b -Shoal Bottom, Gravellh 
R-Shoal Bottom, Stong 
 
-   Aquatic Vegetation 
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
SA-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
SP-Submerged PondWeeds 
EP- Rooted Water Plants with floating 
    or Emerqed Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
Geol. and Hat. History Survey. 
 
 
I,' 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
J   &       d 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.52N.R;W. - 1928. 
 
 
T5IN R3W 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
       T52N R3W 
          Sec,31 
 
          NUPLAKE 
            f~SUPERIOR 
 
 
I, 
 
 
  LAKE 
 
SUPERIOR 
 
 
                 I' 
 
k 
 
 
    Upad FT  nd 
               FForest 
 
-Land Cover - 
 
 
"* *-L~over tiounolaryj 
Al-Hardwood with 
   some Basswood 
 BI-Hardwood with 
   some Conifers 
 CI-Popple with some 
   White Birch 
 DI-Scrub-oak (mst- 
   I4 Scarlet) and 
   some Red Maple 
El-Pin- cherry 
AZ-Hemlock with 
   Hardwoods 
82-White Pine 
C2-Norwaj Pine 
D2-3Jack Pine 
A3-Black Ash, Maple 
   and Elm 
B3-Wh'te Cedar 
C3-Tamaraek 
03-Sorulee[i=uat wk1 
 
 
o      Mile 
    I, 
 
 
A*-Taq-alder-,Willow, - Roads and Improvements -       -  S--Shore I 
   Red Oogwood, etc, .                                    Bo4Sho, 
B4-Cat-tail Marsh           I Improved Gravel, or      112- Strand 
C4-Grass Meadow            Crushed Stone Road          ýt  Bank IC

D4.Leather Leaf             Improved Dirt Road         _1 Flat, du 
   Bag                     Uhimproved Dirt Road           wide. E 
DS-Recent Burn      ----    Trail   i School           St-Shoal 
O-Open Land (No      IOccupied House *Rural Church     G -Shoal 
   forest growth)    OUnoccopied House iPost Office    B -Shoal 
C- Cleared Farm      12Summer Home  GISummer Hotel     C -Shoal 
   Crop Land         'Telephone Line    Power Line      Y-Shoal 
3A-Farm Crop Land    4+-+ Railroad -=*= Alongj Road     b -Shoal 
   with stumps      - - - Abandoned Railroad            R -Shoal 
PP-Permanent P6oture A Fire Tower        Saw Mill 
dP-Stump Pasture    I Rural Store  IeCreamerg         -   Aqual 
CV-Urban Propert4j  * Logging Camp IICheese Factory         P-Planktc 
Y( Commercial Orchard                                  SA-Submen 
A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover       FP-Duckwei 
   ed Farm Land     0-3 'PSum 
Density of Stand    3-6  Average Diameter Class       SP-Submer 
                    6-IZ (for Area, in Inches.         EP- Rooted 
Fuuir Medi.m d ...n  t. .. * Iil 
 
 
Wisce.Uptof Agric ulture in cooperation with the Geol. and Nat Historij 5urver.

 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
Line    L - Lake 
re Line tBP- Beaver Pond 
lOft.widel-e- Bathing Beach 
Oft.high 
e to water recession 75ft 
sank l0ft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stony 
 
.ic Vegetation - 
on (Lake Bloomning 
ed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rged Pondweeds 
Water Plants with floating 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
T5ZN R4W 
 
 
N 
 
 
K 
 
 
I 
 
 
Fcir 
  Ur 
 
 
I         - 
 
 
A  I t i t J                   r 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO.. WISCONSIN. 
 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.,51;N.R.4W. - 1928. 
 
 
                                              Le9ena 
  Lowlnnd                                                               
                       a n 
5Tlr at     I Frs                                               Vm      
  ~bnLn                bd 
 
 
                                          0      Mile        I 
   -   Land   Cover    - 
 .-CoverBoundar4 A4-Tag-alder Willow,  -  Roads and Improvements -      
      - Shore 
 At-Hardwood with Red Dogwood, etc-                                    w
 BogShor 
 some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh           Improved Gravel, or         -.-
Strand 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow          Crushed Stone Road           0
Bank to 
   some Conifers D4,Leather Leaf           Improved Dirt Road           
 Flaatdu 
CI-Pipple withsome Bog                     Unimproved Dirt Road         
  wide. E 
  White Birch   D5-Recent Burn      --  -  Trail   i School            St-Shoal

DI-Scrub-ook(rost- O-Open Land (No  iOccupied House JRural Church       
  G -Shoal 
   Iy9corlet)and  forest growth)    DUnoccupied House VFPost Office     B
-Shoal 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm   Q*Surnmer Home Q Summer Hotel       C
-Shoal 
El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land            - Telephone Line I-=- Pbwer Line Y-Shoal

AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   4w+ Railroad   e    Along Road      b
-Shodl 
   Hardwoods      with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad            R-Shoal

B2-Wh ite Pine PP-PNrnanent Pasture t Fre Tower    l Saw Mill 
CU-Norwag Pine AP-Stump Posture     0 Rural Store  IlCreamerg          -
 Aquag 
DE-TacK Pine   CV-Urbon Propertjj   * Logging Camp INCheese Factorg     P-Planktt

A3-BlackAsh, Maple 'f-Commercial Orchard                               SA-Submeri

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   FP-Duckwe

83-White Cedar    ed Form Land      0-3                                S-um

                                    3-6  Average Diameter Class        SP-Submer

CQ-Tamarack     Density of Stand    6-1Z for Area, in Inches.          EP-
Rooted 
03-Sprucet" whab] Failr MSeum Wr   lit..)                          
     or Eme 
                        Wiscept.of Agriculture in cooperotion with the Geol.
end Nat. Hi'storg 5urve. 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
Line    L- Lake 
e Line BP- Beaver Pond 
lOftwide l-e- Bathing Beach 
ft.high I 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank lOft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clav 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stony 
tic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
Jed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rged Pondweeds 
S*ter Plants with floating 
rgjd Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
'I 
 
 
K 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY--BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.50N. R.6W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
I) 
 
 
11% 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
F-Gp-onF Lwad 
 
 
   - Land Cover - 
-.-Cover Boundargj A4-Tag-aldertWllow, 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Oogwood, etc- 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail harsh 
 EI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow 
   some Conifers D4Leather Leaf 
 C1-Popple with some  Bog 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn 
 DI-Scrub-oak(nost- O-Open Land (No 
   IjScorlet)and   forest growth) 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm 
 El-Pin-cherrig    Crop Land 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land 
   Hardwoods       with stumps 
 BZ-White Pine  PP-Perm.nent P'sture 
 C2-Norwaoj Pine AP-Stump Pastur 
 DZ-3acK Pine.  CY-Urban Propert4 
 A3-BlickAsh,Maple I-Commercmil Orchdrd 
   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon- 
 B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land 
 C3-Tamarack    Densitg of Stand 
 D3-Spnxefwosbtik= l Fair M   lum Pr 
 
 
       0     Mile       I 
-Roads and Improvements- 
z       Improved Gravel, or 
        Crushed Stone Road 
        Improved Dirt Road 
        Unimproved Dirt Road 
 - - -  Trail   i School 
 mOccupied House 6 Rural Church 
 DUnoccuped House qPost Office 
 1S nmer Home  USummer Hotel 
 ' Telephone Line =-- Power Line 
 SRailroad        - Along Road 
 .    Abandoned Railroad 
 A Fire Tower   i-.Saw Mill 
 1 Rural Store Ij Creamern 
 A Logging Camp wICheese raotorqj 
 
 Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
 °-6  Average Diameter Class 
 6-Eti1 for Area, in Inches. 
 Ltc.. ) 
 
 
SLakes and     I 
      Ponds 
 
 
      - Lake Mapping- 
- Shore Line     L- Lake 
W BogShore Line BP- Beaver Pond 
AE- Strand lOft.wide --w Bathing Beach 
to 
ý Bank oft. high 
,- Flat,due to water recession 75ft 
    wide. Bank loft, high. 
St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
G -Shoal Bottom  of Marl 
B -Shoal Bottom  of Muck 
C -Shoal Bottom  of Clao 
Y - Shoal Bottom of Sand 
b -Shoal Bottom, Gravelkj 
R-ýhoal Bottom, Starn 
 
-   Aquatic Vegetation 
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
SA-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
SP-Submerged Pondweeds 
EP-Rooted Water Plants with floatim 
    or Emerged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY - BAYFIELIJ CO.. WISCONSIN. 
 
 
rnpr qT AKin rnpM rn\/FR MAP - Tr kAl RP r/ -  IQ7R 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
SL-a-ke-s and7_ 
   I   PondsI 
 
 
                                           0      Mile        I 
   SLand       Cover- -                                                 
             - 
"-.-CoverBoundaroj A4-To9-alderWillow,  - Roads    and Improvements
          *-Shore I 
Al-Hardwood with   Red Dogwood, ett.                                    4W
BogShoi 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh   Z       Improved Grovel, or        
t- Strand 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow           Crushed Stone Road          -
Bank II 
   some Conifers D0-Leorther Leaf           Improved Dirt Road          
   Flat,ldu 
 CI-Pepple withsome Bog9                    Unimproved Dirt Road        
   wide.E 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn       - - -  Trail    lI School          
St- Shoal 
 DI-Scrub-oak(most- O-Open Land (No  IlOccupied House JRural Church     
G -Shoal 
   1lScarlet)and   forest growth)    DUnoccupied House ViPst Office     
B -Shoal 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Form     WISummer Home  Gl Summer Hotel    
C - Shoal 
 El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land          'Telephone Line -  Power Line     
 Y - Shoal 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   4++4++ Railroad     Along Road     
b -Shoal 
   Hardwoods       with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad           
R-Shoal 
 B2-White Pine  PP-Permanent Pasture A Fire Tower   I*-Saw Mill 
 CZ-Norwag Pine AP-Stump Pasture     U Rural Store IrCreamern           
-  Aquai 
 DZ-JacK Pine   CV-Urban Propertg    * Logging Camp IJCheese Factorg    
P-Plankt 
 AM-BlackAshMaple I'-Commercial Orchard                                 
SA-Submer 
   and Elm      A-IdleorAbandon-     Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   
FP-Duckwe 
B3-White Cedar     ed Farm Land      0-3                                SP-Subme

3-Tamaraek       Oensit4 of Stand    3-6  Average Diameter Class 
C3-Tarucem~ora   Dnst o     t        6-lZ for Area, in Inches.          
EP-Rooted 
D3-Spru.noLe   ] Fair Mjum  .r       Etc-                               
   or Eme 
                        WiscDept o Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol.
and riot. Historg Surveg. 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
Lne     L -Lake 
re Line BP- Beaver Pond 
10ft.wide -9- Bathing Beach 
ft. high 
'e to water recession 75ft 
3ank loft. high, 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck. 
Bottom of Clau 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravellg 
Bottom, Stong 
tic Veqet ation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
ged Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rg ed Pondweeds 
\ Water Plants with floiainc 
rged Sterns and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
IT__1 Id__ 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
TL 
 
 
P] FF-d,. 
      I Ur 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.5ON.R.1W - 1928. 
 
 
o, 03 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
0      Mile     I 
 
 
"-'.-Cover BoundarJ A4-Taq-aldertWiltow,  - Roads  and Improvements
-            Shore 
At-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc.                                    -ow
Bo9Shol 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh  Z      Improved Gravel, or         2P-
Strand 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow         Crushed Stone Road           1
 Bank I1 
   some Conifers D04Leather Leaf           Improved Dirt Road          1.9,
Flat,du 
CI-Pepple with some BoS             ==== Unimproved Dirt Road           
 wide. 8 
   White Birch D5-Recent Burn              Trail   lI .chool          St-Shoal

OI-Scrub-oak(nost- 0-Open Land (No  NOccupied House iRural Church      G
-Shoal 
   1yscarlet)and  forest growth)    DUnoccupied House Post Office      B
-Shoal 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm   GISummer Home  Q Summer Hotel      C
- Shoal 
El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land         A  Telephone Line  Power Line     Y -
Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   '+ Railroad    -a*u Along Road     b
-Shoal 
   Hardwoods      with stumps       . . . Abandoned Railroad           R
-Shoal 
B2-White Pine  PP-Permonent Fsture  As Fire Tower l-- Saw Mill 
                                         5 Ca 
CZ-Norwag Pine AP-Stump Pasture     U Rural Store IMCreamerg           -
Aqual 
D0-3acK Pine   CV-Urban Property 4    Logging Camp i.Cheese Factory    P-Plankt,

A3-SlackAshiMaple Y-Commercial Orchard                                SA-Submen

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover  FP-Ouckwe

B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land      0-3  Averae Diameter Class        SP-Subme

CS-Tomaraek     Den~itgof Stand     3-6 
                ZDensity                 for Area, in Inches.         EP-Rooted

03-Sporuce[lstl. o Fair Medmm P     Et.r For F 
 
 
Wisc.Detof Agriculture in tooperation with the Geol. and Nat. Historq Surveq.

 
 
ILakes and 
.     Ponds 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
.ine   IL-Lbake 
e Line LP- Beaver Pond 
iOft.wide[- -w Bathing Beach 
oft. high 1 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank loft. hiqh. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stonv 
.ic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
Jed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rged Pondweeds 
#a*ter Pants with floating 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
ii.. 
 
 
) 
 
 
Lowland 
    Forest 
 
 
-   Land Cover-                                I . - 
 
 
'I 
 
 
I 
 
 
If, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.49N.R.9W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
                                           Legend 
 
I               Forest         -             -              Snnds 
 
 
                                         0     Mile        I 
   -   Land Cover - 
"-"-Cover Boundarg A4-Togj-alderWillow,  --Roads   and   Improvements
-         - Shore L 
Al-Hardwood with  RedDogwood, etc.                                   __W
BogShor 
  some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh         Improved Gravel, or        -ti-
Strand 
  BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow        Crushed Stone Road         ý
  Bank 10 
  some Conifers D4-Leather Leaf           Improved Dirt Road          Z9
Flat,du 
CI-Popple with some Bog                   Unimproved Dirt Road          
wide. 8 
   White Birch OS-Recent Burn      ----   Trail   iI School          St-Shoal

 Dl-Scrub-oak(nost- O-Open Land (No       mOcizupied House lRural Church
        G -Shoal 
   IqjScrarlet)and forest growth)   OUnoccupied House RPbst Office    B -Shoal

   somen Red Maple C- Cleared Form GSummer Home   GSoSummer Hotel     C -
Shoal 
El-Pin-cherrij    Crop Land           Telephone Line - Pbwer Line    Y -
Shoal 
AZ'Hemlock with CA-Farrn Crop Land +   Railroad   J   Along Road      b -Shoal

   Hardwoods      with stumps      - - - Abandoned Railroad           R-Shoal

BZ-White Pine  PP-Permanent Pasture A Fire Tower    Saw Mill 
CZ-Norwaq Pine AP-Stump Pasture    U Rural Store  P =Creamery         - Aquat

D0-JacK Pine   CV-Urbon Propertj   * Logging Camp ICheese Factory     P-Planktc

A3-BlacKAsh, Maple Y'-Commercial Orchdrd                             SA-Submern

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbdndon-  Diameter Cldsses of Forest Cover  FP-Duckwe

B3'White Cedar    ed Farm Land     0-3  Averae Diameter Class 
C3-Tarnaraok    Densitof Stand     3-6     rP-SRomed 
D3-T   aruc      ensityl Mack)nd    6-1Z for Area, in Inches.        EP-Rooted

D3-Spnuceoouudi] Fair Medium Poor   -to.)                               or
Eme 
                       wtisc.Dept of Agricultre in cooperation with the Goel,
and Not. Histori .Surveg. 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
Line   L- Lake 
re Line BP- Beaver Pond 
lOft.wido -  Bathing Beach 
ft. high 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank l0ft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stony 
tic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
Jed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
-ged Pondweeds 
\,*ter Plants with floating 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
) 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.49N. R.6W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
                                               Leglend 
'F_     -IFLE1ad               -   - 
 
 
   - Land Cover - 
"-'-Cover Boundaro  A4-Tog-aldeWillow, 
Al-Hardwood with   Red Dogwood, etc.. 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh 
BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow 
   some Conifers D04Leather Leaf 
CI-Popple with some Bog 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn 
DI-Scrub-oak(nost- O-Open Land (No 
   lScorlet)and    forest growth) 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm 
 
 
El-Rn-cherry 
AZ-Hemlock with 
   Hardwoods 
82-White Pine 
C2-Norwaq Pine 
DZ-Jack Pine 
A3-Black Ash, Maple 
   and Elm 
B3-White Cedar 
C.3-Tamnarack 
03-Spruiaii"hIwk) 
 
 
   Crop Land 
A-Frarm Crop Land 
   with stumps 
PP-Permoment Posture 
AP-Stump Fsture 
CV-Urban Propert4 
'l'-Commerciel Orcherd 
A-Idle orAbcandon- 
   ed Farm Land 
Densit, of Stand 
Fair Medium Poor 
 
 
       0      Mile        I 
 
-Roads and Improvements - 
        Improved Gravel, or 
        Crushed Stone Road 
        Improved Dirt Road 
        Unimproved Dirt Road 
 - ....Trail II School 
 IOccupied House 3 Rural Church 
 Unoccupied House  Post Office 
 *Sumrnez Home     Summer Hotel 
 '  Telephone Line I Power Line 
 EM,+ Railroad   2±-0 Along Road 
 - - - Abandoned Railroad 
 A Fire Tower   l* Saw Mill 
 * Rural Store  liCreamer4 
 : Logging Camp MiCheese Factorj 
 
 Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
 0-3 
 3-6  Average Diameter Class 
 6-iz (for Area, in Inches. 
 Etc.. 
 
 
FLakes and 7 
1      Ponds 
 
 
-Shore L 
-,,w BogShor 
-*0- Strand I 
SBank 10 
SFlat,dui 
    wide. B 
St- Shoal 
G -Shoal 
B -Shoal 
C -Shoal 
Y - Shoal 
b -Shoal 
R -Shoal I 
 
- Aquat 
P-Plankto 
SA-Submerq 
FP-Duckwee 
S P- Su bner 
EP- Rooted 
    or Emei 
 
 
Wis.Dept, of Agriculture in cooperotion with the Geol. end Not, Historq Surve4.

 
 
Lake Mapping- 
ine    IL-Lake 
e Line BP- Beaver Pond 
Oft.wide['..r Bathing Beach 
fL high 
e to water recession 75ft 
ank loft.hiqh. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clay 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stony 
 
ic Veqetation 
n (Lake Blooming) 
ed Aljal Vegetation 
Id and like Plants 
ged Pondweeds 
Water Plants with floating 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
K 
 
 
ii 
 
 
I 
 
 
I' 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.49N. R.5. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
/i 
 
 
K 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
                                       0      Mile      I 
SLand Cover                                    Y- 
 
 
.-L-overuounaargj AR-iag-oiaerw, wH1ow,  - Roads  and Improvements      
-      Shore 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc.                                    Pw
BogShor 
  some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh      -   Improved Gravel, or         t-
Strand 
B1-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow           Crushed Stone Road           
Bank 10 
  some Conifers D4,Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road           
Flat,du 
Cl-Popple withsome Bog              === = Unimproved Dirt Road          
  wide. B 
  White Birch   DS-Recent Burn       -     Trail     School           St-Shoal

DI-Scrub-oak(most- 0-Open Land (No  111Occupted House Rftural Church   G
-Shoal 
   ly5cartet)and  forest growth)    r'1Unoccupied House VPost Office    B
-Shoal 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm   0 uSmmer Home  Q Summer Hotel       C
- Shoal 
El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land          ' TelephoneLine =-=" Power Line
   Y - Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with Ct-Farm Crop Land   *i. Railroad   e-"'e Along Road
    b -Shoal 
   Hardwoods      with stumps       ",-++ Abandoned Railroad       
    R-Shoal I 
82-White Pine  PP-Permnahent Ptsture A Fire Tower    Saw Mill 
                                    3                         1 
CU-Norwaij Pine AP-Stump Posture    U Rural 5tore  IUCreamerq,         -
 Aqual 
DZ-3acK Pine    CV-Urban PrFpert4j  * Logginq Camp I ECheese Factorj    P-Plankto

A3-Black Ash, Maple 'r-Cominercial orchord                             SA-Submen

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbaldon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   FP-Duckwe;

B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land      0-3 ý Average                
     SP-Submer 
C3-Tomaraek     Ontqof Stand        3-6  AeaeDiameter Class            E-Roe

3-TDensityo                t        6-1Z (for Area, in Inches.         EP-
Rooted 
O3-Sprce~w.lietl Fair Medium Poor   ctc.                                
 or Eme 
 
 
ad        Laends 
 
 
Lake Mapping 
ine     L- Lake 
'e Line IBP- Beaver Pond 
lOft.wideI.- Bathing Beach 
ft. high 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelltj 
Bottom, Stony 
 
it  Vegetation 
in (Lake Blooming) 
3ed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
'ged Pondweeds 
%*ater Plants with floating 
rged Stems and Leavea. 
 
 
WiscDept.of Agriculture in cooperotion with the Geol. end 114t. Historgj
Surveg. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.TN. R.4W. - 1928. 
 
 
V 
 
 
N 
 
 
) 
 
 
[TT1 
LJZJ 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
       cegena 
    -                   -                        I Les and 
-       -ra -ad I                                       Ponds 
 
 
                                          0      Mile        I 
   -    Land  Cover   -- 
"'"-Cover Bounclary A4-Tag-alderWillow,  -  Roads  and Improvements
-        --Shore 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwoode4tc-                                    - 
 BogShor 
   some Basswood 84-Cat-tail Marsh  Z      Improved Gravel, or        A-
-Strand 
 B1-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow          Crushed Stone Road           '
Bank I0 
   some Conifers D4.Leather Leaf           Improved Dirt Road          ,
Flat,du 
 CI-Popple withsome Bog             - == = Unimproved Dirt Road         
 wide. E 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn      --  -  Trail   &I School        
  St-Shoal 
 DI-Scrub-oak (nost- O-Open Land (No    *=Occupied House   Rural Church 
      G -Shoal 
   1l9Scarlet)and  forest growth)   OUnoccupied House Fbst Office      8
-Shoal 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm   U Summer Home    Summer Hotel      C
- Shoal 
 EI-Ain-cherry     Crop Land         ' Telephone Line  Power Line     Y -
Shoal 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   -  Railroad    -  Along Road      b
-Shodl 
   Hardwoods       with stumps      - - - Abandoned Railroad           R-Shoal

 BZ-White Pine  PP-Permanent P6store A Fire Tower p  ,Saw Mill 
                                    s   uc 
 CZ-NorwaH Pine fiP-Stump Pasture   8 Rural Store  xCrean-              
 Aqual 
 DE-aocK Pine   CV-Urban Propert4   A Logging Campin Cheese Factory    P-Plonkt

 A3-BluckAsh, Maple Y-Commercial Orchoni                               SA-Submen

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Cldsses of Forest Cover   FP-Duckwe

 B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land      3   Avera   Diameter Class       SP-Subme

 QC-Tamarack    Densiti of Stand    3-6    Are    ia    C  lass        EP-
Rooted 
                     Density6-12 (for Area, in Inches. 
 03-Spruceq wask] Fidr Me ium       Etr tc.)                            
 or Eme 
                        WiseDeptof Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol.
nd Noat, Histori Surveg. 
 
 
Lake Mapping 
sine    L - Lake 
*e Line BP- Beaver Pond 
10ft.wide -e- Bathing Beach 
ft.high I 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clay 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stony 
tic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
aed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
ged Pondweeds 
'Mter Pants with floating 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
5d0 
 
 
M 
 
 
L=       T4AN R4W 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.48N.R.9-W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
                                              Legena 
Upland                          -               -Lakes and 
                           -                   -ostds 
 
 
0      Mile     I 
 
 
. "-CoverBounaarj A4-Tabg-aldelWillow,  - Roads   and  Improvements
-         -   nore t 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc. .                                   
  BoShoe 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh          Improved Gravel, or        A
  Strand 
                                                                        10

 BI-Hardwood with C4-Gross Meadow          Crushed Stone Road          ý
  Bank to 
   some Conifers D4Leather Leaf             Improved Dirt Road          ,71
Flat,du 
CI-Pbpple with some Bag             ==== Unimoproved Dirt Road          
  wide. E 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn      ----    Trail   I School           St-Shoal

Dl-Scrub-oak(riost- O-Open Land (No  flOccupied House Rural Church      G
-Shoal 
   lyscorlet)and   forest growth)    OUnoccupied House VPost Office     B
-Shoal 
   some IRd Maple C- Cleared Farm    GlSummer Home  GlSummer Hotel      C
- Shoal 
El-PMn-cherry      Crop Land         ' TelephoneLine - Power Line       Y
- Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land     -  Railroad   -=' Along Road     b
-Shoal 
   Hardwoods       with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad           R
-Shoal 
BZ-White Pine   PP-Permanent Posture A Fire Tower  ia Saw Mill 
C2-Norwaq Pine  lIP-Stump Posture    U Rural Store ICreamern            -
 Aqual 
DZ-JacK Pine    CV-Urban Propertj   * Logging Camp il Cheese Factory-   
   P-Plankti 
A3-BlacKAsh,Moaplc Y-Commercial Orchard                                SA-Submer

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   FP-Duckwe

B3-White Cedar     ed Farm Land      0-3  A        i                   SP-Submel

C3-Tamaraok     Oensitl of Stand     3-6  Average Diameter Class 
                                    De y6- for Area,in Inches.         EP-Rooted

 
 
Lake Mapping - 
Lin     L- Loe 
re Line BP-Beover Pond 
lOft.wide --w Bathing beach 
oft.high 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Claog 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravellg 
Bottom, Stong 
 
tic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
ged Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
"rgd Pondweeds 
SiWater Plants with flootinc 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
Wist[ptof Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol, and Not. Historil Surveg.

 
 
K 
 
 
/, 
 
 
-    Land Cover -                               V                     - 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO.,WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.48N.R.8W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
K 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
   - Land Cover - 
-.-Cover Boundarn A4-Tag-alderWillow, 
Al-Hardwood with   Red Dogwood, etc.- 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh 
 81-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow 
   some Conifers D4Leather Leaf 
 C1-Popple with some  Bog 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn 
 DI-Scrub-oak(nost- O-Open Land (No 
   l9jScarlet)and  forest growth) 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Form 
 El-PRn-cherrJ     Crop Land 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farni Crop Land 
   Hardwoods       with stumps 
 Be-White Pine  PP-Permanent Pestute 
 CZ-Norwag Pine AFP-Stump Pastvre 
 DZ-JaocK Pine. CV-Urban Propert4 
 A3-BcKAsh, Maple Y-Commercial Orchard 
    and Elm     A-Idle orAbandon- 
 B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land 
 C3-Tamarack     Dsnsit, of Stand 
 D3-Sprtenieoxujti k &Ibdi]  r MAImm  Pjgr 
 
 
       o      Mile       I 
-Roads and Improvements 
        Improved Gravel, or 
        Crushed Stone Road 
        Improved Dirt Road 
        Unimproved Dirt Road 
        Traill   i School 
 IHOccupied House lRural Church 
 DUnoccupied House FbPost Office 
 GOSumnmer Home  Q Summer Hotel 
    Telephone Line = Power Line 
 +4+ Railroad     -  Along Road 
 - - - Abandoned Railroad 
 , Fire Tower          M.Saw Mill 
   Rural 5tore  ICreamery 
 * Logjing Camp IUCheese ractorg 
 Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
 o-6 ' Average Diameter Class 
 6-az for Area, in Inches. 
 Etc.) 
 
 
LFJ   Lakes !ondssn 
 
 
- Lake Mapping - 
 
 
-Shore Line       L - Lake 
. BogShore Line BP- Beaver Pond 
A*- Strand l0ft.wide --w Bathing Beach 
10 Bank i0fthigh I 
L9 Flatdue to water recession 75ft 
    wide. Bank loft. high. 
 St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
 G -Shoal Bottom of Marl 
 B -Shoal Bottom of Muck 
 C-Shoal Bottom  of Clay 
 Y - Shoal Bottom of Sand 
 b-Shoal Bottom, Gravelly 
 R-S ýhodl Bottom, Stong 
 
 -  Aquatic Vegetation 
 P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
 SA-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
 FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
 SP- Submerged Pondweeds 
 EP- Rooted Water Plants with floatinc 
    or Emeraed Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
Lowland 
    Forest 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO.. WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.48N.R.7W. - 1928. 
 
 
L~eaena 
 
 
-   Lo- -n-- 
 
 
                                        0      Mile   I 
-    Land Cover --'                                   - 
 
 
--CoverBouncdar A4-Tag-alderWwlllow, -  Roads and    Improvements -S hore
L 
Al-Hardwood with   Red oogwood, etc.                                    
40  BogShor 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh           Improved Gravel, or        
 e  Strand I 
 B0-Hardwood with C-Grass Meadow            Crushed Stone Road          
    Bank to 
   some Conifers D0,Leather Leaf             Improved Dirt Road         
  , Flatdu 
Cl-Pipple withsome Bog                       Unimproved Dirt Rood       
    wide. B 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn       - - -   Trail   li School          
St-Shoal 
 Dl-Scrub-ock(rost- O-Open Land (No   SlOccupied House lRural Church    
 G -Shoal 
   lj&Jcrlet)and  forest growth)     OUnoccupied House lPost Office 
    B -Shoal 
   sonme Red Maple C- Cleared Form    2 Summer Home  91 Summer Hotel    
 C - Shoal 
El-PRn-cherry      Crop Land          '" TelephoneLine _ Power Line
      Y - Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land    t"- Railroad    2'±0 Along
Road      b -Shoal 
   Hardwoods       with stumps        - - - Abandoned Railroad          
 R-Shoal 
52-White Pine   PP-Prman"et Pasture  A Fire Tower    la Sow Mill 
C2-Norwao. Pine AP-Stump Posture     U Rural Store   llCreamerij        
-   Aquat 
D2-3acK Pine.   CY-Urbon Propert4     t Logging Campri Cheese Factortj  
 P-Plankto 
A3-Black8Ash, Maple Y-Commerciail Orchard                               
SA-Submerq 
   and Elm      A-IdleorAbandon-     Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   
FP-Duckwei 
B3-White Cedr      ed Form Land       03-6 Averagje Diameter Class      
SP-Subme 
C3-Tamoarak      Densitq of Stand     6-6Z for Area, in Inches.         
EP- Rooted 
03-Sprucet]oseqlok Eir Medium Pr      6-1  fo                           
    or EmeI 
 
 
,   -.                                 in -p   t - 
                    W1scept-of Agriculture "in cooperation with the.
Geol. and Nat. Historg Survetj. 
 
 
   hd     ILakes and 
          b n  Ponds 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
.ine    L - Lake, 
e Line 1P- Beaver Pond 
IOft.wide[ - Bathing Beach 
ft high I 
e to water recession 75ft 
ank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Much 
Bottom of Claoj 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Grovelli 
Bottom, Stong 
Lic Vegetation - 
in (Lake Blooming) 
aed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
led Pondweeds 
Water lrants with floatin 
rqed Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
i 
 
 
I   U 
 
  

					
				
				
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.48N.R.6W. - 1928. 
 
 
                                  Legend 
p Lowland                                                               
     Lakes 
     Forest I                                 I                Und 
 
 
                                          0      Mile        I 
   SLand      Cover   --                                                
      -  Lake -opping 
"    --CoverBoundar g A4-Tag-alder-,Willow, - Roads and Improvements
      Shore Line       L- pLnkg, 
Al-Hardwood with   Red Dogwood, etrc.                                   0.
BogShore Line IP- Beaver Pond 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh   -      Improved Grovel, or        A'-
Strand tOft~wide[ Bathing Beach 
                                                                        10

 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow          Crushed Stone Road          I-
Bank iofthigh 
   some Conifers D4,Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road         J7.
Flot,due to water recession 75ft 
 CI-Popple with some Bog                    Unimproved Dirt Road        
  wide.Bank loft.high. 
   White Birch  DS-Recent Burn       --  -- Traill  I School            St-Shoal
Bottom with Debris 
 OI-Scrub-oak(most- O-Open Land (No  *1Occupied House JRural Church     
   G -Shoal Bottom  of Marl 
   14Scorlet)and   forest growth)    DUnoccupied House iPost Office     8
-Shoal Bottom of Muck 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm    U Summer Home  GilSummer Hotel     C
-Shoal Bottom of Clao 
 El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land         ='Telephone Line - Power Line      Y-Shoal
Bottom  of Sand 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   +-s* Railroad  -   Along Road      b
-Shoal Bottom, Gravelly 
   Hardwoods       with stumps       ÷÷÷ Abandoned Railroad
            R-Shoal Bottom, Stong 
 B2-White Pine  PP-Permoanent Pasture  A Fire Tower F.- Sow Mill 
 CZ-Norwagj Pine IP-Stump Posture      Rural Store IrCreamrer          -
  Aquatic Vegetation - 
 DZ-3"ack Pine  CV-Urban Propert4   k Logging Camp JJCheese Factorg
    P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
 A3-BlacKAsh, Maple Yl-Commermiol Ordard                               SA-Submerged
Algal Vegetation 
   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover    FP-Duckweed
and like Plants 
B3-White Cedar     ed Farm Land      0-3                               SP-Submered
Pondweed3 
C3-Tamarack     Desity of Stand      3-6  Average Diameter Class 
                                     &-iz (for Area, in Inches.     
   EP-Rooted Water Plants with floatinv 
D3-Sprucef.tN Not] 6jar f.lgUim Wr   Etc.)                              
  or Emerged Stems and Leaves. 
                        Wisc.Dept of Agriculture in cooperation with the
Geolt. snd riot. Histortl Surveil. 
 
 
N 
 
 
) 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.48N.R.5W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
I, 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
Lowland 
   I Forest 
 
 
Lakes and 
     Ponds 
 
 
0      Mile      I 
 
 
   -    Land  Cover -                       I       ye                  
          - 
"--CoverBoundaorgjA4-Toaq-aldeir,Willow,  - Roads and Improvements -
         -- Shore L 
Al-Hardwood w;th   Red Oogwood, etc.                                    
-. Bogshor 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh           Improved Gravel, or        
 J-0 Strand I 
                                                                        
 .0 
81-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow            Crushed Stone Road          
J   Bank io 
   some Conifers D4-Leather Leaf             Improved Dirt Road         
 ,, Flat, du 
CI-Pepple withsome Bog                       Unimproved Dirt Road       
    wide.8 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn       - - -   Trail   li School          
St-Shoal F 
DI-Scrub-ook(nost.- 0-Open Land (No  *Occupied House 6 Rural Church     
 G -Shoal I 
   i1jScarlet)ond  forest growth)    OUnoccupied House e Post Office    
 B -Shoal F 
   some Red Maple C-Cleared Farm     G Summer Home   G11Summer Hotel    
 C - Shoal 
El-Pln-cherrqJ     Crop Land          ' TelephoneLine _-_ Power Line    
 Y-Shoal I 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land    iWA* Railroad    .  Along Road     
 b -Shoal I 
   Hardwoods       with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad           
 R-Shoal I 
Ba-White Pine   PP-Permanent PNsture A Fire Tower   ia Saw Mill 
C2-Norwao Pine  AP-Stump Posture     0 Rural 5tore  ICreameriu          
-   Aquat 
DZ-ZcK Pine     CV-Urbon Propertqj    t Logging Camp NCheese Faoctorgj  
 P-Plankto 
A3-BlackAsh,Maple Y-Commerciai omhord                                   
SA-Submerg 
   and Elm      A-Idle orAbAndon-    Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   
FP-Duckwee 
B3-White Cedar     ed Farm Land      0-3                                
SP-Subme 
C3-Tormarack    Destqof Stand        3-6  Average Diameter Class        
S-Sb     r 
                DOnstj        n       6-IZ (for Area, in Inches.        
EP- Rooted 
03-Spruceinw" mek] Fair M um         Etr ctc.)                     
         or Emei 
                        Wi5tDept of Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol.
and Not, Historq Survea. 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
ine     L - Lake 
e Line BP- Beaver Pond 
Oft.wide '* Bathing Beach 
ft. high 
a to water recession 75ft 
ank ioft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sahd 
Bottom, Gravellq 
Bottom, Stong 
 
ic Vegetation 
n (Lake Bloomingj) 
led Algal Vegetation 
d and like Plants 
ged Pondweeds 
Water Plants with floating 
rqed Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
K 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO.. WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.47N. R.9W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
K 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
                                 S- Ofrl U 
Lo.wland                                                     Far    d   
    Lkes and 
                          Fort                   S    p     U 
 
 
   -    Land Cover     -                     , 
,--Cover Boundarg A4-Taq-alderiWilIow, - Roads and Improvements         
  S ---hore 
At-Hardwood with   Red Dogwood, etc.                                    
  Bogshor 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh     -    Improved Grovel, or         4
 Strand 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow          Crushed Stone Road           
  Bank to 
   some Conifers 04-Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road          _1.
Flot,du 
 CI-Popple withlsome Bo9                    Unimproved Dirt Road        
  wide.E 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn       I - -  Trail   I  School           St-Shoal

 DI-Scrub-oak (most- 0-Open Land (No HOccupied House * Rural Church     G
-Shoal 
   19Scarlet)and   forest growth)    DUnoccupied House 9Post Office     B
-Shoal 
   some Red Maple C-Cleared Farm     0 Summer Home  Q Summer NoteI      C
-Shoal 
 El-Min-cherry     Crop Land           Telephone Line " Power Line 
    Y-Shoal 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   +   Railroad   -e*e Along Road     b
-Shodl 
   Hardwoods       with stumps       -- +- Abandoned Railroad           R
-Shoal 
 B2-White Pine, PP-Permonent PNsture A Fire Tower   ,- Saw Mill 
                                     3 
 CZ-NorwaS Pine AP-Stum Pasture      U Rural Store ifCreamern           -
 Aqual 
 DZ-JacK Pine   CV-Urban Propertj    A Logging Camp lCheese Factory     P-Plankto

 A3-BlactAsh.Mapie I'-Comrnermial Orchard                               SA-Subenr

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-    Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   FP-Duckwei

 83-White Cedar    ed Farm Land      0-3                               SP-Submer

 C3-Tmarak              of    d      3-6  Average Diameter Class- 
                C-rDensityz o             for Area, in Inches.          EP-
Rooted 
03-Sprucetn"Wai)] Pjr Mjpm ljr       Etc.)                         
       or Eme 
                        WlscBi[of Agriculture, in cooperation with the Geol.
and Nat. Historl SurveU. 
 
 
Lake Mapping- 
Line    L - Lake 
e Line l8P- Beaver Pond 
Oft.wideo-w Bathing Beach 
ft.high I 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank loft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Much 
Bottom of Clav 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stony 
ic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
aed Algal Vegetation 
ad and like Plants 
-gad Pondweeds 
Water Plants with floating 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
I 
 
 
4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.47N.R.8W. - 1928. 
 
 
- Land C 
 
 
--Cover Boundary 
Al-Hardwood with 
   somne Basswood 
 BI-Hardwood with 
   Some Conifers 
CI-Papple with some 
   White Birch 
 Ol-Scrub-oak (nost- 
   j Searlet) and 
   some Red Maple 
EI-Pin-cherry 
AZ-Hemlock with 
   Hardwoods 
82-White Pine 
CZ-Norway Pine 
DZ-Jack Pine 
A3-Black Ash, Maplc 
   and Elm 
B3-White Cedar 
C3-Tamaraek 
03-Spruce woatl] 
 
 
over - 
 
 
A4-Tag-alder,Willow, 
   Red Dogwood, etc- 
B4-Cat-tail Marsh 
C4-Grass Meadow 
D4Leather Leaf 
   Bog 
05-Recent Burn 
O-Open Land (No 
   forest growth) 
C- Cleared Form 
   Crop Land 
CA-Farm Crop Land 
   with stumps 
PP-PNrmanent PFsture 
AP-Stump Pasture 
CV-Urban Propert~j 
'- Commercial Orchard 
A-Idle orAboandon- 
   ed Farm Land 
Densitg of Stand 
Fnir Medhim Per 
 
 
       0      Mile       I 
 
-Roads and Improvements 
 
 
Z- Improved Gravel, or 
       Crushed Stone Road 
       Improved Dirt Road 
       Unimproved Dirt Road 
-----   Trail   lI School 
1Occupied House *Rural Church 
OUnoccupied House 9iPost Office 
G Summer Home   *Summer Hotel 
    Telephone Line = Power Line 
SRailroad       -m±? Along Road 
-- ÷- Abandoned Railroad 
   Fire Tower  I- Saw Mill 
SRural Store   IhCreamerj 
tLogging Camp IJCheese Factory 
 
Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
0-3 
3-6 ý Average Diameter Class 
"&-lz for Area, in Inches. 
Etc..) 
 
 
- Lake Mapping - 
 
 
-   Shore Line    L- Lake 
_W BOclShore Line IBP- Beaver Pond 
0 Strand lOftwide -w Bathting Beach 
 Bank iOft.high I 
j, Flat,due to water recession 75ft 
    wide. Bank loft. high. 
St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
G -Shoal Bottom  of Marl 
B -Shoal Bottom  of Muck 
C -Shoal Bottom  of Clay 
Y-Shool Bottom   of Sand 
b -Shoal Bottom, Gravellj 
R -Shoal Bottom, Stony 
 
- Aquatic Veqetation - 
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
SA-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
SP- Submerged Pondweeds 
EP- Rooted Water Plants with floating 
    or Emerged Stems and Leavea. 
 
 
WtSc.Deptuo Agdrcultur,.in cooperaton with the. Geol. and Nat. History Surveg.

 
 
N 
 
 
'I 
 
 
I 
 
 
I' 
 
 
SL e$and~od 
 
 
Tat 
 
 
Forest 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.47N. R.7W, - 1928. 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
       U~l-c -n 
Forest  =Srest -- 
 
 
                                     C      Mile   I 
SLand Cover-                         ,M                                 --

 
 
  ".--overBoundarg A4-Tag-ailer, Willow,  - Roads  and  Improvements
-         ---Shore I 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc.                                    4.V
BogSho 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh          Improved Gravel, or         0t_
Strand 
 B1-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow          Crushed Stone Rood           
- Bank Ii 
   some Conifers D4,Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road         j8_
Flat,dc 
CI-Popple withlsome Boe                    Unimproved Dirt Road         
  wide. 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn      ----    Trail   Ii School          St-Shoal

DI-Scrub-oak(nost- O-Open Land (No   HOccupied House j Rural Church     G
-Shoal 
   19Scarlet)and   forest growth)    OUnoccupied House lPost Office     B
-Shoal 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm    91Summer Home  13 Summer Hotel     C
-Shoal 
El-Pin-cherry      Crap Land         ' TelephoneLine -  Power Line      Y
- Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   #ms* Railroad  Mý- Along Road
      b -Shoal 
   Hardwoods      with stumps       *---- Abandoned Railroad            R-Shoal

B2-White Pine   PP-Iermanent Pasture A Fire Tower  A- Saw Mill 
C2-Norwag Pine  IP-Stump Posture    U Rural Store  ItCreameru           -
 Aqua 
DZ-3acK Pine    CV-Urban Propertqj  A Logging Camp IUCheese Factory     P-Plankt'

A3-BlackAshMaple Y'-Commercial Orcmard                                 SA-Submer

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   FP-Duckwe

B3-White Cedar    edForm Land       0-3 ý Average Diameter Class 
     SP-Submei 
C3-Tamarack     Densit, of Stand    3-6    Are    ia    c   las        EP-
Rootec 
                Density l6-12 ifor Area, in Inches. 
 
 
and          Lakes and 
Lae Mo pI         Fnds 
-Lake Mapping -- 
 
 
Line   jL-Lake 
re Line lP-Beaver Pond 
lOft.widen -w Bathing Beach 
oft. high 
ae to water recession 75ft 
3ank loft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stony 
 
tic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
gd Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rged Piondweeds 
Water Plants with floating 
.rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
Wist.Deptof Agriculture in cooperation With the Geol. and Nat. Historgj SurveN.

 
 
N 
 
 
K 
 
 
/i 
 
 
I~eIend 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.47N. R.6W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
Leqend 
 
 
I Forest 
 
 
- Land Cover - 
 
 
" "-Cover Bounaard 
Al-Hardwood with 
   some Basswood 
 BI-Hardwood with 
   some Conifers 
Cl-PIpple with some 
   White Birch 
01-Scrub-ook (mst- 
   iy Scorlet)and 
   some Red IMaple 
El-Pin- cherry 
AZ-Hemlock with 
   Hardwoods 
2-White Pine 
C2-Norwaj Pine 
DZ-3Tck Pine 
A3-Blhck AhMople 
   and Elm 
B3-White Cedar 
C3-Tamara ook 
03-Sprucelw4 Wadi 
 
 
0      Mile     I 
 
 
A4-Taq-alder,Wllow, - Roads   and Improvements -        '- Shore I 
   Red Oogwood, ett.                                     -  BogShor 
B4-Cat-tail Marsh      -    Improved Gravel, or         A0_ Strand 
                                                         10 
C4-Grvs Meadow              Crushed Stone Road            - Bank io 
34-Leather Leaf             Improved Dirt Road          ,    iFlot,du 
   BoJ                      Unimproved Dirt Road            wide. B 
05-Recent Burn       - - -  Trail   I  School           St-Shoal 
0-Open Land (No      lOccupied House  Rural Church       G -Shoal 
   forest growth)    OUnoccupied House Poast Office      B -Shoal 
C-Cleared Farm       13Summer Home    Summer Hotel       C - Shoal 
   Crop Land          I Telephone Line   Power Line      Y-Shoal I 
CA-Farm Crop Land    H+ Railroad     -=*' Along Road     b -Shodl 
   with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad            R -Shoal I 
PP-Permonent Psture  t Fire Tower    .* Saw Mill 
UP-Stump  Posture    U Rural Store  ICreamerg          -   Aqual 
CV-Urban Propert4    A Logging Camp IJCheese Factorg     P-Planktc 
- Commerial Orchard                                     SA-Submeri 
A-Idle orAbanhion-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover        FP-Duckwe 
   ad Farm Land      0,3 ' Average Diameter Class       SP-Submer 
Density of Stand     3-6    vrg    iaee      ls         EP- Roioted 
Fair__ M1.jm I~r     1   for Area, in Inches.              or Eme 
        Wisrc. t of Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol. snd Mat. Histori
Survey, 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
Lihe    L- Lake 
*e Line BP- Beaver Pond 
iOft.wide - Bathing Beach 
ft. high 
e to water recession 75ftl 
lank ioft.hiqh. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravellj 
Bottom, Stong 
 
tic Vegetation - 
on (Lake Blooming) 
aed Algal Vegetation 
ad and like Plants 
ied Pondweeds 
Water Plants with floating 
rqed Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
-L.kes a-.n~d 
     Ponds 
 
 
I     J     d 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO..WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.47N. R.5W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
Ii,' 
 
 
                                  iuegena 
[ [psd                                                                  
     Lakes and 
     0Forest                                                          [ 
                           0      Mile      I 
 
 
   -    Land  Cover -34 
""--Cover Boundarj A4-Tag-alderWillow,  - Roads    and Improvements-
      6-Shore I 
Al-Hardwood with   RedDogwood, at..     0__e BogShoi 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh     -    Improved Gravel, or         1
 Strand 
 0I-Hardwood With C4-Graoss Meadow         Crushed Stone Road           
- Bank 1 
   some Conifers D04Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road         Z,
Flat,du 
 Cl-Popple with some, Bog                   Unimproved Dirt Road        
  wide. 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn      ----    Trail   I School            St-Shoal

 0-Scrub-ook(nost- O-Open Land (No   *Occupied House JRural Church      G
- Shoal 
   lyScorlet)and   forest growth)    DUnoccupied House #Post Office     B
-Shoal 
   some Red Maple C-Cleared Farm     OSummer Home   laSummer Hotel      C
- Shoal 
 El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land            Telephone Line  Power Line     Y
- Shoal 
 AZ-Hemlock with CR-Farm Crop Land   4   Railroad     . Along3 Road     b
-Shoal 
   Hardwoods       with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad           R-Shoal

B2-White Pine   PP-Permanent Fsture A Fire Tower   1*-Saw Mill 
C2-Norwa4 Pine  AP-Stump Pasture     U Rural 5tore ICreamerq           -
 Aqua' 
DZ-3ocK Pine    CV-Urban Propert4   A Logging Camp UCheese Factorj      P-Plankt

A3-BlackAshMaple Y'-Commermiol Ordhenal                                SA-Submer

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover    FP-Duckwe

83-White Cedar     ed Farm Land      0-3                               SP-Submei

C.3-Toamaraek          of3 Stn        -   Average Diameter Class        E~

    C 3 - T a m r a c k  e n s i t 4 l  o f   S t a n d   3 - 6   - "

                Dens E               6-( for Area, in Inches.           EP-
Rooted 
03-Sprce=sti.] Fair 1leuram Pr    Etc.)                                 
or Eme 
                        Wivo-Deptof Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol.
and 1,at. Historgj Surveg. 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
ilne    L - ILaKe 
re Line SBP- Beaver Pond 
10ft.widel-*%w Bathing Beach 
oft. high I 
ao to water recession 75ft 
3ank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clay 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravellq 
Bottom, Stony 
 
tic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
ged Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rged Pondweeds 
Sahter Plants with floatinc 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.46N. R.9W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
I 
 
 
K 
 
 
I 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
'WstFoes 
 
 
Lakes and 
      Ponds 
 
 
                                0     Mile      I 
Land Cover -                    '                             - 
 
 
.. *-CoverBoundarl A4-Tog-aldeWtlllow,  -  Roads and Improvements -     
    -5hor 
Al-Hardwood with Red Dogwood, etc.               Gr-l BogohrS 
  some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh       Improved Grovel,or        0 Strand

BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow       Crushed Stone Road          - Bank
ii 
  some Conifers D4,Leather Leaf         Improved Dirt Road       _  FlOat,du

CI-Pbpple withsome Bog           === = Unimproved Dirt Road          wide.
E 
  White Birch DS-Recent Burn     ----   Trail  lI School         St-Shoal

DI-Scrub-oak(nost- 0-Open Land (No     H1Occupied Houe IRural Church    
    G -Shoal 
   lIscarlet)and forest growth)  DUnoccupied House R~st Office    B -Shoal

   some Red Maple C - Cleared Farm l Summer Home Summer Hotel     C - Shoal

El-Pin-cherry    Crop Land         ' Telephone Line 0_' Power Line Y-Shoal

AZ-Hemlock with CR-Form Crop Land *  Railroad  a-=o Along Road    b -Shoal

   Hardwoods     with stumps     - - - Abandoned Railroad         R -Shoal

62-White Pine PP-Permanent PNsture   A Fire Tower    I-- Saw Mill 
C2-Norwag Pine AP-Stump Pasture  8 Rural 5tore jICreameru         - Aquai

D2-SocK Pine  CV-Urbon Propertj  A Logging Campo Cheese Factorg   P-Plankti

A3-BlackAshlMaple 'v-Commermial Orchard                          SA-Submer

   and Elm     A-Idle orAbandon- Diameter Classes of Forest Cover FP-Duckwe

83-White Cedar   ed Farm Land    0-3 ý Average                   SP-Subme

C3-Tamarack          ofDiameter Class SanSu-i 
               Density           6-IZ (for Area, in Inches.      EP- Rooted

03-Sorucekol~hkdl Fir M~edium Panr Ctc. I                          nr Fm,

 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
.ine   L- Lake 
-e Line lP- Beaver Pond 
1Oft.wide --w Bathing Beach 
oft.high 1 
ie to water recession 75ft 
3ank loft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clay 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravellt 
Bottom, Stony 
tie Vegetation - 
on (Lake Blooming) 
ged Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rged Pondweeds 
IWter Plants with floating 
.rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
W"is....                t o    .. Frtr in cet.. wt              or.
 . E 
                   Wili.eptof Agriulture in aowperation with thý,Geoat
and Nat. Historg Surveg, 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY--BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.46N. R.8W. - 1928. 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
             -;)n)                ))r and    Lakes and 
I                 Swamp   I Ira       adI I Pn 
 
 
-Land Cover - 
 
 
"'"-Cover Boundlarg Aq-Tacig-oldlertwilow, 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc. 
  some Basswood 54-Cut-tail Marsh 
BI-Hordwood with C4-Gross Meadow 
   some Conifers  D4-Leather Leaf 
Cl-Popple with some  Bog 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn 
Dl-Scrub-oak(most- O-Open Land (No 
   IyScarlet)and  forest growth) 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Form 
E-Pln-cherrqj     Crop Land 
AZ-Hemlock with CS-Farm Crop Land 
   Hardwoods      with stumps 
B2-White Pine   PP-PNrmtnent PSture 
CZ-Norwaoj Pine AP-Stump Pastwre 
DZ_,JacK Pine   CY-Urban Propert4 
A3-BlackAsh,Maple Yl-Commercial Orchord 
   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon- 
53-White Cedar     ed Farm Land 
C3-Tamaraock    Densit, of Stand 
D3-Spruce-4mwt i Fair Mejsim  ejr 
 
 
-  Roads and Improvements - 
        Improved Gravel, or 
        Crushed Stone Road 
        Improved Dirt Road 
        Unimproved Dirt Road 
 ----- Trail    i School 
 mOccupied House  Rural Church 
 DUnoccupied House 9 Post Office 
 i Summer Home  tSummer Hotel 
     Telephone Line =-=- Power Line 
 +4+ Railroad    -   Along Road 
 . . . Abandoned Railroad 
 "A Fire Tower   l..Saw Mill 
    Rural 5tore ICreamerg 
 * Logging Camp IUCheese Factory 
 
 Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
 3-6 Average Diameter Class 
 3-6 
 E-tZ for Area, in Inches. 
 Etc. ) 
 
 
      -    Lake Mapping - 
--Shore Line     L- Lake 
-   BogShore Line BP- Beaver Pond 
)&_ Strand lOft.wide J-*- Bathing Beach 
S- Bank ioft.high 
,8 Flatdue to water recession 75ft. 
    wide. Bank loft, high. 
 St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
 G -Shoal Bottom of Marl 
 B -Shoal Bottom of Muck 
 C -Shoal Bottom of Clao 
 Y - Shoal Bottom of Sand 
 b -Shodl Bottom, Graveltl 
 R-Shoal Bottom, Stony 
 -  Aquatic Vegetation - 
 P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
 SA-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
 FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
 SP- Submerged Pondweeds 
 EP- Rooted Water Plants with floatir 
    or Emerged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
0   Milen  I 
 
 
I Lowlandors 
 
 
I ....           i  t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.49N.R.7W. - 1928. 
 
 
                                 Legend 
- arest                                                                 
     Lakes and 
 
 
                                           0      Mile        I 
   -    Land Cover -                                                    
     -    Lake Mapping - 
--CoverBoundary A4-T4g-aldetWillow, -  Roads and Improvements        -- 
 - Shore Line    L - Lake 
Al-Hardwood with   Red Dogwood, etc.                                    Ow
BogShore Line BP- Beaver Pord 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh          Improved Gravel, or         
0_¶ Strand 10ftwide -*.w Bathing Beach 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow          Crushed Stone Road           
'- Bank lOft.high 
   some Conifers D4.Lecather Leaf           Improved Dirt Road          J,.Flot,cdue
to water recession 75ft 
CI-Popple with some Bog                   = Unimproved Dirt Road        
   wide. Bank lOft. high. 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn       - - -  Trail   ie School           St-Shoal
Bottom with Debris 
 DI-Scrub-oaok(nost- O-Open Land (No *Octupied House  Rural Church      
G -Shoal Bottom of Marl 
   lyScorlet)and   forest growth)    DUnoccupied House Fbst Office      
B -Shoal Bottom of Much 
   some RedlMaple C- Cleared Farm     ilSrnmer Home  ISummer Hotel      
C -Shoal Bottom of Clao 
El-An-cherry       Crop Land         ...TelephoneLine s-- Power Line    
Y-Shoal Bottom  of Sand 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land    1sim Railroad  -:'-T Along Road    
b -Shoal Bottom, Gravelly 
   Hardwoods       with stumps       -.-÷ Abandoned Railroad     
       R-Shoal Bottom, Stony 
62-White Pine   PP-Permanent Posture A Fire Tower   I- Saw Mill 
CZ-NorwaS Pine  AP-Stump Pasture     U Rural Store  INCreamer"     
    -  Aquatic Vegetation - 
D0-SacK Pine    CV-Urban Propertj    * Logging CampliCheese Factorg     
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
A3-BlckAshMaple T-Commemiol Ormhor     L                                SA-Submerged
Algal Vegetation 
   and Elm      A-Idle orAbondon-    Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   
   FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
BS-White Cedar     ad Form Land      o0-3 Average Diameter Class        SP-Submerged
Pondweeds 
C3-Tamarack     Density of Stand     6-12 (for Area, in Inches.         EP-
Rooted Water Plants with floating 
O3-Spruce~ne hb] Fai._r MjIum Pn r   Etc.)                              
   or Emerged Stems and Leaves. 
                        WiscaDeptof Agriculture in cooper4ton with the Geol.
and riot. Historg Surveil 
 
 
N 
 
 
'I 
 
 
k 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP   T.49N. R.8W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
I) 
 
 
FLowand 
'Foret  I  I Forest 
 
 
K 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
                                          0     Mile        I 
   -    Land Cover-                               q -                   
       - 
-.-Cover Boundary A4-Taq-alder,Willow,  -   Roads   and   Improvements -
       -..- Shore 
At-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, rtv..                                  4GW
BogShoo 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh  z      Improved Grove[, or        A 
Strand 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow         Crushed Stone Road            
Bank ii 
   some Conifers D4Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road          ,A
Flat,du 
 CI-Pbpple withsome Bog                    Unimproved Dirt Road         
 wide. E 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn      --  -  Trail   i School           St-Shoal

 0D-Scrub-oak(nost- 0-Open Land (No lOccupied House iRural Church      G
-Shoal 
   ly5scrlet)and   forest growth)   DUnoccupied House FPbst Office     B
-Shoal 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm   GlSummer Home  Gll Summer Hotel    C
-Shoal 
 El-Pin-cherry     Crap Land           Telephone Line - Power Line     Y
- Shoal 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land  +   Railroad   aL  Along Road      b
-Shoal 
   Hardwoods      with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad           R
-Shoat 
 B2-White Pine  PP-Permanent Pasture A Fire Tower     l* Saw Mill 
 CZ-Norwa4 Pine AP-Stump Pasture    U Rural Store IICreameru          - 
Aqua 
 DZ.-acK Pine   CV-Urban Propertj   : Logging Campl Cheese Factory     P-Plankt

 A3-BlacKAshMaple T-Commercial Ormhri                                 SA-Submer

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover  FP-Duckwe

B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land      0-3  Average Diameter Class 
                                    3-6   vr3     iaee     ls         SP-S5ubmei

         Q-Tanarak Desitqof Sand    3-6 
C3-Tamarack     Densityl of Stand   6-1Z for Area, in Inches.         EP-
Rooted 
03-Sprucei. wag] Fai__r Mluram Ir   Etc.)                               
or Eme 
                        Wisc.Upt of Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol.
and Mot. History Survejg. 
 
 
Lakes and 
      Ponds 
 
 
- Lake Mapping 
Line    L - Lake, 
re Line BP- Beaver Pond 
l0ft.wide -*w4 Bathing Beach 
oft high I 
e to water recession 75ft 
Rank lOft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clay 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stony 
tic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
Jed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rged Pondweeds 
I Water PlMnts with floating 
rged Sterns and Leaves. 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO.,WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.50N.R.1}W. - 1928. 
 
 
ii 
 
 
Leqend 
 
 
Si               Lakes and 
I  Urban Lii"idi I   Ponds 
 
 
- Land Cover - 
 
 
"*-L-overBoundary M-Taog-older, wilow, 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc. 
  some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh 
BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow 
   Some Conifers  DD4Leather Leaf 
CI-Popple with some  Boa 
   White Birch 05-Recent Burn 
Di-Scrub-oaK (nost- O-Open Land (No 
   hjScarlett)and forest growth) 
   some Red Maple C-Cleared Farm 
El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Form Crop Land 
   Hardwoods      with stumps 
82-White Pine  PP-Permanent P6sture 
CZ-Norwa4 Pine AP-Stutmp Posture 
DZ-JacK Pine   CV-Urban Propertj 
AM-Blaickthsh,Maple Y'-Commetmial Orcmard 
   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon- 
B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land 
C3-Tamoracek    Density of Stand 
03-Sonrwelittititfik  Firb- Mpd.m  P.inr 
 
 
-I-- " .---. 
 
 
       0     Mile       I 
 
-  Roads and Improvements - 
 
 
       Improved Gravel, or 
       Crushed Stone Road 
       Improved Dirt Road 
       Uninproved Dirt Road 
       Trail   I School 
mOccupied House  Rural Church 
oUnoccupied House qPost Office 
* Summer Home  13Summer Hotel 
   Telephone Line "-- Power Line 
++ Railroad    2L0 Along Road 
÷++ Abandoned Railroad 
A Fire Tower   I- Saw Mill 
l Rural 5tore  IACreamerg 
* Logging Camp iCheese Factory 
 
Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
3-6  Average Diameter Class 
6-iz (for Area, in Inches. 
tc. ) 
 
 
      - Lake Mapping 
SShore Line      L- Loke 
8.oShore Line [P- Beaver Pond 
A0_ Strand lOftwidel -  Bathing Beach 
'" Bank lOft.high 
SFlat,due to water recession 75ft 
    wide. Bank loft. high. 
St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
G -Shoal Bottom  of Marl 
B -Shoal Bottom  of Muck 
C -Shoal Bottom  of Clay 
Y - Shoal Bottom of Sand 
b-Shoal Bottom, Gravelly 
R-Shoal Bottom, Stony 
-   Aquatic Vegetation 
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
SA-Sibmerged Algal Vegetation 
FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
SP- Submerged Pondweeds 
EP- Rooted Water Plants with floatin 
    or Emerged Stems and Leaves., 
 
 
Wisc.Oeptiot Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol. 4nd iot. Historij
Sorveg. 
 
 
I LolnForest 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.50N.R.7W. - 1928. 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
      Lowlnd- 
Foet I  oet- 
 
 
                                     0      Mile  I 
SLand    Cover -                             I' 
 
 
--L-over Boudaarg A-Ta4J-alderpWillow,  --Roads and Improvements -      
-hore 
Al-Hordwood with  Red Dogwood, etc- _    _                              
  BogSha 
  some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh          I Improved Gravel, or        
Strand 
BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow           Crushed Stone Road           
  Bank 1i 
   some Conifers D4-Leather Leaf           Improved Dirt Road           
, Flat,dl 
Cl-Pepple withsome Bo==                    Unimproved Dirt Road         
  wide.( 
  White Birch   05-Recent Burn      ----   Trail   & School         
  St-Shoal 
Ol-Scrub-oak(nost- 0-Open Land (No  flOccupied House JRural Church     G
-Shoal 
   lj4icarlet)and forest growth)    OUnoccupied Hou3e 4Post Office      B
-Shoal 
   som Red Maple C- Cleared Form    0 Summer Home  la Summer Hotel      C
- Shoal 
El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land          'Telephone Line -  Power Line      Y
- Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   lmtb Railroad  a'T Along Road       b
-Shoal 
   Hardwoods      with stumps         --- Abandoned Railroad            R
-Shoal 
B2-White Pine  PP-PNrrnonent Pooture A Fire Tower  l Saw Mill 
CZ-Norwag Pine AP-Stump Pasture     Ws Rural Store irCreamer           --
Aqual 
D0-,TacK Pine  CV-Urban Propertg    A Logging Camp IvCheese Factorg     P-Plankt

A3-Bla  sNkohMaple T-Coomercial Omhrtrl                                SA-Submer

   and Elm      A-Idle orAblndon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   FP-Ouckwe

B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land      0-3                                SP-Submei

C3-Tamarack     Densitj of Stand    3-6  Average Diameter ClassE- Root 
                                    6-IZ (for Area, in Inches. 
03-Spruceintlswludl Fair Medium Poor e.tý.                       
        orEm 
 
 
Lakes and 
      Fonds 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
Line    L - Lake 
re Line BP-Beaver Pond 
lOft.wide -*- Bathing Beach 
oft.high I 
ae to water recession 75ft 
3ank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravellij 
Bottom, Stong 
 
tic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
ged Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rqed Pondweeds 
W W*ter Plants with floating 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
WisDept of Ariculture in cooperation with the Geol. end N1t. Histor4 Sorvej.

 
 
N 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY--BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.46N. R.1 W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
I ForestI 
 
 
   - Land Cover - 
--Cover Boundarj A4-Tog-alder, Willow, 
Al-Hardwood wlth  Red Oogwood, etc. 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tall Marsh 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow 
   some Conifers D4-Leather Leaf 
CI-Pipple withsome.  Bog 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn 
 Dl-Scrub-oak(nst- 0-Open Land (No 
   lyScarlet)and   forest growth) 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Form 
EI-Pln-cherrq    . Crop Land 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Fairm Crop Land 
   Hardwoods       with stumps 
BZ-Whits Pine   PP-Perman-ent FPutUre 
CZ-Norwao Pine  AP-Stunp Pastue 
D0-TacK Pine    CV-Urban Propert4 
A3-BlackAsh.Mcaple Y-Commercial orchair 
   and Elm      A-IdleorAbandon- 
B3-White Cedar     ed Farm Land 
C3-Tamarack Densitq of Stand 
D3-Spruceejmu hiek] ir Mdium Poor 
                            211111 
 
 
K 
 
 
Legend 
              -L and 
                      Swm     Urba      Land]     Ponds , 
 
 
       0      Mile       I 
-  Roads and Improvements - 
        Improved Grovel, or 
        Crushed Stone Road 
        Improved Dirt Road 
        Unimproved Dirt Road 
        Trail    i School 
 IOccupied House jRural Church 
 DUnoccupied House t Post Office 
 91 Summer Home  Q Summer Hotel 
 'Telephone Line     Power Line 
 +&H i Railroad    - Along Road 
 . . . Abandoned Railrocd 
 A Fire Tower   I.Saw Mill 
 *    e Rural 5tore  IpCreamerui 
 * Logging Camp I UCheese Faitoru 
 
 Diameter Cldsses of Forest Cover 
 3-6  Average Diameter Class 
 6- (for Area, in Inches. 
 Et. . 
 
 
      -    Lake Mapping - 
SShore Line       L- Lake 
SBogShore Line BP- Beaver Pond 
SStrand IOft~wide --w Bathing Beach 
SBank ioft.high 
,Z9Flat,due to water recession 75ft 
    wide. Bank a0ft. high. 
St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
G -Shoal Bottom  of Marl 
B -Shoal Bottom  of Muck 
C -Shoal Bottom  of Claoj 
Y-Shoal Bottom   of Sand 
b-Shoal Bottom, Gravellqj 
R-Shoal Bottom, Ston4j 
 
- Aquatic Vegetation - 
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
SA-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
SP- Submerged Pondweeds 
EP- Rooted Water Plants with floatinc 
    or Emerged Stems and Leaves. , 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.46N. R.6W. - 1928. 
 
 
  C1 . 0-3 ... 
  iC 
3. A 
 
 
) 
 
 
.=Mwlc 
 
 
Fowland 
   I Forest 
 
 
                                          0      Mile        I 
   -   Land   Cover -                              k                    
        _ 
 --Cover Boundarj A4-Tao-aldeeWillow,  -  Roads and Improvements S-     
  -   Shore L 
 Al-Hardwood with Red Dogwood, etc.                                     '"
BolShor 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh          Improved Gravel, or        A0_
Strand I 
8I-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow           Crushed Stone Road           t
 Bank io 
   some Conifers D4-Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road         .,
 Flat,du 
CI-Popple with same Bog                  = Unimproved Dirt Road         
  wide. B 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn      - - -  Trail I    School           St-Shoal

Dl-Scrub-oak(most- O-Open Land (No  SOccupied House * Rural Church      G
-Shoal 
   lqcarlet)and   forest growth)   DUnoccupied House Wost Office      B -Shoal
I 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm    *Summer Home   U1 Summer Hotel     C
-Shoal I 
El-Pln-cherrJ      Crop Land         ' Telephone Line   Power Line      Y
- Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with CR-Farm Crop Land   +t4* Railroad   -=* Along Road     b
-Shoal 
   Hardwoods      with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad            R-Shoal

B2-White Pine   PP-Permanent PFsture A Fire Tower  Fi Saw Mill 
CZ-Norwaq Pine  AP-Stump Pasture    U Rural Store  IECreamerg          -
 Aquat 
DZ-3acK Rne     CV-Urbon Prlpert; 4   Logging CampIUCheese Factortg     P-Plankto

A3-BlackAshMaple Y'-Commercial Orchard                                 SA-Submerg

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-   Diameter Classes-of Forest Cover   FP-Duckwee

3-White Cedar      ed arm Land      0-3 
3-T     Cndaraek       of Stand     3-6  Average Diameter Class        SP-Submner

D3enit,                              6-1z (for Area, in Inches.        EP-
Rooted 
03-Sproce~osk" w] Fairk Rar1 m PMAU r W Ctt.)                      
       or Eme! 
                        WiScGDetof Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol.
and Not. Historij Surve4. 
 
 
ý       a        Lakes and 
I  Ura   Lad I        Pnds 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
ine   j L - Lake 
e Line lBP- Beaver Pond 
Oft.widel-.-. Bathing Beach 
fL high 
e to water recession 75ft 
ank loft.hilgh. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottomn of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Claog 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, GravellI 
Bottom, Stong 
 
ic Vegetation - 
n (Lake Blooming) 
ed Algal Vegetation 
id and like Plants 
egd Pondweeds 
Water Plants with flootnj 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
I.. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY -BAYFIELD CO.. WISCONSIN., 
 
 
FnRFqT Amnf FORM (Y)VFR MAP - T4AW_ R-W - lq;)A- 
 
 
                                       Legeind 
Fores                                                                   
               aoetUbnLni Fnda 
 
 
-Land C 
 
 
* -Cover Boundor4 
Al-Hordwood with 
  sonme Basswood 
BI-Hardwood With 
   some Conifers 
CI-pbpple withsome. 
   White Birch 
D1-Scrub-oak (miost- 
    lScarlet) and 
    some R~ed Maple 
El-Pin -cherry 
AZ-Hemlock with 
   Hardwoods 
BZ2-White Pine 
C2-Norwa4 Pine 
DZ-3~acK Pine. 
A3-Black Ash, Ma pie 
   and Elm 
B3-White Cedar 
C21-Tamaraek 
 
 
0-5- rucr---, -1 
 
 
over' - 
 
 
0      Mile     I 
 
 
A4-Tag-aIdet;Wmillw, - Roads  and  Improvements     -     Sh-biore L 
   Red Dogwood, etc-                                   -wr Bog Shor 
B4-Cat-tail Marsh   Z   -   Improved Gravel, or        JZ- Strand 
C4-Grass Meadow            Crushed Stone Road             Bank 10 
D4-Leather Leaf             Improved Dirt Road         I.Flat,dlu 
   Bog                      Unimproved Dirt Road          wide. 5 
D5-Recent Burn              Traill    School           St-Shoal 
0-Open Land (No      11111ccupied Houe Rural Church    G - Shoal 
   forest growth)    DlUnoccupied Hou. s Ofice          B -Shoal 
C- Cleared Farm      2 Summer Home  ~Summer Hotel       C -Shoal 
   Cro p Land           Telephone Line  FbPwer Line     Y - Shoal 
CA.-Farm Crop Lond  444+Railroad        Along Road      b -Shoal 
   with Stumps      - - .-- Abandoned Railroad          R -ShoalI 
PP-Permanent Pasture AFire Tower      Saw Mill 
AP-Stump Posture     URural Store  I Crearnerg            Aquat 
CV-Urban Property    f Logging Camp I Cheese Factory4   P-Plankto 
tr-Coimemeril Orchoni                                  SA-Suktmerg 
A - Idle or Abandon- Diameter Classes of Forest Cover        FP-Duckwe4 
   ed Farm Land      0-3                                PSum 
      DrstofSad      3-6  Average Diameter Class       S-ure 
      Denit ofStnd   6-I (for Area, in Inches.         ElP- Rooted 
  Cir M~gj~um Wo~   Etc.                                  or Emei 
        Wisc.Dept of Agriculture in "ooperation with the. Geol. and
Not. Historil Surveil. 
 
 
Lak~e Mapping - 
 
 
!mLie BLP- Bkeaver Pond 
eOf~t,widno '.-w Bathing Beach 
ft.highid 
a to water recession 75ft 
ank ioft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottomn of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom Of Clag 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stony 
 
ic, Veget ation- 
n (Lake Blooming) 
pod Algal Vegetation 
ad and like Plants 
led Pondwifeds 
Water Plants with floatinc 
rqed Stemns and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
ii 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.45N.R.9W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
ii 
 
 
K 
 
 
Leqend 
 
 
aPnds 
 
 
o      Mile 
 
 
-   Land Cover -                                         I         - 
 
 
* "-CoverIoundmar 4 A-Iaq-alalderWHlow,  -  Roads and Improvements 
       S hnore I 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etcp                    r                
  Strand 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh  -       Improved Gravel,or          
- Strand 
BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow           Crushed Stone Road           
 Bank 10 
   some Conifers D4Leother Leaf            Improved Dirt Road           
 Flat,du 
Cl-Popple withsome 809                     Unimproved Dirt Road         
  wide. B 
   White Birch  DS-Recent Burn             Traill     School           St-Shoal

DI-Scrub-ook(nst- 0-Open Land (No   l0ccupied House  Rural Church       G
-Shoal 
   I9Scarlet)and   forest growth)    DUnoccupied House Post Office      B
-Shoal 
   swni Red Maple C- Cleared Farm    GISummer Home ISummer Hotel        C
- Shoal 
E.l-Pin-cherrq     Crop Land          Telephone Line -"Power Line  
   Y - Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   4   Railroad    E±F- Along Road
    b -Shoal 
   Hardwoods       with stumps      - - - Abandoned Railroad            R
-Shoal 
82-White Pine   PP-Permanent Posture A Fire Tower  I-* Saw Mill 
Ca-Norwag Pine  AP-Stump Pasture    U Rural 5tore p  Creamera          -
  Aqual 
DZ-3acK Pine    CV-Urban Propert;4  A Logging Camp EiCheese Factortj    P-Plankt

A3-BlackAshMaplc '-Conmercial Ordiard                                  SA-Submen

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbardon-   Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   FP-Duckwe

B3-White Cedar     ed Farm Land     0- ' Average Diameter Class        SP-Submer

C3-Tamarack     Densityd of Stand    6IZ (for Area, in Inches.         EP-
Rooted 
03-Sprucel"twlkik] Fair Medium Poor Etc.                           
       or Emem 
 
 
Wisceptof Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol. and hat. Historg Survag.

 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
ine     L - Lake 
r Line SP- Beaver Pond 
lOft.wide --w Bathing Beach 
ft. high I 
8 to water recession 75ft, 
lank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelli4 
Bottom, Stang 
 
tic Veqetation - 
on (Lake Blooming) 
aed Algal Vegetation 
ad and like Plants 
r~ed Pondweeds 
Water Plants with floating 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
I Forest 
 
 
j         * 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.45N.R.8W. - 1928. 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
FZ7,_d_- 
 
 
- Land Cover - 
 
 
. -Cover Boundary 
Al-Hardwood with 
   some Basswood 
 BI-Hardwood with 
   some Conifers 
CI-FPppte with some 
   White Birch 
 DI-Scrub -oak (nost- 
   I9 Scarlet) and 
   some Ied Maple 
El-Pin-cherry 
AZ-Hemlock with 
   Hardwoods 
BZ-White Pine 
CZ-Norwao Pine 
DZ-Sack Pine 
A3-Black Ash, Maplc 
   and Elm 
B3-White Cedar 
C3-Tomara ck 
03-Spr9ce[  w q 
 
 
0      Mile     I 
 
 
A4-Tag-alderWillow, -   Roads  and Improvements -        -  Shore I 
   Red Dogwood, etc- ___W BogShor 
B4-Cat-tail Marsh     -      Improved Grovel, or         A0- Strand 
C4-Grass Meadow             Crushed Stone Road              Bank fl 
04-Leather Leaf              Improved Dirt Road             r, Flat,ddu 
   Bog               - == = Unimproved Dirt Road             wide.E 
D5-Recent Burn               Trail   Ii School           St-Shoal 
O-Open Land (No      *Occupied House j Rural Church      G -Shoal 
   forest growth)    DUnoccupied House ost Office       B -Shoal 
C- Cleared Farm       3Sjrnmer Home  Q Summer Hotel       C -Shoal 
   Crop Land           Telephone Line - Pbwer Line       Y - Shoal 
CR-Farm Crop Land     +9+ Railroad  I    Along Road       b -Shoal 
   with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad             R -Shoal 
PP-Permnent Pasture  A Fire Tower     - Saw Mill 
NtP-Stump Pasture    1 Rural Store  rC reamor               Aquai 
CV-Urbon Propert4j   * Logging Camp    Cheese Factory     P-Plankt 
T'- Commerciol orchard                                   SA-Submer 
A-Idle orAbandon-    Diameter Classes of Forest Cover    FP-Duckwe 
   ed  rm Land        -SP-Subme 
   ed  fa    nd      3-6  Average Diameter Class 
Density of Stand     6-Iz for Area,in Inches.            EP-Rootec 
Fair %iurm UPar      Et.. )                                 or Eme 
        WisVBei.tof Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol. and Nat. Historil
Surveg. 
 
 
and        L.akes and 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
Line    L - Lake 
-e Line BP- Beaver Pond 
lOft.wide -*-.w Bathing Beach 
ft.high I 
le to water recession 75ft 
3ank loft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stong 
 
tic Veget ation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
ged Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
qed Pondweeds 
l\ *ater Plants with floatinj 
rged Sterns and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
I   w     o 
 
 
I  Ur 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.45N. R.7W. - 1928. 
 
 
) 
 
 
N 
 
 
                                            Legend 
Lowland                                                                 
             Lakes and 
               I~~~~~~~~ ~ ' oetIIFrs  -m    ra ad   ond 
 
 
                                        0     Mile        I 
   -   Land  Cover   -- 
 .-CoverBoundar4 A4-Taq-alder,Willow, - Roads and Improvements -       Shore
L 
Al-Hardwood with Red Dogwood, ett.                                  -- BogShor

  some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh        Improved Gravel, or         0 Strand
I 
BI-Hardwood with C4-Graoss Meadow        Crushed Stone Road         '  Bank
I0 
  some Conifers D4.Leather Leaf          Improved Dirt Road         JL. Flat,dui

CI-Papple with some Bog                - Unimproved Dirt Road          wide.
B 
  White Birch  DS-Recent Burn     --  -  Traill     School          St-Shoal
I 
Dl-Scrub-oak(nost- 0-Open Land (No *Occupied House Rural Church     G -Shoal
I 
   ijscarlet)and  forest growth)   OUnoccup.ed House Post Office    B -Shoal
I 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Form  G1 Summer Home  Summer Hotel     C - Shoal
I 
El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land        '-Telephone Line " Power Line   
 Y-Shoal I 
AZ-Hemlock with CS-Farm Crop Land +   Railroad    -~e Along Road     b -Shoad
 I 
   Hardwoods      with stumps      - -- Abandoned Railroad           R -Shoal
I 
Ba-Whit, Pine  PP-Permanent Pasture   A Fire Tower     .a- Saw Mill 
C2-Norwa4 Pine AP-Stump Pasture    U Rural Store pr Creameri        -  Aquat

DZ-3aCK Pine   CV-Urban Propert4  * Logging Camp ECheese Factor4     P-Plankto

A3-BlacKAsh, Maple I-Commerciol 0rcherd                             SA-Submerc

   and Elm     A-Idle orAbandon-  Diameter Classes of Forest Cover  FP-Duckwel

B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land     0-3                              SP-Subme

C3-Tatnarack   Dniqof Stand        3-6 Average Diameter ClassSPume 
               Densit       n      6-iZ (for Area, in Inches.       EP- Rooted

03-Spruce"qwaq] Eair Mpum  Wr      Etc..)                          
   or Eme 
                       Wisc.De.po{ Agriculture in cooperation with the Geol.
and Nat. Historil Surveg, 
 
 
Lake Mapping 
ins    L- Lake 
"e Line BP-Beaver Pond 
lOft.wide l-w Bathing Beach 
ft. high 
a to water recession 75ft 
ank ioft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelltj 
Bottom, Stong 
ic Vegetation 
.n(Lake Blooming) 
aed Algal Vegetation 
ad and like Plants 
led Pondweed3 
Aoter PlaFnts with floanti 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.45N.R.6W. - 1928. 
 
 
                                                Legend 
For -wland 
 
 
Lakes and- I 
   I Ponds _ 
 
 
- Land Cover - 
 
 
--Cover Boundaro 
At-Hordwood with 
   some Basswood 
 BI-Hardwood with 
   -some Conifers 
Cl-Pipple with some 
   White Birch 
Dl-Scrub-oak(nmst- 
   ly Scarlet) and 
   some Re.d Maple 
El-Pin-cherry 
AZ-Hemlock with 
   Hardwoods 
BZ-White Pine 
CZ-Norwaj Pine 
DZ-Jack Pine 
A3-BlackAsh, Maple 
   and Elm 
B3-White Cedar 
C3-Tamaraok 
O3-Spruc[oa Mad] 
 
 
0      Mile     I 
 
 
A4-Tog-alder,Willow, - Roads   and   Improvements   -    -- Shore I 
   Red Dogwood, etc.                                    A' BogShor 
84-Cat-toil Marsh       -    Improved Grovel, or          -0- Strand 
C4-Grass Meadow             Crushed Stone Road              Bank 10 
D4.Leather Leaf              Improved Dirt Road              n Flat,du 
   Bog                       Unimproved Dirt Road            wide.e 
D5-Rece"t Burn       ----    Traill     School           St-Shoal 
O-Open Land (No      *Occupied House   Rural Church       G -Shoal 
   forest growth)     -Unoccupied House Post Office       B -Shoal 
C- Cleared Form      G*Surnmer Home  61 Summer Hotel      C -Shoal 
   Crop Land          'TelephoneLine _-_ Power Line       Y-Shoal 
CA-Farm Crop Land     HEM Railroad   -a*o Along Road      b -Shoal 
   with stumps       -.-÷- Abandoned Railroad             R-Shoal

PP-Permanent 1Psture A Fire Tower    .* Saw Mill 
AP-Stump Pasture     U Rural Store  IjCreatnrj           -- Aqual 
CV-Urban Propert~j   * Logging Camp riCheese Factory      P-Plankto 
'-Commeral orchard                                       SA-Submren 
A-Idle orAbandon-    Diameter Classes of Forest Cover    FP-Duckwei 
   od Form Land      3-63  Average Diameter Class        SP-Submer 
Densijty of Stand    3-6 EFP- Rooted 
De                    6-1z for Area, in Inches. 
  Fair             A.ija For Etc..t                         or Eme 
         Wisc..Dept~o Agriculture in coopeation with the 4ol. and Nat. Hlstorii
Surveg. 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
 
 
Lfne   IL- Lake 
e Line laP- Beaver Pond 
toft.ide -*-w Bathing Beach 
ft. high L 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank ioft.high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Moar 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelly 
Bottom, Stongj 
 
ic Veqetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
aed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rled Pondweed3 
NAter Pldnts with floatinm 
rqed Sterns and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
) 
 
 
I 
 
 
11 
 
 
o      Mile                I 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO.,WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.45N. R.5W. - 1928. 
 
 
   LoFwland 
'ýFrot        Forest 
 
 
Lakes and 
     Ponds 
 
 
                                           0     mile        I 
   SLand Cover         - 
""--CoverBoundarq A4-Tog-aldetWillow,  --Roads and Improvements
-        -Shore 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc.                                     
'" BogShor 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh     -    Improved Gravel, or         -s--
Strand 
81-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow           Crushed Stone Road           '-
Bank Io 
   wone Conifers D4-Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road          
L Flot,du 
CI-Ppplt wlthsonm Bog                       Unimproved Dirt Road        
   wide. 5 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn      --   -  Trail   i School            St-Shoal

0l-Scrub-oak(nost- O-Open Land (No   mO1cupied House  Rural Church      G
-Shoal 
   I4&Arlet)dnd    forest growth)    rUnoccupied House 9 Post Office
    B -Shoal 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Form    ESummer Home    11Summer Hotel     
C -Shoal 
El-PRn-cherry      Crop Land            Telephone Line - Pbwer Line     
Y-Shoal 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land    +4  Railroad   e:'-o Along Road    
b -Shoal 
   Hardwoods       with stump3       - ÷ - Abandoned Railroad    
       R -Shoal 
B2-White Pine   PP-lirmanent PRuture A Fire Tower   -'- Saw Mill 
CZ-Norwaoj Pine AP-Stump Posture     0 Rural 5tore    Creanrg           -
 Aquat 
DZ-Jack Pine,   CV-Urbon Propert4    & Logging Camp ECheese Fattorj 
    P-Planktc 
AZ-BlockAshM aple 't-Commermiol Orcherd                                 SA-Submetn

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbindon-    Diameter Classes of Forest Cover   FP-Duckwei

B3-White Cedar     ed Farm Land      0-3 ý Average Diameter Class
      SP-5ubme 
C3-Tamarack     Oensitj of Stand     3-6  A        D 
                                     etsZ for Area, in Inches.         EP-
Rooted 
D3-Spernoceloo ]  a_ M =j rn I r m kI..)                                
  or Eme 
                        Wlscept.of AgHculture in cooperation with the Geol.
and Nd. History Surveti 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
Lne     L- Lake 
e Line IP- Beaver Pond 
IOft.wideVle Bathing Beach 
f,. hight 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravellj 
Bottom, Stnti 
ic Vegetation 
on (Lake Blooming) 
1ed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
led Pondweeds 
ý*tsr Plants with floatim 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
ii 
 
 
K 
 
 
Open 
   Swomp 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO.,WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.44N. R.9W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
ii 
 
 
1  nForest 
 
 
   - Land Cover - 
"*.-CoverBoundarj A4-Taq-alderWillow, 
Al-Hardwood with   Red Dogwood, etc. 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow 
   some Conifers D04Leather Leaf 
C I-Ppple with some Bog 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn 
 DI-Scrub-oak(nost- O-Open Land (No 
   19Scarlet)and   forest growth) 
   some Red Maple C-Cleared Form 
El-Pin-cherri-     Crop Land 
AZ-Hemlock with Cit-Farm Crop Land 
   Hardwoods       with stumps 
Bf-Whits Pine   PP-Permonent PeAture 
C2-Norwag Pine AP-Stunip Pasture 
DZ-jack Pine    CV-Urbon Propert4 
A3-BlackAsh, Maple Yt-Commercial Orchard 
   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon- 
53-White Cedar     ed Farm Land 
C3-Tamarack      Densit, of Stand 
D3-Spruceiooo hWk] Fair Mpum Poor 
 
 
K 
 
 
      Legend 
                                  - iFi onI a ind i  Ponds 
 
0      Mile  I 
 
 
-   Roads and Improvements - 
z        Improved Gravel, or 
        Crushed Stone Road 
        Improved Dirt Road 
        Unim*roved Dirt Road 
        Trail    I School 
 U Occupied House & Rural Church 
 oUnotcupied House Post Office 
 G Summer Home   GSummer Hotel 
 'Telephone Line -- Power Line 
 ilb Railroad     -  Along Road 
 . .  Abandoned Railroad 
 ,A Fire Tower   .ia.Saw Mill 
 * Rural Store  IPCreameru 
 * Logging Camp aICheese Factorg 
 
 Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
 3-6   Average Diameter Class 
 6-Et (for Area, in Inches. 
 Etc.. ) 
 
 
      - Lake Mapping - 
-Shore Line       L- Lake 
-.e BogShore Line BP- Beaver Pond 
' Strand lOft.wide -w Bathing Beach 
- Bank toft.high 
T, Flat,due to water recession 75ft 
    wide. Bank loft. high. 
St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
G -Shoal Bottom  of Marl 
B -Shoal Bottom  of Much 
C-Shoal Bottom   of Clao 
Y-Shoal Bottom   of Sand 
b -Shodl Bottom, Gravelly 
R-ShoaI Bottom, Stony 
 
-   Aquatic Vegetation 
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
5A-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
SP- Submerged Pondweeds 
EP- Rooted Water Plants with floating 
    or Emerged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
YZ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELO CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.44N.R.8W. - 1928. 
 
 
Pd 
 
 
LegenO 
 
 
I owad 
 
 
-l 5,ijarC               j Ira         nd          od 
 
 
   - Land Cover - 
--Cover Boundarg A4-Tag-alderWillow. 
Al-Hardwood with      Red Dogwood, etc. 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh 
 131-Hardwood With C4-Grass Meadow 
   some Conifers D4,Leather Leaf 
Cl-lNpple with some. Bog 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn 
D )-Scrub -oak (nost- 0-Open Land (No 
   l~jScarlet) and forest growth) 
   some Red Maple  C- Cleared Farm 
 El-Pln-cherrq     Crop Land 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land 
   Hardwoods       with stumps 
B2-White Pine   PP-PermwAnnt Pwture. 
CZ-Norwoq Pine AP-Stumnp Postture 
92-3aeli Pine   CV-UrbOn PrOptrtj 
A3-BlackAsh,Mople Yl-Commerciol Orchard 
   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon- 
53-White Cedar     edl Farm Land 
CS Tamraock     Densiftt at Stand 
D3-Spnhcefneatijh'A] Fa~ir Mi~im Poor 
 
 
-Roads    and  Improvements- 
       Improved Grovel, or 
       Crushed Stone Road 
       Improved Dirt Road 
       Unimroed Dirt Road 
         Tril  li School 
*O111ccupied House  Rural Church 
oUnowcupie4 House tPost Office 
Q Summer Home ! Summer Hotel 
-'- Telephone Line '-~ Power Line 
+m4+ Railroad  '_-L Along Road 
   --Abandoned Railroad 
 AFire Tower S~aSw Mill 
 *Rural 5tore  Ihramr 
:1 Logging Comp I Cheese ractorig 
 
Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
3-6  Average Diameter Class 
E-t ( for Area, in Inches. 
 
 
      - Lake Mopping- 
   -Shore Li"e   L - Lake 
-W Bog5hore Line BP- Beaver Pond 
,E2- Strand l0ft~wide ~--Bathing Beach 
'o 
ý'- Bank loft, high 
  SFlat,dlue to water rec essi on 75fit, 
    wide. Bank loft. high. 
St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
G -Shoal Bottom  of Mart 
B -Shoal Bottom  af Muck 
C - Shoal Bottom of Clog 
Y - Shoal Bottomn of Sand 
b -Shodl Bottom, Gravellaj 
R - ShodaI Bottom. Ston4 
 
- Aquatic Vegetation- 
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
SA-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
SP-Subnierg ed Pondweeds 
EP- Rooted \Ahter Plants with floating 
    or Emerged Stemns and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
K 
 
 
1. 
 
 
0      Mile         I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY--BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.44N.R.7W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
Legend 
            0         7     Famanandke s               in 
 -                wm           ra Lan]           Pnd 
 
 
   - Land Cover - 
-.-CoverBoundarg A4-Tao-alder,Willow, 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc. 
   some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow 
   some Conifers D4Leather Leaf 
 CI-Popple with some  Bog 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn 
 0D-Scrub-oak(most- O-Open Land (No 
   IqScarlet)and   forest growth) 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm 
 El-Pin-cherry     Crop Land 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Foarm Crop Land 
   Hardwoods       with stumps 
 62-White Pine  PP-Permanret Pesture 
 C2-Norwaj Pine AP-Stump Posture 
 IDf-JacK Pine  CV-Urbon Propert4 
 A3-BleckAsh, Maple Y-Commercial Orcdird 
    and Elm     A-Idle orAbandon- 
 B3-White Cedar    ed Farm Land 
 C3-Tamarack    Densitj of Stand 
 03-Sprucnm work. Fai.__r Medium  Poor 
 
 
       o     Mile       I 
-Roads and Improvements - 
        Improved Grovel, or 
        Crushed Stone Road 
        Improved Dirt Road 
        Unimproved Dirt Road 
        Trail   li School 
 H Occupied House jRural Church 
 OUnoccupied House Post Office 
 G Summer Home  GISummer Hotel 
 -Telephone Line    Power Line 
 4#,* Railroad  -=*' Along Road 
 - - - Abandoned Railroad 
 A Fire Tower   ElSaw Mill 
 S 
 0 Rural 5tore jrCreamerg 
 A Logging Camp *Cheese Factory 
 
 Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
 3-6  Average Diameter Class 
 6-Ez (for Area, in Inches. 
 Ltc. ) 
 
 
      - Lake Mappin9 - 
- Shore Line     L - Lake, 
-.r BocShore Line . BP- Beaver Pond 
-' Strand 10ft.wide --w Bathing Beach 
I- Bank loft. high 
75 Flat,due to water recession 75ft 
    wide. Bank loft. high. 
St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
G -Shoal Bottom  of Marl 
B-Shoal Bottom  of Muck 
C -Shoal Bottom  of Clao 
Y-Shoal Bottom  of Sand 
b -Shoal Bottom, Gravelli4 
R-Shoal Bottom, Stony 
- Aquatic Vegetation 
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
SA-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
SP-Submerged Pondweeds 
EP- Rooted Water Plants with floatinc 
    or Emerged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
I LolnForestI 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY--BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T44N. R.6W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
                 Legena 
                                             For -    -  rw_ oo s and 
Urban -dd -                                                       PondsJ
Li 
 
 
   -Land Cover - 
.. Cover Boundarj A4-Tag-older,Willow, 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc. 
  some Basswood B4-Cat-toil Marsh 
BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow 
   some Conifers  D4Leather Leaf 
CI-Popple with some  Bog 
   White Birch D5-Recent Burn 
DI-Scrub-ook(most- 0-Open Land (No 
   js5carlet)and  forest growth) 
   somn Red Male C- Cleared Farm 
El-Pin-cherrJ     Crop Land 
AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land 
   Hardwoods      with stumps 
62-White Pine  PP-Permanent Psture. 
CZ-Norwaq Pine AP-Stump Posture 
D.-JocK Pine   CV-Urban Propert, 
A3-BlacKAsh,Maple Y(-Commercial Orchard 
   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon- 
B3-White Cedar    ed Form Land 
C3-Tamaraek     Densitq of Stand 
03-Spruncuetltwah.] FaLir M=Wjm Poor 
 
 
       0     Mile       I 
 
- Roads and Improvements - 
SImproved Gravel, or 
        Crushed Stone Road 
        Improved Dirt Road 
        Unimproved Dirt Road 
 .- --  Trail   i School 
 lOccupied House JRural Church 
 DUncwcupied House Plost Office 
 * Summer Home  Q*Summer Hotel 
    Telephone Line ý-- Power Line 
 +w'+ Railroad  -aL* Along Road 
 - - - Abandoned Railroad 
 A Fire Tower     .-.Saw Mill 
 * Rural 5tore jPCreamerg 
 * Logging Camp NiCheese Factorj 
 
 Diameter Classes of Forest Cover 
 3-6  Average Diameter Class 
 6-lz (for Area, in Inches. 
 Et) 
 
 
      - Lake Mapping - 
--- Shore Line   L - Lake, 
-vw BogShore Line BP- Beaver Pond 
,E, Strand lOft.wide -.w Bathing Beach 
10 
SBank iOft.high 
,Flatdue to water recession 75ft 
    w ide. Bank lOft, high. 
St-Shoal Bottom with Debris 
G -Shoal Bottom  of Marl 
B -Shoal Bottom of Muck 
C-Shoal Bottom   of Clao 
Y - Shoal Bottom of Sand 
b -Shoal Bottom, Gravelly 
R-Shoal Bottom, Stong 
 
-   Aquatic Veqetation 
P-Plankton (Lake Blooming) 
SA-Submerged Algal Vegetation 
FP-Duckweed and like Plants 
SP-Submergaed Pondweeds 
EP- Rooted \ahter Plants with floating 
    or Emerged Stems and Leaves. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.44N.R.5W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
Leqend 
 
 
Lr2-tJ 
 
 
                                           0      Mile        I 
   -    Land  Cover    - 
..-CoverBmoudary A4-Taq-alderW1llow, - Roads   and Improvements      -  
N -Shore L 
Al-Hardwood with   Red Dogwood, etc. -                                  
   Boqjhor 
   some Basswood 54-Cat-tail Marsh   z-     Improved Gravel, or         _1-
Strand 
 ol-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow           Crushed Stone Road          
   Bank 10 
   some Conifers D4Leather Leaf             Improved Dirt Road          
    a Flotdu 
 Cl-Pipple withsome Bog              ==== Unimproved Dirt Road          
   wide. B 
   White Birch  DS-Recent Burn       - - -  Trail   I  School           St-
Shoal 
 DI-Scrub-oak(nost- 0-Open Land (No      lOccupied House   Rural Church 
      G -Shoal I 
   yScaorlet)and   forest growth)    DUn0ocupied House Post Office      
B -Shoal I 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm     3 Summer Home   Summer Hotel      
C - Shoal I 
 El-Rn-cherry      Crop Land          ""Telephone Line  Fl Power
Line   Y - Shoal I 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Farm Crop Land   44* Railroad     .  Along Road     
b -Shoal I 
   Hardwoods       with stumps       -÷-  Abandoned Railroad     
       R-Shoal I 
 B,-White Pine  PP-Permganet Pasture A Fires Tower  i.a Saw Mill 
 C2-Norwaj Pine AP-Stump Pdatue        Rural Store  I     1Creater      
- Aquat 
 D2-3"acK Pine. CY-Urban Propert4    A Logging Camp ECheese Factorg
     P-Planktc 
 A3-BlackA3h,Maple T'-Coman.al Orcoan                                   SA-Submen

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbandon-    Diameter Ciasses of Forest Cover   FP-Ouckwei

B3-White Cedar     ed Firm L-and      -3 - Average Diameter Class       SP-Submer

C3-Tamarack     Densitq of Stand      6        r                        EP-Rooted

                                     6-1Z for Area, in Inches.          E-Rod

03-Spnicel..o E   gik Fair 'A&m zm r Et,.)                          
       or Eme 
                        Vftc.Dspt.of Agriculture 'in caoopation with the
Geol, end Not. Historyj Surveti. 
 
 
Lakes and 
     Ponds 
 
 
Lake Mapping 
in      L - Lake. 
.e Line 13P- Beaver Pond 
lOft.wide -*,-w Bathing Beach 
f.high  I 
e to water recession 75ft. 
lank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clay 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravellt 
Bottom. Stong 
 
it Veg.etation    - 
in (Lake Blooming) 
1ed Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rged Pondweeds 
Water Plants with floating 
rged Stems and Leaves." 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.43N. R.9W. - 1928. 
 
 
                                          0      Mile        I 
   -   Land   Cover   -                    ,  O 
   --Cover Boundarj A4-Tao-alderWlllow, - Roads and Improvements   -    
  6-Shore L 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Dogwood, etc.                                     
w BoqShor 
  some Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh    -      Improved Gravel, or         -'0-
Strand I 
51-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow           Crushed Stone Road           
   Bank 10 
   some Conifers D$4Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road          
   nat,du 
C1-apple withsome Bog                       Unimproved Dirt Road        
   wide. B 
   White Birch  D5-Recent Burn      - - -   Trail   lI School           St-Shoal
I 
DI-Scrub-oak(nost- O-Open Land (No   *Occupied House  Rural Church      
G -Shoal ! 
   Iyl.arlet)and  forest growth)    DUnoccupied House Post Office       B
-Shoal I 
   some Red Maple C- Cleared Farm    2Smmer Home    !Sunmmer Hotel      
C - Shoal I 
El-Pin-cherry      Cxop Land          'L-TelephoneLine "Power Line 
     Y-Shoal I 
AZ-Hemlock with Ce-Farm Crop Land    "44o* Railroad   -Lo- Along Road
   b -Shoal I 
   Hardwoods       with stumps       - - - Abandoned Railroad           
R-SShoal I 
BZ-Whit. Pine   PP-Permnnent Pasture t Fire Tower   t* Saw Mill 
C2-Norwao Pine  *P-Stumnp Pasture    U Rural Store  l9Crearneru         
- Aquat 
02-3acK Pine    CV-Urban Propert,4   A Logging Camp SCheese Factory     P-Plankto

A3-BlackAsh.Maple I-Commercial Orcdrd                                   SA-Submers

   and Elm      A-IdleorAband-n-     Diameter Cldses of Forest Cover    FP-Ouckwei

53-White Cedar     ed Farm Land      o.- ý Average Diameter Class
      SP-Submer 
C3-Tamaraek     Density of Stand      -6-(for Area, in Inches.          EP-
Rooted 
03-Spnctrr t4e * h] Fa._.r ILim Pr   Etc..)                             
   or Fime 
                        Wis5].pt. of Agriculture in cooperation with the
Geol. end Nat. Historg Surveg. 
 
 
Lan         .,kes and 
   ban Lnd I    Pond. 
 
Lake Mapping -- 
 
 
,ine   L- Lake 
eLine BSP- Beaver Pond 
Oft.wide-,,.r Bathing Beach 
ft~high/ 
e to water recession 75ft 
ank I0ft, high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clao 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravellg 
Bottom, Stony 
 
ic Vegetation - 
n (Lake Blooming) 
lad Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
qed Pondweeds 
X*ter Plants with floaing 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
ii 
 
 
S 
 
 
I Fowresd 
 
 
I F irmUr 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.43N. R.8W. - 1928. 
 
 
Legend 
 
 
- Fbres 
 
 
                                          0      mile 
   -    Land Cover -- 
.-CoverBoundarg A4-Toa-oldeiWllow, --Roads    and Improvements          
  6hors L 
Al-Hardwood with  Red Oogwood, . et..                                   .Boqhor

   some Basswood 84-Cat-tail Marsh          Improved Gravel, or         K_
Strand 
 81-Hardwood with C4-Gras3 Meadow          Crushed Stone Road           
  Bank io 
   some Conifers 04-Leather Leaf            Improved Dirt Road         ,.L
Flatdu 
 Cl-:bpple withtsome Saj             -Bog   Unimproved Dirt Road        
  w;de. 8 
   White Birch  05-Recent Burn      - - -   Trail   i School           St
- Shoal 
 Dl-Scrub-oak(nmot- O-Open Land (No  *Owccupied House iRural Church     G
-Shoal 
   l9Scarlet)and   forest qrowth)    O1naccupied House Feet Office      B
-Shoal 
   bome lRd Maple C- Cleared Form    R,.nummer Home lSummer Hotel       C
-Shoal 
 EI-Pin-cherry     Crop Land        '   TelephneLins"I*- Pbwer Line
    Y -Shoal 
 AZ-Hemlock with CA-Form Crop Land   H   Railroad  I L Along Road       b
-Shoal 
   Hardwoods       with stumps      - .   Abandoned Railroad            R
-Shoal 
 B-White Pine   PP-permanent Pasture A Fire Tower  .a- Sow Mill 
 C2-Norwaj Pine   -St~ump Pastur       Rural Store lCreamer4           -
 Aqual 
 -NarcK Pine   CV-Urbon Propertr   * Logging Camp riUCheese Factorij   P-Planktc

 AM-BlackAshMople Y'-ConmeciaI Orhard                                  SA-Sublmet

   and Elm      A-Idle orAbaidon-   Diameter CIlses of Forest Cover    FP-Duckwei

 B3-White Cedar    ed Ahrm Land      0-3  Average Diameter Class       SP-5ubme

 C3-Tomarack    Densitj of Stand     3-6  Are DaerCs 
                0Oenstto E-,z (for Area, in Inches.                    EP-Rooted

                  .        ,]Fir Mgm 12&r Etc..)                    
      or Eme 
                        W13seOpt of Agriculture in cooperation with thle
Geol. end Hat, History Sorytit. 
 
 
F-pi      __      a    n       FLakes aind-I 
         I   Swmp jI LrbanLandI I Ponds 
 
 
Lake Mapping - 
Ina     L - Lake 
e Line lEP-Beaver Pond 
lOft.wid 4ý*.w Bathing Beach 
ft. high 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank Ioft.hiqh. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Clog 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Gravelli 
Bottom, Stong 
tic Veget ation - 
on (Lake Blooming) 
aed Algal Vegetation 
ad and like Plants 
-god Pondweeds 
Witer Plants with flootimn 
rged Stems and Leaves. 
 
 
N 
 
 
S 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO.,WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.43N. R.7W. - 1928. 
 
 
N 
 
 
                                         L.egena 
   forest      Fc,"t                                I              
                   epUba adPnds 
 
                                   n     Mile     I 
Land Cover -                          - =                          -   Lake
Mappinq 
 
 
.... -Cover Boundary 
Al-Hardwood with 
  sone Basswood 
  BI-Hardwwod with 
  some Conifers 
Cl-Pfpple with some 
   White Birch 
 DI-Scrub-ook (nmet- 
   hj S4carlet) dnd 
   some Red Maple 
El-Pin- cherry 
AZ-Hemlock with 
   Hardwoods 
62-White Pine 
CZ-Norwa4 Pine 
DZ-TacK Pine. 
A-Black Ash, Mapl 
   and Elm 
83-White Cedar 
CS-Tamarack 
-3I-ee.. wk 
 
 
A4-To4-aldeWillow, - Roads and Improvements-        -Shore 
  Red Dogwood, etc.                                 W BogShoe 
B4-Cat-teill Marsh       Improved Gravel, or       ' Strand 
C+Grnas Meadow           Crushed Stone Road       *  Bank 10 
D4-Leather Leaf          Improved Dirt Road            o Flat,du 
  Bol                    Unimaroved Dirt Road        wide. E 
05-Recent Burn    ---- Trail    I  School         St-Shoal 
O-Open Land (No    mOctuped House lural Church     G -Shoal 
   forest growth)  DUnctupied House iP;st Office   B -Shoal 
C- Cleared Farm    U2ummer Home 13Summer Hotel     C -Shoal 
   Crop Land       a  Telephone Line le- Power Line Y-Shoal 
CA-Forrm Crop Land     lRailroad =-o Along Road    b -Shoal 
   with stumps     - - - Abandoned Railroad        R -Shoal 
PP-Pemnonent olsture  A Fire Tower    iL Saw Mill 
dP-Stump Pasture   E Rural Store jrCreamerg       -  Aqual 
CV-Lrban ProeprtS  A Logging Campi CKeese Factorgj        P-Plankti 
Y -Ceomercil Ordwrd                               SA-Subrnen 
A-IdleorAbandon-      Diameter Classes of Forest Cover      rP-Duckwe 
   ad Fare Land    0-3 " Average Diameter Class  SP-Subme 
Denit of Stand     ."6.(for Area, in Inches.      EP- Rooted 
nih M*M UoHr Etc. Ior Eme 
       WVABpt~of Alrcuhtairt in cooperation with the Geol. end Nat Historij
Survey4. 
 
 
.dne   L- Lake 
e Line IBP- Beaver Pond 
loft.widefO--o Bathing beech 
0ft.high / 
e to water recession 75ft 
lank loft. high. 
Bottom with Debris 
Bottom of Marl 
Bottom of Muck 
Bottom of Cloy 
Bottom of Sand 
Bottom, Graveil4 
Bottom, Stong 
 
tic Veget ation- 
on (Lake Blooming) 
god Algal Vegetation 
ed and like Plants 
rijed Pondweeds 
kter Plants with floating 
 
rged Stemrs and Leaves. 
 
 
0-ao roei  U..0;-"7-- 
 
 
'Re 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY--BAYFIELD CO.,WISCONSIN. 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.43N.R.6W. - 1928. 
 
 

	
				
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY- BAYFIELD CO., WISCONSIN. 
 
FOREST AND FORM COVER MAP - T.43N. R.5W. - 1928. 
 
 
Leqend 
 
 
S°nj.,, d 
IF ores 
 
 
   - Land Cover - 
'--Cover Boundary A4-Tag-alderWillow. 
Al-Hardwood with   Red Dogwood, etC. 
   somne Basswood B4-Cat-tail Marsh 
 BI-Hardwood with C4-Grass Meadow 
   some Conifers D4-Leather Leaf 
 CI-Pp1#e with some Bog 
   White Birch  DS-Recent Burn 
 OI-Scrub-ooko"st- 0-Open Land (No 
    ly5carlet)and  forest growth) 
    some Red Maple  C- Cleared Farm 
 
 
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Western Duck Sickness (Botulism) in 
 
                the Green Bay Area 
 
                      By F. R. ZIMMERMAN 
              Wildlife Biologist, Game Management Division 
 
 
  We do not know exactly when the first 
outbreak of Western Duck Sickness or 
botulism occurred on this continent. Early 
settlers in the region of Great Salt Lake, 
Utah, tell of the death of thou.ands of 
waterfowl in that area in 1893. It has also 
been reported that an epidemic occurred in 
the Tulare Lake Basin of California in the 
1890's. The California Fish and Game Com- 
mission reports that the first recorded out- 
breaks took place in 1907 and 1908. In 1898 
an outbreak of the sickness was reported 
among geese at Bitter Lake; northwest of 
Watertown, South Dakota. 
  Western   Duck  Sickness gained wide- 
spread public attention in 1910 when a very 
severe epidemic occurred at Salk Lake. This 
epidemic and subsequent outbreaks took a 
toll of millions of birds, averaging 200,000 
to 300,000 in one year. There were severe 
outbreaks in California from the period of 
1910-1930, and during 1940 at the Tulare 
Lake Basin, California, 1,285 birds suc- 
cumbed. Four thousand one hundred and 
fifty-two rescued birds recovered. 
  Minor outbreaks have taken place in 
 
 
Oregon, Idaho, North and South Dakota, 
Nebraska, and in the Canadian provinces 
of Alberta and Saskatchewan. It might be 
mentioned, although the figures are not 
available, that outbreaks of varying in- 
tensity occurred in North Dakota during 
the summer of 1942. Mr. D. H. Janzen, 
director for the Fish and Wildlife Service 
in this region, also advised me that ap- 
proximately 400 black ducks died the same 
summer from botulism along the Fox river 
in Illinois, just over the state line from 
Kenosha county. 
  Although epidemics. of botulism must 
have taken place in Wisconsin in years gone 
by, only three outbreaks are known to me. 
In 1938 an occurrence of the sickness was 
noted on Horicon Marsh. A very dry sum- 
mer which caused lower water levels, ex- 
posed mud flats, and aquatic vegetation be- 
came decomposed. High temperatures made 
it ideal for the botulinus organism to grow 
and excrete its deadly toxin. During the 
month of August that year, a number of 
mallards, black ducks, blue-winged teal, 
muskrats, and marsh hawks were found. 
 
 
U. S. Game Management Agent E. T'. Carter holding a male Baldpate which 
         is in the early stages of having western duck sickness.' 
  (Publication 332, A-47. Reprint from Vol. XI, No. 12, the December, 1946,
issue 
                 of the Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin) 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The marsh hawks evidently contracted the 
sickness because they occasionally feed on 
carrion. In 1936 the sickness was found 
to be prevalent in 'the Green Bay area in 
the same general location of the 1942 
epidemic. These epidemics will be discussed 
later in this paper. 
  Western Duck Sickness, so named because 
it was first studied in the western part of 
the United States, is caused by a bacterium, 
Clostridiuw botulinum, type C. This organ- 
ism was first discovered by van Ermengen 
in 1896, and the type C strain was first 
isolated by Ida A. Bengston of the United 
States Hygienic Laboratory in 1922. In 
1930, Giltner and Couch first isolated the 
bacterium from dead ducks and mud col- 
lected in epidemic areas. Kalmbach and 
Gunderson showed conclusively that the 
bacteria could actually produce duck sick- 
ness in the field. With the outbreak of the 
s~vere Ufah epidemic in 1910, Alexander 
Wetmore began to study the cause of the 
sickness. Many theories had been advanced 
that industrial wastes, lead poisoning, 
gases, parasites, toxic algae, and toxic 
alkali salts, were the causes of these re- 
occurring epidemics. Wetmore came to the 
conclusion that the sickness among ducks 
was caused by certain toxic alkali salts. 
Subsequent outbreaks showed no correlation 
between the actual outbreaks and the pres- 
ence of alkali salts, so that further work 
was carried on by Kalmbach and Gunderson 
in 1927 with the proof that this particular 
bacterium is the cause of duck sickness 
 
 
which is a form of food poisoning or 
botulism. 
   The organism, Clostridiuin   botulinunm, 
type C, is a large bacterium which is found 
naturally in the soil. It is present more 
frequently in virgin soil, but is widespread 
in its range. Like many other species of 
soil organisms, it produces spores which 
are able to withstand extreme temperature 
and moisture variations. The spore-forming 
species of bacteria are able to live indefi- 
nitely under natural conditions, and can 
be killed only with the use of powerful 
chemicals or by high temperatures. One of 
the most important characteristics of this 
organism is that it is an anaerobe-mean- 
ing that it cannot grow in the presence of 
oxygen. It grows very well in the presence 
of either dead vegetable or animal matter, 
and so is known as a saprophyte in con- 
trast to a parasite which lives on living 
matter. The organism also prefers alkaline 
conditions to a media of acidity. Under 
favorable environmental conditionc, which 
include moderately high temperatures, ab- 
sence of oxygen, and abundant dead organic 
matter, these organisms grow and multiply 
in enormous numbers. The excretory prod- 
uct given off during their life history is a 
deadly toxin. This toxin is one of the strong- 
est poisons known. It is stronger than the 
toxin produced by the bacterium causing 
lockjaw, Clostridium tetani. In the labora- 
tory, Batson, working in South Dakota, has 
been able to kill pigeons using 1/1,000,000 
of a cubic centimeter of this deadly toxin. 
 
 
Ducks killed by botulism prior to burning on "Botulism Island"
in Green Bay. 
 
 
0 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
Batson says that under natural conditions 
it is believed that the organisms themselves 
are harmless to birds and mammals, but 
that sickness and death occurs only when 
the pre-formed toxin is taken in during 
feeding. The absorption of this toxin from 
the digestive tract is very rapid, he says, 
and symptoms of sickness and even death 
occurs within a few hours. This toxin has 
a low resistance to moderately high tem- 
peratures, sunlight, and the action of cer- 
tain chemicals, such as potassium perman- 
gaxate. 
  Botulism cannot be called a disease in 
the true sense of the word, but should be 
called an intoxication, as the sickness re- 
sults from the ingestion of the toxin rather 
than from the organism itself. 
  The first symptoms appear to be a gen- 
eral muscular weakness. The duck affected 
loses its sense of balance and throws its 
full weight upon its toes. The bird shows 
extreme leg weakness, and is unable to walk 
with any sense of balance. The wings can 
be used, but sustained flight is impossible. 
During this first stage of partial paralysis, 
the birds seek cover several yards distant 
from the shoreline. The paralysis spreads 
to the wings, and finally to the neck region. 
The neck is sometimes stretched along the 
ground, and has earned the name of "lim- 
berneck" for the sickness. Advanced stages 
of the malady show the birds gasping for 
air. A watery discharge appears at the 
eyes and nostrils, and a greenish diarrhea 
can be noted. 
  The heart action is slow, and the body 
temperature becomes subnormal. When the 
bird reaches this stage, it is doubtful that 
recovery is possible. Birds have been found 
drowned because it was impossible for them 
to hold their necks above water. If the 
birds become prostrate upon land, they soon 
die due to exposure to the sun and lack of 
food and water. Many times birds are 
found with the nictitating membrane or 
third eyelid partially or wholly paralyzed. 
  The first serious outbreak of duck sick- 
ness that came to the attention of the 
conservation department occurred in the 
summer of 1936 during the months of Au- 
gust, September, and October. When the 
presen-3 of dead waterfowl was first noted, 
the c-iuse was unkonwn. Doctors J. L. Ford 
and P. M. Clifford of Green Bay success- 
fully determined that the sickness was 
caused by the botulism organism by isolat- 
ing the bacterium in their laboratory. Ap- 
proximately one hundred ducks and some 
shorebirds succumbed to the outbreak. Dr. 
Ford informs me that practically all vari- 
eties of waterfowl common to the Green 
Bay arca were affected. This included the 
mallard, blue-winged teal, coot, mergansers 
of various species, and the Wilson's snipe. 
Dr. Ford estimated that approximately 40% 
were mallards, 40% coot, and the remaining 
 
 
20% was made up of mergansers and snipe. 
   The latter part of August 1941, the con- 
servation department received a call from 
Mr. Emmett Platten of Green Bay to the 
effect that a number of dead and dying 
ducks were to be found around a small 
island just off the Green Bay Yacht Club. 
Dr. Hartsough of the State Experimental 
Game and Fur Farm made an investigation, 
and determined that botulism was causing 
the death of these birds. On September 11, 
16, 17, and 18, the waterfowl management 
research project with local Conservation 
Warden Hayner, Mr. Resler of the game 
farm staff, and Mr. Carter, federal game 
management agent for Wisconsin, investi- 
gated the area where the outbreak occurred. 
The focal point for the malady was found 
to be a small island created by the War 
Department in keeping the ship channel 
dredged out. This island is about one- 
quarter of a mile out from the Green Bay 
Yacht Club, and covers an area of ap- 
proximately 11/2 acres. Around the north 
end of the island there was found an ex- 
cellent growth of sago pondweed and wild 
rice. It was here that most of the dead and 
dying birds were picked up, although sev- 
eral birds were gathered at other nearby 
islands; namely, Grassy and Frying Pan 
islands. The epidemic was well into its late 
stages, as was evidenced by the number of 
dead birds picked up, most of which were 
in a bad state of decomposition. One hun- 
dred and fifty-six dead ducks, and a few 
miscellaneous species were picked up. 
Eighteen ducks suffering from the sickness 
in its various stages were taken to the 
game farm for possible recovery. The nos- 
trils and throats of many of the birds found 
were infected with leeches which further 
tended to aggravate the situation. The birds 
taken to the game farm were as follows: 
  Mallard ------------------------1 
  Black duck ----------------------8 
  Baldpate    ------------------      3 
  Pintail -------------------------2 
  Blue-winged teal                   3 
  Lesser scaup --------------------1 
 
 
Total 
 
 
--18 
 
 
  Out of this number, one black duck and 
one drake baldpate survived. The 156 dead 
birds picked up were disposed of by soak- 
ing in gasoline and then burning. The total 
number and species of birds that died of 
botulism were the following: 
    Species                       Number 
  American bittern -----------------2 
  Mallard -----------------------18 
  Black duck            --    --   - 58 
  Baldpate                           5 
  Pintail -------------------------2 
  Green-winged teal ---------------12 
  Blue-winged teal ----------------53 
  Lesser scaup --------------------1 
  Coot --------------------------14 
 
  

					
				
				
 
  Solitary sandpiper ---------------1 
  Herring gull --------------------3 
  Red-winged backbird -------------2 
 
    Total -----------------------171 
  As mentioned previously, the botulinus 
organism grows and thrives in the presence 
of either decaying animal matter, or vege- 
table material that is undergoing decom- 
position. 
  It was absolutely necessary to dispose 
of these dead birds, many of which were 
almost completely disintegrated, by saturat- 
ing their bodies with gasoline and burning. 
The charred remains were then buried. 
Leaving the bodies of these ducks in the 
area may produce large quantities of toxin, 
and thus create a menace to other birds. 
Stirring the water with an oar or with 
the foot also helped to dilute the concentra- 
tion of toxin. Biologists with the Fish and 
Wildlife Service informed me that for an 
area of six feet around one duck carcass, 
the water is saturated with the toxin from 
this bacterium-so saturated that a duck 
drinking the water in that area, or eating 
any of the dead organic material, will con- 
tract the sickness. 
  It is known that botulism affects other 
species of birds and even mammals. Al- 
though many muskrats inhabit the areas 
visited, none were found dead or dying. 
Gulls probably contract the sickness by 
drinking water in the vicinity of infected 
duck carcasses. Herring and ring-billed gulls 
were present in the area in considerable 
numbers. 
  Several studies which would be of far 
reaching importance could be carried out 
on the aftereffects of botulism on water- 
fowl. Are ducks more susceptible after their 
first attack of botulism in again contract- 
ing the sickness? Does botulism affect fer- 
tility? Ducks that have recovered have been 
banded and released in California, but we 
need to know more about these recoveries. 
  The basic cause of these botulism out- 
breaks in the Green Bay area appears to 
be due to the pollution of the Fox river 
and Green Bay by wastes from the sewage 
disposal plant and the paper mills. As I 
understand the situation, the city of Green 
Bay reclaims the solids from their sewage, 
but dumps the liquids into the bay at the 
mouth of the Fox river. The paper mills 
along the Fox river pollute the waters with 
sulphite paper wastes. These liquids have 
a high affinity for oxygen, and soon re- 
duce the dissolved oxygen in the water to 
a point where the botulinus organism can 
grow. The warm temperatures of August 
also are conducive to the growth of this 
organism. 
  The current of the Fox river is very 
sluggish, and as it empties into Green Bay 
the water is almost stagnant. In fact, the 
current is so sluggish that at times a slight 
 
 
wind from the northeast will force the river 
to flow backwards for several miles. The 
small islands created by the War Depart- 
ment in their dredging operations aid fur- 
ther in retarding the current in its normal 
course out into Green Bay. The shifting 
winds coming in from the northeast create 
a tide which is very noticeable around these 
government mud dumps. When the water is 
down, mud flats are exposed to the sun, 
and the decomposing vegetation makes an 
ideal media for the duck sickness organism. 
The island where most of the birds were 
picked up was named "Botulism Island." 
  The liquids from the sewage disposal 
plant contain much nitrogen and phospho- 
rus which help to make plant growth 
luxuriant while the sulphite liquor wastes 
tend to cut down the growth of plant life. 
The beds of sago pondweed undergoing 
some decomposition in mid and late sum- 
mer were very attractive to waterfowl 
looking for food. The bacterium found a 
good host in these plants, and the feeding 
ducks soon contracted the sickness. 
  No relief from duck sickness outbreaks 
can be expected in Green Bay until such 
time as the paper mills install equipment 
which will remove at least the major por- 
tion of the oxygen-consuming material in 
the waste sulphite liquid that is discharged 
into the lower Fox river. The government 
should refrain from creating these small 
islands which are products of their dredg- 
ing operations, because such islands harbor 
beds of aquatic vegetation, and exposed mud 
flats, caused by tides, become focal points 
for this sickness when other factors are 
equal. 
  Acetylene gas exploders helped to frighten 
the birds away from infected areas, and 
should be used pending the removal of the 
basic causes for these epidemics. 
 
             Literature Cited 
Batson, H. C. 1940. Western Duck Sickness 
  (Botulism) in South Dakota. South Da- 
  kota Conservation Digest. July, 1940. 
Ford, J. L. and Clifford, P. M. 1936. Deter- 
  mination of the Causative Factor Con- 
  cerned in the Deaths of Wild Fowl on 
  Green Bay Unpublished manuscript. 
Kalmbach, E. R. and Gunderson, M. F. 
  1934. Western Duck Sickness a Form of 
  Botulism. U. S. D. A. Tech. Bull. 411. 
  May, 1934. 
Mays, Alfred S. 1941. Observations on Duck 
  Disease at Tulare Lake Basin, 1940. Cali- 
  fornia Fish & Game, 27(3): 154-164. 
  July, 1941. 
Wetmore, Alexander. 1915. Mortality Among 
  Waterfowl Around Great Salt Lake, Utah. 
  U. S. D. A. Bull. 217. May, 1915. 
Wetmore, Alexander. 1918. The Duck Sick- 
  ness in Utah. U. S. D. A. Prof. Paper, 
  Bull. 672. June, 1918. 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
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                         COPLEY AMORY 
                         1811 Q STREET 
                         WASHINGTON,D.C. 
                                              January 9, 1941 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
1532 University Avenue 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
          I am glad to receive your letter of January 5 and 
reciprocate your kind messages. It may be interesting to 
you to know that Mr. Edward R. Dewey, of 370 Lexington Avenue, 
New York City, has been engaged for several years past in the 
study of cycles as applied in the world of industry, and that 
he and several associates, of whom I am one, have organized a 
"Foundation for the Study of Cycles", which aspires to set up 
a directory of all those interested in cyclical research in 
the United States, Great Britain and Canada.   We also hope 
to get together at a luncheon, perhaps here in Washington, in 
April, something less than a score of persons who have been 
or are now engaged in directing cyclical research, to the 
end that our little Foundation may acquire a standing among 
men of science and a modest income, and, if all goes well 
and the war in Europe permits, it would be our purpose to 
have a general conference either in June or October.   The 
response of those directing research and of the researchers 
themselves to our effort is surprisingly favorable. 
 
           I will keep you posted in the general progress of 
our effort, but, better yet, it would be, if you are in 
Washington, to call on me and let us discuss the matter, for 
of course we hope that your university will not only furnish 
others besides yourself as interested parties, but will re- 
cognize our performance when and if we merit it. 
 
           I have asked Elton to help us with getting up the 
directory in England, and I have recently written to Rowan 
asking his help in other respects. 
 
          My reaction, I am sorry to say, to your story of 
the grizzly bear is that it is a pity that the race is being 
exterminated. I would rather see them continue as wards of 
the Government in Yellowstone Park and elsewhere, even if they 
deteriorate in strength and vigor, as our Indians have done. 
I presume there are plenty of grizzly bears left in the moun- 
tains of British Columbia, but I should suppose very few in 
our country. 
 
           I made a trip through Wyoming and Montana in 1896, 
with Owen Wister, and grizzly bears were plentiful, as were 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                               -2- 
 
 
 
also the crosses of all the other bears--black, cinnamon and 
brown. 
 
          I wish I knew more about your Duck Research Station 
in Manitoba. 
 
          Please do not forget me when you come to Washington. 
 
 
                               Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
CA/s 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Alma, Wis., January 4, 1941 
 
 
Mr. W. E. Scott 
Madison, Wis. 
 
Dear Sir:- In reply to your favor of yesterday, allow me state that being

almost eighty two years of age, my memory is naturally somewhat clouded 
and yet it seems that it is only recent events that I fail to remember 
and that I usually have no trouble reclling the most trifling incidents 
of my younger days and yet I have not the slightest recollection of the 
"bear story", in question or of having sent anything whatever to
Mr. Cory. 
 
     I was at that time the publisher and editor of the local paper, The

Buffalo County Journal and if any information of that kind was obtained,

it was from that source. I ran in that paper a column entitled "looking

Backward" and perhaps an item re-told therein may have inadvertantly
been 
taken for current news put that is only a conjecture of mine yet seems 
probable since the items re-told in that column were 33 years.old. 
     The only dead bear, killed by a hunter in this county, that I ever 
saw, was one bagged by a farmer (Casper Reuter) near the head of the 
Waumandee walley. That was when I was a lad in my early teens.   He 
had the animal packed in marsh grass and stopped on his way to town, 
where he hoped to sell the carcass to a butcher, for some ice to 
re-pack the carcass. Copies of the paper are on file with the State 
Historical Society, where I have also filed some historical pamphlets 
referring to early life in our county viz;- 
(a book) Kessingers History of Buffalo County. "Pioneer Life in 
Buffalo County", by E. F. Ganz and also "Reconstruction Period
in 
Buffalo County and Exodus to the West by E. F. G. Mr. Kessinger's 
History was written by a highly educated man who went into every 
phase of the natural history, in regard to both the flora and fauna 
of the county and state and may prove of interest to you. In my work 
on pioneer life is included a short sketok of a buffalo or bison herd 
kept here for some time and I nay add that Huber Bros., who owned that 
herd, among other wild beasts, also kept a bear, which was later 
slaughtered in the Alma meat market and furnished the first and only 
bear steak that I ever tasted and that was before 1908. Should a bear 
have been killed by a hunter, in this county, after the turn of the 
century, it would have been one driven here, by fovest fires or some 
other cause from the pineries, which were but twenty miles distant 
from the northern boundary before their devastation. However, if that 
occurred, I am at a loss to recall the fact. Trusting that this may 
furnish the information you desire, I remain 
                                       Yours respectfully 
 
                                         Is/ E. F. GANZ 
                                       E. F. Ganz 
 
COPIED 
1/10/41 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                   January 3, 1941 
 
             Mre                               General 
  Mr. J. B efra 
  it. F, v. 
  Ana (Cream), WIsoonsin 
 
 
 
 
  Pear Mr. Brea: 
 
       We note in Charles B. Cory's " amals of Illinois 
  and W1,onsin", which was published by the Field Musem 
  of xatuar 'Aistowy In 1912, a referene to the faet that 
  you reported to him a bear rhich was killed In Buffalo 
  county sone time In the years of 19, 1909, or 1910. 
       As this is a most unusual recor   and we therefore 
  have been forced to doubt Its authenticity, we would 
  greatly aprilate vPrd frm you as to the details re- 
  garding the killing of this bear. We rotdd like to have 
  any Information that would assure un it was a  ild. antmal 
  and not one released from some local zoo. 
       Thank you for your oonsirleration In this reg  . 
 
                              W. F,    Scott 
 
 
                                 14, E. 300t 
                                 Superv1ior, Cooperative 
                                    Game Maaement 
 
  IfZS: LAB 
GC 0: Prof. Leor-olet 
        georg C,  eoJ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                Jarn.urs, 3, 1941. 
 
mr. E F. cnz                         General 
i54onsin 
 
 
 
 
 
Dear Mr~. Ganz: 
 
     ¶Je note In Charle,-s B. Cory's "t mas of Illinois 
and Wieonl    which was pubioshed by the Field museum 
of Natural Histor  In 191., a reference to the fact that 
you reported to hi  a bear which was killed In Btffalo 
County soye time in the years of     , 199, or 1910. 
    As this Is a most unusual reco  , and we have the-re 
fore been forced to doubt its authnticity, we woild 
Fatly a'preciate word from you as to the details re. 
   garln; hekilling of the bear, W1e wouldl like to have 
an  or  mation that womid assure ue it was a willd animal 
and not one released fro  some local zoo, 
 
    Thank you for your consilderation In this regard. 
                       FOR M'. DICO 
 
 
 
                       By 
                            W,£,o3ott 
                         Supervisor,' Cooperative 
 
          GGeorge Canacemezt 
 
  

					
				
				
                             Oeptm feW' ~W 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   bi 8tb,    Wns., te4 RI  4  Netrie mprtl*Z 0.  0,, 
 
~Ia.   1s, P_: I at mstha t tz G0"0wrl 5tV.* 
 
 
 
 
U th lwW   tTp, S t ,?,, a. b* eto4. tw t vws fwm 
 
 
 
  t As sa mo b.  the sY w .t sl4e o.1 b8 b.t t s e 
 
 
 
 
if Iawvew es) 4~tvee gve m*h aitIus 4ws~l. 
                            oLloyd 
         If~~~~~a We                    0 0.ie e,2 
 
  

					
				
				
 
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wusmm 
 
 
--WI ii, f 
 
 
PL ,AN 
 
 
ra 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
200urw mapI1 
 
 
HIwtOT 1 Ba -*8t  au idLf 
 
 
  Me 0latalDt 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ohiw oo Prja Is mWtsed a* rp ~pas   and timbr lwA. it to 
rswdbo ler =o or Stbix bad to sumw a 4vl  supm sand prdes 
-=m* wid2M cro. Inm    ntaca h lb. eftet msioc~   frog wI16 
 
  We  Mu be grae t~w lb. pnn Iad u* 
        T. .seeml1*~  Wish fetrran    mo Sth a n4wro of 
  Selil @iinwmtl1 Seve I* ih  M= Reek Pv$w to to *wee 
 
thePrsent pr~eeau  bet~ lbs If- bad a*"  Is mill ultbmte* 
sif a remUca Inor lan ando inem  In both pam and wooi.d 
        So ad~m o retw tatMO work soo cal) OV1ro v, steb 
  be* af# n add ao~w left frm sotwwopm  fo nsteln 
  epwtdt fr wi1dif mm. 
        ?h. minlUf --p   In Uwo Cham Rook Frjoot will hm- 
 
as Its ~ot1wte th Uw eig 
        I. Tho mlsaf Inf aso pemible of act dermaal to 
 
 
        2. Th .oreltion or wildlife moeagmet wrwd with ~sroi 
 
 
        5The eaost1m of feea n goammi pub1. to a bvttw 
 
             amseatonof tw   1 *mora v st owidlaife. 
 
 
             spcts ta will roe to mimsoo in a dosired mn, 
           5.                so Stama Id x ur wiwlb th Uw of 
 
 
        46. Va Prmf of 1160oea in fomm and gry. to tok the 
          Idimitiw In th us. of ui~lifh ma-igpl,:mto& 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
To acm  hthe "a~n &S.otwee ft will be neosy 
 
         1.To be wel Luame at .3. tium ou the vavin phaes of 
 
 
         2, To manw weuy opotui to o.rr ca uiIldlif *du 
 
 
         ~*To kn th lif hIistr of eshspce in Iae proje 
           and thi mewtio to Us prsn eurmoto 
 
        14#T dterito th lINdtiRg ft~    of e*e aseele to be 
 
 
 
 
        5.To *ewft vrihSate and oter ~vU Interete lu 
           VIIM~fe aocftieii. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
               i   iiQl co , il 
               A 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    13/ 
    pý -               --n3 
                                         g 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 p . -    . .-  - :- 
*                   'Ummm m m, 
 
            II           1- '-- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
        Histor so Prsn Status a Wildl~t. - Within the past eight 
 
 
  Piez4i hoCimWRo -re am be warlated to ma o his we. of 
the lande ft gatter fis  naw  Int th am     thWfd an orirm 
 
 
Dow* ftsasm Pioa  J*e Rbbit*, Sqm1..s, Boor a few Elk, and sm 
 
 
        The first, -ww -ow Lut., te &aaond1%o 1855. ft 
 
 
m~wer  to owy h histor of wi1dt midd Uw. s Into the ,nej 
          Tibe iste earl perid me Ulmtod mstly to poplar and 
scru okvdt a fo pads of nafe ts loasted in th *0 aln 
 
 
 
 
Omto uw~ith *0ovtywsfii~ypp~           to Urat~ fir* 
  eantrle ir as a estraw's faat w me*poably ol~iimatd by th0 I&% 
ud~Io ieco W9OO. iht rnt th *Ua prawtid -ain for =y 
deftt. wo Udr t*0 ui~t ma gebttl in *0g w is no wSMULA 
It Is eaelo Oat settles oftm go fir" forenlrgn bb 
pe*e to -q~     -at% modtosad to clea land Wt firie 
 
 
          VMt*0 WrVIo the0 frt4 sotlwato 188 0 th ui Inustry 
 In ft am   a grai farib Mwa -a# th pnmin  orp m , *.o 
 inwou of the 4hm b~ug and ubet rut u*Ioh grdvl edm yields,, 
 msda abu  tmti yrd~o of Vat  n fa  u   to rdsmo 
 
 foo fo lvitk.t swi                 I  r~~1r 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
of land eg to be uti1aed arbwivl for arp e.d  kflWUfmin to 
 
  Uni tb, r oco~Ions Ar v1411fes 
 
       Nslbly th periodf~ 1855 to 2900 becftIe rxt Pfla wd 
 
sedo 2d  weweat z Ibtwupasbg  of  ofwtye andt. foos* 
 
       Wh~w qw11 .ev~ In th mars beor settlers avd to XU 
OWWS As firee proab~y Iw  a floo partieso ld open It see Vdt 
 
 
  Sto qw1 in th rat In M* O. F~uM     to th prat tim & 
 
  earw fthei padtion dost  a  h It to be of the Irrrv type 
 
 
 
 
to se a flo arow sf stck, Wmars bu14A  an feagfc o 
 
 
bog to                   1,tWawws~toe.Hwvr It1I eajetml If th reb 
 
im vt ofat Ux hm vtsalrumbw - not .fft4  S#fat or to * 
 
vermi exwt In evlatqwbws qvA1 am abut fowto resot to 
 
 
met In aea did* u to *4wai 1S~te n~era Vw. ow   be elvo 
 
 
abl food an, *oe. tr  the vitw  -as probbl In th peat- 
 
 
         RufdgowI I" wr rq *       as wre r oty Limted 
 
to *. lly bw  h grnA pi of atime grow. As f.  en 
 
fzwaweas the rufdpuerwg yotbIW   t~  of at r*  It to 
 
Maly tht thei poplwio  1.4muo in 4e prprin Whethr*Vol** 
 
  vae *feclaoI 4e1t pouaios Inth past vswt dstsm14. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ow14d be hew1 In tringg this q"I" b~ to An IMPwrtMt 9=0 bdv 
 
 
we WW~t =tU 1900* Am tb b     to lhi tv m lmfly dL~eorpy 
 
 
-rvio owel~   shotlg but nw 1 thi  oWy de to a slight aes*ti.t 
 
  In~*h   o~winlly ow in the vdte mcts Unobel xesv 
 
 
  and mate lan ooem. 
       go paso~ p4smin  a plentiful x1gret to the ara andin 
 
 
 
 
       Jae rabbits wo plawt  at the tbw of sotea  but beu to 
 dellne wm 187.Jut sta thr sttu vas at tht tins is meertais 
 
   Th w hitdto a 3Sdodexmmb *prtan prbal funsed* 
 
   Coteo~. raJ~vbbits        e rbal o wrebw4 Ise the ars wfis 
 
   settlem Thyvr e In lMu~te4 numa In IWO but 414 no *t~f to 
1wres =All 386g. with the emato fWotg erthiW bawe Increa 
 
with- etoa and axe qvte ab a sit the prees tbw. Due to a  minoll 
 
of -r 4Is~le Sa te are b=U  x~ewl.Te so" swt at 
an aattcIntrw a am Imoran *a a ufe pels 
 
      Ver little Wbfnmtio me 40.louedt roat  to sqires  Bwt - 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
an mw  sq  rls ow  prsn when this ma wa first settled1. It &sa 
libely tha th cenral of bwain and -wi     opentios bwm Incresed 
their popultic. To a lesser wru tbo rabbitsuh      re impotn fo 
 
 
       Reprt omfLot soewht to the abundmos of fone In the are 
 
 
   rufdgruo wee im rpoto tothe stands of available timber -.W 
   Tbo wa  abu za In3W, WIa a ,rmfsscai trappe beg      oprtlow 
in th ara. Howw, *w.to intnsv trppn their wmer wa*asdr 
ably dslae   but o the ore -eore as gmully smbig ba* to abn. 
-300  "hw hmm w v been.une emtonily for sport, TheIr abl.! Inotam 
iU on **&I*a well asa   etetcVus 
       Bat dew and berwa   reore as bou plntful but b       ~ to 
  disimara eatlan I14e. Very f~,wr seen aftw 1806. 
         El    semArn the area, at least. twoi*  am  In 186 and ag~ai 
 
 
       A*taps bmwr been nae to plant tw a   1.t #n birds Iu thema.o&

in 1921* th         Rod sad Gu Club released thre pairs of Hmu~rim 
  Pextide Th  xermn resulted In inplate failur as the birds did not 
beamo esalsec     hta the ftlu   w&& due to a deialema In the %se

 
 
         Th frt hasn planting bog  in 128 and *a*Au  d to 1933. 
The Vlloi  to a, brief Misto  of plni~s, 
 
          29 -Prt ntred phaat puoae fte a lineal gam fb 
              and release by the Indadaa Rded Gun Club. 
         199- hbr matured psemus release man 100 e~ itiuo 
 
             to locl fowee bY tho          Rod and G~ Club. 
       1L930 -~        4b mauedPeaats rolewooa mand oM qs distibuted 
 
 
-06- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
              to lol    sfw by the        Red and Ow Club. 
 
            P-  t matre phommi -r v)ma4, and 10~0 egs  sfbu 
            to lowl fhrm. bv h  af lolitI 1~. 1. Red a rnd Club. 
         2W  Fv-  ude *M distr~ibuted to Iowa *now* U7 t~w 
                Indeends 3 Ro aid @r Club. 
 
         M3  Five hude egg ditibuted to laeal tbrmws byth 
                       Rod and Gum Club, 
 
         Dsto e  1Mum pnIn o this spt..es an  h fa ht %Ar 
Ppu1etico to Owa*1ty boletwe hoghbrsst"s 4      the 3lse 
  SO fm#it is 2Impsaibl. to doemnt *u~lv inosshfl establhUit ft 
ths par of th *& tesma.rmj At ~to prsi tiwthe ar quit* 
plenih1 (abot am Owmtfrsw    y 60 a-s) m4 ar ww.6  xrtwevol 
far sprt The we aso Im ataf for their  *ig aoaw ale A for 
WOWm In th. ara hw emlained of dm4 don to cros by pemfs 
bu It S.MI .*tttl It the ~ r*ti ais t no oagnmtod by U.iz high 
 
 
 
 
frt~ settlers arvi*4. The frt sig at *wt appegd In 19M jh 
  tefirtauthnti p~xgo itrou oosuge. Cotiml pwi       bmv 
  tow maeutil roo ts. JJ to Mil In the strom -d th alooriq 
au  asui   of ithi    traw are no m m~ 1 ps .nt . A few smal 
tru am -M awh In the am an the =W be~ wo to hav a reawfti.om 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
fta n uo 
Aug 3 
 
 
M3t- SW 20 
 
1934-*w 9 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
      Q*~.iai Umetwy mm Th Q WRoam   Ui. *.Uly in th 
 
 
 
 
      In Ike Nloooic peio ft ara me gutm4~ bomth ap oesma. 
 
 d    *. t 4topet, abane in Its deth meimf WW dooitd La 
 
 
 
 
v" 1w44 dem. This Ulstmooouam  mok **mlaewl as m.11 ma  md 
It Is rathe a i&1=to. 
 
 
fmtWOe amow to a pom" or gr 6w dgmef  by tb. dlums. This 
toko  as th FI.I*.om period md my b. sai to be #tin in pain., 
Lee"  ~ dpoted bymd"us Luth are to a l~atod vm 
 
               Gra~~~~~~ml~m                labeto e*cw h ocmb o h rsit bottualmd

  r*IS:U0 -'d ate blsIdes. Pmeism1l a1 at j Sw ftpANL 
 
  lletoeIn thmarea bL     ibmpwv & to oveanfaro. A fWmwqw 
 
-oc in the exra awhrs em smthmt *V of th prje 
 
 
AW is 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
          Dgmof Ieeloa -~ *Sh.t erosin s l5 vt* M all cuglwtivte 
slpe at ove five pw aes. Newt of fto m2ulmtib  slo.ew rang ftim ta 
 
to twAfr       .p t bu Vt Is Is no1rwa to we. slpe v to forty per 
 
  osbad euRltvation AMy of th so 1p*  epoiabll2 the steeper onsar 
shr an -reua, but eims of t I*~m slopes mr quite lmg a~n salted 
 
to stri OMPp1g. 
       ft  rbe of gually erosio in tisret -t serious. Threw 
 
  I*l shesrnggllie. and gulle atk alal bf&s34a        h vadill 
 
nlosstste InemauWe strctues. Stro beak eroio Is qute itensml 
 
-lf the drl~wy in th    ra. In a $rtt numbe of plaaw th  ak 
 
  arefrm few to eigh fet In heigt and .vdm on an theousid of o~v 
 
Un awmea loss of hlgbly rdcie a~~~, In manyg in        e     theat 
 
'Vit biglmy andbrdges am being muetaio by this type of eroida has 
 
srted a hlbx1 Prabloa. (T~ frm 'Ouliat of Project Waf Pr~m  by 
 
 
'" so ýw 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                       .*11 4 
 
 
 
 
in the wasa~ ts*"   sise of t. for" b.iWg abut10m 
 
Abou fitwe to .wa-bmp  mt of ~.tthfoms r moqeI $Mts. 
 
  Thseas tn  of lese tomst emnw talinrd by the &".tnWpe. 
 
  NkUfr w~uti fa P roject Wwk rPvým by JonR. Bo2UinW.) 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
      Usdt Ote rjft   - Sv.s.  pro~jet b" bee divided into fiv lv. 14u

 
 
 
TjW. ml4. - vtoop V$ oln       as*,sd.  ot m4as - oom in each 
 
 
 
  ors n 1oaicnt. A small ara of ride p m is  found In tM exrn suh 
 
wont anu otma fe of th  met   Th flw Irn phase Is reticte to 
 
 
       Omvplly wlldlif. is not ocnfled to W sige anlt tb~ rahe .h 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   opprtitesIv maae*   Wea selectio Is baedi upo desrablity as 
 
     veUaswmi"I inoratm anmngmn of tbe.. spoiev. Both thi 
 
 
 
Wite Is usa  of ny saifa~lto mangnx proes4wi for them  po 
 
       Reaeaimsl fhilitie ofter~ by the pbasot mc8 manaent of 
 
thi -pce desrabl. Mwbe ma-,em moth        will be .tf.alve with 
 
p)easmt i hs par of th *uiflemw are is no  nwnaxer-- 
 
  wakidt ba.do birds shml be vawae to esabis th*.   veso 
 
  ftlmot reen pIlantr.s 
 
       3% 14 felt tb*  rrg4w methd for th three apses.. cge 
 
bird *14d will also be boeftetal to Usrqiem  of oterwildlife 
 
qspo.e in Vie ovm. 
 
 
ýW 39 40 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
415 ~poetem    orS9r'c,1~r 
      /~ on 
    - ..   L3-  N 
 
 
 
    * --.--  36 
 
 
 
 
       63.   24. 126      - 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 a /V o ?c      A13 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    9   /0~                          7 
 
 
133 a      5a 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
       'Mts - nt Now I., or bott~m Am.es -mar to a greter or loses 
 
-xen In s* sectio of the project. UVtwtin an this *pe of 1amd 
 
  ,eamate osty of mars gra, weeds, a&  i cerai w loa IO tleB, dene 
 
sttis of aldw.r. Pratically th only us made of this land is patr. 
Mos of the bottm    Isw  t bor~wsd by either the lw1evelo rolln ph&**,

 
but in a fw irtao th *Wep pbae run ino the botto Undo The avg Us 
o~jested to floigi Imt spir and~ 114 *1 pelot 
 
       Oruh h     *wime phaat aps  to be the only ga  birdI ~te 
 
uti1iso tile t wesaly    The are mainly realict to area whe 
alders Wea an pasurin Is kep to a zuimm. A1*othwood~ seeds are 
avolablo in limted qwtit.7 thog most of te winA- suths pbmmuts 
 
mo  to be forced to deen largel upo vt grai aroudfr bui1Aizig to 
car thm eve sevr cold periods* Pks we .in2Ii' lnoate along the 
 
oeges of tie bottm lmd aMd phaat    aeaqie the babit of reglalwy 
 
feeding from this source  The position of fam  In relation to the botbo 
-ow appear to b# a dito facor In th vae distribution of pbowawW. 
Alde   *tbot sam so wowing airs for pbast In the W1ri    o ithye 
 
  aA amIpotn to Us Oecs        l mating ofthis speces. 
 
       -         ilomet orthisara manl higs n tie relative vau bt 
-atr aMd a cro of phaens       Intwaf 1wiles of the bottm pbsN 
 
pF-swe eanlidns a*po ~enog to vw"        up for A1dld1ite. 
         YAagmatnhd-S flr h bota ph       * shol cnismlt of IMt 
 
   vxdmlrgamtof ars b ~wiftr .mrw mudrod 
 
          ftstngcoercodtion my be Improvd tbrug the restrictio     t 
 
     gmin- Whom pasur value to x1gtsira       t o ,wer emandtlins should

be natk    by Plantin vlown aMd ote suiltabi. woody species. 
As mos of the bottm ox  is dissovWby eboj4sx          el plantin will 
 
 
'015 4W 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
mm'r tb d"I Pap~ of wiWUt 009"~.p v~m 
 
 
 
 
moa of stbb arin arm. 
 
 
sbulA be befaoftil tu 4erestg the wintr w t&j mwtmM  Oe % psto bas 
  pre-tio of weakee bird tbow wta4mi an thei * tu~ing tw 
  prtcieew x.Ato&fo p.atos ha       m roed intiftly aeu 
 
 
-mn kno    *Isti ma.e Me  eawr   wilm ating wariin *M*~ of 
  gri and dtfaetnUwdas of planir to doams tht ofiam  &*14 
U umatkn Mwre         -glur ewit atU be Vegryto g~pj~t by 
 
 
       Rt Is prswo tba* Wit may be.a possble ftw 1* *0 wib 
 xSLt~ of -hau4 bw. -tefe a  o endotL7*t~s~ 
 this Ar* 2t -eo highly destua  to Act atfw ~Amms tbo*grtm 
 -,r'A 2K tbedfe month to "ert~ai *.o trf of thIs prormi=. 
      fttb qWA] me i*1%ued fr lh bottom phas by vi* 
time of  in* iexs In no ku  'No Vis   foun on this ph" thog 
  th ldt f L9560but t~w have bee rewtod &#  *Sspi ii pb& 
finely. A posbo e4Qwtio may ads in the 1ak Of g*jb&U rood,ro 
Mm amsn rav nd&lI adv1.si to UMMaw~    x mM prIot thM 
Cf-   V1 -""r  P" ftM -w asdbh"a 
      -ooe~n of *U ara for pesons *w)4 be p* ~     bf. 
to etk1 rabits end Possibly qlL. 
      Unt No.2. or Irni pbse is rotisa ft #aft "lies b II aa 
 
ft botina so ro@11g pbse. Pretml~y 41 at lb. ara Is use as amp 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
&WMXK I&I- plrl-mal orp is gbaoTh sno Ua chra m In witr I 
alos a mm~oe absew of *~   lmroadml som ghoo* a", 
 
lef in th filstbog the ~wines In th aue     thm*vr Is liz~d 
 
to grai or" ma small portio or Cemen woods alorw the .dom of 
 
Crft fn eM e   Am~s ma m*Ieins.m  is in 1u tht. sa r a1~ndit  t 
 
 
 
       Us* by wi~ldifeo .this area somflly ocurw s inth ypring. sme, 
 and Vreab3 tall WIa. Phasnt, eatta~al ftb1~s, *ad, to a Irnwm 
 
 
 to grf -d amet      utilis tm grasac meM w   slW roasiesan eM~ 
 of fields for ,mg Duo to libitodo  md~ last of a11nmmi vilhfos 
 
 qWl ar. ýfr 
 
       Mmetm mmithes *r thi area will uessevmi2y be, otitda 
ft IS" is hihl V*W~d fr 1h r~to at ers   Frne ro planhug 
 
soss~   of dumib m vtfo wil be ** mel inonaat proceure  H----,, 
odd aorwsa vweL4 or ullea mill be utilized wIth either foo or earop 
puizgo Food p~ee shoul be a~tttd m tis5 ara as in     bntg. 1, 
 
Eductiaoml wokto twch.no       wiw al  of 1eragw ~stonin or &o*e4 am

 
thoghh witrsol be      1-*m 
       Deeopo of %Ait No, 2 should Imeom t m   ge vt~   sis 
for Oemns e~aUtnt  rabits, and qml. 
 
       VnR No 3 or relv urn.e rns Is if a&s*  ti  of the prja 
and borers the step pha  an   uI4  m4d* and eh -th bott or IrnI -hA 
 
at te opositeo Ut of fte land 1a In .roe  Prbably the mas"mv 
 
OVU   divided b*Um bW and Pai.    Iwine 9o~tion in this maram 
   SWI    toUit No* 2, 1ove, d  * Ine ft  ,fUo or hj~ aMd ejm   ws 
 
   and ~    I Ow  rw  n&   almg for  eMw an mamdvtis  m Is fairly 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
movlly begin -run the ul. ofAm 
 
       UMAW. los th area m* 1wal  In If. sprtxg saw mad fall 
 
peiod&, Pirly its chief valv~e toIn the main ftaiUltie Waved by 
 
ba) eop and me ed grwh Pheum# e refm tnisix I lou the edpe of 
 
bay 4.4.s and In mob w~ees as v~x  Inwtt)o giat mod. sand &ou 40** 
    Qwl, ud~btdl, us tise am for ameti  but 4ws to Nwv hLmted svbrý

 
so nest bhe been lmotM.* Food* wnis itooy of Ijmosie, vwe  eedss azA 
 
   Via n h spria iawr and ft  peiolds. Winter fiend U. p tioally 
 
limited to vast gri n"o4 fm bulint 
 
          Opprl1ble 1r smsagiet In thisor  to res  5tetd due to1t. 
hi* ixi~w br cro leand  Establi~  t of foo ;ataea sud pl~u odd 
 
owners fame r  man gal I" toe om  a mA we ill be, th vas swogmnt 
 
1W        ? Itst possible t~t ratn nar.IV a    be b4%in 1his aw  due 
to th amtt    of bay r o  Nestin stto should be mada* san sn admo 
 
=40 to edwat. ft r to th           of dm  o  epoolos. awsome, or 
 
 
       *& this area mnuag z mehos *Auld be 4ao  d to onag the aea 
of Vinte hbitat for plam amd qnle to UWa  ..mn aind food *o1timw 
 
 
 
 
         b. N, 4s or atw phase is mostly timbrd sand laed. psued 
 
 
   mixd ar~od,,the o* bWiC 4ubma, Th ov- a RIs qit extesiwo Isiss@ 
 
man osomr in .~h section of th ymXt rtIs avmrosdo on oil aldes J 
the rollm phass Tnimiew grasin of hiwt*xk haj *~nn a        4t  e 
 
of tkaUme In thswe, Food I.    bn   .t tw f buds* &Asr man a 11al 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
sp*4* are th. qvxi and extent of ~wine foo and .v 
 
 
 
 
It udl1 b. retire frm gmine m4 reoot 
 
        -       11=thods fr ruf fedgo* qull *a phat S*owM 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        Avdestto of bilU*idoa 
        3.  IMUaMI or th.4ec verege  rfw.tW*Ao ofti vdi* a .urda 
 
        4. b0=690 t f~itn saqtb aud ~np. 
 
      UO PWOG of nommo intiara isE r  1to   c I *wor o =a hod 
   Atimhvt all vdMlift.n to Drst beto ehvv am      pboats and 
 
-Sta   -omA ruffe. gouo 
      Vkdt No- .~ or u1d. led, isao limited in art tht it is r~tbw 
 
  ='V   ftr wildlife. O026tIc vdl~tiv to eOVrj, food an lan w 
or sl1wa to the rollingpm  Dug to & hIgý14 *Ivtln phfat g 
 
 
  viteo utar soatly rotiee to th Oajfr or rook I. ede*~  of sh1*wr 
  In vi1b qui   are wed to fee twin vao gmi wrun Umf f  buildings. 
        W     nefod stblaw to th oln wow r- wý fmod  r 
 
 
.0 V go 
 
 
tMS OW40* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
          Soay- raiM5.afims are tbjt tMe amt seiam 11wti, teto  c 
 
VO-r l wIt1 q..e "Lo IneetW ok ara am ** notea~b2 *~shaug at 
 
 
mwoIs b* of sufon   "  In the winte, nesin tave fw ruffe gross 
 
an*Q moutabie t~ of rae forpeasnt *f 1m.Wlv~ 
 
       Rt shml be the &* of th  olCnevto Seve *o w..*Ityf 
thes *=tion b7 *~w    food plantin an 1he vrms vult an ev 
 
   tiwdw* with cooenwu. Factors that uva  qattoab1.j but mW be 
 
-~abu In Unitin k, prdainof wildlife, sbould be a..ra'ined by 
 
 
        Altov¬ix has bee stated eaoswmg hxtCas a tkto I ts, 
 
gm. =mama*~ pr  a it some highly destab)l to pot ell fom beIo~ng 
to wild]ife oopraes PoI ts exetd o    ny to benfit ooprtr 
 
 
tha the f  ~  ~ hasauhoity to w*tro wildlife, produsim mhis Isa 
       Wildlife .snme should be mado replaly to 4oteuni. the O"NM 
 
or mlw.r ofr nagn methods. 
 
 
-0is-w 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'vfdI We Camrvt io Plan twr P~oy   a'se-. go Dept 0 Agftvt1tw 
 
 
 
 
 
                                         N4W Y4=t 
 
 
                                           Avgst#1933. 
 
 
 
 
"Wild Lift Hadbok               ,edo Ni" et fArwlus U, S., ?crea
Sarr 
 
   FAVseosi" b R C. Cas% Ph. D. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
0j 
 
 
APP 
 
 
ITI 
 
 
WF, 
 
 
w rA 
  ,I 
 
 
,,3P.m. 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
Empty 
Folder 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
OUTAGAMIE CO. 
Appleton    R-18-E 
 
 
q 
 
 
PAVE9D ROAD 
LOW TYPE 31 
GRAVELI 
- rTm 
 
 
OUTAGAMtE CO.    BROWN CO 
 
 
TOWN OF BUCHANAN 
 
 
R-19-E 
 
 
BROWN CO. 
 
 
      R-20-E 
TOWN OF HOLLAND 
 
 
TOWN ROADS   - - 
"TRALS-.-.... --      --   -- 
COUNTY LINKS- - --- - - - - - - 
TOWN LINES ------.. 
SE C T IO N L IN E S - --.. . .. ....... . . . . --- - - 
RAILROADS----- 
ELECTRIC INTERURBAN 
 
 
STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION 
        OF WISCONSIN 
STATE OFFICE BUILDING, MADISON, WIS. 
   SCALE             MILES 
            ImUlO 
 
 
T-20. N 
 
 
                            I 57 
                    R  R17                            JI. 11    1 N~ 132
7' 
 
 
 
                       4                    2419t                      1o1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     Cl                                 Q 
            br--dg- ----                                   ------ 
 
 
 
 
 
                                              0i 
 
                   "U 3C 
 
 
 
                                                                       71

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                     VI. TOWN OF CALUMET 
             FOND CO EM CO.        FOND OU LAC CO-  a 
    S                                                                   
-- - 
 
 
 
 1 _ _ _ ,              ~ M A P O F          - 
               C ALU                                    H-MET COUNTY  A.,RooN
D-OWNOF 
 
 
T-18-N 
 
L  a_._ l.. 
 
 
T-17.N 
 
 
COUNTY PARK___ 
 
 
CALUMET 
 
 
I 
+ 
 
m 
 
 
T-19-N 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
Empty 
Folder 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
Empty 
Folder 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
      A      D       A     M      S           M      A ý, R      
 Q      U      E       T      T      E          G     R     E     E    N
          L    A      K 
      R.,6s-              R-.7sE                 R--E                   
R-9..E                  R4.04                   R iI-E R--2 -E 
 Town at Dell Praine Town of New Haven       Town of Dougles"      
 Town of Moendville      'Iowa af Buffain         Town ot Kingston      
  Town of Manchester 
                 135                                                    
               H 
 
             I osin                                           *       ~ 
      -   -    a 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
         -6I                   .f~                            I         
                            .      a 
                                                                        
                                  Bel n tain,                           
 ------- 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        &o 
 
 
 
 
 
                   T' 'own of faiekma                                   
       33 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
o at Prakieidu SaC .   W E- 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                      lawn at Rexnboy        Town of Dane              lawn
at Vienna         Tbw at Windsor          Town ot Bristal         Taw at
York 
 
 
                        D                                A 
                                                                TIOWN ROADS
- 
     w... ...                                                   TRAILS -
- - 
[    ........                                                   C ¢OUNTY
LINES -- - 
                                                                TOWN UN m

                                                                -- CgJt,4ed
 j44   RAILROADS-  _ 
                .-Lvj                                  n        EETRIC INTERUREAN

 
 
N                                    E            MAPOF 
 
               LEGEND                   COLUMBIA COUNTY 
                                   -            .STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION

                   .ji:,WAY C OUNWV             OF WISCONSIN 
     PAVED ROADS.                        STATE OFFICE RUIPING, MADISON, WIS.

     LOW TY-E------- L W  - DSCL                            IE 
     GRAVEL.                       -D_ 
          EAR ... - -s 
 
 
/ qN t9 e SaccS l, 11A,04 
 
 
   E 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   L1 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 d43-30' 
 T-12.-N 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
l0 
 
 
ST-10-N 
 
 
lown 
 
  

					
				
				
Mlet Jkrabbits 
      Col~umbia Co. ' 
 
 
Zan., 1935--Bsa Liltur, U~-1/2 mi. W. of Arlingt~n (Columbia Go.) 
rabbit in midwinter, 193~4, out in. his pastuz'. Thiis is the first 
has seen in this vicinity. Hs has lived the"o abwt 4 y~ears. 
 
 
saw one Jack- 
jakrabbit he 
 
 
     J. 0. Mi.1ks, 4 mi. S.W. of Ppsnt~te, saw his first jackrab~bit Octobsw'3lt
Md. 
saw them wvral times daring Dcme, 1934, In a field of cornshoaks. This Is

the first time he has seen jaakwbbits, in this vicinidty and hs has lived
there 
uine* 1693. 
 
                                                   rree ZiMUa~M 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11/24   0    a0     2 3o o      o 
11/25 1      '1 6 t 0 0           0 
 
11/26 3       oI=T ics- a 0o0 0      0 
11/2T 5 (Ald-J0$yd.) t ' 0 10 0t 0100 100 
 
 
1u*sA.(Ailbao y..) 
 
 
 
    cC r 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
            . LtAbWV? ot 
 
         Rlbo leo oi'*ý 
 
 
 
 
         ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 
                     OF 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
 
 
Volume 29           CHICAGO, OCTOBER 26, 1944          No. 14 
 
 
  A NEW HARVEST MOUSE FROM WISCONSIN 
                     By HAROLD C. HANSON 
          ASSISTANT GAME TECHNICIAN, ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY 
 
   The discovery of a harvest mouse of the genus Reithrodontomys 
in Westpoint Township, Columbia County, Wisconsin, was an 
unexpected highlight of a small-animal census made in the fall of 
1941 on an area of seven square miles near Prairie du Sac. This 
work was done while I was a Research Assistant in the Department 
of Wildlife Management at the University of Wisconsin. This 
mouse had not been known to occur within the borders of the state, 
and a study of the specimens collected indicates that the Wisconsin 
population represents an undescribed race of Reithrodontomys 
megalotis. I believe it may be a preglacial relic in the driftless area 
of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Hamilton (1943, p. 264) reports the 
harvest mouse from La Crosse, without indicating the collector and 
without comment. 
   I am indebted to Dr. Hartley H. T. Jackson for the loan of 
specimens from the Fish and Wildlife Service collection in the 
National Museum, and to Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood for permission to 
examine the Field Museum collection under his care and for advice 
during the course of the study. I have also discussed the taxonomic 
problem involved with Dr. Donald M. Hatfield of the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences. 
 
Reithrodontomys megalotis pectoralis subsp. nov. 
   Type from Westpoint, Columbia County, Wisconsin. No. 53840 
Field Museum of Natural History. Adult female. Collected 
October 18, 1941, by Harold C. Hanson. Original No. 448. 
   Diagnosis.-Wisconsin harvest mice may usually be distinguished 
by the presence of a buffy pectoral spot between the fore legs. 
 
 
205 
 
 
No. 564 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY-ZOOLOGY, VOL. 29 
 
Thirty-three out of forty-one skins and alcoholics examined show 
at least an indication of this spot, but it is present in only two of 
twenty-five specimens of Reithrodontomys megalotis dychei from 
North and South Dakota, Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, 
Iowa, and Missouri. Three specimens taken near La Crosse, Wis- 
consin, show the buff spot, while two trapped across the Mississippi 
River near Hokah, Minnesota, lack it. Measurements fail to reveal 
any significant differences between the new race and dychei. 
   Range.-In so far as known the race pectoralis is limited to the 
driftless region of Wisconsin and Minnesota. All specimens to date 
have been taken either in the driftless area or in the immediately 
surrounding country. The north and south limits of the range of 
the subspecies in Wisconsin are not known, but that it occurs freely 
over much of the driftless area is implied by the ease with which 
specimens may be trapped in Columbia, Sauk, and La Crosse 
counties. 
   Surber (1932, p. 68) states that he took seven harvest mice of 
this species at Homer in Winona County, Minnesota, and Dr. Donald 
M. Hatfield informs me that a skull of Reithrodontomys was dis- 
covered in an owl pellet found at Caledonia, in Houston County. 
The latter record was confirmed by two specimens that I trapped 
near Hokah, also in Houston County. 
   Measurements (average of fourteen males and fourteen females). 
-Males: total length 128 (119-145); tail 62 (55-69); hind foot 15.6 
(15-17). Females: total length 149 (120-151); tail 64.2 X51-70); 
hind foot 15.8 (14-17). Skull: Males: greatest length 21.3 (19.9- 
22.2); breadth of braincase 10.5 (10-11.5); length of nasals 7.7 (7.3- 
8.9); length of toothrow 2.9 and 3. Females: greatest length 21.6 and 
20.4; breadth of braincase 10.2 (10.1-10.5); length of nasals 8 (7.6- 
8.3); length of toothrow 3.1 (3.1-3.2). 
   Specimens examined.-R. m. pectoralis: Westpoint, Columbia 
County, Wisconsin, 29; Prairie du Sac, Sauk County, Wisconsin, 7; 
La Crosse, La Crosse County, Wisconsin, 3; Hokah, Houston 
County, Minnesota, 2. 
   R. m. dychei: West Newton, Nicollet County, Minnesota, 1; 
Atlantic, Cass County, Iowa, 1; Thayer, Oregon County, Missouri, 
1; Oakes, Dickey County, North Dakota, 2; Cannon Ball, Sioux 
County, North Dakota, 3; Batesland, Bennett County, South 
Dakota, 4; Onaga, Pottawatomie County, Kansas, 3; Verdigre, 
Knox County, Nebraska, 1; Neligh, Antelope County, Nebraska, 2; 
 
  

					
				
				
 
A NEW WISCONSIN MOUSE-HANSON 
 
 
Milford, Seward County, Nebraska, 1; Cherry County, Nebraska, 5; 
Boulder, Boulder County, Colorado, 1. 
   Remarks.-Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood informs me that many kinds 
of rodents show a spotting of buffy fur in the pectoral region, 
 
 
   FIG. 26. Map showing ranges of Reithrodontomys megalotis dychei and R.
m. 
pectoralis. 
 
usually in correlation with humidity. Races inhabiting the humid 
part of the total range of a species often possess a buffy pectoral 
spot that is absent in races occupying the less humid or arid sector 
of the range. Certain rodents in Chile, Phyllotis darwinii for 
 
 
1944 
 
 
207 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY-ZOOLOGY, VOL. 29 
 
instance, show this tendency. The genus Peromyscus may be 
compared with the Wisconsin harvest mice, as a number of its species 
exhibit this relation (Osgood, 1909, pp. 116, 148, 150, 170, 243, 246). 
The accompanying table shows pairs of subspecies (with and 
without the pectoral spot) with the extremes of the annual precipi- 
tation in their ranges. The California harvest mouse (Reithro- 
dontomys megalotis longicaudus) is included in the table as it parallels

the Wisconsin race in having a strong ochraceous buff on the chest. 
 
             RELATION OF RAINFALL TO PECTORAL SPOTTING IN 
                   PEROMYSCUS AND REITHRODONTOMYS 
                         Annual                            Annual 
   Races with          precipitation Races lacking       precipitation 
   pectoral spot         in inches  pectoral spot         in inches 
Peromyscus                        Peromyscus 
  leucopus leucopus ......... 45-55 leucopu8 noveboracensis .... 30-40 
                                                       (30 over greater 
                                                       part of range) 
  truei gilberti ........... .20-30 truei truei ................ 10-20 
                                                       (over greatest 
                                                       part of range) 
   boylei attwateri .......... 35-50 boylei rowleyi..........10-20 
 
 Reithrodontomys                   Reithrodontomys 
   megalotis pectoralis ........ 30-32  megalotis dychei .......... 10-30

   megalotis longicaudus ..... 20-80                    (over greater 
                                                       part of range. 
                                                       40 in Missouri) 
 
    A number of localities just west of the driftless portions of 
 Houston County were trapped. Two trap sites near Spring Grove, 
 in this county, and another fourteen miles southwest of Preston, 
 Fillmore County, failed to yield harvest mice. It thus seems likely 
 that the range of pectoralis is isolated from that of the nearest 
 population of dychei. It is noteworthy that the harvest mouse was 
 not secured by Dr. Sherman Hoslett (1940) of Luther College, 
 Decorah, Iowa, during an intensive five-year study of the mammals 
 of northeastern Iowa (Winneshiek and Allamakee counties). 
    A possible explanation of the apparently discontinuous dis- 
 tribution of the harvest mouse rests on the hypothesis that it may 
 be a preglacial relic in the driftless region of Wisconsin and south- 
 eastern Minnesota. That a small mammal could thus survive 
 isolation by the Pleistocene glaciation seems possible in view of the 
 occurrence in the driftless area of a number of western plants that 
 are interpreted as preglacial relics. The leguminous Psoralea 
 esculenta (pomme de prairie) may be cited as a plant having a dis- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
A NEW WISCONSIN MOUSE-HANSON 
 
 
continuous range that closely resembles that of the harvest mice. 
Other theories could be advanced to explain the presence of the 
harvest mouse in Wisconsin; for example, it may be an interglacial 
or an early post-glacial prairie peninsula invader; but a more care- 
ful exploration of the range of the species in the midwest is needed 
before speculation on the problem is justified. If the subspecies 
has been isolated since the Pleistocene it has had sufficient time 
for the development of distinctive characters. According to Mayr 
there is valid evidence that endemic races of Scandinavian birds 
have become differentiated within the last 10,000 to 15,000 years, 
i.e. since the last retreat of the continental glacier. He points out 
that speciation proceeds most rapidly where animal populations are 
well isolated and removed from the retarding influences of post- 
Pleistocene population-mixing (Mayr, 1942, p. 222). 
 
 
                          REFERENCES 
 FASSETT, N. C. 
 1939. The Leguminous Plants of Wisconsin. xii + 157 pp., 24 pIs., 46 figs.

    University of Wisconsin Press. 
HAMILTON, W. J., JR. 
  1943. The Mammals of Eastern United States. Handbooks of American 
    Natural History, 2, 432 pp., 184 figs. 
 HOSLETT, SHERMAN A. 
 1940. Mammals of Northeast Iowa. Doctor's thesis (unpublished), University

    of Michigan. 
 HOWELL, A. H. 
 1914. Revision of the American Harvest Mice. N. Amer. Fauna, No. 36, 
    97 pp., 7 pIs. 
 MAYR, ERNST 
 1942. Systematics and the Origin of Species. xiv+ 334 pp., 29 figs. Columbia

    University Press. 
 OSGOOD, W. H. 
   1909. A Revision of the Mice of the Genus Peromyscus. N. Amer. Fauna,

   No. 28, 285 pp., 8 pls. 
 SURBER, THADDEUS 
   1932. The Mammals of Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Conservation,

   Division of Game and Fish. 84 pp., illus. St. Paul, Minnesota. 
 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
   1941. Climate and Man. Yearbook of Agriculture, Part 5: Climatic Data,

   pp. 664-1222. 
 
 
209 
 
 
1944 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
                      Columbia Co. folder 
 
 
 
 
 
Wis. Conservation Bull. 1946 
 
   Portage, 1835. (Pioneer trails and 
traditions.) Wis. Cons. Bull. XI:6:18-21. 
(June 1946) 
 
  

					
				
				
 
:"I; 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Now 36i8 13il41 
July 6, 193~4 
 
 
Ron. C. W. Hana 
Hu    of lis res ativos 
Washinton C, C, 
 
Dea Ur. IUeey 
 
 
          I am glad to kImow of you interest in th Portag# 
 
 
          I wouc be glad to talk thin over with y'o~u in 
 0%zaon, The a.pofications for what the federal gvret 
 wants to Wxy ers still so unoortain that I have u~o way of 
making a guess as to the chances for th'I. area. 
 
 
                        Touws sincera.W, 
 
 
 
 
                                  Aldo Leopold 
                            In Chrg, Gaeesac 
 
 
A!Ilh 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Jun 19, 193 
 
 
mai ReportoWn 
 
 
        This ~     1~ are wa  xmndo  11 sa th ro.wt of ft. Uom, voýo
of 
  Formeo   1w BoI.r n  oat mdDr Jaws Ne~Wr of Who Potg Co0Zsetvai 
 
 
     It lies. on tha Wtscns  bottoms* east bak   o beortgo and ompiee 
about 20100 iwns. 
    The reus   ni to no ** a ~mom   of the Pro.04at a os ttto, buit 
 *in* * th .nitto. Is -ow dissolved and m  reomes.atio woul be coi.o 
 thrug th Conseratio De   et. ia W evet. this repor is sub1tt04 
 to 00orwl LI11, 
 
   Rggg~tijjj Th am includs land no being dwro.pod as a ga   robg 
by Mr. Gletload.    It i largey Ube wd~ usfl, heaviy bm. An ownrsip 
map Is atahd   Ouy 2 or 3 fari r oaapios It to on of Us, wildsot 
lov-Y1uetactmos in mo4ata Wiscosin. It lies. &boy.* theh   of "o
Prait* 
 
 
 
JA.    Tho to In  so- stock of door, phaat qd1j, and rufse grose, 
eam (allgo) a few chces  Da Co   ok Is ai to offer relodn positbil- 
Moo., bat *4e obu be Y.rttt04 %V s Iw ag r     Mwriver carie fish 
=d4 wa waefw     -ta migratmion 
    Po4 ptdhos, fire yrtoott~,and reat  ooding of sutbo "nto (not yet

veriftod% -pactcal) wmt enabe this lan to car          oyadvaried 
atan of gm.  The ram, *11l* Uoll, woul hav grt value If develope 
as a wa  I.,io reo~, sboating 'fsin, -O eain gr         . Anyprklk 
  derelo mos wul be. in n7 opinion. a wsaIs.* 
 
 
q 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
  ZkjL..Mwflov~ hadt*go of tk powr   ~pww might b#'o$aiuo tfro 
ofahat vabjoot to *ietgwate $*its   I ha*o v 'y to 
 
Possible, coits of OW raew ," 
 
 
 
  SurW moe W        1dpucassi Wi~scosi, thi &"a to wartb of ov 
 
detz.Ue oSm~ixaiot 
 
 
                             Aloo Leopold 
 
          fttntro                     isAi 
 
  

					
				
				
 
        6CO 
 
h" 2% 192 
 
 
         Pet. N. C. )asett o t* lot      ay Departat of the UAiversity 
 
has dantif1d the pats we ooc4to         in Mud Zak$  estarday, and a sbeat

 
listing thom is attao*h 
 
         T  follwin   i  au4 showi their 4strbutilon 'b snus, may 
 
nabio you to 40scri b   the lake to the Sioloieal S-vey so as to gt tbMt

advice on muskrt amm      n capmlit, 
 
 
Ve th- 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zones 
 
 
: i 
  o 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.1 
 
 
    A 
 
 
  
 
     I 
     g 
 
 
1 
 
 
 
      / 
      'A 
        11b 
 
 
fe. 
 
 
a- 
 
 
L. 
 
 
If - 
 
v, 'Vi 
 
 
/ 
 
 
ki 
 
 
40Ca0 res;C -, 
 
 
t 
 
 
IN MA EIM AE M i 
 
 
fr 
 
I- 
 
 
'i (11, 
 
 
L 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
-9 
     U  natata 
 
 
Podwe    Deso masses. 
 
 
3.  Y   Rhyllf IaRSAuIMAt Wa4.tor .foil, Des a sss 
 
 
 
4., povwtnl~s         Pond*w.4 Thin#. btt widespread bad thogtu % or* 
 
  5.~    j   a p? Small water lily. Scattering. 
 
6. jjWata        Spotterdock. Seattering specimens. 
 
  7,  EMy      apt 3Bwrr4reed. Seattering *v&1 bed** 
 
  Pojla.       apt  P l.ckr1lsiio4,  0 
 
        Gaga Ia lub E2&.water lily.  Inner edg  of Zone 3. 
                          ZOU A, 
 
10.                      S ufllmsh or Tuls. Outer ed~e of saoe A, occupying

                         perhaps 1/3 of it. 
 
*11. TpAltf        Cattail.. Dense u1saa4.a occu~pying perhaps 1/3 of zone
A. 
 
12. aaiai    Wf1&     Duck potato. Scat tere in iwner hal~f of Zoe A,

                          CUIMD. 
 
13, P27I       sp? Smarvtae4 Specimens in zon D. 
 
  Gerzcmm        Sedge, 
 
15.  iligg      t  also 10 and11 in mtter places. 
                           ZONE 1 
 
16.               grgog*dst~& 
 
 
1. 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                  ,424                ?v rsit V Plaee 
                                  Augut 26, 19 
 
 
 
 
 
Mrs. Dadley V*onoer'y 
2215 Van Rise Avonue 
Ulaison, Wieeasin 
 
Dear Josephine: 
 
Here is Catesnbsen's report on the 4ssq property. 
 
Be gres with a    that the chan  for re.stblishinl a 
prairie are very goo, but he says in effect that he can only 
act as technical a4d'1eor to the actua~l opertions, end4 
cannot supervise or execute the, Zn other words, he has his 
hands full oa the Arboretum. 
 
The gist of the report is in iteu t. Tc &.t started tVis year 
your oranisatioi, =st ewploy a laborer ib  cun do the work on 
the ground. This would inlde gatherin seed, moving plants, 
mowing fire lanes. The laborer shvvl. lave a ear s that he 
cQul4 ccmc dcwn to the Arboretum oc&siomlly for instruction. 
We eazA donaoe &L o~caeloiAl trip by CateLsen  to look over 
the work, Later on.        a   ore laborate operation be 
uvertaen, we might have to *.t up so8s special provision 
for Arboretum ezpeas. The seed and plants needed are by and 
large all availablu wl).14n Live miles of the area, You-r uan 
would first have to learn what the plants are. We ea tell 
him whon seed is ripe, and to an extent at least, where it ic 
obtainable nearby. Uay seeds ripen during September. 
 
If you or Mr. bglish can spot such a =an, I will be SlA 
to help ywA plan further details. 
 
                                With best regads, 
 
 
 
                                Aldo L~eopold 
 
 
*a Kra. Kobart Johnson 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                   2Uport o AMezay House Are 
 
                          Ald. Leopold 
 
 
     Aýt the re~iost of Mr. Spohn aMd Mrs. lMont "um.r, a brief
tnspOtift 
 
of this  am was mse an July 23. 
 
       A.I cannot intetr sulaort .Masma for vW furthetr delov.1.At 
 
a. a bi rd or mrmal refh. 
 
           su~p'ports ph ýatts. deer, Fat4 ýTuall in suixcr,
but the nalY 
bInsh for vite rag    il hUG a rirth eosu-e, .an heice would  ve ao 
 
winter vwrlue, t  south-facliv-natal Us&, mviId win-tr qcul if alomI

 
to be     b2tr   but thc un1 authorities wý1d probblW object. There

 
mvtt bh a md chanc    for attmatin prairie chiokene but for the powr 
 
line, w-'
	
				
 
 
 
 
      3o "Taub=   sAnks of ;a wtidopena view. 
 
      4. "The KtASIsL vo.,14 not 1,avs p,ý,nt-4 e)*s if owrInn1
micn had 
 
 'been avaiLable. 
 
     Ts ehaas for restorin prairie flora to the uplaud are excptil     ly

 
 good becwuziRk 
 
     1. The -oil is sa-iWy hence doe  rot wa&k t  leae a sod of b1rsso

 
 quaclit, or ot c. axoti grsss 
 
     2. tý)aek -,xthes ar- saowse. Qý  k is the wart cometitor
of mtive 
 
 
     7. ,or. are few rock to Interfere with *Itivation. 
 
     4. The marsh,, wt&l ,-d awl conrvtitute a oomp1ot. fiibrk should

 
it 1enq.z        at thq riZh I an     te ir for      ~      p5~ 
 
p~rant~Ind as a4,minnt grass. 
 
          5.~o~ a~ti ato-k. if s,* *   Plet0se ),.-Are1Y pres-I~t in the

 
 
          b,-stivn is to make pruirie p1.autins nrojad the hý.tsa
aMA let 
 
Vo!- r-e~ o~it ",,m their own .t."ea" Th@, Sals of thýt~
 azitiug could 
 
be fitted to the Pvailable tuands. 
 
     echn, quea for plaath, .oai. 30-iO pmirie spe. bays been vw   e4. 
 
out oA the Universitt Arboretum.. 
 
     'Me next step to to ask Proflms%,r John Oartis, A4borotum mireator of

 
Plant Ro-aearo , and John C,-ten~uxa, ýroretmx Biologist, to look
at the 
 
propety, and to maks plans and estimtes If they are willing. 11lans 
 
wbould Inaluds provsion for p~io 1s4  Aspection &M gu4an.. by a pralrio

 
 
     Al). t* if mIrittt be of dionbtful feasibility, but for RSporitontsMe

 
ft~lih, vlo has both kmmledge sad enthaslaaa in this field. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
3 
 
 
         Mant.      Miura inao far a I w able to over it, is to 
 
"    "sdoiterorp-t to offer t iedlate pmp.t of rot  ti o. It 
 
  dit'-i.V1*n evdnl pasturod to a blueemms st      ,t~he.- burned to 
 
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                              LAW OFFICES 
                   SPOHN,ROSS.STEVENS & LAMB 
WILLIAM H.SPOHN         FIRST NATIONAL ISA14K BUILDING 
FRANK A. ROSS 
MYRON STEVENS             MADISON,,WISCQNSIN 
FRANCIS LAMB 
GILBERT MCDONALD           July 28,1942 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      Mr. Aldo Leopold 
      University of Wisconsin 
      Madison, Wisconsin 
 
                         Re: Agency House 
 
      Dear Sir: 
 
                Under separate cover we are sending you a 
      blueprint of the Agency House premises prepared by 
      the City Engineer of the City of Portage which you 
      desired in connection with a report which you are 
      making in connection therewith. 
 
                You will note that I have sketched in red 
      pencil a revised line of the Fox River. The line of 
      the river prepared by Mr. Flanders is erroneous as 
      appears from an aerial survey made by the Wisconsin 
      Power and Light Company. Unfortunately this at pres- 
      ent is a restricted document, so that we cannot furn- 
      ish you with a copy thereof. 
 
                With much respect, we remain 
 
                             Very truly yours, 
 
                             SPOHNIROS    ENS & LAMB 
 
 
      MS MILM                By 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
Empty 
Folder 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
				
				
 
 
                                  XZbrarp of 
                             Rlbo leopolb 
 
 
A Phenological Record for Sauk and Dane 
        Counties, Wisconsin, 1935-1945 
 
 
 
            ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
              University of Wiseonsin, Madison, Wisconsin 
 
 
[Reprinted from ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS, 17: 81-122. January, 1947] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE 
         COUNTIES, WISCONSIN, 1935-1945 
 
 
 
         ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
           University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                             TABLE OF CONTENTS 
                                                                        
          PAGE 
INTRODUCTION ............................................... .....................
  83 
P URPOSE .............................. ...........................................
 83 
SOOPE .. ...........................................................................
84 
STATION S .........................................................................
 84 
    L ife Zones  .......................... : ........................................
 85 
    Elevations ....................................................................
 85 
    L and U se ....................................... ............................
 85 
    S oils  .........................................................................
85 
    W aters .........................................................................
85 
    W ildness .............................. ......................................
 85 
OBSFa ERS  ........................................................................
85 
PIIENOLOGICAL TABLES .............................................................
  85 
    Standards and  Terms,  Nomenclature ...........................................
101 
    Selection of Item s ............................................................
102 
        L abor ....................................................................
102 
        Sharpness ................................................................
 102 
        Commonness ..........................................................102

        Visibility or Audibility  ...................................................
 102 
        R ecurrence  ................................ ...............................
 103 
        Continuity ................................................................
103 
        Evidence of N ewness ......................................................
103 
        D istant Factors ...........................................................
103 
        Abnormal  Items ..........................................................
 103 
    Populations vs. Individuals ....................................................
103 
    Sources of Error .............................................................
 104 
        Difference between Observers .... .........................................
104 
        -Intensity  of  Observation  ....................................................
 104 
            Anim al Behaviors .....................................................
104 
            Bird  M igration  ........ ..............................................
 104 
            Plants ......................................................
......105 
        Town vs. Country Error................................... .............105

        Form  of  Records .........................................................
105 
        General Discussion of Errors ..............................................
105 
PLANT  GROUPS ....................................................................
 106 
    W oods Flowers ........................... ...................................
 106 
    Prairie and Sand  Plants ......................................................
108 
    W eeds .......................................................................
 108 
    H ayfever W eeds ..............................................................
108 
    M arsh Plants .................................................................
108 
    W ild F ruits ...................................................................
 109 
A NALYSES ........................................................................
 110 
    Year to Year Variability of Species ............................................
110 
        Decline in Deviation......................................................
 111 
        Length-of-Daylight Species ...............................................
 111 
    The  Character of Seasons .....................................................
114 
        Interpretation of Phenographs .............................................
115 
        Phenograph for 1945...................................................
115 
        Phenograph  for  1944 ........................................ :
............  117 
    Cold, Frost and Snow Effects ..................................................
117 
    Drouth, Temperature, and Flood  Effects ........................................
117 
        Drouth  and First Bloom ..................................................
 118 
        Drouth  and Length of Bloom .............. ...............................
 118 
        Temperature  and Length of Bloom .........................................
 118 
        Flood Effects ............................... .............................
118 
    Comparison  between Stations ..................................................
119 
        Eligible Dates ............................................................
119 
        Sauk  vs. Dane Stations ...................................................
119 
        H opkins ' Law ............................................................
119 
    Comparison  of 1880's and 1940's ..............................................
120 
        Henry's Phenology, 1881-1885 .............................................
120 
        Hough 's Phenology, 1851-1859 .............. ..............................
121 
SU M M ARY  .........................................................................
 121 
R EFERENCES ...................................................... ; ...............
122 
 
 
[ 82 1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE 
             COUNTIES, WISCONSIN, 1935-19451 
 
 
                 INTRODUCTION 
   Each year, after the midwinter blizzards, there 
 comes a thawy night when the tinkle of dripping 
 water is heard in the land. It brings strange stir- 
 rings, not only to creatures abed for the night, but 
 to some who have been asleep for the winter. The 
 hibernating skunk, curled up in his deep den, un- 
 curls himself and ventures forth to prowl the wet 
 world for breakfast, dragging his belly in the melt- 
 ing snow. His track marks one of the earliest 
 dateable events in that cycle of beginnings and ceas- 
 ings which we call a year. 
   From   the beginnings of history, people have 
 searched for order and meaning in these events, 
 but only a few have discovered that keeping records 
 enhances the pleasure of the search, and also the 
 chance of finding order and meaning. These few 
 are called phenologists. 
   The events comprising the annual cycle are in- 
numerable. Wisconsin, for example, has about 350 
species of birds, 90 mammals, 174 fishes, 72 am- 
phibians and reptiles, 20,000 insects, and 1,500 higher 
plants. The life of each of these 22,000 species con- 
sists of a sequence of events, each a response to the 
advancing season. No one phenologist can hope to 
recognize, much less to record, more than a very 
small fraction of this prodigious drama. 
  Many of the events of the annual cycle recur 
year after year in a regular order. A year-to-year 
record of this order is a record of the rates at which 
solar energy flows to and through living things. They 
are the arteries of the land. By tracing their re- 
sponses to the sun, phenology may eventually shed 
some light on that ultimate enigma, the land's inner 
workings. 
  Yet it must be confessed that with all its weighty 
subject-matter, phenology is a very personal sort 
of science. Once he learns the sequence of events, 
the phenologist falls easily into the not-very-objec- 
tive role of successful seer and prophet. He may 
even fall in love with the plants and animals which 
so regularly fulfil his predictions, and he may har- 
bor the pleasant illusion that he is "calling shots" 
for the biota, rather than vice versa. 
  Phenologists are a heterogeneous lot, and have 
found shelter under diverse intellectual roof-trees. 
Thoreau (1906), the father of phenology in this 
country, scorned any roof-tree but his own, hence 
his records (for the period 1850 to 1861) remained 
unpublished for half a century. Hough (1864) was 
a doctor of medicine, and the Bureau of Patents 
published his tables. Henry (1881) was an agrono- 
mist and a dean; the Board of Regents published 
  I Journal Paper No. 8 of the University of Wisconsin 
Arboretum. 
 
 
his reports. Hopkins (1918) was an entomologist; 
the Weather Bureau published his findings. Among 
contemporary phenologists are botanists, foresters, 
game managers, ornithologists, range managers, and 
zoologists.  Phenology, in short, is a "horizontal 
science" which transects all ordinary biological pro- 
fessions.  Whoever sees the land as a whole is 
likely to have an interest in it. 
   Phenology is more ancient than the "vertical" 
 categories which it transects; its first paper, pub- 
 lished about 974 B.C., cuts across three sciences, 
 then not yet born: meteorology, botany, and orni- 
 thology: 
    For, lo, the winter is past, 
    The rain is over and gone: 
    The flowers appear on the earth; 
    The time of the singing of birds is come 
    And the voice of the turtle is heard in our land. 
                              (Solomon, 2:12) 
 
                    PURPOSE 
   The purpose of this paper is to assemble a com- 
posite phenological record for the wild plants, birds, 
and mammals of the region, with at least a sprinkling 
of items relating to other animals, waters, crop 
plants, and plants used in landscaping. 
   Such a record is useful for two main purposes. 
First, it permits one to interpolate, for any given 
event or any given date, a background of con- 
temporaneous events. For example: a game man- 
ager learns from the literature that in Dane County 
the most frequent date of first egg-laying in pheas- 
ant is May 6. What else of possible importance to 
nesting pheasants is going on at that time? A 
glance at Tables 4 and 5 shows that spring grain 
[63] has been seeded two weeks ago and should be 
well up on May 6; that Franklin ground squirrel2 
[91.] has already emerged; that bluegrass [142] will 
head out in eight days; that alfalfa hayfields [200] 
will be ready to cut in 38 days, which just about 
equals the time necessary to complete the clutch (12 
days) and incubate it (21-24 days). 
  The second main purpose of a phenology table is 
to permit one to correct for early or late seasons by 
translating calendar dates into phenological "dates." 
Assume, for example, that the same game manager 
needs to find some pheasant nests, but that the sea- 
son is very early, hence the average date of May 6 
is invalid. How much earlier shall his search begin? 
A glance at Table 5 shows the following contempo- 
raneous first blooms; sugar maple, chokecherry, win- 
ter cress, lousewort, white trillium, Jacob's ladder. 
  2 Scientific names of the animals and plants referred to in 
the text are given after the common names in the phenology 
tables. Numbers in brackets are serial numbers in the phe- 
nology tables. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
84 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
Lilac has been blooming three days, wild crab will 
bloom in three days. With these "cross shots" on 
his problem, the vegetation will tell him in any year, 
early or late, about when to begin his search. 
  It is strangely difficult to arrive at such correla- 
tions by comparing    specialized publications.  To 
facilitate them, we have merged all of our events- 
plants, birds, mammals, insects, and weather-in one 
common sequence (Tables 1-12). 
  It is not to be assumed, of course, that the se- 
quence of averages repeats itself^exactly each year, 
and still less that the average sequence for our region 
is identical with that for other regions. Indeed the 
whole concept of a sequence of average dates is in 
one sense an abstraction, for it can never be found 
in toto in the field. Nevertheless it exists, and it is 
an important characteristic of the flora and fauna. 
The reasons for this will appear later. 
 
                      SCOPE 
  No attempt is made in this paper to derive the 
correlations which are its principal purpose. They 
are so numerous that the reader can best derive 
them for himself, if and when needed. An attempt 
is made to suggest how to select items for phenologi- 
cal recording, and to deduce some responses of ani- 
mals and plants to weather. 
  It is unnecessary for a phenologist to record as 
many species as are given in this paper. A smaller 
number, well assorted as to site and season, would 
be equally valuable. 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
       Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
  Our arrival dates of migratory birds are confined 
largely to a few common, easily recognized species. 
Complete lists of average arrival dates for the Dane 
Station have been published by Schorger (1929, 
1931), and for southern Wisconsin by Barger et at 
(1942). 
  The phenology of birdsong is largely omitted, and 
will be covered in a separate paper. The phenology 
of leaf-fall is omitted because it is difficult to define 
sharply, and there is excessive variability between 
trees. 
  References to the literature cover only the region 
studied, plus a few nationally-known papers that 
have influenced our work. The writers are aware 
that there is a large European literature, and that 
many important American papers are not mentioned. 
                    STATIONS 
  This paper records some 328 events at two stations, 
herein called "Sauk" and "Dane." The first includes 
two or three square miles around the Leopold shack 
in Sec. 33, T. 13N, R. 6E, Sauk County. The second 
is an area of similar size including the University 
of Wisconsin Arboretum, and adjoining parts of the 
city of Madison and University of Wisconsin cam- 
pus, in Dane County. The Dane station is 33 miles 
south and nine miles east of the Sauk station. 
  In a few instances, a scattered date from outside 
one or the other station has been included in it with- 
out specifying the exact point of origint Such dates 
are considered eligible only when they fall within 
the following geographic limits: 
 
 
                                     East to West                       
     North to South 
Sauk Station ................. Portage to Wisconsin Dells             Summit
of Baraboo Hills to Wisconsin 
                                (20 miles)                              
River  (10 miles) 
Dane Station ................ Faville Grove (Jefferson Co.) to        Poynette
to south line of County 
                                Prairie du Sac. (40 miles)              
(30 miles) 
 
 
  Whenever all of the dates for any item originated   stations is taken mainly
from   "Climate and Man" 
elsewhere than Madison or the Leopold shack, their    (Anonymous 1941), and
is based on 17 and 40 
point of origin is specified. 
  Climate. The following comparison of the two        years records, respectively.

 
TEMPERATURES 
                              Sauk                            Dane      
                     Sauk is: 
                        (Wis. Dells Station)           (Madison Station)

Mean annual .............. 440 -450F.                       450-460]F.  
                 1 degree colder 
January average ............. 16.0oF.                        16.70F.    
                 0.7 degree colder 
July average ................. 71.60F.                       72.10F.    
                 0.5 degree colder 
FROSTS, GROWING SEASON 
Last frost in spring .......... May 11                      April 29    
                 12 days later 
First frost in fall ............ Sept. 27                   October 17  
                 20 days earlier 
Growing season ............... 139 days                     171 days    
                 32 days shorter 
PRECIPITATION 
Average annual .............. 30.78 ins.                    30.60 ins.  
                 0.18 inches wetter 
 
 
  The only large difference disclosed in these data 
is in the length of the frostless period or growing 
season, which is 32 days shorter at the Sauk station. 
 
 
  During the decade here reported (1935-1945) the 
growing season at Sauk was only 13 days shorter 
[see items 79 and 323 of Tables 1-12]. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
                      LIFE ZONES 
   No attempt will be made to describe our stations 
 in terms of the biotic provinces proposed by various 
 conflicting authors (Merriam et al, 1928; Weaver 
 & Clements, 1938). Both stations lie in the general 
 region of confluence of prairie, oak-hickory forest, 
 and coniferous forest. The first two categories are 
 represented within the area of both stations; the 
 third occurs only within the area of the Sank sta- 
tion.   The Sauk station exhibits certain southern 
species like red birch, red bellied woodpecker and 
prothonotary warbler, but it also exhibits certain 
northern species such as red squirrel and the three 
native pines. All of these species are absent, or 
only casual, at the Dane station. 
 
                      ELEVATIONS 
   Lake Mendota at Madison is 849 feet above sea- 
level; the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Dells is 
815 feet. The more southerly station is thus 34 feet 
higher. 
 
                       LAND USE 
   The Sauk station and that part of the Dane station 
comprising the University Arboretum are alike in 
that both consist of reverted farms on which old 
fields, woods, and marshes are interspersed. Both 
are surrounded by active farms. The remainder of 
the Dane station is suburban. 
 
                         SOILS 
   The soils of the Sauk station are Coloma sands and 
Dunning sands, with local traces of red clay from the 
bottom of glacial Lake Wisconsin. All lowlands 
have been reworked by river action. The soils of 
the Dane station are Miami silt loam and peat, the 
latter underlain by marl. (Whitson, 1927.) 
 
                        WATERS 
   The Sank station lies on the south bank of the 
Wisconsin River and its lowlands are flooded yearly. 
It has few springs and only small lakes. The Dane 
station has many springs, several large lakes, and 
no rivers. Its lowlands are never flooded. 
 
                       WILDNESS 
   The Sauk area is wilder, retaining deer, ruffed 
 grouse, pileated woodpecker, and a few otters and 
 prairie chickens. These species are absent from the 
 Dane station. 
 
 
                     OBSERVERS 
   This paper embodies three main blocks of pheno- 
 logical data: 
   1. A. Carl Leopold, plants and animals of the 
 Sauk Station, 1935-1940.3 
   2. Sara E. Jones, plants of the University Arbore- 
 tum, Dane Station, 1944-1945. 
   3 Leopold, A. Carl. 1940. Phenology table for Fairfield 
 Township, Sauk County, Wisconsin, 1935-1940. Unpub. Ms., 
 Dept. Wildlife management, Univ. Wis., 30 pp. 
 
 
  3. Aldo Leopold, plants and animals of the Sauk 
Station, 1935-1945. 
  All of the Sauk dates, and a majority of the Dane 
dates, were taken by these observers. The remaining 
dates for the Dane station have been generously con- 
tributed by the following collaborators: 
 
 
      Name 
 
Anderson, Harry G., 
  et al. 
Barger, Norval R., 
  et al. 
Buss, Irven 0. 
 
Buss, Irven 0. and 
  Arthur S. Hawkins 
Curtis, John T. 
Feeney, W. S. 
Gastrow, Albert 
 
Hale, James B. 
Hawkins, Arthur S. 
 
Jackson, Arnold S. 
Koehler, Mrs. Arthur 
Kumlien Ornitho- 
  logical Club 
McCabe, Robert A. 
 
Robbins, Samuel D., 
  Jr. 
Shands, H. H. 
 
 
Sowls, Lyle K. 
 
Sperry, Theodore M. 
 
Thompson, Donald R. 
 
Zimmerman, James 
 
 
Kinds of Items 
 
Birds, plants, 
  mammals 
Bird arrivals 
 
Birds, plants, 
  mammals 
Upland plover 
 
Spring plants 
Birds, mammals 
Horned owl, 
  skunk 
Bird arrivals 
Birds, mammals, 
  plants 
Bird arrivals 
Bird arrivals 
Bird arrivals 
 
Birds, mammals, 
  plants 
Bird arrivals 
 
Grain and hay 
  crops 
 
Birds, mammals, 
  plants 
Bird arrivals, 
  plants 
Plants 
 
Plants, birds, 
  mammals 
 
 
What Part of 
Dane Station 
Arboretum 
 
Dane County 
 
Faville Grove 
 
Faville Grove 
 
Dane County 
Arboretum 
Prairie du Sac 
 
Stoughton 
Faville Grove 
 
Dane County 
Dane County 
Dane County 
 
Arboretum 
 
Dane County 
 
University 
  Farms at 
  Madison 
Faville Grove 
 
Arboretum 
 
Arboretum vs. 
  City 
Dane County 
 
 
Years 
 
1935-1939 
 
1935-1945 
 
1937-1942 
 
1935-1943 
 
1941-1942 
1938-1939 
1935-1945 
 
1939-1945 
1935-1938 
 
1936-1942 
1936-1944 
1935-1945 
 
1943-1945 
 
1940-1943 
 
1935-1945 
 
 
1938 
 
1938 
 
1946 
 
1944-1945 
 
 
Reference 
if pub- 
lished 
(1942)4 
 
(1942) 
 
 
 
(1939) 
 
 
(1942) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1942)5 
 
 
            PHENOLOGICAL TABLES 
 
  In the basic tables, in which the 328 events are 
assembled by months, each month bears its calendar 
number, beginning with Table 1 and 2 for January 
and February. 
  Each event on which dates are available is called 
an item, and each item bears a serial number (at 
the left), and an average date (at the right). Dates 
for both stations are given when available. When an 
event has a definite duration (such as the bloom of 
a plant), a double date indicates the duration. Few 
durations were recorded during the first three years 
of the decade. 
   The items are arranged chronologically, in order 
of the average date for the Sauk station. 
 
  I Also: Anderson, Harry G. 1936. Avifauna of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin Arboretum. Bachelor's thesis, Ms., Dept. 
Zoology, Univ. Wis., 166. 
  SAlso: Sperry, Theodoie M. Artificial establishment of a 
tall-grass prairie on the University of Wisconsin Arboretum. 
Ms., pending publication. 
 
 
85 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
  TABLES 1-2. Phenology for January-February. 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
         Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935      1936     1937       1938      1939     
1940      1941      1942      1943    1944        1945    Average 
I SKUNK (Mephitis mephitis) E n'rges from hibernation. (From Journal of Albert
Gastrow.) 
Prairie du Sac: .......          2/27  1   2/22  1   2/14  1   3/4   1  
1/21  1   2/15      . 2/7   1 1/11  1   1/24  j   2/14  1   2/9 
2 GREAT HORNED OWL (Bubo virginianus virginianus) First egg (or first seen
incubating). 
Dane: ................ ý 1/25 1  3/11  1   2/13  !   2/24      2/18
 I   ....  1   2/16  I   2/20  1   2/6                ....   I  2/16 
        Mostly from journal of Albert Sastrow, Prairie di Sn', Wis. In 1937,
1910, 1944, a-i 1195 no nesti ag occurred in the area, though the usual number
of owls 
            was present. See Errington (74 p. 6. 
3 CARDINAL (Richmsndena cordinalis cirdinalis) First so g. 
Sauk:................ I .... I   ...            ....  ..       2/4    1 
3/23     (by 3/1)   2/29      3/13   1  2/26      2/8       2/27 
Dane:...............   2/12      1/28  1   1/18   (by 317?)    1/30     
  .       2/16      1/20      1/24      1/13      1414      1/26 
                                                   TABLE 3. Phenology for
March. 
 4 PHEASANT (Phasianus colchicus torquatus) First crowing. 
 Sauk: ............. I ....      3/19    (by 3/31)             ....    (by
3/30)   3/1       2/28   after (3/13) 2/26      3/8       3/5 
 Dane: ..............  2! 15     . ...     3/5       3/51"   (by 3/21)
     .     2201     1/28        212118              1/6       2/8 
 5 MARSHHAWK (Circus hudsonius) Migrants arrive. 
 Sauk: ............. I           3/14      ....                3/18     
3/30      2/9       4/25      2/27      2/6       2/3       3/6 
 Dane: ..............  3/6       3/1       2/25'     2/ 11     3/4      
3/17      3/14      3/8       3/20      3/2       3/8       3/5 
 6 WOODCHUCK (Marmota monax) Emerges from hibernation. 
 Dane: ............... I .... 1  3/17        .       3/14      3/4      ....
      3/28      315       2/4       2/28      3/9       .3/8 
 7 BLUEBIRD (Sialia sialis sialis) Arrives. 
 Sauk: ............... ....      3/14      3/6       3/11    (by 3/18) (by
3/30)   3/29      3/14      3/5       3/l10     3/7       3/12 
 Dane: ..............  3/6       3/4       3/6       2/28      3/4      
3/19      3/20      3/6       3/14      3/17      3/3       3/9 
 8 GRAY CHIPMUNK (Tamias striatus griseus) Emerges from hibernation. 
 Dane: ............... 1 3/13 1  3/18    1 3/13    1 3/19    1 3/14     
3/31      1....       ..      ...       3/3       3/16      3/16 
 9  EASTERN MEADOWLARK (StarneUa magna mngna) Migrants arrive. 
 Sauk: ............ ..           3/14      3/19                         
3/10      3/23      3/21    (by 4/10)  (bv 4/8) (be' 3/23)  3/17 
 Dane:      ...        3/11      3/21      3/20      3/1       3/3      
3/17      3/1       3/6       3/13      3/14      3/10      3/11 
 10 REDWINGED BLACKBIRD (Agelaius phoeniceus artolegus) Migrant males arrive.

 Sauk: ............  .... I      3/14                        (by 3/18) (by
3/30)   3/23      3/21     (by 4/2)   3/12    (by 3/23)   3/18 
 Dane:...........      2/23'23   2/29      3/6       3/2"      3/3 
     3/17      3/2       2/5       2/23      2/26      3/4       2/28 
 11 BRONZE GRACKLE (Quiscalus quiscula aeneus) Arrives. 
 Dane: ............. I  3/16  I   3/21  I   3/28  1   3/20      3/10    
 3/17  I   3/20      3/13  1   3/7       3/25      3/8       3/18 
 12 ROBIN (Turdus migralorius inigratorius) Migrants arrive. 
 Sauk: ......................  ..3/14       ...       3/11              (by
3/30)   3/23    (by 3/21)                     (by 3/23)   (3/19) 
 Dane: ....   ...   .  3/12       3/4       3/6"      3/9       3/13
     3/3       3/10      3/6       3/15      3/2ý      3/2       3/7

 13 PRAIRIE MOLE (Scalopus aquaticus michrinus) Active runs on surface. 
 Sauk & Dane: ......   .      I   ...   I   ....  I   .... I    3/25
     4/6       4/6       3/13      2/27    (by 4/8)    3/13      3/21 
 14 WISCONSIN RIVER (in Fairfield Township, Sank County) 
 Ice breaks: ........ ....        3/21     3/28      3/19      3/18     
3/31      3/31      3/10      3/27      3/10       .        3/21 
 In flood: ............         (by 3/29)  3/30     (by 3/27) (by 3/31) 
 ...        ..      noae      3/29      none      3/20      (3/26) 
 15 KILDEER (Oxyechus vociferss sociferus) Arrives. 
 Sank: .............    ....  I   ....                                . 
 4/6        .. .     3/6        .. .   (by 4/9)             (3/21) 
 Dane: ..............i  3/14                          3 3/7 3/6 3/9 3/3 
 3         3/19      2/5       2/23      3/23      2/24      3/6 
 16 CANADA GOOSE (Branta canadensis) Arrives. 
 Sauk: ...................... 1.3/21        3/24      3/11      3/31    
 3/30   j  3/29  I   3/7       4/3       3/11    (by 3 /23)  3/21 
 Dane: ...............  3/14      3/12      3/25      3/9       2/26    
 3/9       2/25  ,   .3/6      3/21      3/24      3/4       3/11 
 17 EASTERN MOURNING DOVE (Zenaidura macroura carolinensis) Migrants arrive.

 Sauk: ..............     I       ...       ..        ....        ..    
 3/10       .        4/3     (by 4/10) (by 4/8)    3/24     (3/23) 
 Dane: .............-   3/16      3/12      3/19      3/18      3/21    
 3/21      3/23      2/21      3/24      3/24      3/11      3/17 
 18 WOODCOCK (Philohela minor) Arrives. 
 Sank:. ........  ..........     ....    I  ....      3/11      3/25    
 3/30      4/5       3/21      4/4     (by 4/8)    3/15      3/25 
 Dane:...............   3/16      3/18      4/1       3/11      3/24    
 3/29      3/27      3/3        ...      4/1       3/ 17     3/21 
 19 FOX SPARROW (Pasarella iliaca iliaea) Arrives. 
 Sauk   .............. ....                 3/19      3/27      ....    (by
4/18)    . .      4/5     (by 4/2)              3/23      3/2d 
 Dane: ................3'i1       3/14      3/28      3/16      3/18    
 3/29      3/23      3/25      3/22      329       3/15      3/21 
 20 LEOPARD FROG (Rana pipiens) First seen on land. 
 Sauk & Dane:........ 1 3/23   1  3/21  1   4/7       3/19   1  3/23
   1....!      4/5       3/311....            ....     3/23      3/26 
 21 SPRING CANKERWORM (Paleacrita vernata) Adult moths ascend trees. 
 
 
Sauk: ................ I .... I  ....  I   ....  I   ....  I   ....     
4/6-4 !3/30-4/191   3/21-4 13/25-4/9  ?-4/23  13/23-4/1     3/27 
        Ascent is detected by trapping in rings of tanglefoot. Caterpillars
descend to pupate during May. 
 
 
86 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
January, 1947        A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN
                                                     87 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935     1936      1937      1938      1939     1940
     1941      1942      1943      1944      1945    Average 
22 LAKE WINGRA at Madison. Ice breaks. 
                   1  3/25  1   3/24   1  4/10      3/21     3/25      4/9
             I  .        ....       3/24     3/17      3/27 
23 BROWN BAT (Myotis tacifugus lucifugus)Flying. 
Dane: ............... 1 4/15 1  4/22  I   ....      ..       314      317
                 ...       3/30      .         3/14      3/29 
24 EARTHWORM (Lumbricas terreslrie) On surface of ground. 
Dane: .............. ....    I   ..       4/18   1  ..         .. 1    4/6
   1  ....   1  3/27   1(by 4/18)I  ....      3/4   1   3/29 
25 CRICKET FROG (Rana pilustris) First heard calling. 
Sauk:. ...........    ....I            I  3/30      3/20     3/25    (by
3/30)   3/29      3/31      3/31      4/7       .         3/29 
Dane: .............   3/20   ,  3/i18     4/1       ....     3/23       ....
    3/30      3/21      ....      ....    (by 3/15)   3/24 
        A live specimen taken at Prairie du Sac March 31, 1943, was identified
as this species. It is believed the entire record is for cricket frogs, but
in any event it 
           represents the first audible small frog. 
 
                                                  TABLE 4. Phenology for
April. 
26 SILVER MAPLE (Acer saccharinum) 
Sauk: 
  flower buds open .......    ........              3/20     3/25      4/10
     4/12  1   4/3       4/1       4/8       3/24      4/1 
  ripe samaras fall ...          .                  ....    5/20-6/3   6/84-?
  -5/23    5/20-5 25   5/29-?  (by 5/27) 1 5/18-?    5/25 
Dane: 
  in pollen (b....        .     ...       4/14-     3/20-               ....
    4/10-?   3,22-?  4/1-4/20   4/16-4/231 3/17-3/268 3/31 
  staminate flowersfa.          ....      ...                 .. ....   
         ....     ....       ....     4/27      3/25     (4/11) 
  ripe samaras fall....         I....     ....                ....      
    ....           ...                .. .    5/15-6/1  (5/15) 
        In 1945 leafing began at the end of blowning and was complete] a
miath later. In 1944 leAfing b-ga's a week after the eal of bloom and was
completed 
           in 17 days. 
27 LAKE MENDOTA at Madison. 
Ice breaks: .......... 1 3/28 1 3/30   I  4/13   1  3/22   I  4/4   1   4/16
    4/9       3/24      3/31  I   3/29  j   3/20      4/1 
        The average date for the period 1853-1940 was April 6. See Wing,
page 158. 
28 SKUNK CABBAGE (Symplocarpus foetidns) 
Sauk: in pollen ........ I I             ...     I ....   I .... I      ....
_   4/16      330 ... I           .... 43/20         (4/1) 
29 STRIPED SPERMOPHILE '(Citellu tridecemlineatun tridecemlincatus) Emerges.

Dane: .............. 1 4/2   1  4/8    1  4/101     3/28  1   4/23     3/301
     ....     3/12      4/3       4/13      3/26      4/3 
30 YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER (Sphyrapicas earius varius) Arrives. 
Sak: ..............                         ..      3/11        .       4/13
              4/5        .        4/9       4/7       4/3 
Dane: ................ 4/4      3/2430                        4/8       4/1
     4/4       3/26      3/30      4/2       3/28      4/1 
31 GREAT BLUE HERON (Ardea herodias hseodias) Arrives. 
Sauk;................... I .... I .... I(by 4/9)    ..        3/25      4/6
     4/19                4/2       ...       ... 4/2 
Dane: ..............  3/30      3/1i      4/1    1  3/19      3'/19    3/29
     3/22      4/5"      3/21      3/20     3/18       3/24 
32 MOURNING CLOAK BUTTERFLY (Aglais antiope) First seen. 
Sauk & Dane: ........ I 3/26 I  4,15      4/18  I   3/22      3/25  
   4/16      4/12  I          (by 4/19)   4/8       3/23      4/5 
33 COWBIRD (Molothrus ater ater) Arrives. 
Sauk:...............    ..4/20                                          3/30
    4/12         .       ..       4/9       3/23      4/6 
Dane: ...............                               3/13      3/22      3/18
    3/30      4/2       3/22      4/9       3/21      3/24 
34 PUSSY WILLOW (Salix discolor)* 
Dane: in pollen (b)... I .... 1 3/25-? 4  3/30-?    . ...  j  4/6-?     ....
     4/164-?   4/18-? 1  ....  1 4/17-4/301 3/24-4/3  4/6 
35 WILSON SNIPE (Capella delicala) First migrants arrive. 
Sauk: ...........  ...       I (by 4/19) (by 4/17) (by 4/17)  4/7       4/15
     4/12     4/3       4/11       ;.       3/25      4/7 
Dane: ..............   3/23     229        ....1    3/27      3/11      3/20
     3/26  1  3/27      4,4       4/8       3/28      3/23 
36  FIELD SPARROW (Spizella pusilla pusilla) Arrives. 
Sauk: ....................   ].......   .4/17       3/27      4/7       4/15
     4/12     4/12      4/3       4/7       3/23      4/7 
Dane; ............... 3/29'     3/28      4/7       3/22      4/8       4/3
      3/22     3/22      4/2       4/3       3/30      3/30 
37  PHOEBE (Sayornis phoebe) Arrives. 
Sank: ............... .....   .....       4/9       4/2       4/7       4/18
     .                  4/3       4/20      3./24     4/7 
Da:.................. 3/23      3/14      4/2       3/21      3/24      4/2
      4/7       3/29     4/2       4/9       3/17      3/28 
38 HAZEL (Corylus americana) 
Sank: in pollen .........                           3/29-?              4/13-?
   4/12-?  (by 4/3)    .._     ?-4/23    ?-3/25     (4/7) 
Dane: in pollen .........  ... .../                               - ....
3/2      4/11-?   3/31-?    4/9-?    4/94/23 3/18-3/26    4/2 
        The catkins fall about a week after they have ceased to bear pollen.
In 1945 the leaf buds enlarged when the catkins fell, and the leaves attained
full size a 
            month and a half later. 
 39 RUFFED GROUSE (Boanasa umbells umbellus) Drums. 
 Sauk: ........... I    ....   (by 4/19)  3/29-? 1  3/27-?    4/16-?  4/14-6/2
I 4/5-6/14 1 4/12-6/161(5/31) onlyl 4/8-7/3  1 4/7-6/16 14/8-6/16 
 40 ALDER (Alnus incana) 
 Suak: in pollen .....................     .. .     3/20-?    ----      4/13-?
   4/12-? 4  4/13-? 1  4/13-?  4/8-4/23 1 ?-3/23 1  4/8 
 Dane: in pollen (b)... .....    ...      4/14-?    3/27-?    4/6-?     .
..    (by 4/18) 1 3/31-?  4/5-4/20  4/10-4/231 3/17-3/261 4/2 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
88                                        ALDO     LEOPOLD      AND .SARA
     ELIZABETH        JONES                     Ecological Monographs 
                                                                        
                                                          Vrol. 17, No. 1

 
Species, Station, Item  1935      1936      1937       1938      1939   
   1940      1941       1942      1943       1944      1945     Average 
 
41 QUAKING ASPEN (Populus tremuloides) 
Sauk & Dane: 
  in pollen .       ....... ....            4/20                        
   4/21   1  4/14                 4/2        4/11      3/23       4/10 
 
        This species is genetically variable in blooming, leafing, and fruiting
dates. We could not relate these variations to site, but clones often displayed
uniform 
            phenology. The earliest seeds in 1945 blew on April 28. * The
earliest leafing was completed April 21. 
42 EASTERN BELTED KINGFISHER (Mcgaceryle alcyon alcyon) First migrants arrive.

Sauk: ....................         ....      4/21      4/19       3/25  
   4/6        4/19      4/4       4/4      (by 4/8)  (by3/29)     4/10 
Dane ................ 3/24         4/4       3/23      3/14       3/11  
   3/30       4/6       3/20      3/26       3/30      3/16       3/24 
43 FORSYTHIA (Forsythia suspensa) 
Dane: in bloom (b)... I ....   I   ....      ....      ....      4/20-? 
 (by 5/9)    4/16-?     4/12-? 1   ....  1 4/18-5/171 3/24-4/181  4/10 
44 PASQUE FLOWER (Anemone paten8 var. Wslfgangiana) 
Sauk: ii bloom ...........    .   .        (by 5/1)  ?-5/12_?           
 4/28-5/26 ?-5/3      4/12-5/1  4/11-5/10 4/10-5/15 3/24-4/16     4/11 
Dane: in bloom ..........         4/20-?     4/12-?    3/29-?    4/10-? 
   ....    4/20-5/1        .      4/11-?     4/13-?  3/29-4/7     4/10 
45 COTTONWOOD (Populas desoides) 
Dane: staminate cat- 
  kins in pollen .... .....       ....   [  4/19-?     ....       ....  
   ....       ....      4/16-? 1  ....     4/28-5/4  3/22-3/29    4/13 
        In 1945 the staminate flowers and flower scales fell March 28-29,
immediately after the cessation of pollen. Leafing followed blooming. The
earliest seeds 
            blew on April 28, but seeds were still blowing up to June 18.

46 AMERICAN ELM (Ulmus americana) 
Sauk: 
  flower buds open...   .....    ....        ....      ....       ....  
   4/19      4/19       ....      4/10                 3/23       4/10 
  flowers in pollen ..........    ....       ....      ....       ....  
 4/26-5/4  ?-4/20       ....      4/15-?     4/20-?    3/26-?     4/14 
  fruit ripe and falling ..    .   ....      ....      ....       ....  
 5/11-6/1  (by 5/21)    5/18-?    ....     ?-6/3     (by 5/18)   (5/12) 
Dane: 
  flower buds open.........   .   ...       4/19       ....             
   ....      4/13       ....      ....       4/9       3/17       4/2 
  flowers in pollen .... ..... ....         4/23 -?           .   ...   
   ...        ....      4/1?     4/14-?   4/16-4/26 3/21-4/7     4/9 
47 BOX ELDER (Acer negundo) 
Dane: in pollen .... .. I .... j   . . -     4/19-?     ....  I   ....  
I  ....       4/16-?    4/15-?7    ....    4/23-5/6 I 3/28-4/5 1  4/14 
        In 1945 the staminate flowers fell immediately after pollen ceased.
Leafing begins with pollen and is completed in about 3 weeks. 
48 HEPATICA (Hepatica acutiloba and H. americana) 
Dane:in bloom ......                2 .... 1 4/23-? 1 4/24-? I 4/15-? I 4/22-?
4/12-? 1 4/13-?   4/4-? 1 4/28-5/161 4/23-5/131 3/22-4/171  4/15 
49  UPLAND PLOVER (Bartramia longicauda) Arrives. (Dates up to 1943 from
Buss and Hawkins.) 
Jefferson: ............ 1 4/14 '  4/19   1  4/14    1  4/13   1  4/22   
   4/19      4/13       4/13      4/17       4/18   1....         4/16 
50 DOUBLE CRESTED CORMORANT (Phalacrscorax auritus aurilas) 
Sauk ....    ...............                4/9        4/17      4/19   
   4/14      4/12       4/12      4/16       5/6       4/6        4/16 
Dane:...............    3/30      3/28      4/28       4/19      4/21   
   3/29      4/21       ....      4/17       4/14      4/10      4/12 
51 DRABA (Draba reptans) 
Sank: first bloom .... I ....            I ....        ......    ....   
   ...       4/19       4/18      4/29      ....       3/31       4/17 
52 RED CEDAR (Juniperus sirginiana) 
Sauk: in pollen (b) .. I .... I   ....   I   ...       ...        ....  
   ..        ....        ...      4/23-?    4/28-?   3/31-4/7    (4/17) 
53  DANDELION (Taraxacum officinale) 
Dane: in bloom ..      .... I     .... I    4/29-? I   ...       4/17-? 
   ..        4/18-?   4/7-5/231 ?-6/2    1 ?-5/23  1 4/12-5/201  4/17 
54 EASTERN HERMIT THRUSH (Hylocichla gustalafaxoni) Arrives. 
Sank: ...........   I             4/19       ...    I  .      ..   ..   
              ....      ....      4/16       4/18                (4/18) 
Dane: .........         3/27      3/29       3/27      3/22       3/26  
   4/5       4/4        3/25      3/30       4/14      3/14      3/29 
55 RED EYED TOWHEE (Pipilo erythrophithalmus erythrophthalmus) Arrives. 
Sauk: ............... .3/29        ...       ....      4/20             
   4/28                 4/18      5/1                  4/12      4/18 
Dane ...............    3/29      4/15       4/18      3/27      4/11   
   4/14      4/19       4/1       4/1      I4/15       3/25      4/7 
56 DUTCHMAN'S BREECHES (Dicentra eucullaria) 
Sauk: in bloom (b)... .....   .   ....     ?-5/16_?                     
 ?-5/11      4/22-? 1 4/18-5/9 1 4/23-5/15 4/25-5/15 3/31-4,23   4/18 
Dane: in bloom          4/17-?    4/15-?     4/26-?    4/14-?     4/25-?
   ....      4/20-?     4,19-?    ....     5/1-5/16  3/30-4/29   4/18 
57 PURPLE MARTIN (Progne sabis subis) Arrives. 
Sauk ................             .     ....           4/18      4,20   
             ....       4/18    (by 5/1)                        (4/19) 
Dane ............3...    )3 I     4/4       4/8        4/7       3/24   
   3/31      4 1        3/25   1  3/24      4/6        3/29      3/31 
58 PUSSYTOES (Antennaria fallax)* 
Sauk: first bloom .    .... ....                                        
   4/21      4/27       4/25      4/23      4/21       3/31      4/20 
Dane: first bloom... ..                                                 
   ....[     4/20-?     4/26-?    ....       ....    4/11-5,15   (4/19) 
59 HORSETAIL (Equisetum arvense) 
Dane: spores blowing. I ....  I   ....   I  ....   I   ....       ....  
   ....      4/22-? 1  4/19-? 1   .....  I 4/30-5/241 4/10-5/181 4/20 
60 TOOTHWORT (Dentaria laciniaua) 
Dane:in bloom ...... I   -.   I   ....   I  ....   I   ....   I  ....   
   ....  I   ....   1  4/19-? [   .... 1  5/6-5/20 14/5-4/16 1   (4/20) 
61 BLOODROOT (Sanguiasria canadensis) 
Sauk: in bloom (b).. I  ....  I    ...       ....      ...       ....*  
   ....   I  ....   1  4/25-? 14/23-5/101   5/1-?    4/3-4/22    4/21 
Dane: in blom ......       .     4/25-?     4/22?     4/14       4/20-? 
   .         4/13-?1   4/12-? 1 4/8-5/11 1 4/18-5/15 3/26-4/14   4/14 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
89 
 
 
Species, Station, Item . 1935    1936      1937      1938      1939     
1940      1941      1942      1943      1944      1945     Average 
62 NORWAY MAPLE (Acer plelanoides) 
Dane:in pollen ...... .          ....  I   4/224                        
          4/19-4    4/224-    .        9-5/16   4/5-4/11    4/21 
63 SPRING GRAIN (oats and barley) Planted at University Farms. 
Dane: ............... I 4/22 1   4/18 j    5/8   I   4/21      4/27  I  
4/20      4/24      4117      4/22      5/1       3/27      4/21 
        Data from Prof. H. L. Shands, Dept. of Agronomy, College of Agriculture.

64 BROWN THRASHER (Tox/ostoma rufum) Arrives. 
Sauk:...........                 4/19     .          4/16      ....     
4/28      4/19      4/25      5/1     (by 5/7)    4/16      4/22 
Dane:... . .........   i4/2      4/23      4/10      3/20      4/21     
4/28      4/19      4/18      4/24      4/24      4/8       4/17 
65 CABBAGE BUTTERFLY (Pieridae sp?) First seen. 
Sauk& Dane: ........ 1 4/20  1   4/23      4/28       ..       4/25 
    .         4/25      4/18      4/30        ..      4/12      4/23 
66 CAREX (Carex pennsylnmnica) 
Sauk: in pollen (b) .......  ......          .       ....      ....     
....   .        .    ..       57-?    5/1-516     4/1-?    (4/23) 
Dane:in pollen.   ......      ....         ....      ....       ...     
...       4/14-?    4/19-?    ....    5/1-5/30  4/2-4/20    4/17 
67  EARLY CROWFOOT (Ranusnclus fascicularis) 
Sank & Dane: 
  in bloom .......... 1 5/1-?   5/2-4      ....   (by 4/26)   4/25-?    
...       4/20-?   ....       4/21--? ?-5/28    4/6-5/24    4/23 
68  AMERICAN BITTERN (BtV"4fYen"Fgnosus) Arrives. 
Sauk: .....................I                ..   I             4/18     
5/11      4/19      4/25      4/23      4/21      4/23      4/24 
Dane: ............... 4/10       4/19      4/5"      4/9       4/9 
     5/8       4/6       4/18      3/30      3V25      5/3       4/13 
69 SHEPHERD'S PURSE (Capsell Bursa-pastoris) 
Sauk: first bloom.... I .... I    ...  I   ....      5/28      ....     
....      4/18      4/23      5/7       5/13      4/8       4/24 
70 BELLWORT (Usularia grandiflora) 
Dane:in bloom ...... 1 5/134 1   ....  I   5/1-7     ....  .    ..   I  
.         4/25-?    4/27-? 1  4/28-71 5/10-5/251 4/12-5/211 4/29 
71 MARSH MARIGOLD (Caltha palustris) 
Sauk: in bloom                         I   ....    4/22-5/23   ....    5/11-5/26
  4/27-?    4/22-?  ?-5/15    4/.. /3       ..      4/28 
Dane: in bloom ...        .     4/25-     4/204  1   4/12-4    4/25-?   5/3-4
     4/24-?    4/21-?    4/25-?  4/29-5/30 4/9-5/20    4/22 
72 JUNE BERRY (Amelanchier canadenis)* 
Sauk: in bloom (b) ..    ... .           (by 5/8) 4/22-5/2     ....     
5/11-?    4/26-?  4/25-5/7  5/1-5/15  5/11-5/19 4/12-4/23   4/28 
Dane: in bloom (b).. I ....  I         I   ....     4/15-      ....     
...       ..        4/25-?  4/28-5/23 5/9-5/19  4/10-5/4    4/23 
        The budding period as between years has varied from five days to
two weeks, apparently depending on current weather. Leafing and blooming
occurred simul- 
           taneously in 1945, the leaves being completed before the end of
bloom. 
73 BOBWHITE (Colinus virginianus virginianus )First "bobwhite"
call. 
Sauk: .............. I ...........    I (by 5/23)  (by 6/4)  (by 6/3)   
4/21      5/2       4/25      5/29      4/25      4/12      4/29 
Dane: .............   3/18       3/29'     4/19      ....      4/18     
.         4/14      .......             4/19      3/22      4/6 
74 ARABIS (Arabis Israia) 
Sank: first bloom ......... ....   ....   .... ......                   
35/15     4/22                ....      5/6       4/11      4/29 
Dane: first bloom .........                                            (by
4/28)   4/20      4/19                 ...    (by 4/20)   (4/20) 
        This species has no sharp terminal date. In 1945 straggling blooms
occurred through July. 
75 WOOD ANEMONE (Anemone quinquefolia var. interior) 
Sank: in bloom ....... ........     " .    ....    (by 5/1)    ....
     5/11-?    4/25-?  4/25-5/16 5/5-5/30  5/7-5/23  4/12-5/18   4/29 
Dane: in bloom...     4/30-     5/9-       ....     4/21-4              
....      4/25-7    4/21-4  5/1-5/23  5/5-5/24  4/9-6/1     4/26 
76 PRICKLY ASH (Zanthoxylum americanum) 
Sauk: first pollen ..... I .... I .... 1   5/1   I   ....      5/2      
5/17  I   4/12      4/25      5 5/7  I  5/12      4/14   I  4/30 
        Leafing in 1944 began three days after first bloom, and was completed
16 days later. 
 
                                                   TABLE 5. Phenology for
May. 
77 HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) Arrives. 
Sank: ......................                                          (by
5/11)    5/2       5/1     (by 5/7)    5/1     (by 5/5)   (5/1) 
Dane: ............... 4/16      4/14      4/30      4/17      4/23   ,  
4/29      4/15      4/18      4/25      4/27      4/23      4/22 
78 SMALL FLOWERED CROWFOOT (Ranunculus abortivus) 
Sauk: in bloom .......I .....    .     I . ...                 ....     5/17-T
  7           ....       ...      .         4/14-4   (5/1) 
             Dane in .ib7-?                         5/1-. ....          
....        _5'?7  4/194              5/9-5/27  4/13-6/14   4/26 
79 LAST KILLING FROST (Record by U. S. Weather Bureau.) 
Sauk: ............... 1 5/23    4/16   1  4/16       4/12      5/2      
5/4       4/25      4/20  I   5/1       5/6       6/4       5/1 
Dane: ..... ..........5/4       4/23      4/16       4/10      4/13     
5/3       4/24                 /419 5/1 4/18      6/4       4/27 
80 HOARY PUCCOON (Lithospersnum canescens) 
Sauk: in bloom .......                    5..._     5/1-4              512-6/131
4/23-5/231 5/1-6/4  5/7-6/4   5/14-6/3  4/12-6/8    5/1 
Dane: in bloom (b)... ....  I   5/10-     5/11-7    5/10-7 I            
 P.... 11 5/84-1    4/30-     .h    I             4/104     5/3 
        Straggling bloom occurred for a week to 10 days beyond the regular
blooming period in each of the last three years. 
81 DOGTOOTH VIOLET (Erythronium americanum and E. albidum) 
Sauk: in bloom ............      ....   ?-5/8   1  5/1-4      .        5/5-4
       .     ?-5/16  1   4/29-?            ?-15 7-5/5 (5/2) 
Dane; in bloom .....  5/11-      ....     5/7-4     5/1-?I     ....     
....         -      4/25-I    ....    5/8-5/151 4/10-5/201  4/29 
 
  

					
				
				
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
         Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935      1936      1937      1938       1939    
 1940      1941      1942       1943      1944      1945     Average 
82  BIRD-FOOT VOLET (Viola pedata var. linerilo) 
Sauk: in bloom .......                               5/1-?     5/1-6/4  5/12-6/5
 4/30-5/23 4/25-5/31 5/8-6/4    5/11-6/1  4/21-6,16   5/2 
Dane: in bloom .....   5/2-?     5/91-?    5/10-?     ....       ....   
  ..       5/8-?     4/25-?     ....      ....    4/11-6/21   5/1 
 
 
        A few autumn blooms were seen in Sank County, Sept. 20, 1944. 
83 ARABIS (Arabis drummondi) 
Sauk:in bloom ....... ....   I   ,..    I  ....   I   ....  I   .... . 
84 RIVER BIRCH (Betula nigra) 
 
 
I   ....  1   5/1-? 1   5/7-? 1 5/11-5/311 4/22-5/201  5/3 
 
 
Sauk: inblom ....... I ....   I   ...   I  ....   I    ...  I   ....    5/11-5/171
 ....   I ?-5/9   j   ....  15/15-5/211   4/13-? I  (5/3) 
 
 
        Leafing began with blooming in 1944, and was completed by May 31.

85 SAND CHERRY (Prunns pumila) 
Sauk: in bloom (b)...I ....  I   ....   I  ....   I   ....  I   .. .    ?-5/30
   ?-5/9    I 4/25-5/9 I 5/9-5/27 15/17-5/251 4/22-5/201 5/3 
        The leafing period coincides with the blooming period. 
86 EASTERN KINGBIRD (Tyrannns tyrannus) Arrives. 
Sauk: ............... I ....I...        1  5/1     (by 5/14)   5/4      
 5/2       5/1       5/2       5/2      (by 5/11)   5/18      5/4 
Dane:. ..............  5/6       5/3       4/17      4/21      4/30     
 5/5       4/25      4/29      5/6        5/7       5/12      5/1 
 
 
87 NORTHERN CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus crinitus boreus) Arrives. 
 
 
Sauk: ..............   .   ...     ..   I   ....              (by 5/14) 
 5/4       4/29      5/1       5/8        5/11    (by 5/18)   5/4 
Dane: ............... .511       5/2"      4/17      5/2    1   5/6
      5/6       511       4/21      5/3        5/3       5/13      5/3 
88  OAKS ............ (Quercus solutina; macrocarpa; borealis var. maxima;
alba) 
Sauk: in pallen 
      Black .........  ...            ....           ....       .... .. 
  ..       ....    ?-5/9        ....      5 3       42-      (5/4) 
      Barr .......... .....   ....                    ....      ....    
 ....      ....    ?-5/9        ....      5/20-?    4/23-?   (5/5) 
      Red ...........  ...       5/10-?    5/8-?      ...       ..      
  ..       ..         ......              5/17-?I   ....      (5/12) 
      White .........  ...       .."..                ..           
                 ..       ..                   5/23-?    ...      (5/23)

 
      Black ..........      ....      ....      ....       ....         
 ....      4/33-?    4/30-?     ....    5/15-5/19 4/25-5/7   (5/3) 
      Barr .............  .......                ....                   
 ....      ....                         5/15-5/191 4/20-4/301 (5/6) 
 
 
        In general, black andi burr oak bloom first; red antd white later.
In 1944t, pollen dleveloped in all s,).,LeS ,l- uiys aft~er the cat&ius
appearedl, wherea.s na 1-5 
        about three weeks elapsed before pollen appeared. In both years leafing
began with the first catkins, bat c.so1letioas of leafing required only 2
weeks in 1944, 
        but over a month in 1945. In 1945 the catkins and young leaves of
many oaks were destroyed by frost. Sams such trees did not complete rcleafing
until June. 
89 STEMLESS BLUE VIOLET (Viola cucullata)* 
Dane: in bloom ...... I 5/2-? 1  ....        9        .... 5    ....    
 ....      5/11-? I  5/13-? I   ....  t5/13-6/1 I 4/6-5/31 I  5/4 
90 BELLWORT (Oakessia sessilifolia) 
Sauk: first bloom..  .  .I .. . I .....      .......   .     I.-.       
 5/11       ....  14/25         5/7    1  5/7       5/1    15/4 
91 FRANKLIN GROUND SQUIRREL (Citellunfranklini) Emerges. 
Dane: ...............   ..       5/4      ....    14/21    1    ....    
 ....       ....      ...      ...        5/12      5/10      5/4 
92 WILD PLUM (Prunus americana) 
Sauk: in bloom...... I........   ....              ?-5/3        ....    
 ....    ?-5/9     4/25-5/9    5/8-?      5/13-?    4/16-?    5/5 
Dane: in bloom......  .....   ....         55/2-? 4/12-4/29+    ....    
 ....      5/1-?     4/25-?  5/5-5/22   5/12-5/22 4/26-5/14   4/29 
Sank & Dane:                                      I               I 
            I          I 
      fruit ripe .... .....      ....      825        ....   I  ....    
 ....      8/29       ....      ....      ....      8/25      (8/26) 
        Leafing begins with blooming, but is completed before the end of
bloom. 
93  GEUM (Geum triflorum) 
Sank: in bloom (b) .. . ...      ....      .          ....      ....    
 ....    (by 5/2)     ....      ....    5/19-5/27 4/25-5/7    (5/5) 
Dane: ...............[                                            .     
           4/28-?     ....                ....    5/1-6/14    (4/30) 
94 PIN CHERRY (Prunus pennsyloanica) 
Sank: inbloom.. .5/.-?                  I   .  -I     ....  I          1
 5/17                 .        5/7        5/12      4/13      5/5 
Dane: in bloom......   ...       5/'5-     5/1?       ....              
 ....      5/7-       ..        ....    ?-5/17   14/10-4/29   5/1 
95 BALTIMORE ORIOLE (Icterns galbula) Arrives. 
Sauk: ...............I ....    (by 5/10)           (by 5/14) j          
 5/11      5/2       5/1        5/2       5/11   1  5/7       5/5 
Dane: ...............  5/7    1  5/2       5/7"      5/2    ,   5/4.
     5/5       4/29      4/29       5/1       5/2       5/6       5/3 
96 EASTERN WARBLING VIREO (Viresogileaagilsus) Arrives. 
Sank: ..............1                                 5/70  .   .       
 5...      5/2       5//1       5/9     (by 5/12) (by 5/18)   5/5 
Dane: ..............   5/8       5/3       5/8'       4/30      5/4     
 5/12      5/1       5t1        5/2       5/5       5/8       5/5 
97    SUGAR MAPLE (Acer saccharum) 
Dane: in pollen ...... I .... I  ....   I                       ....   I
 5/11-? I   .... 5   5/25-? T   ....    5/8-5/16 I  4/7-?      5/5 
89  BOBOLINK (Dolichonyxoryzivoru) Arrives. 
 
 
90 
 
 
Sank: ................. ....  I         I   .         5/7               
 5/4       5/2        ....      5/9       5/7     (by 5/18)    5/6 
Dane: ...5........I .  4/25      54         4/26      5/4            5  
  /5    I5/4        I4/29       5/9       5/13      5/9        5"3 
99 ROSE BREASTED GROSBEAK (Hedymeles ludosicianas) Arrives. 
Sak: ...........                   ,o/10....      I         I ..        
 5/11     5/2        5/1                  /6     I             5/6 
Dane:.    .......      ../7      5/1       5/9       5/1i       5/6     
 5/6       5/7       5/1       5/8        5/6       5/9       5/6 
 
 
Dane: ...............  5/7   1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
January, 1947  A PILENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
91 
 
 
Species, Station, Itemi 1935    1936      1937      1938      1939      
1940      1941      1942      1943      1944      1945    Average 
100  CHOKE CHERRY (Prunus virginiana) 
Sauk: in bloomi......  ....      ....--. -           __.     ?-5/20    ?-5/31
    5/2-?    5/1-5/11  ?-5/29    5/20-5/29   5/1 -?    5/6 
Dane: in bloom ...........      5/8-      5/11      5/4-       ....     
          ....     4/27-?    5/21-?   5/18-6/3  4/27-5/23   5/8 
        Leafing is completed just before blooming begins. In 1944 leafing
took 19 days in both Sank and Dane. Flower buds became visible after leafing
was one 
            third completed. Fruit ripens at the end of August. 
101 WINTER CRESS (Barbarea vulgaris) 
Sank: in bloom .... .  ....      ....      ....      ....      ....     
....      ......              ....      5/ 20-? 1 4/21-6/6 (5/6) 
Dane: in bloom...........     ....         ....      .                  
....      ...       5/9-?             5/16-7/91   4/21-?   (51 8) 
102 LOUSEWORT (Pedicularis canadensis) 
Sank: in bloom ...... I .         ..        ...  I   ....      ....  I(by
5/17)   5/2-2      5/9-?     .     I   ....  1?-5-20      (5/6) 
103 NORTHERN YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis trichas brachidactyla) Arrives. 
Sank:................  .5/7                                             
 ..                           5/8       5/7     (by 5/17)  (5/7) 
Dane:. .............  4/27       5/1      5/5        5/2      5/5       
5/6       5/1 
104 WHITE TRILLIUM (Trillium grandiflorum) 
Sank: in bloom ...... I ....     ....       ....-- (by 5/1)  ?-5/29     5/16-?
  5/2-5/18  5/1-6/1   5/9-6/3   5/11-5/27 5/1-6/5     5/7 
Dane: in bloom...... ...5/3-?                                  ....     
...      5/6-?    4/26-5/23   5/6-?   5/7-5/25  4/15-5/268  5/3 
105 CRATAEGUS* 
 
 
Sank: (one plant) 
        in bloom (b) . ....       ..   ..   ....      ...   (by 5/20)   
....      ....     5/1-?    ?-5/31    5/19-5/27 5/1-5/20   (5/7) 
Dane: in bloom ..........                             .                 
....       ..       ....       .      5/16-5/26   5/1-?    (5/9) 
106  NORTHERN WOOD THRUSH (Hylocichla mustelna) Arrives. 
Sauk: ......................   ....    I   ....      5/70               
...       5/10      5/9       5/9       5/7     (by 5/17)   5/8 
Dane:..........       5/8        5/2       4/17      4/30      5/6      
4/13      5/4       5/1       5/5       5/5       4/12      4/28 
107  BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium pennsylvanicum) 
Sauk: first bloom (b) . I ... I  ....  I   ....  I   ..    I   ....  1  5/17
  I  5/2        .         5/5    wind burn I no bloom  (5/8) 
108 INDIAN SWEET GRASS (Hierochloe odorata) 
Sank: in bloom ....... I .... I  ....  I   ....  1  4/27-?I   5/20-?    5/11-?
  2-5/18  I 5/1-6/9     ....  15/19-5/311 4/29-6/151  5/8 
109 TRILLIUM (Trillium recurvatum) 
Dane:inbbloom .../.... I .... I  ....  1  5/12-?                        
          5/11-? 1  5/5-?     ....   t5/16-8/1 1 4/29-5/271 5/8 
110 WILD CRAB (Pyrus ioensis) 
Dane: in bloom .....   ....  I   ....  I  5/15-? I 5/5-5/20I   . .-  .. 
 ..       5/8-? I 5/7-5/25    5/24-? 15/19-/5/261 4/19-5/241 5/9 
111 SCARLET TANAGER (Piranga erythromelas) Arrives. 
Dane:.............-I  5/8    1  5/6    1 (by 5/16) 1 5/7   I  5/14      5/12
      5/2   I   5/16      4/30      5/1       5/21      5/9 
112 EASTERN WHIPPOORWILL (Antrostomus eociferus sociferus) Arrives. 
Sauk: ............... I ............       ....                         
5/17                5/9       5/8       5/6     (by 5/17)   5/10 
Dane: ............... 5/5       4/24       5/4       4/18      4/23     
5/2       4/21      4/15      5/3       5/1       3/28      4/24 
113 LILAC (Syringa culguris) 
Sauk: flower buds 
        visible .............  ....        ....      ....      ........ 
                    4/12      4/15       /7       4/1       4/16 
        in bloom                 ....      ....      ....      ....     5/25
              5/1-5/19   -6/3     5/19-5/30 5/5-5/25    5/10 
Dane: ................                            4428-5/25    ...      
....          4    /           /20    5                     5/3 
        The 1944 and 1945 record for Dane is for an early variety, S. V.
Claude Bernard. Leafing begins 3-4 weeks before first bloom and is completed
shortly after. 
114 PROTHONOTARY WARBLER (Protonotaria citrea) Arrives. 
Sank: ............... I 5/12 1  5/9    I (by 5/16)   5/14      5/14     
5/12  I(by 5/l)     5/16      5/8   I absent      ....      5/10 
115  INDIGO BUNTING (Passerina eyaiea) Arrives. 
Sauk: ............... .......  .....   I   ....      ....      ....     
5/4                 5/9               (by 5/21)   5/20     (5/11) 
Dane: ............... . 5/12     5/9       5/16      5/6       5/6      
5/10      5/5       5/8       5/5       5/17      5/14      5/10 
116 BLUE PHLOX (Phlox disaricata) 
Sauk: in bloom .................     _ I   .. - _?     . ' -   ....    5/26-6/13
5/9-6/7   5/1-6/4   5/13-6/151 ?-6/15   5/5-6/10    5/11 
Dane: in bloom ....    5/27-?    5/17-?    5/15-?    5/15-?    ....     
....                4/28-?     ...    5/12-6/ 1 4/29-5/20   5/12 
117 JACK PINE (Pinus Bansiiana) 
Sauk:in pollen....... I .... I   ....  I   ....      ....      ....     
5/30-?    5/2-?   5/1-5/13    .      1.. 5/18-5/251 5/6-5/15 1 5/11 
118  JACK IN THE PULPIT (Arisaema iriphyllum) 
Dane:in bloom .... -   ....  I   ....  1   ....      ...       ....  1  
5/23-2    5/12-?    4/27-?    5/9-? 15/20-6/1   5/15-6/4 1  5/11 
119 JACOB'S LADDER (Polemonium reptans) 
Dane: in bloom ....      .                           5 I I I ..i-       
                    4)28-.  5/13-5/31 519-5/291 5/5-5/25   (5/12) 
Dane: in bloom(b).... ....  ....           ...       5/1-      ....     
...       5/11-     4/28-     5/22-?  5/14-5/311 4/14-5/181 5/5 
120 WILD STRAWBERRY (Fragaria eirginiana) 
Sauk: in bloom ..    ...........                                        
                                        5/20-?  4/23-6/8    5/12 
      fruit ripe........... ........       ....      ....               
          ....    8/: 1-61    ....        I 7?  61773       (/1 
                        Dan~inblom.)2i?     ;8-      5i0-               
5)6-      5)"        -6/1113            6/17-?  6/17-7/3    (6/11) 
Dane: in bloom..............   .5/21-? 1   5/8-?     5/10-?             
5/16-?    5/7-?     4/30-?    ....      5/17-?  4/14-6/15   5/8 
121 RED OZIER DOGWOOD (Cornus stolonifera) 
Dane: in bloom ...... I .... I                       5.4..... I? ....   
...       5/7-?  I  ....   t   ...   15i22-6/2+1 5/7-6/6+ I 5/12 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
, ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
         Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935      1936      1937       1938      1939    
 1940      1941      1942       1943      1944      1945     Average 
122 CATBIRD (Dumetella carolinensis) Arrives. 
Sauk:.. ...........                     I                       ....    
            ....      5/16      5/9     (by 5/13) (by 5/18)   (5/13) 
Dane: ....... ...      5/6       5/2"       5/4       4/15      5/5
      5/6       4/27       430       5/8       5/2       5/8       5/2 
123 ASIATIC HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera tatarica) 
Dane: in blo..n ...... I ..                                     ...    I
 ....   I  .... .    5/11-?     5/27-? 1 5/16-5/271 4/29-6/11 5/13 
124 EASTERN NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles minor minor) Arrives. 
Sauk:      ..           .        ...                                    
 ....                5/16       5/7     (by 5/13) (by 5/18)   (5/14) 
Dane: .....            5/12      5/7       5/1        5/4"      4/19
     5/12      5/3       5/4        5/4       5/11      5/20      5/6 
125 FALSE S)L )MON'S SEAL (Smilacina slellala) 
Sauk: in blo   ... I   ....      .......              ....      .... 15/17-6/3
    5/23-?  5/9-6/2    5/21-6/5  5/19-5/31   5/7-?     5/16 
Dane: in blom ..... ...          ....      522        ...   .         . 
  ..        ..       4/30-?     5/17-?  5/16-5/27 4/28-5/27   5/11 
126 WILD CHERRY (Prunus serotina) 
Sauk: in bloom .........      I                        ...      ....    
 5/17-?     ....      5/1-?   5/30-6/6  5.. .     5  ...      (5/16) 
Dane: in bl o ........ .       .5/15-?     518 -?     5/10-?            
 .... ..                                5/26-6/8  5/19-6/5    5/14 
127 WOOD SORREL (Oxalis violacen) 
Sank: in bloom-...- ..           .. -       ...   .                     5/19-6/1
   5/9-?   (by 5/13)   5/30-?   5/20-6/5  5/5-6/17     5/17 
                                                               y 5/2    
    .      5/8-?     4/30-?     5/22-?  5/22-6/12 5/14-6/16   5/13 
128 VIRGINIA WATERLEAF (Hydrophyllum virginianum) 
Dane: in bloom .....   ...    I  ....   I   ....  I   - -   I   ....   I
   .       5/20-?    5/13-?     ...    1 5/19-6/151 5/17-6/221 5/17 
129 COLUMBINE (Aquilegia canadensis) 
Sauk: in bloom ...... I .............I ....                 I (by 5/19) 
 6/1-?   5/9-6/11  5/9-6/23+ 5/25-6/14+ 5/22-6/13+ 5/18-6/28   5/19 
Dane: in bloom ......  ....    .5/17-?     5/20-?     5/22-?    5/20-?  
 ....      5/13-?    5/13-?     5/17-?    5/22-?  5/17-6/30    5/18 
130 BLUE-EYED GRASS (Sisyrinchium campeslre)* 
Sauk: in bloom ....................                             5/20-?  
 5/26-?  ?-5/23      5/9-?    5/25-6/5    5/22-? 5/13-6/17    5/19 
Dane: in bloom    ....           ....       ....      /26-?      ...    
 ....      5/12-?     ....      5/30-?     ...    5/15-7/6    5/21 
131 LUPINE (Lupinus perennis) 
Sauk: in bloom ..........        ....       ....      ....      ....    
 ....    5/9-5/29  5/17-6/7   5/28-6/17 5/25-6/17 5/21-7/4    5/20 
      seed pods ripe, 
        opening..........        ....       ....      ....      ....    
 ....    6/21-6/25 6/21-6/25    6/25-?   7/1-7/4  7/8-7/?     6/27 
Dane: in bloom ......i ....".         ....       ....      ....    
 ..             5/24-?    5/31-?     ....    5/25-6/28 5/21-6/24   5/25 
      seed pods ripe, 
 
         On July 8, 1945, on the University Arboretum about 2:30 P.M. a large
patch of lupine was ripening its pods and projecting the seeds. The sound
of popping 
            pods could be heard while approaching the patch, and the projected
seeds could be seen flying through the air to a distance of a yard from the
parent plant. 
132 GOLDEN ALEXANDER (Zizia aurea) 
Dane:inbloon ...... I  ....   I   ....  I   ....  I   ....   I  ....   I
  ...   I   .. -      5/0-? 1   ....   15/20-6/1715/30-6/271  (5/20) 
133 SPIRAEA (Spiraea van Houteii) 
Dane: in bloom ...... ......     ....   I   ....      ....  I   ....   I
 ....      5/16-? 1  5/13-?I 6/1-6/19 15/24-6/4+ 15/16-6/121   5/20 
134 BASTARD TOADFLAX (Comandra Richardsiana) 
Sauk: in bloom ......  ..... ..... I                              ..    
 5/25-?     .-.       5/9-?     5/31-?  5/20-6,5     5/19-?    5/21 
Dane: in bloom ......  . -.                                             
            5/-?      430-?       ...     ....    5/15-6/27   (5/8) 
135 WILD GERANIUM (Geranium maculatum) 
Sauk: in bloom......             ........                               
  6/1-?            1 5/9-6/13 5/23-6/16 5/21-6/15 5/18-6/17    5/21 
Dane: in b oom.....    5/20-?               5/18-?    5/3.-?    ...     
  ....      5/7"-?    5/2-?     5/9-?     5/15-?   5/7-6/22    5/10

136 TOADFLAX (Linaria canadensis) 
Sauk: in bloom...      ....                ?-6/6      5/20-?  (by 5/20) 
 5/26-?   5/23-6/251 5/9-6/21 5/27-620 5/29-6/15 5/20-6/30     5/22 
Dane: in bloom ....... .. .....  ....       ...       ....      ...    ...
         5/17-?     5/9-?     ....      ....    (by5/25- 1 (5/13) 
                                                                        
                                                    6/22) 
137 SHOOTING STAR (Dodecatheon Meadia) 
Sauk: in bloom ...............    ....      ...... .                    
 5/26-?   (by 5/22)   5/9-?     5/25-?    5,/27-?  5/23-6/151  5/22 
Dane: in bloon .....             5/1 . SI-? 5/20-?    5/14?             
  ....      5/13-?    5/9-?      ..     5/19-6/10 5/7-6/24 1   5/14 
138  YELLOW WOOD SORREL (Oxalis strida var. pilelocarpa) 
Sauk: in bloom ....I   ....   I   ....  I    ..        . -.. ...        
            ..  1 5/22-8/13 6/2-8/13   6/11-8/5     4/21-?    5/22 
Dane: in bloom ..    ...          ....     5/18-? ..                    
                       . .       ...      6/1-?      5/25-?1   5/24 
139 TALL YELLOW LADY'S SLIPPER (Cypripediam parriflorum var. pubescens) 
Dane: in bloom ...... I ....  I   ....  I   ....  [   5/21-? I         I
  .        5/13-? I   ....    5/29-6/191 5/22-6/6 1 5/23-6/2 1 5/22 
140 MULBERRY (Morus alba) 
Dane: in bloom ..............    ....   I   ....  I              ...? ..
 ...        ....      ..                5/21-5/26 5/22-5/29   (5/22) 
      fruit ripe .. ..   ..   ..                      6/15-?     ...   .
      ....                      7/1-?   6/25-7/20   6/26-?     6/24 
141 PUCCOON (Lithospermum angustifolium) 
Dane:in bloom ..... I  ....   I   ....  I   .     I   ....   I  ....    
           5 19-      .. I       ...   15/19-7/2 1 6/1-6/20 I (5/23) 
 
 
92 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935      1936      1937      1938       1939    
 1940      1941      1942       1943      1944      1945     Average 
142 KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS (Poa pratensis) 
Sauk: first lawn mowed ......                .                          
 ....      5 2       5i1       5/7        5 6       4/14      4/30 
     in bud (headed)   .                             5/22       5/20    
                     5..... 5   ....      5/13      5/5       512 
     in pollen ..            ..                       ....      ...    .
   .       518       5/29       ...       5/25      6/8       (5/24) 
Dane: first lawn mowed           .. .                            ..     
  ..        ...       ....      . ..      5/1       4/11     (4/21) 
     in bud (headed)  .                              5/15       5/18    
 5/20      5/18      5/1         ...      ...       ...       5/14 
143 PINK PHILOX (Phlox pilosa var. fulg ida) 
Sauk: in bloom .......... .    ....     I-                    ?-6/17    
 5/26-?  5/25-6/12 5/23-6/11   5/31-?   ?-6/13    6/1-6/30    5/26 
Dane: in bloom............     .....                5/28-7/8    5/29-?  
 ....      5/13-?    5/2-?      .     1. 5/30-6/18 5/12-7/16  5/19 
144 MANDRAKE (Podophyllum peltalum) 
Sauk: in bloom .......                                                  
                     5/16-?     6/4-?   ?-5/27     frozen     (5/26) 
Dane: in bloom ......  6/1-                5/18-?     ..    .           
 ....      5/13-?    5/14-?    5/30-? (by 5/26-?)  frozen     5/21 
145 NANNYBERRY (Viburnum Lentago) 
Sauk: in bud........                                                    
  ....... .. 5/2     5/8                 5/513      4/21      5/4 
      inbl..om    .                                                     
 6-?       5/18-?  5/23-5/31   5/30-?   525-6/2     ...       5/26 
        Leafing: In 1944 leafing began 13 days before the flower-buds appeared,
and was completed a week later, and 5 days before first bloom. 
146 SHEEP SORREL (Rumex aectosella) 
Sauk: in bloom .....   ....      ....   I   ....     5/19-?   (by S/30) 
 5/25-?    5/30-?  5/25-7/2   5/29-6/25   5/30-?    6/1-?     5/27 
Dane: in bloom ......   ..       ....          .      ..    .    ...    
  ...      5/17-?    4/30-?     ...   .   ....    5/15-6/28  (5/11) 
147    YELLOW STAR GRASS (Hypoxis hirsula) 
Sauk: in bloom....  .. ....   ..             ...                ....    
 5/26-?    .         5/23-?   5/30-6/22  5/30-6/13  6/10-?    5/27 
Dane: in bloom ...... ....       ....      5/26-?                       
 ....      ...        ....   (by 5/30)    5/29-?  6/6-7/10    (5/31) 
148 WILD GRAPE (Viti8 eulpina) 
Sauk: in bloom ........    .... .         (by 6/6)    ....    5/23-6/8  
 ....      5/23-?  5/23-6/3   ?-6/17    5/30-6/7    6/5-?     5/27 
      fruit ripe ..........      8/29      ...        ....      ...     
 ....      ....      8/21      8/27      9/3        none      8/27 
Dane:'in bloom. .   .....                                       ...     
 ...                 ....       ....    5/30-6/5  6/2-6/20   (6/1) 
"149 GOLDEN RAGWORT (Senecio aureus)* 
Sauk: in bloom .....   ....   I  ....   I   ....      ...   I    ...    I
.....   (by 5/29)   5/30-?     ....    5/21-6/5  6/1-6/17    5/28 
Dane: in bloom.......            ....       .... .                      
 ....       /-       5/5-? 5            5/18-6/7  5/13-6/23  (5/14) 
150 BLACK RASPBERRY (Rubue occidentalts) 
Sauk: in bloom .............    ....        ....       .        ..      
 ....      ....    5/23-5/30   8/1-? 5/30-?         .7 "/    (5/28)

      fruitripe... .....     ..                       7 2-?     7/1-?   
                   6/25-7/12 7/5-7/25   7/3-7/15  718-7       7/4 
Dane: in bloom ............    ....         ....      ....      ....    
 ....      ....      ....       ....    5/28-6/11 5/18-6/15  (5/23) 
      fruit ripe. .. .  . .      . .         . .      . .        . .    
 . .        .. ....        ....         7/1-7/15  7/4-7/18   (7/2) 
151 CINQUEFOIL (Potenlilla simplex var. typica) 
Sauk: in bloom..    ................                                    
                     5/23-?    5/31-?   5/26-6/25   6/1-?     51/28 
Dane: in bloom ....... " ....]" ./5-?                         
                                                    5/29-?    5/30-?   (5/31)

152 SHAGBARK HICKORY (Carya oeata) 
Dane: in pollen ..... . I .... 1 5/27-? 1  5/25-?     ...   1    ...   I
 .....  I  ....   I   ....  I   ....  1 5/23-5/281 6/9-6/14 I 5/29 
        The catkins appear with the leaves, but are not in pollen until leafing
is completed. 
153 BLACKBERRY (Rubus allegheniensis)* 
Sauk: in bloom..,.     .  .....  ....                         5/25-6/11 
 6/8-?   5/23-5/311 5/26-/7 9 /1-5/17   5/29-8/151 8/1-6/30    /30 
      fruitripe........                    7/23-?  8/-8/31    8/1-8/29  ?-8/25
   ?-8/10    7/26-9/5   ?-8/21        -7/20-/4 8/17-9  1 5 /730 
Dane: in bloom..........                                        5/27-?  
           5/23-?1   ....               5/28-6/11 5/18-6/16   5/24 
      fruit ripe..........        ...        5 8/5"?               
      ....      ....    .          ?8/29     7/23-8/20 8/10-9/12   (8/2)

 
                                                    TABLE 6. Phenology  
      for June. 
154  PUCCOON (Lithospermum carolinenee) 
Sauk: in bloom .............                                            
 6/13-?  5/18-6/3015/23-6/211  6/14-?   6/1-7/1   6/1-6/15    61 
Dane: in bloom ..........        .      ....                            
           5/17-?      ...      ....    5/20-7/2  5/19-7/20  (5/19) 
155 WILD ROSE (Rosa blanda var. hispida) 
Sauk: in bloom ......            ....      .... ?   (by 6/4) 5/27-6/17  
 6/9-?  5/18-6/14 L 5/23-6/251 6/4-6/25 5/29-6/26 6/13-7/14   6/1 
Dane: in bloom..       . .... I               -                 ....    
 .... I    .... 1    6/3-?      ...      5/31-?   6/2-7/20    6/1 
156 VETCH (Vicia anguslifolia) 
Sauk: in bloom... .........   I                                         
 ....      ....      ....    6/1-7/4    5/30-7/4  (by6!15)   (6/1) 
Dane: in bloom ......            .... ....                 .... .    ...
      ....      ....  .         ...     6/6-8/20  6/11-7/?   (6/9) 
157 ANEMONE (Anemone cylindrica) 
Sank: in bloom (b).......                             ....      ...   . 
         5/23-6/14 5/23-6/21   6/3-?      6/13 ?  6/5-6/28    6/1 
Dane: iii bloom .......I ....... ..... ..   .         ....  I   ....  I 
 ...    .    ..... I.. .                6/6-7/15  6/17-7161  (6/12) 
158 BAPTISIA (Baptisia leueopham) 
Sauk: in bloom ...... I ....  I  ....   I   ....  I6/14-7/101   6/4-?  1
 ....   I 5/15-5/291 6/1-?  I   ....  I   .      I  ....   1  6/1 
159  SPIDERWORT(Traddeecantiarelexsa)* 
Sauk: in bloom ......  .         ....      8/7-?   6/4-7/3  1 5/27-6/30 
 6/9-?   5/23-6/301 5/30-7/19 6/4-7/19  5/29-7/151 6/13-7/20  6/2 
Dane: ii bloom ......            ..        ....      6/-?       ....    
 ....                       I   ....    6/5-7/23 1 6/1-7/29   6/2 
 
 
93 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
         Vol. 17, No. I 
 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935      1936      1937      1938      1939     
194       1941      1942      1913      1944      1945     Average 
160 ANGELICA (Angelica atropurpurea) 
Dane. in bloom ...... ..  .  I   ..         .    I   ....  I .  ...  I  
....      5/31-? I  6/2-?  I  6/9-?  1 6/3-6/22  5/28-6/271  6/2 
161 ALSIKE CLOVER (Trifolium hybridum) 
Sank: first bloom..... [ .... I   -..   I  ....   1  6/8    I   ..    ..
  I                 5/241     6/5       6/2        6/5       6/3 
162 PENSTEMON (Penstemon gracili8) 
Sauk: in bloom (b) ... ....  I.....    I    ...       I   ....       I  
6/8-?     5/23-?I   5/30-?    6/5-?     5/28-?   6/16-7/5    6/3 
163 CANADA MAYFLOWER (Maianthemum canadenoe var. interius) 
Sank: first bloom ....  .        .. I .... r ..... I6/1                 
          ....      ...I .    6/3       5/28  1   6/12      6/3 
164 DEWBERRY (Rubus #lagelaris)* 
Sank: in bloon .....   ..   ...    .        *..       *..      ..       6/8-?
   5/29-6/11 5,'30-6/22 6/5-6/26 6/3-6/27  6/5-7/3     6/3 
      fruit ripn       *.. ......                  7/17-8/13   .        -8-30
     ....      7/21-?    7/25-?    7/27-?  7/28-9/3    7/21 
165 DOMESTIC YELLOW IRIS (Iris lamesecns) 
Sank: in bloom....      ...  I   ....  I   ....  I             ..- . I  
....      .. ....    ....     6/4-?I    6/1-?   6/5-6/20   (6/3) 
166 ANEMONE (Anemone canodensis) 
Sank: in blooo. .....  ....      ....     6/13-?    6/4-?    5/27-6/21  
6/13-?  5/23-7/1 1 5/30-7/21 6/3-7/21 5/29-7/15 6/5-7/25    6/3 
Dane: in bloon ...                         ....     5/28-?     ....     
....      ..        5/30-?    ....(..             ....     (5/29) 
167 FROSTWEED (Helianthemum canadense) 
Danein bloom ....... I ....  I   ....  I    ....     ....   I           
          S.. . ... 5/27-?I .... ..   6/7-6/27  6/7-7/22    (6/3) 
168 WHITE CLOVER (Trifoliumn repens) 
Sank: first bloom .    ....  I   ....      ....                         
          6/7       6/1       6/2       6/2       6/5       6/3 
Dane: first bloom  .... I   ....      ....           5/31     5/29   0  
 / 63    5/27       5/30      ....      6/1       5/29      5/30 
 
169 YARROW (Achillea Millefolium) 
Sauk: in bloom.................                            [   6/11-?   
6/9-?   5/30-6/30 5/30-7/19 6/2-7/21  6/1-7/15  6/5-9/3     6/4 
Dane: in bloom ........5/28-?                                           
....      ....      5/30-?  ....      6/2-8/20  6/3-8/1     5/31 
170 WOODCOCK (Philohela minor) Last peenting. 
Sank: .............  ......      ....  1   6/7 .               6/1      
6/2+      5/31      6/1       6/3+      5/31      6/16      6/4 
Dane: .............. .  .....    ..'       ....      5/24+     6/5      
....      ....      ...       ....      5/28       ....     (6/1) 
171 NINEBARK (Physocarpus opulifolius) 
Sank: in bloom......  ........                               6/4-6/11   
6/13-?  5/29-6/7  6/1-6/13  6/10-6/21 6/1-6/9   6/5-6/20    6/4 
Dane: in bloom ...   ......                                    ....     
....      ....                ....    6/5-6/15  6/8-6/28    (6/7) 
        Leafing is completed before blooming. 
 172 HUDSONIA (Hudsonia tomentoso) 
 Sank: in bloom (b)...I .... I   ....  I   .. -      ....  I   ....  I  
... .     ....      ...   I   6/5-?     6/2-?   6/4-6/17   (6/4) 
 173 WILD PARSNIP (Paslisoca satire) 
 Dane: in bloom ...... I .... I  ....  I   ....            I   ....   I 
....      f 6/7-?   5/31-? I    .- .  6/5-7/30 i 6/6-7/29   6/4 
 174 SPATTERDOCK (Nuaphar mriegata) 
Sank: in bloom.............   .....    I   ....      .      (by 5/19)   
          ....    6/5-8/13  6/10-9/7  5/29-8/5  6/5-8/15    6/5 
Dane: in bloom ............   ....         ..       5/31-?    5/27-I    
         o,,52-? .... 5...                        ..       (5/27) 
175 BLACK LOCUST (Robinia Pseudo-Acacia) 
Sank: in bloom......   ....  i                        . I . ?..1 ?-6/3  
....      5/23-?  5/30-6/7  6/9-6/13  5/29-6/3    6/16-?    6/5 
Dane: in bloom......         I         I            5/29-?     ...      
....      5/23-?    ....      ....    5/28-6/4  6/6-6/14    5/29 
        Leafing is completed by the blooming period. Clones (thickets) differ
from each other in leafing and blooming dates, but the trees within a clone,
leaf and bloom 
            together. 
176 KRIGIA (Krigia biflora) 
Sank: in bloom ....    ....      ....                      I            
....    5/31-6/27 5/31-7/2 1  6/15-? I 5/30-7/3 6/12-7/12   6/7 
Dane: in bloom         ....                          6/o-?     .        
          5/27-?1   5/9-?  1  ....   i 6/11-6/30 6/15-7/13  6/2 
177  LYCHNIS (Lychnis alba) 
Sauk: in bloom.. I     ....                                    6/17-4  (by
5/30)   5/29-? 1 5/23-7/261 6/11-8/2 1 6/13-7/17 6/12-9/15+ 6/7 
Dane: in bloom .    ..   .                                              
                           1.... ... ... .. 6/9-? I 5/29-8/21 5/30-? (6/2)

178 RED CLOVER (Trifolium pratense) 
Sauk: first bloom .. ... ... I   ....                  I ....           
                           1  6/5       6/2       6/15      (6/7) 
Dane: first bloom .....  .  ....                     6/7       6/7 "
                        5/29      ....   1  6/5       6/5       6/4 
179 POTENTILLA (Potentilla arguta) 
Sauk: in bloom .   .      .      ....      . ...- I   ...  I   .... I   
.. . .    ....   1  6/1-?   6/13-7/4 1 6/1-7/17 6/12-7/1 I  6/7 
180 ASPARAGUS (Asparagus officinalis) 
Sauk: sprouts gathered .          .         .    I   ...       ...      
 . "      ....    5/1-5/27 1 5/10-5/311 5/15-?  4/21-6/5    5/4 
      first bloom. ....I                                     (by 5/27)  
           ..       ....      6/5       6/1       6/16     (6/7) 
 181 YELLOW SWEET CLOVER (Melisous officinalis) 
 Sank: first bloom ..... ......             .         ...      ....     
...       6/7       6/7       6/15    (by 6/13)   6/4       6/8 
 Dane: in bloom ....         I    .... I   EE    I   ....    (by 6/12)  
           ....     5/31-?     ...    5/31-7/8  5/31-7/25  (5/31) 
 182 DAISY (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var. pinnatifidum) 
 Sauk: in bloom                        ..   ....    ........            
                              6/15-?  6/1-8/10    6/9-?    (6/8) 
 Dane:in bloom ...... .....    ....    I   ...       ....   I  E...     
                    .E..   I          6/2-8/15  6/1-8/24   (6/2) 
 
 
94 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
95 
 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935      1936      1937       1938      1939    
 1940      1941       1942      1943      1944      1945     Average 
183 AMERICAN BITTERSWEET (Celastrus scandens) 
 
 
Sak: is bloom.. . ý    ....      .. _  ..        ..     ..       
        .... I    ....      5/30-?     6/6-   1  5/31-? F 6/25-7/4 1  6/8

Dane: in bloom ....   .       .    .       5/30-?     ..    .    ...  I 
   -    I             ...   .   .... I     ...     i6/1-?     (5/31) 
 
 
184  MARSH BLUEFLAG (Iris virginica var. Shrevei) 
             Sak  i  lom .1   F/..                    6/19-?    6/8-?   
            6 /7-?    6/5-?     6/14-?    6/1-?  1 6/12-7/4 1  6/9 
Dane: in bloom ......         I             ...     6/4-6/26     ....   
            6/1-?     6/2-4      ..      6/5-6/28  6/10-6/28   6/4 
 
185 MOCK ORANGE (Philadelphus coronarius) 
Dane: in bloom (b).  .  .. I . _ I  .          .  I    ... .... .       
             I ....   ....   1 6/13-6/271 6/2-6/22 1 6/12-7/4 I (6/9) 
186 SCRIBNER'S PANIC (Panicum scribnerianum) 
Sank and Dane: 
      in head ...........    ..   .. ..     ....      ....      6/2-    
  ....       /22. 5/22          5/29      5/28      6/5        6/27 
      seed ripe .......            .                  625-?     7/5-?   
  ...               ?-7/26    7/5-7/25    7/5-?     7/8-   7/3 
187 FIREFLY (Family Lampyridae) First seen. 
Sank: ..............          I   ....      6/13                6 6/11  
 .         5/31       6/7    F  6/14      6/15      6/12       6/11 
Dane:...............        ....            ...   .....                 
  ...       ....      ....   I  6/10      6/14      6/15      (6/13) 
188 DAISY FLEABANE (Erigeron ramosus) 
Sauk: inbhoo                .......                       -     ....    
 6/13-?    6/7-? F6/7-8/13      6/14-?  6/13-8/7 16/16-9/10i   6/12 
Dane: inbloom...     .....     ..I      ...            /28              
 ..         ....      ...        ...    6/28-8/2116/13-8/l10? (6/2) 
189 NORTHERN BEDSTRAW (Galium boresle) 
Sauk: in bloom ......         F ....              I .. .....            
    -   I.....    1 6/19-7/11 6/15-7/5  6/11-7/5   ?-7/25     (6/12) 
Dane: in bloom....    I      ....       I             ....      .       
 ....      6/7-?      6/9-4     ....    6/7-7/16   6/16-7/23  (6/10) 
190 POISON IVY (Rhus radicaw) 
Sauk: in bloom ......   .     I  ....   I   ....  I   ....  I   ..... I 
 ...     . I _ _   5/30-6/221 6/17-6/251  6/5-?  1  6/27-? 1   6/12 
191 BLUETS (Houstonia caerulea) 
Sauk: in bloom..        .. _     .... I . ... I       .... I _ . ... -  
  ...    1 ?-6/30 1 6/23-7/5 1 6/1-7/9 1 6/21-6/311 6/1-7/15 1 6/12 
192  HAREBELL (Campanula rotundifolia) 
Sank: in bloom ...      ...   I   ....  I   ...   I   ....  I (by 6/11) F
6/13-?  6/7-8/24 1 6/7-8/9 1 6/15-8/311 6/15-7/1716/16-9/16+1 6/12 
193 LOBELIA (Lobelia spicata) 
Sauk: in bloom............ F                                            
                    ?-7/12  1?-7-10       ....    16/25-7/141 (6/25) 
Dane: in bloom ..........                                               
           6/7-?      ...     ...       66/137/26 6/16-7/281  (6/12) 
194 WHITE WILD INDIGO (Baptisia leucasntha) 
Sauk: in bloom.........                     7/1-? 4   6/15-?    6/4-?I  
 6/13-4   6/3-6/30  6/7-7/26  6/15-7/9 16/11-7/5  6/17-7/29    6/13 
Dane: in bloom ..........                             ....      ....    
  ....      ....      6/3-?     ....    6/4-7/2   6/14-7/25   (6/7) 
195 GREY DOGWOOD (Cornus racemsa) 
Sauk: in bloom .....F ....                        F           6/4-6/18  
 6/20-?    6/1-?    6/7-6/22    6/17-?    6/15-? 1  6/25-?     6/13 
Dane: in bloom ..........                                               
                      6/9-?     ....    6/4-6/19  6/15-7/5    (6/9) 
196 FLOWERING SPURGE (Euphorbia coroalata) 
Sank: in bloom .       ....            F.         F 6/25-8/201  6/17-?  
 6/16-?  6/29-9/7   6/1-9/7 F   6/1-9/7 6/2-8/31  6/16-9/10    6/13 
Dane: in bloom....)..                                           ....    
 ....       ....      6/9-?     ....    6/24-8/21   6/17-?    (6/13) 
        This plant bears a few preliminary blossoms a month before full bloom
begins. Failure to detect these may account for the large spread of dates
as between years- 
197 QUACK GRASS (Agropyron repens) 
Sank: in head ........   ....   ....        ....      .... ....         
            .         6/3       6/13      6/10      6/25      6/12 
      first pollen ..... .....    ....      ....      ....              
 6   ?      /        6/15       6/25      6/19      7/5       6/13 
Dane: in head............         ...       ....      6/3       6/3     
 6/8       6/1       6/3        ....      ....                6/4 
      in pollen. .. ..  . ..........                  6'/17-?   .. .    
 ....            ....                             6/2"0-.2    (6/21)

198  GROUND CHERRY (P) 'alis iriiiana) 
Dane: in bloom ...... I ....  I  ....      ....   I   ....  I   ....  I 
 ....  F   ....   1  6/9-  1    ....  I 6/12-7/9 16/17-7/111  (6/13) 
199 WILD CARROT (Daucus carota) 
Dane: in bloom:.          . . .  .. ..     ....      ....       ....    
 ....      6/29-? F 5/26-8/251  6/9-?   6/23-8/3116/9-9/5 F   6/13 
 
 
200 ALFALFA (Medicago satims) 
Jefferson: first bloom ... I ....          6/9        6/11      6/14    
 6/16      6/9    F   6/22      6/17      ....      6/28   F  6/14 
Jefferson: first mowing       I .... .   6/20-7/201 6/17-7/8 1  ....    6/15-7/7
 6/10-7/10) 6/17-7/251  ....  I             .... 1  6/22-7/18 
        Data from McCabe and Hawkins (Fig. 6). 
201 SILKY DOGWOOD (Cornus obliqua) 
Sank: in bloom ..... I ....   I  ....   I  ....   I   ....  1 ?-6/24    
 6/8? 4    6/74     6/7-6t/23 6/19-7/5 16/15-7/5 1 6/25-7/201  6/14 
202 SOLO MON'S SEAL (Polygonatum biflorum) 
Sauk: in bloom .....   ....      .....                                  
 ....      ....     6/15-6/256/15-7/4     6/9-?   6/17-7/4    6/14 
Dane: in bloom     ......        .... I..                   I   .. _    
 ....       ....      ....      ..1.  1 5/26-6/21 6/12-6/28   (6/3) 
203 WAHOO (Evonymus atropurpureus) 
Sauk: in bloom (b) ..I ....   I   ...   I   ... . .    ... .  6/12-7/5F 
 6/7-?   6/7-6/30 1 6/7-7/12 1 6/25-7t101 6/13-7/5 1 7/14 F   6/14 
        The fruits turn pink in September, are red and open through October,
and lose color about November 10. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
         Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935     1936      1937      1938     1939      1940
     1941      1942      1943      1944      1945    Average 
204 TALL MEADOW RUE (Thalictrum dasycarpum) 
Sauk: in bloom .. ........     ..... I              .....    6/17-?     
        6/14-?  6/10-7/151 6/17-7/10 6/13-7/15 6/20-7/20  6/15 
Dane: in bloom ...... ....    ....    ...                          .... 
                  ....      ....    6/4-7/1   6/17-7/17  (6/10) 
205 HEDGE BINDWEED (Convolvulus sepium) 
Sauk: in bloom .... ........    .. .      .......                       ....
   6/7-?    6/15-8/15 6/26-8/20   6/15-?  6 12-9/20   6/15 
Dane: in blm.      .                                6/....623-? .... .......
                                  6/5-? 1 6/23-9/231  6/17 
206 FIELD BINDWEED (Conrolvulus arvensis) 
Dane: first bloom .....      .                      ..   ..     .   ..  
 .         .               6/19       6/7       6/22  1(6/15) 
207 WHITE SWEET CLOVER (Melilotus alba) 
Sauk: in bloom ....................       ....  1    ..   1  6/19-?     ...
     ....    ?-7/31    ?-7/26    ?-8/5     6/16-/9/1  (6/17) 
Dane: in bloom...... .....    ....        ....      5/31-?     ...      
 ..                ...      ....    6/15-8/2 16/13-9/5+  (6/9) 
208 MOTHERWORT (Leonurus Cardiaca) 
Dane:inbloom ..... -  ....   I  ....  I   ....  1   6/14-? I  ....      ....
 I  ....   I   ...   I  ....    6/21-8/1 1 6/16-8/151 (6/17) 
209 CATALPA (Catalpa speciosa) 
Dane: in bloom ......I  .    I   ...  I (by 7/12) I 6/19-? I 6/17-? I   
                          ?I .. I .. I 1-6/28 I 6/8-6/23 1 6/27-7/131 6/18

        This is the collective record of 10 trees in Madison. In 1945 some
individual trees in nearby villages bloomenl 2 weeks later. 
210 NORTHERN VIRGINIA DEER (Odocoileus virginianus borealis) First record
of full red pelage. 
Sauk: ............... I .... I  ....   1  6/26      ...   I   . ..  1  7/12
       I ...             5/29   1  6/13  1   6/10  1   6/18 
211 MILKWEED (Asclepias amplexicaulis) 
Sauk: in bloom ..... ...        ....   I . ....     ....                ..
.... ...                          6/11-6/25 7/1-7/20   (6/21) 
Dane: in bloom .... ..          ....           .... .                   ...
  .    ...      ...              6/14-7/4 16/25-7/15  (6/20) 
212 ELDERBERRY (Sambucus canadensis) 
Sauk: in bloom                                             6/17-7/9   (by
7/1) 6/10-7/1 6/22-7/12+ 6/17-7/20+ 6/17-7/10+ 7/1-8/10  6 6/21 
Dane:in blom...        .         ...      ....      6/-?      ....      ....
I..-...              16/23-7/141  6/17-?  6/26-8/14   6/21 
Sauk & Dane: fruit ripe ....    ....    (by9/5)     ....      ....  
            8/8-?   6/13-9/11 8/15-9/20   ?-9/15    9/7-?     8/18 
213 BLACK EYED SUSAN (Rudbeckia hirta) 
Sauk: in bloom.  ... I....                ....   1  6/25-?    6/17-?   7/6-?
    (6/14- 1 6/22-7/3116/21-8/1+ 6/15-7/28+ 6/28-9/3  6/22 
Dane: in bloom......         .                      6/23-     ...       ....
     6/5-?  (by619)     ....    6/15-8/1  6/25-8/27   6/17 
214 VENUS LOOKING-GLASS (Specularia perfoliata) 
Sauk: in bloom ...... I .... I  ....        I       .... I    .... .    ....
 1  6/14-? 1   ....  I  ....   I  6/15-? I 6/28-7/201 (6/22) 
215 CANADA THISTLE (Cirsium arvense) 
Dane: in bloom ......  ....  I  ....   I  ....   I  ....  I   ....      ....
    6/15-?    ....   1 6/30-7/201 6/21-8/2016/28-8/12+1 6/23 
216  SMOOTH SUMAC (Rhus glabra) 
Sank: in bloom ...... I .... I   ....      ....     ....      ....      ....
     6/19-?   6/22-?  6/25-7/5  6/17-6/29   7/8-?     6/24 
Dane: in bloom ......   ....     ...       ....     ...       ....      ....
                                6/23-7/1  7/5-7/22   (6/29) 
        Leafing and growing precede bloom. 
 217 WHITE WATER LILY (Nymphaea suberosa) 
 Sank: in bloom..... I ....  I   ....  I  ....   1  6/25-? I  ....  I(by
7/12)   7/1-?     6/22-? 1 6/26-9/7 1 6/13-? I 6/25-9/101 6/24 
 218 CHICORY (Cichorium intybus) 
 Dane: first bloom ..   .        .     I            ....      ....      ....
     6/24      ....     6/24      6/19      6/29      6/24 
      Full bloom7                                             ....      ....
     ....      ....     7/15      6/29      7/10     (7/8) 
 219 SPREADING DOGBANE (Apocynum androsaemifolium) 
 Sank: in bloom (b) . .......   .          .     .   ...      ....      ..._.6/14-?
       6/22-?    6/26-?    6/25-?    7/8-?     6/25 
 Dane: in bloom.... ..                              6/21-?    ....      ...
      ...       ....     ...       6/25-?  7/3-8/14   (6/26) 
 220 DOG FENNEL (Anthemis cotula) 
 Sauk: in bloom ....... J .... I ....  I  ....  I   6/23-?I   ....      ....
 I   ....    6/21-7/291  ....  16/28-9/41 6/28-8/151  6/25 
 221 ORANGE DAY LILY (Hemerocallisfulva) 
 Sauk: in bloom (b) ... . I           I          I  .         .... I    ....
.   6/16-?  6/27-7/28 6/29-7/25 6/27-7/28 7/2-8/1     626 
 Dane: in bloom .....I                                                  
         ....      ....     629-?     6/27-?    6/29-?   (6/28) 
 222 ST. JOHN'S WORT (Hypericum perforatum) 
 Sauk: in bloom .... " ...             I....                       
    ....      6/19-? 6/23-7/25+ 6/26-7/19+ 6/29-7/17+ 7/1-8/5   6/26 
 Dane: in bloom... .    .         I              I I          ....      
    ....   I   .   ....1...          6/29-7/24 7/2-8/12   (7/1) 
 223 PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE (Lythrum alatum) 
 Dane: in bloom ...... I .... I  ....  I  ... I  . ... .   I  ....      ....
     ....  I   ....  1 6/23-7/271 6/23-7/301 7/6-8/251 (6/27) 
 224 COWBANE (Cicula maculala) 
 Sank: in bloom.  ..   ....      ....      .....      .   I             .-
               ?-8/2    6/26-8/201 6/27-8/1717/1-8/8    (6/28) 
 Dane: in bloom...   ..          ....      ....               .         .
        .        6/3-?     .  1    6/25-8/41 6/25-8/17   (6/17) 
 225 BUTTER AND EGGS (Linaria rulgaris) 
 Sauk: in bloom ......  I .... ....       ....       /I ....  .     1   7/6-?
     ..    6/23-9/15+ 7/5-8/20+ 7/1-8/20+ 6/16-9/15+ 6/28 
 Dane: in bloom .                ...      ....                          -7/10
... .... 67-? ....      ... 16/1-8/28+     6/27-? 1 (6/22) 
 
 
In 1944, in Sauk, bloom ceased during an August drouth, but resumed Sept.
1-Oct. 17. 
 
 
96 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
97 
 
 
Species, Station, Itean 1935      193 1     1937      1938      1939    
  1913      1941      1942      1943      1944       1945    Average 
226 TIMOTHY (Phleum pritense) 
Sauk: in head                                                           
                       1... .... .. .3 6/15 6/15    6/16       6/15 
      in pales          . ...b. -6-25)                 .        71      
 ..        6/23-? ý3/262-71/21ý 6/26-7/9+- 6/27-7/10+ 7/1-7/25
6/28 
 Dane: iq pille...........                            623-?       .     
 ...         .        ....      ....    6/18-7/10 6/28-7/25   (6/23) 
 227 BLACK BINDWEED (Polygonum Convolvulus) 
 Sauk:inbloo  ...... .        I              .     I  ....       . I . ....
.... I   ....   I   ....  1  6/27-? 1   7/1-?     7/3-?    (6/30) 
 228 NEW JERSEY TEA (Ceanothus americanus) 
 Sank: in bloom (b) .. ..     I         I.  ....      ....      ....    
 ....    (by 6/27)  6/27-7/23 6/27-7/24 6/29-7/17+1 7/9-8/8    6/30 
 Dane: in bloom .... ..  I    .     .       ....      7/10-?     ...... 
                       ..       6/27-?    6/21-? 1  7/11-?     7/2 
 
                                                     TABLE    7. Phenology
     for July. 
229 RED RASPBERRY (Rubus idaeus var. strigosus) 
Sauk: fruit first ripe .. .......                     ....      ... 6   
 ....      6/29       6/22        -   /.. 7/1       7/11       7/1 
Dane: in fruit ........          6. 3-?                     .    ..    .
            ....      ....  1,7/10-815  7 1-7/15  6/28-7/22    7/2 
        This species blooms about June 1. The flowers are heavily used by
bees. 
230 COREOPSIS (Coreopsis palmula) 
Sauk: in bloom ...... I ....      ....      .........                   
           6/19-?   7/1-8/5     7/5-?   7/1-7/17  7/11-8/9     7/1 
Dane: in bloom......   .      .                     (by 7/'10)          
                                        7/1-7/22  7/7-8/15    (7/4) 
231 FRINGED LOOSESTRIFE (Lysimachia lanceolata) 
Sauk: in bloom.......  ....       ....      ...    .   ....     ....    
  ....     6/19-?   ?-8/ 15   7/9-8/23  6/29-8/7   7/8-8/20    7/1 
Dane: in bloom ......  ....                                             
                      ...       ....  1 6/25-8/20+ 7/2-8/24   (6/28) 
232 COMMON MILKWEED (Asclepius syriaea) 
Sank: in bloom......   ....   I  ....       ....      .. -      7/9-?   
7/8-?       ...     7/1-8/2   6/26-7/20 6/29-7/19 7/3-8/5      7/2 
Dane: in bloom.....         . .             .         76-?      ....    
   ......              ..       ...     6/21-7/30 7/3-8/24    (7/1) 
233 BASSWOOD (Tilia americana) 
Sauk: in bloom ...........                              .    1  7/1-?   
 ....       ....    ?-7/12      7/5-?     ....       ....     (7/3) 
Dane: in bloom .6                                       -/8     .....   
                       ...       ...    6/27-7/10 7/7-7/19    (7/1) 
        At the Sank station basswood is often so severely defoliated by cankerworm
that no bloom occurs. 
234 RAGGED ORCHIS (Habenaria lucern) 
Sank: in bloom..        .. -  ....       ....     I 1 -         ....   I
  .         ...   1 7/1-7/21 1  7/1-?  16/29-7/1517/10-8/1     7/3 
235 HOLLYHOCK (Althaue rosea) 
Sauk: in bloom (b)...                  ...   .        ...       .       
 7/6-?              7/ 1-8/13   7/5-?   7/1-8/7   7/3-8/15    7/4 
Dane: in bloom .......    .                                             
  ......                        7/3-?     6/25-?  6/28-8/27   (6/29) 
236 VERONICASTRUM (Veronicaslrum virginicum) 
Sank: in bloom ........    .   .  .         ..      ?-7/21      7/1-?   7/12-8/2
   6/29-?   7/1-8,15  ?-8/22    7/4-8/7   7/8-8/12     7/4 
Dane: in bloom .....                                  7/5-?             
                                         /........ ... . ... 7/2-8/13 7/6-8/23
(7/4) 
237 BLUE VERVAIN (Verbena hastala) 
Sauk: in bloom .......        I . ....  I .  ._?      ....              
           6/29-?   7/5-8/31  7/5-9/7   7/4-9/9   7/8-9/5     7/4 
Dane: in bloom ....  .  .4..      4 ...    7/16-?     7/4-?             
           6/18-?     7/3-?     7/15-?  6/26-8/21 7/6-9/2+     7/4 
238 MILKWORT (Polygala sanguinea) 
Sank: in bloom ..... ....   ....    ....   .....                7/1-?   
 7/6-?     ....    7/3-8/23+  7/5-8/31+ 7/1-8/31+1 7/8-9/15+  7/4 
Dane: in bloom.......           I           ....  I             ....    
 ...      I           ...       ....    7/1-8/20+   7/14-?    (7/7) 
        A few blooms every year straggle through September. 
239  MULLEIN (Verbascum Thapsus) 
Sauk: in bloom ...... I .        .... I... ....   I             . ... . 
 7/6-?         ?   7/12-8/131   7/5-?   ?-9/5    6/28-8/15+   7/5 
Dane: in bloom.....    ...         ..   .6               -?             
 ....      7/1-?     6/30-? 1   7/5-?   7/2-9/17 6/28-8/30+   6/29 
240 GERMANDER (Teucrium canadense) 
Sauk: in bloom ..... .  .        ....       ....      ..        ....    
  ...   .  ...     7/4-7/26   7/6-7/25    7/1-?   7/8-8/25    7/5 
Dane: in bloom......   ..     ..,                                       
                      ....            17/14-8/20+ 7/2-8/18    (7/8) 
241 BUTTERFLY WEED (Asclepius tuberosa) 
Sauk: in bloom ...... I ....   .......  I    ...      7/2-?     7/15-?  
 ....      6/29-?  7/1-8/3    7/5-8/21  7/1-8/7   7/13-8/31   7/5 
Dane: in bloom .....  .  .. .     ...        ....     7/11-?      .     
 ..        ....       ....      . .   .    ...    79-8/8      (7/10) 
        This plant, like many other prairie forbs, does not emerge until
late. The first sprouts appear about June 1 and are a foot high by mid-June.

242 EVENING PRIMROSE (Oenothera pycnocarpa)* 
Sank: in bloom..............   ....        ....       ..... .     ..   (by
7/6-?)           7/5-8/23+1 7/5-8/21+1 7/1-8/20+1 7/9-8/25+ 7/5 
Dane: in bloom.....I   ....   I   ..    I   ....  I   . ...   I...      
  ...        .         .    I   ....   71-8/20+1 7/11-8/29    71   1 
Dane: in bloom ........                                                 
            ..        ....      ....  17/12-/0    71-82       (7/11) 
243 POINTED LEAF TICK CLOVER (Desmodium acuminatum) 
Dane:in bloom ...... I ....   I   -.    I  ....      7/4-?              
                                      1 .... .... ... .... .... 6/29-8/1317/13-8/25+1
(7/5) 
244 MARSH MILKWEED (Asclepius incarnata) 
Sank: inbloam.         ....      ....        I ...   .         7/7-9    
7/12-?     6/27-?  ?-8/15     ?-8/21    7/3-8/7    7/11-8/ 20  7/6 
Dane: in bloom .. .  .. ....                ..       W          ...     
 ..        ....  I   ....-    7/8-?     6/28-8/15 7/ 13-8/24  (7/6) 
        Robert A. McCabe (unpubl.) points out that the fibrous bark of this
plant constitutes the principal nesting material for alder flycatcher and
gold finch on the 
            University Arboretum. Only the dead stems of the previous year
yield fibre, older ones being completely stripped. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETII JONES 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
         Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
Species, Station, item 1935    1936      1937      1938     1939      1943
     1941     1912      1943      1944     1945     Average 
245  HORSEMINT (Monardt punctata var. viflicaulis) 
Sauk: in bloom.. .. I ....  I   ..   ..   ..       ...   I   ....   (by 7/20)
  ....    7/1-8/25 7/5-8/22  7/1-8/7+  7/20-9/1+1 7/7 
246 LEAD PLANT (Amerpha canesecens) 
Sauk: in bloom .. .   ....            I   ..... .   ....    I  -.       .I
.     ...    7/5-7/31  7/7-7/25 7/1-7/19  7/20-8/10  7/8 
Dane: in bloom ......           .       .          .... .               
                 ....     7/12-?  6/26-7/21 7/4-8/17?  (7/4) 
247 MEADOWSWEET (Spiraea alba) 
Sauk: in bloom ...... I .... I  ....  I   ....  I  ....   I  ....  17/20/8-2
   6/29-?  7/5-7/31+I 7/9-?     7/15-?  7/3-8/15+1 7/8 
248 TURKSCAP LILY (Lilium michiganense) 
Sank: in bloom .i .    ..   . .....     7?-7/29  ?-7/28    7/5-7/ 23  7/10-?
      .    7/1-7/28  ?-8/1    7/5-7/20  7/25-8/101 7/9 
Dane: in bloom ............. ]             .       7/8-?     ....  .   .
    ..       .   ...       ....   6/28-8/3  7/23-8/141 (7/9) 
249 LOPSEED (Phryma Leptostaehya) 
Dane: in bloom ...... I ....    ....                     I .... I       
                           .... 77/1-8/6  17/11-8/121 (7/9) 
250  SMARTWEED (Polygonum pennsylvanicum) 
Sauk: in bloom ...... I .... I  ...   I              .. .           1. 7
3/12-? I ....   7/1-8/31 I ?-9/6 1 7/5-9/1 1 7/20-9/151 7/10 
251 GREEN MILKWEED (Asclepiasviridiflara) 
Sauk: in bloom... I   ....  I   ....  I   ....     ..    I    ... ..... I
                7/1-?   ? 7-8/13 7/5-7/25    7/25-?   (7/10) 
252 HORSE NETTLE (Solanum carolinense) 
Sauk: in bloom..            I   ...   I   ..   I   .... .    ....     ....
    ....       7/11-?   7/9-?   ?-8/8                 /.... 1710 
253 PRAIRIE WHITE FRINGE ORCHID (Habenaria leucophaea) 
Dane: in bloom (b).... .... I   ....  1  7/9-?  I  7/4-?                
                                 1.... .... .... .... .... 7/12-7/311 7/16-8/8
I 7/10 
254 CATNIP (Nepeta Caatria) 
Sauk: in bloom......  ....  I   ....  I   ....      ...      7/8-?    ....
      ...    7/15-8/23  7/5-?   7/5-8/7+  7/20-8/281 7/11 
Dane: in bloom......                               7/7-?     .... . ...7/57?
                      ....    7/1-8/20+1  7/13-?1  7/7 
255 COMMON PLANTAIN (Plantago Rugelii) 
Sauk: first bloom ..... I .... I .... I   ...      ....      ....      ....
 I  ...       7/19    (by 7/9)   7/3    I  ....  1   7/11 
256 WINTER RYE (Secale cereale) 
Dane: ripe and cut... I .... I  ....  I   .... .   7/8    1  7/5   1  7/16
  1  7/7   1   7/12     7/13      ....  I   7/22  I   7/11 
257  PRAIRIE DOCK (Silphium lerebinthinaceum) 
Prairie du Sac: 
      in bloom  ...   ....    ....        .....                       ....
     .. ....          727-8/29 7/12-8/31             (7/19) 
 Dane: in bloom ...... ......   ....     7/13      7/13                 
                7/3-?             7/12-9/6  7/12-9'18  7/11 
 258 BOUNCING BET (Sapanaria officinalis) 
 Sauk: in bloom.............. ........                       ....      ....
     ...._7/19-8/23 7/7-8/21+  7/1-8/3   7/20-9/15   7/12 
 Dane: in bloom...... ....(by/4)                 (by 7/10)    . .      ...
      ..      7/8-?      ..1.     6/23-? 6/30-9/28?  (6/30) 
        This weed nearly always straggles. In 1944 in Sauk County it ceased
bloom during an August drouth, but then straggled through September. 
 259 WILD BERGAMOT (Monarda fiseulosa) 
 Sauk: in bloom ............. ....        ... ..             7/1-?   (by
7/15)          7/10-8/15 (by 7/13) ?-8/9   7/25-8/12+   7/12 
 Dane: in bloom ..... ....                ....      7/8?     ...    .   
       7/6-?     7/3-?     7/8-?   7/3-7/16 7/14-8/29+  7/7 
 260 WHITE PRAIRIE CLOVER (Petalostemum candidum) 
 Sauk: in bloom......                                        7/1-?      
                ?-8/15     7/9-?     7/10-? 7/27-8/24   7/12 
 Dane: in bloom ..........    ....        ....                 ......   
                           ....    7/2-7/25   7/18-?   (7/11) 
 261 PURPLE PRAIRIE CLOVER (Petalosteenum purpureum) 
 Sauk: in bloom......   I ....                               7/1-?      
               7/10-8/2  ?-8/21    7/10-8/3 7/27-8/27   7/12 
 Dane: in bloom...     ...                                  ? .-8/1    ...
          .......                 7/9-?     7/26-?   (7/17) 
 262 HAIRY HAWKWEED (Hieracium longipilum) 
 Sauk: in bloom .......1. .  I   ....     ....      ....  I    ..   I  ....
     ....    7/1-8/15 7/24-8/151 7/4-8/15 7/25-8/20  7/14 
 Dane: in bloom............   ....        ....      ....                
                  .. .. ....       7/5-8/13  7/17-9/7  (7/11) 
 63 WHITE VERVAIN (Verbena urticaefolia) 
 Sauk: in bloom ...... I ....    ....      .... ' ....                  
                ?-8/7      7/23-? 
 Dane: in bloom .............. ....             I                       
                  ....      ....     7/8-?   7/ii9/3    (7/14) 
 264  CUTLEAF CONEFLOWER (Ratibida pinnala) 
 Sauk: in bloom ................I .                 ....      ....     ....
              7/90-?  7/9-8/29  7/5-8/7   7/25-9/15  7/15 
 Dane: in bloom ............  ....        ...       ...                 
                  ....   ?-8/29    7/5-8/25   7/13-?    7/9 
 265 NORTHERN VIRGINIA DEER (Odacoileus virginianus borealis) First record
of fawns travelling with doe. 
 Sauk: ..                    I  ....      7/18      7/22   1 7/6       ..
   I  ...    I    ..   I  ...   I...      I  ...   [(7/15) 
 266 CANADA NETTLE (Laportea canadensis) 
 Sauk: in bloom ...... I .... I ..         ..   I   ....  I (by 7/29) 1 ....
1   ...   17/17-8/15+1 7/5-? 1 ?-8/7   1  7/25-? 1 (7/16) 
 267  CICADA (Probably Tibicen linnei) No specimen identified. First beard.

 Sauk: ................                                                 
                 7/19      7/19      7/3      7/25      7/17 
 Dane: ..  .... .....        .    ..      ...    .            ...      ....
     ....      ....     7/19      6/15     7/21     (7/8) 
 268 PICKEREL WEED (Pontederia cordata) 
 Sauk: in bloom ...... I ....    ....     ....    (by 7/28)  7/22-?    .
                7/19/8/13 7/25-9/7 7/1-9/9   7/25-8/20  7/18 
 Dane: in bloom ............    ....       .. -     ....        ..      
         ..       ....     ...    6/23-8/20+ 7/13-9/9   (7/3) 
 
 
98 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
  Species, Station, Item 1935      1936      1937      1938       1939  
   1940      1341      1942       1943      1944      1945     Average 
  269 BUTTON BUSH (Cephalanthus oceidenlalis) 
  Sauk: in bloom (b) .......                    .            ....       
 7/23-8/3            7/13-8/2   ?-8/ 1    7/9-7/19    7/29-?    7/18 
  Dane:in bloom ....   ....                                       ....  
   ....         .                15-8/1+  7/9-7/25+ 7/20-8/25+  (7/ 15) 
  270 RATTLESNAKE MASTER (Eryngium yuccaefolium) 
  Sauk: in bloom (one 
  plant, introduced) (b) . ...     ....      ....       ....      ...   
   ....       ...    ?-8/2        ....   7/15-8/5   7/20-8/28  (7/ 18) 
  Dane: in bloom......   ..                             ...      -8/11  
      .      ..        ....      7/26-?   7/10-8/10 7-19-9/4   (7/18) 
  271 RUDBECKIA (Rudbeckia laciniata) 
  Sauk: in bloom (b) ... ....  I   ....  I   ....   1 ?-8/28     7/15-? 
  7/20-?            1 .. I 7/12-8/231 7/23-9/101 7/17-9/9 1 7/25-9/161 7/19

  272 OATS (Arena sativa var. Vickland) (See 62 for sowing dates). 
  Dane: first ripe ....... I .... I ....  1  7/23   I  7/19      7/14   
   7/20      7/20   1  7/23   1  7/17   1   7/23   1  7/25   [  7/20 
         Data from University Farms by courtesy of Prof. H. L. Shands, Dept.
of Agronomy, College of Agriculture. Cutting is usually about 2 days after
ripening. 
  273 IRONWEED (Vernoniafasciculata) 
  Sank: in bloom ......            ...       ....      7/23-? 1 7/11-8/101
7/22-?           1 7/12-8/20+1 7/23-8/31 7/17-8/31+ .8/10-9/15 7/21 
  Dane: in bloom........                                     .     ...  
   ....      7/20-?    ..     I    .    7/18-8/20+  8/7-9/20   (7/25) 
  274 COMPASSPLANT (Silphium lacinialum) 
  Prairie du Sac: 
       in bloom (b)M   .......     ..    .    ...      ....      ...    
  ....       ....      ...       7/9-?     7/10-?   7/27-8/27  (7/23) 
 Dane: in bloom......                      7/20-8/25   ...    I         
                                 ....      7/10-?  7/17-9/16   (7/16) 
 275 JOE-PYE-WEED (Eupatorium maculatum) 
 Sank: in bloom ..........                                              
                     7/27-9/19 7/24-9/7+ 7/18-9/1  7/29-9/16    7/23 
           Danein loo .....                  7/30-?    7/ui-?    7/15-? 
  ..         ... 
 Dane: in bloom.............     ....        7/0.... 7..                
                               ?-9/      7/17-9/1  7/23-9/21    7/20 
 276  LIATRIS (Liatris pycnostachya) 
 Sank: in bloom .......           ....      7/23-?     7/23-?    7/15-? 
  7/27-?  ?-8/24     7/21-8/23 7/25-8/23   7/20-?  8/3-8/30     7/24 
 Dane: in bloom .... .   .        .         7/25-?     7/20-?    ...    .
  .. ..    ....      7/23-?     7/25-?    7/11-?  7/17-9/2     7/20 
         This species has visible buds for nearly a month before it blooms.

 277 EARLY GOLDENROD (Solidagojuncea) 
 Sauk: first bloom..... I ...........I (by 7/30)       7/23-?    7/29-? 
  7/20-?    ....      7/19-?     7/25-?    7/27-?    7/25-?     7/24 
 Dane: first bloom ..........               7/25-?     7/20-?    ....   
  ....                7/22-?     ....   7/18-8/20+1 7/19/8-22   7/21 
 278 SUNFLOWER (Helianthus occidenutalis) 
 Sank: in bloom (b) ... ....   I  ....   I  ....        ...      ....   
  . .       ....     ?-8/31  17/29-9/7 1 7/21-9/101 7/25-9/9 1 (7/25) 
 279 CANADA TICK CLOVER (Dessmodium canadense) 
 Sank: in boom......    ..     I  ..        ....    (by 7/28)    .      
  7/27-?              7/19-?   8/1-8/21  7/17-8/7  8/5-8/26    7/26 
 Dane: in bloom.     .   .     I        ...   I        ...   I          .....
              I   ...     . I ... 1 7/12-8/17 7/19-9/4    (7/11) 
 280  MALLARD (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) Young seen flying. 
 Sauk: .............. I ....  I   ....  I   ....      7/21       8/5  1 
  7/20      ....      7/19  1   7/25       8/3   1   7/27  1   7/26 
 281 BONESET (Eupatorium perfoliatum) 
 Sauk: in bloom....     ..          .....             7/22-?            
            ....    7/23-9/11 ?-9/7      7/28-9/5  8/5-9/15    7/27 
 Dane: in bloom ...                                   7/3-?             
            7/20-? ....          ....    7/23-9/17 7/23-10/1   7/17 
 282 BULL THISTLE (Cirsium vulgare) 
 Sank: in bloom........                                                 
  ....       ... .... ?-8/23+ 7/25-8/27+1 7/27/-? 7/28-9/15+1 (7/27) 
 Dane: in bloom .....                       7. . 7/*25'-? 2 2'7/        
            ....      7/14-?    . ...  17/25-9/221   7/27-? 1  7/21 
 283 TANSY (Tanacenum nulgare) 
 Prairie du Sac: 
      in bloom (b) ... ....    ....   ....   .         ... ....   .     
   ..       ....      8/2-?   7/21-8/29   7/25-?   7/29-9/15   7/27 
 Dane: in bloom ......                                                  
                      8/1-?     ..1. 7/24-9/23       8/5-?    (7/31) 
 284 PRAIRIE CORDGRASS (Spartina pectinala) 
 Sank: in pollen ...... I         .... I    .... I    ....   1  7/29-?  
        1 .... ?-8/17 I 7/21-8/151 ?-8/21 1 8/1-? I  7/28-? 1  7/27 
 285 ARROWHEAD (Sagiitarialatifoliaf. gracilis) 
 Sauk: first bloom..... ...   I     ..        .. I .- I(by 7/27) .... 1 
  ....      ....  I   8/1    1  7/7    I(by 7/13) I 8/10   I  (7/27) 
 286 PRICKLY LETTUCE (Lacluca scariola) 
 Sauk: in bloom ...... I .... I   ....  1   ....  1   7/14-?    8/5-?   
 ....       ....  I7/30-8/21l ?-8/21   I   ....  I ?-8/25  I  (7/27) 
 287 CARDINAL FLOWER (Lobelia cardinalis) 
 Sank: in bloom ...... I .... I  ....   I   ....  I   8/1-?     7/30-?  
 8/1-?   ?-8/24   1 8/2-9/13 1 ?-9/17  I 7/19-9/21l 7/29-9/151 7/29 
 288 SQUIRRELS (Fox and Gray) First eat burr oak acorns. 
 SaukandDane:..... -  ....s....         I   ....     ....      ....     
....      ....   1  811       8/5     1   7/22   1  7/21      7/30 
 289 CANADA FLEABANE (Erigeron canadensis) 
 Sank: first bloom ..... ...... .....   I   ....     8/2    .    .      (by
7/12)   ..I.      7/29       8/1       8/1       7/29      7/31 
 Dane: in bloom ...... ....     ....        ....                        
                     7/18-?     .     1. 7/24-8/20+ 7/31-?    (7/24) 
 290 BIG BLUESTEM (Andropogonfurcatue) 
Sank: in pollen .....        I                              I... .....  
 7/27-?          I 7/26-8/137/26-8/21     8/4-?   8/9-9/8     7/31 
Dane: in pollen   ..                                  .                 
  .         ...     ....     -8  29     7/21-8/261 8/2-9/16 1 (7/27) 
 
 
99 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
         Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935    1936     1937      1938     1939      1940
    1941      1942     1943      1944     1945    Average 
291 WHITE PINE (Pinus Slrobus) Bud scales first shed from new growth. 
Sauk: ...............  I  ....       I   .... I   ....  I  7/25  I   ....
     ..       7/30     8/2    I  8/1      8/5       7/31 
                                               TABLE    8. Phenology    for
August. 
292 BURDOCK (Arctiumminus) 
Sauk: first bloom ......... ........                                    
      .. I .   8/2      7/27      8/1      8/10      8/1 
Dane: in bloom ...... .....                                             
               8/1-?    7/22-?  7/23-8/8 8/2-9/30    7/28 
293 WHITE SNAKEROOT (Eupatorium rugosum) 
Sauk: in bloom   ...   .......... ..I......                             
    ? ?-9/20 8/2-9/20    ..--    -10/5  18/5-191    (8/4) 
Dane: in bloom.............  ....   .... I. .I                       .. 
  I         I  ....   8/23-9/23 7/9-9/1+   7/23-?   (7/29) 
294 YELLOW FOXGLOVE (Aureolaria sp.)* 
Sank: in bloom ...... I .... I ....   I  ...   I  ....    8/4-8/25 8/5-8/20
I         8/2-8/23  ?-9/1              ? .. I 7-9/8 (8./4) 
295 GREAT RAGWEED (Ambrosia trifida) 
Dane: in bloom ...... I ... I   ...  18/17-9/1 I  8/1-?     ...   I    .
     8/8-?      ...      8/7-?  7/30-9/3+1  8/7-?    8/8 
296 AMERICAN EGRET (Casmerodias albus egretta) Wandering young first seen.

Sauk:........................  ....               8/13      8/5      none
     none     none      none     ..on      none     (8/9) 
Dane and Jefferson:.   .    .    .       7/5      7/28      8/15     9/12
     8/6      8/?       ....     ....      8/8      8/2 
297 SQUIRRELS (Fox, Gray, and Red) First eat hickory nuts. 
Sauk: .............. I .... I   ....  j (by 8/28)   ..      8/19.      .
   18/23       8/13      8/20     7/20     no nuts   8/13 
298 LESSER RAGWEED (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) 
Sauk: in bloom...... I ..... I ....      .I....             7/29-?   8/15-?
 ?-9/14   8/15-9/13 8/20-9/1 8/6-9/15  8/24-9/15  8/13 
Dane: in bloom....... .......                                        ....
     ....     ....      8/9-? 7/30-8/20+1 8/7-9/28  (8/5) 
299 BUSH CLOVER (Lespedeza capitata) 
Sank: in bloom .  .......    .......                                 8/24-?
   ....   8/7-9/10  ?-8/22   8/7-9/1 1 8/20-9/1   8/14 
Dane: in bloom.      ......          I                  I    8/Il)    . 
  ...       .  ....      .. .   7/30-8/211 8/8-9/6   (8/4) 
300 LIATRIS (Liatrio spheroidea)* 
Sauk: in bloom.. .. ....      .......                 ?.  8/19-9/101 8/20-?
   ....    8/7-9/7  ?-9/13    ?-9/17   8/10-9/15  8/14 
Dane: in bloom..........               (by 8/1)   8/4-?     ...       ....
         ....     ....         8/9-9/25   8/10-?   (8/6) 
301 INDIAN GRASS (Sorghastrum nutans) 
Sauk: in bloom ......      ....                          I        1  8/31-?
   8/29-? 8/11-8/25 8/17-8/291  ....  1 8/15-8/26 8/21 
Dane: in bloom .....I                                             I   .?...
   ....             7-8/29  1 8/10-9/3 1 8/19-9/22 (8/15) 
302 FUNKIA (Funkia lanceolata) 
Sauk: first bloom (b). I .... I ....  I  ....  I   ....  1  8/25      ....
I   8/24  l(by 8/13)   8/21  I    .       8/15     8/21 
303 NEW ENGLAND ASTER (Aster nosaeangliae) 
Dane: first bloom..... I .... I  .      9/3        8/14       .      ...
   I.... 18/12           8/28  1   8/29     8/14      8/22 
304 WHITE ASTER (Aster pilosus)* 
Sank: in bloom ...... I . .. I  ....  I   ...            I  ....    ?-10/9
I   ....      ...   I?-10/19 1?-10/14     8/24-?   (8/24) 
305 BLUE ASTER (Aster laesis) 
Sauk: first bloom ..   ... I.         I  ....  I   ....  I  ....    ?-10/9
 17-10/26     . .   I  ....   1?-10/14    8/24-?   (8/24) 
306 PRAIRIE GOLDENROD (Solidaso rioida) 
Sauk: in bloom.  .      .       ....                     I          9/3-9/25
          8/23-9/15 8/21-9/311 9/1-9/20 1 8/25-9/20 8/25 
Dane: in bloom..                         ..        ..                 ....
I     -      8/14-?    ....     8/15-?  8/15-9/27  (8/15) 
307 BIDENS (Bidens cernua) 
Sauk: in bloom ......I ....                     I  ....  I ..         ...
. I .... I 822-19/1-9/271         9/1-? 1 8/26-10/1  828 
                                    TABLES   9-12.   Phenology    for September
to     December. 
 308 CLOSED GENTIA& (Gentiana Andrewsii) 
 SAuk: i bloon ...... I .... I    ..  I  ....            1 ... I 9/3-? 19/6-10/121
8/23-? 1 9/1-? I 9/1-10/151 9/1-10/121 8/30-10/5I 9/1 
 309 SHAGBARK HICKORY (Carsa osata) Nuts ripe (hulls peel). 
 Sauk: .............. 1 9/5  1  9/2   1  9/251      ...1    9/3        ..
     9/7    1  9/1    19/5    I           no nuts    9/5 
 310 POISON IVY (Rhus radicans) 
 Sauk: leaves first show                   I         I 
        fall color .......                ....        . .....           
      9/12      9/7      9,17      9/5      9/20      9/12 
 311 OAKS (Quercus) Sank and Dane. Ripe acorns first fall. 
 Red Oak ............           9/20               9/1      ......      
                         9/10      9/15     9/17      913 
 White Oak,..                   9/8         .   .        I .  .. .      
                                   ....     9/10     (9/9) 
 312 WHITE THROATED SPARROW (Zonotrichia alsicollis) First migrants arrive.

 Dane: ....... .... - 9/28   1  9/23  1  9/19   I  10/8  I  9/2       9/21
    9/17      9/20      ...      9/3      9/8       9/20 
 313  WHITE PINE (Pious Strobus) Old needles die and fall. 
 
 
                                                        I         I     
    (before 
Sa-ik: ... .....           ..   ..      ....       ..      ...    .   ...
    10/11)    .        9/25      9/20     9/25     (9/23) 
 
 
100 
 
 
                           S.                                           
     (before 
Sank:         ... ..   ..      ....      ...                ....     ....
   10/11)     10/3     10/3      9/20     9/25      9/21 
314 RED PINE (Pinus resinoso) Old needles die and fall. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
January, 1947  A PIIENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
1.01 
 
 
Species, Station, Item 1935 1936    1937     1938    1939     1910     1941
   1942     1943    1944     1945   Average 
315 S.ATE-CJL)IREJ:) JUNC) (Janco hvjemilis hsemis) First arrival in fall.

Dane: ............... 9/28 1 9/23 1  .       9/25  I 9/22     10/2     10/4
I  9/22     9/19    9/6      ...      9/23 
316 RUFFED GROUSE (Bonasa umbellus) 
Sauk: first fall                     .... I.          .... I            
      ....     9/27    9/20     9/30    (9/25) 
317 RINGNECKED PHEASANT (Phasianms lorquatus) First fall cackling and crowing.

Sauk: crow .......... ... ...                                 9/14     10/9
,927                10/17    9/28     9/31 
     ciekle ....... ...     9/10 .I  . .              9-/i9-  9/1      ....
   9/       ...     9/3      9/8      9/8 
318 JACK PINE (Pinus Banksiana) Old needles turn yellow and fall. 
Sauk: ............... .... I I       .... I (by 10/29)1 ....   ...     10/9
   10/3     9/25     ....    10/5     10/3 
319 MUSKRAT (Ondatra zibethica zib.thica) First house-building. 
Sauk and Dane: ....... 10/1 1 .... I .... I  ....  I  ....    ....    10/25
    ...     9/27    10/1     9/2&    10/4 
320 CANADA G)OOSE (Branta canadensie csnadensis) First migrants arrive. 
Sauk: ............... I  1 1. ..  .  .. I    .       10/14   10/21    10/11
   9/23    10/16    10/14   10/5 16/11 
Dae: ............... 10/5  10/12, 10/23               9/17   10/24     ...
 .    ....   9/28    9/20    10/3     10  5 
321  WAHOO (Evonymue atropurpurea) Fruits open. 
Sauk: ............... I .... I .... I .... I ....  1 10/10 I   ...    10/25
   10/17   10/10    10/15    10/10   10/15 
322 AMERICAN ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK (Buteo lagopus s. johannis) Arrives. 
Sauk and Dane: ... 1 .... ] 11/11 1   _.  1 10/27    10/10    10/27   10/18
I  10/25 I  9/9     11/4     10/14   10/16 
323 FIRST KILLING FROST-Record by U. S. Weather Bureau. 
Dane: .............. 10/4  10/23    10/13    11/7    10/14    11/11   10/28
   9/25    10/17    10/15 I  9/29    10/17 
Sauk: ............... 9/29 10/1     10/8     10/25   10/,14   10/15    9/29
   9/25    10/17    10/11    9/29  I 10/7 
324 NORTHERN VIRGINIA DEER (Odocoileus virginianus borealis) Bucks first
rub horns. 
Sauk: ............. I .  . I .       9/19 1 11/12  1 11/1   1  ....     _
  I   .... 1 10/29     9/21 I 11/1   I10/17 
       The variability in these dates arises from the fact that there are
two periods for rubbing: in September, to clean the velvet, and in November,
at the begin- 
            ning of the rut. 
 325 FALL CANKERWORM (Anis opertyx poinetaria) Ascends trees. 
                                  : . . ..I                         I   
    I10/30-            10/14- 
 Sauk: .......................... I  ....  .   ... I  ....  I  .... I   _..
 I  ....    11/10  11/25     11/10-? (10/26) 
 326 WOODCOCK (Philohela minor) Last seen. 
 Sauk: ......................       11/10    11/7    10/28    11/3    10/26
   10/31   11/7     11/5     11/3    11/3 
 Dane:.............. 10/31 I1/12     ....    11/14   11/7  I  11/13     ...
    ....    ...                      11/9 
 327 LAKE WINGRA AT MADISON. 
 Freezes over: ........ I ... I .. _    .  I 11/25.. ....     11/13    ....
    ....    ....    12/2   1 11/24 I 11/24 
       (Average date 1887-1895 was November 26. See Wing, p. 156.) 
 328 LAKE MENDOTA AT MADISON. Record by U. S. Weather Bureau. 
 Freezes over: ...... 1 1/2 I 12/28 1 12/7 1 12/28 1  1/2     12/14   12/14
    1/3     12/16   12/18  1 12/19 I 12/22 
       (Average date 1853-1940 was December 20. See Wing, p. 155.) 
 
 
       STANDARDS AND TERMS, NOMENCLATURE 
  Averages based on less than four years are given 
in parentheses. Such averages are regarded as sub- 
standard, and are computed only to place the item 
in the chronological sequence.   Incomplete dates, 
such as "by 3/1" are not used in computing averages. 
   Many dates for the Dane station are based on daily 
observations; few on less than tri-weekly observa- 
tions. Most dates for the Sauk station are based 
on weekly visits. 
   Dates for events occurring between field trips are 
often interpolated by estimation, but only for such 
events as present evidence for estimating the prob- 
able date. The nature of such evidence is discussed 
later. Dates for bird arrivals, or for other animal 
behaviors, were never interpolated because they 
present no such evidence. 
   Blooming dates of plants are given in two ways. 
For plants without a perianth, the term "in pollen" 
is used, and mepns the dates between which pollen 
was found. In other plants, the term   "in bloom" 
 
 
means the dates between which a perianth was found. 
When only an initial date is available, the term 
"first bloom" is used. 
   A plus sign after a blooming date means that a 
few straggling blooms were observed beyond the 
closing date. Blooms on plants which have been 
mowed over, or in which bloom has been otherwise 
artificially deferred or renewed, are excluded. Thus 
weeds in stubble are artificially deferred by shading, 
while those in lawns or mowed roadsides are arti- 
ficially renewed by mowing. Valid phenology in such 
cases must be taken from fencerows which have been 
neither shaded nor mowed. The equivalent of mow- 
ing occurs when insects sever the stems of wild 
lettuce (Latuca canadensis) and Canada tick clover 
[279], or when deer decapitate Veronicastrum [236]. 
All these resprout, and the sprouts bear delayed 
blooms beyond the normal termination dates. 
   "Leafing" means the span of time from the burst- 
ing of the first leaf-buds to the completion of the 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
102 
 
 
earliest leaves. Additional leaves of course continue 
to form as long as new growth continues. 
   The budding period is given only in a few plants 
 which exhibit extraordinarily long budding periods, 
 or in which the period varied greatly from year to 
 year. 
   "Ripe" means that a fruit has colored, become 
 edible, started to fall, or given other evidence of 
 maturity. Fruiting phenology is shown under the 
 item for bloom, except when the two are separated 
 by many months (as in acorns and nuts). 
   In birds, the term "migrants arrive" means that 
 some individuals commonly winter here, but the 
 arrival date refers to individuals which seemed to be 
 migrants. In species which do not winter, the term 
 "arrives" is used without further specification. 
   The nomenclature of the following reference works 
is followed, except for some recent revisions: 
   Plants through June: Fassett's "Spring Flora of 
Wisconsin" (1938). 
   Plants beyond June: Deam's "Flora of Indiana" 
 (1940). 
 Birds: Petersoni's ''Field Guide to the Birds'' (1934). 
 This guide follows the American Ornithologists Union 
 Cheek-list. 
   Mammals: Hamilton's "The Mammals of Eastern 
United States" (1943). 
  Amphibians: Wright's "Handbook of Frogs and 
Toads" (1933). 
 
   Herbarium specimens of most plants of debatable 
identity have been filed either in the herbarium of 
Sara E. Jones, Bellaire, Ohio, or in the herbarium 
of A. Carl Leopold, 2222 Van Hise Avenue, Madi- 
son. A few residual items of debatable identity are 
asterisked in Tables 1 to 12. 
   Acknowledgments are gratefully made to Pro- 
fessors Norman C. Fassett, John T. Curtis, and H. 
C. Greene for checking many plant identifications, to 
Professor Kenneth J. Arnold for supervising the 
computation of standard deviations, and to James 
Zimmerman, now phenologist for the Arboretum, for 
many kinds of help both in field and office. 
                SELECTION OF ITEMS 
  Most of these records were collected as an incident 
to other field work. Experience has developed cer- 
tain criteria for the selection of items which are 
"good" under these conditions. To illustrate these 
criteria, Tables 1 to 12 are drawn upon for examples, 
giving each its serial number.      (Serial numbers 
appear in    brackets, bibliographic references in 
parentheses.) 
                       LABOR 
  A "good" item should not be too laborious. Thus 
horned owl nesting [2] and cardinal song [3] were 
detectable without labor, but during the same season 
it would have required tapping of trees to detect 
the first ascent of sap. 
                     SHARPNESS 
  A good item should be sharp, in the sense that 
two observers looking for it will recognize and date 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
       Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
it alike. Thus the first cricket frog [25] is much 
more likely to be noticed than the first leopard frog 
[201 because the latter is silent on first emergence. 
Two observers could hardly avoid identical dates for 
cricket frog if they worked the same region, but 
they might well differ on the leopard frog. 
   In some items sharpness is a matter of adequate 
definition. Thus in breakage of ice in lakes [14, 22, 
27] several days may separate the first break from 
the final dissolution, but when breakage is defined 
as "when one can row a boat across" the item be- 
comes sharp. 
   Fortunately the bloom of most flowers is sharp, 
but in those grasses which do not extrude their pollen 
it is more difficult to detect first bloom. 
   Ripeness in fruits is sharp only when it coincides 
with falling, as in silver maple [26]. A wild grape 
is "ripe" on September 1 for jelly, but on October 
1 for wine. 
   Some items are inherently difficult to define sharp- 
ly.   Thus in house-building by muskrats [319], 
variability in seeing or interpreting the evidence may 
exceed the year-to-year variability of the event. 
   This item is also beclouded by the fact that house- 
building dates differ by marshes, and this raises the 
question: how many marshes are represented in the 
record? It is feared that the record embodies little 
year-to-year consistency in this respect. 
   An occasional item is so sharp that it would be 
possible to record it to the nearest hour. Thus on 
August 18, 1946, Leopold found a single head of 
Indian grass [301] which had extruded a single 
stamen from its terminal flower. This was at 6:00 
A.M. An hour later he happened to pass the same 
head and found it had extruded dozens of stamens. 
                    COMMONNESS 
   The chance of detecting the first occurrence of an 
event, and especially of detecting it through a series 
of years, is obviously greater in a common species 
than in a rare one. 
              VISIBILITY OR AUDIBILITY 
  This specification is related to sharpness but is 
not identical with it. It often attaches to the ob- 
server, rather than to the plant or animal. Thus 
the nesting of horned owl is invisible to the unskilled 
observer, but is easily detected if one is working 
in an owl territory, and looks for the ears and tail 
of the incubating owl silhouetted above a nest. In- 
cubation and first egg coincide in this species. 
  Likewise, the arrival of woodcock [18] is apt to be 
invisible to the observer without a bird-dog, and 
inaudible to the observer who is indoors during the 
"song" period at dawn and dusk. 
  The first call of the cricket frog [25] is an ex- 
ample of perfect audibility, but low visibility. 
  An example of perfect visibility is the ascent of 
the spring cankerworm [21], but the visibility de- 
pends on ringing an infested tree with tanglefoot. 
  When an event is difficult to see, cannot be heard, 
leaves no mark, and pertains to an uncommon 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
January, 1947   A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
species, it becomes highly probable that the first 
occurrence is regularly missed. The record of emer- 
gence of Franklin ground squirrel [91] may be 
late for this reason. 
                    RECURRENCE 
  Some otherwise good items do not recur yearly, 
and to this extent are poor. Thus horned owls did 
not nest in the Prairie du Sac observation area dur- 
ing four of the ten years covered. (See note after 
item 2.) Some orchids fail to bloom in some years. 
Fruits often fail to set by reason of frost, disease, 
or insect attack. Cankerworms by defoliating bass- 
woods [233] prevented all blooming and fruiting at 
the Sauk station in 1944 and 1945. Most of the 
flowers of the bush clover [299] in 1946 were blighted 
by some unknown cause at the .Sauk station, and in 
parts of Dane County. 
  In some items the question of yearly recurrence is 
confused and unanswerable at present.      For ex- 
ample: do skunks [1] in this region hibernate with 
sufficient regularity to give validity to a series of 
emergence dates, such as those presented in Item 1? 
Albert Gastrow, who recorded the dates, is sure that 
they represent the emergence of the bulk of the 
skunk population on south slopes in his locality. 
Dens on north slopes emerge later.       Individual 
skunks emerge sporadically during winter thaws, but 
never in such numbers as to becloud the main re- 
corded date. It seems likely, from the literature, 
that these sporadic emergences are males, whereas 
the recorded dates include both sexes. 
  It seems possible that age, stored fat, and kind of 
winter dens (rock eaves or burrows) may affect 
hibernation phenology. The dens on Gastrow's area 
are mostly eaves in rock ledges. 
                    CONTINUITY 
  Once an event occurs, it is a great advantage if it 
is continuous or recurs daily. All blooms have this 
advantage of continuity. On the other hand most 
animal behaviors (such as birdsong or the emergence 
of hibernators) are liable to be interrupted by bad 
weather, especially in early spring, or to occur only 
at limited hours. 
  The breaking of ice in rivers and lakes is, in 
effect, discontinuous when followed by refreezing. 
               EVIDENCE OF NEWNESS 
  The song of a bird carries no evidence of whether 
it has been going on for a day or a week, but a 
freshly opened flower among numerous unopened 
buds tells its own story. A sidewalk littered with 
fragments of squirrel-opened acorns [288], some 
fresh, others oxidized, tells its own story if the same 
sidewalk was clean a week ago. 
  Dates of events beginning between field trips can- 
not be interpolated without evidence of newness. 
  In an occasional instance, evidence of newness 
develops after the event, and one can check back 
on the date. Thus woodcock were first recorded at 
the Sauk station on March 16, 1946. This was nine 
days ahead of average, and the birds were silent, 
 
 
as is usual on first arrvial. Later Leopold found a 
nest which hatched on April 14. Allowing 20 days 
for incubation and four for laying, the first egg 
must have been deposited March 21. A blizzard on 
March 10-13 crowds the March 16 arrival from the 
other direction; hence its substantial accuracy is 
assured. 
                  DISTANT FACTORS 
  Arrivals of migrant birds are likely to reflect dis- 
tant as well as local weather. On the other hand, 
the behaviors of resident birds (such as song), and 
all developmental phenomena in plants, are inher- 
ently local. The break-up of ice in lakes is probably 
the best example of the cumulative effect of purely 
local factors. Other things being equal, locally-de- 
termined events are preferable as phenology items. 
                  ABNORMAL ITEMS 
  In addition to the foregoing positive characters to 
be sought in phenology items, there are negative 
cautions to be observed in the acceptance of obser- 
vations. 
  Bloom in dandelion [53] often occurs in March 
when the particular plant stands above a buried 
steam pipe, or hugs the south wall of a building. 
Such abnormal bloom is an interesting oddity, but 
poor phenology. 
  The development of plants on recently flooded 
areas is likely to be abnormal. 
  The bloom of stubble weeds, suppressed until mid- 
summer by the shade of the grain, and also the bloom 
of forbs cut off by insects or deer, have already been 
mentioned as abnormally late. 
  Some abnormalities are too rare to be important 
as phenology, but they are of interest as physiology. 
Puccoon [154] normally ceases blooming about July 
1. In 1946 it ceased on July 6 at the Sauk station. 
But on August 5 a one-year-old seedling in a nurs- 
ery bed bore two flowers, and on September 10 
another bore one flower. No other seedling in the 
row showed any sign of blooming. The plants were 
only half the height of mature plants, and had only 
single stems. The writers have never before seen 
blooms on immature plants. 
           POPULATIONS VS. INDIVIDUALS 
  At least two variables, over and above weather, 
affect the phenology of plants: (1) the site variable, 
that is, differences in local environment, and (2) the 
genetical variable, that is, differences in response to 
the same environment due to different genetical con- 
stitutions in the individuals involved. A clear men- 
tal image of these two variables is essential to in- 
telligent recording. 
  A developmental record for any given species, to 
be valid through a term of years, should either (a) 
embrace the entire gamut of site and of genetical 
constitution, or (b) it should be limited to certain 
individuals which have been selected in advance, and 
in which site and genetics remain constant. Alter- 
nation or mixture of the (a) and (b) types is fatal. 
  Most of the plant items embrace a wide range of 
 
 
103 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
104 
 
 
site and genetical constitution at the two stations. 
Unless marked (b), the record for any given item 
may be assumed to approach the (a) category. That 
is to say, items not specifically designated as (b) are 
supposed to span the period from the earliest bloom 
on the earliest site to the latest bloom on the latest 
site. This implies, of course, that the observer ex- 
amines an equal variety of sites for each date for 
each year. Needless to say this ideal was not always 
carried out, but it usually was, especially for common 
species. 
  The choice between type (a) and type (b) is 
usually dictated by commonness. In some of the 
species, the population was too small for a record 
of the (a) category. Thus there is only one lilac 
bush [113] at the Sauk station. In such instances 
the record is marked (b) and an appropriate speci- 
fication, such as "one bush" or "one clump" is added.

  By and large, the (a) type is possible only for 
common species, while rare or locally uncommon spe- 
cies automatically assume the (b) type. The prac- 
tical point is to reach a decision, and stick to it, 
in species of intermediate abundance. 
  In aquatic and bog plants, whole ponds or bogs 
sometimes display uniform earliness or lateness de- 
pending on the presence or absence of springs. For 
example: 
 
 
Skunk cabbage [28] 
 
 
    with springs      without 
..-    3/20/45    about 4/10/45 
 
 
Marsh mazigold [711 .......  about 4/10/46 
 
 
4/15/46 
 
 
  For this reason a single specified pond or bog 
(phenology of the (b) type) is preferable for aquat- 
ics. A single water (Lake Chapman) was used for 
our Sauk records. 
                 SOURCES OF ERROR 
  The foregoing discussion describes certain particu- 
lar sources of error. There remain two more general 
questions: 
  (1) How much difference will occur as between 
two observers, looking for the same list of items in 
the same area, through the same years? 
   (2) How much difference arises from differing in- 
tensity of observation? 
          DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OBSERVERS 
  During parts of 1937, 1938, 1941, and 1942 Irven 
0. Buss recorded phenology at Faville Grove, Jeffer- 
son County, 20 miles east of Madison. This is in 
the eastern end of the area defined as eligible for 
the Dane station. These records were not seen until 
he returned from military service in 1945. Upon com- 
parison of his record with ours, 39 pairs of dates 
are found to be in common, covering 33 items dur- 
ing eight months of the year. Of the 39 pairs of 
dates, six are for birds, one for a mammal, and 32 
for plants. The disparities classify as follows: 
Identical with ours  __.--- 13 pairs        33 percent 
1-2 days difference ......... 12 pairs      31 percent 
3-4 days difference .......... 7 pairs      18 percent 
5-11 days difference .......  7 pairs       18 percent 
 
 
100 percent 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
       Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
  The sum of all disparities is 101 days for 39 pairs, 
an average of 2.6 days each. 
  These disparities represent the error of observa- 
tion plus any actual differences that may exist be- 
tween the two localities. There is no available means 
for segregating these two components. 
 
             INTENSITY OF OBSERVATION 
                 Animal Behaviors 
  The writers have become convinced that most ani- 
mal behaviors in late winter are first exhibited by a 
few precocious individuals, and become general in 
the population by slow degrees. In 1946 some special 
records were kept to test this point. Many trained 
men, just returned from military service, enabled us 
to record not only the first occurrence of a behavior, 
but its gradual development. The following covers 
the combined observations of a dozen men afield 
daily on the University Campus and Arboretum. 
 
                                               Become 
Itemh    Species         Earliest Dates        Generql 
3     Cardinal song ......... Jan. 5ý 6, 9, 12, 13, 30  Feb. 17 
4     Pheasant crowing .----- Jasn. 10. 18, 30, Feb. 25 March 1 
5     Marshhawk arrives....Feb. 16           Feb. 24 
8     Chipmunk emerges.....Feb. 8, 10, 18, Mar. 7, 8 March 14 
23    Brown bat flying ...... Feb. 9         March 13 
39    Ruffed grouse drumsFeb. 9              March 16 
x     Garter snake out ..... Jon. 25, Feb 17 Eary March 
 
  The early dates for Items 3, 4, and 8 are believed 
to represent a slowly developing frequency; those 
for 5, 23, and 39 are believed to represent isolated 
early occurrences. In either case, a lesser intensity 
of observation would have yielded later "first dates," 
the degree of lateness and the selection of items 
depending on chance. 
  It is believed that this intensity-error in animal 
events diminishes rapidly as the season advances, 
and that it is never large in plant items, except in 
a few species to be discussed later. An intensity- 
error also probably exists in autumn animal items 
such as 316, 317, 319, 322, 324, and 326.. 
                   Bird Migration 
  Even if an event develops nearly simultaneously in 
a population, the chance of detecting its earliest oc- 
currence depends on the number of observers afield. 
To explore the magnitude of this factor, the bird 
arrival dates of one observer are compared with 
those of 10 observers at the Dane Station. 
  For 16 years beginning in 1913, A. XV. Schorger 
recorded the arrivals later published, as averages, in 
his "Birds of Dane County" (1929, 1931). He used 
only his own observations, and his skill as an orni- 
thologist is nationally known. He was able to make 
few field trips during week days. His dates repre- 
sent the best possible single-handed avocational effort. 
  Schorger's dates will now be compared with those 
gathered during the past decade by the writers and 
their collaborators: 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
39 pairs 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
January, 1947   A PHIENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK 
 
 
Item 
5,. 
7.... 
10... 
16... 
19 
36. 
 
 
49.... 
55.., 
64... 
68.. 
77. . 
 
 
86.... 
87.... 
95... 
96.... 
99... 
103... 
106 ... 
112... 
115.... 
111.... 
122.... 
124.... 
 
 
        Species 
   Marshhawk ............ 
   Blue  bird .............. 
   Redwing ............. 
   Canada goose .......... 
   Fox sparrow ... 
   Field  sparrow  .......... 
 
 6 March birds, average... 
   Upland plover ......... 
   Towhee ............... 
   Brown thrasher ... 
   American bittern.. 
   House wren ............ 
 
 5 April birds, average .... 
   Kingbird ............. 
   Crested flycatcher. 
   Baltimore oriole ....... 
   Warb ing virco ......... 
   Rose breasted grosbeak 
   N. yellowthroat ...... 
   Wood thrush ......... 
   Whippoorwill ........ 
   Indigo bunting ....... 
   Scarlet tanager ....... 
   Catbird ............. 
   Nighthawk ............ 
 12 May birds, average ..... 
'23 Birds, March to May... 
 
 
Average 
Dates 
 
3/16 
3/11 
3/11 
3/16 
3/24 
3/30 
 
 
4/18 
4/13 
4/23 
4/16 
4/30 
 
 
5/4 
5/7 
5/5 
5/7 
5/7 
5/8 
5/9 
5/10 
5/11 
5/9 
5/6 
5/14 
 
 
Average 
Dates 
10 Men 
3/5 
3/9 
2/28 
3/11 
3/21 
3/20 
 
 
4/16 
4/7 
4/17, 
4/13 
4/z2 
 
 
5/1 
5/3 
5/3 
05/ 
5/6 
5/1 
4/28 
4/24 
5/10 
5/9 
5/2 
516 
 
 
  Not all of the 15 observers covered all groups of 
birds, but it would be fair to assume that our dates 
are the earliest obtainable by 10 observers cover- 
ing all groups, and less confined to week-ends than 
were Schorger's. The span of years reported in the 
present study is shorter, but both spans seem to be 
long enough to avoid distortion by exceptionally early 
or late seasons. -The five day difference is believed 
to represent the greater intensity of the ten-man 
effort. 
 
                        Plants 
  In flowering spurge [196] the first blooms are 
borne singly, and are so inconspicuous, as compared 
with the later massed corymbs, that one must learn 
to look for them. During the process of learning, 
they are likely to be overlooked. The result is that 
in a series of annual records, the early years are 
likely to show dates which are later than they 
should be. 
  There are some plants in which the very earliest 
blooms are perfectly visible, but they occur on so 
few individuals that they are likely to be overlooked. 
This group includes hedge bindweed [205], chicory 
[218], bull thistle [282], white snakeroot [293], 
greater ragweed [295], lesser ragweed [293], Liatris 
spheroidea   [300], and Canada goldenrod.       These 
species are put in the variable category because the 
records definitely sustain it. In addition, it is the 
impression that all asters, oaks, hickories, poplars, 
and willows likewise display wide variability, includ- 
ing a small proportion of especially early individuals. 
  The very    early individuals probably represent 
 
 
10 Men 
Earlier by: 
  11 days 
  2 
  12 
  5 
  3 
  10 
 
  (7) 
  2 
  6 
 
  3 
  8 
 
  (5) 
  3 
  4 
  2 
,2 
  1 
  7 
  12 
  16 
  1 
  0 
  4 
  8 
  (5) 
  5.6 days 
 
 
AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN                      105 
 
genetical, rather than environmental, variations for 
the following reasons: 
   (1) In annuals like the ragweeds, extra early 
plants have never been found twice in the same 
place. 
   (2) In white snakeroot, at both stations, the very 
earliest blooms for three years have occurred at two 
particular spots, both on a north slope and shaded. 
The two sites would seem to be cold rather than 
warm. 
   (3) In chicory, at the Dane station, the earliest 
bloom for the last three years has occurred at a 
particular spot on a north slope which seems cooler 
than the usual "curbstone" habitat of this species. 
   (4) In willows and sumac earliness and lateness 
seem to show a clonal distribution. At the junction 
of two clones one can see wide disparity in earliness 
on identical sites. 
 
              TOWN VS. COUNTRY ERROR 
  It was suspected that in spring plant development 
in urban habitats is commonly earlier than in rural 
ones. To test this belief, Donald R. Thompson kept 
records on 15 plants common to Madison and the 
University Arboretum, spanning the period March 
to May, 1946. He found that 13 of the 15 species 
were earlier in Madison: 
                              Days Earlier in Town 
9 forbs .................. 2,  1, 11, 8, 0, 4, 6, 0,-3  days 
6 woody  plants .................... 2, 2, 2, 2,-1, 6  days 
Average  ..................................... 4  days 
 
  Thompson's data are certainly not conclusive, but 
they are consistent through March and April, the 
first instances of earlier rural bloom appearing in 
May. 
  Until 1944 no conscious effort was made to avoid 
recording a plant in town one year, and in the coun- 
try the next year. The bulk of our plant records 
are therefore subject to this error. It cannot, how- 
ever, affect items of the (b) category (fixed stations), 
nor can it affect plants found only in the country, 
such as prairie and marsh plants. It is most likely 
to affect wild flowers in gardens and trees on lawns 
or streets. 
                  FORM OF RECORDS 
  Phonological errors can be greatly reduced by a 
form of record which automatically reminds the ob- 
server, while in the field (not afterward), what cur- 
rent items are likely to terminate, and what ne'w 
items are likely to develop, on the date of any field 
trip.  Without such an automatic reminder, the 
observer is less likely to detect the earliest occur- 
rence of new items, and termination dates are likely 
to be overlooked entirely. The automatic-reminder 
type of record was begun in 1939. Even with the 
best of records, terminal dates are usually cruder 
than beginning dates. 
 
           GENERAL DISCUSSION OF ERRORS 
  The following net conclusions can be drawn fronl 
tile foregoing discussions of errors and of the pecu- 
liarities of phenological data: 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
106                             ALDO LEOPOLD AND S 
 
   (1) Any given aggregation of data is subject to 
numerous possible errors, only part of which can be 
identified. 
   (2) The more species, the more years, the more 
stations, and the more observers behind any given 
deduction, the greater the chance that errors will 
compensate. 
   (3) During the decade here treated, the degree of 
error declines progressively. 
   (4) Phenology of the (b) type (fixed stations) 
avoids some errors. 
   (5) Caution is necessary in attaching significance 
to differences of small magnitude. 
 
                  PLANT GROUPS 
 
   Those who work with soil, crops, wild plants, wild 
animals, or laqdscapes sometimes wish to know what 
plants may be expected to be in bloom, or in fruit, 
at a given time. For their convenience such data 
have been segregated in    diagrammatic form, in 
Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. These assemblies present 
an average of the two stations, and ignore devia- 
tions due to early or late years. They include some 
 
 
ARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
        Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
species which are omitted from Tables 1 to 12 be- 
cause the record is too short. 
   The point of each arrow is the beginning date, and 
the length of the arrow is the duration of the event. 
   By projecting a vertical line through any given 
date, the reader can tell at a' glance what species 
are likely to be in bloom (or in fruit) on that date. 
   It is perhaps of interest to note that all four 
groups of flowers describe, in their succession of 
"arrow points," a reversed "S" curve. The groups 
differ only in the degree of curvature, and the dates 
of inflexion. Woods flowers inflect in May, prairie 
and sand plants and weeds in June (with some minor 
undulations) and marsh plants in July. The shape 
of these curves is of course affected somewhat by the 
local assortment of sites and species, and by the 
degree to which all are covered. 
 
                   WOODS FLOWRS 
 
   Figure 1 assembles some of the wild flowers charac- 
teristic of oak-hickory, climax hardwood, and oak- 
jack pine woodlands at their point of confluence in 
this region. 
 
 
April           May            June            July -         August    
   Seutember 
 
 
(eretica america3 
n's Breeche* (Dict 
root (Saniutnaria c 
awrt (Dentaria lam 
mly Meadow Rue (TI 
Food Anemone (Anoa 
Bellwort (Uvularli 
Dogtooth Violet 
  Arabia (Arabia i 
    White Trilliw 
    Nodding Trill 
    Wake Robin 
    Jacob's Ledd 
      Blue Phlox 
      Jack-in-th, 
      False Sol, 
         Wild Go 
         Waterl, 
           Tell 
 
             Sw 
 
 
L) 
ntra Oucullaria) 
wnadenais) 
Lniata) 
allctrum dioicum) 
ie quinquefolia vw 
grandiflora) 
Erythronium albidi 
mammondi) 
(Trillium grandif 
Lum (Trillium Glei 
lrillium recurvatl 
sr (Polemonium re' 
(Phlox divaricataý 
-Pulpit (Arisawma 
non's Seal (Smile 
aniun (Geranium me 
af (iTidroivllum 
t_12y's Slipper 
!pple (Podophullui 
et Cicely (Osmorh 
  Cryptotaenta (C 
  Faloe Spikenar 
  Cana Mpflo, 
  Black Snakero 
     Solomon'@ S 
            Ane 
 
 
.interimo) 
 
 
aru) 
 
 
onl) 
 
a)an) 
 
 
riphyllum) 
sa stellata) 
,xlatum) 
rginianwm) 
,ypripedium parvif 
peltatum) 
a Claytoni) 
.ptotaenia canaden, 
(Smilacina racemo 
ir (Maianthemnm ca: 
I (Sanicula marnlae 
al (Polygonatum bi 
to (Anemone virgi: 
seum (Geum canaden 
   Enchanter'@ XI, 
   Tick Clover 
   4- 
     Lopseed (Ph 
       Jewelweed 
 
 
WOOD FLOWERS 
        LEGEND 
            In bloom 
            Straggling bloom 
 
 
)rum var. pubesceni 
 
 
 
a0) 
 
adense) 
Iica) 
lorom) 
Iana) 
6) _ ... 
htshade (Cireoea 1 
esmodiu. acuminatn 
ym Leptoetachya) 
(Imiatiens pallida 
 
 
Cardinal Flower (L 
Whit* Snakeroot ( 
 
 
tifolia) 
 
 
belia Cardinalie) 
apatoriui rugoosm 
 
 
   October 
6 I /6 2/2631 
 
 
Fio. 1. Average Blooming Periods of 34 Woods Flowers. 
 
 
Thotcbn 
Blood 
 
   Too 
 
 
J 
 
 
0        1 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Janaary, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTI 
 
 
   April            "aY                June 
5 /0/5-2025-30 5-/0/1520 25 304 9 141/924 29 3 
 
 
Pasqua Tic 
    Draba 
        A 
 
 
yr (Anemone patens var. Wolfgangian, 
Draba reptans) 
able (Arab- i l1-t,) 
  Bird-foot Violet (Viols pedata va& 
  Hoary Puccoon (Lithospermum 
  Oensa (Goum trif orum) 
          Wood Sor 1I (Ozalis violet 
          Toadfl   (Linaria oanadei 
            Shooti 4 Star (Dodecathe 
            Pink   lox (Phlox piloi 
            Blue Lupine (l tue I 
            Are isa (Arenaris etr 
              Puccoon (Lithospe 
              Pu ccoon (Lithosp 
 
 
Bautista (Baptil 
*Spiderwort (Tv 
Penstoemon (P 
  Prostweed (b] 
  Kriga (Irigli 
  Anemone (Anes 
    Seneca Snake 
    Potentilla ( 
    Baptisia (0 
    Scribner' s 
        llowerin 
 
 
Ground C 
   Lobel 
   June 
   --U 
 
   Ascl 
   i 
       P 
       P 
 
 
a 
 
 
July             August 
 
 
/3/ 23 28 27 /2 /7 22 27 
 
 
  Lineartloba) 
caneooens) 
 
 
oa) 
its) 
 
in seadia) 
war. fulgida) 
.rennie) 
eta) 
mum angustifolil 
noum, caroinensi 
.a leunopdaa) 
Lescantia reflexa) 
nstemon gracllis 
anthrenit canadenee 
btflora) 
.ae cylindrica) 
not (Polygala Sene, 
ttentilla arguta) 
.ptaia leucantha) 
'ante (Panioum Scrl' 
SSnoree (Eunhorbia 
 
 
erry (Physalts win 
a (lobelia *plcat&: 
rase (Kosleris cri, 
als (Polygala Plyd 
pias (Aeclepias ei] 
nateimon (Penstoe 
rah Plantain (Plant 
Goat.e use (Tephroi 
L6fiaahis (Ios 
Noew Jersey Tea (Co 
  Coreopsts (CoreoI 
    ,0reemiat, (ND 
      Lead Plant (0 
      Prairie Whil 
      White Pral, 
        Coneflowet 
        Prairie I 
          Horeetal 
          Purple 
       Scre  (hhob] 
 
 
o) 
 
 
aerainum) 
 
 
Iniana) 
 
 
tata) 
Ma) 
Lexicaulle) 
on Digitalie) 
wgo Purshit) 
La virginians aTr. 
hIa lanceolata) 
mnothUo srnricanusi 
tis palmsta) 
erda pnctata war. 
iorpha caneacens) 
Marige Orchid (E 
e Clover (Petalosi 
(Ratibida pianatsa 
,ok (Silpiium torel 
1 Milkweed (Aeclepi 
Prairi. Clover (Pal 
a (Silphium Intega 
 
 
C o.._n_pa es plant  ., ( $ilphIN 
,Ca"l Tick Clover (Desn: 
4 Pattle Iake Master (]lllllrDm 
  Liatrin      (Lisatris 3 
  ePr le Cone Flower (Bre 
     aituom (Panicum wirg 
       Bluesten (Andropog 
          Side-oate Grams 
             Push Clover 
             Liatrio (Li 
               Prairie Be 
                 Wormwood 
                   Indian 
                   Prai: 
 
 
[ES, WISCONSIN                     107 
 
 
    September        October 
  6 // 1 /621 26 / 6 I1 /6 21 26 31 
 
 
holoeerieea) 
 
 
 
 
 
villicaulis) 
 
 
oenarls leuoeopdae 
mum candidum) 
 
 
nthinscewm) 
ae verticillate) 
mlostemum purpure, 
folitm) 
alaciniatum) 
t=ur canadense) 
nom yuccaefllutn) 
nostachya) 
aneria__frparea) 
 
 
* fureatus) 
(Bouteloua onrtti 
leepedeza capital 
.itrtI sarotdea: 
ardgraes (Andropol 
(Artemeisa caudal 
Grass (Sorghstrn 
* Goldenrod (Soll 
 
 
a) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
indul.) 
 
 
 
 
On scoparius) 
 
 
"nutane) 
sao rigida) 
 
 
FiG. 2. Average Blooming Periods of 59 Prairie Plants and Sand Plants. 
 
 
PRAIRIE I SAND PLANTS 
 
               LEGEND 
                    In blo om 
                    Straggling bloom 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
108                           ALDO LEOPOLD AND Z. 
 
  A conspicuous character of this group is the early 
bloom and short duration of bloom in the first 21 
species. Their average duration is 21 days. These 
species bloom before the leafing of trees is com- 
plete, and thus contrive to receive at least partial 
sunlight, even when occupying sites shaded by over- 
head trees, and often by a shrubby understory as 
well. That this short early bloom is actually an 
evolutionary adaptation for seizing sunlight is sus- 
tained in some species by the fact that the leaves 
turn yellow and die as soon as fruiting is completed. 
For example, the leaves of Dutchman's breeches and 
dogtooth violet are yellow by the end of May and 
dead by mid-June. This early death occurs even in 
transplanted individuals with plenty of light and 
moisture. The yellowing foliage of these two species 
is the earliest "fall color" of the year. 
             PRAIRIE AND SAND PLANTS 
   The average blooming dates of 59 forbs and grasses 
are assembled in Figure 2. Of the 14 flowers which 
bloom before June 1, nine are confined to hot dry 
sands and gravels. On such sites, in very drouthy 
springs, snow water is the only moisture likely to 
be available. Pasque [44] and Draba [51] are ex- 
amples of sand plants which can bloom on snow 
water. 
   In some early sand flowers, the blooming period 
 is short regardless of the weather; thus Draba did not 
 span more than two weeks in any year. Other early 
 species are opportunist; thus Arabis lyrata [74] 
 bloomed from April 11 to June 6 and straggled to 
 August 12 during the cool spring of 1945, whereas 
 in normal years it ceases to bloom in May. 
   Some prairie grasses and forbs start the season's 
 growth very late. Could this be an evolutionary de- 
 vice for avoiding damage from spring fires? For 
 example, bluestem   [290] grows no visible leaves 
 until late May, whereas most other perennial grasses 
 become green in April. Butterfly weed [241] does 
 not sprout until June 1, whereas the other milk- 
 weeds sprout a month earlier. 
   The prairie group is peculiar in its interspersion 
 of long and short blooming plants. Its long collec- 
 tive span, together with the tendency of prairie 
 grasses to color in fall, gives it great value in wild 
 landscaping. Every month from April to October 
 offers something to see on a prairie. 
                       WEEDS 
   The average blooming dates of 46 common weeds 
 are presented in Figure 3.     As has often been 
 pointed out, there is no objective definition of the 
 term "weed," and none is claimed for Figure 3, ex- 
 cept that it includes plants which somebody, for some 
 .reason, dislikes. The group might well be larger: 
 thus Asiatic honeysuckle [123] is probably a greater 
 threat to the native flora in this region than 
 any weed in Figure 3, barring quack grass [197]. 
 Of the 46 species, not more than half a dozen are 
 dangerous in the sense of usurping land that has not 
 been abused. Most Wisconsin weeds are objection- 
 ably abundant mainly in overgrazed pastures [239, 
 
 
A 
 
 
RA ELIZABETH JONES                Ecological Monographs 
                                         Vol. 17, No. 1 
255, 259, 282, 289, 298, 307], and are preferable 
to the erosion which would be augmented by their 
absence. Winter animals are largely dependent on 
weed seeds. 
   The exotic perennials which comprise the bulk of 
 the weed list have certain phenological characters in 
 common. First, their period of bloom is long. The 
 average duration, exclusive of straggling, is 45 days. 
 By reason of straggling, the termination of bloom 
 often lacks sharpness. Second, they commonly re- 
 sprout and rebloom after mowing, and also after 
 interruption of bloom by drouths, Examples: [53, 
 182, 255]. Some display straggling blooms even 
 when not interrupted by mowing or drouths. Many 
 straggle until frozen. Examples: [177, 218, 255]. 
                  HAYFEVER WEEDS 
   There is a discrepancy between the development 
 of pollen in the two ragweeds at the Dane station, 
 and the detection of aerial pollen by the Allergy 
 Laboratory of the Wisconsin General Hospital. In 
 two of the last three years the hospital has detected 
 pollen in the air before any phenologist could detect 
 general bloom in the field. 
   There is also a discrepancy between first general 
 bloom in ragweed, and first pollen in a few preco- 
 cious plants. In two of the last three years one or 
 more precocious individual plants have been found, 
 by accident, far ahead of the general population: 
 First         Precocious         General  -Allergy 
 Pollen         Plants           Population Laboratory 
 1944 -----......... x              7/30      7/28 
 1945 ................ 7/13, 8/1  (both  lesser)  8/7  8/1 
 1946 ..---------- . 7 /26  (greater)  7/31   7/31 
 Average difference..................15 days..-........... 3 days 
   The question is: does the earliest pollen detected 
 by the Allergy Laboratory originate in other regions, 
 or does it originate in these precocious local plants? 
 The present data yield no clue. 
   The precocious plants are very scarce, and are 
 doubtless genetical aberrations. Three years' search 
 has yielded only the three plants. 
   The average Dane County dates (August 5 for 
 lesser and August 8 for greater ragweed) are later 
 than the August 2 average for both species in this 
 region given by Wodehouse in "Hayfever Plants" 
 (1945). 
                    MARSH PLANTS 
    The average blooming dates of 28 marsh plants 
 are presented in Figure 4. This group consists, in 
 large part, of conspicuous abundant perennials with 
 long blooming periods (average duration 38 days). 
 As in the prairie group, the collective span of bloom 
 includes the entire growing season. 
    As already pointed out, the date of first bloom 
  in early marsh species is strongly affected by the 
  presence or absence of springs. 
    Some marsh plants have highly specific animal 
  relationships. Robert A. McCabe (unpublished) has 
  found that the alder flycatcher in the University 
  Arboretum uses the dry stalks of Angelica [160] 
  as a territorial perch, and the shredded bark of the 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOG1CAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
April            MAY             June             July            August

 
 
rfoot (Nammacnalu 
(Capsella Burea-? 
Barbmara va r~Is 
 
kDrrel (lomex Acet 
Bedetraw (Galium 
Goat's Beard (Tr 
Yarrow (Achilla 
 
 
Wild Parsnip 
 
 
lVenyz lachn 
Yellow Sweet 
 
Carly Dock: 
Dimtey Pleabs 
 
 
Wi~ld Carr 
White Swe 
Mield Bit 
 
 
Had,. P 
 
 
(ýaki 
Moths 
  Heal- 
 
 
Cat 
 
 
..- 
 
 
bortiva) 
storne) 
 
"ella) 
ALparine) 
gopon go 'atenaes) 
Millefoliua) 
 
 
Pastinaca sativa) 
 
 
a (Lychaie Sibs) 
 
 
lover (Oelilotus o0 
Mi-eaantheme leuca 
 
 
maex crimape) 
9 (Irigeron ramsea, 
t (Damus Carota) 
  Clover (Melilote 
lweed (Couvolvalus 
adwoed ( Convolvalum 
 
 
-ae (Agroppron rel 
wort (Leomnrue Cari 
1l (Pranella vulga- 
 
 
r NHmlock (Clouta. 
ada Thistle (Cirsiv 
 
]7oael (nthebmle 
St John'a Wort (U 
B2&aok Blndweed (PC 
Common illkweed ( 
  Great Mullein (1 
    Bouncing Beta 
    Black Hastard 
 
 
Ivaning Prig 
,Catnip (Heop 
  Hoary Verra 
  Comman Pi 
 
 
Norse Noet 
Lamb'* qu 
Sow This 
Stng 
 
 
Wood No 
  B- 
 
 
4" 
 
 
iainalie) 
!themcp var. innpa 
 
 
-1Th-1 
 
 
rffqp5jj) 
 
 
sl~,iot) 
 
 
Ma1) 
 
 
toulata) 
a arvenee) 
 
 
otula) 
 
 
2dc~m prfoirat'ug 
 
 
sclep ias Syrlaca) 
 
lavonaria oficine 
(Brassica nigra) 
 
 
oee (enothera_1- 
a Cataria) 
n (Verbena Strict! 
ýtalu S]LanteLo aq 
Is (Sol-a- cearol] 
Ztere (ChenodImn 
I. (Sonchue arven, 
Nettle (Urticapr 
tie (Laportea canm 
1 Thistle (Cireium 
 
 
-d neabane Url 
ardock (Arctium ad 
   jreat Ragweed 
   J4sxez   ey 
             * B 
 
 
September 
 
 
ifidam) 
 
 
  --- 
 
 
7-- 
 
   ) 
 
 
-I 
 
 
----.*_-- 
 
 
-''I.' 
 
 
aln") 
i8)w 
 
 
era) 
 
 
Lendis) 
vulgare) 
 
 
Aronsi aadensis) 
 
Aabroeia trtlida 
 
 
  October 
8 II /6 21 2ze3 
 
 
* (Ambroeia arter4esifolia) 
r-Varigold (BidenI cornma) 
 
 
FiG. 3. Average Blooming Periods of 46 Weeds. 
 
 
swamp milkweed    [244] as his principal nesting 
material. The milkweed becomes "shreddable" only 
after spring sun and wind have loosened the dead 
bark, hence the relationship is conditioned   by 
phenology. McCabe suspects that the flycatcher's 
food supply, during the critical weeks of the nest- 
ing season, hinges on the insects attracted by con- 
current marsh blooms, and that shade for nestlings 
is tied in with the leafing phenology of the elder 
and red dogwood bushes in which most nests are 
 
 
built. Such plant-animal dependencies, partial or 
complete, are doubtless the rule rather than the ex- 
ception, but few have been explored by research. 
 
                     WILD FRuITS 
 
  A chronology of 27 wild fruits, arranged in order 
of first ripening, is presented in Figure 5. The 
blooming periods are also given. Species without 
known food value, such as wahoo [203], are omitted. 
Falling periods are indicated by dashed bars; inde- 
 
 
Dandel 
 
 
f0 f S  1 90  4 
                 4  14  29 3 3 18 280 
 
 
Small flowered Croc 
SShepherd, s Pureg 
    Winter Cross 
          ,2=ep 
 
 
         WEEDS 
 
           LEGEND 
              In bloom 
-Straggling bloom 
 
 
2 /a /71 21 
 
 
*0  11 /8 210, 
 
 
llmhRin 
 
 
., 
 
 
Hodge 
 
 
-ev .m 
 
 
? 
 
 
!L ,. .z. . .. .. . 
 
 
.-. 
 
 
.7a rall 
 
 
109 
 
 
/ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
       Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
April           May            June           July            August    
   September 
 
 
/        5 /0 /6' 226306/0/520530 4 9 /4 19 24929 3 8 13 18 292  7 12 172'2

 
 
mplocarpate foetidf 
sh Marigold (Caltb 
         E arly 
            Gold 
            Gold 
 
 
, palustris) 
mitrage (Saxifrag 
.n Alexander (Zizi 
,n Ragwort (Senecs 
Angelica (Angeli 
    Marsh Blue I 
       Tall Mea 
       Goe,m (Ge 
         Showy 
 
 
pennsylvanicea) 
 
 
sure&) 
aureus) 
 
 
a atropxrpurea) 
ag (Iris virginica var. Shrevei) 
 
 
w Rue (Thalictrum 
strictum) 
ady's Sliprer (Cypi 
lue Vervain (Verbs, 
Winged Loosestrife 
Lysimachia (LFeimEm 
   Swam, Milkweed 
     Mountain Mini 
 
 
Jewelweed (: 
 
 
oTurk, Cap 
    JOEe P 
 
 
Bao 
 
 
  S, 
4- 
 
4-- 
 
4- 
 
 
Lpedium regini 
k hastate) 
iythrum slate 
iA sadriflo, 
ýAsclepias mne 
(Pycnanthemuz 
 
 
w) 
 
rum) 
larna 
evir, 
 
 
apatiens biflora) 
 
 
Uily (LiliUM 12oh4 
9 Weed (Iupatori'm 
Dset (fuoatorium 
sup Thistle (Cirail 
msan Dodder (OCasu 
ibelia (Lobelia I& 
ronweed (Ternonia 
     Monkey 7Flwo 
     Tartlehead (' 
       Gerardia 
       Lobelia 
 
 
;a) 
inianum) 
 
 
anenee) 
macalatum) 
irfoliatum) 
 
 
Us mUticum) 
;a Gronovili 
 
aeoonleatte) 
( Mtalus rioenes 
lhelone labra var 
SLersrdLia paupercu: 
 
  Bottle Oentian 
 
 
FIG. 4. Average Blooming Periods of 28 Marsh Plants. 
 
 
terminate fallings after November 1 by plus signs, 
or by adding terminal dates of falling. 
  These 27 fruits differ greatly in their ripening 
phenology, and in the degree to which they are con- 
sumed by animals. 
  Thus among mast fruits, all oaks fall as soon as 
they are ripe; walnuts adhere to the tree until frost; 
hazelnuts do not fall, but are gradually removed by 
mice and chipmunks. Burr oak acorns in the city 
of Madison are in most years completely consumed 
by squirrels [see Item 288] a month before ripening; 
to get the date of natural fall one must search fence- 
row oaks in rural areas where squirrel pressure is 
less intense. 
  Juneberries at the Sauk station are completely 
consumed by orioles as soon as they turn red, and 
before they are ripe. Hence it is impossible there 
to record the duration of ripe berries on the tree. 
Grey dogwood berries are consumed or knocked off 
by robins by late October. 
   On the other hand, the proportion of the black- 
berry, dewberry and elderberry crop consumed by 
animals seems very small in this region. 
   Of the fruits which adhere to the tree after Novem- 
ber 1, some fall or are consumed gradually (grape, 
nannyberry) while others may be ignored until 
spring, and are then obliterated in two or three 
days by cedar waxwings (mountain ash). 
 
 
  The maximum variety of ripe wild fruits is avail- 
able about September 1. 
  Table 5 may be useful for planning a sequence 
of fruits for wildlife, or for determining the best 
date for gathering wild fruits for eating or preserv- 
ing. The table is deficient in the phenology of edible 
mushrooms, for which no records were kept. 
 
                    ANALYSES 
  In the pitges which follow, six sample analyses are 
given of the data in Tables 1 to 12. The purpose 
is exploratory; to show that analysis is possible, 
and if sound may shed light on a wide variety of 
questions. The number of questions is probably 
limited mainly by techniques.   The writers have 
no illusion that their techniques are the best. 
  Most analyses depend on comparisons with aver- 
ages, means, or norms. It is of the utmost impor- 
tance to realize that the biota never conforms to 
averages. The only physical meaning of an aver- 
age is that the deviations from it should equalize. 
Significance inheres mainly in the frequency and 
amplitude of the deviations. 
       YEAR TO YEAR VARIABILITY OF SPECIES 
  As a means of visualizing the year-to-year devia- 
tion of plant and animal species from their own 
averages, the longest series of dates from Tables 
1 to 12 are presented graphically in Figures 6 and 
 
 
110 
 
 
MSink Cabbsq (Sý 
 
 
October 
 
 
6 1 16 21 26 31 
 
 
liulfolla) 
 
 
;entiam Adreweil 
 
 
MARSH PLANTS 
      LEGEND 
           In bloom 
         --Srrag,,lhnq bloom 
 
 
f 6 // 16 ý?/ 
 
 
-dý 
 
 
1) 
 
  

					
				
				
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
April 
 
 
may         June 
 
 
July 
 
 
August 
 
 
September 
 
 
5 0 15 20 25 .30 5 /0 /S 20 26 20 4 9 /4 /9 24 29 3 8 13 18 23 28 2 7 12
/1 22 27 
 
 
/ 6 // I/ 21 24 / 6/I 1/6 2/ 26 21 
 
 
Aspara&gu  sprokts (Assregus of: 
                  Wild Stra, 
 
 
     .4.. 
.4. 
 
 
.4-.- 
 
 
4--.-. 
 
 
.4 
 
 
4-.... 
 
 
Junel 
  MU 
 
 
........ 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
........ ...... 
 
 
Loinalis) 
Isrty (Fragaria vir 
Lny (jmelanchler a 
Lberry (MHor alba) 
IOziar Domewd (Cm 
 
 
Ia,,., nonaysu-cnl 
  Red Raspberr7 (R 
  Black Ras rry 
            .- 
 
 
inians) 
nadensts) 
 
.ini. ltolonifer~a 
 
 
ýAnjoers tatarica) 
Lbus idarus var. el 
(Thubus ocoidentall 
rberry (b.us flag 
Blackberry (Rubuxi 
        Wild Cho. 
        trrOuOa 
        . oumtal 
 
 
Ilderbi 
Grey D 
Chokeet 
    WI 
 4-~e 
 
 
    FRUITS 
 
    LEGEND 
           Ripe 
           Fol/ing 
l.................... B ooming 
 
 
igosus) 
,) 
.larie) 
 
alleghonioneim) 
7 (Prmus aeroti: 
(Quercus macroear 
Ash (Sorbus dect 
 
 
2z' (Sambuaous ama 
wood (Cornms racq 
'rry (Pruzus virl 
.d Crab (Value esi 
 
Wild Grape (Vitt 
   Bittormet ( 
   Shagbark Hick1 
 
     lNannberry 
     Red Oak ( 
       Hazel(C 
       4   -ft 
 
 
,) 
a) 
 
 
lass) 
asaa) 
nians) 
 
Ieriemna) 
vulutna) 
 
 
Ilaltrus scandena) 
zJicwa  ovata) 
cue alba) 
viburnum lentego) 
tereus borealis va 
         maxma) 
711us amrlcamas 
 
 
    Black Walnut 
    (Juglans oigr 
 
 
FIG. 5. Average Blooming Dates and Periods of Ripeness in 27 Wild Fruits.

 
 
7, in groups by months. Points above the baseline 
represent lateness (plus deviation) ; points below the 
baseline represent earliness (minus deviation). 
  Visual inspection of Figures 6 and 7 suggests that 
there is a seasonal decline in deviation, the early 
spring curves being more "turbulent" than later 
ones. At any given season, some species seem more 
"turbulent" than others. 
  In order to arrive at some measure of turbulence, 
"estimated standard deviations" were computed for 
each of the species. The deviation, in days, is en- 
tered under each species name (for instance in 
skunk, s- 17.0 days). The formulae used to com- 
pute one station, two stations, or averages of several 
species will be supplied on request. 
 
                DECLINE IN DEVIATION 
   To test the existence of a seasonal trend in the 
variability of items, the deviations of all the ani- 
mals and plants shown in Figures 6 and 7 are aver- 
aged by months as follows: 
 
 
                   28 Animals 
February-March .......... 10.3 days 
April._......  ........ 8.9 
M ay ............................  6.8 
June .............. ........ x 
July-August ............ x 
 
 
20 Plants 
x 
9.5 days 
6.3 
7.0 
6.7 
 
 
Both 
10.3 days 
9.2 
6.7 
7.0 
6.7 
 
 
April-August--------8.6 days    7.4 days    8.1 days 
 
 
  A progressive decline in variability is clear in 
animals from February up to the end of bird migra- 
tion in May, after which there are no data. Plants 
decline during April and May, but there is no large 
difference between months after May. 
  The lumped data for both plants and animals show 
a progressive decline from February to May, fol- 
lowed by a relatively stable period. The net con- 
clusion is that from February to May, inclusive, the 
year-to-year "turbulence" of      animals and    plants 
diminished by nearly half. 
 
             LENGTH-OF-DAYLIGHT SPECIES 
  A few birds in Figure 6 and a few forbs in Figure 
7 are conspicuous for close adherence to their own 
averages. Their deviations compare as follows with 
the average of other species during the month in 
which each occurs: 
                                              Average 
                                              Deviation of 
Item      Species             AMonth Deviation others in 
                                              same month 
 49     Upland plover .............. April 3.2 days  9.1 days 
 95     Baltimore oriole ................ May  3.6  8.4 
 96     W arbling  vireo .................. May  3.8  8.4 
 99     Rose-breasted grosbeak .... May  3.1  8.4 
 103    Northern yellowthroat ...... May  3.8 8.4 
 114    Indigo bunting .................. May  4.4  8.4 
 
 6 birds above, April and May ............... 3.7 days 
 13 other birds,  April  and  May ..........................  8.7 days 
 
 
4-. 
 
 
111 
 
 
October 
 
 
.4.. 
 
 
      4. .... 
 
-4.... 
 
 
-21h 
 
 
4. 
 
 
4. 
 
4. 
 
 
PA 
 
 
Ozier Donrood (Co 
 
 
J 
 
 
$ 
 
 
7.4 days    8.1 days 
 
 
............. 
 
 
............. 
 
 
April-August ............. 8.6 days 
 
  

					
				
				
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
     Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
       DayslateA verage 
    bays early 
  3530373M 040 4142 4344 45  35 34 
FEBRU'ARY-.MAkCH- . . 
 
 
ANIMALS 
 
 
37 38 3940 41 420434445 
 
 
Ilarshhawwk 
 
 
353M03738M940 41/04243 45 
 
7 Bluebi *rd 
  4=73 
 
 
LEOSNo: o --   auk 
        0-.--.- Dane 
35M RM 378304/ 4.243444S 
 
8. Chipmunk     -20 
 
 
 
               7"0 
 
 
               -20 
 
 
/8. Woodcock      /9 Fox Sparrow  .20 
  A=9.6             A-5.9               1 
 
 
                                  . /o 
 
                                  2 0 
 
 
APRIL 
     0,29. perm ophile 36 Field Sparrow 
     15    4=1/        47.3 
 
  00 
 
  )o4 
    0 01 
 
 
49. Upland Plover 
  A 3ý.2 
 
 
M0 Cormorant   -20 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      U a            0 
 
 
       Br5w                 Th-re               rf9441/ ~Btern ? 77 Houlse
Wren -20 
 2o - fTwbe6 Amer0 
              15*1 
 
                   /0 8                                                 
/0 
  /5     0                   A     4              R 
 
  20t 
 
MAY 
 
 
20, 86. K1igbird 
 
 
0 & 
 
10 
16. / 
 
20L 
 
20. 99. Rose Breasted 
/5 *   Gros beak 
    /0 43. 
 
 
 
 
 
20 
 
2011 !/f Ndo Bunting 
  f44 
 
0 
 
 
2/0 
 
303603738"0 404/ 42434445 
 
 
897 Crested'F/gcatchelr 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/03. Northern 
      Yallowthroat 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 il.Scarlet Tanager 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
353"5373- - 03 4,4 42 4344 
 
 
95 Baltimor'e Oriole 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
106. iood Thrush 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
122. Catbird 
   .4-6.6 
 
 
363637363940414243444S     36 .3637 369404, 42 43*4-44 
 
 
Flo. 6. Deviations from Average Dates in the Emergence or Arrival of 28 Animals,
1935-1945. 
 
 
1.12 
 
 
5 
 
  

					
				
				
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
      Days late 
      Days early   Average 
   37 28 39 30 41 42 43 44 49  37 38 39 40 414243 44 4.6 
APRIL 
   .o26. Silver Maple   40.Alder 
 
   t            I\!41 
 
   10 
       2     , 'I /,      P            / 
 
 
  1/- 
  20 
 
MAY 
  2o 82. Birdfoot Violet 129. Columbine 
  /8    4A7 7.     .1              f    /6.2 
 
 
 
  /0 
  8                        .             ij 
 
 
JUNE 
  20 155, Wild Rose 
  t5    .4 9.3 
  /0 
 
  /o 
  5 
  /0 
  /0 
  20 
 
JULY-AUGUST 
  20 24)1. Butterfly Weed 
 
  /0 
 
  1o 
  /5 
  20 
  37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 495 
 
 
159. Soiderwort 
   4A6.7 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
276. Liatris 
   4 55. 
 
 
PLANTS 
 
 
lEEN:     o-----o auk 
            o.-.. Dane 
 
 
37 3e 39 40 4142 43 44 45  J7 38 39 404142 43 44 45  37 389 40 4142 43 44
45 
 
 
48. Nepatica 
 
 
 
         IIQ 
     A| 
 
 
 
 
 136. Toadflax 
   4-6.7 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 166. Anemone 
   A- 72 
 
\A 
   V V 
 
 
 
 
 
277 Earl. Goldenrod 
    ?436 
 
%fA        c4 
 
 
6/ Bloodroot 
 
0 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/37 Shooting Star 
     .6. 
 
 
168. White Clover 
   4...'2.4 
 
 
298. Lesser Ragweed 
    A .0. 
 
 
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 4ý  37 39 39 40 41 42 43 44 48   37 38 S9
40 41 42 93 44 45 
 
 
7/. Marsh Marigold 120 
  4-=73           -/8! 
 
     01 
 \i          l\q  
 
 
      V           -/0 
 
                  -20 
 
 
146. Sheep Sorrel 1-20 
 
 
 
 
                  - /0 
                  - is 
 
 
 
213. Black Eyed Susan -zo 
        -d-74      /8j 
        A /0 
 
 
 
                  -20 
 
 
308. Closed Gentiont -2 
   .d -4.3        .16 
                   to 
                   - 0 
 
                   5-0 
                   .15 
                   20 
973839- 4 Z- 3 4 45 
 
 
FIG. 7. Deviations from Average Date of First Bloom in 20 Plants, 1937-1945.

 
 
  It is clear that in these six birds the deviation 
from their own average arrival date is less than 
half that characterizing other birds arriving during 
the same month. 
  Deviations in four non-turbulent forbs are com- 
pared with other plants blooming during the same 
month as follows: 
 
 
Sheep sorrel ...... _ 
White clover ......... 
Early goldenrod ... 
Closed gentian ------ 
 
 
                      A verage 
           (Sept. 1) Deviation of 
Month      Deviation   others in 
                     same month 
           4.5 days    6.6 days 
.May       2.4         7.6 
.June      3.6         5.9 
 
 
-July 
 
 
4 forbs above, May-August ........ 
11 other plants, May to August. 
 
 
4.3                  x 
3.8 days 
....................  7.3 days 
 
 
  In these four forbs the deviation from their own 
average blooming date is a little over half of that 
prevailing in other plants during the same month. 
  That some plants are governed primarily by length- 
 
 
of-daylight, as distinguished from other factors of 
current weather, is by now a familiar concept. The 
phenology of these four forbs suggests that day- 
length is a heavier component in their timing mecha- 
nism- than in that of other contemporary plants. 
  The six birds present a somewhat more puzzling 
case, for all of them winter in the tropics, where 
differences in day-length are much reduced. The 
plover, of course, winters beyond the tropics, where 
the seasons are reversed.  One can only conclude 
either that very small changes in day-length suffice to 
move them, or that there is some seasonal rhythm 
controlled by some other force. 
  Of the 19 birds and 15 plants appearing in Figures 
6 and 7, white clover deviates least (2.4 days), and is 
also probably one of our most reliable records. Its 
wide distribution and abundance makes for accuracy 
in detecting first bloom, and when bloom starts in 
a single plant, the whole population soon follows. 
  It seems clear to us that, given enough data, both 
 
 
113 
 
 
Item     Species 
 
 
146 
168 
277 
308 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
114 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
plants and birds could be graded for year-to-year 
variability, and that such a gradation might throw 
light on the biological distribution of physiological 
timing mechanisms. 
            THE CHARACTER OF SEASONS 
  Visual inspection of Figures 6 and 7 shows that 
certain years were prevailingly early, or late, during 
certain months. Thus most birds and plants were 
early in 1938 up to May. Again in .1940 birds were 
late through April, and plants through June. This 
whole question will now be discussed in detail. 
  Each event has a normal or average date, from 
which it deviates from year to year according to the 
earliness or lateness of the season. This being true, 
the character of a season can be expressed by a 
succession of deviations in its events through its 
component months. In Figures 8 and 9 the character 
of two seasons, 1944 and 1945, is thus expressed. 
Each has two graphs, A and B, in each of which 
the horizontal baseline represents average or normal 
date. 
   In the A graphs the actual dates of about 280 
events are plotted as deviations above or below the 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
       Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
baseline. An event earlier than average is plotted 
below (minus deviation); an event later than aver- 
age is plotted above (plus deviation).      Symbols 
differentiate animals from plants, and also the two 
stations. 
  In the B graphs the deviations are averaged, for 
each five-day period, for plants and animals sepa- 
rately.  These average curves appear against a 
stippled background of current temperatures, like- 
wise expressed as the net deviation from average 
during each five-day period. In these temperature 
graphs, minus deviations (in degrees Fahrenheit) are 
colder, hence they are plotted above the baseline to 
correspond with lateness in phenology. Thus if the 
mean temperature for five days deviated from normal 
by -120, -100, -50, +50, and -1', the period 
is plotted as deviating -28 + 5 = 23 degree-days 
above the baseline. 
  Curves of cumulative temperature deviation, in 
terms of degree-days, were tried as an addition to the 
B graphs, but they did not seem to explain anything, 
and hence are omitted. Cumulative curves are not 
dismissed as of no value, but it is believed that 
 
 
Feb.       March      April 
 
 
May        June 
 
 
July 
 
 
Aug.       Sept. 
 
 
0 
 
 
                          0 
                            4,0  0 
1944A            0 
                   4, ,0     80  00  0 
               4,            0 o  0     0 
                 0, 0 0  40 jD00 Q0      0                0 
                 44,   lo   *6 ;            0*..           0          0 
                         4,     G*4, 0  w00        0 
                            Is 0.00           46 0" 
                     4,                       04, 0      0    00 
                     .o   o  o                                  Io 
 
 
4, 7Afadoson laked 
  3 days early 
 
 
so * Zo 0.~ 
         to 
         0        0 
         0 e 
    4, 
 
 
  "so 0      00 
    00   0 
         00 
      0   40 
   0 0   0 
0 
 
 
0       LECEND 
        * Planf Suk Co 
        o Plant DaneCo. 
        4,Animal, DdneCoe 
        Ic bredaSoam 
 
 
    FiO. 8. (A) Deviations from Average Date in 280 Plant and Animal Events
in 1944. (B) Average Devia- 
tion of Animals (solid line) and Plants (dashed line) in Relation to Temperature
(Stippled). 
 
 
'20 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
-.0 
 
 
44 
-4 
0 
 
 
t20 
 
 
4a *10 
 
 
 
 
 
-10 
 
 
 
 
 
'-i 
 
 
  -20 
 
 
'I 
 
 
 
r 
 
 
-J 
 
'41 
 
 
-to 
   -.1 
-45Q" 
 
 
-20 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
January, 1947  A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
Feb.      March 
 
 
April 
 
 
May        June 
 
 
1945 A 
 
 
,     4, 
 
 
4,      4, 
 
 
0 
 
0 
 
 
*           0 
 
 
                 @0 
                      0 
      0               to 0 00  0 
          00o   0    00     00 
                0      so 
 
,* 00 o0 00 
     #10 00       0 *00 000 
            *2  o 0000  0 @04 
            0000o     0         0b 
0 0c *                  0 0 .1 
 
 
                               -0 ---0 -                             0  -

            0      *"             o. 0          o O°           0
  0 
               o* 4,          0 *    0 0     00   a 
                         0 7                            00  0 
              Of 0       04. 0 _ 00      60      0 0 0 
            4,0                    0      0 
          MadisonO                000 
 
 
 
/0 days early      coo %                                            * P/1
o* OU  O 
                          % 0                                         Pla0
0 Dame 
                     do     0 o                                     0 Animl,
Dane Ca 
                     0     n  0           0 0Abrp8a4DanwO 
                   0- -    ,                                         lII
Iobreaft DaneCh 
 
 
          Feb.      March      April       May 
    Fia. 9. (A) Deviations from Average Date in 28 
tion of Animals (solid line) and Plants (dashed line) 
 
accumulations must relate to some threshold temper- 
ature. Zero Fahrenheit is a meaningless threshold, 
especially for plants. 
  Precipitation curves are omitted from Figures 8 and 
9 because both years were normal except for a wet 
June in 1944 ( + 2.62"), and a dry July in 1945 
(-1.74"), and a dry October in both years (-2.19", 
-2.04"). The net deviation for the year was +0.13" 
in 1944 and -3.52" in 1945. 
  The term "phenograph" is suggested as a short 
name for such seasonal summaries as are presented 
in Figures 8 and 9. 
         INTERPRETATION OF PHENOGRAPHS 
  Several precautions were observed in preparing 
Figures 8 and 9. Items with averages based on less 
than four years are omitted.   Sauk animals are 
omitted because of the possibility, already discussed, 
of late dates. 
  Autumn items representing the onset of winter 
are omitted, because the terms "early" and "late" 
 
 
    June "    July        Al.       Sept. 
0 Plant and Animal Events in 1945. (B) Average Devia- 
in Relation to Temperature (Stippled). 
 
  then have meanings opposite to their meaning in 
  spring. It should be noted that each item is plotted 
  perpendicular to its average date. 
    When the weather changes (stippled area crosses 
  the baseline) the response to the change is subject 
  to a lag, and the extent of the lag is the horizontal 
  distance from the weather crossing to the plant or 
  animal crossing. 
    Of the two seasons here presented, 1944 ap- 
  proached normalcy in both weather and phenology, 
  while 1945 was abnormal in both. 
                 PHENOGRAPH FOR 1945 
    After a normal winter, 1945 opened with an ex- 
  traordinarily warm March and early April. During 
  the period March 1. to April 13, all but four days 
  were warmer than normal. Temperature deviations 
  ran as high as 28 degrees on single days, and for 
  five-day periods as high as 125 degree-days. 
    On April 14 the weather turned from warm to 
  cold.  It remained abnormally cold through the 
 
 
15 
4 +10 
 
r4 #5 
 
 
July 
 
 
Aug. 
 
 
115 
 
 
Sept. 
 
 
-I. 
 
 
-5 
 
-10 
 
-'5 
 
-20 
 
 
   -4 
"*/0 
 
 
#5 
 
 
* 
 
 
-4 
0 
 
 
-5 
 
-/0 
 
-15" 
 
-20 
 
 
-4,. 
 
 
 
 
 
TI 
LJJs 
 
 
.-,A 
 
 
-25 
 
 
÷20 
 
 
0 & 
 
 
0 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
116 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
remainder of April and May, June, and July. Dur- 
ing this 77 day period, all but 17 days were colder 
than normal. Normal temperatures did not reappear 
until August and September. There was no drouth 
to mask the effect of abnormal temperatures. 
  In short, 1945 was a "self-recording experiment" 
in which more than 50 animals and 100 plants at 
two stations registered their responses to a mid- 
April shift from warm to cold. Average dates for 
other years provide the "control." 
   During the early spring warm spell, migratory 
birds arrived earlier and earlier until the weather 
changed, at which time most birds were appearing 
5 to 15 days ahead of schedule. The onset of cold 
brought a rather prompt change to lateness; there 
were no early bird arrivals after May 1. The many 
species due during the first ten days of May were 
all from 2 to 14 days late. 
   In strong contrast to this prompt response of 
 birds to the mid-April shift in temperature, plants 
 responded much more slowly. No plants were late 
 until mid-May, a month after the onset of cold. 
 Maximum lateness did not develop until mid-June, 
 two months after the onset of cold. The average 
 curve for plants crosses the baseline 29 days later 
 than the average curve for animals. Apparently the 
 developmental mechanism in plants set in motion 
 by the early warm spell gathered a momentum which 
 expressed itself in early bloom through a month of 
 ensuing cold. 
   So far 1945 phenology has been discussed in terms 
 of plants as a whole and animals as a whole. The 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
       Vol. 1.7, No. 1 
 
 
behavior of particular species during the warm and 
cold periods will now be considered. 
  Table 13 presents the items normally occurring 
during the warm period March 5 to April 13. These 
are classified by groups in a time sequence. It is 
apparent that the warm period produced the great- 
est earliness in forbs and woody plants, the least in 
birds and mammals, with lakes in an intermediate 
position. It is of some physiological interest that 
subterranean mammals like moles and spermophiles 
should have been early at all. The number of mam- 
mal items is, however, too small to be conclusive. 
   Table 14 is a condensed summary of the cold 
 period, April 14 to July 27. The left hand number 
 of each pair is the number of items early or late; 
 the right (in parentheses) the average number of 
 days early or late. It is apparent that earliness in 
 birds and mammals ceased in mid-May, a month 
 after the onset of cold weather, but that it persisted 
 in some forbs into July. Woody plants, on the other 
 hand, lost their momentum by the end of May. The 
 impact of cold was very unequal as among species, 
 as evidenced by the simultaneous existence of early 
 and late groups, especially in forbs during late May, 
 June and July. 
   It should be realized that some of the forbs per- 
 sisting in earliness long after the onset of cold were 
 still underground when the cold hit. Thus white 
 trillium [104] bloomed May 1 and April 15 at the 
 two stations, six and 20 days early. It did not 
 emerge from underground at the Sauk station until 
 April 14, a day after the cold began. In short, 
 momentum-earliness was in the root. 
 
 
TABLE 13. The Warm Period, March 5-April 13, 1945. 
 
 
      Birds 
 
Bluebird ..... - 6 
Meadowlark.. - 1 
Robin ........ - 2 
Killdeer ...... -15 
Grackle ...... -10 
Dove ........ - 6 
Woodcock .... - 4 
Fox sparrow.. - 6 
Cowbird ...... - 3 
 
Field sparrow. + 3 
Phoebe ....... -13 
Kingfisher .... - 8 
Sapsucker.... - 4 
Hermit thrush-- 15 
Purple martin. - 2 
 
Towhee ..... -13 
Cormorant.. . - 2 
 
 
    Mammals 
    Amphibians 
Woodchuck... - 1 
 
 
 
Chipmunk.... - 0 
Mole......... -  8 
Leopard frog.. - 3 
 
 
Bat .......... - 15 
Cricket frog .. - 9 
Spermophile.. - 8 
 
 
Forbs 
 
 
Pasque.. --18,-12 
 
 
Woody Plants 
 
 
Silver maple ..... 
        -8,--14 
 
 
 
 
Pussy willow. - 13 
Hazel ....... -15 
Alder ....... -16 
Aspen ....... -18 
Forsythia.... - 17 
Cottonwood . -22 
Elm... .- 19, -19 
 
 
Lakes and 
  Rivers 
 
 
Wisconsin River. -- 6 
Lake Wingra.... - 10 
 
 
 
Lake Mendota.. - 12 
 
 
6- 6 days 
 
 
Normal Date 
March 5-15 
 
 
 
March 16-25 
 
 
 
 
March 26- 
  April 5 
 
 
 
 
April 6-13 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average 
  earliness: 
 
 
I 
 
 
--15 days 
 
 
-- 14 days 
 
 
-- 9 days 
 
 
-- 6 days 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
117 
 
 
January, 1947   A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN

 
 
  TABLE 14. The Cold Period, April 14-July 27, 1945. 
 
                       Mammals              Woody 
               Birds   and Insects Forbs     Plants 
    Period   Early Late Early Late Early  Late Early  Late 
 
April 14-20 .......................  ..... 6(17)  ......  1(17)  ...... 
April 21 -30....5(12) 1(20) 1(11) ..... 9(16).... 4(15).... 
May  1-10 ..... 1(5)  8(5)  ..... 1(6)  12(16)  .....  11(16).... 
May 11-20 ...........3(10)............  12(11)  2(2)  4(7)  1(4) 
May 21-31 ............................. 5(5)  5(5)  1(6)  3(7) 
June 1-14 ....  ...... .......2()  314)  12(6) ..   8. 89) 
June 15-30 ...........................  1(12)  9(6)  .......  6(9) 
July 1 -14 ............................  3(3)  25(8)  2(4)  3(9) 
July 15-27 ................. ...... 1(8)  3(2)  13(6)  .......  2(8) 
 
 
               PHENOGRAPH FOR 1944 
  In  1944, temperatures displayed a succession of 
short, mild deviations from  normal, much less 'sus- 
tained and less radical than in 1945. March and 
April were somewhat cold, May and June somewhat 
warm, the shift from   cold to warm    occurring on 
May 12. However, neither of these major periods 
was intense enough, or free enough from temporary 
reversals, to allow one to feel sure just which change 
in temperature produced any given deviation in 
phenology. 
  In this climate, these short mild frequent devia- 
tions in weather define normality. 
  In 1945 March birds changed quickly from lateness 
to earliness in response to warmth; in 1944 they 
changed quickly in the opposite direction. 
  In mid-April both animals and plants returned 
very briefly to near-normal dates, for reasons not 
clearly vis;ble in the temperature graph. It is possi- 
ble that birds were responding to the brief warm 
spell in early April, and plants to the preceding 
one in late March, which also opened the lakes. 
  Early May birds were back to normal before the 
weather turned warm; the antecedent cold was evi- 
dently too mild to retard them. 
   The emerging mammals in 1944 show the same 
response to current weather as in 1945 (Table 13), 
but only three species are of record: 
 
 
                       Deviation 
Woodchuck      ............. _- 9 days 
Chipmunk .... ............ .. ..... .. - 13 days 
Spermophile ...... ................ ...- 10 days 
 
 
5-day tem'erature 
   dev,iatin 
   +50oF. 
   +-300F. 
   +o10o. 
 
 
  The clearest fact in the March-May segment of 
1944 B is the lag of plants behind animals after the 
shift to warm weather on May 12. The plant curve 
crosses the baseline on June 1, 15 days later than 
the animal curve, and 19 days later than the general 
change to warm weather. 
  The plant record for 1944 was analyzed by species, 
as in Table 13, for behavior following the general 
change to warm weather on May 12. The analysis 
discloses less decisive responses, and no point of 
interest not already discussed, hence it is omitted. 
          COLD, FROST, AND SNow EFFECTS 
  It is well known, but perhaps not often enough 
emphasized, that winter animals, whether active or 
 
 
hibernating, are subsisting on last year's solar energy, 
stored either as living prey, body-fat, seeds and 
fruits, or bark and buds. Winter phenology reflects 
only the rate and manner in which these stored ma- 
terials are drawn upon. As already pointed out, the 
winter items show extreme deviation in date. This 
may be due not only to fluctuating weather, but also 
to lack of simultaneous development among indi- 
viduals of a species, and this in turn perhaps reflects 
inequalities of storage or of access to stored foods. 
  Of the four hard winters of the decade, 1935-36, 
1939-40, 1942-43, and 1944-45, only the first shows 
consistent lateness in Items 1 to 4. This was also 
the hardest of the four for wintering animals (Er- 
rington, 1945). 
  Winter snow cover may greatly advance the spring 
development of plants which winter as "rosettes," 
or which otherwise retain green leaves. Thus in 1945, 
after nearly   continuous snow     cover, chickweed 
bloomed on March 20, whereas uncovered chickweed, 
being frozen, usually shows no bloom until May. 
  Late spring frosts may either destroy the bloom 
of plants, injure the buds so that no bloom develops, 
or injure the plant so that bloom is deferred. Thus 
all oak catkins on flat lands were killed by the frost 
of April 27-28, 1946. 
   The same frost injured lilac buds at the Sauk 
station so that further development ceased, and the 
buds eventually died. An erroneous observation of 
"not vet in bloom" might be made on such inhibited 
buds. 
   The same frost injured a lupine plant at the Sauk 
station. While other lupines bloomed normally from 
May 5 to June 23, this plant was yellow, under- 
sized, and barren. On July 19, a week after unin- 
jured lupines had shed their last seeds, the injured 
plant burst into vigorous bloom. Had it not been 
under special observation, a completely abnormal 
blooming date might have been recorded as normal 
phenology. 
   Some frost injuries to trees are "stratified." Thus 
 in 1945 and 1946 frosts killed the lower blooms and 
 leaves of some black and white oaks, leaving the tops 
 of the same trees undamaged and able to bear mast. 
   In years of late spring frosts it is only the intra- 
 specific variability of blooming dates in oaks which 
 saves any mast at all. This variability in oaks must 
 have been of great importance to the passenger 
 pigeon, which depended on mast -of the previous 
 year for food during nesting. 
     DROUTH, TEMPERATURE, AND FLOOD EFFECTS 
   Once in a while a phenological record is accom- 
 panied by weather changes which seem to isolate 
 some factor in plant or animal development. When 
 this happens there is a chance to deduce the response 
 of a whole community to its weather environment. 
   The most important opportunity which arose dur- 
 ing this study has already been described in the dis- 
 cussion of phenographs. Some additional "natural 
 experiments" on   plants will now  be considered 
 briefly. Laboratory experiments, on single species 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
118 
 
 
under controlled conditions cover the same ground, 
but much more accurately. The only claim for these 
cases is that whole plant communities cannot be 
manipulated under laboratory conditions. 
  All deductions from "natural experiments" are 
beset with the difficulty of distinguishing immediate 
responses from lag effects. The weather often does 
not permit the identification of lag effects. 
              DROUTH AND FIRST BLOOM 
  The most intense drouth of the decade extended 
from April 10 to August 10, 1936. Our dates for 
this year are too meagre to yield any measurement 
of how this drouth affected phenology. 
  Four milder drouths covered the month of July 
in 1937, 1939, 1940, and 1941. The date of first 
bloom in 20 forbs and grasses during these four 
Julys shows no conclusive retardation or acceleration 
except in 1941, when July blooms were early. This 
was probably momentum-earliness from a warm 
April, May, and June in 1941. 
  July, 1946, while outside the period covered by 
this report, offers a chance to check on the conclu- 
sion that drouth as such does not change the date 
of current first bloom. The weather was very dry 
(-2.65   ins.) but the temperature was normal 
(+0.8°F.). At the Sauk station (used because its 
sandy soils ought to exaggerate drouth effects), 32 
forbs starting bloom during July were half early 
and half late as compared to their own averages. The 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
       Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
average deviation was 1.2 days early. This diversity 
among species again suggests a lag effect from a 
very warm May and June, the species having lost 
their momentum-earliness at different rates, as they 
did in 1945. 
  In short, five July drouths show no aberrations 
in date of first bloom which are not more plausibly 
ascribed to antecedent temperatures. 
          DROUTH AND LENGTH OF BLOOM 
  While no effect of drouth on date of first bloom 
can be demonstrated, it is possible that drouth might 
affect duration of bloom. The best comparison is 
July 1945, which was cool and wet, with July 1946, 
which was normal in temperature but very dry 
(-2.65 ins.). Of 19 July forbs terminating before 
the drouth was broken on September 5, 14 termi- 
nated earlier and five later than in the cool wet 
1945. The average deviation was seven days shorter 
bloom in 1946. Since the average temperature in 
1946 was normal, it seems likely that the prepon- 
derance of shortened bloom was due to drouth. The 
diversity among species is worthy of note. No marsh 
species were used. 
        TEMPERATURE AND LENGTH OF BLOOM 
  The hot wet June of 1944 is now compared for 
duration of bloom with the cool somewhat dry June 
of 1945. Both stations are used. The comparison 
is so striking that the detail for one group of eight 
woods forbs is given as follows: 
 
 
                                   1944      1945      Difference 
June temperature, 
  departure from mean ............................ +2.40F.  -4.6oF.  70F.
colder, 1945 
Precipitation,                                       3.1 ins. dryer, 1945

  departure from mean .... ............. +2.62 ins  -0.49 ins. 
  78 Small-flowered crowfoot ...................... 18 days  62 days. 
104 White trillium .................. ..16, 18   36, 42 
118 Jack in the  pulpit ............................. 11  20 
128 Waterleaf ....................... 27   35 
129 Columbine .......... ............ ................. 22  41.44 
135 Wild geranium ...............  ..... 25      30, 46 
139 Tall yellow ladyslipper ............. 15     10 
149 Golden ragwort ........ ...    ...... 15, 20  17, 41 
Average .............1.............................. --....... 19  days 
35 days  84  percent longer, 1945 
 
 
   Eight prairie forbs, analyzed in the same manner, 
bloomed an average of 27 days in 1944 and 43 days 
in 1945, again 60 percent longer during the cooler 
June. 
   Ten woody plants bloomed an average of 14 days 
in 1944 and 24 days in 1945, again 71 percent longer 
during the cooler June. 
  In short, the cool June of 1945 prolonged the dura- 
tion of bloom 60 to 84 percent in three groups aggre- 
gating 26 species.   This prolongation is so pro- 
nounced as to leave little room for drubt. ' Despite 
abundant moisture, blooming periods were short dur- 
ing the hot June of 1944, but long during the cool 
June of 1945. It appears that heat was the prime 
cause of short duration in June, 1944. 
 
 
                   FLOOD EFFECTS 
   On June 3, 1943, the Wisconsin River at the Sauk 
station overflowed the sandy old fields which are the 
habitat of Penstemon gracilis [162]. This species 
had developed flower buds by May 31, and the buds 
were about to open when flooded. The flowers were 
all killed, though the plants survived and bloomed 
normally in 1944. 
   Floods may have opposite effects on the bloom 
of different species growing at slightly different 
levels. Thus ragweed [298] on the sandbnrs of the 
Wisconsin River may not bloom at all in dry yvarý 
unless sub-irrigated by a rise of the river in mid- 
sununer, whereas the same rise of water may flod 
and destroy such flowers as Mimtulus ringens and 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
119 
 
 
A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOE SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN 
 
 
Bidens [307] which have sprung up on the receding 
shoreline of the same sandbar. 
  The two preceding paragraphs deal with the de- 
struction of blooms by floods. An even more common 
case is the distortion of bloonming phenology in an- 
nuals germinating on a receding shoreline. Poly- 
gonum and Bidens often show a zonal phenology on 
such sites, the earliest plants occurring on the higher 
levels, with cumulative distortion progressing toward 
the lower levels. All phenology from such sites is 
unrepresentative. 
           COMPARISON BETWEEN STATIONS 
  The dates of developmental phenomena are in- 
fluenced by latitude, longitude, and altitude. The 
direction and magnitude of these factors is expressed, 
in mass data, by Hopkins' (1918) law, which asserts 
that: "Other conditions being equal, the variation 
in the time of occurrence of a given periodical event 
in life activity in temperate North America is at 
the general average rate of four days to each degree 
of latitude, five degrees of longitude, and 400 feet 
altitude, later northward, eastward, and upward in 
the spring and early summer." 
   Tables 1 to 12 offir a suitable variety of events for 
a mass comparison with Hopkins' Law, but the dis- 
tance between the two stations is too small to be 
advantageous for this purpose.   Nevertheless, as 
Hopkins points out, his formula may be used not 
only to predict the average difference between locali- 
ties, but to evaluate the intensity of the local factors 
which cause local deviations from the law. From this 
viewpoint a comparison of our two stations is worth 
making. 
                   ELIGIBLE DATES 
   All of the animal data are excluded, because of 
 the difficulty, already explained, of interpolating ani- 
 mal dates between weekly visits to the Sauk station. 
   All pairs of plant dates in which a given plant 
 
 
Latitude: Sauk Station 430 36' North 
           Dane Station 430 5' North 
           Difference        31'1 60' 
Longitude: Sauk Station 890 40'West 
           Dane Station 890 25'West 
           Difference        15'  60' 
 
 
event was recorded at both stations during the same 
year are included. There are 241 such pairs from 
April to June, inclusive, and 96 in July and August, 
a total of 337.   Because Hopkins specifies "spring 
'and early sunmer" it seems advisable to segregate 
the midsummer data. All items lacking sharpness, 
such as budding, ripening of fruit, and harvesting 
of crops are excluded. What remains is entirely 
dates of first bloom. 
              SAUK VS. DANE STATIONS 
   Table 15 presents a summary of the eligible data 
by months. For the period April to June, the Dane 
station averages 3.3 days earlier than the Sauk sta- 
tion, and each of the component months shows a two 
or three day difference. In July, however, the differ- 
ence is four days, and in August (on meagre data) 
seven days. 
 
   TABLE 15. Difference in 337 Pairs of Dates of First 
 Bloom, Sauk and Dane Stations, 1935-45. 
 
          Dane Earlier in  Sauk Earlier in  Total  Average 
                                    - -         Days 
   Month                                  Net   Earlier 
                 Total       Total        Total  at 
           Pairs Days  Pairs Days   Pairs Days  Dane 
 April .... 36   163    10    45    46    118   2.6 
 May ....... 81  519    19    153   100   366   3.6 
 June ....... 70 442    25    142    95   300   3.2 
 April-June.. (187) ... (54)  ...  (241)  (784) (3.3) 
 July ........ 66 434   15    68     81   366   4.5 
 August .... 14  117     1     4     15   113    7.5 
 April-August 267 ...   70    ...   337   1263  3.7 
 
 
                    Hopkins' Law 
   The observed three-day difference for the April- 
 June period is now to be compared with the expec- 
 tation -difference under Hopkins' Law. 
 
 
=0.520 x 4 days =.................... .............. 2.08 days later 
                                                           at Sauk 
         4 
=0.250 x - days= .................................. 0.20 days earlier 
         5                                                 at Sauk 
 
 
N et .................................. ............................... *
..................... 1.88  days  later 
                                                                        
                        at Sauk 
 
 
Altitude: Dane (Lake Mendota)     849  feet above sea level 
          Sank (Wis. R1. at Dells) 815 feet above sea level 
 
 
34   feet -400 feet =.085 x 4 days 
 
 
- 0.34 days 
      earlier al 
      Sank 
 
 
Net  expectation  .................................................................
......... 1.54  days latet 
                                                                        
                      at Sauk 
 
 
Difference 
 
 
January, 1947 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
120 
 
 
.ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
SThe Sauk station, in short, averages about three 
days later than Dane according to our observed 
blooming dates, whereas Hopkins' Law would lead 
one to expect only about a day and a half. This 
distortion of Hopkins' Law either reflects some 
undetected error, or it measures the net strength of 
unknown local factors which tend to make the Dane 
station earlier or the Sank station later than their 
geographic positions alone would indicate. 
  Since both stations lie on the common frontier of 
three biotic provinces, local factors might well be 
more influential than within the interior of any one 
province. 
  Of the various possible errors, the one most likely 
to affect Table 15 would be the "Town vs. Country" 
error, for there is no urban area at Sank. How- 
ever, the urban error is believed to be inoperative 
by June, whereas the earliness of the Dane station 
persists beyond June. Also the earliness of the Dane 
station is least in April (2.6 days). It should be 
greatest in April if distorted by this error.     It 
seems unlikely, therefore, that this particular error 
accounts for the difference between stations. 
  Hopkins seems to have derived his formula from 
a few plants and insects in many localities. We 
derive our values from many plants in two locali- 
ties. Our data seem to indicate that species respond 
differently to the combination of local weather and 
astronomic constants like length of day. If this is 
true, one might expect some non-conformity with 
Hopkins' Law. 
  In the case of the Sauk station, the tendency to- 
ward late spring frosts, working in combination with 
the prolongation or momentum effects demonstrated 
in this paper, might well have the effect of distort- 
ing Sank phenology in the direction of lateness 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
       Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
through the spring and early summer. On the other 
hand the writers have often received the impression 
that the warm sands at Sauk, on certain sites and in 
certain early-spring sand species, distorted the Sauk 
record in the direction of earliness. These contra- 
dictory distortions probably exist, but their "va- 
lences" vary in such complex patterns that the mind 
cannot follow them. 
  There is danger of over-simplifying one's mental 
picture of a phenological formula like Hopkins' Law. 
Table 15 shows that the Sank station was by no 
means always late; it was early in 70 cases (pairs 
of dates) and late in 267. Moreover a single species 
often showed alternation between the two stations 
in successive years. All this again indicates that 
phenology reflects the interplay of many variable 
factors, rather than the continuous domination of any 
single factor.  i    , 
         COMPARISON OF 1880'8 AND 1940's 
  Three published phenology records were found 
for localities in or near the stations covered in this 
study. These will now be compared with our records. 
          HENRY'S PHENOLOGY, 1881-1885 
  This record was started by Dean W. H. Henry 
(1881) of the Wisconsin College of Agriculture, and 
was carried through under his supervision by a suc- 
cession of his graduate students (Trelease, 1884 & 
1885). 
  In Table 16, 18 items common to Dean Henry's 
record are compared with those for the Dane sta- 
tion. It should be noted that his record ends with 
May, but that the items are well spread in time, and 
are carried through the four-year period with con- 
siderable persistence. 
 
 
    TABLE 16. Phonology for Madison (Dane Station) 1880's vs. 1940's. Data
for 1881 from     Henry (1881), 
for 1883-1885 from Trelease (1884, 1885). 
 
 
            Species 
 
MARCH 
  Silver maple, pollen............ 
APRIL 
  Lake Mendota, open ........ 
  Hazel, pollen ................ 
  American elm, pollen ......... 
  Aspen, pollen ................ 
  Cottonwood, pollen ........... 
  Box elder, pollen ............. 
  Wild plum, bloom ............ 
MAY 
  Black oak, pollen ............. 
  Lilac, bloom  ................. 
  White oak, pollen ............ 
  Sugar maple, pollen ........... 
  Chokecberry, bloom .......... 
  American elm, fruit ........... 
  Asiatic honeysuckle, bloom .... 
  Silver maple, fruit ............ 
  Black raspberry, bloom ....... 
  Black locust,. bloom ........... 
    Average lateness, 1881-1885, 
        in days ....... ........ 
 
 
Item 
No. 
 
26 
 
27 
38 
46 
41 
45 
47 
92 
88 
113 
88 
97 
100 
46 
123 
26 
150 
175 
 
 
Recent 
Aver. 
 
3/31 
 
4/1 
4/2 
4/9 
4/10 
4/13 
4/14 
.4/29 
 
(5/3) 
5/3 
(5/5) 
5/5 
5/8 
5/12 
5/13 
(5/15) 
(5/23) 
.5/29 
 
 
1881 
 
 
 
5/1 
 
 
 
 
5/13 
 
5/20 
5/18; 
 
Sauk) 
 
 
5/27 
 
 
1883 
 
4/17 
 
4/13 
 
4/15 
4/20 
4/19 
4/17 
5/10 
5/29 
5/25 
5/23 
 
5/16 
 
 
ý6/13 
6/15 
 
 
1884 
 
 
4/15 
4/17 
 
4/28 
4/28 
 
 
 
 
5/17? 
5/20 
5/26 
 
 
1885 
 
 
 
4/20 
4/23 
4/26 
5/3 
5/10 
 
 
 
 
5/19 
5/27 
6/3 
 
5/31 
 
 
Avcr. 
 
 
 
 
 
4/20 
4/-.0 
4/21 
 
4/28 
5/11 
 
 
5/21 
5/18 
5/21 
5/30 
 
 
6/6 
 
 
1881 
 
 
 
 
+ 20 
 
 
 
 
+14 
 
+17 
+13 
 
 
 
 
(+ 4) 
,,--2 
 
 
+15 
 
 
Deviations 
1883 1884 
 
+17    .... 
 
+12    +14 
       +15 
 +6    .... 
 +10   .... 
 +6    +15 
 +3    +14 
 +11   .... 
 +26   .... 
 +22   .... 
(+18) .... 
    + .. +12? 
 + 8   +12 
       +14 
 +19   .... 
(+21) .... 
+18 
+13 +14 
 
 
1885 
 
 
 
 
+19 
+21 
+17 
+20 
+26 
 
 
 
(+16) 
+14 
+19 
+22 
(+16) 
 
 
+19 
 
 
Average 
Lateness 
1881-85 
 
 
 
  +19 
  +18 
  +12 
  +14 
  +14 
  +12 
 
  +19 
  (+16) 
  +13 
  +13 
  +18 
 
  (+12) 
  +8 
 
 
+15 
 
 
----I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
January, 1947   A PHENOLOGICAL RECORD FOR SAUK AND DANE COUNTIES, WISCONSIN1

 
 
  Of the 37 deviations from the average dates shown 
in Table 16, only one (black locust, 1881) bears a 
minus sign. That is to say, the early 1880's were 
uniformly later in their spring phenology than the 
1940's, and the magnitude of the deviation is pre- 
vailingly large, averaging over two weeks      (see 
bottom line of table). 
  Such a uniform deviation raises the question: was 
the weather also uniformly cold? The deviation from 
monthly mean temperature, according to the U. S. 
Weather Bureau were: 
          Mean of 
          107 years 1881    1883    1884     1885 
February...200F. -lOF,  -3oF.  -40F.   -160F. 
March ........ 31oF.  2oF. -401.  -4oF.   - 6OF. 
April .......... 450F.  -5oF.  +1oF.  -2oF.  - 3OF. 
May.- ........ 570F.  +4oF.  -40F. --1OF. - 20F. 
 
  In short, only two months out of the 16 were 
above normal in temperature; all the rest were cold, 
and some very cold. There were two warm months, 
May 1881 and April 1883. The former shows the 
only minus sign in Table 16; black locust was two 
days early. April 1883 was only one degree above 
normal. Its phenology was uniformly late, no doubt 
due to the "momentum" of the preceding March cold. 
  The warm May of the cold spring of 1881 was 
especially noted by Dean Henry, who says: "The 
large masses of snow . . . neutralized the rays of the 
sun and long delayed the coming of spring, but 
when vegetation once started into life, it was with 
that celerity which is so characteristic of alpine and 
polar regions." 
  The coldness and lateness which prevailed during 
the early 1880's raises the question: was this period 
the low phase in a climatic cycle? The best answer 
is found in Wing's (1943) graph of the opening and 
closing dates for Lake Mendota. During the .ntire 
period 1879-1886 Mendota opened late and closed 
early. During the decade 1935-1945 Mendota opened 
early in nine out of 1., and closed late in ten out 
of 11 years. It is clear that Dean Henry's record 
coincides with a cold period, and that in this paper 
with a warm period. 
  Whether these fluctuations are segments of a re- 
curring cycle is another question which only time 
can answer. 
          HOUGH'S PHENOLOoY, 1851-1859 
  During this decade, the volunteer weather observers 
of the Smithsonian Institution were asked, by cir- 
cular letter, to record a standardized phenology on 
229 items covering "the date of putting forth and 
fall of leaves, blossomung, ripening of fruit, [and] 
times of appearance and disappearance of animals." 
The data were compiled by Franklin B. Hough and 
published in 1864. 
  Of some 300 stations at which observations were 
recorded, three lie within or near the areas covered 
in this study. These were Madison (Dane station), 
Baraboo (Sauk station). and Milwaukee (50 miles 
 
 
east of Dare, but on Lake Michigan, and hence not 
properly comparable). These stations recorded 26 
items common to our record, but few of these cover 
more than a single year, 1851. These 26 items have 
been analyzed by the same method used in Table 
16. The analysis shows no large or consistent differ- 
ence between 1851 and the recent average. The data 
do not seem worth including in this paper, especially 
since there is no assurrance that the recorders were 
equally competent or adhered to any uniform stand- 
ard. 
 
                    SUMMARY 
  A decade of dates of 328 seasonal events at two 
stations, 33 miles apart, were analyzed and compared 
with prior records. 
  Spring events during the decade 1935-1945 were 
two weeks earlier than the same events at the same 
station in 1881-1885. 
  The northern station is three days later in spring 
than the southern one, which is twice the expectation 
under Hopkins' Law. The difference between the 
two stations is least in early spring and greatest in 
midsummer. 
  The year-to-year variability of events, as compared 
with their own averages, tends to be greatest in early 
spring, and decreases progressively through May. 
  Some plants show little variability in date of first 
bloom; they seem to be governed more by length of 
daylight than by current weather. White clover, the 
least variable plant, has a standard deviation of 2.4 
days, which is only a third of that prevailing in other 
plants during the same month. 
  Some birds show little variability in arrival date, 
despite the fact that they winter in or beyond the 
tropics where changes in length of day are much 
less pronounced. The least variable birds were rose- 
breasted grosbeak   (3.1 days) and upland plover 
(3.2 days), both only a third of the deviation pre- 
vailing in other contemporary migrants. 
  Bird migration responds to changes in tempera- 
ture much more quickly than the bloom of plants. 
In 1945 the momentum of an early warm period per- 
sisted in plants through two months of subsequent 
cold. This momentum caused early bloom in white 
trillium despite the fact that it was still underground 
during the warm period. 
  Duration of bloom in a cool dry June, as com- 
pared with a hot wet June, was protracted 60 to 
84 percent in various groups of plants. 
  Dates of first bloom in five dry Julys did not 
differ from average except in two years, which were 
early, probably by reason of antecedent heat. In 
one very dry July, drouth seemed to shorten dura- 
tion of bloom. 
  Phenological records are subject to many errors, 
but these do not affect all species or seasons alike. 
A comparison of two independent phenologists show 
a third of 39 pairs of dates identical, a third up to 
two days apart, and a third up to 11 days apart. 
 
 
121 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
122 
 
 
ALDO LEOPOLD AND SARA ELIZABETH JONES 
 
 
                   REFERENCES 
Anderson, Harry G., W. S. Feeney, Theodore M. Sperry, 
  & John Catenhusen. 1942. Birds of the University of 
  Wisconsin Arboretum. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci., Arts 
  & Letters 34: 5-22. 
Anonymous. 1941. Climate and man. Yearbook, U.' S. 
  Dept. Agr. Wash., D. C. 1248 pp. 
Barger, N. R., Elton E. Bussewitz, Earl L. Loyster, Sam 
  Robbins, & Walter E. Scott. 1942. Wisconsin birds, 
  a preliminary check list with migration charts. Wis. 
  Soc. Ornith. 32 pp. 
Buss, Irven 0. & Arthur S. Hawkins. 1939. The upland 
  plover at Faville Grove, Wisconsin. Wilson Bul. 51: 
  202-220. 
Deam, Charles C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Dept. Con- 
  serv. Indianapolis, 1236 pp. 
Errington, Paul L. 1945. Some contributions of a fif- 
  teen-year local study of the northern bobwhite to a 
  knowledge of population phenomena. Ecol. Monog. 
  1: 1-34. 
Fassett, Norman C. 1938. Spring flora of Wisconsin. 
  Univ. Wis. 176 pp. 
Hamilton, William J., Jr. 1943. The mammals of east- 
  ern United States. Comstock Publ. Co., Ithaca, 432 
  pp. 
Henry, William A. 1881. When the leaves appear. Ann. 
  Rept. Regents, Univ. Wis. Pp. 35-38. 
Hopkins, Andrew Delmar. 1918. Periodical events and 
  natural law as guides to agricultural research and 
  practice. U. S. Monthly Weather Rev. Supplement 
  No. 9 (Weather Bul. 643), Wash., D. C. 42 pp. 
Hough, Franklin B. 1864. Observations upon periodi- 
  cal phenomena in plants and animals from 1851 to 
 
 
Ecological Monographs 
       Vol. 17, No. 1 
 
 
  1859. Ex. Doe. 36th Cong., 1st Sess., Wash., D. C. 
  538 pp. 
Leopold, Aldo. 1945. The distribution of Wisconsin 
  hares. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci., Arts & Letters 37: 
McCabe, Robert A. & Arthur S. Hawkins. 1946. The 
  Hungarian partridge in Wisconsin. Amer. Mid. Nat. 
  35: 1-76. 
Merriam, C. Hart, Vernon Bailey, E. W. Nelson, & E. 
  A. Preble. Fourth provisional zone map of North 
  America. U. S. Biological Survey. (Reproduced in 
  Anthony, H. D. Field Book of North American 
  Mammals. G. E. Putnam's Sons, N. Y., 1928.) 
Peterson, Roger Tory. 1934. A    field guide to the 
  birds. Houghton-Mifflin Co., N. Y. 167 pp. 
Schorger, A. W. 1929, 1931. The birds of Dane County, 
  Wisconsin. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sei., Arts & Letters 24: 
  457-499; 26: 1-60. 
Thoreau, Henry   David. 1906. Journal, vols. 7-20. 
  Bradford Torrey Ed. Houghton-Mifflin Co., N. Y. 
Trelease, William. 1884. When the leaves appear. First 
  Annual Report of the Agricultural Exp. Sta. of the 
  Univ. of Wis. for 1883, Madison, pp. 56-73. Rept. 
  1885, When the leaves appear and fall, Second Annual 
  Agr. Expt. Sta. Univ. Wis. for 1884, pp. 59-66. 
Weaver, John E. & Frederic E. Clements. 1938. Plant 
  ecology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., N. Y., 601 pp. 
Whitson, A. R. 1927. Soils of Wisconsin. Wis. Geol. 
  and Nat. Hist. Survey Bul. 68. 270 pp. 
Wing, Leonard W. 1943. Freezing and thawing dates 
  of lakes and rivers as phenological indicators. U. S. 
  Monthly Weather Rev. 71: 149-158. 
Wodehouse, Robert P. 1945. Hayfever plants. Chronica 
  Botanica Co., Waltham, Mass. 245 pp. 
Wright, A. A. & A. H. Wright. 1933. Handbook of 
  frogs and toads. Comstock Pub]. Co. Ithaca, 231 pp. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
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                                              A.L. 
                                              5/1.0 
 
  

					
				
				
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              THE CHASE JOURNAL: AN EARLY RECORD 
                       OF WISCONSIN WILDLIFE 
                               ALDO LEOPOLD 
                            University of Wisconsin 
           In building technique for wildlife restoration, it is of great

       value to have precise and dependable records of its decline. 
       Usable records are scarce. A usable record is one in which all 
       variables but one tend to be averaged out, either by a long span 
       of space, or by a long span of time. 
 
 
   A shooting journal is valuable when it presents the bag of 
an individual or fixed group, hunting one locality, by one meth- 
od, at regular intervals, through a long period of years. Such a 
record is the W. H. Chase Journal, recently presented to the 
Wisconsin Historical Library. This digest and analysis is pre- 
pared to make its contents available to other students. 
   Walter Howard Chase began the Journal in 1873 at the age 
of fifteen and continued it through 1896, when he moved to Sul- 
livan, Illinois. He died in 1934. 
   The Journal recorded his bag by species for each calendar 
year from 1873 to 1896. There are no notes or comments ex- 
cept an annual note on the opening and closing dates of Lake 
Wingra, and another dividing the duck bag as between spring 
and fall. The page for 1879 is missing, the stub bearing evidence 
of childish fingers wielding a scissors at some later time. The 
year 1895 is also missing. 
   Lake Wingra, with its immediate environs, was the theatre 
of the hunting operations. It is one of the five "Madison Lakes"

and lies on the outskirts of Madison, Dane County, Wisconsin. 
Part of the terrain is now covered with suburban residences, a 
municipal park, and a golf club; the remainder lies largely 
within the University of Wisconsin Arboretum. Since the Ar- 
boretum is now a centre for wild life research work, this record 
of its early fauna is of special interest. 
   The general accuracy of the Journal is attested by attendant 
circumstances. The bags are recorded by tally marks, entered 
in changing inks, pens, and pencils, which means they were tal- 
 
 
     Reprinted from the Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of 
            Sciences, Arts and Letters, Vol. 30, pp. 69-76. t93 
 
  

					
				
				
 
70    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. 
 
 
Fig. 1. Game killed around Lake WIngra by W. H. Chase. 
 
 
lied currently, and not "estimated" at the end of the season. 
Chase also collected an herbarium of 1,000 plants, now a part of 
the University Herbarium. The species determinations attest 
his competency as an amateur naturalist. 
   The Chase home, in which W. H. Chase lived during the pe- 
riod of the Journal, is on the shore of Lake Wingra. Dr. Samuel 
H. Chase, his brother, tells me that his hunting ground was 
bounded on the north by "Marston's Woods" (now Nakoma) 
and on the east by the "Dead Lake Ridge," a moraine dividing 
Lake Wingra from Lake Monona. Toward the west it extended 
at times as far as Verona. Toward the south it included all of 
the peat and marl lowlands, then known as the "Big Marsh," 
now comprising the east end of the Arboretum. Ducks were 
hunted with boat and decoys, but often also by jump-shooting. 
Dogs were used during the entire recorded period, the names of 
three appearing on the cover of the Journal. W. H. Chase fished 
in other counties of the state, but seldom if ever hunted there, 
hence the bags in the Journal are quite surely local to the Win- 
gra area. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                        
  TABLE I. 
                  W. H. CHASE JOURNAIL GAME KILLED ON AND NEAR LAKE WINGRA,
MADISON, WISCONSIN 
 
                                                                        
                                                                        
            Bag 
                                                                        
                                                                        
            Corn- 
  Journal              Autho's                                          
                                                                        
            per 
  Names              Identification   1873 1874 187S 1876 1877 187S 1879
1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894
1895 1896 Total cent 
Redhead                                                12   8    1      
  1    4   8    3    3    6             1                   1   1    3  
         52    4 
Canvasback                                                              
                               1        2                               
             3 
Bluebill        LesserScaupRingneck?                   15  43   78      
 28   20   16  15   24   24    5    2       10        11   20   7   39  
    12 369    2i 
Scaup Duck      Greater Scaup?                                          
 14    9   13   6   31   12   12   Z6             5                     
        128    9 
Whistler        American Goldeneye                      2   1           
  1                  4    6    2                                        
         16 
Butterball      Bflebead                               2     5 10       
 12   4    8    S    2    S         2                  6   10   2    3  
     2   78    5 
Ruddy Duck                                                              
      1    1    1                       1         1                     
            5 
Mergansers      (Undifferentiatud)                              (M)     
      (1)                          (1)                              (Q) 
         (5) 
Old-wives      Old Squaw                               I    5    3      
                                                                        
         13    1 
Mallard                                                1    3    7      
 37   2    7    7   23    7   10   6    2   18   18   17   9    6  10   
        190  13 
Widgeon                                                                 
  1   1              2             2    1    1    3         1   6    4  
     2   24    2 
Spoonbill      Shoveller                                         4      
  4        1    1    3                                 1             1  
         15    1 
Greenwing Teal  (including undifer.                   (20) (20) (33)    
 78  45   20    9   14   15    8  15    6    3   22    7    2 (12)  10  
        339   21 
               entiated teals)        (species not differentiated) 
Bluewing Tea                                                            
 22    1   S         2    1    2   3         6    8    1            4   
         55    5 
Wood Duck                                              1    9    4      
  7   10  13   16   19    1    S   9        11  18    19   2    5   12  
        161   11 
Pintail                                                     3           
  7   2         1    6    4             1    4    9    5   2            
         44    3 
Gray Duck      Gadwall?                                     1    2      
                                                                        
                 3 
       TOTAL DUCKS                     (50) (90) (60) 60   96  144      
212  100  92   64  133   81   45  66   14   53   84   67  47   39   87  
    t6 1500  100 
Pigeon         PassengergEoa            70   50  105  88   43   25      
  7   25   1   23    2        20        4                               
        463 
Snipe                                   25  10    10   S    8    3      
 12  10              4    5    9   10   4   37    6    6   4    8   14  
        200 
Woodcock                                 1    2   2    1                
                          1   3              2    2                     
         14 
King Rail                                7   15   10                    
                                                                        
         32 
Plover         ?                                  2              1      
                1         2    2   1    2    2    2    2    1       3   
         21 
Partridge      Ruffed Grouse            10    9   4    7    7  15       
  2             3    1   10   8    1    7    3         3    1       3   
         94 
Chickens       Pinnated Grouse           4    2             4           
                              2              2                          
         14 
Quail          Bobwhite                      1                          
  1                                                                     
                2 
Rabbit         Cottontail                5   3    6         3    8      
 10             1    3    8   5    6    2    9    8   13   2            
         94 
    PER CENT OF DUCKS KIE        D IN SPRING               16   23      
 17    7  11    8   24   47    7 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
72    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. 
 
   I have summarized the bags by species and years in table 1. 
The trend of the bag in certain species is depicted in the graph 
(Fig. 1). On Dr. Samuel H. Chase's authority, I have lumped 
two "summer ducks" with wood duck in the table, also nine 
"winter ducks" with goldeneye. These are evidently slips into 
the local vernacular. The distinction in the table between 
"Scaup" and "Bluebill," and the identity of "gray
duck" as gad- 
wall, may both be considered as doubtful. "Bluebill" probably 
includes Ringnecks. The identity of "plover" I have not ven- 
tured to guess. Certain bags of rails, blackbirds, mudhens, bit- 
terns, cranes, hawks, owls, skunks, muskrats, and an eagle 
appear during the youthful period, all undifferentiated as to 
species. These are omitted from the table for brevity. Undif- 
ferentiated teals and mergansers appear in parenthesis. 
    Passenger Pigeon. Chase witnessed only the closing scenes 
 of the pigeon tragedy. W. B. Mershon (pp. 113, 115) states that 
 the last big Wisconsin nestings were at Eau Claire, Tomah and 
 Augusta in 1871. This was two years before the Journal began 
 in 1873, but Chase nevertheless bagged 70 pigeons in that year. 
 Mershon (p. 152) mentions an unverified report of a nesting 
 southwest of Lac Vieux Desert in 1874, and of another near Fort 
 Atkinson about the same time. Both would fall within the Jour- 
 nal period. 
    Dr. Samuel H. Chase, who was born in 1873, remembers as a 
 boy seeing pigeons in the "Sisters' Woods" adjoining the Chase

 residence. They were so thick as to weigh down the oak trees 
 from which they were gathering mast, and so close that he could 
 see the ripple in each lustrous throat as each acorn "went down."

 This must have been in about August 1882, a decade after the 
 last verified* Wisconsin nestings, and six years before W. H. 
 Chase bagged his last pigeon in 1888. Dr. Samuel H. Chase saw 
 his last pigeons in 1885-a spring flock of 12 birds. Mershon 
 records the last scattered Wisconsin flocks as seen in Florence 
 county in 1884, Lake Winnebago 1897, and Lake Butte des Morts 
 1897. The record ends with the single bird killed by Emerson 
 Hough at Babcock about 1900. 
     The conclusion is that the disappearance of Wisconsin pig- 
 eons was no sudden debacle-they occurred in decreasing num- 
 bers for nearly three decades after the big nesting of 1871. 
     * A. W. Schorger has since recorded nestings in 1882. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
73 
 
 
Leopold-The Chase Journal 
 
 
   Ducks. The percent composition of the kill (last column on 
right in table) indicates the former relative abundance of spe- 
cies on Lake Wingra. Scaup, greenwing teal, and mallard com- 
prise 59 per cent of the recorded bag. 
   Aside from this question of composition of the kill, the main 
value of the duck record is as possible evidence of trends in duck 
abundance. 
   The annual kill from 1873 to 1880 shows a steady climb (see 
graph), but this may represent the mounting proficiency of the 
youthful hunter, rather than any trend in duck abundance. 
   Between 1880 and 1888 follows a nearly continuous decline. 
This spans the ages of 22 to 30, when most hunters are ap- 
proaching their maximum of zest and skill, hence it is reasonable 
to postulate a decline in local birds. Can we account for such a 
trend? 
    It is common knowledge that Wingra is now spoiled as a duck 
lake, presumably by carp. Cole (p. 547) shows that carp were 
first introduced into Wisconsin about 1879, just previous to the 
apparent decline in Wingra ducks. Dr. Samuel H. Chase, how- 
ever, did not notice carp in Wingra until the late nineties. The 
possible role of carp thus seems beset by contradictory evidence. 
    The decade following 1888 shows, in general, a rising curve, 
 ending in a sharp decline after 1894. This decline coincides 
 with the general drouth of the early nineties (Streiff, p. 294). 
 E. R. Jones, State Drainage Engineer, tells me that undrained 
 peat marshes in central Wisconsin suffered deep burns in 1894. 
 This is the only known Wisconsin record of widespread peat 
 fires previous to drainage, and indicates extremely low water 
 tables. 
    Wing, in his exploration of waterfowl cycles, shows a Brant 
 bag curve (p. 349) for Monomay Island, Massachusetts. The 
 general trend parallels the Brtickner cycle of the sun, but during 
 the two periods here under consideration, the trend is opposite 
 that of the Chase curve. The minor oscillations, however, in- 
 elude a number of coincidences with the Chase curve: a low in 
 1888, a high in 1891, a low in 1893, a high in 1894, and a low in 
 1896. 
    The only conclusion which can be drawn is that if many local 
 journals could be fused into one continuous record, it might shed 
 important light on past fluctuations in waterfowl. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
74    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. 
 
    The abrupt termination of Old Squaws after 1878, after ap- 
pearing in the bag for the three preceding years, is suggestive 
of sporadic changes in the movements of this species. Schorger 
records the reappearance of Old Squaws on the Madison Lakes 
in 1913, 1925, and 1929. The bird seen in 1929 was in the Na- 
korea Golf Club spring near Lake Wingra. 
    Woodcock. The small kill, all grouped in two periods, is sug- 
gestive of fluctuating abundance. Howard F. Weiss saw 22 
woodcock in one day on the Arboretum in April, 1933, and I soon 
after saw 18. All three of these possible "highs" fall in periods

of apparent duck scarcity. 
    Phillips thinks New England woodcock increased during the 
years just previous to 1925. 
    Leopold and Schorger (p. 189) record a decrease of jack- 
snipe in Dane County during the period 1919-1929, since fol- 
lowed (in my opinion) by an increase during the present period 
of duck scarcity. 
    All these fragments collectively suggest the need for an in- 
vestigation of shorebird population levels, including a possible 
fluctuation inverse to ducks. 
   King Rail. This species is still an uncommon but regular 
breeder on Wingra. Again the lumping of the bag in the period 
1873-1875 is suggestive of fluctuating abundance. Dr. Samuel 
H. Chase remembers these birds as common about the family 
boathouse in the late 70's when he was a small child, but he killed 
none until about 1889. This suggests an intervening period of 
scarcity. 
   Ruffed Grouse and Prairie Chicken. Ruffed Grouse disap- 
peared from the Wingra woods just before the establishment of 
the Arboretum. Cahn found them present yearlong in 1915. It 
is hoped that they can be reintroduced. Prairie chickens are 
still present at times, but in very small numbers. A single 
brood was raised in 1934. 
   The absence of sharptails from the record indicates they 
either never occurred on Wingra, or had disappeared before the 
70's. There is still a single remnant in Dane County. 
   It is notable that when chickens were killed at all, it was in 
years of high bag in ruffed grouse. This corroborates the gen- 
eral assumption that these two species share the same cycle. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Leopold-The Chase Journal 
 
 
But what cycle? According to Wing (p. 359), the most probable 
fluctuation to be looked for in southern Wisconsin is the solar 
"half cycle" of five or six years, which peaked in 1871, 1878,

1884, and 1889. The Chase bag apparently peaks just before 
1873, in 1878, in 1885-6, and again about 1888. Of course, in 
such a slender bag record neither agreement nor disagreement 
with the cycles is to be considered as anything more than a 
hint of possible relationship. 
    Quail. The extremely small bag of two quail in 24 years is 
 noteworthy. It hardly seems likely that a young hunter with 
 enough shells and hunting appetite to shoot Soras, and a good 
 dog to boot, would either have passed up quail in the field or 
 failed to record them if shot. One is forced to the conclusion 
 that quail were scarce or absent during the Journal period. 
    Contrast this with the following recent census figures for the 
 Arboretum: 
                                 Fall Census    Spring Survival 
         Year        Authority   (December)        (April 1) 
         1929-80     Errington       37              2S 
         1930-31     Errington       67              58 
         1931-32     Errington       70              46 
         1932-33     Errington       41              41 
         1933-34     Leopold        128? 
         1934-35    MeBeath          ..              35 
    These censuses represent the quail population on a somewhat 
variable area, but an area always much smaller than that hunted 
by Chase. Winter feeding has been practiced only since 1933- 
34. One is forced to conclude that quail, at least around Win- 
gra, are much more abundant now than during the Journal pe- 
riod. This conclusion is negatively sustained by Leopold's chart 
(Game Survey, p. 76), which records no quail highs in Wiscon- 
sin during the Journal period, except one in the northwestern 
counties in 1896. It is positively sustained by Dr. Samuel H. 
Chase's recollections-he remembers that his father regarded as 
quite a curiosity a pair of quail appearing in the family yard 
about 1885. 
   All of the speculations in this paper concerning population 
levels are recorded not as conclusions, but as a provocation to 
other investigators who may have opportunity to compile other 
journals, and thus ultimately make conclusions possible. 
 
 
75 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
76     Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. 
 
    Lake Record. The Journal records the following dates for 
the opening and closing of the ice on Lake Wingra: 
 
           1877  1878   1879  1880   1881  1882   1883  1884   1885 
Lake opened ............ Mar. 9  Mar. 29 Mar. 23 Apr. 29 March. 2 Apr. 10
Apr. 13 April. 13 
Lake closed Dec. 29 Dec. 6  Nov. 19 Nov. 16 Nov. 20 Dec. 2  Nov. 15 Nov.
24 Dec. S 
           1886   1887  1888  1889   1890  1891   1892  1893   1894 
Lake opened  Apr. 15  ...........  Apr. 13  Mar. 24  Mar. 24  ............
 Apr, 2  Apr.  5  Mar. 10 
Lake closed  Nov. 24  Nov. 20  Dec. 12  ............  Dec. 4  ............
 Nov. 18  Nov. 17  Nov. 15 
           1895  1896 
Lake opened  ...........  Mar. 30 
Lake closed  ........... ........... 
 
    On the page for 1881 appears a note: "Water highest ever 
known to me." Evidently this reflects "The Big Snow" which

fell in February and March of that year (unpublished records 
of U. S. Weather Bureau, Madison). 
    The original Journal may be consulted at the Wisconsin His- 
torical Library. 
 
                           REFERENCES 
 
Cahn, A. R. 1915. An Ecological Survey of the Wingra Springs Regon. 
    Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. 13, pp. 1234177. 
Cole, Leon J. 1904. The German Carp in the United States. Annual Report 
    of the Burtau of Fisheries, pp. 525-641. 
Errington, P. L. 1934. Vulnerability of Bob-white Populations to Predation.

    Ecology, Vol. XV, No. 2, April, pp. 110-127. 
Leopold, Aldo. 1931. A Report on a Game Survey of the North Central 
    States. Madison, Wisconsin. 
............... 1933. Wild Life Management Plan, University Arboretum. 
Leopold, Aldo and Schorger, A. W. 1930. The Decline of Jacksnipe in 
    Southern Wisconsin. Wilson Bulletin, September, pp. 183-190. 
Mershon, W. B. 1907. The Passenger Pigeon, Saginaw, Michigan. 
Phillips, J. C. 1926. Wenham Lake Shooting Record and the "Farm Bag",

    1897-1925. Privately printed. 
Schorger, A. W. 1929. The Birds of Dane County, Wisconsin. Trans. Wis. 
    Acad. Sci., Arts, and Letters, Vol. XXIV, pp. 457-499. 
 ............ 1931. The Birds of Dane County, Wisconsin. Part II. Trans.

    Wis. Acad. Sci., Arts, and Letters, Vol. XXVI, pp. 1-60. 
Streiff, A. 1926. Investigation of Cycles and the relation of the Brickner

    and Solar Cycle. Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 54, July, pp. 289-296.

Wing, L. W. 1935. Wild Life Cycles in Relation to the Sun. Proc. Amer. 
    Game Conf., January, pp. 345-363. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
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                          DA.7- C00, N,"LA,, PlOjECT 
                                                     C mbined report 
                              CJ o zi F. r F-,ru a-ý-I  ,i 
                              Winter Feeding 
 
Date    March ist,1937                      Report No._ __       anth 
 
TowhipDane County                          Miles Travelled  800 
 
Feeder Locations     County Wide 
 
Person in charge    Jack Colin           No. of Youths in group go 
 
Address             Court House, Madison               Tel. R 5in Exf - 75

 
         Furnish this information weekly about feeders, birds and predators

                          in your territory. 
 
1. No. of Feeders___ .....     _Built          Serviced     300 
 
2.. No. of Birds seen      Cocks  608   Hens  1901    Song 
                                                       Prairie chickens-319

    Quail 649   Phoascnts 2509   Huns 60     Ducks 50  4G*f6, 
 
3. No. of Animals soon         Kinds  Eeer--9 ( 2 bucks,5 does) 
 
4. Does snow trouble hoppers      Wind         Cold 
 
5. Is there a poletrap          Where located 
 
6. Any owls cauSht      Crovis       Others 
 
7. What grain used         25 tons        ._qgayAmount          -     Ibs.

 
8. How often serviced                             Loss                lbs.

 
9 . A n y l aw v i o l at io n s                      _ _ S q u i r r e l
s -Y e s 
                             S......Squirr els-Y-es 
 
 10. Do cats trouble feeder    Yes            rats      rabbit Ys 
 
 11. Do you get assistance from local sportsmen_-- 
 
 12. Give any other helpful infornmtion 
      Found dead: 9 pheasants-(ltrain,2 autolfoxlmink,lbroken back 
                   4- quail   -     ats3 unPt partially eaten) 
                   4 .quail   -(2 cats, 2 unknoyM-Dartially Paten) 
 
  

					
				
				
                            DAN  DO X"     V( !.... ;FCT 
 
                               VWint.er 'e , 'Lg 
 
Date      March ist,1_937                      Report No._ ._v  age month

 
Township________                               Miles Travelled 
 
Feeder Looations  Territory east of Madison 
 
Person in charge      Stanley Foll          No. of Youths in group_ 
 
Address               725 E. Jghnsoni     0 J1   aon, W-is Tel. 
 
          Furnish this information weekly about feeders, birds and predators

                            in your territory. 
 
1. No. of Feeders                  Built           Serviced   125 
 
2. No. of Birds seen         Cocks 308     Hens    918     Song_.... 
                                                           Prairie Chickens-200

    Quail 240    Thoesn-ts  1226    Huns 22     Ducks   0  "Oft 
 
3. No, of Animals seen            Kinds Rabbits & sgqq1rr]      , 
 
4. Does siow trouble hoppers        Wind           Cold- 
 
5. Is there a poletrap             VWhere located 
 
6, Any owls oaught_      Crowvs        Others 
 
7. What grain used                                  Amount              
 lbs. 
 
8. How often serviced                                 Loss              
  lbs. 
 
9. Any law violations 
 
10. Do oats trouble feeder         Yes           rats        rabbits   Yes

 
11. Do you get assistance from local sportsmen       Yes 
 
12. Give any other helpful information 
    Dead birds+ 2 quail,4 pheasant ( 2-cats,1 auto,3 unknown) 
 
  

					
				
				
                          DANE CO. N,.YA, FROJECT 
                   SCon ervat CIL                         W/tS~Z 
                             Winter Feeding 
Date      March lst,1937                    Report Not Ayt 
 
 
Township  shi_      _,                      Miles Travelled 
 
Feeder Locations   Territory west of Madisnn       .. 
 
Person in charge   Herb Gust             No. of Youths in group_ 
 
Address _    _Verona ,Wis.                              Tel. 
 
         Furnish this information weekly about feeders, birds and predators

                          in your territory. 
 
1. No. of Feeders               Built           Serviced    100 
 
2. No. of Birds seen       Cooks -  aLHens .    .Z     Song 
 
    Quail 409   Pheasnnts 1283   Huns  3A    Ducks__     riri    chickens-
119 
                      a U bit s --_       _ _  _ __ _  _ _ _ __  _ _ _ _

3. No. of Animals seen 9quirrelsKinds      Deer- 2 bucks- 5 does 
 
4. Docs 3now trouble hcppors      Wind          Cold 
 
5. Is thore a poletrap  .       Where located 
 
6. Any owls caught      Crovs        Others  Foxes-8     _      _ 
 
7. What grain used                              .Amount               lbs.

 
8. How often cerviced                              Loss               lbs.

 
9. Any law violations_ _      _    _    _     _ 
 
10. Do cats trouble feeder      Yes           ratts      rabbits  Yes 
 
11. Do you get assistance from local sportsmenyes 
 
12. Give any other helpful information 
 
    Dead birds: 5 pheasants,2 quail (1-train-j q1ton1jf'ry2h           kQn
back, 
                                       1 mink, 2 no telling-badly eaten6.

 
  

					
				
				
                                                            Dane County V

                                                            Prairie Chicken

                                                            Deer 
 
 
Extract from letter from J. W. Jackson, Peb. 12, 1935: 
 
     "I also inclose an extract from an old Madison history written
in 17T4. Under 
that date Major H. A. Tenney wrote as follows: 
     "0When I first visited Madison in 1845----game was profusely abundant.
I 
repeatedly shot prairie chickens in the capitol square, and the hunting of
quail 
there was common. The last deer killed within the site was in 147---an old
buck 
whose way was over the University Hill. He was so sagacious that he was not
taken 
until hunted at times for three years. Bears were common, wolves innumerable,

and other wild animals in proportion, In fish and fowls the present (1S74)
generation 
have not the faintest conception of the enormous profusion of that period.
They 
way they were slaughtered at times in mere sport was a wicked waste. In 1849
the 
Winnebagoes camped near the present Insane Hospital. Spreading out over the

country they drove all the deer of all kinds toward the center and killed
all--sparing 
none. They had. over 500 carcasses, when a band of citizens went over and
drove them 
off, but the deer never recovered from that fatal raid." 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
         RTUDWOF THE YUThATIO 01 THE PUT 1AND 
 
                OF DANZ QOVNTY$ WISOQ1ISI 
 
 
                Ant    Lawrene Wrolik 
 
     toolo  al studies of the vegetation on the peat lan* of the 
 
glaxiated part of Dane Ounty, Wisonesin were oonducte with wofor.- 
 
*noe*to the primary and the seondary plant swoessioas. The so., 
 
condary plant successions, brought about by several introduc 
biotisallycontt-olled factors, viz,, artificial drainae, cutting 
 
and grbbing of trees and shrbs, mwing, grazing,, burning, and 
 
soil d isturbancs are particularly hpaaized. The pH values, the 
 
peous ef available phshus, aM the pouns f available petash 
 
per ore, were ale.o determind for & muber of the peat beds. The 
 
relationship of thems factors to plant succession was stuied. 
 
     A large percentage of the peat lan has been artificially 
 
drained by 18 moor drainage projects durin the period of ears, 
 
1920 to 196. This has greatly   gmented the n    atural drainage 
 
 
     The bog (oxysere) succession sere has been avery comm, 
 
primary type in the past, but has largely dieaed. Relict plants 
and relict commnit ies of a muber of the charteristic bog species 
 
are still present but these are disaearing. The hywssere type of 
 
succession Is the most oomu primary type at the prosent time, hav- 
 
ing largely replaced the bog type due prinoipally to ses thorough 
 
drain". Both the bog succession sere an the hywsose begin with 
 
the se   stage of vegetation, the                 Assost and 
 
terminate in the ease *voolima unit of vegetatjizo the 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
asU   Assooies. The intervening 4evlopuamtal stages of the two sores 
differ makly in acoordawcevith the effectiveness of the drainage 
 
system. 
     Much of the native vegetation cover of the poet lasnd at the t1 
 
of the advent of the white ma consisted of the JM    Oonsocies stage. 
 
There were also fairly extensive tracts of land covered with the 2 
 
Cg              socies type of vegetation. 
     The effects of the introd    biotioally.controlled factors have 
been s general in their distribution that much of the vegetation is 
 
now undergoing secondary plant suacossions. This has resulted in 
the appearance of several now developmental stages of vegetation. Th. 
effects of cutting the trees, violent artificial dranae, and gub. 
buig of the tree stumps and shrubs are discussed with reference to 
 
secondary successions following the disappearance of the L0&  Oonsocies

stage of vegetation.   he seoondAy plant successions brought about by 
 
artificial drainage, grauiug, and moving are, traced from the 9waat 
Q             Aececies stage of vegetation. 
 
     The burning of the dried vegetation on frozen or wet soils has 
little effect upon th heerbaceous vegetation but will usually prevent 
 
the successful establisheent of shrub and tree species. The buring 
 
of the dried vegetation upon artificialy.-drained peat soils ma 
ignite and destroy some of the peat. The depth of the peat destroyed 
 
is usually only one or two inches but may be as much as three or four 
 
feet. Such conditions may be classified into three types, Tit., su- 
 
perficial burning, modiuma burning and deep burning. Burning partially 
or completely denudes the soil of its vegetation cover. Secondary 
 
plant successions occur upon these burne-.over land. Tahese successions 
are traced from the pioneer stages to the ubclimaz type of vegetation. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
     The effects of soil isturbanoes, the most Iuportant of vhlah 
 
arw the digging of drainage ditches and the oeonaqmut fomation of 
 
ditch banks, upon the vegotation are of som laportance. Th veg- 
 
tation in the ditches is chiefly of the hydrophytio type, wereeas 
 
that invding the ditch bans  is eitgher similsr to that of the ad- 
 
joinin land or is one of the several oharacteristio types psmiiar 
 
to that oiroment. 
 
     The floristio cosposition and the freoqmoy of the component 
 
epoe.s oe given for 17 aeas repreenting 12 different types or 
 
steps of vegetation. 
 
     Peat lans suporting either §RboeM   or             vegets- 
tion or both had a pH of 4.1 to 68  All t   other lans sampled, 
 
lthough supprtins a diverstty of typos of vegeation, hba     a pH 
ra, of 6.0 to 7.7 ad     st of these we  within a me nr 
rae   of 6.1 to T.0. Peat soils uhiah bad been deply buned had 
a PH of  .S to9.0 at the sWa.-   . 
 
     Oonsd4ewrin all depths spled, the pounMs of available phos- 
 
-orus pew  &re of the unburned peat 1lan varied vdoey. that is, 
fro a trace up to 12 pounds per ac. The rw, s"id peat soils 
supprtin bog susccesion vegetation of the        eA an 
 
= types had a low availabol phosphorus content, that In, 10 pou*0 
 
or loss. With this exqeptioon, there Is no correlation botwen the 
content of aveailable phosphors of the un-burn pat soils an the 
 
typo of vegetation whoh is being supported. The severely-bum 
 
peat soils are very low in available phosphorus in the ash layer 
 
which W   be due, i part, to the high p of 7.8 to 0.0. 
 
     The available potash content of all depths of the area sampleL 
 
ranged from 50 to 3M pounds pe- so. There t   no  orrelation ber 
 
twee  the type of vegtatios cover or the pH of the soils an the 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
awslable ptash oo2ntot of that soil. ?h. wailable potash coatent 
 
of al1 of t)aar as, with on esxeption, whether bwa4 or unburne, 
 
waslway hghr In th uipper six-inh laye than inan one of th 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
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CEMETERlY .. . .. .n 
 
 
         MAP OF 
 DODGE COUNTY 
 STATS HIGHWAY COMMISSION 
       OF WISCONSIN 
SrATE OPEICS SUILDIN6, MADISON. WIS. 
   SCALX          MILES 
 
 
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E. J. VANDERWALL, DIRECTOR 
FORESTS S, PARKS--C. L. HARRINGTON 
COOPERATIVE FORESTRY--F. G. WILSON 
FOREST PROTECTION--NEI L H. LE MAY 
INFORMATION & EDUCATION-- 
   J. H. H. ALEXANDER 
                     COOSERVATion 
 
 
ERNEST SWIFT--ASSISTANT DIRECTOR 
 
 
         GAME MANAGEMENT--W. I 
         LAW ENFORCEMENT--A. J. 
         FINANCE--C. A. NONTLY 
         CLERICAL--MISS LYDIA 81 
[TMflT 
 
 
            MADISON 2 
HORI00N MARSH WILDLIFE AREA       FILE REFERENCES 
 
 
                        Horicon, Wisconsin 
 
                                                      January 13, 1947 
 
 
 
 Professor Aldo Leooold           h$ Cj 
 University Farm 
 University of Wisconsin 
 Madison, Wisconsin 
 
 Dear Professor Leopold: 
 
       We have received a memorandum from William F. Grimmer request- 
  ing that you be suoplied with data regarding locJl oroduction of all 
  ducks on Horicon Marsh during the oast season. 
 
       The situation briefly is that the f'igures comoiled by Ralph 
 Hookins on brood counts and estimates of all ducks on the State area 
 during July and August are oresented in the Pittman-Robertson 
qQuarterly Reoort now in the Madison office. The data would best be 
  ts-ken from this reoort as we do not yet have it in this office in 
  final form. You could easily get a copy of the report by calling 
  either Mr. Grimmer or Irven Buss. 
 
       During the late summer Mr. Hookins estimated that there were 
  between 3000 and 3500 ducks of all soecles on the area. However, 
  the actual number of young oroduced in the area is a rather elusive 
  figure to determine. We do not htve sex or age ratio figures to 
  a-oly to the above total estimate nor do we have any measurement of 
  ingress or egress. 
 
       I would exoect that ducks coming into the area after the breed- 
  ing season would be comoosed mainly of wood ducks and baldoates. 
  Egress is orobably not as an imoortant figure since our loss of 
  nesting redheads. 
 
       If you need any more information in this regard, please let 
  me know. 
 
 
Very 
 
 
,JRS:RD 
 
  

					
				
				
 
otQ 
 
 
                            168 N~orth Prospect Avnue 
                            Madison, Wisconsin 
 
                            :une 12, 1941 
 
Hustisford, Wi cosin 
D~ear Mr. Nuensohwander: 
       Udr date Of Tuine 99 Mr. Leopold w rote to me readn 
the work that you were doing at Eustisford and attached a list 
of the last dates of occurrence of several animls, In the 
paper on the Black Bear pepared by Mr. Booker he gave 1686 
as the last record for Dodge C       ountyand no authori y for the 
informtion. Until Mr. Leopold's e  er arrived,, was oom 
pletely in the dark as to the source, 
     t ias aac            rd that I have for Dodge County is 
1859, It sohppn that a bear was killed ne.ar flustisford 
in 1856 but the nam of the man who kil1ed it is not given, 
unfortunately. For a time I thouwht thnt.   -- flh"I  A.. 
 
 
as   aut  of tim 
for the 1ttis- 
sf r but, m 
ba   at Hutsfod 
 
 
Sr       t       d  I c   o uow it escaped mention. 
     Ur* Leopold states that 4uut Lehan      kept a journal, If 
 You haVe not verified the 18    dte by actual inspe#~io   of the 
 Journa, I ernetly urge you to do so, 
     X would like to stress the imp     of e  e   acouraoy 
in Publshing in     tion of this mntre  Data that depend on 
     sombodtomemryamvery seldom reliable,    In any oase oheck 
                      Yully    possible and always olte all the 
vdene    for it, If shwuner killed the br it s       be 
possible to record the e   mo eth 
       Insfaras I am concernd, there is nothing more distressing 
than to see errors in print for the will heqae        nprpetuity. 
avoid some errors, but too  y result     fale to run the 
informtion to earth., hr   axe several bad errors in Beokerts 
paper on the last dates for the Blak     Bear in the sothern 
oties, For                   misuse of the Newspaper Notes, 
 
 
Was 4 
tryli 
ford 
f or 
H5XV 
as 1A 
 
  

					
				
				
Mr. Herbert Nnenschwander 
June 12, 194. 
 
 
he gives 1884 for the last date of 
Bear in Oreen County, The Bear to 
actually killed in Clark County* 
 
 
the occurrnce of the Black 
which the citation refers was 
 
 
     Do you know who has possession of Schwender"s Journal? 
It would be a splendid t     if it could be scoued for the 
Wisconsin Kistorical Society. 
 
                         Very truly yours, 
 
 
A~VMkA* W, aSohre 
 
 
*-2 
 
 
X'VS:MA 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    W las 14on trpo In0 w. by Imstb Schoeer Hs~tiefort5*p  tostillt 
 
 
 
 
    about 1$OM. 
 
 
         1"~t oe)4U4 ** ~in mobbba$ Tonap Re mth of   @,Crok 
         AU~l Xlr~f bftstisord W hid up to IM  kile by Me 
         gtw~fhwrt Aut ?eha.u TAw  ket a jerm1 ibIch va In 
         rie*~mt's possession up to 1$ML 
  *2*LZt on killd A IM 155  Wwr Leom 
 
 
 
  *LMg hjkMLat *"a In 191 
 
           4*,n oore in MApst 1ý6 iapae I     t3wes 
.-pA~  ftW4    Prnt -ee 1934 
  *EhaWnrt sof 10&1 In 193 
 
 
*Th"o am U "C"ted " ftl"blo avd smUt"ti&t*4,

 
  

					
				
				
                                                         Dodge Co. 
 
 
 
 
See article, "The H&wgrian Partridge in (Dodge Co.) Wisconsin,"
by 
 
John Beale. Wisconsin Sportsman, Vol. 2, No. 5, April, 1938, p. 8. 
 
Clipping filed Hungarian folder. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
            TEEV.AN BRuNT MFG. Co. 
 
GRAIN DRILLS                  ORICONAWS. 
FIELD CULTIVATORS                                            -, 28,1936 MOLINE,IL,.

 
 
 
 
        Mr..ldo Leopold, 
      Old Entomology Bulding, 
      Madison, Wisconsin 
 
      Dear Ur. Leopold : 
 
                        Under separate corer I am sending you 
      one each of the Koriccn M.arsh booklets that I w/rote.  The 
      white cony was our first attempt and as you will note it 
      carries the story in detail frc. 1837 to 1925. You can 
      readily appreciate that it would take a volume to cover the 
      last 11 years, if one wanted to set it up in detailed form. 
      However, the little brown booklet only hits the high spots 
      end covers the story from 1837 to 1935 inclusive. 
 
                        W{e have sent out thousands of these little 
      booklets and they are serving a mighty fine purpose all over 
      the country. 
 
                        As you know Aldo, the louse! decision of 
      the Supreme Court a few months ago has certainly raised hell. 
      No one will ever be able to tell me that that decision was 
      for the benefit of the public. It is diffimult for a layman 
      to understand how the State can lose its rights within a period 
      of 20 or 25 years, as they suggest. I will bet my last dime 
      that this decision will be reversed before another year. In 
      any event the court has decided that "black is white" and
that 
      settles it. I hope that you will help us wherever possible to 
      put over the program now in effect to prevail upon the Federal 
      Government t, Itake over Iloricin -arsh without any further delay.

      I am sure you will be able to play a strong part in such a 
      program as I know the Biological Survey is interested. M:y only 
      regret is that the professional landowners and the laýyers are

      going to reap the profits on Hori'rin Marsh and the poor farmer 
      will be left out on the limb. 
 
                                        Sincr 
 
 
1- .1- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
   I             Beaver 
   IRA E. BURTIS 
   VICV PRESIDENTS 
   A. 0. VINZ 
   H. C. RECKNER 
 L. H. ZIMMERMAN 
H. E. BUTTERBRODT 
   SECRTARY 
   KURT BLECK 
   TREASURER 
 BURT SHEPARD 
 
 
ionists         CMITE 
              FISH LIFE 
                 PROTECTION 
                     EDUCATION 
              SPORTS 
                LEGAL AFFAIRS 
                    MEMBERSHIP 
              SHORELINES 
                 VEGETATION 
                    WATERLEVELS 
              WILD LIFE 
                GROUNDS 
                   ENTERTAINMENT 
 
 
   PROVIDE WHOLESOME RECREATION  q     BEAUTIFY OUR SHORELINES 
         BIRING BACK GAME FISH AND WILD LIFE AT BEAVER DAM LAKE 
 
                      Beaver Dam, Wisconsin 
                           June 8, 1935 
 
 Mr. Aldo Leopold 
 New Soils Building 
 Madison, Wisconsin. 
 
 Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
              Ed. Volkman recently handed me a copy of your letter 
 requesting information in regard to pheasant rearing in our region. 
 
              In response to your request, I have the following in- 
 formation for you: 
 
     1. Eggs received for hatching ln 1934 ............  2,900 
 
     2. Estimated hatch ( per H. E. Butterbrodt) .......    80 % 
 
     3. Eggs placed in Shaw Marsh area during 1934( per 
         H. E. Butterbrodt)                                   1,200 
 
    4. Feeding stations maintained in our area during 
        winter of 19'34-35 ( per Ben Waskow,Warden)....     15 
     5. Feeding stations maintained inShaw Marsh area 
        during winter of 1934-35,(per Ben Waskow) .....      5 
 
     6. Pheasants liberated over and above eggs,.1934 .. None 
 
     7. We will shortly liberate aboutt 60 adult birds 
       which we wintered over for breeding purposes in 
       snots suggested and approved by Ben Waskow, Warden. 
 
 T9 exoedite mattrs, I suggest that you address your inquites 
 to me. Should you desire additional information, please write 
me. 
                                       Sincerely yours, 
 
 
                                   ~ere tary 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1Mr. Ral 
 
 
 
 
 
Infratics to fill out ft bl* spmsi mW report f 
Volkm  -3 3l6.* 
 
sroawm outsid parties hwo aked me for wts of it$ bkt 
 
  I enmtIw the o~ut =U #ts are caWv ti. When m 
 
  toAk i IMI OW*"      h  nom   tint fill In *0 
'blanks in th *o&datofterprt  ared out th. 
 
                            Aldo L 
 
 
 
                          1 maxIG 44 
                          *m*Usm 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                  low Soils Building 
 
 
 
 
 
         ~Awi S.. 1935 
 
 
 
 
  Bev r D=            f ~t31         * 
 
 
are., also a rog 4raft of the reot       I woul    vteate it 
if yo wA Mr. Blo woul fill in the blank figmv  In t 
 
 
 
Gow  with the ro e that he fill In the blank figmes in 
the report In4toatM in bla*. 
        As soon as thos missing figmro h     boon rot"Ye 
and Cow has sen -* his m~ap     OR rfvto the mentor of 
wint~ orrag, I will s4 rou        the fia  rpr and the geea~l 
 
 
 
       inventory. mp loaow Wo a b  as    W 
                       I~ar ~sinwrl 
 
       Alo*4pl 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
id corn plow 
 
 
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wost of Its capacity foi' at Uast a yea? 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
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                  Heio Marf was, befor Its drainae In IM0, on 
ofth   largest an best broirg ground and ih..tin      Cru-ns in th    ta

 
        ft best taf.tre loaal "rtow      agree ~on00.000 ftk per jW

 
  th e sms' aveag   mubor of d* bred an tbo uareb befor drainap, 
 
 
breedin yea was 1924. 
 
 
 
 
         G"96 ~ brad* onRrcuu to 1909, s daubtles w=1d do so join 
 
 
 
 
'east ohne toaepn    this v.soI*, *Ihi to new reftoe to sk to doxes 
 
breeing pairs in ths state. 
 
       Th first private 4ma roa  in Amrio. was Instituted on Weber's 
 
?.Md Horicon Mard  by A. #. Lagsa   In 1891. 
 
      Nuwinen has alway held & breeei    popuation of rawirt abi*meo

 
In addition It also prob2l Is a wintering Croi   few .ai&~t ohi*a 
 
fros the nort, bat thsis to onoouel. 
 
      A hftypesn Ppulation winters on th        mars, and a leser&vb~

 
als bre" th"     This pb*&m  population Us built up within
th  past 
 
five years. The  wer     ow or peaats tbers in 1929. 
 
      Hungaia patridges hae nw i exto    their rse nrthward to 
 
within thre. miles of %b  souhend oftevrk 
 
   Ea~gl*As in thea&    of other peat mvares whc b.ws sufertedi P~t 
 
firse, It to bpossible eauat        to predic  th bftto  voptation if reflood4s

 
 
valmh IA. 141K 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
  -=-hm" Impossible to preict the stand of gme, 1b. silU hat boonhap

 
 
  topgrahr am Us.essentially7altered in tbat tbs old condt1a of a 
 
  obsrate rver with a grdent aoat be r~stord Ree         it is not to be

 
  -    that rofl.41in will wotae the pro-dria e soo  y  The o 
plant and anlw oxmty will be, dfferet-ot~er perhap        in mem wempoctso.

 
and wore* In **re 
      That burne poat s till have waterfow valu   to indicated by th# 
 
ftmrble bhItor vf Thers M~oh        wM*c lies Jftst up the rver. &a&
Is of 
 
*1*11wr *iaamtW. Thi wes In part teympoaiy refl~oodd In 1928 and prow1 
displaye san d   o 'both as a "tgsan asv Ue ~M       . It to a resonamble

  ho etht H   i  if %%flooded. will add 25 per cent to te puosus  breeding

 
OUS4t of the slats. 
       lIt to  5 nerl   a craint that Its utility forupln  gem*# especially

 
phoaumst  will be grater by reason of th41ahwm 
 
       It to xwrl a toarItaiy that the ratio between diving and puddle d

will be mr   s  ilo bAn befor drAae     ?Me is partly a matte of 
 
411*v, and partl ofb#5   du   post bales whih il UII open water, 
 
      Zia smo  Il# at&   smat applie s "    toth prospets for fn
amtamls 
an fish 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
     Three of about 800 lake trout tagged'and released in 
Lake Michigan and Green Bay last fall have been recaptured. 
One of the fish was recaught in Little Bay de, Noc in 
Michigan waters, having traveled a distance of about 
40 mni1s~n 
 
 
wn chapter, 
wolves on 
 
 
four feeding 
*rds at this 
 
 
.es. Our feed- 
Lrsh.. We were 
 
 
one day 
and also 
  On our 
ýse 4dogs' 
 
 
iot a bone or 
how many 
ast have been 
still at large," 
 
wolves. 
 
ar and in 
Dedtert Grain 
birds in Dodge 
Deding period 
500 birds. 
 
at of it. The 
Sfrom 50 to 
aat we were 
ppreciated it." 
 
 
found as a definite result of its energy. 
 
 
it by no means 
Lead birds being 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
17* 
 
 
     A total of 51,641 game birds were reared on Wisconsin 
commercial game farms during 1935. This bird production 
included 48,933 pheasants, 297 quail, 36 Hungarian 
partridge, 1,691 ducks and 684 wild geese* 
 
 
                       WOMEN' S' CLUBS 
 
     The Milwaukee County Federation of Women's clubs 
announces that it is continuing its program of public 
education through the medium of the annual bird house, 
essay and poster exhibit to be held in the rotunda of the 
Milwaukee Public library, April 4 - 12. Awards and ribbons 
will be given winners. 
 
     Essay and poster projects will be eligible for entry. 
in the state exhibit sponsored by the Wisconsin Federation 
of Women's clubs. Boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 
16 are invited. to participate. The exhibit is shown at 
the annual c~onvention of the Wisconsin State Teachers' 
association each year. 
 
 
                        ALMA CENTER 
 
     L. W. Thompson, secretary of the Alma Center Rod and 
Gun club, says he was interested in the story about catch- 
ing carp with peas in the March Bulletin 
 
     "About using peas for bait, I have heard of. that 
before," he says. "But instead of using a fly rod they 
use a club. They just dump a few peas in the water and 
when the fish come up to take a pea they hit them on the 
head." 
 
     Mr. Thompson says the birds are coming through the 
winter in good shape and announces that the gray fox that 
preyed on the pheasants at the feeding stations has been 
dispatched. A friend borrowed his coon dog and now there 
is another hide hanging from the rafters, he says. 
 
 
                     LEGACY FOR BIRDS 
 
     The Lake Hallie Gun club, which has ceased operation, 
has turned its cash balance over to John Craemer, Eau 
Claire, to be used to supply grain for winter bird feed- 
ing. R. E. Lindmark, secretar. r of the club, notified 
0. L. Fisher, chairman of thelau Claire County Game and 
Fish committee, of the availability of the additional 
funds for bird feeding. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
      President 
If Wiý. J. P. ABRGDR 
    Gay Building 
    Madison. Wis. 
 
 
My. 2XVIA.iltu dOhflU9 VImaau  v.c 
 
 
  lZAAK W alton                          Angus McDonald, Three l4akes, Wis.
                                  1t r-oss8ertty 
                                         Eugene Woodhouse, Lancaster, Wis.

 
              DIRECTORS FOR 2 YEARS                                     
    DIRECTORS FOR 3 YEARS 
          Aldo Leopold, Madison, Wis.                                   
Senator Geo. Blanchard, Edgerton, Wis. 
          Dr. C. F. N. Schram, Beloit, Vfis.                            
William F. Borges, Milwaukee, Wis. 
          Reverand Dr. J. A. Holmes Appleton, Wis.                      Dr.
E6 E. Gallagher, LaCrosse, Wis. 
 
 
 
 
                         Facts About Horicon Marsh 
 
            The powerful outside drainage interests are making another desperate
effort to prevent the restoration of Horicon 
Marsh as provided by the 1927 session of the Wisconsin Legislature. They
are the same vicious interests that have used the 
Horicon Marsh as a commercial football during the last 25 years and they
are also responsible for Bill 444A and Bill 737A, re- 
cently introduced, which if passed, would repeal or make absolutely useless
one of Wisconsin's greatest conservation measures. 
As usual they are using the innocent farmers adjacent to Horicon Marsh as
a smoke screen to conceal their real motives and to 
make it appear as though we are fighting the farmers. 
            At a recent hearing, held in Madison before the assembly committee
on conservation, they presented a wild scheme 
which, if put into effect, would create a hand-made wild life refuge consisting
of about 3500 acres in the center of the marsh. 
Truthfully speaking it would be nothing more than a slaughter pen as their
scheme further elaborated, reveals a proposal to set 
aside an area of about 5500 acres surrounding the wild life refuge as public
shooting grounds. Cleverness is further displayed 
in trying to conceal the fact, by describing the remaining part of Horicon
Marsh, consisting of a huge area of about 20,000 acres, 
as other marsh lands. The opposition freely admit that these other marsh
lands will mean private shooting grounds, private 
trapping grounds, and it will also mean that the public will be barred forever
from these lands by the "keep off under penalty" 
method. 
            Picture in your own mind a wild life refuge of about 3500 acres
entirely surrounded by an area of about 25,000 acres 
filled with hunters and killers of every description. This is the scheme
the drainage gang is trying to sell to the State of Wis- 
consin, and a part of this wild scheme is incorporated in bill 737A.  Even
the most skeptical cannot help but admit that it is 
nothing more than a huge joke from       every viewpoint, and furthermore
the wild life on Horicon Marsh  would have 
about as much chance under such conditions as a snowball in H-, and yet they
have gall enough to call this scheme a conserva- 
tion measure. 
            Tremendous pressure was brought to bear     by these keen, clever,
masterminds to bring about the passage of 
Bill 444-A, and now they are applying this saire kind of high powered pressure
to bring about the passage of their latest inven- 
tion, scheme No. 737A. However, underlying this scheme there is a real purpose;
and that is to place the State of Wisconsin in 
a position where it must buy every foot of Horicon Mars-hlands, required
for the hand-made wild life refuge and public shooting 
grounds, from the drainage gang, at their own price, and at the same time
pay for the huge program of dredging, ditching and 
diking as proposed in this amendment. 
            Horicon Marsh has been drained for nearly twenty years, and the
greatest paradise for wild life in the Northwest 
has been wantonly destroyed. From an agricultural standpoint it has been
a dismal failure. As it is now only the drainage 
promoters, schemers and exploiters, are able to find fertile fields for suckers
and innocent victims. The drainage gang and their 
willing tools have just recently been able to induce the Dodge County Board
to pass a resolution favoring this wild scheme. 
About a year ago this same County Board passed a resolution condemning the
legislative act of 1927, in entire disregard of the 
fact that conservation and preservation of wild life on a scale of this magnitude,
is entirely without the jurisdiction of a County 
Board to cope with. Bear in mind that the author of this hand-made wild life
refuge scheme Is now, and has been for a number 
of years, a member of the Dodge County Board, which accounts for these resolutions
being introduced and acted upon. How- 
ever, the entire scheme has the ear-marks of the drainage gang, but even
granting that, it is indeed difficult to understand why 
this board would permit these outside high-powered drainage interests to
influence, in any way, some of its members. Un- 
fortunately, some of the County Board members have also been led to believe
the unfair propoganda and false statements the 
drainage gang is capitalizing on, and that is to the effect that the legislative
act of 1927 provides for the flooding of the mars~h, 
and which they have stressed as meaning high, dangerous and destructive waters.
The truth of the matter is, that the act pro- 
vided only for restoration and putting the waters back to the levels that
existed prior to the drainage steal. 
            Horicon Marsh, before drainage, was a natural reservoir which
acted like a -huge sponge and held the rainfall and 
other waters over a great territory of about 480 square miles, and permitted
the waters to drain off gradually, without damage 
to lands and other property below the marsh along Rock River. 
            The illegal private drainage of Horicon Marsh has resulted in
hurling of flood waters down the straight ditches and 
down the channels of Rock River in excessive volume and with terrific force,
causing the waters of the Rock River to overflow 
and flood the adjacent lands, thereby destroying crops and other property.

 
  

					
				
				
 
    President           First Vice-President    Second Vice-President   
Third Vice-President     Secretary-Treasurer 
WYC. J. P. ABERG          H. C. BERNDT             LOUIS RADKE          
  HAROLD PUGH            FRANK N. GRAASS 
  Claw 'RTMltnv         l'P-A A. T..P, Uric        T-nritnn Wi.         
   "Raci'ne Wis        Stllr11wen B-.V Wis. 
 
 
WISCONSIN DIVISION 
 
 
Al 
 
 
DIRECTORS FOR 1 YEAR 
 
 
hank Walton                             Angus MeDonald, Three 4akes, Wis.
                               For Fosterity 
                                        Eugene Woodhouse, Lancaster, Wis.

 
             DIRECTORS FOR 2 YEARS                                      
    DIRECTORS FOR 3 YEARS 
         Aldo Leopold, Madison, Wis.                                    Senator
Gee. Blanchard, Edgerton, Wis. 
         Dr. C. F. N. Sebram, Beloit, Wis.                              William
F. Borges, Milwaukee, Wis. 
         Reverand Dr. J. A. Holmes, Appleton, Wis.                      Dr.
EX E. Gallagher, LaCrosse, Wis. 
 
                                                      -Pate 2- 
           The Farmers' and Citizens' Land Protective League, consisting
of more than three hundred farmers, business men 
and riparian owners along Rock River South of Horicon way down to the Mississippi,
are also asking for the state's protection 
against the drainage menace. Conservative estimates have been made that hundreds
of thousands of dollars damages has been 
done to the cities of Watertown, Jefferson, Janesville, Beloit, Rockford,
Illinois, and other cities and villages along the river. 
The most feasible plan to provide this needed protection is by putting In
the proposed dam or dams so as to regulate the flood 
waters on Rock River below Horicon Marsh. 
            The act of the 1927 legislature provides, among other things,
that the necessary dam or dams be built to raise and 
maintain the water-levels as they were prior to the gigantic steal, or when
Horicon Marsh was, according to the records, 
drained 'illegally.' Both branches of Rock River, a navigable stream, were
cut and slashed into ribbons by huge drainage 
ditches, and large areas of waters destroyed in open defiance of the decision
of the Wisconsin Supreme Court. That honorable 
body rendered an opinion on April 17th, 1908 as follows: 'We hold Rock River
a3 a navigable stream, and that no authority of 
law was delegated to the commissioners, to impair or appropriate it for drainage
purposes, and that the drainage district order 
would have that effect. This case is reported in Volume 135 of the Wisconsin
Reports, on pages 227 to 238. The petition was 
then dismissed and a motion for rehearing was denied September 29th, 1908.
Not withstanding the Supreme Court decision, and 
without any authority or permission of any kind, they proceeded and put over
this gigantic drainage steal. They further showed 
their utter contempt of Wisconsin's Court decisions, by rendering a statement
about as follows, and which is supported by an 
affidavit: "We the Rock River Valley Land Company didn't care a damn
how the Supreme Court decided the Horicon Marsh 
case, that the Hustisford Dam would also be taken down and Horicon Marsh
drained, and that said Rock River Valley Land Com- 
pany -had too much money invested in that enterprise to stop now, no matter
how the case was decided." 
            Let it be remembered that on April 22nd, 1927, nearly the entire
legislature made an inspection trip through the 
Horicon Marsh to ascertain the facts regarding it. About two weeks later,
the drainage gang sponsored a trip around the 
marsh at which time a great number of these same legislators were their guests.
Those trips resulted in convincing nearly all 
of these men that Horicon Marsh is suited only for the propogation of wild
life. 
            Furthermore, in 1928 the conservation commission complied with
the law by placing hundreds of wild life refuge 
signs around Horicon Marsh, and for the first time since the coming of the
white man, this famous territory was barred to 
hunting and trapping. However, to make the refuge a real success, it is necessary
to have the water levels established and 
maintained, but the drainage gang interferred by enjoining the railroad commission,
conservation commission, and other depart- 
ments of the state. The drainage gang has raised many questions and objections
to the law as passed, consequently the Supreme 
Court of the State of Wisconsin will soon pass upon all the legal questions
that are involved. In view of the fact that this is 
their case, it is difficult to understand why they are so alarmed over the
situation, and why they are so anxious to have the 1927 
act of the legislature repealed or replaced by a substitute bill or amendment
drawn up to their way of thinking. 
            This brazen attempt on the part of the drainage gang to have
this great conservation measure repealed, modified, or 
changed, is a challenge, or rather an insult to the intelligence, ability,
and good judgment of the members of the 1927 legisla- 
ture, who saw fit to carry out the will of the people of the state, by voting
practically unanimously in favor of the legislation 
necessary to make the entire Horicon Marsh a real wild life refuge, such
as nature had intended it to be. 
            We earnestly appeal to the members of the 1929 legislature to
stand squarely behind the legislation passed by 
their colleagues in 1927. In other words, Bill 444A and Bill 737A or any
amendment called a compromise, should be killed abso- 
lutely. Public sentiment is with     you in favor of the legislative act
of 1927 as indicated by the endorsement of these 
many great forces; practically every newspaper in the State of Wisconsin,
also farm publications, civic organizations, cham- 
bers of commerce, American Legion, game protective associations, rod and
gun clubs, Izaak Walton League of America, flood 
control organizations, prominent farmers, Federation of Women's Clubs, and
the 115,000 petitioners and their host of friends, 
that clamored for state intervention during the 1925 session of the Wisconsin
Legislature. 
            Do not be deceived by the unfair and false propaganda, as the
issue is clear cut "INDISCIB[XINATE DRAINAGE 
VERSUS CONSERVATION" 
 
 
Vice-President Wisconsin I. W. L. A. 
 
 
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Northern States Amateur 
  Field Trial Association, 
          Inc. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  CLARE L. WILDNER, 
       Sec'y-Treas. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
           FOREWORD 
   The demands each year, of the 
Northern States Amateur Field Trial 
Association, Inc., require more than 
ordinary attention and activity on the 
part of your officers, Board of Gov- 
ernors, and the Secretary's office. 
 
   The fast changing tempo of our 
field trial activities requires careful 
consideration be given to our part in 
the world of field trial programs. To 
you, the members, we are deeply 
grateful, realizing that no field trial 
association is any greater than its 
membership. 
 
  Any further constructive program 
that we have, or advance, will be 
measured only by the enthusiasm, 
general assistance, and finances, 
pledged by the whole membership. 
 
 
 
 
 
                         SEC -TREAS. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
           CONSTITUTION 
 
               ARTICLE I. 
  The Northern States Amateur Field Trial 
Association, Inc., principal office, Superior, 
Wis., is established for the purpose of im- 
proving pointers and setters, especially 
through the medium of holding field trials 
to test their field qualities; to increase the 
interest in legitimate sport with dog and 
gun; to promote good fellowship, social in- 
tercourse and acquaintance among sports- 
men and a greater refinement in the use of 
dog and gun; to encourage respect for and 
the enforcement of all laws enacted for the 
protection of game, and to assist and en- 
courage the propagation and conservation of 
game birds. 
              ARTICLE II. 
  The officers of the association shall be a 
President, a first and second Vice President 
and a Secretary-Treasurer. They shall be 
elected immediately after the annual meet- 
ing of the Association by the Board of 
Governors, and shall hold office during the 
fiscal year, January 1st to December 31st, 
or until their successors shall have been 
elected. 
              ARTICLE III. 
  Section 1. The government and manage- 
ment of the Association shall be conducted 
and controlled by a Board of Governors, to 
be composed of seven members of the As- 
sociation, all of whom shall be elected at 
the annual meeting of the Association, and 
shall hold office for one (1) year, Jan. 1st 
to Dec. 31st, or until their successors have 
been elected. The Board of Governors shall 
elect the officers from their members ex- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
cept the Secretary-Treasurer, who may or 
not be a memoer of the Board of Governors. 
When a vacancy for any reason occurs in 
the Board of Governors or among the of- 
ficers, the President shall appoint a member 
to fill the vacancy, with the approval of the 
Board of Governors. The interpretation of 
all rules and the decision upon all matters 
not provided for in this Constitution and 
By-Laws shall be entrusted to the Board of 
Governors of the Association. 
  Sec. 2. The powers of the Board of Gov- 
ernors shall be subordinate to that of the 
Association, and the Association may at any 
meeting instruct the Board of Governors as 
to its action upon any matter, or may annul 
any former action of the Board. 
  Sec. 3. Four members shall constitute a 
quorum of the Board of Governors for the 
transaction of any business. 
  Sec. 4. The President of the Association 
shall be the Chairman of the Board of Gov- 
ernors and the Secretary of the Association 
shall be its Secretary. 
  Sec. 5. The Board of Governors shall 
have the power to appoint committees and 
define their duties; to hear and determine all 
charges against members of the Association, 
and to expel any member for cause deemed 
by the Board to be sufficient; to examine 
the books of the Secretary-Treasurer, and 
to remove any officer of the Association for 
such cause as it may deem sufficient; to 
manage and conduct all field trials by and 
through such members of the Association 
as it may delegate for such purpose; to de- 
cide on all matters pertaining to the Asso- 
ciation and its affairs not otherwise pro- 
vided -for, and to hear and determine all 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
disputes and controversies ai'ising from the 
field trials or otherwise. They may from 
time to time make regulations upon matters, 
not herein provided for and not inconsistent 
with the Constitution and By-Laws. They 
shall cause to be prepared annually a de- 
tailed statement of the financial condition 
of the Association showing its receipts and 
expenditures during the preceding current 
year, the number of members and other 
matters of interest, which report shall be 
presented at the annual meeting of the As- 
sociation (in passing on matters of business 
between meetings, written assent of four 
members shall be construed as affirmative 
action of the Board ) It shall be the duty 
of the Board of Governors to pass on all 
membership applications. 
              ARTICLE IV. 
  Section 1. Any resident of the United 
States or Canada who is of good character 
and standing, shall be eligible to member- 
ship in the Association on payment of the 
regular Association membership fee. 
   Sec. 2. The annual dues of members 
shall be due and payable January 1 of each 
year. 
               ARTICLE V. 
   Section 1. The annual meeting of the As- 
sociation shall be held during the annual 
field trials of each year. Special meetings 
of the Association may be called by the 
President at any time, and shall be called 
by him on written request of any three 
members of the Association, provided that 
if, in the opinion of the Board of Governors, 
such meeting shall be for good and suffi- 
cient reason. Notice of such meetings of 
the Association shall be given through the 
mails. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
             "ARTICLE VI. 
  Section 1. This Constitution may be al- 
tered, amended or added to at any regular 
annual meeting of the Association by a two- 
thirds vote of members present and in good 
standing. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
BY-LAWS 
 
 
       I.-ORDER OF BUSINESS. 
  1. Reading minutes of previous meeting. 
  2. Proposal and consideration of amend- 
ments (annual meeting). 
  3. Reports of special committees. 
  4. Reports of standing committees anid 
Board of Governors (annual meeting). 
  5. Secretary-Treasurer's Report (annual 
meeting). 
  6. Miscellaneous business. 
  7. President's written report of the gen- 
eral affairs of the association. 
  8. Election of officers (annual meeting). 
  9. Adjournment. 
  This order of business may be changed by 
a majority vote of those present. 
 
            II.-PRESIDENT. 
  The President shall preside at all meet- 
ings of the Association and snall' act as 
Chairman of the Board of Governors. He 
shall have general supervision over the af- 
fairs of the Association, and shall keep 
fully informed as to the acts of all officers 
and of all matters pertaining to the Asso- 
ciation, and snail see to the enforcement of 
its laws and rules. He shall perform all 
other duties that may be assigned to him by 
the Association or the Board of Governors 
and at annual meeting give a written report 
of the general affairs of the association. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
        III -VICE- PRESIDENT. 
  The Vice-President, in order of seniority, 
shall fill the office of President in the event 
of his absence. 
     IV.-SECRETARY-TREA/SURER. 
  The Secretary-Treasurer shall keep a rec- 
ord of the proceedings of the Association. 
He shall attend all committee meetings and 
all meetings of the Board of Governors, 
making due record of the proceedings and 
take charge of the correspondence, give 
nrtice of the meetings and perform   such 
other duties as may be required of him or 
pertain to his office. It shall be his duty to 
collect all moneys due to the Association, 
and under direction of the Board of Govern- 
ors shall disburse all funds of wne Associa- 
tion on vouchers countersigned by the Ptesi- 
dent or a Vice-President. At the annual 
meeting of the Association he shall present 
a written report of the financial transactions 
during the fiscal year, with whatever sug- 
gestions he may see fit to make. The Sec- 
retary-Treasurer's annual dues anct entrance 
fees for his own dogs shall be paid by the 
Association. 
          V.-RESIGNATIONS. 
  All resignations shall be in writing and 
addressed to the Secretary. No member can 
resign who is in debt to the Association but 
may be suspended for non-payment by the 
Board of Governors. 
 
          VI.-ARREARAGES. 
  If any member fails to pay his annual 
dues within a period of six months he shall 
be deemed in arrears. Any member in ar- 
rears for dues or for any other obligation, 
to the Association shall be notified by the" 
Secretary of such arrearages and if the 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
same be not paid within thirty days after 
such notice, then the name of such member 
shall be stricken from the roster of member- 
ship and he shall no longer be entitled to 
any of the privileges of the Association. 
Any person having been a member of the 
Association and being in arrears thereto on 
any account, shall not again become a mem- 
ber of the Association, and shall be barred 
from entering any dog in its trials until 
such arrearages shall have been paid. 
  VII. -MEETING OF THE BOARD OF 
             GOVERNORS. 
  Meetings of the Board of Governors will 
be called when deemed necessary by the 
President or Secretary. 
         VIII.-AMENDMENTS. 
  Amendments to these By-Laws may be 
made at any annual meeting by a majority 
vote of members in good standing, present 
in person. 
 
      FIELD TRIALS, RULES AND 
            REGULATIONS. 
  1. Trials and Stakes.-There shall be 
Spring and Fall field trials on game birds, 
conducted by the Association, which shall be 
held at such time and place as may be de- 
termined by the Board of Governors; but 
the time and place of all trials and stakes 
to be run shall be publicly announced and 
notice thereof given to each member of the 
Association at least thirty days before the 
trials are held. 
  2. Eligibility.-No dog shall be eligible 
to entrance to any member stakes unless 
owned and handled by a member of the As- 
sociation. Setters of any breed and point- 
ers shall be eligible to any stake; but not 
 
  

					
				
				
 
any dog shall be eligible to the Derby or 
Puppy Stakes unless whelped on or after 
January 1st of the previous year. 
  For all stakes, the partial pedigree if pos- 
sible, names, ages, colors and distinguishing 
marks of the dogs, shall be detailed in writ- 
ing to the Secretary of the Association, to 
be filed at the time of making entry or en- 
tries. Any dog's pedigree, age, or markings 
which shall be proved not to correspond 
with the entry Shall be disqualified and all 
such dog's stakes or winnings shall be for- 
feited. 
  3. Prizes - Medals of Award. - Silver 
cups may be provided, one to be awarded to 
the winner of each stake and known as the 
"Northern States Amateur Field Trial As- 
sociation Cup" and so inscribed. Each cup 
shall remain the property of the Association 
and awarded to the winner in trust for one 
year (or until the next field trial award en- 
titles the new winner to its possession), and 
shall be returned to the Association by the 
person to whom it may have been awarded 
at the next competing field trial, then to be 
again awarded to the winner of that stake. 
  Provided that in the event of any one 
member of the Association winning either 
cup three times, not necessarily in succes- 
sion, then such cup shall become the perma- 
nent property of such member and the 
Board of Governors or any member, if he 
so desires after having the approval of the 
Board of Governors, shall provide another 
cup to take its place and be competed for in 
similar manner. Each cup may be suitably 
inscribed and the names of each winning 
dog, its owner and the year when won shall 
be inscribed on cups. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
  There may be also given three medals of 
award in every amateur stake known as the 
"Northern States Amateur Field Trial As- 
sociation's Medal of Award." Equal awards 
barred. 
  4. Time for Entries.-The time for en- 
tering dogs in stakes shall close at time of 
the drawings for each stake, except when 
otherwise advertised. 
  5. Entrance Fees.-The entrance fees in 
all stakes shall be decided by the Board of 
Governors not less than thirty days before 
each trial. The nominating fee, if there is 
one, must accompany every entry and start- 
ing fee must be paid before the drawing for 
the trials. The custom shall be to hold the 
drawing the evening before the day of the 
trials; but the Board of Governors may 
postpone the drawing to not later than one 
hour before the time announced to start the 
running in the stake. 
  6. Judges.-All trials shall be run before 
a judge or judges, who shall be selected by 
the Board of Governors. The Board of Gov- 
ernors shall instruct the secretary to an- 
nounce the names of the judges on a date 
in advance of the drawing. The judges shall 
be instructed and then be entrusted with the 
running of the trial after the first brace is 
cast off. 
  7. Objections to Entries.   Any person 
owning or handling a dog entered in a stake 
may object to any entry in such stake by 
filing such objection in writing with the 
Secretary, who shall thereupon notify the 
Board of Governors thereof. The Board of 
Governors shall hear and determine any 
such objection, and may, upon its own mo- 
tion, for good and sufficient cause, reject 
any entry. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
  8. Drawing Dogs for Running -Absent 
Dogs. - Dogs shall be drawn by lot and 
numbered in the order drawn. Each dog 
shall run in the first series as a brace with 
the next available dog in that order. After 
the first series has been run through, the 
judges shall announce which dogs they wish 
to see run again and the order of running 
them, and the judges shall have the power 
of calling up and running again any dog 
or dogs, irrespective of previous announce- 
ments. Discretion is given the judges to 
run the dogs as often and in whatever or- 
der they wish, until they are satisfied which 
are the best dogs; but they may announce 
in writing to the Secretary the winners any 
time after the first series. Any dog absent 
during any series for more than ten minutes 
after his number is called shall be disquali- 
fied from further competition, unless, for 
good cause, the judges otherwise determine. 
  9. Notice of Commencement of Trials. 
Immediately before the dogs are drawn at 
any meeting the time and place of putting 
down the first brace shall be announced and 
posted in a conspicuous place. 
  10. Order of Program.-All stakes shall 
be run in order printed. 
  11. Dogs Owned by the Same Person.- 
If two dogs owned or handled by the same 
person should come together in any series, 
the second dog, so owned or handled, shall 
change places with the first dog not so 
owned or handled. This change shall be 
effected in the order of running if possible; 
if not possible, then in the reverse order of 
running. If such separation is found to be 
impracticable, or without benefit, the run- 
ning together of two such dogs may be per- 
mitted. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
  12. Bye-Dogs.--The bye-dog in any ser- 
ies should run with a dog selected by the 
judges, with the owner's consent. 
  13. Handlers of Dogs.-All dogs in mem- 
bership stakes must be handled by their 
owner or some member of the Association 
that he may designate, other than a profes- 
sional, "meaning any person who receives or 
has received compensation for handling or 
training dogs or has accepted cash prizes 
for handling dogs other than his own;" but 
when a dog is down an owner must not in- 
terfere with his dog if he has authorized 
another person to handle and hunt him. 
   14. Manner of Handling Dogs.-Guns. 
The person handling and hunting a dog may 
speak, whistle and work him by hand as he 
may deem proper, but he shall be called to 
order by the judges for making any unnec- 
essary noise, or for any disorderly conduct, 
and if, after being cautioned, he persists in 
such noise or disorderly conduct, they shall 
order the dog to be taken up and adjudged 
out of the stake. Dogs that trail their 
brace mates at the order of the Judges 
should be taken up. An opponent's dog must 
not be interfered with or excited. Trickery 
or jockeying on the part of a handler will 
not be tolerated and will subject him to be- 
ing prohibited from continuing in the trials. 
 
   The handler's gun must not be loaded or 
shot except on order of the judges. 
   If an opponent's dog points game, the dog 
 must not be drawn across him to take the 
 point; but if not backing of his own accord 
 he may be brought around behind the point- 
 ing dog. Dogs must be hunted together, 
 and their handlers must follow within a 
 reasonable distance of each other. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
  15. Misconduct of Persons.-If any per- 
son shall openly impugn any action or de- 
cision of the judges, or any one of them, or 
shall in any way annoy them during the 
progress of the trial, or shall be guilty of 
any ungentlemanly or improper conduct, 
judges may order such person off the field 
or grounds on which the trials are being 
run. And any such conduct on the part of 
any person, whether he be handling a dog 
or not, may be reported to the judges, and, 
for good and sufficient cause, they may de- 
bar such person from further participation 
in the trial. 
  16. Spectators - Field Marshall - Han- 
dling Dogs - Shooting. - No person other 
than judges will be permitted to accompany 
the handlers of dogs competing in any heat. 
Two persons are prohibited from working 
one dog. If from any cause the handleiF 
of a running dog is disabled to such an ex- 
tent that he cannot handle the dog or shoot, 
by permission of the judges, he may select 
some person to handle the dog and shoot for 
him. The judges may in any case require 
the handlers running dog to go through 
minutely the evolution of shooting blank 
cartridges over any or every established 
point, upon being ordered to flush a bird. 
The handlers of the two dogs shall go to- 
gether as when handling a brace of dogs, 
and shall work and hunt them as in ordi- 
nary shooting, so that the dogs shall be on 
an equality as to ground, opportunities for 
finding, etc. Spectators shall not be allowed 
nearer the handlers of dogs running than 
fifty yards to the rear. The privilege is 
granted handlers to ask the judges for in- 
formation or explanation that has a direct 
bearing upon any point. The Board of 
Governors shall appoint a field marshall who 
shall enforce this rule as to spectators and 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
perform such other duties as may be as- 
signed him by the judges or Board of Gov- 
ernors, and who shall receive such compen- 
sation as may be determined by the Board 
of Governors. 
  17. "Objectionable Dogs..-Dogs afflicted 
with any contagious disease, or bitches in 
season, or unduly attracting attention of the 
competing dog, will not be permitted on the 
grounds, and must be withdrawn at the dis- 
cretion of the judges. 
  18. Protest.-All protests, when practi- 
cable, except as hereinbefore provided, must 
be made and delivered to the secretary of 
the Association, or in case of his absence, to 
the president, or in case of his absence, to 
a member of the governing committee, at 
or before midnight of the day of running 
the final heat in the second stake. 
  19. Time of Heats.--Every brace in the 
trials shall be run for not less than twenty 
minutes, and for such additional time as the 
judges may require to determine the re- 
spective merits of the dogs. 
   20. Unproductive Points. - Every    dog 
 shall have ample opportunity to discover 
 whether he is on a true point. Pointing fur, 
 feather, retile or scent of game birds shall 
 not be considered an unproductive point. No 
 assistance shall be given by the handler to 
 enable a dog to discover whether he is on a 
 true point. 
   21. Backing-Holding Dog on Point.-A 
dog should be held on a point for the pur- 
pose of allowing the judges to see the dog 
on Point (only). Dogs should be brought 
up to back only when opportunity offers 
without interfering with the pointing dog; 
and a dog drawing on or pointing game 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
shall be afforded ample opportunity to 
locate the same, it being discretionary with 
the judges to order the opposing dog to be 
held in check, but until a point be estab- 
lished both dogs may be permitted to go 
uncnecked. Should a dog be held an un- 
reasonable time on a point he must not be 
penalized for a resulting fault. 
  22. Testing the Merits of Dogs. - The 
number of times a dog points, backs, etc., 
shall not necessarily give him the prefer- 
ence, but the judges shall consider the qual- 
ity of the performance rather than the fre- 
quency of the occurrence, and shall give 
greater credit to the dog showing in the 
highest degree those qualities which are 
essential to a good field dog for practical 
use. The standard of work shall be a well- 
balanced performance; that is to say, the 
judges will consider the quality commonly 
called "bird sense," the intelligent and use- 
ful beating out of the ground within proper 
limits, roading and pointing, ability to find, 
obedience, and work to the gun, speed, 
range, nose and endurance. This is intended 
to include all the details, such as backing, 
general training, etc. As to ranging, the 
judges will consider long     straightaway 
casts as faulty work if there are available 
sections left unworked, and if the casts 
mentioned are habitual. This shall not ap- 
ply to a long cast taken intelligently be- 
times to work out a likely place when the 
ground is unfavorable near at hand, provid- 
ing the dog's usual range is good. Swing- 
ing repeatedly around behind the handler at 
the end of a cast, working the same ground 
over repeatedly, leaving repeatedly good 
ground unworked, frittering away time on 
bare, unpromising ground, running with no 
purpose of finding, and looking much after 
the handler are faulty methods. Continual 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
whistling and assistance on the part of the 
handler will also lower the dog's perform- 
ance. A dog must obey commands with 
reasonable promptness. Loud and continu- 
ous whistling or shouting will seriously im- 
pair a dog's standing in the competition. As 
to pointing, backing, roading and drawing, 
a distinction shall be made between what 
the dog does himself, and what the handler 
does for him. Coaching and helping a dog 
in general when he is on the scent of birds 
must lower the grade of his performance. 
When, through the marking of birds, one 
handler has succeeded in getting more 
points for his dog than his competitor, the 
judges must consider the merit of the dog 
independently of his handler's assistance. 
Working to the gun is of great considera- 
tion. Faults of puppies in this respect may 
be treated more leniently than similar faults 
of dogs in the All-Age Stake. The purpose 
of the trials is to determine 'which dogs 
have the best natural qualities nd are best 
field dogs for practical .use. 
  23. Breaking Shot-Training.-The per- 
fect training and obedience of a dog shall 
not be necessary to entitle him to win, n!at- 
ural merit being paramount. But every dog 
must be so trained and under such control 
as to be susceptible of handling to such an 
extent as to be of use in actual hunting on 
the field and to enable the judges to proper- 
ly judge of his merit as a field dog. The 
purpose of the bird dog being to afford 
sportsmen pleasant experience on the field, 
it is necessary for every dog in the trials 
to be properly trained. And a dog not reas- 
cnably trained and well handled must be 
penalized, and particularly for false'point- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Between Solon Springs and Gordon, Wis., west of Highway No. 53 
 
  OFFICERS AND     BOARD    OF GOVERNORS (1939) 
 
 
             President 
         Howard L. Carver, 
           146 Merritt St., 
           Oshkosh, Wis. 
Dr. H. H. Ainsworth, 
  Birchwood, Wis. 
 
 
Fred H. Farnsworth, 
501 Plymouth Court, 
 
 
                 Vice Presidents 
  Dr. Chas. A. Manahan, 1st, Larry A. Henning, 2nd 
          Box 474           1603 S. 43rd St., 
        Vinton, Iowa        Milwaukee, Wis. 
F. P. Ferguson,         Ben R. Toensing, 
Park Falls, Wis.       1006 Roanoke Bldg., 
 
 
                    Chicago, Ill.                                   Minneapoli

 
TRIALS ON PRAIRIE CHICKENS, LAST 01 APRIL AND SEPTEMBER EACH YEAR 
 
 
                      "MAKE IT YOUR' ACATION TIME" 
 
 
s, Minn. 
 
 
CLABE L. WILDNER, Secretary-Treasurer, 
 
 
Androy Hotel, Superior, Wisconsin 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
ing, unsteadiness to wing and shot, and 
chasing feather and fur. But all these faults 
must be considered by the judges with dis- 
cretion and reason. 
  24. Retrieving.--Retrieving shall not be 
required or considered in any stake in de- 
termining the winners. 
  25. Backing. - Greater credit shall be 
given for the dog which backs voluntarily 
than to one that backs on command. 
  26. Range and Speed. - Greater credit 
shall be given to the dog which maintains 
the fastest speed and does the most intelli- 
gent ranging, wide or close, as the character 
of the ground requires. 
  27. Obedience and Disposition.-Greater 
credit shall be given to the dog which works 
promptly, without noise or :severity, and is 
obedient, prompt, swift and e6asy to handle.- 
  28. Bird Sense.-Greater credit shall be 
given to the dog which shows the greater 
bird sense. Bird sense is shown in the dog 
by his desire to hunt for birds, his method 
of hunting out grounds, his industry in stay- 
ing out at work and his skill in handling 
and pointing birds after he finds them. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
           EXPLANATION. 
  Breaking In.-Is where a dog, through 
imperfect breaking, or from    birds rise, 
whether the gun is fired or not, and starts 
to chase, but stops within a few feet from 
where he started, of his own accord or by 
command. 
  Breaking Shot.-Is where a dog runs in 
when a shot is fired with the intention of 
getting to the bird, and does not stop 
promptly at command. 
  Chasing.-Is where a dog follows the 
birds either when a gun is fired, or not, to 
any extent, to beyond the control of his 
handler for thetime being. 
  Pottering.-Is where the dog puts his 
nose to the ground and attempts to trail the 
birds. 
  29. Definition.-The word "dog" as used 
in these rules, shall be construed to mean 
both dog and bitch. 
  The word "amateur" shall be construed 
to mean a person who engages in the sport 
of field trials for the sole purpose of sport, 
one who does not handle or train dogs in 
field work for remuneration of any kind- 
cash or perquisites. 
  Application for entry blanks, or any other 
information furnished on request to the Sec- 
retary, Clare L. Wildner, Superior, Wis. 
  Note. -The Northern States Amateur 
Field Trial Association have their own 
grounds in a 20,0007 acre game sanctuary 
with furnished club house, kennels, memor- 
ial cemetery, trailer camp, chukar par- 
tridge farm, and many other Field Trial 
necessities just west of State Highway No. 
53, between the Village of Gordon and Solon 
Springs, Wis. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
    PROFESSIONAL     FIELD   TRIAL 
              HANDLERS 
  We feel privileged in listing the names 
and addresses of the following professional 
dog handlers, in that they have all com- 
peted with dogs at our trials: believing that 
if anyone writes -them, they surely can re- 
ceive an expression of what they at least 
think of our grounds near Solon Springs, 
and  the courtesies the Northern  States 
Amateur Field Trial Association has shown 
all professional handlers. 
Addison, Tom ----------......... I ------ Kissimmee, Fla. 
Andreson, Oscar W .-............----------- Itasca, Ill. 
Andrews, Robt. J .--------------------- Kinmundy, Ill. 
Armstrong, R. K .------------------ Fitzpatrick, Ga. 
Black, C. Bert ------------......Jefferson City, Tenn. 
Campbell, John C .---------------- Fitzpatrick, Ala. 
Cooling, Carl --------------------------------- Sussex, Wis. 
Cox, Tom ---------------------------------- Renssalaer, Ind. 
Cummins, Frank -------........----------- Orlando, Fla. 
Decker, Harry ---------------------------- Winimac, Ind. 
Downs, E. E -........----------------------- Morocco, Ind. 
Downs, Jess --------------------------------- Morocco, Ind. 
Downs, Tom --------------------------------- Morocco, Ind. 
Farrior, Ed Mack ........... Union Springs, Ala. 
Gammon, Montague -------- Petersburg, W. Va. 
Garr, Roy P .------------------------------ LaGrange, Ky. 
Gates, John S .----------------------------- Safford, Ala. 
Gray, Geo. A .------------------I--------Appleton, Minn. 
Honeyman, Glenn ------------------ Milwaukee, Wis. 
Jones, T. W .------------------------------- Sylvania, Ohio 
Kirk, Howard ................ Hickory Valley, Tenn. 
Lunsford, T. M ................................. Ewing, Ill. 
McDuffy, Elton ------............-------------- Ewing, Ill. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
C. E. Minninger ----------------------- Republic, Mich. 
Parker, John -------------------- Neosho Falls, Kans. 
Powell, Robt., Jr .---------------------------- LouiSa, Va. 
Pritchett, Mack ----------------------- Catoosa, Okla 
Redman, 0. S ............................. Wellston, Ohio 
Rodgers, Glenard W.-...,................ Newton, Ill. 
Smith, Geo. B .------------------ Solon Springs, Wis. 
Smith, Luther -----...........----------- Cleveland, Ohio 
Smith, Ray .................................. Dahlgren,  Ill. 
Threlkeld, Willard E .--------------------- Ewing, Ill. 
 
            OUR GROUNDS 
Are located half a mile west of Federal 
Highway No. 53, halfway between Gordon 
and Solon Springs, Wis. They are rolling in 
nature, very open consisting of some 20,000 
acres, in which any dog can be shown to 
an advantage. The courses are 15 miles in 
length. The Club House is completely fur- 
nished, has electric lights, hot and cold wa- 
ter, and will service some twenty odd peo- 
ple. 
  We have ample Pinnated and Sharp Tail 
Grouse, and carry on a fall and winter feed- 
ing program consisting of about 100 acres 
in small patches, of buckwheat, which is 
left standing, with 100 artifizial feed hop- 
pers filled with grain during the winter with 
shelters over them. The grounds are pro- 
tected and posted. Erected upon the grounds 
also we have artificial nesting places and 
dusting pens for grouse. It is the only 
place in America where pinnated and sharp 
tail grouse are being cultivated as a wild 
crop in such a manner. 
  Our trails are well defined in every way 
and our trials can be viewed from horse- 
back, an automobile, or from a wagon. Our 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
chukar partridge farm under- construction 
will have a capacity of 5,00.0 birds a year; 
kennels holding about 500 dogs, ample horse 
barns. A memorial cemetery for members' 
dogs, a free pet stock cemetery for the 
public. We have carried on a planting of 
natural food and cover for birds, in hopes 
that in five years, artificial feeding will not 
be necessary. The following shrubs have 
been planted: Red Mulberry, Golden Wil- 
low, Japanese Bittersweet, Scarlet Oak, 
Buckthorn, Summac, White Ash, Russian 
Olive, Rosa Blanda, Scots Pine, Caragana,. 
Northern Holly, Stegara Rose, Bittersweet, 
Button Bush, Ninebark, Burr Oak, Wild 
Grape, Black Locust, Woodbine, Mountain 
Ash, Black Cherry, and Frost Grape. 
  The Public is always welcome. 
          AN APPRECIATION 
  The officers and Board of Governors of 
the Northern States Amateur Field Trial 
Association  graciously acknowledge the 
splendid co-operation in every way, from 
the following. Through their assistance the 
"Douglas County Bird Sanctuary" has de- 
veloped into one of the greatest "Field Trial 
Grounds" in the United States. 
  Sports Afield. 
  Wisconsin Sportsman. 
  Douglas County Fish and Game Protec- 
    tive League. 
  Village of Solon Springs. 
  Duluth News-Tribune. 
  Wisconsin Journal. 
  Evening Telegram. 
  The American Field. 
  Douglas County Eoard of Supervisors. 
  Superior Association of Commerce. 
  Works Progress Administration. 
  The Conservation Commission of Wiscon- 
    sin. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
   INTERESTING ETHICS OF FIELD 
                TRIALS 
  A Secretary of a Field Trial Association 
is supreme in power until the first brace in 
each stake is let loose. Then the authority 
rests with the judges. If there are any spe- 
cial rules of the club in judging, the judges 
should be informed of this in writing before 
the trials start. 
  A Field Trial Marshal is appointed and 
present for the ccnvenience of the judges, 
and should be near the judges at all times, 
in front of the gallery. It seems plausible 
that every judge should be in front of the 
gallery in that the competing dog's owner 
has paid his entrance fee and tne least the 
judge can do is to give the dog attention in 
the stake. 
  Judges and the Press are the invited 
guests of the club, and we make every ef- 
fort to show them every courtesy possible, 
within our means. We have the better 
horses for them, and that is true of rooms 
and meals. We try to see that they are 
given the courtesy of riding to and from 
the field trial grounds. Judging and writing 
is very hard work, and we all make every 
effort to save their energy. 
  The printed program of any trial, in 
naming the judges, automatically names the 
Senior Judge first. All announcements at 
a trial should be made by the Senior Judge. 
All braces of any stake are released at the 
order of the Senior Judge, but he first asks 
the Junior Judge if ready. 
  All Judges should have watches, and an 
easy way to keep track of time is to turn 
one's watch back to an even hour, as each 
brace is released. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
  In the starting of each brace, the Junior 
Judge should place himself at the left of 
the Senior Judge. In the following of an 
out-going dog, away from the course, the 
Senior Judge designates who shall follow 
the dog. When a handler calls "point," 
both the judges, if possible, should ride up, 
and after they have witnessed the dog on 
point, the Senior Judge asks the handler to 
raise his birds. If he desires the handler 
to shoot, he directs him to do so. 
  Never", should the handler bring his dog 
up to' 4 pointing dog, until asked to do so 
by one of the judges. 
  All decisions by judges should be in writ- 
ing, and handed to the Secretary. It then 
becomes the property of the club, and the 
Secretary makes the announcements if he 
desires. 
  If any one dog in any stake does remark- 
able work, not in view of the other judge, 
common courtesy should demand, in case 
of a dispute in the placement of such a dog, 
that the dogs under discussion be run in a 
second series. As a rule no dog should be 
ordered up unless the handler is asked if he 
knows where his dog is, or if he can be seen 
hunting. 
  If a dog gets off the course and returns in 
frcnt of the judges without his handler, one 
of the judges should immediately designate 
someone to handle the dog until the handler 
returns. Before a brace is released it is 
well for the handlers to show both sides of 
their dcgs to the judges, walking them back 
and forth, especially if there is a likeness in 
the coloration and size. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
  Most judges prefer to say nothing about 
scouting, but in rendering their decisions 
they take into consideration the amount of 
scouting that has been given a handler. 
However, if in any stake scouting is -abso- 
lutely forbidden, the handler should know 
this before the stake is started. When all 
dogs are out of judgment in a stake it be- 
comes the duty of the Field Trial Marshal 
to stop the gallery until one or both dogs 
are under judgment. However, if one dog 
is out of judgment don't penalize the other 
dog by holding up the gallery. 
  If an owner or handler asks permission 
to pick a dog up during a brace, where pos- 
sible, the Senior Judge should give the per- 
mission. In case of a handler or owner 
asking to withdraw his dog from the stake 
before the stake is run, he should notify 
the Secretary and the Secretary in turn ask 
permission from   the judges.   The Field 
Trial Marshal should transmit all orders to 
handlers, scouts, secretaries, and others, 
from the judges. 
  Don't penalize your own dog by telling 
the judges what it is all about. They know, 
and the officers know, that the judges are 
efficient and capable or they would not have 
invited these men to judge. 
  At the end of the day if there is time 
for one or more braces in the next stake, it 
is far more fair to stop for the day and 
start the next stake in the morning, giving 
each brace the same weather conditions in 
the stake. 
  It is well in judging to always keep in 
mind a dog as first dog, one that is head 
and shoulders above the rest in his work. 
And don't call this same dog back in a 
series, to win it again. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
  Many field trial secretaries and officers 
are frowning upon a divided place. There 
is no question in the minds of the average 
.field trial judge that one dog is better than 
the other and as a rule, professional han- 
dlers do not like divided third places. Own- 
ers and handlers, regardless of how effi- 
cient the judge is, desire a change in judges 
once in a while. This is only human and 
shows sportsmanship on the part of the 
club. The gallery should bear in mind at 
all times that the judges, while judging, are 
watching the dogs at all times; not taking 
part of their time talking to the gallery and 
their friends. 
   After a trial, every judge likes to have 
various individuals thank him for the fair- 
ness of the decisions, and the pleasure of his 
presence. 
 
  FIELD TRIAL AND SHOOTING DOGS 
                TRAINED 
   The following Professional Handlers be- 
long to the Northern States Amateur Field 
Trial Association, Inc. 
   We believe they should be given a great 
deal of consideration when you decide to 
send your dog away to be trained. 
   They are: 
 Oscar W. Andreson -------------------------- Itasca, Ill. 
           Chicago Land Kennels 
Fred Armstrong _----------------------- Anoka, Minn. 
Carl Cooling ---------------------------------- Sussex, Wis. 
Thomas W'. Cox ------------------------------ Flora, Miss. 
Ed. Mack Farrior ------------ Union Springs, Ala. 
John S. Gates -------------------------------- Safford, Ala. 
T. W. Jones -------------------------------- Sylvania, Ohio 
Frank M. Milliman ------------------ Republic, Mich. 
George B. Smith -------------- Solon Springs, Wis. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
           MEMBERSHIP LIST-AUGUST, 1939 
NORTHERN STATES FIELD TRIAL ASSOCIATION, INC. 
 
 
ADAMS, NORMAN L. 
C/O Rueper Leather Co. 
Fond du Lac, Wisconsin 
AINSWORTH, DR. H. H1. 
Birchwood, Wisconsin 
ALEXANDER, DR. W. H. 
Iron Mountain, Michigan 
*ALDRICH, C. F. 
492 Otis Avenue 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
ANDERSEN, ARTHUR J. 
1814 Broadway 
Superior, Wisconsin 
ANDRESON, OSCAR W. 
Chicago Land Kennels 
Itasca, Illinois 
ARBUCKLE, LLOYD 
Lake Village, Indiana 
 
 
* Indicates Charter Members 
 
ARMSTRONG. FRED 
Anoka, Minnesota 
*I3ACON, DR. L. C. 
Hamm Bldg. 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
BARNARD, E. S. 
Wuerth Theatre Bldg. 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 
BRACH, V. FRANK 
Glen View, Illinois 
BRENNAN, CHARLES 0. 
524 Hodgson Bldg. 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
BURKE, GEORGE E. 
Indianapolis Athletic Club 
Indianapolis, Indiana 
CARVER HOWARD 
146 Meritt Street 
Oshkosh, Wisconsin 
 
 
COLLINS, DR. J. J. 
207½ Main Street 
Watertown, Wisconsin 
COOLING, CARL 
Sussex, Wisconsin 
CORIDAN, T. D. 
Fortville, Ind. 
COSGROVE, MRS. ED. 
Solon Springs, Wisconsin 
COSGROVE, GEORGE 
Solon Springs, Wisconsin 
COX, THOMAS W. 
Flora, Mississippi 
DICKEY, JAMES E. 
5025 Dupont Ave. S. 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
DONALDSON, JOHN 
707 Summit Avenue 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
FARNSWORTH, FRED H. 
501 Plymouth Court 
Chicago, Illinois 
FARRIOR, ED. MACK 
Union Spring, Alabama 
FELTMAN, GEORGE R. 
Union City, Indiana 
FERGUSON, F. P. 
Park Falls, Wisconsin 
FEURHERM, E. G. 
773 N. Prospect Avenue 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
FLEER, B. E. 
1814 Broadway 
Superior. Wisconsin 
GATES, JOHN S. 
Safford, Alabama 
GALLAUER, CARL, JR. 
4027 West Scott Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
GOBRIGHT, C. F. 
1579 E. Milwaukee Avenue 
Detroit, Michigan 
 
 
HENNEBERRY, G. F. 
4001 Ravenswood Ave. 
Chicago, Illinois 
HENNING, L. A. 
1603 South 43rd Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
HENNING, MRS. L. A. 
Nashotah, Wisconsin 
HOPKINS, RALPH JR. 
20 N. Carroll 
Madison, Wisconsin 
HUMPHREY, DR. W. R. 
Stillwater, Minnesota 
JACOBSON, A. T. 
Menominee Falls, Wisconsin 
JONES, T. W. 
Sylvania, Ohio 
KELLY, MRS. ERMA B. 
Mgr. Androy Hotel, 
Superior, Wisconsin 
KELLEY, JAMES E. 
425 Hamm Bldg. 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
 
 
KINGSFORD, E. S. 
Iron Mountain, Michigan 
LONEY, STOCKTON 
1717 Winter Street 
Superior, Wisconsin 
MacGRAHERAN, JOE 
500 Security Bldg. 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
MANAHAN, DR. CHAS. A. 
Box 474 
Vinton, Iowa 
McNAUGHTON, JAMES W. 
2617 East 5th Street 
Superior, Wisconsin 
McQUALLIAN, J. R. 
736 5th Avenue 
Antigo, Wisconsin 
MILES, CURTIS W. 
Cleveland Club 
Cleveland, Ohio 
MILLIMAN, FRANK M. 
Republic, Michigan 
MORGAN, DON E. 
1922 St. Anthony Blvd. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
MORGAN, E. J. 
Island Station, R. 7 
Golden Valley 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
NELSON ARTHUR E. 
1615 Pioneer Bldg. 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
ODEKIRK, C. K. 
Athletic Club 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
OWNES, LEO B. 
370 Summit Avenue 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
POUNDSTONE, EARL 
Park Falls, Wisconsin 
PLATER, DR. J7, RUE 
208 E, Wisconsin Avenue 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
PREVOST, LEO 
Solon Springs, Wisconsin 
REDMAN, 0. S. 
Wellston, Ohio 
 
 
ROEN, I. B. 
Mellen, Wisconsin 
ROGERS, R. W., SR. 
148 Clybourne Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
ROGERS, ROBERT W., JR. 
148 Clybourne Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
ROSS, MAXINE 
Excelsior, Minnesota 
ROYS, WILLIAM B. 
C/O Gen'l Casualty Co. 
Madison, Wisconsin 
SHEPARD, LAYTON S. 
354 Washington Blvd. 
Oshkosh, Wisconsin 
SMITH, GEORGE B. 
Solon Springs, Wisconsin 
SMITH, NEIL 
Roth Bros. Co. 
Superior, Wisconsin 
STALL, DR. A. H. 
H. R. No. 1 
Akron, Ohio 
 
 
THOMPSON, M. W. 
St. Paul Ass'n of Commerce 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
TOENSING, BEN R. 
1004 Roanoke Bldg. 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
TREGILAS, DR. H. R. 
Drovers Bank Bldg. 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
UNDERHILL, HOWARD J, 
Water, Light and Power Co, 
Superior, Wisconsin 
VAN VLECK, H. H. 
921 Tower Avenue 
Superior, Wisconsin 
WALKER, WM. 
501 Plymouth Court 
Chicago, Ill. 
WARD, HAROLD R. 
432 Security Bldg. 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
WARREN, DR. E. L. 
550 Lowry Medical Arts Bldg, 
St. Paul, Minnesota 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
WELCH, ARTI 
192 S. 2nd StreE 
Milwaukee, Wis 
 
 
TLR W.        WHITMAN, B. B.           *WILDNER, CL 
t             Hotel Francis Drake       Superior, XWisc( 
consin        Minneapolis, Minnesota 
              YALE, GEORGE E. 
              Yale Laundry Company 
              Superior, Wisconsin 
 
 WE AIRE A CORPORATION OF THE STATE OF MINNESOTA 
 
 
ARE L. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                       HISTORY 
     NORTHERN STATES AMATEUR FIELD TRIAL ASSOCIATION 
 
 
                                               1922 
A p p le to n , M in n - .---- .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..----------------------------------
- S e p t. 1 3 th D r . W a r d A k e s te r , P re s id e n t 1 4 S t 
     Judging-Geo. A. Gray.                              Marshall, Minn. 
                                               1923 
Benson, Minn.  -................................................................
Sept. 13th  Dr. W ard  Akester, President  42  St 
     Judging-0. A. Drews, J. D. Turner.                 Marshall, Minn. 
                                               1924 
M o r r is , M in n - .------- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..---
--- ---- ------ -- -------- -- --------- - S e p t . 1 1 th E . E . S im
o n s , P r e s id e n t , 5 9 S t 
     Judging-0. H. Niemeyer, Dr. Louis A. Heeley.       Minneapolis, Minn.

                             At above trial Puppy Stakes were also held.

                                               1925 
Puppy Trials Solon Springs, Wis ---_---------------------- May 3rd  Clare
L. Wildner. President,  28 St 
     Judging-F. A. Walsh, 0. H. Niemeyer.               Superior, Wis. 
Fall Trials W arren, Minnesota ------------------------------ Aug. 31st 
      52 St 
     Judging C. D. Jordan, C. H. Babcock. 
                                               1926 
Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ---------------------- April 30th 
     Judging-George Kramer, Irving C. Swan.        Clare L. Wildner, President
........ 24 St 
Fall Trials-Breckenridge, Minn ............................. Aug. 30th  Superior,
Wis. 
     Judging  0. W. Campbell, J. Horace Lytle.                          
      52 St 
 
 
arters 
 
 
arters 
 
 
arters 
 
 
 
arters 
arters 
 
 
 
arters 
arters 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                 1927 
No Puppy Trials. 
Fall Trials-Breckenridge, Minn ............. Sept. 5th Harry E. Speakes,
President, 46 Starters 
     Judging-F. A. Walsh, Dr. W. R. Humphrey,               St. Paul, Minn.

       W. H. Bean. 
                                                  1928 
Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis .......... ................ May 7th  M. J.
Gibbons, President,  44 Starters 
     Judging-Thatcher A. Parker, G. E. Wood.                St. Paul, Minn.

Fall Trials-Barnesville, Minn ................................. Sept. 18th
         66 Starters 
     Judging-Dr. T. Benton King, J. D. Ellis. 
                                                  1929 
Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ......................... April 28th  M.
J. Gibbons, President,  25 Starters 
     Judging-J. B. Thompson, Dr. H. C. Durkee.              St. Paul, Minn.

No Fall Trials. 
                                                  1930 
Puppy Trials, Anoka, Minn .................................... April 27th
 Earl Poundstone, President,  46 Starters 
     Judging-Frank Walsh, G. R. Feltman.                    Mellen, Wis.

Fall Trials-Sisseton, S. D . .................. Sept. 13th              
           43 Starters 
     Judging-J. B. Thompson, C. H. Babcock. 
                                                  1931 
Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis .......................... May 2nd  Earl
Poundstone, President,  28 Starters 
     Judging-G. R. Feltman, W. B., Spears.                  Mellen, Wis.

Fall Trial' -Solon Springs, Wis ........... .................. Sept. 19th
          27 Starters 
     Judging-Clare L. Wildner, W. B. Spears. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                                                  1932 
Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis .....................April 29th  C. T. Carney,
President,  34 Starters 
     Judging-G. E. Wood, Dr. L. C. Bacon.                  Des Moines, Iowa

Fall Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ............................ Sept. 17th  
           32 Starters 
     Judging-Martin J. Hogan, F. A. Walsh. 
 
                                                  1933 
Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ....................... April 29th  C. T.
Carney, President,  33 Starters 
     Judging-J. E. Dickey, C. L. Gloyd.                     Des Moines, Iowa

Fall Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ............................. Sept. 16th 
           23 Starters 
     Judging-Martin J. Hogan, C. L. Gloyd. 
 
                                                  1934 
Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ............ May 6th 
     Judging-W. B. Spears, Clare L. Wildner.          C. T. Carney, President,
     34 Starters 
Fall Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ............................. Sept. 16th 
Des Moines, Iowa 
     Judging-Thatcher A. Parker, Howard Carver,                         
           44 Starters 
       Clare L. Wildner. 
 
                                                  1935 
Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ........................... May 4th  Art
Welch, President,  47 Starters 
     Judging-W. B. Spears, Frank A. Walsh.                  Milwaukee, Wis.

Fall Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ............................. Sept. 21st 
           73 Starters 
     Judging-Martin J. Hogan, J. Horace Lytle. 
     Fall Trials had dedication of 20,000-acre Bird Sanctuary and Club House.
Principal Speaker, 
 General Ralph Immell, Administrator, Works Progress Administration for Wisconsin.

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                  1936 
Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ----------------------. --May 2nd  Wm. Walker,
President.  40 Starters 
      Judging-0. H. Niemeyer, Howard L. Carver.             Chicago, Ill.

-Fall Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ............................. Sept. 26th
           92 Starters 
      Judging-Thatcher A. Parker, G. R. Feitman. 
                                                  1937 
Puppy Trials Solon Springs, Wis ........................... May 1st 
      Judging-Harry Decker, Lloyd Arbuckle.            Wm. Walker. President,
      74 Starters 
 Fall Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ............................. Sept. 25th
 Chicago, Ill. 
      Judging.-Frank A. Walsh, Martin J. Hogan,                         
          106 Starters 
      Lloyd Arbuckle. 
                                                  1938 
 Puppy Trials---Solon Springs, Wis ....................... April 30th 
      Judging-T. D. Coridan. James E. Kelley.          Howard Carver, President
    61 Starters 
 Fall Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ......................... ...Sept. 24th 
Oshkosh, Wis. 
      Judging-T. D. Coridan, Lloyd Arbuckle,                            
          111 Starters 
        E. C. Poundstone. 
                                                  1939 
 Puppy Trials-Solon Springs, Wis ........................ April 29th 
      Judging-CGeo. R. Feitman, James E. Kehey.        Howard Carver, President,
   56 Starters 
 Fall Trials Solon Springs, W is ............................. S-pt. 29th
 Oshkosh, W is. 
      Judging-Fred C. Leggett, Dr. Ben H. Talbut,                       
             Starters 
        Earl Poundstone. 
      During these seventeen years the Northern States Amateur Field Trial
Association, Inc., has 
  had only four Secretaries-'E. R. Henkle and Clarence Aldrich, of St. Paul,
Minnesota, Howard 
  Carver, of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and Clare L. Wildner, Superior, Wisconsin.

 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      "Mlp wP 
DOUGLAS COUNTY 
 
 
          LEGEND 
 
 
 
 
 
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21rý -                --- .....T4 - 
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V.66 d 
 
 
"WT 
 
 
I 
 
 
              R  TownofF CreakOU A 
S      H      B      U      R  N 
 
 
Town of Mnon 
A 
 
 
DOUGLAS 
 
 
I 
 
 
01'I 
 
 
I-' 
 
 
A 
 
 
jis 
W.a 
 
 
   S....... AI.. .', .-Y " ' - 
 LA         Ul  i 
 
 
 
 
 
      :' -i-D  I %Y   -- ! 
 
 
 
 
 
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B U 
 
 
pin 
 
 
 
 
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V Vill , I       I TO               ly                                  
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LAKE $StJ;ZVIE    OF DOLK S COkuN'TYj, "COMf$It 
 
 
* 3.IA4t.Ftvvsv,  G.,rvw a  as xt W  buryy S-ur. 
 
 
W;i-            A. As- ~o- 
 
 
- -  I. 
 
 
 
 
  15'> 
 
 
°¾ 
 
 
('-k~~~~kx   N E,ý  *Xor   fGr ja Re ,  r4 T"-ý)  j 
 
 
A- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
LAOS OF 0UGUS COUTS Y 
 
 
    j.     There are SO l3s in Dougla couny that c ver twenty or more acres.
The total area of these lakes is 
 about 11,900 acres. During the summer of 1931 thirty-six of the larger lakes
were surveyed and studied in detail. 
 Many of the smaller lakes that were not studied are landlocked and too shallow
to support plant ulife. 
                                                    ORIGIN 
           Lakes of Douglas county owe their origin to glacial action which.
completely altered the topography of  
 the land, causing partially. drjined and-umdrained depressions that became
1swaqps *.and. .lakes. kany lakes in the 
 pine barrens are relic lakes. Those arc found in the deeper depressions
of the old Glacial Barrems lake bed 
 which once covered the southeastern part of Douglas county. 
                                                  LA STUDY 
           Lake data tabulated in this report describe conditions of lakeJs
considored important to their utili-. 
 z.ation. It provides information essential for knowing the environment for
fish found in eaoch lakeo. Such a com- 
 parative study of lakes is necessary fpr, a better understanding of lake
ecology so that a more- ffitiont fish 
 planting program can be conducted., 
           Information in regard to water level vaoriations, fishing condi'ticis,
and other data wl.s obtainod 
 fm   personal observatio, and from persons lUving in the vicinity of the
lo   . .. 
           The bottom*in practically all lakes stud~od was covored with a
dark greenish black organic material 
 termed muck. The depth recorded in some of*tho la.os is somowbh, greater
than the actual depth since the 
 sounding apparatus often sank some distance into the mruck bottom. 
           Tomper7.ture and water for analysis of lakes were take:n from
the surface and, in come cases near the 
..bottom. 
           The carbon dioxide content was deterninod by Seyler's rtethod.
"Carbon diokide may exist. in wnter in 
 throedifforont for=s - free carbon dioxid6, bicrbonnte, andcarbonate. Ono-half
the cazbon dioxide as car- 
 bonatot plus one-half that is bicnrbonaote, is Jaomwn as bound. carbon dioxide..

           The harOness and softness of the wator in each l.k owas based
on the amount of bound carbon dioxide 
 presont'in the lae wa.teor which remains feirly constant. 
                                         *THE EFFCT OF   Sý.oý
 TE"PEUTMS ON IiMS 
           Slasoncl temperature changes alter the character of the vater.
In the spring -7hen the tenporatura of 
 the water is uniform, a conploto ciraulation of the water is possible, and
the gases dissolved in the water are 
 distributed in a fairly uaiforir manner. As the season progrossos, the surfa.co
waiter becom.es warm while the lower 
 water remains fni2ly cool. This condition is accocpvnieJ by the zoning of
water into an upper and lower region, 
 and the water circulation tends to become restricted within its rospoctive
u-nns. Shallow lakes seldom become 
 zoned                                                           . 
           In the lower water zone which does not have access to the airp
the cLcomposition or decay of the or- 
 ganic mattor and t1he rospira-tory processes of aquatic life result in the
oxidatirn an.d accumulation of carbon 
 dioxide. If the oxrgon becomes sufficiently lac1lrng in the deeper water,
a condition will develop that is not 
 suitable for aquatic ,niýl  life.Groat Lakes fish such as whitefish,
lIke trout, and ciscoes that require deep, 
 cool water only o:ist in the  lowor deep wtter zone *ihero there is a sufficient
supply of oxygon in the suxor 
 months, Since in LXst iiln? laeos of Wisconsin only the sha/lower portions
of akoc are suitable for fish t'ýfo 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
        c 'hiring the surmzor months,  the stoc'ing of inland lakes with
Groat Lakes fish has not boon succossfal. The effoc4 
        Itiveness ofthe -zoning of 7xater is cxtriezely variabl-e since there
aro.1T%,ffactors to. consider such as wind, cur-. 
        rent, dloihi'type of botton.xxd..the'ike. In the fall the lowering
of thq ate tomporaure on the surface is 
        . followed by-the--sbasonejl- 6vorturn, and a fozogenadtus '.oev.ondition
zgý,. .rqsu; .s.. 
 
        - triet" A.kquati'c- life,6 like trr istriibl-lifog, i diretli.and.
indi.roctl.. .ependont  the balaqLce .of avallable 
                      avail,~ -, fp(ineral                              
        or-~ -&e.tozh6i rItQypee.. of life. 
        --i yorylsrft wark!      there+'.su~ly      lhc!vof'variety ar::Udcco
kef-bo'h plant and: anial life. In such 
             +. s:tlý'e. stockin&:'.0f  dyed 'pikeishWo&-
hifish'-ay dbg'.1e p an_...zQroJly oxist, but does.not propagate, 
        ....zeffd in r..st caseco-. neteven- .Ool6,. In. -very sdft- ater'l
ý-s,.-o.thor fish .ftenr i s-n ell. aid dco..not be- 
        .coneo aun at. -   6t -fthese l2ms-cXe or'haio :boen  onsi    gore
7,goo. fishing-1&.s fo:r bass anO -pvn fish, but it 
        "isqyito -noicolthat in'i.cst c6tsC E  these lakes b-coa  o=ozsil¥';
c~etDclby.-oxeo~sivc fishing bec use, fish-pro- 
        * g~tioin in++vdry- soft water£ a vdry sloi wrroe- .      
  -. 
                      ~n   af-las        I0IOGIC.LL ~LTIOIN TO CIUG'fl'.
1W7YTZ:RýVEL- 
                         teo' nty-'parthe..    uly, th. i      laks in the,9
sruthlaost orn. t of tah 
        county, 9ho water. level has dropp&o, considerably bocfnuso diroct;ropipi-tit.ndi
       t     - 9      r into rz+Dyv 
        of' thcýt caos does nl.+efua thc': soege:ý ý-d*
ovp er tilPn:.6Vf -,tator.frO. tho.r. -f.f.. -l. ,1D: is alJroad,  quito
shallow, 
        this krp of miater level is acco.r.-ppniod by conditicns unfav-rable
for fish life, as is the case in Sauhtry Poc oot 
     ." ' (T.3 N.;; A   1"if), v h wl+er a. larg  nu.berf f4'h.
di+d+ ini- :rolofge<+ porir-t'cf-.+hth'ithq- ine 1930. In 
        sha llo¶t TI+kes s. " thcro'u.h.+'froe zii + vz o ±r-i+
etlse .bring.. on',n .unf~vo-rnblo+  . Condlit..-  .. ion;.. f~r, +  ...
f:'iseh.  . p°robabhy'..   d++un to 
        the lack of cxygon.                             ..            ...-

.4               fr th dat h o'v, r,.iSOd'O duo to thd* 0.dAng of th: cu1ati,
thec su1qn change is na:favorabl for 
        aquatic pl~ant life.-il  tibio lo'ol :i,'s -  Ci~t  e-d ill suc-hl
izs~ 1aetter--fi:L i  n  -i&oilc1it~scib 
        hastened and i7Lrovod upon by the planting of ac! itional aquatic
planlts. 
    -- ; ., - . ... . . -. . ... .. . . . . L I JI E P I4 T L I E       ,
. :.; : : - 
                    ~ tpo.oI pli~cov~ f aerio    has '  ov d af eff~et Aoi'X
. Thc.-iotene of fore'st ýccver 
    S .... ...   n t  bQ  avorh-o ..P0a4 , cV d  ..cevpr :6f fdrt.  srbuld
bv or-,e1  fbc kvrint aiii --6  f orest  covcx ..roun.ýý  1
 w  s., , -, . oroe't 
        cover in t"l region                            r-d- lhsson"
tLio 6'ar-,ztion 'ot ior- E +forost cover i-,al-so aclv'at ogous since- it-
shades 
        n-. protects the vator,.,of ,aices fror ind. This is.  icia. for
aquatic ck't?.tf      :fqrost, eevQr.particulorly 
        aroun.do'ndAos'i " o;roring lth6 hrbo'se.  '   , trS: -orv'o6ýi'
zi'c dh-inot'tof .rivorfqow+i". hich'in. t3+u so. + ere 
        S.. ..; con. sit                                    ---t e... . 
 - . o f ... .. -. -r- .t'sy s.tem.... - 
           f. q..tiC.pIU+ life, .bothne 'andland      r'ge,' diri6+ly -and
indirecý!.ý urnishes fmd+ foo,.quatic animal 
         ..i.e.t.....i.. X      . .life6 .at ýc.f1i.' .,dati.c pltnta'
oer food',an-d sl1tor ae d.cks and- -.- .s .. 
 
                Wisconsin is called tho:playgr6uad of the Midd"-sWest
because of-it s. i.any. fishilg,,akps  In V -of the 
        fact that intensive fishing of iniý zd    s hs resulted in
a scarcity of fish in many of these laokes, efforts 
        have been mm.do. to conserve'g6od fiing'by prottiv"-b      
    I.p With~f  .  .sh lavu. a-,hve . . .  . 
        done much to retard fish depletion. In order to offset fish depletion
directly, an ixtenslve fish stoc~dng 
        program is being conducted. However, the p.nnting of fish in the
inland lokes of Wisconsin has boon inefficitht 
        in many cases. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
            In former years many inld lakes wore extensively stocked with
such Great ýIals fish as whitefish, lake 
  "tro-t. and cisches. Successful. results are to be found in.few-lakes.
In: ouglas. county whitefish, lake tr6ut, and 
  ciscoes are reportedin-.W bite Fish Leke (To -43- N., R. 12 E) and lake,
trout a  found in-Eound La  (T.r,, R.13L). 
            Many lakes have been stocked with wall-eyed'pike., a lakes where
wall-eyed pike-have' aleady existedp 
  -stolpng results have been successful, Undersnotal condit4-us wall-eyed
pike, on the average, will become' of 
  legal size by the fourth simr,. The pleatln& of wall-eyed pike, in
lakep where. they have never existed often die- 
  tilrbse the, bplan.ce of nature" in' a way found to.: be unsati sfactory
for the edating fisl, prticula;rly young bass. 
           'In lakes where &'few wall-eyed -pike of. the mnyx planted
survive.some pike often beCom4e'quito large and 
  are- qur voracious, Narally, they devoui- many young .fish, paxticularly
ypll bap a .This destruction of youn  bass 
  "plus the fishing- out of the larger bass results in. so few bass
that. tho fishing .for. larger game fis is, lessened*. 
  "If a wall.eyea pike Is caught- in such- a Ilake, the lake is often
reported to be ful! of pike, though they Won't 
  "-bite, A halo- of fish drems developing .oudssch lakes heightens
the fishgrman's o pectations' and increases his 
  ardor, even if his "luck"' is had, If fish stockIng could be
loo1d upon -in-the -as    way thi-t fanners study the 
  results of seed planting from the-. crop yield, much' atror'af the, past:could
be eliminated, Fish dreams and expectep- 
  tions are not r'esults-, -fish- caught are resultsi-.    -- 
          - 'stly~, lale iwprovement irkust alvraysý talm into coinsidoerat
ton drainageo. dopthv*, andf th~arnes s..of the 
  wa.ter.--                    , 
           - any brush refuges 'and-:sapi-g tangles, have~beenplIaced in
W i~sconsin Woese inrec6nt. er  o~~.is 
  protection for-.ial fish* Bass -spawning boxes and minnowspw ers have .ls.idepn
placei5. ' imny 161;ee*s This.-work 
  has been carried om 'by atate a. federal agencies.   - ,-+        - ".
   "      r.- ...- ; 
            Those desiring further information on lake and stream improvement
work should wrte. to Mr. Otis Bersingv 
  ,-io~logy Division- of the Dpý%arftrent -of Coxiaervat ion@ Capitol
Building, Madiso~n, o-cnii 
 
  M   TO IMPROVE TROUT STRAMS        ,       - .         ,              
  -     . 
            Restoration of original conditions-.s usui4ly imrat."ablea
but by sklll use-of dams+ deflectors, or 
- other ewtificia  0.vices, dhangedfew.- co'nd1tions - ma'y be~za  t6 restore
the balance.of productivity to a stream* 
  It will alse often be possible, to..inzprovo-6 n the natural copditioils
of dvater course -althou6 they may never lave 
  been 6ubject t'ma ns destru.ctive'uses, 
  RNISIITZS OF k. GOOD _TROUTJ ' STRE~&ý are pure water, fazrorable.
jabge of' water texpera.tiir, breeding areas adequate 
  shelter, O+ndt+ food supply, prot.ecution, ano  absence of ..oeti.t.ie
life." 
            The ideal condition will be that which gives pro p  1anceof these
fa0tors. t develop'a stream into a 
          inig b ological-unit, ander -micW e"+nditions     a   wi,
produ.ce.the maxim=. fish . .crop possdb-l. If 
  the-i    p'odfction' is stil iadequate to meot -the .ishing     ..ditional
rish-,st-.be 'supplied by stoc.ing 
  or also additional protection through a shorter fishing -season will be
requirod.* - 
 
          118H~~~ ~~~ SThPM JU VIETW ..Dpt.. of - .Agriculture )Forest Servi
e, 1 936.- 
 
 
t 
 
 
't '. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Thi i~ C 2 I~  OFFC~STRYTh W~iL ~i  
 
 
      The ipfage.ent of fish, ga-e, a'd t'.r-bcaring a'inals io so!etinmes
referred to as a specialized branch of-forestry 
 because an intelligentI interest- i'n wild l-"6 1by the hýa-mer,
fsther.an and lqver of nature is important in the use nd 
 developnment of fox'est. ,and for recreo, ionol purp~sos. The planless utilization
of land by man in the past has, often 
 altered naturmal enviro,!:it.-nin-a ..wy-han i-  to fish =and gal e .Srts
en have elso. exacted.,a hea.vy toll of fish ahd 
 ga.e which cca setyti "n 9o'ents & faor have rst.re., with little
success.. In fa.ct many species of gawB ozd.-fiz , are 
 extinct or docreasing very rmvicly 4.nc de.i.r..bte hInting int fis~hiLg
regions sre Still bei~g redaced.  Therefore, for-- 
 estry. in-i'elati-on to-w4il3. life ~hudreceive -azre c-onaideration.. A
        -                         -.. 
 
     torest lad. in its reo tiofa h:t& .midrlife-eive.n b  la *'sified
as ftio b. 1 OW Z. (a) Upland -. .oresz.t b  S . d " 
 Lakes and streams.: Tho iz?.and forest are as 1ave. Varied gýae conditions.
The Aostru tiLdh d the virgin  !t'nkr, .= 
 particularly de~t.i-e.#y foret fir.ýs, 'have,. hd a.ard effet 'onbwi
d life. Cut-ovcc i'ad*burned over land- laekci 
 cover for deer etc1 Where a second growth of deciduous f0rest becoLos ,establi.shod
de-r seem to again thrive.  In fact, 
 some clai:. that,, 'rowth timber is more desirable for doer then t he 'orlginal
ntand s     The old pine sites where 
 the scatt~ere-d. ack,,pilv iscrub -oak type .f ceotr-.exltts at present
have. least_ to offer for ga.-t, HJowever,, gaae talies 
 conducted by the" Wsc Jid Bc, Inventory showed that hajtai grouse,
dd-6ccasionally d~or, frequent such .areas. 
 Stands of aspen wht  bii'oh, zand other ] oarýw-ds, often with a
-. nderstoi' ýf -spruce and balsaz, as well as:thd .few T-e- 
 maining stands Q:* Virgi taber, f±rnish desirable covur for -deer
and-'partidge., The black bear, are still gour& in 
 some forest re ginn'. iPreoiatory anir.als, particularly timber wolves,
have been relentlessly hunted for their bounty 
 and pelts- and- have beco.-e. quite .scarce.... As. a roultt the ,.qowshoe
.abbits, one of the main foods for wolves, are be- 
 coring very abunadat.~ (As xmar-ds- lifty patrg of ýthe, hind. legs
of' the snwshoo. rabbits ioze ýile, the Ploaia of 
 one wolf-.. ache,.  .been fo~u~ leay. .spr!.ng,.) ..... (.,e heavy,.bristly
fur on the hing legs of these rabbits is 
 probably the reason tely were left). An over population of rabt   as already
caused. considdrablde            . . ....ew .. 
 ýp lan te d *wh t e                                         a   
     -i  t  deer , w o l d ...... . 
              p tdapine-' othcc ifei.s. Ho~ever, if wolves become too abundant,
deerwould* suffer. This shows 
 that predatory. anirals. hLve a-patt to play in ,aintaining a balanced wile-life
conditiobn. A bette± Udertandin ... 
 of predators in rnlaDion to gaoe:can be acquired by reading Aldo Leopold's
recent book,:.,,Geme eManageent,, partic- 
 ularly Chapter-,X on "Predator0 ontrol 
 
      Swamps also 1ýa- .-versified types of  ane environ.'ent. ,-Pureand
_iAxed stands of Cedar, balsai., @VZuee and tam,- 
,arack offer'-cýoessary .brouingrand-.-shelter--for deqr 
	
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lake in- sdction- 
 
 
-                                      1 
 
 
Tradi ng-point 
;iid popt ofti ce 
 
 
Area in acres 
kaxiwma dpth in ft . 
 
 
le,. now, 
 
 
orke. ihan outlI at 
or is.-1an~ilod1wd 
 
 
Water IS: "°":-g :,: 
 
 
Aquatic vegetation 
 
 
surrondindg 1 
 
 
Swiizminbe&ches 
 
 
-Toirist AAccommodat ion 
 
 
9 P.oies - 
 
171 
 
 
S 
 
 
L.k as 
 
 
* None.@ 
 
 
Land~loockPdý& 
 
Clear, 
Very soft.- 
 
 
Snake 
 
 
19. 
 
 
Wascott 
6 miics 
lair 
 
 
 
 
7): 
AB318   i 
 
 
8.1M.p Bas: 
B!ue.!s, 
 
 
Cl~rai., 
"C1ad.i 
 
 
ni 2"r:od 
 
 
fC%. 
 
 
tood. 
 
 
Poor 
 
 
*oen 
 
 
God: 
 
 
Al?~nder 
 
 
12 
 
 
Gordon. 
m6,Smiles 
 
 
4g 
 
 
$uI ish- 
 
 
  Mh-ogi*Ss 
 
-. noo... . -.. 
 
 
T,6.nlocked. 
 
Clonx 
 
 
,_'uncLaýý-,U   r00 
             ro t var e I 
 
 
:S .png'an 
b act 
 
 
Pai;      * 
 
 
4-- 
 
 
1±y e 
 
 
-I 
 
 
W~cott 
6 miles 
 
 
37 
 
 
U. . Ba,96- 
Bluegil t 
Pejoh 
 
 
None 
 
 
S:,LaVr 'oct 
 
.-(1e Z :::. : 
 
 
n, varcoi 
nr~t varied 
 
 
ap'ling- 
 
 
Good 
 
 
~Fatrly. 
Good 
 
 
N. Pike 
BgThea4 
 
 
'None 
 
 
  Drainge 
 
 
. Modium hard 
 
  varied 
  Black* sp'udci 
 
 
PoWr 
 
 
B.'ocellnt 
 
 
Red 
 
 
"29- 
 
 
.9 
 
 
'Rock Bass 
.Bluegills-".... 
Crappies     ' 
 
 
W. :Z.pi, 
ýN. Pike- 
RoekBss 
Be~lugtl 
 
 
..Drainagw 
 
 
ear    .:. .  . 
'liedium  - 
'Ab- l t n'  :. 
varied 
 
 
"Sai dwo od" 
 
 
-xcollen. 
 
 
p. W. of bound C02 
(S.); (c) 10-20 p. p. 
H.): and (e) Over 30 
Carbon dioxide. 
 
 
m. 
 
 
irod                                                              Ii!Y Wi
t 6r Cai ) 0-  o 
Yields a very soft water (V. S.); (b) 5-10 parts p. p. m* of bound C02 yields
a soft water 
yields a medium water (M.); (d) 20-30 p. p. m. of bound C02 yields a medium
hard water (M. 
                                                *                       
   ' 
 
 
PO po MO of bound C02 yields a hard water (H.). Note: po p. ip,= parts per
million; COX 
 
 
Gordon* 
7 miles 
7oor7 
77 
 
 
WiýScott 
1.5 miles 
Good 
2924 
 
 
T 
 
 
, I -                i 
 
 
Fair-A r 
 
 
A 
 
 
I     JL  i ] r [  ii ii  i 
 
 
T 43-1 10 W 
 
 
* .Name of .lak 
 
 
26 
 
 
:. .--    ! 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gordon 
6      ti . 
 
 
106    . " 
 
YPk 
 
 
Niione 
 
 
I 
 
 
Landlocked 
 
 
Clear 
 
 
AObmdant 
 
 
Foresat 
 
Excellent 
 
 
saut.ys.., 
 
 
*    ev_ r, ;;z 
 
 
7      _-; . * 
/Y :QSCL 2  . 
 
 
 
 
        "I 
 
 
w ek.d 
 
 
- **O, ,,;. 
10 
 
 
I'aitly good 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
L .M.. Bass 
 
 
Blue Gil1l 
 
 
                       - - s 43.x - R 12 V 
  43 N -R 11 w 
*A       - - - - - - - - - -             _-, - - - - - - 
 
 
-Bvlu6, Gill 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
L*M. Bass 
 
 
-Lm~locekd 
 
 
*4 _tl  e's ....... " 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S. . :, -- 
 
 
..... ..9' . . 
 
-Oak 
& " ,.e 
 
Goa 
 
 
Wascett 
 
 
 
12 ', - . 
 
 
I 
 
 
"rj 
 
 
I n~nt 
 
 
Gordml 
9,95 miles.,* 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  ..d .1. 
  63   I 
 
 
scr'ub Cai 
Mmap1 0 
 
 
E1xcellent 
 
 
3~oqjflenýE 
 
 
o 1T thes-a Snkor - ±Tawt y* 
 
 
~Rough fýsh xportedl~n lakes of, Dougl, 
jkr ar e found i n mo 't 8~~ 0 ~. riv'ei 
 
 
mon in most moug'Lscounty  akee - Though: the sukers- n redhorse are s  ed
by most f isren, .hek ihdoub.edly 
are of iaportazce as food for gaame fish.                               
                                 ",_ by . f r" t.ie 
 
 
Rock Bailss   . 
3&itefish      " 
 
Ciscoes 
lake Trout" 
 
Ladlckeds 
  t ':7as. .a,.'e;"- ) 
 
 
 
 
"clear 
scarce 
 
 
4        s 
 
 
Good.-_ 
 
 
* . + 
 
 
] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                                T 44 N - R 10 _ 
Sh    --' ... . .... ...........         .   ...~ ± 
 
 
Lake im secOt1 -- 
 
7'adi]3 PID.- 
 
p*stAztfie 
 
 
 
  andN nt 
 
 
rish suitable 
for planting 
 
 
Lake- i s 
 
Water I 
 
jq-datic vegetatiom~ 
 
 
Land cover 
 
 
1! 
 
 
au~rrouz4d4i - 
 
Swi=mRgflteaches 
 
Tfourist Accannodatiofl 
 
 
Cran~berry. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crappie 
Blue Gll1 
Bullhead 
 
 
Br~owm 
 
 
rub oak 
 
 
 
 
Good 
 
 
W scotW... 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EPike    - 
LolL. Bass - 
Blue Gill 
 
 
9~.5,miles 
Good. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perch 
 
 
mile 
 
614J 
 
 
L           n~ss 
 
 
Bi-6'Gill 
 
 
LJ4 Bass 
 
 
S~ocft" 
 
 
Abu-.7--. 
 
 
Brush 
 
 
Poor-  :. 
 
 
Perbon, 
 
 
L.Ui* Bass 
 
 
LIwdlocked'& 
 
 
ru1Q 6a 
 
 
Private 
 
 
- U -- 
 
 
3Ekllenl 
 
 
   7-'1 
 
 
 
 
 
 
L44.   s 
SJ.. ý"Bss 
Perch 
Lake Srout 
 
 
Crapleye - 
 
 
Aba.'r t z : 
 
7~C- i~ 
 
 
                           if  H6v- 
better-dnvironm6xitýfOr fish  . - 
 
 
Drainage of lakes liy'an o6utle't means 'a cha.nge 6 f wa - w u i-.5 in,
                         h 
ever, if the. change of water conditions is"not sufcent, for i 
enough so that' ýthe amount of oxygen .dissolved in 'the water will
not be con~umd d...    . the winter.free. -. 
 
 
1' 
 
 
ýta I 
 
 
F 
 
 
Rcck Bass 
Blue A ll 
Perch 
WallO76 Pike 
CrleppPi ik 
 
 
I 
 
 
! 
 
 
( Crappie ) 
 
 
I . *           . 
 
 
a ss 
 
 
5s 
 
 
A    t 
 
 
% 
 
 
m 
 
 
L 
 
 
i 
 
 
! 
 
 
d 
 
 
! 
 
 
i 
 
 
3- r-, 13 W 
    r-     . 
 
 
V- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                          -~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~J RLA  1.,lW *~~'5j
 i2 ýi 
44-~St- -H _7P,10W- 
 
 
mumrcus 
shallow 
La12es i=. 
c zoib oak: 
brush 
 
 
Solo Springs 
 
 
N. Pi e ......... 
L.M, Uass 
S,,Mo Bass 
Crappie 
P erch 
 
 
catfiash      afs 
 
L.M. Bass    Octfish 
River 
 
 
Med~l12z 
Varied            ', 
 
 
 
Excellenit' 
 
Excellent 
 
 
... ha. d. th  ssentia  o. fo .-h  life. . .nat-urally- dpends  on  the 
c aracter  of- the lak :o :ri-mvrjYer . ft  w .*&   .aks 
hhe anb.bumn tioi. of::.oganlc.. matter  is s,  lj  1 s compaared  .ith 
os of .-.ger-.car bo.at,.O conte.t.  So- t water 
lakes sho ld be at least 12 ft. .n "pth:.- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
%4f6 11.- Rm4 w -N'-.~ R 11 T 
 
 
TRl1WTE]'3W 
 
 
NqaW .t L al 
k    i sotioQD 
 
 
 
a~nd post obff'±cc- 
 
 
Area in acres;.:, 
       ''deptih i-n feet 
6eme ;"fij in lake now 
 
 
 
             . N.' . "., 
 
 
Fish su~itable 
 
           . . . . ..'".  + 
 
 
L nie has outlet' 
 
 
Aquatic vegetation 
 
Land covor" 
surrounding late 
 
Swimming Beahes 
 
 
tmini suing 
 
 
21 
 
 
Nxcellen - I  o 
 
5M  ...... 
 
39 
L 'M. Bassa 
1N. P   .ike. 
Walleye Pike.o 
Crappie 
Blue Gill 
Sunfish 
 
Walleye Pike 
* *.P.iko.... 
Crappe 
Blue    i 
 
 
Bainag, 
 
 
Brown 
Medium hard. 
Abundant 
Varied 
P opIl~es 
Brush 
 
 
Excellent 
 
 
Excellent i 
 
 
Dowling 
 
 
7, 18 
 
 
eriozt 
 
 
N.... e-s 
 
 
fil      * 
 
 
21, 22 
 
 
-Mas.Olug.O 
L.M. Bass- 
Panfish-- 
 
 
 
 
L.Me Bass 
 
 
 
 
 
Ptf s hl ... 
 
 
Merdwo 
 
 
 
Mixed 
  Hardwoods 
 
 
JAJLUi.Uo, 
 
 
12, 13 
 
 
I 1mnY 
 
 
I 
 
 
"I 
 
 
tUUiMAL! 
 
 
TPnP jiTlt 
 
 
21           54. 
Walleyo ..... X  o 
11. Pike    j   A...ike 
L.Mo.: Bbss,: 
Musleluzn0   Rock Bass 
Panf  .isI.. Blue Gill 
   Excellent 
 
 
L. Me. Bass 
 
 
U. 
 
 
 
Bbiea Gil, l 
 
 
 
Blueowzill 
 
 
Dra.i u 2& 
Medium 
Abunidant, 
 
sapling 
 
Hardwood 
Fair 
 
Excellbnt- 
 
 
Dringe 
 
 
Brown 
-Me diuzn 
 
 
Blacký. Asb; 
 
 
J71eye P ike 
I. Pike 
 
 
Rock Bass 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1 Varied.v' 
 
 
I xcellnon 
 
 
- -  .      4.. 
 
 
x~Jl eI.M 
 
 
Steele 
 
 
52, 35..-. 
 
 
10    . 
 
  Perch :           i 
 
 
   ""l+ ...... 
Me diiw 
 
Varied 
 
 
Spruce 
    i 
 
 
     ""ea                                 _                   
               laaetais :fsPr1 .on is ,,-+, ,+... 
.-"Becse of the scarcity ,of .;ish foodad.-shelter in very soft . ..
.......   .    ' J ou  1*~-" aed, in 
i~mproVe fish environmozit in very.soft water lakbs aquatic+gegetation and..9!umps,
of. brush should be P... a.n 
the shoal water regions. 
 
 
--- - ' i   '- 
 
 
T, 4 6 N - R 11 W T 7--ý R 13 W 
 
 
6*5-rýalos, 
 
 
1  =,IAE, - 
 
 
ý05 Miles* 
 
 
I .11"'k".. ' 
 
 
Tourist a      ation 
        ccb6bod 
 
 
Excelj()3jt- 
 
 
Nebag.a 1 oL.' 
 
 
og       -. 
Brush 
 
 
1 
T6 
 
 
Sa   e Pik 
 
 
Noamon 
 
 
w- .... 
 
 
LyIman 
 
 
Sperio r . 
 
 
Bennett 
 
 
+-. .v , 
 
 
! 
 
 
'tr .,-+.. .. 
 
 
x ellent - 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
2. 
 
 
       .COME AND VISIT US 
 
 
rOU WILL I~JTSY 
   Driving these Agricultural, Scenic and Historical 
   Tours, through all parts of Douglas County, 
   Wisconsin 
 
 
£ ! ii  .L ±U J  U  I V.Z  =)1I  III U 'td  I   LI I u u  ULU
JL -  , V  %;UI t.i bt   VU4 - 
usual places of interest, together with a cross section of 
our hinterland. 
Our County (Douglas), through which you pass, lies in 
the heart of the most fertile valley of the Northwest. 
Clover you will note, grows like a weed. This County is 
the fifth largest in acreage (856,894 acres), of any in 
the State, and is most suitable for diversified and Dairy 
Farming. 
In a normal year, its total production sells for over Five 
Million Dollars. 
The side trips from these tours, lead to hundreds of 
lakes and streams, furnishing a playground for you and 
your family, to enjoy to your utmost. 
It is the purpose of these tours, not only to give our local 
citizens a cross section of our County, but the visiting 
public as well. These tours have been mapped out after 
careful and intelligent study and are based upon ac- 
curate and reliable facts; touching these areas that give 
us a general study of the resources of Douglas County 
as a whole; featuring the good substantial farm areas, 
our lakes, streams, scenic views, parks, recreational and 
historical spots, and when taken as a whole, should add a 
new interest in our relationship to our "out-of-door 
places." 
 
 
/ 
 
 
COMPLIMENTS OF 
        DOUGLAS COUNTY BOARD OF SUPERVISORS 
                   COUNTY SEAT, SUPERIOR, DOUGLAS COUNTY, WISCONSIN 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
   These tours of Douglas County's lakes and stem, its wood and wild life,
are dedicated to everyone who. likes to get out of doors, and finds 
pleasure in exploring out of way corners. They are dedicated to those who
like to fish, not alone for the sake of catching fish, but for the thrill

found in the strike of Trout, Bass and Muskies, in their mad rush for your
lure. Douglas Countys- out-of-doors invites you for a vacation. You 
will find as we have found, an endless variety of the things that you like
to do, together with rest and healthful recreation. 
 
 
 
 
                                        PICTURE50UE 'TOUR5              
                           
                                        DOUGLAS COUNTY , WVVCONS 
                                  AGRICULTURAL 5CENIC AND HI1I'ORICAL, 
      COMPL MENS OF                     BE.GINNGTTHE OFFICES OF THE. 
   BSuPEMr A550o-ýTK)NOf' COMMERCE      5ERIORASSOC:XIArIO 0 OF COMMF-CE
OPU.P IVER 51XTrY Mt LF5 tN UNWH 
      ANDRO OTErIL                      I ADROb"HOTEL, SUPIEQ1ORVWSCOft4%N
THE FAMOUS TROUT STPI IVT'H 
              5UPEIOP DOGLA COUTYW5COSINL(CICHLAVE.N,GEPMAN BPIW N D 
                          NUMERI OU                              GUIDtS AZMAIL4,_
AT BE.LLWOOD 
                                            NUMBEIR |Z"TOUR-- 
                                                 N UM  .IR T~kAND T VARL
f FARM RE5 LA 
                                            NUMBER 9 TOUR:==:4VLIAME~- 
                 ;/7/TFFF/TF/; " 0 _ULUTY. SUPERIOR BRIDGE__:'     
                                           ' 
 
 
 
                               A'1           SU  popr IFI 
 
               fipm 
 
 
 
 
                    OWBRRAW FISHTRAP 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                FOP BATHING ON THE  0 
           S#( ANTI!NTO FTYIi. Q. 
 
                                     D C1111                           A
D O L.G 
 
                  .3 /.EAUI OF THE , 
 
 
 
       INDX O 5  ,BO-LqST CABINS I            QN FALLS 
 
 
 
 
 
 
       %1U~r   BORREA                                lr        pUNWSI.O RMFU
C44e=1CF 
                  1!WD                 UGL S    EtTvP. P PLA        tSCAMP
BR LESW 
                           C          COU WO/ 
            Th ctien o DugasCunyWicosi, xtn t yu  crdalinittonan ahertTwROUTo
haeHitAteC HERadvntaes o h0 
                gratou-o-dorhe a.on, nerst ad  tiiie, ndenoywththmhe mn lke,
 ~   s adrMLivLererolighlsco wdd 
             lads ad  erabndnc o wldlie.Yo    fndal o or utofdor laesacesile
by iproedhihwys a     GRolOwiND  nfteetus 
                eachmilewi~ld~slosean etre hane ofscenry, ivig toyou ew leasreslake,
sream, ou woos, nd   lif.  O 
                    Ml                  'L                              LJ~lI
I]lI    i 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      This map of tours is our way of presenting to you, an accurate picture
of Douglas County's 
beauty and natural recreational facilities, together with her agricultural
opportunities. Over these 
tours and side trails, hundreds of species of wild animals are to be found,
but none are dangerous. 
      In taking the Northern Tour, first we cover what is known as the "Red
Clay Belt," consisting of 
Pinery, and some admixture of hard woods such as: White and Yellow Pine,
some Cedar, Spruce, 
Balsam and Fir. The regions south of the Northern Tour that reach down Into
the county along the 
St. Croix River and east, contain Pine together with a somewhat heavy mixture
of hard woods on a 
sandy soil with a great deal of Jack and Northern Pine in the loamy sands.

 
      It has been tmpoesble to give you complete information about resorts
and hotel accommoda- 
tions at the lakes and out-of-door places that are described in this folder,
but It may be said that 
accommodations are available in every locality to suit anyone's desire. Douglas
County has great 
recreational facilities. It has many fine lakes as well as many splendid
Trout Streams. 
 
      Trout and Trout Streams are numberless, headed of course by the Brule
River, as one of the 
greatest Trout Waters In the United States. Native Brook Trout are most widely
distributed, then 
the Rainbow, the German Brown, the Steel Head and the Locklaven. 
 
      Bass. Do you know that the Black Bass offers as great a sport for the
angler as any species 
of fresh water fish? It strikes savagely at surface and near surfac baits.

 
     Muskellunge have a record as the most coveted prize of the fresh water
angler. They strike from 
the rear. It requires skill and fast thinking, to land them, but you are
rewarded with a thrill you 
never forget. 
 
      Pan Fish are common in our lakes, such as "Croppies," "Rock
Bass," "Sun Fish," "Blue Glls," 
"Perch" and 'Bull Heads." 
 
     All Douglas County Agencies are co-operating to maintain their fishing
and hunting heritage. 
Our wild animals and game birds are increasing in number each year. We want
       to appre- 
ciate our playground for the sheer beauty of It, and desire that you leave
it as unspoiled as you find it. 
 
      Our farmers are the local custodians of our game. Its future depends
upon their efforts. 
 
 
    Compiled by: 
CONSERVATION CO             , DOUGLAS COUNTY BOARD OF SUPERVISORS 
       J. A. Raffaelle, Chairman, Gordon, Wis.; George Cosgrove, Solon Spring,
Wis.; 
       George Nelson, Foxboro, Wis. 
 
"Carelessness with any form of fire in the woods, marks the tenderfoot"

 
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, WRITE: 
       Roy Guest, Conservation Director of Douglas County, Wis., at Gordon,
Wis., or S. P. Gray, 
       County Clerk and Superior Association of Commerce, both at Superior,
Douglas County, Wis. 
 
 
It is easy to travel in Douglas County because excellent signs 
showing Federal, State and County routes, have been placed 
to keep you on your course. Warning signs plainly mark 
the approach of every danger. In following these highways, 
you need have no fears, regardless of weather conditions. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
*LAKE GORDON 
  .il11l If I  f% , '17 
 
 
r  w - - 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                              Dedication Program 
 
 
 
At Douglas County's new Dam. which forms "Lake Gordon," consisting
of 3300 acres. 12.00 o'clock to 1:00 P. M., Satur- 
day, July 10. 1937. Band Concert by a 31-piece W.P.A. Band, under the direction
of Earl E. Shane., at the Dam, six miles 
west of the Village of Gordon. Signs will indicate the way to the dam. Gordon
is reached by following State High- 
way 53. 
 
1:00 P. M. Invocation: Rev. Philip Gordon, L.L.D., Pastor, "Chippewa
Indian Priest, Centuria, Wis. (Gordon, Wis., was 
           named after Rev. Philip Gordon's grandfather, Antoine Gordon).
"Chippewa is merely the English name for 
           Ojibway." 
           Dedication Ceremonies, opened by J. A. Raffaelle, Chairman of
the Village of Gordon. 
           Introduction of Dignitaries: Clare L. Wildner. 
               Hon. Bryn Ostby, Mayor of Superior. 
               Leonard Moran, President, Superior Association of Commerce.

               Frank R. Bell, W.P.A., Director, District No 5, Stevens Point,
Wis., under whose direction the project was 
                 about completed. 
               Sanford P. Starks, Director, W.P.A. for this District, under
whose direction the project has been completed. 
               Win. B. Stevenson, W.P.A. Director for Douglas County. 
               William Gordon, 87 years old, and it was after his father,
"Antoine Gordon," the Village of Gordon and 
                   Lake Gordon were named. 
           Dedication Address: M. W. Torkelson, Administrator, Works Progress
Administration, State of Wisconsin. 
           Response: P. 1. Fitzgerald, Chairman, Douglas County Board of
Supervisors. 
           Acceptance of the Project: by 1. A. Raffaelle, chairman of the
Conservation Committee, with Geo. Cosgrove 
               and Geo. Nelson, of the Douglas County Board of Supervisors.

           Address: B. 0. Webster, Superintendent of Fisheries, Madison,
Wis., representing the State Conservation 
               Commission. 
           Address on Conservation: B. J. Gehrmann, Congressman from this
District, Washington, D. C. 
           Address: General Ralph M. Immell, Administrator, Works Progress
Administration for Wisconsin, when the 
               project was started and under his direction, and a member
of the Conservation Commission, State of 
               Wisconsin. 
           Special Invited Guests 
               H. Schreiber, Superintendent, Camp Pattison, SP-11, Pattison
Park. 
               Duncan Cameron, Superintendent, Camp 105-S, Minong, Wis. 
               Oscar Carlson, Superintendent, Camp 77-S. Brule, Wis. 
               M. M. DeBow, Superintendent, Camp 53-S, Riverside, Danbury,
Wis. 
               Harry Johnson, Superintendent, Camp 54-S, Smith Lake, Hayward,
Wis. 
               John Hanson, District Forest Ranger. 
               E. L. Vinton, Area Forester, 
               Paul Skamser, Business Manager, Evening Telegram. 
               Geo. A. Babb, former Chairman and member of Conservation Committee,
Douglas County Board. 
               Elmer Peterson, Assemblyman, Second District, Douglas County,
Wis. 
               M. H. Hall, Assemblyman, First District, Douglas County, Wis.

               W. F. Grimmer, Superintendent of Game Management, Madison,
Wis. 
               C. L. Harrington, Superintendent of Forests and Parks. 
               Vernon Hamel, Engineer Hydraulic, W.P.A. 
               J. P, Budzynski, W.E R.A. Works Secretary, at time dam was
started. 
               John H. Kelly, W.E.R.A. District Director, at time dam was
started. 
               Harold W. Mead, Chief Hydraulic Engineer, W.P.A., under whose
direction the dam was constructed. 
               Senator Phil E. Nelson, Eleventh District. 
               Senator F. Ryan Duffy. 
               Senator Robert M. LaFollette. 
               Congressman B. J. Gehrmann. 
               H. W. MacKenzie, Conservation Director, Madison, Wis. 
               GOVERNOR PHILLIP F. LA FOLLETTE. 
 
      At the conclusion of the ceremonies, under the personal direction of
B. 0. Webster, Superintendent of Fisheries, 
and with the help of the C.C.C. boys, Tames McNaughton, Conservation Warden,
Charles Garvey, Forest Ranger, and 
County Wardens, Archie Olson and Ray Anderson, a thousand cans of catchable
fish will be released, together with 
200 pheasants, giving the general public a definite idea of the proper way
to release fish and birds. The public is in- 
vited to bring picnic baskets and enjoy the day, and the various churches
at Gordon have grouped together and will 
serve light lunches at the dam. 
      The Douglas County Board of Supervisors will act as the Reception Committee
at the dedication ceremonies. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
EARLY HISTORY 
 
 
                                     "Lake Gordon" 
 
 
      The early history of the St. Croix Flowage which is now "Lake
Gordon," dates back, the same as other historical 
spots, to a location previously occupied by Indian tribes, with their villages.'
Just above the present dam site, there was 
located in the olden days, a large Indian Village called by the Chippewas:
"Na-may-way-ka-wa-gon," meaning, "fishing 
sturgeon through the ice." These Indians had their own cemetery, but
now all traces of both village and cemetery have 
disappeared. The "village" occupied one of the most beautiful spots
of the St. Croix River, about five miles from the 
present village of Gordori, Wisconsin, where Antoine Gordon, Grandfather
of Rev. Phillip Gordon, arrived and estab- 
lished a trading post and stopping place, in 1862; and carried the U. S.
Mail, from Bayfield, Wisconsin, to St. Paul, by 
contract. 
 
      At the time Antoine Gordon moved to this territory, there were many
Indians scattered along the St. Croix Valley, 
in at least 15 villages or small groups, numbering several hundred men and
women. The Chippewas were mostly mem- 
bers of the so-called "Lost Tribe of the St. Croix." William Gordon,
who is still alive, and Father of Rev. Phillip Gordon, 
remembers the St. Croix in the early days, as a fisherman's paradise, and
a natural sanctuary for deer and wild ducks. 
This territory was surrounded by a great stand of virgin timber, white and
norway Pine, and the old logging dam, upon 
which the preserit dam is constructed, was constructed for logging operations.
The loggers moved their operations up 
the St. Croix River as far as Solon Springs, Wis., which was then known as
White Birch, but Gordon, Wis., on the St. Croix 
River, approximately eight miles from Solon Springs, was headquarters. 
 
      The large saw mills were located at Stillwater, and the logs had to
come down the rivers, it being the only means 
of transportation to the Mills. It became necessary to provide reservoirs
to hold a volume of water for each spring drive. 
The most advantageous site was picked by these lumberjacks, and that is the
site of the present dam. It was con- 
structed nearly 60 years ago, and was the beginning of the St. Croix Flowage,
known now as "Lake Gordon," upfon the 
St. Croix River. 
 
      The old dam was built in 1687, by the Musser, Sauntry & Tozer Co.,
and used until logging in this territory had its 
final drive, and was constructed of timber and rock. It had five 18 foot
gates, which were 11 feet 8 inches in height; the 
style of the gates at that time, known as half moon type. In about 1888,
early in the morning, they had a scare that 
the dam was going to give way, but through quick work, the lumberjacks saved
all the properly. The dam was repaired 
and strengthened after that date, with no further trouble. 
 
      "Lake Gordon," or St. Croix Flowage, as it is called, was
the key to the water supply for all the logging operations 
along the upper St. Croix River and its tributaries, and depended upon its
water supply from the Eau Claire Lakes, 
through the Eau Claire River, and St. Croix Lake, through the St. Croix River,
at Solon Springs. 
 
      The first steamboat that ever appeared on the flowage came from Stillwater
in 1888, and was familiarly known as 
"The Baby," and was christened with due ceremony later as the "City
of Gordon." Its length was 20 teet with an 8 foot 
beam, and a propeller, and the "City of Gordon" remained in service
until about 1895, when it was reshipped to Still- 
water. It is still running at the present time, being used as a tug. 
 
      In 1895, Captain McDougall, of Whaleback fame, designed a second boat
for the company. It was built ai Gor- 
don, and launched at the landing just below the present Ranger's Station.
This boat was 28 feet long, and 12 feet wide, 
with a steam engine. It continued in service until 1912. A great many people
confused this boat with the "Mary Buck." 
It is true that the "Mary Buck" played an important part in logging,
in the early days, but this boat was on the Eau 
Claire Lakes only. Her old hull is still pointed out to sightseers on the
upper Eau Claire Lakes. 
 
      All boats on the flowage were used to haul supplies, and for towing.
The logs were rafted, and taken by the, 
little steamers, on down to the present dam. The spiinig drive always started
as soon as the lake opened; usually the 
early part of April, and lasted until early July. In those days, lumbermen
always tried to finish with a drive by the 4th 
of July, aid ended with a large celebration. There would be from 300 to 400
men on the drive; the logs would go down 
the St. Croix River as far as the Rush City Bridge, and the Moon Company
would handle them from there to the mills at 
Stillwater. 
 
      The White and Norway Pine timbered in this area was of a superior grade.
It is impossible to estimate the amount 
of timber taken off. Although there were many different camps, it was not
unusual for one camp to put in four to six 
million feet of logs during a drive. After the Norway and White Pine had
gone, of course, the Jack Pine was taken off, 
and the last and final drive was made in 1912. This finished logging operations
to a large extent, in the Gordon area, 
and the last stand of virgin timber was history. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
TODAY 
 
 
                                        Lake Gordon 
 
 
      Probably the largest project in the north, completed under W.P.A.,
started under W.E.R.A., and a project with the 
most far reaching benefits in Douglas County, the damming of the St. Croix
River 6% miles west of this village. The 
dam is completed and of reinforced concrete construction, 12 feet high, 106
feet long, and creates a flowage of approx- 
imately 10 miles long, averaging % mile in width, creating 175,000 feet of
new shore line. Contained in this area, are 
17 beautiful wooded islands, all owned by the people. One of the first of
several proposed units of water control, in 
Douglas County's water sheds, that is completed. It is assumed that with
the storage of this water, it will raise the 
levels in approximately 30 lakes just south and within six miles of Gordon,
Wis. 
      A survey shows now, that the water at the dam in "Lake Gordon"
is at its height, and' within a few months, the 
whole area will be a level piece of water. "Lake Gordon" covers
approximately 3300 acres, and with its completion, there 
will be better summer resort facilities, increased recreational possibilities,
and a preservation of fish life, and bird and 
water fowl foods. It is fed from two sources: the St. Croix River which runs
out of St. Croix Lake at Solon Springs, and 
the Eau Claire River, which flows out of Eau Claire Lakes, and empties into
the St. Croix River above the dam. 
      Through various Federal Projects, this, a new Dam, has thus been constructed,
creating the largest body of water 
in Douglas County. The fishing for small mouthed Black Bass, Wall Eyed Pike,
Crappies, Perch, Blue Gills, and other 
Pan Fish is a well known and popular sport, and needs no comment from anyone.

      For years this flowage has been a favorite nesting place for many species
of wild ducks, shore birds, pheasants, 
and smaller tree nesting varieties, and anyone interested in the out-of-doors
will be thrilled by the close contact with 
fur and feathered wild life around its bayous. It is not a solid body of
water, but is made up of many miles of wild, 
meandering shoreline, and is filled with islands and peninsulas. A real vacationist
can spend many days on this new 
lake, and not entirely explore all its regions and recesses, there being
no end to the islands, channels and thorough- 
fares. As one fishes this lake, he naturally feels that every time he casts
in a new location, he is fishing at some 
point where the lake must end, but only to find further on, a new channel,
which leads him to other bayous. 
      The shore line on the flowage is a natural jagged shoreline. On the
north is the famous Douglas County Bird 
Sanctuary, consisting of 20,000 acres. The shoreline around this "Lake
Gordon" forms an excellent breeding and propa- 
gation grounds for fish of all varieties, as well as water fowl. 
      Through the Conservation Committee of the Douglas County Board, consisting
of J, A. Raffaelle, Chairman, George 
Cosgrove, and George Nelson, a new park is being formed at the dam, on the
south end, consisting of 40 acres with shel- 
ter houses, fireplaces, benches and tables, which will be an ideal recreational
out-door place for all the people. 
 
 
 
                             County Board of SuONriN 
                                         DOUGLAS COUNTY, WISCONSIN 
 
 
              C ounty C lerk  ..... ............................................

              D ep u ty .......... ..... . . .......................... ..........

              C hairm an   .............................................................

              V ice-C hairm an  ...... .............. ................................

 
              COUNTY BOARD MEMBERS 
Art Olson ............................................................ Amnicon

John Theien .... ...................................... ................
.  ........  Bennett 
M ilford  Ulven  ........................................ ..... ... .  Brule

Martin Carlson ....................................  Cloverland 
C harles M aley  ................. ............................ . . . . 
 D a irylan d 
J. A .  R a ffa e lle   ...-.-------- ._.-.---------------- ... .............
............  G o rd o n 
Albin Anderson -----    . .. .. .  .   ............. Haw thorne 
L. A .  Sutfin  .........................................................
. ...  H ighland 
John W . Lake ...................................................... .  Lakeside

John N. Pellm an ...........................................................
. M aple 
Harry Lundeen  ....................................................... .
Oakland 
P. J. Fitzgerald  .........................................................
. Parklcnd 
Paul Law in ............................................................
Solon  Springs 
G eo. C . N elson  ..................................................................
 Sum m it 
Sig Salveson ....................................................................
Superior 
I. Ingebretsen ....................................................................
W ascott 
 
 
.............................. .............A. R. Cole 
. ------------------------------- - S . P . G ra y 
--- _ --------------------------. ----------.------ _ - _ ----- .....P .
 J .  F it z g e r a ld 
.................................. .............. ........ Ja m e s  L a
v e lle 
 
                           VILLAGES 
     Hjalmer E. Danielson  .............. Lake Nebagamon 
     Frank Sajec, Jr .  ....-.-..-.------.---..... .................O liver

     N. H. La Pole ......................................................
...  Poplar 
     George Cosgrove - --       .......... ------------.Solon Springs 
                       CITY OF SUPERIOR 
     Richard Webb ....................................... First Ward 
     George M. Paulus ..................       ............. Second Ward

     Werner J. Salin ............... .  ....    Third Ward 
     Take S. Golberg ....... ... .... .......... Fourth Ward 
     T. W. Tracy .............     ...... ....... Fifth Ward 
     James S. Mace ----------------.....-------.-......................Sixth
Ward 
     James D. Lavelle ............................................ Seventh
Ward 
     Arthur E. Rieckhoff ....................... ......  Eighth Ward 
     Peter Waseen ...........................................................
Ninth Ward 
     George A. Wassum        ......................  .-----------.......
Tenth Ward 
 
 
                                          CONSERVATION COMMITTEE 
                            I. A. Raffaelle, Chairman, George Nelson, George
Cosgrove. 
 
      This souvenir program dedicated to William Gordon, for whose father,
"Antoine Gordon," the Village of Gordon 
and Lake Gordon were named. 
  Syllabus 
      By CLARE L. WILDNER, 
      Executive Secretary, 
      Superior Association of Commerce. 
                                                                        
 SUPERIOR EVENING TELEGRAM JQ8 PRINTING DEPT. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
READ THIS: 
 
 
    It's a Conservation Examination. April 21, 1937. 
    Educational-"yet in fun."   By the Douglas County Fish and
Game Protective League, at its 
Thirty-second Annual Banquet at Superior, Wisconsin. 
    We will not give any publicity to the results except to those winning
places. If you want your 
paper returned, or a list of questions with correct answers, just drop a
postal card to Clare L. Wildner, 
President, Douglas County Fish and Game Protective League, Superior, Wis.

                   MERCHANDISE PRIZES FOR "BOTH MEN AND WOMEN."

                   1st Place: Electric Lamp. Superior Water, Light and Power
Co. 
                   2nd Place: Case Stokley's Finest Canned Vegetables. 
                   3rd Place: Card Table. Grand Rapids House Furnishing Co.

                                     For "Women Only." 
                   1st Place: Wear-ever Percolator. Bingham Hardware Co.

                   2nd Placet Conklin Desk Pen. Androv Drug Store. 
 
 
]kin Treatment. Ford Hopkins Co. 
Huot's. 
s Coffee, by L. L. Dungan. 
hem. Start right away to answer. Find out just what 
n your name and address. Winners will be announced 
ne in this room can compete, excepting Miss Grace 
 
    12. Q. The Hooded Merganser, found in North- 
            ern Wisconsin in the summer time, has 
            what kind of a bill? 
        A. 
    13. Q. What are the last ducks as a rule, to 
            leave Northern Wisconsin waters in the 
            fall? 
        A. 
    14. Q. What ducks are found in Northern Wis- 
            consin, rarely come ashore? 
        A. 
    15. Q. Do Mallard Ducks found in Northern 
            Wisconsin, consume Mosquito Larvae? 
        A. 
    16. Q. What is the handsomest duck found in 
            Northern Wisconsin? 
        A. 
    17. Q. Are ducks, geese and swan, found in 
            Northern Wisconsin, placed in the same 
            family? 
        A. 
    18. Q. In Northern Wisconsin, our permanent 
            residents are the Partridge and Rough 
            Grouse. Are they the same bird? 
        A. 
    19. Q. What shore bird family residents are 
            found on the Brule River, that we prize 
            highly? 
        .A. 
    20. Q. What ducks stay in northern Wisconsin 
            during the winter? 
        A 
 
 
11. Q. Are toads and frogs detrimental to wa-   21. Q. Is the Wilson Snipe
found in Northern 
        ter lilies?                                      Wisconsin the same
as the Jack Snipe? 
 
 
Aý 
 
 
A. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
of     37. Q. About where in Douglas County is the 
                old Weyerhauser Mine ? 
           A. 
nd     38. Q. Do Bass in Norther       Wisconsin eat 
                aquatic vegetation? 
           A. 
    39 Q. Are Muskellunge the largest fish in 
 
 
4g_ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
SPECIAL NOTICE: 
 
 
    Any employee of the County, State, or Government, in Conservation work,
must make an effort to 
answer the following fifteen questions. The questions that you do not answer,
or answer incorrectly, 
will take off three points from your standing on the first fifty questions.
We admit that the following 
fifteen questions are hard, but to make it fair for you who have been trained
in Conservation, this 
seems the correct way to do it. As an illustration: If the Fifty questions
have been answered cor- 
rectly, your.mark will be 100. If you fail to answer any of the following
fifteen questions, 45 points 
will be taken away from your 100 points, leaving your paper with a mark of
55 %. So please join in, 
and make an effort to answer the questions. Your paper will not get publicity.

 
 
1. Q. Do we have any fish-like forms in the 
        north, that do not have upper and low- 
        er jaws? 
 
 
    A. 
2. Q. 
 
 
Is the true Lemming found in Wiscon- 
sin? 
 
 
    A. 
 
3. Q. Can any northern fish live for twenty- 
        four hours out of the water? 
    A. 
4. Q. Have we a migratory bird treaty en- 
        forced with Mexico? 
    A. 
5. Q. Name two states in the Union that have 
        a wilderness area set aside within nat- 
        ional forests. 
    A. 
6. Q. Can Pheasants thrive on a diet of weed 
        seeds only? 
    A. 
7. Q. Is Tuberculosis in Pheasants, transmit- 
        tible to humans? 
    A. 
8. Q. Does the Ptarmigan ever appear in Min- 
        nesota or Wisconsin? 
    A. 
 
 
9. Q. Do the adult Woodticks have more legs 
         than the larvae which hatch from their 
         eggs? 
     A. 
 
10. Q. Name the state that conducts a free col- 
         liege for training volunteer game ward- 
         ens? 
     A. 
 
 
11. Q. 
     A. 
 
 
Does a Skink have legs? 
 
 
12. Q. Name a North American Bird that does 
         not build a nest, brood its eggs, or care 
         for its young. 
     A. 
 
13. Q. Are there any big game Mammals found 
         in Minnesota or Wisconsin that do not 
         occur in any other state in the Union? 
     A. 
 
14. Q. Do any Minnesota or Wisconsin fish pro- 
         duce sound? 
     A. 
 
15. Q. Does the Snowy-Owl change from grey 
         in summer, to white in winter? 
     A. 
 
 
    LOOK:     The Northern States Amateur Field Trial Association will award
$5.00 to the County, 
State or Federal Conservation Employee, answering these fifteen questions
correctly. If no one an- 
swers them all correctly, they will award $2.00 to the one receiving the
highest mark on the last fifteen 
questions only. 
 
    Take this examination out of book; sign and hand in before business meeting
is over. 
 
N am e ---------.-----------------....................-------------------------------

        .........................................................................
 Syllabus: 
 
 
Address --------------------------------------------------------------------------

April 21, 1937. 
 
 
CLARE L. WILDNER, 
                President. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
                                                                Superior,
Wis., April 21, 1937. 
To the Members of the Douglas County Fish and Game Protective League: 
    During September your Executive Committee, confronted with the drastic
fire hazard of last sum- 
mer, believed that we should enlarge upon our six-year Conservation program
along the lines of water 
conservation, creating new reservoirs either at old logging dam sites, or
new sites controlling lake 
levels, improve our streams with rolling dams and deflectors not only to
maintain fish life both from the 
idea of depth and temperature, but also that if a similar fire situation
presented itself this controlled 
water would be of use in combatting fires and a water conservation program
was set up, approved by 
your Executive Committee, approved by the County Board, and forwarded to
a number of people for 
their opinions and it is a pleasure to quote for your benefit portions of
letters we have received in rela- 
tion to this water conservation program. 
Phillip F. LaFollette, Governor of Wisconsin: 
    "It seems to be very thoughtfully worked out and I am referring
it to the Conservation Commission 
for their careful consideration." 
B. 0. Webster, Superintendent of Fisheries, Wisconsin: 
    "It is a very elaborate program for your County. A great deal of
this work can be carried on in our 
lake and stream improvement section." 
W. F. Girmmer, Superintendent of Game Management, Wisconsin: 
 
 
P. 
 
 
or Field 
water c 
 
 
rent 
 
 
P. K. Whi 
    "I wa 
    "YTlu 
 
 
remedies yol 
F. G. Wilson 
    "I have 
 
 
and it 
when 
ndent 
rater c 
 
 
ne Iuure oes 
Minneapolis, 
 
 
needs of each stri 
!y are to be appli( 
Live Forestry, Wis 
program in great 
 
 
ty with a great deal of interest. You 
such as you are planning in Northern 
aradise for men." 
 
 
q this problem." 
I you have been entirely positive in the 
k remarkably fine piece of work." 
 
 
and wish to commend it highly." 
 
 
C. L. Harring 
    "I surely 
prepared for 
 
 
Frank A. Bell, 
    "I have re, 
lated on formu] 
    "It will go 
do to control fo: 
 
 
A. Di 
progr 
such e 
 
 
ests and Parks, Wisconsin: 
it a great deal of thought into its preparation and that it was 
Ls County." 
 
 
'een Bay, Wisconsin: 
 
 
great interest and feel that you and the league are to be congratu- 
ie to this six-year conservation program." 
iot only conserving your lakes and streams, but will have much to 
 
 
Sincerely, 
 
 
CLARE L. WILDNER, 
                 President. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
               Superior, Wis., April 21, 1937. 
AND GAME PROTECTIVE LEAGUE: 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
    It is very natural with a program such as we have had, that whoever is
directing it, should have the 
absolute power from the Executive Committee. At no time have the members
been hesitant in giving 
this power to me. I have done my best, and what lies ahead in conservation
for Douglas County, is up 
to all of us. No Conservation Department or State or County or local conservation
club, can do this 
job alone. It is too big. All must unite. And Conservation means forests,
meadows,, shrubbery, 
growth, good lakes, an adequate supply of water, marshes, wild flowers, and
all other natural wilderness 
areas and their inhabitants. 
 
    We have not touched yet upon conservation education. This is of supreme
importance. Nor do 
we know much about, or have we done much on this subject of cover. But we
have kept in mind the 
essential values of conservation. We find new obstacles meeting us on every
side, but we have all 
stuck together as never before. I believe we have learned to the fullest
extent, what it means to co-op- 
erate. 
 
    There is before you a Conservation Examination. I hope all of you will
take it. The award is in 
the form of merchandise prizes, and no one will see any paper of anyone entering
the examination, 
excepting those of the three winning first places. After the papers are corrected,
we would be more than 
glad to return them to you if you so desire, with a correct answer for each
question. The examination 
is not difficult, but there are some hard questions, of course. I think everyone
in this room should know 
at least 40 per cent of the answers. We have tried to make them common, everyday
questions that you 
should be able to answer, on every phase of "out-door life." Everyone
in this room is eligible to enter 
the contest, except Miss McMullen, who is my assistant in the Association
of Commerce office, and my- 
self. We compiled the questions and answers and of course, are not entitled
to participate. 
 
    I mentioned to you last year that I was very proud of the people working
on these conservation 
projects. I do not feel, as I told you last year, that they are working for
subsistence. Rather do I feel 
that they are building in conservation, and I take my hat off to them. They
have been very loyal, and 
it is only through their help that it will be possible to do any future work
on any project. I am proud 
of their attitude and their friendship. Their compensation is just the same
as ours, in feeling that 
possibly, after all, they have done something constructive in the work being
accomplished in conserva- 
tion in our community. 
                                                                  CLARE L.
WILDNER, 
                                                                        
          President. 
                                                Douglas County Fish and Game
Protective League. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1937. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
Superior, Wis., April 21, 1937. 
 
 
                   ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 
To the Officers and Members of the Douglas County Fish and Game Protective
League: 
    The Legislature has been in session for several months. Numerous laws
have been introduced 
affecting conservation. 
    It has been our privilege to see that the officers of the Douglas County
Fish and Game Protective 
League received copies of the proposed legislation, "with no comment
from the committee." 
    The Executive Committee of the Fish and Game Protective League recommended
to the Legislative 
Committee, through the Fish and Game Committee, set up by the Conservation
Commission of the 
State, the support of the following: 
  1. That the State Legislature be asked to make a blanket appropriation
to the Conservation Com- 
      mission in order that its work shall not be dependent upon monies received
from licenses and fees. 
  2. That the State Legislature provide all monies received from fines and
game violations, become a 
      part of the funds of the Conservation Commission. 
  3. That the State Legislature reinstate the law providing for compensation
to any person giving in- 
      formation leadig to the arrest and conviction of a game law violator.

    Further, under new laws, they proposed and asked for the following: 
  1. That the Legislature approve only appointments to the Conservation Commission,
if the selec- 
      tion is a conservationist. 
  2. We recommend that the State Legislature make it compulsory to establish
at least one Water 
      Fowl Refuge in each county in the State, through the co-operation of
various Conservation Clubs, 
      and to be permanently maintained and directed by the Conservation Commission.

  3. That the State Legislature enact a law in that Retriever Trials can
be legitimately held in Wis- 
      consin under the supervision and direction of the Conservation Commission.
(Note: This recom- 
      mendation is made due to the fact that we believe, that 57 per cent
of Pheasants and Ducks 
      downed by the average gunner, are lost, and to educate the public through
retriever trials, of the 
      worth of retrieving dogs, is a step in conservation.) 
  4. That the State Legislature be asked to appropriate to the Conservation
Commission a sum of 
      money large enough to form a monthly publication, edited by the Conservation
Commission, such 
      publication to be available through a very small fee, to paid members
of various Fish and Game 
      and other Conservation Clubs throughout the state. The purpose of this
publication shall be: 
      1st: To create a greater appreciation of Wisconsin's out of doors.

      2nd: Through this medium to develop a permenent conservation program
for the whole state. 
      3rd: Encourage co-operation in conservation activities. 
      4th: Perfecting educational mediums of artificial wild life propagation.

      5th: Providing educational conditions for greater natural increases
of wild life. 
      6th: Correcting the polution of various streams and "akes in Wisconsin.

      7th: To add recreational facilities in all state parks, and other state
owned properties, and to 
           further the development of state owned lands. 
      8th: Restoring sub-marginal lands to their natural state. 
      9th: To further conservation through education. 
      10th: Striving through conservation to make Wisconsin more attractive
as an "Outdoor State." 
 
                                                      Respectfully submitted,

 
                                                          LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE

                                                              PHIL NELSON,
Chairman 
                                                              JOHN FRITSCHLER

                                                              ED. HANTON

                                                              AGNES CHARBONNEAU

                                                              MRS. ED. COSGROVE

 
  

					
				
				
 
Superior, Wis., April 21, 1937. 
 
'EE OF THE DOUGLAS COUNTY 
AGUE 
 
 
 
e are now in this sanctuary, 65 feed 
atches. consisting of a uuarter of an 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                                                                  Superior,
Wis., April 21, 1937. 
 
To the Officers and Members of the Douglas County Fish and Game Protective
League: 
    Following is a brief report of the Fish Propagation Committee, showing
fish received from State 
and Government, and the various lakes and streams in which they were planted:

 
 
CANS OF: MIouth 
          Bsass 
- --------------- 15 
          1 R 
 
 
10i 
10 
10 
11 
12 
 
 
Wall- 
Eyed~ 
 
 
30 
30 
60 
30 
30 
32 
52 
30 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30 
 
 
Blue    Crap-    Bull   Muskel- 
Gills    pies   Head"    lunge 
 
 
20 
 
6 
10 
10 
10 
10 
20 
6 
6 
10 
10 
10 
 
 
 
10 
 
 
2 
 
 
15 
 
 
 
 
3 
 
 
 
 
10 
 
 
 
 
 
10 
 
 
15 
 
 
10 
 
10 
 
 
 
10 
 
 
20 
 
 
Chairman 
 
 
---------------------------------- 
 
 
---------------------------------------- 
---------------------------------------------------- 
---------------------------------------------------- 
---------------------------------------------------- 
---------------------- - ---------------------------- 
   ---------------------------------------------- 
-------------------------------  ---------------- 
------ --------------------------------------------- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
Superior, Wis., April 21, 1937. 
 
 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FIRE PREVENTION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMITTEE OF 
              THE DOUGLAS COUNTY FISH AND GAME PROTECTIVE LEAGUE 
 
    This Committee always dovetails in with the activities of every other
committee, and it is very hard 
to give a concrete example of its work alone, as a fire prevention and law
enforcement committee. How- 
ever, through a system of education just before Deer Season, at quite an
expense to the League, we ran 
various articles and items in the Evening Telegram, calling attention to
human life that was in danger 
during the coming deer season, together with the necessity of shooting only
at Fork Bucks. We believe 
all of this publicity was beneficial, due to the fact that no one in Douglas
County was taken for a deer 
during hunting season, and killed. There were some minor accidents of course,
with men with guns. 
 
    In addition to this, after a careful survey by C.C.C. boys and Conservation
Wardens, there were 
only 25 carcasses of deer found that were unlawfully killed. We believe this
to be the direct result of 
the educational campaign we carried on for the season. 
 
    As far as fire prevention is concerned, everyone reading this report
knows that last year, Doug- 
las County suffered through someone's carelessness. The greatest forest fires
it has seen in years, and 
this was of course, due to a large extent to our drouth situation. We gave
every assistance we could, to 
the Conservation Commission and the W.P.A. set up. 
 
    May we further state that every man that has been arrested in Douglas
County for a violation of 
conservation laws, has been checked with our membership list. Only one member
was arrested and by 
an outside warden, for a minor violation of the law, and the court thought
so little of it that the case 
was dismissed. The Fish and Game League interceded for no one, in any fractional
violation of any 
conservation laws. 
 
                                FIRE PREVENTION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMITTEE

 
                                                        LOUIS EFAW, Chairman

                                                        G. 0. CARLSON 
                                                        RAY ANDERSON 
                                                        ART SEDIN 
                                                        L. E. BRACKETT 
 
  

					
				
				
 
ANNUAL 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Superior, Wis., April 21, 1937. 
 
 
              REPORT OF PREDATOR CONTROL COMMITTEE FOR 1936-1937 
To the Officers and Members of the Douglas County Fish and Game Protective
League: 
    Your Committee opens this report by ,quoting from a distinguished naturalist:

        "Concentrate game or birds, and you usually concentrate their
foes. 
        We frequently hear the statement that even our destructive hawks
are necess 
 
 
erica su( 
 
 
lat in 
chief 
 
 
Call 
 
 
ory 
 
 
1a nd demonstrates that predator control is essen- 
 
 
[IL IQ i 
 
 
of game and other birds. 
Five protection to game and 
Ily solved, is to determine 
be exercised. 
 
 
r of their destructiveness, are a 
 
 
of 
orn 
 
 
urce of revenue 
 
 
,pen 
 
 
en paid as 
 
 
tote Cubs.......... 
 
 
Commission, the Doug- 
 
 
    The committee wishes 
las County Board and also 
 
 
Respectfully submitted, 
 
 
H.H. VAN VLECK, 
A. MATTIOLI, 
ANDREW BOE, 
W. E. HAILEY, 
LYMAN T. POWELL, 
                Committee. 
 
 
The worst 
 
 
'OW 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Superior, Wis., April 21, 1937. 
 
 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE REFUGE AND SANCTUARY COMMITTEE OF THE DOUGLAS 
                  COUNTY FISH AND GAME PROTECTIVE LEAGUE 
 
 
Springs, there has been erect4 
of bird houses. Our Bird Hous 
houses were all placed in the 
mnd are taking only the winnin 
 
 
conservation 
ri the schools, 
,ear we have 
. them in the 
re now being 
 
 
,ierK 
 
 
JOE R. 
OTIS E 
 
 
wa! 
 
 
ther 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                                       -"          
     April 14, 1937. 
 
                          REPORT OF AUDITING COMMITTEE 
 
To the Members of the Douglas County County Fish and Game Protective League:

 
    As an Auditing Committee appointed by your President, we have carefully
checked the records of 
your Treasurer, Snyder Clemens, together with stubs of check book, and written
orders of your Presi- 
dent and Secretary, for money drawn upon Treasury, and your finances as follows:

 
From April 22, 1936 to April 14, 1937: 
 
RECEIPTS: 
    Cash in Bank April 22, 1936 -----------------------------------------------------------
 - --- - --------------------------------------  $  63.74 
    Receipts from sale of Memberships and Banquet Tickets (1936) -------------------------.----------------
 533.50 
    Receipts from Trust Fund in U. S. National Bank ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 22.28 
                                                    TOTAL INCOME OR RECEIPTS
$619.52 
DISBURSEMENTS (By Check) 
    Flowers for Banquet (1936) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 $  3.00 
    Androy Hotel, Banquet meals (1936) -----------------------------------------------------------------
184.20 
    Bird House Contest Prizes ----------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------  23.00 
    Prizes (1936) Membership  Drive ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 8.50 
    Express on Pheasants  ----------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------  16.73 
    Memberships: 
        Upper Wisconsin Association .......           -----------------------------------------
 5.00 
        More Game Birds in America -------------------------------------
-------------------------------  2.00 
    Advertising: 
        Banquet ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------...
.....--------------------  10.10 
        Notices of Annual Meeting  ----------------------------------------..------------------------------------
 8.75 
        Banquet Tickets ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 13.72 
        Obey Deer Laws ----------------------------------------------........------------------------------------------
 10.00 
    Postage ---------------------------------------------------------........-----------------------------------------------.-----
 5.93 
    Traps for Sanctuary  -----------------------------------.................-------------------
 ------------------------  1.80 
    Express on Moving Picture Film  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1.24 
    Feed Hoppers, Draying ...................................................-----------------------------------------
 4.75 
    Telegram s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 2.51 
    Cotton Tail Rabbit Shoot Material -----------------------------------------------
-------------- ---------  12.40 
    Expense of Conservation  Exhibit  ------------------------------------....----------------------------------
 22.25 
                                                    TOTAL EXPENSE:      
        $ 345.88 
 
Cash in Bank April 14, 1937  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 $  273.64 
First National Bank Balance April 14, 1937 ------------------------------------------------------------------
$ 291.68 
Checks not presented for payment, No. 196, $5.00; No. 197, $2.79, and 
    No. 198, $10.25  --------------------------------------------------------..
.............. .. .. ..----------------------------  18.04 
                                                                        
        $ 273.64 
Funds in trust, U. S. National Bank.- -------------------------------------------------
   $ 200.51 
 
                                                    Respectfully submitted,

 
                                                      AUDITING COMMITTEE.

                                                          A. N. ANDERBERG

                                                          CARL A. PETERSON

                                                          DONALD MacRAE 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Vote-erout and hand in. 
 
 
Andrew Ekstrom, 
 
 
L. A. 
 
 
,Peter Clemens, and Jack Marcus. 
 
 
only s 
 
 
m the floor anyone 
 
 
OFFICERS: 
 
 
y Fish and Ga 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
Memrftwsdaiu 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                      1532 %1ww4lt AWIm 
                                      :&Mary 2, 1937 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dcgl  Couty Fish & Gam  Protectj  Leagu 
te1or Asocation of Cmw 
 
 
 
 
 
proaam, but nor  atac with D     County is 
limited to *nttI$4   to  W opinion. Of      s.."# I a 
-ters     bat I an    to g  what   ne   namly, 
opoQif suggstiosa fo uoeet 
 
        I Mar you  *IntiaW and wish w )~ie bait s*j 
 
        With b40    a, 
 
                       Your sincrey, 
 
 
 
                            Ad Leopo 
v                      Profesr of Ga Un 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Superior Assoeiation of Commeree 
                 ANDROY HOTEL 
 
 
SUPERIOR - DOUGLAS COUNTY, WIS. 
 
 
      OFFICERS 
PRESIDENT, 
LEONARD MORAN, 
  N. W. MUTUAL LIFE INS. Co. 
VICE-PRESIDENT, 
SNYDER CLEMENS, 
  LONEY & CLEMENS, 
    "INSURANCE AND REAL ESTATE" 
TREASURER, 
CARL NEWMAN. 
  SPEAKES CO., 
    "BUILDING MATERIALS- 
 
        DIRECTORS 
A. J. ANDERSEN, 
WHIPPLE PRINTING CO. 
HENRY BECK, 
C. REISS COAL Co. 
LESTER BICKFORD, 
BICKFORD-LINDBERG FUEL Co. 
R. C. BUCK. 
R. C. BUCK, CIVIL ENGINEERS 
J. A. CAMPBELL, 
WISCONSIN STATE BANK 
A. M. DORAN. 
.MGR,' SUPERIOR HOTEL 
HARRIS ERLANSON, 
ERLANSON LUMBER Co, 
RALPH FALSTAD, 
"ACCOUNTANT' 
0. J. FLYNN. 
G. N. RAILWAY CO, 
JOHN FRITSCHLER, 
HANITCH, JOHNSON, FRITSCHLER 
  & BARSTOW, 
  "ATTORNEYS" 
CLOUGH GATES. 
EVENING TELEGRAM CO. 
ELMER HARD. 
N. P. RAILWAY Co. 
C. F. HERTLEIN. 
N. W. OIL Co. 
JAMES R. HILE. 
HILE & DAHL, 'ATTORNEYS" 
OLAF JOHNSON. 
N. W. MUTUAL LIFE INS. Co. 
DELOS KELLOGG, 
TWIN PORTS CO-OP. DAIRY ASs'N 
GEO. LEAMON. 
LEAMON BAKERY CO. 
PERCY LONGTINE 
N. W. OIL Co. 
A. MAcARTHUR, 
MACARTHUR EQUIPMENT Co. 
JAMIES C. McKAY. 
ASS'T DISTRICT ATTORNEY 
L. R. McPHERSON. 
BUTLER II MCPHERSON. 'ATTORNEYS' 
REED MERRELL. 
MERRELL & MCMAHON. INC. 
  "-AUTOS" 
PAUL SKAMSER, 
EVENING TELEGRAM CO. 
DR. T. F. SMITH. 
"DENTIST" 
ROY SPRINGER, 
ROSS ELECTRIC CO. 
JOHN SPROWLS. 
POWELL &1 SPROWLS. -ATTORNEYS' 
H. J. UNDERHILL, 
S. W., L. & P. CO. 
HARRY WAITE. 
GRAY PLUMBING & HEATING CO. 
 
 
January 19, 1937 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Prof. of Game Management 
College of Agriculture 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
My dear Sir: 
 
      After a great deal of research work for 
Douglas County, we have set up a "Water Conser- 
vation Program" in hopes that it will interest 
all conservation minded people. 
 
 
      The program in itself is enclosed, and has 
the approval not only of the officers of the 
Douglas County Fish & Game Protective League, 
but also of the Douglas County Board of Super- 
visors. 
 
 
      It really explains itself in quite a little 
detail. We do not expect that in its entirety, 
it will be carried out, to a successful com- 
pletion. However, with the various Federal and 
State set ups and C.C.Camps in this district, 
we are at least bringing to them a detailed pro- 
gram with projects, upon which they can proceed. 
 
      You are being solicited because we know 
you are deeply interested in everything that 
pertains to conservation. We would like very 
much to have you read it over, and comment 
upon this water conservation program as you 
see fit. 
 
                     Most sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
 
                     Clare L. Wildner, 
 
                     President, 
 
      DOUGLAS COUNTY FISH & GAME PROTECTIVE LEAGUE 
 
 
CLW:GM 
1 Enc. 
 
 
CLARE L. WILDNER. 
           SECRETARY 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
        WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR DOUGLAS COUNTY, WISCONSIN, 
        FOLLOWING UP IN DETAIL ITS SIX YEAR CONSERVATION PROGRAM. 
                               By: The Douglas County Fish & Game 
                                             Protective League 
                                     Superior, Wisconsin 
                                     Sept. 11, 1936. 
 
      There is a general feeling that we have been confronted in 
Douglas County, with a terrific hazard this year, during the drought 
period, in relation to forest fires which have destroyed a great 
deal of Douglas Countyts playground, that it will take years to re- 
place. 
 
      The Douglas County Fish & Game League believes that its six 
year program should be enlarged upon, along the lines of water con- 
servation, consisting of the creation of new reservoirs, either at 
the location of old log-ing dam sites, or at new sites; the creation 
or erection of lake level control dams downstream at the outlets of 
existing lakes, that our rivers and streams should have improvement 
dams where needed, erected, of low rolling dams in character, to con- 
trol the minimum stages of the level of each river, in that the 
river has sufficient water, through the use of various dams and 
deflectors, to maintain fish life, both from the idea of depth, 
idea of temperature, and the development of a general use of fire 
control. 
 
     We feel that water conservation can be approached from many 
angles and especially from the fire fighting angle; that our whole 
system of water conservation in Douglas County needs planning and 
control, in order that it may be conserved and held in so-called 
rolling dams or reservoir dams, that it may be preserved through 
the summer months when drought is a menace to all of us. 
 
     We ask that thio program receive the support and encouragement 
of conservation minded people, including state and federal agencies 
as well as those that live here so that in years to follow, we will 
have some kind of buttress against the effects of drought and fire. 
This program provides information in relation to Douglas Countyts 
waters, with the hope in mind of assisting in developing the 
suggested work contained herein. We are running across the county 
from east to west, suggesting deflectors, rolling controlling and 
reservoir dams; then other water conservation set ups, with only one 
thought in mind, that of welfare and well being of all. 
 
             ROLLING, CONTROLLING AND RESERVOIR DA, 
 
Totogatic Ounce: 
     This river runs across the S.E. corner of Douglas County; is 
very picturesque, and contains a grea deal of rock formation. In the 
summer time one can practically walk across anywhere. We suggest 
here, improvement in the way of dams all along the river where the 
dams are needed, especially rolling and reservoir dams. At one time 
it was one of our nicest trout streams. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                              -2- 
Eau Claire River: 
     Here, likewise, rolling and controlling dams are needed. There is 
a great deal of rock formation along this river, and material is 
available along the river. This river's water supply is controlled 
by the Eau Cleire Lakes. 
 
St. Croix River: 
     Especially the portion of the St. Croix River west from the 
Flowage, needs a great deal of attention with deflectors and dams of 
all types. In the summer it is practically impossible to punt a boat 
from the flowage down to the so called Thompson's Bridge. This is 
one of the best small mouthed bass rivers in the 13.S., adl that 
portion of the St.Croix River west from the flowage needs attention, 
as well as the headwaters east and north of the flowage. The source 
of this river is the St.Croix Lake. 
 
Moose River: 
     At one time the Loose River was one of our better trout streams. 
Today the water is spread all over. It has no depth and practically 
no fish life. Deflectors and rolling dams are needed here very badly. 
 
Tamarack and Spruce Rivers: 
     These two rivers merge into the Tamarack in the S.W. part of the 
county. They need attention in a great many places, with deflectors 
and rolling dams. 
 
Black River: 
     The source of the Black River is Black Lake. This river runs 
north into uanitou Falls. By all means this river should have the 
immediate attention of those interested in conservation, if we are to 
maintain falls at all.- 
 
Amnicon River: 
     The source of Amnicon River is Amnicon Lake. It runs south and 
then east to Lyman Lake; then north into Lake Superior. At one time 
this was a wonderful trout stream. In places now, in the summer time, 
there is practically no water. This river has a great deal of 
material along its banks; in fact, all of the rivers we have mentioned 
have, and should have immediat6 attention as far as rolling dams and 
deflectors are concerned. 
 
     In and around St. Crois Lake, we have Leo Creek. Catlin Creek, 
Rock Cut; all trout streams of importance, and feeders to the St. 
Croix Lake. They should have our immediate attention. 
 
Ox Creek: 
     "Ox Creek has its source in Douglas County, emptying into the St.

Croix River. The lower portion of Ox Creek, especially, is a very 
nice trout stream, and is available to the fly fisherman. It has 
rock formation along its course, and here deflectors and rolling dams 
are needed. This is also true of the upper portion of Ox Creek. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Brule River: 
     So0e very effective r'crk has already been done on the Brule 
River, and this should be continued by come agency, in rwlaces -here im-

'rovement is needed, in order that the rater may be conserved and 
utilized to the best advantage for trout. 
 
Po-lar River: 
     Emrties into Lake Superi-r. This river has rock formation, and 
material is.of no consequence as far as an exoenditure is concerned. 
This river is very lo,' in the summer, and the -ater could be utilized 
through a system of dams. 
Viddle Riverl 
     At one time Middle River vras a very fine trout stream. It empties 
into Lake SuneriC'r; has rock formation along its banks, and this 
river, through deflectors and reservoir dams, can be saved. 
 
Balsam Creek: 
     This river is an asset to Douglas C-unty from a fishing stand- 
point but has been neglected for years. "aterial is available, and 
ryater here can be conserved and the river, with deflectors and dams, 
recreased ipto a real trout stream. Any of these rivers mentioned, 
have feeder creeks. These creeks can be orened up, increasing not 
only depth, but the flor of water to the mother rivers. 
 
Lekes W'ith Outlets: 
     Douglas County has the following lakes i-ith outlets: St. Croix 
Lake, Nebagamon Lake, Minnesuing Lake, Lyman Lake, Dowling Lake, 
Amnicon Lake, Safford Lake, Snake Lake, Cranberry Lake, Eau Claire 
Lakes. Ie propose that dams be erected at these outlets, controlling, 
and establishing the water level on each lake, that those having 
prorerty on these lakes may be protected, and the rater conserved in 
the lakes to an established level. 
 
Dams for the Control off- i~sh ji.l*- 
     The Mrule ier runs through section 10, T. 49, R. 10.     This 
section is ortned by Douglas County. At one time there was a dam in 
this river, which controlled in a way, rough fish and other large fish 
coming up the river to apawn from Lake Sunerior. About 1910 this dam 
ras blown out, and now the Brule River is infested with large fish and 
rough fish, including some carp. "Ie believe that this type of dam will

control these fish and that the Brule will return back to one of the 
greatest trout streams in the t-rld. 
 
     There are two more sites on the Brule River -here we believe the 
same type of dam should be created; one known as the Mill Site, N.1. 
quarter -f the S.E. quarter, Section 11, T. 47, R. 10, and the old dam 
site a quarter of a mile S. of the Forest Rangers' Cabin, in the N. 
of the S.E.¼ of Section 42, T. 47, R. 10, Douglas County, 1is. 
 
T o r n. of G o rd on o -D am                            o  om:k  n 
     .We b~lieve that reservoir dams should be erected,of some kind, 
at the six mile dam location, in the N.E.1 of the N.tV.¼ of Section
10, 
T. 43, R. 11. 
 
Town of Summit: 
     . Headwaters of Balsam Creek. IIEý of the 1F1. Sec. 7, Township
46, 
Range 15. Little Balsam Creek. NEI of the T-V, See. 32, T. 460 R.15. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-4- 
 
 
East one-half of the SEý, Sec. 17, Township 45, R. 15. Headwaters
of 
Em pire Creek, NE- of the N  Sec. l1, T. 46, R. 15. Black River. 
SU, of the SW*, sec. 0, T,46, R. 14. Bear Creek. NX   of the NWi, 
Sec. 2, T. 45, R. 14. 
Town of Dairyland: 
     spruce River, Falls Dam, NE* of the S I Sec. 17, Township 43, 
R. 15. Dead Man Dam. II. of the SZ.1, Sec.  R. 43, R. 15. Old 
Logging Dam, NW* of the SE; Sec. 32, T. 44, R. 15. Tamarack River, 
Radigan Dam.  SWq of the SE , Sec. .0, T. 43, R. 15. A rolling dam 
in the NEX of the NEý of Sec. 20, T. 44 R. 14. On Tamarack River.

Also, a dam in Tamarack River in the N4 of the IEý of Sec. 29, T.
43, 
R. 13. Spruce River Dam in the S   of the NEX of Sec. 28, T. 44, R. 
13, and a dam in the NE of the NW1 of Section 1, T. 44, R. 13. 
Town of Highland: 
     Rock Lake-Retention Dam, $*, N*, Section 33, T. 45, R. 10. 
Town of Amnicon: 
     On the Middle River, Sec. 0, T, 47, R. 12* Amnicon River, Sec. 
7, R. 12, T. 47. Bardon Park. Sec. 29, T. 45, R. 12. 
Torn of Lakeside: 
    -Water Control Dams. Bardon Creek. Sec. 16, T. 48, R. 11. Lake 
Creek. Sec. 17, T. 48, R. 11. Middle River. Sec. 18, T. 48, R. 11. 
Bowser Creek.  Sec. 15, T. 48, R. ll  Middle Creek. Sec. 16, T. 48, 
R. 12. Amnicon River. Sec. 8, T. 48, R. 12. Lake Creek. Sec. 20, 
T. 48, R. 11. 
Town of Hawthorne: 
... Middle River Dam, SE of SWV of Sec. 34, T. 47, R. 12. 
 
Town of Superior: 
     Bruce Johnson Park Dam. Sec. 15, T. 47, R. 15, on the Nemadji 
River. Nemadji River Dam, Sec. 21, T. 47, R. 15, Sec. 14, T. 47, R. 
15. Water Control Dams.-Nemadji River. Sec. 14, T. 47, R. 15, Sec. 
15, T. 47, R. 15. Clear Creek. Sec. 15, T. 47, R. 15. Rock Creek. 
Sec. 16, T. 47, R. 15. 
Town of Solon Springs: 
     Big Dam. Moose River. S    of the SWM of Sec. 35, T. 45, R. 13, 
and a rolling dam on the SWx of the SE of Section 22, T. 45, R. 13, 
and a rolling dam in the SWi of the S  of Sec. 13, T. 45, P. 13. 
Town of Wasoott: 
     TOtogatic Ounoe River. Rock Dam# N*   of the NFA- of'Sec. 1, T. 
43, R. 10. Depot 1Dam. SZý of the Sq 'eo. 11, T. B~, R. 10. Black-

burn Dam. STW4 of Sec. 30, T. 43, R,     Snake Creek, e1cof the 8WJ 
of Sec. 25, T. 43, R. 10. Norway Dam,     o of the A Sec. 21, T.43, 
R. 10. Moose River, Buck A Day Dam. S    of the S  of the Sec. 11, 
  ber Cooreekn Darnm4o   h   W. Nof    h to 
T. 44, R. 13. Cooper Mind Dam, N''of    he    of  ec 7 T. 43, R. 
13. Miles Creek Dam   NWt of the Sl  of Sec. 4, T. 43, k. 12.  Cran- 
berry Creek Dam.    of he S4   of hec. 30, T. 43, R. 12. 
Rearing Ponds and Hatcheries: 
     The Conservation 6Zmmission has accomplished quite a little work 
on the hatchery at Brule that ras donated to the State by public sub- 
scription. We feel that the hatchery should be enlarged, using allthe 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
building for hatchery purposes, and rearin- " .onds established making
it 
an zll year substantial trout hatchery. 
 
     1.   Trout and Rearing Ponds, on the publicly owned land rholly 
w~ithin Sectio, .'' 47, 1. 12, lying just west of Highway 53, near 
the village of Wascott at the head of Bergen Creek. 
 
     2.   Bass Ponds.   The Conservation Commission itself has made 
surveys of Douglas County in relation to bass ponds. 'Ie desire that 
bass ponds be created in the thoroughfares between Nebagamon and 
Yinnisuing Lakes and at the outlet of Amnicon and 1Yinnisuing Lake and 
the thoroughfare between Middle and what is known as Fowler or any 
further places that this survey covers. 
 
     3.   Pike Hatchery.   The Conservation Commission has promised us 
for a 'oeriod of sme'years now that it will establish in Douglas 
County a pike hatchery. We have suggested this on the St. Croix at 
the floge if the run of pike substantiates a hatchery of this kind. 
     4.   Increased water sun 1 .   At the north end of the Club House 
in the Bird Sanct ary, Sec. 14, T. 44, R. 12, on publicly owned land, 
there is a small lake fed entirely by springs. We feel that an 4ttem- 
pt should be made by driving points in this lake to increase the denth 
of this vater for the enjoyment of the public at large. 
Polution of Waters: 
     From a recreational standpoint and the natural life of various 
fish, an effort must be made for the prevention of poluting our waters, 
not only rivers but all lakes. 
 
Xew Lake: 
     T e county owns some 700 acres north of section 10, 43, 15. There 
was an old dam here known as the Radigan Dam some years ago. We de- 
sire that a new lake be built here for the general use of the people. 
Also a flowage lake north of a dam to be built in section 28,44,15. 
 
Conclusion: 
     The purpose of this rater conservation program has been to devel- 
oo through observation, these lake and water lanes, in bombating the 
forest fires in Douglas County. ',e believe that with these rolling 
dams and controlling dams, our water can be conserved for Douglas 
County, and that when a situation confronts us again as it has the 
last month, water willnot only be available through r'ater lanes to 
combat forest fires, but also-will prevent their spread, and at the 
same time, produce in our rivers and creeks, hide-outs for fish, and 
watering places for domesticated animals as rell as rild life. It 
rill be an educational opportunity for those who love the out of doors, 
to anpreciate exactly what water means to a community. 
                    DOUGLAS COUNTY FISH & GV2 LEAGUE 
                    Officers: 
                    Clare L. Wildner, Pres.   Snyder Clemens, Treas. 
                    Geo. Babb, Vice-Pres.     Louis G. Nagler, Sec. 
                    And members of Executive Committee: 
Geo. E. Yale, Cecil Williams, Al Haglund, Louis Efa*, Harithorne, '7is. 
Phil Nelson, _Maple, Wis., Dr. T. F. Smith and Pueben Ruckdashel. 
 
 
Released. 
 
 
-5- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                           2532 UniversityAem 
                                           Mac 11* 193 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr, 0*79 L. Wildner, President 
Doulas County Fih & Game Legu 
btpettow Ass .oato of Oopews 
 
$porw. Wiscsina 
 
Dear Mr. 1118awr 
         I hav ra    e oi,   proram with great intr s. 
 
         It is tit my opinion a real gain to have these variou  pro 
jeat. all of reod   In that rope you are a ftll jum shea 
of a  other cout X nw of, 
 
         UntLI I m bette Macuite with   u  c ty, howe 
I mUal e.ot tha     asom  of th  detail will evnml    show Inter- 
tew.s bw~a one proje      an   anet.,   s a b      predto 
 
 
         Th~s is a inferne at least,   ta mest of t 
projects are to be paid for and administered by the. public. This# 
I fear, will brea down whe extnde ove th       hlnrhr 
regon   Of cous, 1h*is is not our f.1to bt It reflets t*h 
nearly=vwmla failur of private initiative ax omwnesip in 
oons~atio.n  This met, I think, evenuall b. caed in we* wa. 
I   n't  ow  e am. 
 
         I look     dto gtting auainte with           a 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                 Aldo Leopold 
                           Prfessor of 0m Mangament 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Superior Association of Commerce 
                        ANDROY HOTEL 
 
 
      OFFICERS 
PRESIDENT 
LEONARD MORAN, 
  N. W. MUTUAL LIFE INS. CO. 
VICE-PRESIDENT 
R C. BUCK. 
  R. C. BUCK. INC.. CIVIL ENGINEERS 
TREASURER 
CLARENCE GRACE, 
EMPLOYERS MUTUAL INS. CO. 
 
      DIRECTORS 
 E. S. BERTHIAUME. 
 BERTHIAUME, INC., "GROCERS" 
 PETER B. CADIGAN 
 CADIGAN & CADIGAN, "ATTORNEYS" 
 SNYDER CLEMENS. 
 LONEY & CLEMENS, 
 "INSURANCE AND REAL ESTATE" 
 S. S. CURTIS. 
 NATIONAL LSR. & CREOSOTING CO. 
 WM. R. DAVIES, 
 "SUP'T OF SCHOOLS" 
 A. M. DORAN. 
 "MGR." SUPERIOR HOTEL 
 HARRIS ERLANSON. 
 ERLANSON LUMBER CO. 
 RALPH FALSTAD. 
 "ACCOUNTANT" 
 CLOUGH GATES, 
 EVENING TELEGRAM CO. 
 ELMER HARD. 
 N. P. RAILWAY CO. 
 C. F. HERTLEIN, 
 N. W. OIL Co. 
 JAMES R. MILE. 
 MILE & DAHL, "ATTORNEYS" 
 DR. A. F. JACOBS, 
 "DENTIST" 
 PERCY LONGTINE. 
 N. W. OIL Co. 
 ALPINE MACARTHUR 
 MACARTHUR EQUIPMENT CO. 
 HUGH McDONALD, 
 SUPERIOR LAUNDRY Co. 
 L. R. McPHERSON. 
 BUTLER & MCPHERSON. "ATTORNEYS" 
 JAMES C. McKAY 
 ASS'T DISTRICT ATTORNEY 
 CARL NEWMAN. 
 SPEAKES CO., 
 "BUILDING MATERIALS" 
 E. .B OSBORNE, 
 "FARMER" "VITAMIN D MILK" 
 T. J. ROTH. 
 ROTH BROS., -DEP'T STORE" 
 PAUL SKAMSER. 
 EVENING TELEGRAM CO. 
 NEIL SMITH, 
 ROTH BROS., "DEP'T STORE" 
 DR. T. F. SMITH. 
 "DENTIST" 
 ROY SPRINGER 
 ROSS ELECTRIC CO. 
JOHN SPROWLS. 
POWELL & SPROWLS. "ATTORNEYS" 
HARRY WAITE, 
GRAY PLUMBING II HEATING Co. 
 
 
I IPFItR - flriI I(1 A Cr WIQ 
 
 
                                    March 2, 1936. 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Professor of Game Management 
1532 University Ave. 
Madison, Wis. 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
 
      We are enclosing herewith, copy of a six year 
progressive conservation program for Douglas County, 
as set up by the membership of the Douglas '-'ounty 
Fish & Game League, which I believe explains itself. 
It has to do with our most vital resources; land and 
water. Included in the program are benefits not 
only for those who love to study our out of doors 
and enjoy animal, bird and vegetable life, out also 
benefits to those who desire to hunt and fish. 
 
      We have gone a little farther with this program 
than the ordinary b'ish & Game League perhaps, in 
that we are presenting the program not only to the 
Conservation Commission, State of Wisconsin, and 
conservation under the various Federal set ups, in 
asking their co-operation in the prosecution of the 
program; but also, to those seeking public office 
in this county, asking them to endorse the program 
in writing, and to assure us that if they are elected 
to the public office they seek, they will, by vote 
and action do all in their power during their term of 
office, to advance this program for conservation in 
Douglas County, Wis. 
 
      I would greatly appreciate your personal comment 
upon the program as a whole, or in detail. 
 
                              Most sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
 
                              Clare L. Wildner, 
                              President, 
 
                              DOUGLAS COUTh4TY FISH & GAME LEAGUE 
 
 
CLW: GM 
1 Enc. 
 
 
CLARE L. WILDNER, 
          SECRETARY 
 
  

					
				
				
 
             A SIX YEAR PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATION PROGRAM 
                         sponsored by the 
                 DOUGLAS COUNTY FISH & GAME LEAGUE 
                      AT SUPI8:RI, WISCONSIN. 
 
     BELIEVING THAT the natural resources of Douglas County are 
     the heritage of the whole people and should be conserved 
     and utilized for their benefit, they have set up and approv- 
     ed this program for the promotion of the welfare and well- 
     being, not only of Douglas County citizens, but for the bene- 
     fit of those who visit us from the outside. The Executive 
     Committee of the Douglas County Fish & Game League, through 
     which its activities function, feel that only through a clear 
     understandina of conservation in its broadest sense by every 
     citizen in our community, can we render effective service as 
     a whole, and ask that all public officials, the Conservation 
     Commission of Wisconsin, the Conservation Committee of the 
     Douglas County Board of Supervisors, and Federal "set ups"

     under conservation, carry out this program as quickly as 
     possible. This program is presented after a great deal of 
     study and planning, and creates in conservation for Douglas 
     County, great economic efficiencies and use of its out doors 
     and will coordinate politic, civic, community and individual 
     efforts in the planning for Douglas County's conservation 
     needs. 
 
A. WATERS 
     1. Doulas Lake. We desire that there be created immedi- 
     ately a lake known as the flowave at Gordon, Wisconsin and 
     that public recreational areas be maintained on the property 
     adjourning this lake and that all of the land owned by the 
     County around this lake be properly zoned. 
     2. Artificial Dams for Lakes and Ponds. 
     Just south of the main portion of the village of Solon Springs, 
     St. Croix Creek crosses Highway 53 and runs into St. Croix 
     Lake. On the west side of Highway 53 the creek runs through 
     a low land that is practically all owned now by Solon Springs. 
     It is our desire that a series of trout ponds be established 
     here in the form of small artificial lakes. 
     Thompson Dam. 8EJ of the SEJ, Section 11, Township 43, Range 
     10. At one time there was a dam at this location. We desire 
     that this dam be reclaimed, and that a lake be created on 
     Douzlss County owned land east of this legal description. 
     Nebaýzamon Creek flors out of Lake Nebawamon from the west 
     across County road S. in about the SE-1 of the NEJ, Section 36, 
     Township 46, Range 11. The County owns the land along this 
     river rest of County Highway S. We desire that a dam be built 
     here for trout ponds. 
 
     3. Lake Levels of Douglas County Lakes. 
     The follorinc lakes have outlets and it is our desire that the 
     levels of these lakes be established by artificial means in 
     the form of permanent dams at the outlets so that in the fu- 
     ture the water levels of these lakes can be controlled for the 
     betterment of property and fish life. The lakes are: St. 
     Croix, Nebagamcn, Ninnesuing, Amnicon, Lyman, Dowling, Safford 
     or Red, Snake, Cranberry, Eau Claire and Ox Lake. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
B. SPAWNING BEDS ON LAKES 
 
 
    We desire in lakes under A3 and including Douglas Lake, the 
    new lake formed at the St. Croix Flowage, the construction 
    of spawning beds by means of brush refuges and log tangles 
    weighed don, of course, with rocks for the purpose of 
    creating minnow spawning beds and bass spawning beds. These 
    refuges in lakes not only frmhide aways, but also increase 
    the food for fish, Some of the work on one or two lakes has 
    been started. 
 
C. DAMS 
    IWe give herewith the legal description of various old logging 
    dams in Douglas County that should be reclaimed in the form 
    of rolling dams with available material to conserve the water 
    supply in the various rivers upon which these dams are situated. 
    Brule River Dams 
    This famous trout stream has been bothered a great deal with 
    rough fish coming up from Lake Superior. We desire a dam on 
    the Brule River started at the so called Clevedon Site; that 
    three dams be built to control fish and not water at the fol- 
    lowing locations on the Brule, 
    1. Clevedon Site. SW1 of the NW¼, Sec. 10, Township 49, 
        Range 10. 
    2. Mill Site. N'V of the SEý, Sec. 11, Township 47, Range 10.

    3. Old Dam Site. One quarter mile south of the Forest Rang- 
        ers cabin. NE¼ of the SEJ, Sec. 22, Township 47, Range 10,

        Douglas County, Wisconsin. 
    4. Fish ways in each and all in order that the rough fish that 
        are so objectionable to trout can be controlled. After this 
        process of control is established, Big Lake and other sec- 
        tions of the Brule, where rough fish are known to be should 
        be removed; together nith the removal of silt in Big Lake, 
        Lucius Lake and the upper parts of the Brule River, to- 
        gether -ith a continuous improvement in the form of deflec- 
        tors and rolling dams the whole length of the Brule River 
        where advisable. 
    Town of Summitt 
        Head raters of Balsam Creek. NEJ of the NEI Sec. 7, Town- 
        ship 46, Range 15. Little Balsam Creek. NE¼ of the NEC, 
        Sec. 32, Township 46, Range 15. East one-half of the SEC, 
        Sec. 17, Township 45, Range 15. Head waters of Empire Creek. 
        NEI of the NW7, Sec. 11, Township 46, Range 15. Black River. 
        S   of the ST   Sec. 9, Tornship 46, Range 14. Bear Creek. 
        NEI of the N&,, Sec. 2, Township 45, Range 14. 
    Town of Gordon 
        Eau Claire River. Six Mile Dam. NEý of the NWr, Sec. 1, 
        Township 43, Range 11. Mend Dam located in the NW. of the 
        SW-, Sec. 33. Township 44, Range 10. Chase Dam, N*. of the 
        N4, Sec. 36, Township 44, Range 10. Buber Dam on Crotty 
        Brook. N¶I of the NE, Sec. 30   Township 44, Range 13, 
        and a Rolling Dam in Section 1', Township 44, Range 13. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
     TOWN OF DAIRYLAND 
        Spruce River. Falls Dam.  NE¼ of the Sew, Sec. 17, Town- 
        ship 43, Range 15. Dead Man Dam, NW¼ of the SEE, Sec. S, 
        Township 43, Range 15.  Old Logging Dam, NWý of the SEj, 
        Sec. 32 Township 44, Range 15. Tamarack River, Radigan 
        Dam. S 4 of the SE-, Sec. 10, Township 43, Range 15. A 
        Rolling Dam in the NE¼ of the NEJ of Sec. 20, Township 44,

        Range i4. On Tamarack River.   Also, a dam on Tamarack River 
        in the NW7 of the NE¼ of Sec. 29, Township 43, Range 13. 
        S ruce River Dam in the SEI of the NEJ of Sec. 29, Township 
        URange 13, and a dam in the NE4 of the NWl of Section 1, 
        Tcwnship 14, Range 13. 
     TOWN OF HIGHLAND 
        Rock Lake - Retention Dam - SEJ, NEJ, section 33, Township 
        45-R-10. 
     TOWN OF AMNICON 
        On the Middle River, Sec. 9, Township 47, Range 12.   Amnicon 
        River, Sec. 7, Township 47, Range 12. Bardon Park.  Sec. 29, 
        Township 48, Range 12. 
     TOWN OF HA'TTHORNE 
        Middle River Dam, SE* of SWI, Sec. 34, Township 47, Range 12. 
     T01N OF SUPERIOR 
        Bruce Johnson Park Dam. Sec. 15, Township 47 Range 15 on 
        the Nemadji River. Nemadji River Dam, Sec. 21, Township 47, 
        Range 15, Sec. 14, Township 47, Range 15. 
     TOWN OF SOLON SPRINGS 
        Big Dam. Mooi'e River.  SEý of the SWi of Sec. 35, Township

        45, Range 13, and a Rolling Dam on the SW¼ of the SE¼
of 
        Section 22, Township 45, Range 13, and a Rolling Dam in the 
        SW1 of the SE+ of Sec. 13, Township 45, Range 13. 
     TOWN CF WASCOTT 
        Totogatic Ounce River.  Rock Dam. NW    of the NEt of Sec. 1, 
        Township 43, Range 10. Depot Dam, SE1 of the SE , Sec. 11, 
        Township 43, Range 10. Blackburn Dam. SW'i, Sec. 30, Town- 
        ship 43, Range 10. Snake Creek, SE-s1 of the SWO, Sec. 25, 
        Township 43, Range 10. Norway Dam, SEj of the NW1, Sec. 21-T 
        43-R10. Moose River. Buck A Day Dam. SW¼- of the SEI of 
        Sec. I1, Township 44, Range 13.   Cooper Mine Dam.  NE of the 
        NW¼ of Sec. 7, Township 43, Range 13.  Miles Creek Dam. NW¼

        of the SW7 of Sec. 34, Township 43, Range 12. Cranberry 
        Creek Dam. X, of the SWI of Sec. 30, Township 43, Range 12. 
D*   STREAM IMPROVEMENT 
        The Brule River, our greatest trout stream, together with 
        the Middle, Poplar, Amnicon, Moose, Tamarack, Totogatic, 
        Ounce, and Eau Claire rivers are wholly or a part within 
        Douglas County. These Rivers as a whole with perhaps the 
        exception of the Brule River have had little or no attention.. 
        We desire that there be created a stream improvement progra 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
        with low log deflectors or rock dams or dams with material that 
        is evailable as a part of this program; believing that in 
        the construction of these rolling dams there will be cre- 
        ated small reservoirs that will hold a part of this water 
        back and lessen the down stream destruction of waters in 
        the spring and after a very heavy rain. The pools created 
        by the dams not only provide a source of water for livestock 
        and wild animal life, but also makes fishing better Rnd 
        should effect the water levels of nearby lakes. Where there 
        is an abundance or evidence of soil erosion it could be bet- 
        ter controlled with these rolling dnms. 
 E. DEFLECTORQ 
 
        It is a known fact that deflectors aid the fish life of any 
        stream and we desire that deflectors be established at proper 
        places throughout the length of the rivers mentioned in D, 
 
 F. REARING POND$ AND HATCHERIES 
 
        The Conservation Commission has accomplished quite a little 
        work on the hatchery at Brule that was donated to the State 
        by public subscription. We feel that the hatchery should 
        be enlarged, using Pll the building for hatchery purposes, 
        and rearing ponds established making it an all year substan- 
        tiel trout hatchery. 
        .1. Trout and rearing ponds on publicly owned land wholly 
        within Section 24, Township 43, Range 12, lying just west 
        of Highwry 53 near the village of Wascott at the head of 
        Bergen Creek. 
        2. Bass Ponds. The Conservation Commission itself has made 
        surveys of Douglas County in relation to bass ponds. le 
        desire that bass ponds be created in the thoroughfares be- 
        tween Neb~gamon and Minnisuing Lakes and the thoroughfare 
        between Middle and mhat is known as Fowler and at the out- 
        let of Amnicon and Minnisuing Lake ot any further places 
        that this survey covers. 
        3. Pike Hatchery. The Conservation Commission has promised 
        us for a period of some years now that they will establish 
        in Douglas County a pike hatchery. We have suggested this 
        on the St. Croix at the flowage if the run of pike substan- 
        tiates a hatchery of this kind. 
        4. Increased water supply. At the no~rth end of the Club 
        House in the Bird Sanctuary, Section 14, Township 44, Range 
        12, on publicly owned land there is a small lake fed entire- 
        ly by springs. We feel that an attempt should be made by 
        driving points in this lake to increase the depth of this 
        water for the enjoyment of the public at large. 
 
G. POLUTION OF WATERS 
        From~arecreational standpoint and the natural life of vari- 
        ous fish, an efort must be made for the preventlon of polu- 
        ting our waters, not only rivers but all lakes. 
 
H. FORtSTRY 
 
         We submit herewith a number of pieces of acreage owned by 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
        the County that we desire be left as deer refuges properly 
        surveyed and marked. 
        1. Sections 3g-34-35-36, Township 49, Range 12, Douglas Co. 
        2. Sections 2_-27-34 -35, Township 46, Range 15, Douglas Co. 
            Sections 3-4-5, Township 45, Range 13 and Sections 27- 
            29-29-34, Township 46 Range 13, Douglas County, 'is. 
        3.  Section 3  Township 44, Range 11 and Section 33-34, 
            Township 45 Range 11, Douglas County, Wis. 
        4.  Section 23-24-25-26, Township 47, Range 12, Douglas Co. 
            All the above land is county owned. 
 
Io ARCHERY AREA 
 
        lMany people in Wisconsin are interested in hunting with the 
        bow and arrow. This kind of hunting naturally calls for 
        somewhat of an open place and there should be erected in this 
        area a small shelter house for their convenience* No other 
        form of hunting should be allowed in this area. By all means 
        it should be accessible by automobile. We have chosen for 
        this area where no hunting be allowed except by bow and ar- 
        row, Sections 31-32-33, Township 46, Range 10, Douglas County, 
        Wisconsin, all on Douglas County owned land. 
J. DOUGLAS COUNTY BIRD SANCTUARY 
 
        This area consists of some twenty thousand acres, three miles 
        south of Solon Springs and one-half mile west of Highway 53, 
        practically all in the Town of Gordon and directly connected 
        with Lake Douglas on the St. Croix River. There is a Club 
        House erected here now on county owned land in Section 14, 
        Township 44, Range 12. This club house is for the use of the 
        public and serves 26 people. As yet It is not completed and 
        we rsk for its completion and together with this, the land- 
        scaping of lands adjourning the club house. 
K,. WALKING PATHS 
 
        Walking paths around the lake that is directly in front of 
        the club house and further; the area should be further cleaned 
        of dead and down debris which is only a hide out for rodents 
        and rabbits. At this particular time in this bird sanctuary 
        there are fifty odd acres sewed to buckwheat, millet and am- 
        bercane for winter feeding of birds, from one-quarter acre to 
        ten acres. More small patches of ground should be utilized 
        every yepr in addition to the amount already sewed to grain. 
        For the feeding of birds there has been set up separately 
        under WPA a miniature bird g me farm in this same area con- 
        sisting of breeding pens and brooding houses for the rearing 
        of pheasants. This must be prosecuted to completion. In 
        additton to this the area could stand four or five shelter 
        houses for the benefit of those that visit this area summer 
        and winter with open hearths, benches and tables, 
 
L. CONSERVATION EDUCATION 
 
        We ask that It be taken in our schools in Douglas County, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
       studying our most vital resources, land and water. How 
       land is and should be used. How it is eroded.   How winds 
       May rhip it into the air, How the humid may be destroyed 
       by fire. How the water is formed in lakes and pools, end 
       then the forest, the vital habitat of many animals and birds 
       and then wild life. These, we believe to be the major sub- 
       jects to be taught. When the children begin to learn in the 
       schools whpt forests, waters, marshes end other resources 
       that can be estiblished, really mean to us then .7e will have 
       helped create a body of public opinion strong enough to in- 
       sure for all of us, conservation. 
 
U. PUBLIC SHOOTING GROUNDS 
       We believe the time is coming .hen it will be impossible to 
       shoot on privately owned lands due to no trespassing signs 
       and we feel that re should start noi to formulate plans of 
       public hunting and fishing grounds maintained by the County. 
 
N. TREE PLANTATION 
       Te heve F npimber of county owned acres desolate and largely 
       lifeless in this county. We have started one tree plantation 
       in the Town of Highlnnd and we ask that more new forests be 
       crested on publicly owned land. Then this is done, new ani- 
       mal and vegetable life will appear and at the same time there 
       will be created a shelter for increased wild life* 
 
0. WINTER FEEDING OF BIRDS 
       "We have effected the campaign inaugurated by the Douglas 
       County Fish & Game Leavue for the winter feeding of birds 
       through feed hoppers with shelter houses over them. But more 
       feed stations are needed, wildly scattered and regularly 
       stocked over our bird areas. We feel that the grain for these 
       feed hoppers, the grit mixed in with the grain, should be 
       available for distribution before December 1st of each year, 
       not only through private donations, but donations from the 
       County Board and the State Conservation Commission. 
 
 P. CONTROL OF PREDATORY BIRDS AND ANIMALS 
       We desire that Douglas County maintain a reasonable bounty 
       upon predatory animals and birds throughout the year. 
 
 Q. WILD FLOWERS AND NATIVE SHRUB$ 
       Douglas County is bleseed every year with native flora of this 
       region end wild flowers growing in profusion all during the 
       summer months. They are in their height of bloom during these 
       months and must be protected in some manner from those who 
       trespass without thinking. This can be accomplished through 
       education and especially through small areas designated as 
       nature or flower sanctuaries on publicly owned land enriched 
       by careful compreensive development plans for these small. 
       areas more as a display area of our rild flowers as is true 
       of native shrubs. 
 R. PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS 
       1. City Parks. There are a number of parks in the city of 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
       Superior in which there are no recreational conveniences, such 
       as tables and chairs, shelter houses or playground equipment 
       of any kind. Other parka that even the debris is not disposed 
       of. We desire these parks in the city to be further serviced. 
       Also our park areas in the city are not proportioned to our 
       population. At the same time there is a great deal of land 
       owned by the city that can be used and must be used for park 
       purposes that we desire prosecuted, especially the city owns 
       considerable land along the Nemadji River that is ideal for 
       park purposes. 
       2.  County Parks and playgrounds. There are a number of county 
       owned pieces of land that we desire be cleaned up so that the 
       land can be used for parks and playgrounds and constructed upon 
       them various forms of outdoor camping equipment end shelter 
       houses for the purpose and benefit of all the people. The lo- 
       cations are as follows: The east one-half of the erst one-hlf 
       of Section 36, Township 44, Range 13 located just south of the 
       new dam at the flowage. The west one-half of the N*T of Sec- 
       tion 13, Township 45, Range 10, lying north and attached to 
       Sand Lake, west of Highway H. Section 25 and the north one- 
       half of Section 36, Township 45, Range 10, surrounding Leke 
       Catherine, Douglas County, Wisconsin. Section 10, Township 49, 
       Range 10, Douglas County, Wisconsin at the mouth of the Brule 
       River.  Section 24, Township 43, Range 12, Douglas County, 
       Wisconsin lyine just west of Highway 53 near the village of 
       Wascott, and at the mouth of little Brule on Highway 2, Town 
       of Hewthorne, 40 acre Park, NW1, Sec, 4, Township 4b, Range 12. 
S. HIKING PATHS 
       There are numerous places in Douglps County on publicly owned 
       land, some with scenic beauty, others 4ith historic background 
       that can be enjoyed by the people if there are created a sys- 
       tem of hiking paths through these various areas. The paths 
       should be at least six feet wide, follow the general high 
       ground in the various areas. Some places, of course, would 
       necessitate foot bridges. We Psk that immediate attention be 
       given to these hiking paths, especially in the following areas: 
       The north area of Douglas Lake following the high ground back 
       from the water levels set by the engineers. The hiking paths 
       around Twin Lakes Flat Lake and Muskrat Lake in Sections 33 
       and 34, Township 45, Range 11, also Section 3, Township 44 
       Range 11, Douglas County, Wisconsin, and also in Section 10, 
       Township 49, Range 11 where the County owns the land on each 
       side of the Brule River and portions of Sections 25 and 36, 
       Township 45, Range 10 in and around Lake Catherine. As there 
       is to be created trout ponds and breeding ponds in Section 24, 
       Township 43, Range 12 in the village of Wascott, there should 
       be created hiking paths along this area; also hiking paths 
       along the Totogatic Ounce River. The County is about to pur- 
       chase the property known as the Copper Creek Mine in portions 
       of Sections 14-15-22-23, Township 47, Range 14. There is an 
       area celled the Bear Creek Refuge in Section 11, Township 45, 
       Range 14 that is not accessible now to pedestrians. Hiking 
       paths should be established in this Prea. The Old Weyer- 
       h'euser Mine in Section 12, Township 43, Range 10 was a 
       stretch of interesting country that should be made available 
       by hiking paths. The Lake Stw Croix Brule Portage. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
        The head waters of the Brule River enst of Solon Springs. 
        This is an old historic trail that should be brushed out end 
        be evailable to those that seek nature at its best. Hudson 
        Bay-La Points. Running' from about the NW7 of the NIT of Sec- 
        tion 33, Townnhip 43, Range 13 in a northeast direction to 
        Highway H. just north of Sand Lake. Section 14, Township 45, 
        Range 10. At various intervals throughout this area this 
        trail is exactly as it was left. This area should be cut out 
        and opened up so that nature lovers could enjoy this scenery. 
        Hudson-St. Croix. Running from the SWi+ in a northeast direc- 
        tion to Manitou Falls and then on to Copper Creek Mine. Por- 
        tions of this trail must be reclaimed for its historic and 
        greet beauty. Ontanagan Trail running along the south shore 
        in an easterly direction should be opened up on that portion 
        of land. In various places in Douglas County other refuges 
        have been established and it is only fair that some attention 
        should ble given to them so that they can be at least used. 
        We have special reference to the Tamarack Wild Life Refuge; 
        the Wescott Deer Refuge; the Bruce Johnson Perk; and the Coo- 
        lidge Memorial Woodland Wild Refuge. 
 
T. HUNTING AND FISHING 
        It is the desire of every member of the Dougles County Fish 
        and Game League that the open seasons for fishing be established

        on the same dates as those of adjoining states in this locel- 
        ity Hunting Dates. It is our desire that the hunting of wild 
        game birds be established in that portion of each fall at a 
        date when it is possible to take the birds with gun and not run 
        the season into very late fall. This is also true if an open 
        deer season is to be established in this County. Even if the 
        season is short we desire that the season be made 0o that deer 
        can be at least pursued under favorable weather conditions. 
 
U. PURCHASE OF LAND         1. For Water Control 
        On the west side of the County in about Section 19, Township 
        45, Range 15 there Is a lake known as Black Luke in a ssampy 
        ares which controls the source of water for the Black River. 
        This land is of little or no value and must eventually be 
        purchased by the County to control the water supply of this 
        river. Head waters of the Brule.   Douglas County owns pre- 
        cticplly all the land rith the exception of a few acres in this 
        area vhich controls the water supply. We desire that the re- 
        mainder of the land be obtained by the County in order that the 
        people themselves can control the supply of water in the Brule 
        River and the naturel beauty of this area. 
                            2. For Public Access to Lake Frontage 
        Figuratively speaking, the people own no lake frontage for 
        recreation on any of Douglas County's lakes. We desire that 
        There be purchased or condemned areas not less than one acre 
        of lake frontawe on all of Douglas County's larger lakes for 
        public use and that these are-s be serviced for bathing fa- 
        cilities and picnic grounds for the use of the genertl public. 
 
V. MARKERS 
        There are several places of historic nature in Douglas County 
        that we desire marked by permanent markers and made accessible 
        by hiking paths. And further there are a number of places 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
       available to outdoor people on the various rivers on County 
       owned lpnd that are not accessible Ft this time. Ie desire 
       that suitable markers be placeo on roads that will indicPte 
       through hiking paths, accessibility to these rivers so thpt 
       they may be used by the people. 
1. ROAD BEAU7TIFICATION 
       !Te are all Interested in the enjoyment of scenery in the vmri- 
       ous vistas traveling our county roads and there is no reason 
       why a beautification program cannot be carried on on every town 
       road in Douglas County, not only adding to the beauty and scen- 
       ery in general, but at the sAme time it is An economic under-. 
       taking in that these trees alonz the right of -ays in the win- 
       ter become natural snow fences and in addition, in the summer, 
       a natural place for our feathered friends. Let us go furtber 
       than thst and beautify the immediate wfounds of our schools, 
       churches and other public buildinis in the rural districts. 
 
X. SLASHINGS 
       Throughout Douglas County 'qe hpve permitted orners of land to 
       go in and cut the trees they desired end lepve their slpshinvs 
       as a fire menace to their surroundina neichbors. Lezislptien 
       at all times should be enacted that those that desire to cut 
       their own timber should at least be made, under the Iw, to 
       clean up their own debris. 
 
Y. CHRISTMAS TREES 
       We believe that the time has come vwhen lecislation should be 
       enacted, either by the state or local government, to check the 
       very wasteful slaughter of the so called Christmas trees each 
       year. 
 
CONCLUSION 
       THE PURPOSE of this six year progressive conservation develop- 
       ment plan for Douglas County is to point the -ay for essentials 
       in CONSERVATION to those -ho are interested in the " out doors"

       of Douzlas County and will create a future for Douelas County 
       as a community and does insure for all of us, and future gen- 
       erations, desirable and wholesome out door conditions and vives 
       an opportunity for appreciation of DouglAs County's natural 
       beauty and carries -ith it the underlying principle that our 
       naturnl resources are merged into a general proerpm for the 
       benefit of all. 
 
                                 Douelas County Fish & Game Leas.ue 
                                 Officers:. 
                                   Clare L. 'Vildner, President 
                                   George N, Peterson, Vice-President 
                                   Snyder Clemens, Treasurer 
                                   Louis G. 11peler, Secretary 
                                   And Members of the Executive 
                                                      Commit tee -. 
       George E. Yele, Cecil "fillirms, Al Haelund, Louis Efaw, T&ew-

       thorne, visconsin, Phil Nelson, Maple, ¶isconsin, Dr. T. r. 
       Smith, arid Rpben Ruckdnshel. 
 
       Released Feb. 29, 1936 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                               3/21/3m 
 
 
 
    Lake ftporl Hucat A Min ft    (C.arQe Peal, Superioro Amsix) 
opate a far fam in gF            rats within    s  m. Use      ts 
anot gme,  Re tol J, F. WiUder 221 Oge      Av u pst, Ste to.Vat in late

winter whe he in f         o  the La. he has to  op out m   rats wit tails

fnzen to the too, after *to bavo o     out tofed 
    Thes rats Ziwv In both bns and houses, !Rh rats maintain their ov 
openins In the to. 
    Thinks they -m T5 pairs, on 90 acres, but this q to off,. 
 
 
 
 
 
DOU44 0.. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
     FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 43 N. R.IOW.-1933 
 
 
                                               LEGEND 
UPLAND-FOREST LOWLAND-FOREST     POPPLE      NFERIOR FORE    OPEN SWAMP 
     A 
NUMERALS I-2  ALLNUERAL3        CI T      COVR 0DIS-E                   
      - SP-A   UMI LS 3 
                     JALL UMERALS-3               O-DHD5-J,1 ýLL NUMERALS-

 
          -LAND COVER-             PLANTING RECOMME                     
-  LAKE MAPPING- 
                                          O   MiLE       I 
 
 
.-"',,'COVER BOUNDARY C4-GRASS MARSH  -ROADS AND IMPREMENTS-       
 SHOREUNE     L. LAKE   P-POND 
AI-HARDWOOD       a-SEDGE MARSH       -  HARD SURFACED ROADS         BOG
SHORE LINPBEAVER POND 
01-HARDWOOD WITH D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG      IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS       STRAND
1O'WYDE B.P) "  DAM 
   SOME CONIFERS  DS-RECENT BURN      -  PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADS-'A BANK
10- HIGH X.BATHING BEACH 
 19-INFERIOR BI    0-OPEN LAND (NO       IMPROVED DIRT ROADS         FLAT
DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75 
 CI-POPPLE WITH SOME FOREST GROWTH) ====UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS        WIDE
BANK IOD'HGH 
   WHITE BIRCH    C-CLEARED FARM   -X-X- FIRE LANE - --.- TRAIL    ST-SHOAL
 BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
 U-NON-COMMERCIAL-Cl CROP LAND     E OCCUPIED HOUSE IiSCHOOL        B-  
            OF  STONES 
 DI-SCRUB OAK AND CA FARM CROPLAND 0 UNOCCUPIED "    CHURCH        
Ba               1.  MUCK 
   SOME RED MAPLE   WITH STUMPS    I SUMMER HOME   5 POST OFFICE    C-  
                CLAY 
 El-PIN-CHERRY    PP-PERMANENT      l NUMBER OF [a   FILLING STATION Y- 
  "          "  SAND 
 A2-HEMLOCK WITH         PASTURE  -TELEPHONE LINE r SUMMER HOTEL    b-  
             '  GRAVEL 
   HARDWOODS      SP-STUMP PASTURE H-HRAILROAD     -POWER LINE     *CAMP
SITE 
 82-WITE PINE      A-IDLE OR ABANDON FIRE TOWER    -ABANDONED RR 5A-AREA
OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (EX 
 C2-RED PINE(NORWAY ED FARM LAND   8 STORE          ,SAWMILL        CEPT
LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
 D2-JACK PINE                      ALOGGING CAMP   A CREAMERY 
 AS-BLACK ASH, ELM, DENSITY OF STAND a] CEMETERY   N CHEESE FACTRY      HARDNESS
O    WATER 
   AND MAPLE     9=       U    =R 
 83-WHITE CEDAR                          AQUATIC VEGETATION        Y.1-VERY
SOFT  M.H-MEDIUM HARD 
 CS-TAMARACK                        P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING        _L-SOFT
  k-MEDIUM     &HARD 
 D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) IAMETER CLASSES FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
 "S"-BALSAM       0- 3            SP-SUBMERGED  PONDWEEDS 
 A4-TAGALDER.WILLOW 3-68 AVE-DIAM-CLASSEP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT
 * NAME NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
   RED DOGWOOD, ETC 6-12 FOR AREA  ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS   GEOGR0APHIC
bOARD. 
 B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH ETC.J (IN INCHES) L5-SEDGES AND REEDS 
 
 
WtICONSIN DEPT. OF AORICULTURE AND MARVETS IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE WI. CONSERVATION
DEPT. AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT, HIST SUIRI 
 
 
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LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
     FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T. 43 N.R II W.-1933 
 
 
o                      . ...... .. 
0     4 v .. ...j........ 3 ,,,.    . 
 
 
-FOREST         LANDFORET 
 
          -- LAND COVER - 
 
 
              LEGEND 
CI  cT     COVER 0-01-L                       KM-E L APPI 
  |PLANTING RECOMMEN:~DI       --LAKE MAPPING-- 
 
 
.'.-%.'COVER BOUNDARY C4-GRASS MARSH  -ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS-       SHOREUNE
    L. LAKE   P-POND 
AI-HARDWOOD       "Z-SEDGE MARSH         HARD SURFACED ROADS       
 BOG SHORE LINEB.PBEAVER POND 
B8-HARDWOOD WITH D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG  -   IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS       STRAND
IOWIDEjB.D. "   DAM 
   SOME CONIFERS  DS-RECENT BURN     -   PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADS-%- BANK
10' HIGH I X-BATHING BEACH 
UT-INFERIOR BI    0-OPEN LAND (NC        IMPROVED DIRT ROADS      4  FLAT
DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75 
CI-POPPLE WITH SOME FOREST GROWTH) ====UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS         WIDE
BANK 10 -HIGH 
   WHITE BIRCH    C-CLEARED FARM   -X-X- FIRE LANE ----TRAIL       ST-SHOAL
BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
 c-ION-COMMERCIAL-C CROP LAND      U OCCUPIED HOUSE II SCHOOL       B-  
            OF  STONES 
 D0-SCRUB OAK AND CA FARM CROPLAND 0 UNOCCUPIED "    CHURCH        
B-               "   MUCK 
   SOME RED MAPLE   WITH STUMPS     1 SUMMER HOME    POST OFFICE    C-  
                CLAY 
 El-PIN-CHERRY    PP-PERMANENT      r NUMBER OF 1i 1 FILLING STATION Y- "
               SAND 
 A2-HEMLOCK WITH         PASTURE  '-.-'TELEPHONE LINE 11 SUMMER HOTEL b-
                GRAVEL 
   HARDWOODS      SP-STUMP PASTURE PH-HRAILROAO    -POWER LINE     *CAMP
SITE 
 B2-WHITE PINE    A-IDLE OR ABANDON I FIRE TOWER  --ABANDONED R.R. SA-AREA
OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (EX 
 C2-RED PINE(NORWAY ED FARM LAND   I STORE         --SAWMILL         CEPT
LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
 02-JACK PINE                      & LOGGING CAMP  iCREAMERY 
 AS3-BLACK ASH, ELM, DENSITY OF STAND ID CEMETERY    CREAM TRY 
     __-_A___PIN___                  CEEER           CHEESE FACTOR      HARDNESS
OF" WATER 
   AND MAPLE              IM     R 
 83-WHITE CEDAR                          AQUATIC VEGETATION        YS-VERY
SOFT   M.A-MEDIUM HARD 
 CS-TAMARACK                        P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING            
                    A.SOFT M-MEOIUM HARD 
 DS-SPRUCE (BLACK) DIAMETER CLASSES FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS        
F 
 "35ý-BALSAM      0-3             tSP-SUBMERGED PONDWEEDS 
 A4-TAGALDERWILLOW 3- 6 AVE-DIAM-CLASS EP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT
 * NAME NOT YET APPROVED BT THE STATE 
   RED DOGWOOQ ETC 6-12| FOR AREA    ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS GEOGRAPHIC
BOARD. 
B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH ETC.) (IN INCHES)  SEDGES AND REEDS 
 
 
WISCONS1N DOPT Of AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE WAS CONSERVATION
DEPT. AND THE WI&. GEOL. AND NAT. HI3T. SUIW 
 
 
II 
 
 
N 
 
 
'4 
 
 
I 
 
 
SI 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
     FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 43 N.R. 12 W.-1933 
 
 
                                               LEGEND 
UPLAND-,oRS, LAND COVREr                  INR               OPEN SWAMP1 
 FARM LAPIND 
NUMERALS -2J [ALNMRL'J  C       COVER O-DO5O-EII LALNUEALS-J  C-)PSP-AvJ
 U ,,~M'EALS 3-'*/ 
 
         - LAND COVER -                                                 
-_______-LAKE MAPPING-- 
 
 
.'."COVER BOUNDAR' 
Al-HARDWOOD 
BI-HARDWOOD WITI- 
   SOME CONIFERS 
 "IF-INFERIOR BI 
 CI-POPPLE WITH SOME 
   WHITE BIRCH 
 C'-14ON-COMMERC IAL-C 
 DI-SCRUB OAK AND 
   SOME RED MAPLE 
 El-PIN-CHERRY 
 A2-HEMLOCK WITH 
   HARDWOODS 
B2-WHtTE PINE 
C2-RED PINE(NORWA' 
D2-JACK PINE 
AS-BLACK ASH, ELM, 
   AND MAPLE 
B3-WHITE CEDAR 
C3-TAMARACK 
D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) 
"W-BALSAM 
A4-TAGALDE RWILLOA 
   RED DOGWOOD, ETC 
B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH 
 
 
C4,-GRASS MARSH 
-'-SEDGE MARSH 
D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG 
DS-RECENT BURN 
0-OPEN LAND (NO 
   FOREST GROWTH) 
 C-CLEARED FARM 
   CROP LAND 
 CA FARM CROPLAND 
   WITH STUMPS 
 PP-PERMANENT 
        PASTURE 
 SP-STUMP PASTURE 
 A-IDLE OR ABANDON 
   ED FARM LAND 
 DENSITY OF STAND 
 
 
NIAMETER CLASSES 
0- 3 
3O-B AVE-IAM-C LASS 
6-12  FOR AREA 
ETC.J (IN INCHES) 
 
 
-  ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS- 
-     HARD SURFACED ROADS 
P IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS 
=     PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROAD! 
-     IMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
==== UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
 
 
-X-X- FIRE LANE 
0 OCCUPIED HOUSE 
0 UNOCCUPIED " 
S UMMER HOME 
  NUMBER OF * 
--.TELEPHONE LINE 
f.HRAIL ROAD 
  F IRE TOWER 
  STORE 
  A LOGGING CAMP 
  Ill CEMETERY 
 
 
- - TRAIL 
I1SCHOOL 
C HURCH 
   POST OFFICE 
   FILLING STATION 
 SSUMMER HOTEL 
-POWER LI NE 
-'--ABANDONED R.R 
--.SAWMILL 
b CREAMERY 
   CHEESE FACTORM 
 
 
      AQUATIC VEGETATION 
  P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING 
FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
SP-SUBMERGED PONDWEEDS 
EP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT 
  ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS 
LIS-SEDGES AND REEDS 
 
 
   SHORELINE    L. LAKE  P-PONr 
   BOG SHORE LIIIE4B.PBEAVER POND 
   STRAND lOWIDEIBDnt    DAM 
SBANK 10' HIGH I X-BATHING BEACH 
   FLAT DUE TO VATER RECESSION 75' 
   WIDE BANK I0 HIGH 
 ST-SHOAL BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
 B-               OF  STONES 
 B- "        "        MUCK 
 C-                "  CLAY 
 Y-          "        SAND 
 b-          "        GRAVEL 
 (&CAMP SITE 
 SA-AREA OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (EN 
   CEPT LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
 
      HARDNESS OF WATER 
VA-VERY SOFT   MH.-MEDIUM HARD 
&-SOF T   A-MEDIUM     H-HARD 
 
*NAME NOT YET APPROVED by THE STATE 
   GEOGRAPHIC BOARD. 
 
 
WISCONSIN DOPT. Of AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN COOPERATION WITH THE WIS. CONSERVATION
DEPT. AND THE WIS& GEOL, AND NAT. MIST. SURV 
 
 
N 
 
 
-4 
 
 
I 
 
 
a 
 
 
I, 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
    FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 43 N.R.13 W.-1933 
 
 
      '70 
 
 
 AS 
 
 
 
 
 
   ~A 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1l9 
 
 
   r 7, 
110,5 // 
 
 
nj I24 ,e~ 
 
 
 
   I A4 
     C4 
 
 
      02 
 
 
 
 
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.---        .     .............. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    .. . .: ... ....... 
 
 
 
 
         CIS - I ." / o  * 
                   At..  ~ 
 
 
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. . .'                            .     ,.       .. 
                 ,D,  - 
 
                         I'- .iF 
       071A                                                     y~ vu 
 
 
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       : , 
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io   .        271 ....... It..... ,              .............. .........+

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             in., 
    05            0 
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              U3 
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 at 
 
          w "  ".-P '.: ; ,   0.6                             
    of 
 
 Sl ............., 
 _,,.i . .2 .. ....                             *  34 // ........_,- +.t
l %. '..... ............ I.  35, IA J 
                                                                D2      
IA 
 
 
IMF, ". .El .                                                      
             L'a=,1 ' 
      L....:.a, ==a_                     = ,_= =._J = == == =_'c 
 
 
FUPLAND-FOREST   F FO RE 5T 
  NUMERALS 1-2 [ALL UMERALS-1 
         - LAND COVER - 
 
 
             LEGEND 
POPPLE  INFERIOR FOREST  F--pE   s-w-Am-I  WA PAR  LAND 
CI  u 1 COVER   -O.5-EI  ,o wUMERALS-  [A  [...PSz.. J 
IPLANTING RECOMMEMN- 
                                  --LAKE MAPPING-i 
 
 
..COVER BOUNDARY 
Al-HARDWOOD 
BI-HARDWOOD WITH 
  SOME CONIFERS 
"WI-INFERlOR BI 
CI-POPPLE WITH SOME 
   WHITE BIRCH 
 CT-NON-COMMERCIAILC 
 DI-SCRUB OAK AND 
   SOME RED MAPLE 
 El-PIN-CHERRY 
 A2- HEMLOCK WITH 
   HARDWOODS 
B2-WHITE PINE 
C2-RED PINE(NORWAI 
D2-JACK PINE 
A3-BLACK ASH, ELM, 
   AND MAPLE 
83-WHITE CEDAR 
C3-TAMARACK 
D3- SPRUCE (BLACK) 
 
A4- TAGALDER,WILLO'I 
  RED DOGWOODQ ETC 
84-CAT-TAIL MARSH 
 
 
C4-GRASS M 
ZW-SEDGE M 
D4-LEATHERI 
05-RECENT 
0-OPEN LA 
  FOREST 
  C-CLEARED 
  CROP LA 
CR FARM CF 
  WITH ST 
PP-PERMANE 
       PAS 
SP-STUMP P 
A-IDLE OR 
  ED FARM 
DENSITY OF 
 
 
4ARSH 
IARSH 
LEAF-BOG 
BURN 
AND (NO 
GROWTH) 
FARM 
NO 
ROPLAND 
rUMPS 
NT 
3TURE 
ASTURE 
ABANDON 
LAND 
STAND 
 
 
XAMETER CLASSES 
0-3 
3:-B AVE-DIAM-CLASS 
6-IS| FOR AREA 
ETC.J (IN INCHES) 
 
 
WICON3IN DEPT Of AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN CC 
 
 
-ROADS AND IMPRVEMENTS- 
-     HARD SURFACED ROADS 
M     IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS 
=     PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROAD! 
-     IMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
====UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
-X-X- FIRE LANE   - ....-TRAIL 
* OCCUPIED HOUSE SCHOOL 
* UNOCCUPIED "   CHURCH 
  SUMMER HOME    POST OFFICE 
  NUMBER OF 1    FILLING STATION 
+--TELEPHONE LINE 1 SUMMER HOTEL 
H-HRAILROAD     POWER LINE 
  FIRE TOWER   -ABANDONED RR 
  STORE        ---SAWMILL 
  &LOGGING CAMP  CREAMERY 
  SCEMETERY    b CHEESE FACTi 
 
      AQUATIC VEGETATION 
  P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING 
FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
SP-SUBMERGED PONDWEEDS 
EP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS W1, FLOAT 
  ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS 
IS-SEDGES ANr REEDS 
 
 
   SHOREULNE  L. LAKE P-PONC 
   SBOG SHORE LImBPBEAVER POND 
-STRAND ID'WIDEIB.D-  '   DAM 
SBANK 10 HIGHI X-BATHING BEACH 
e FLAT DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75' 
   WIDE BANK ID0 HIGH 
ST-SHOAL BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
B_         "    OF  STONES 
B-            "     MUCK 
C-               "  CLAY 
Y_         "        SAND 
b-         "        GRAVEL 
@)CAMP SITE 
5A-AREA OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (ENI 
   CEPT LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
 
     HARDNESS OF WATER 
Y;J-VERY SOFT M.A-MEDIUM HARD 
_&-SOF T  Jy-MEDIUM  N-HARD 
 
*NAME NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
  GEOGRAPHIC BOARD. 
 
 
"WIS. CONSERVATION DEPT. AND THE WIS. CEOL. AND NAT. MIST SURM 
 
 
-4 
 
 
I 
 
 
S 
 
 
; 
 
 
          DS 
       its 
 
 
c. 
 
 
D2   9 
M I ) 2.4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
     FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T' 43 N.R. 14 W.-1933 
 
 
k-    - 
 
 
 
     . .0 
     : l ...':'j,"- 
   -G;"  cI- I 'I3 ,o_, 
 
 
    ~~~~I .. ..... / ,: ..:.,........ 
0..1s2 ..  ..,,,, . K_" /.1 ..... 
 
 
C, 
 
 
       SI6jI  
 
 
 
 
 
       4.7:6 
 
I. C     c 
 
 
L~1.~ft~~fl  'S 
 
 
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    E 
    S 6-9       .. 
    "_.' - cl  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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   0 3 
 
 
 
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         0-3 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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,..A -. ... i .   , 
 
 
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      15 
   . ..,o" .. ..... ... ........W i ' 
 
 
 
 
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           312 
 
 
 
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   3 3 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I      M6 
  i . ... 5 
 
 
  S. .   ........."... ".. 
 
 
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        C'"jJ W~ 
 
 
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   2..-       C 
       's3: . 
 
 
*'    .-? ' 
 
 
* .t          i..% 
 
 
      "Ds/ 
 . > . 3 
 
 
 
 
-<13,_' _ 
 
 
  I~III= 
 
 
 
 
 
 
36 
        ."1' 
 
 
UPLAND-FOREST fLOWANDCOREST- 
INUMERALS I-    ALL NUMERALS- 
 
             SLAND COVER- 
 
 
              POGEND 
PP          NFERIOR FORES F OPEN SWAMP          LAND 
CI C T     COVER O-DFOS-EIIILL NUMERALS- !-   A 
IPLANTING RECOMMENi                     -LAKE MAPPING- 
 
 
'/COVER BOUNDARY 
At-HARDWOOD 
BI-HARDWOOD WITH 
   SOME CONIFERS 
W-INFERIOR BI 
CI-POPPLE WITH SOME 
   WHITE BIRCH 
 CU-N-WCOMMERCIAIrC 
 D0-SCRUB OAK AND 
   SOME RED MAPLE 
 El-PIN-CHERRY 
 A2-HEMLOCK WITH 
   HARDWOODS 
B2-WHITE PINE 
C2-RED PINE(NORWAYt 
02-JACK PINE 
A3-BLACK ASH, ELM, 
   AND MAPLE 
B3-WHITE CEDAR 
C3- TAMARACK 
D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) 
WT-BALSAM 
A4- TAGALDER,WILLOY. 
   RED DOGWOOQ ETC 
B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH 
 
 
A0 0I. IZ. 
 
 
Z-SEDGE MARSH 
D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG 
DS-RECENT BURN 
O-OPEN LAND (NO 
   FOREST GROWTH) 
 C-CLEARED FARM 
   CROP LAND 
 CfA FARM CROPLAND 
   WITH STUMPS 
 PP-PERMANENT 
        PASTURE 
 SP-STUMP PASTURE 
 A-IDLE OR ABANDON 
   ED FARM LAND 
 DENSITY OF STAND 
 
 
)IAMETER CLASSES 
0-3 
3:16 AVEDIAM-C LASS 
6-12   FOR AREA 
ETC.) (IN INCHES) 
 
 
6-ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS- 
       HARD SURFACED ROADS 
 -     IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS 
 -=    PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADS 
 _     IMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
 -==== UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
 -X-X- FIRE LANE ----TRAIL 
 U OCCUPIED HOUSE &SCHOOL 
 0 UNOCCUPIED "    CHURCH 
 SUMMER HOME      I POST OFFICE 
   NUMBER OF  1    FILLING STATION 
-..TELEPHONE LINE 5 SUMMER HOTEL 
H-HRAILROAD      -POWER LINE 
&FIRE TOWER      -ABANDONED RR 
STORE            ---SAWMILL 
&LOGGING CAMP      CREAMERY 
[] CEMETERY      ECHEESE FACTORI 
       AQUATIC VEGETATION 
  P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING 
FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
SP-SUBMERGED  PONDWEEDS 
EP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT 
  ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS 
Ell-SEDGES AND REEDS 
 
 
/L- SHORELINE   L. LAKE    P-POND 
"- BOG SHORE LIBPBEAVER POND 
--  STRAND IO'WIDE IB-     DAM 
:t BANK 1O' HIGH/ X7BATHING BEACH 
". FLAT DUE TO WATER RECESSION 751 
    WIDE BANK 1I' HIGH 
 ST-SHOAL  BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
 B- "              OF  STONES 
 B-                     MUCK 
 C- "_'                CLAY 
 Y- "SAND 
 I-                     GRAVEL 
 *CAMP SITE 
 5A-AREA OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (E0 
    CEPT LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
 
       HARDNESS OF WATER 
 YA-VERY SOFT   M.Aj-MEDIUM HARD 
 _4-SOF T    M-MEDIUM     Hj-HARD 
 
 * NAME NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
   GEOGRAPHIC BOARS. 
 
 
WISCONSIN DOPE. OF AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE WIS.
CONSERVATION DEPT. AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURM 
 
 
N 
 
 
r tu. 
 
 
I 
 
 
pig/IJ. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
    FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T. 43 N.R. 15 W.-1933 
 
 
                                               LEGEND 
rUPLAND-FOREST LWADFRETFRS                                 OPEN SWAMP   rFARM
LANO 7        J 
NUMERALS 1-2   A    M     -CVER -D-0-E                    ALL NUMERALS- I
C-CA-PP-SP-A 
          -  LAND COVER --                      MILE      I             
--LAKE MAPPING- 
                                         0::    MILE       I 
  -'-,COVER BOUNDARY C4AGRASS MARSH -ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS-         SHORELINE
   L. LAKE  P-POND 
  Al-HARDWOOD      a-SEDGE MARSH          HARD SURFACED ROADS        BOG
SHORE LINElB.PBEAVER POND 
  84-HARDWOOD WITH D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG -   IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS      STRAND
10WIDEELEDX .  DAM 
     SOME CONIFERS D5-RECENT BURN     -   PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADSA- BANK
ID HIGH I XBATHING BEACH 
  W-INFERIOR BI     0-OPEN LAND INC       IMPROVED DIRT ROADS        FLAT
DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75- 
  CI-POPPLE WITH SOME FOREST GROWTH) === UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS       WIDE
BANK 1-' HIGH 
     WHITE BIRCH    C-CLEARED FARM  -X-X- FIRE LANE -      ---TRAIL ST-SHOAL
BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
   C-IION-COMMERCIA-Cl CROP LAND    U OCCUPIED HOUSE iSCHOOL        B-  
           OF  STONES 
   0I-SCRUB OAK AND CAI FARM CROPLAND 0 UNOCCUPIED " j CHURCH      
B- B"               MUCK 
     SOME RED MAPLE   WITH STUMPS   y SUMMER HOME   5 POST OFFICE   C-. 
               CLAY 
   El-PIN-CHERRY   PP-PERMANENT     A NUMBER OF 13U  FILLING STATION Y- "
      "     " SAND 
   A2-I-Ek&OCK WITH       PASTURE   ~-~TELEPHONE LINE 11 SUMMER HOTEL
b-                GRAVEL 
     HARDWOODS     SP-STUMP PASTURE *+-HRAILROAD    -POWER LINE    *CAMP
SITE 
  82-WHITE PINE     A-IDLE OR ABANDON f FIRE TOWER -ABANDONED RA 5A-AREA
OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (EX 
  C2-RED PINE(NORWAY  ED 7ARM LAND  2 STORE        ---SAWMILL        CEPT
LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
  02-JACK PINE                      h LOGGING CAMP    CREAMERY 
  A3-BLACK ASH, ELM, DENSITY OF STAND 9 CEMETERY    I CHEESE FACTORY    HARDNESS
OF WATER 
     AND MAPLE     GOODS            R 
  83-WHITE CEDAR                         AQUATIC VEGETATION        Y_&-VERY
SOFT M.H-MEDIUM HARD 
  C3-TAMARACK                        P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING      _-SOFT
    W-MEDIUM     H-HARD 
  D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) DIAMETER  AS   FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
  "I-BALSAM        0- 3             P-SUBMERGED PONDWEEDS 
  A4-TAGALDER.WIL0WW 3-6 AVE-OIAI-CLAS, P-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT
 * NAME NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
     RED DOGWOOQ, ETC 6-12  FOR AREA ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS GEOGRAPHIC
BOARD. 
  B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH ETC.) (IN INCHES) SEDGES AND REEDS 
  WISCONSIN DEPT Of AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN COOPERATION WITH THIE WI&.
CONIIIERVATION DEPT, AND THE WI&. GKOL. AND HAT. HIST. 3URW 
 
 
I- 
0 
 
z 
z 
 
 
 
Id 
IL 
 
 
lT 
 
 
N 
 
 
S 
 
 
I 
 
 
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I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
     FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T.44N.R.I0W.-1933 
 
 
N 
 
 
-4 
 
 
S 
 
 
       SLFORE AD FOREST 
NUMERALS 1-2J ALLNUERALS- 
 
         --LAND COVER-- 
 
 
POPPLE NAERIOR FORES       OPEN SWAMP     FARM LAND                 N 
ci  T     COVER O-01-OS-El! p.LUEALS-4   -C-P--A     UM  At'3 
  IPLANTING RECOMMENCDI               --LAKE MAPPING- 
 
 
  "'-COVER BOUNDAM 
AI-HARDWOOD 
BI-HARDWOOD WITH 
   SOME CONIFERS 
*K-INFERIOR BI 
CF F(PR WITH SOME 
   WHITE BIRCH 
 U-NOWO*MMERCIAAC 
 Dt-SCRUB OAK AND 
   SOME RED MAPLE 
 El-PIN-CHERRY 
 A2-HEMI.OCK WITH 
   HARDWOODS 
B2-WHITE PINE 
C2-RED PINECNORWA) 
02-JACK PINE 
A3-BLACK ASH, ELM, 
   AND MAPLE 
B3-WHITE CEDAR 
C.- TAMARAC K 
D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) 
"f--BALSAM 
A4-TAGALDER,WILL(W 
   RED DOOGWO0Q0 ETC 
84- CAT-TAIL MARSH 
 
 
-4-SEDGE MARSH 
D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG 
D5-RECENT BURN 
O-OPEN LAND (NO 
   FOREST GROWTH) 
 C-CLEARED FARM 
   CROP LAND 
 CA FARM CROPLAND 
   WITH STUMPS 
 PP-PERMANENT 
        PASTURE 
 SP-STUMP PASTURE 
 A-IDLE OR ABANDON 
   ED ;ARM LAND 
 DENSITY OF STAND 
 
 
 
DIA ETER CLASSEr 
0-31 
3-6 ~AVE.-OIAl-CLASS 
6-12  FOR AREA 
ETC.J (IN INCHES) 
 
 
-  ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS- 
-     HARD SURFACED ROADS 
-     IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS 
-     PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROAD! 
SIMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
====UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
 
 
-X-X- FIRE LANE 
* OCCUPIED HOUSE 
* UNOCCUPIED " 
SSUMMER HOME 
SNUMBER OF 1 
TELEPHONE LINE 
1+HRAILROAD 
  FIR TOWER 
  ISTORE 
  & LOGGING CAMP 
  [] CEMETERY 
 
 
S....-TRAIL 
ASCHOOL 
C HURCH 
   POST OFFICE 
   FILLING STATION 
 1 SUMMER HOTEL 
-POWER LINE 
-ABANDONED RR 
-SAWMILL 
B CREAMERY 
   CHEESE, FACTOR 
 
 
      AQUATIC VEGETATION 
  P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING 
FP-DUCK WECD AND LIKE PLANTS 
SP-SUBMERGED  PONOWEEDS 
EP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WI'H FLOAT 
  ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS 
,MSEDGES AND REEDS 
 
 
/"-I SHORELINE  L. LAKE   P-POND 
   SBOG SHORE LIB.PBEAVER POND 
SSTRAND 10WIDE1B.E.0.    DAM 
   BANK 10 HIGH I X-BATHING BEACH 
   FLAT DUE TO WATER RECESSION ?5' 
   WIDE BANK 10' HIGH 
 ST-SHOAL BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
 B.          "    OF  STONES 
 B-                    MUCK 
 C-                   CLAY 
 Y-                    SAND 
 b-                    GRAVEL 
 *CAMP SITE 
 SA-AREA OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES cEX 
   CEPT LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
 
      HARDNESS OF WATER 
 YS-VERY SOFT   MAh-MEDIUM HARD 
 _&-SOF T   A-MEDIUM    A-HARD 
 
 * NAME NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
   GEOGRAPHIC BOARD. 
 
 
WISCONSIN D§PT OF AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN COOPINATION WfITH TNH WIN.
CONSIBVATtON DEPT AND THl WI&, GEOL. AND NAT. HIRT. SUM 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
 
    FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 44 N. R. 11W.- 1933 
 
 
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   ........... ....... [ @...... 
 01-.  I               , 
 
 
UPLAND-FOREST  [    ND-RET         POPPLE   I INFERIOR FOREST      SAOPEN
S  FARM LAND        WA ptA1N 
INUMERALS2             ERALS-3     CI   r     COVER O-Dt-05-El ALL NUMERALS-I
C-CA-PP-SP-A          3- 
           -   LAND COVER           PLANTING  RECOMME                   
  -  LAKE MAPPING- 
                                            0      MILE      I 
   ,Y.COVER BOUNDARY CA-GRASS MARSH   -  ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS-     /  
SHORELINE    L. LAKE   P-POND 
   Al-HARDWOOD       C4-SEDGE MARSH      -  HARD SURFACED ROADS         
BOG SHORE LINE BPBEAVER POND 
   81-HARDWOOD WITH D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG   -  IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS       
STRAND GO'WIDEIB D.  " DAM 
      SOME CONIFERS  DS-RECENT BURN      -  PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADS "
BANK I0' HIGH   X 75BATHING BEACH 
   W-INFERIOR BI     O-OPEN LAND (NO        IMPROVED DIRT ROADS      4-6
FLAT DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75ý 
   CI-POPPLE WITH SOME FOREST GROWTH)       UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS       
WIDE BANK 10' HIGH 
      WHITE BIRCH    C-CLEARED FARM   -X-X- FIRE LANE ----TRAIL       ST-SHOAL
 BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
   CI-NON-COMMERCIAL-C CROP LAND      N OCCUPIED HOUSE IiSCHOOL        B-
              OF   STONES 
   DI-SCRUB OAK AND CA FARM CROPLAND 0 UNOCCUPIED "    I CHURCH    
   B-                    MUCK 
      SOME RED MAPLE   WITH STUMPS     1 SUMMER HOME     POST OFFICE   C-
                   CLAY 
    El-PIN-CHERRY    PP-PERMANENT     I NUMBER OF   1    FILLING STATION
Y- "            "   SAND 
    A2-HEMLOCK WITH         PASTURE   -TELEPHONE LINE 5 SUMMER HOTEL    b-
               '  GRAVEL 
      HARDWOODS      SP-STUMP PASTURE H-HRAILROAD      -POWER LINE     *CAMP
SITE 
   B2-WHITE PINE     A-IDLE OR ABANDON * FIRE TOWER   -ABANDONED R.R. 5A-AREA
OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (EX 
   C2-RED PINE(NORWAY  ED FARM LAND   2 STORE          -SAWMILL         
CEPT LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
   D2-JACK PINE                       *LOGGING CAMP      CREAMERY 
   AS-BLACK ASH, ELM, DENSITY OF STAND 1B CEMETERY     J CHEESE FACTORY 
   HARDNESS OF WATER 
      AND MAPLE     GOME         POOR 
   B3-WHITE CEDAR                           AQUATIC VEGETATION        Y -VERY
SOFT    M-R-MEDIUM HARD 
   CS-TAMARACK                          P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING       _-SOFT
    M:-MEDIUM    h--HARD 
   D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) DIAMETER CLASSES FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
   "U-BALSAM         0-3              SP-SUBMERGED PONDWEEDS 
   A4-TAGALDER.WILLOW 3-BAVE-DIAI-CLASSEP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT
* NAME NOT YET APPROVED By THE STATE 
      RED DOGWOOCIETC 6-12 FOR AREA     ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS 
GEOGRAPHIC ROARD, 
   B4-CAT-TAILMARSH ETC.1 (IN INCHES) E-SEDGES AND REEDS 
   WISCONSIN DEPT. Or AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN COOPERATION WITH THE WI&.
CONSERVATION DEPT. AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT. HIST SURVY 
 
 
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LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
    FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 44 N. R.1 2W.- 1933 
 
 
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UIPLAND-FORESTJ LOWL'ANDFOREýS 
NUMERALS -2   ALL NUMERAL&3 
         - LAND COVER- 
 
 
POPPLE     INFERIOR FOREST OPEN SWAMP/  FARM LAND      ME ALS__' 
Cl  T      COVER O-D-O-EI LL NUMERALS- I C-CA-PP-SP-A 
IPLANTING RECOMMENDED]               -LAKE MAPPING- 
 
 
                                      U      MILL      I 
.."'..COVER BOUNDARY C4-GRASS MARSH  - ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS-     
/L% SHORELINE   L. LAKE    P-POND 
Al-HARDWOOD      C-4SEDGE MARSH     i  HARD SURFACED ROADS       BOG SHORE
LI6NPBEAVER POND 
BI-HARDWOOD WITH D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG -  IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS     STRAND lOWIDE18.1.
"  DAM 
   SOME CONIFERS D5-RECENT BURN    -   PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADS-- BANK I0
HIGHI X-BATHING BEACH 
 W-INFERIOR BI    O-OPEN LAND INC  ý   IMPROVED DIRT ROADS    '  FLAT
DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75' 
 CI-POPPLE WITH SOME FOREST GROWTH)    UNMPRVED D('i ROADS       WIDE BANK
10'HIGH 
   WHITE BIRCH   C-CLEARED FARM  --X- FIRE LANE  - -TRAIL      ST-SHOAL BOTTOM
WITH DEBRIS 
 TT-NON-COMMERCIAL-CI CROP LAND  U OCCUPIED HOUSE ASCHOOL       B-      
       OF  STONES 
 DI-SCRUB OAK AND CA FARM CROPLAND 0 UNOCCUPIED " CHURCH        B- 
                MUCK 
   SOME RED MAPLE  WITH STUMPS    SUMMER HOME    POST OFFICE   C-       
          CLAY 
 El-PIN-CHERRY   PP-PERMANENT      NUMBER OF (A   FILLING STATION Y-    
           SAND 
 A2-HEMLOCK WITH        PASTURE  -TELEPHONE LINE I SUMMER HOTEL b-      
           GRAVEL 
   HARDWOODS     SP-STUMP PASTURE H-HRAILROAD    -POWER LINE    @)CAMP SITE

 B2-WHTE PINE     A-IDLE OR ABANDON FIRE TOWER  -ABANDONED R.R 5A-AREA OF
ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (EX 
 C2-RED PINE(NORWAY ED FARM LAND I STORE        -.-SAWMILL       CEPT LAKES
ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
 D2-JACK PINE                    * LOGGING CAMP   CREAMERY 
 AS-BLACK ASH, ELM  DENSITY OF STAND [1 CEMETERY     V CHEESE FACTORY   
  HARDNESS OF WATER 
   AND MAPLE    GOOD MEDIUM  POOR 
 B3-WHITE CEDAR      A   RAQUATIC VEGETATION                    .-VERY SOFT
 MH.-MEDIUM HARD 
 CS-TAMARACK                      P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING      S-SOFT  
  M-MEDIUM   14-HARD 
 03-SPRUCE (BLACK) DIAMETER CLASSES FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
 "IW-BALSAM      0- 3            P-SUBMERGED PONOWEEDS 
 A4-TAGALDERWILLOW 3-6 AVE-OIAIMCLASsEP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT] *NAME
NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
   RED DOGWOOQ, ETC 6-12l FOR AREA ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS   GEOGRAPHIC
BOARD. 
 B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH  ETC(J lIN INCHES)  SEDGES AND REEDS 
 WISCONSIN  DEPT  OF AGRICULTURE  AND MARKETS  IN COOPERATION  WITH  THE
WIS. CONSERVATION  DEPT AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT. HIST, SURD 
 
 
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      LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
          FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 44 N.R. 13 W.-1933 
 
 
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FUPLAND-FOREST     FOREST 
  NUMERALS I-2 ANRAL3 
          -   LAND COVER 
 
 
                LEGEND 
I POPPLE  1 FINFERIOR FORESTI I OPEN SWAMP/ I FARM LAND 
   I  T      COVER O-D0-05-E  LL NUMERALS-1  C-C-PP-P- A UMEALS3 
   IPLANTING RECOMME                   --  LAKE MAPPING- 
 
 
                                      0      MILE       I 
..'%.'.COVER BOUNDARY C4-GRASS MARSH  -ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS-     /'l SHOREUNE
   L. LAKE   P-POND 
Al-HARDWOOD      ZW-SEDGE MARSH        HARD SURFACED ROADS        BOG SHORE
LII PBEAVER POND 
BI-HAROWOOD WITH D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG -  IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS      STRAND
IOWIDEIBD  "   DAM 
   SOME CONIFERS D5-RECENT BURN     -  PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADS J BANK 10'
HIGH X-BATHING BEACH 
W-INFERIOR BI     O-OPEN LAND (NO     IMPROVED DIRT ROADS      "L FLAT
DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75' 
CI-POPPLE WITH SOME FOREST GROWTH) ====UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS      WIDE BANK
I0' HIGH 
   WHITE BIRCH   C-CLEARED FARM   -XiX- FIRE LANE  ----TRAIL    ST-SHOAL
BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
 ET-NOINCOMMERCIAIC CROP LAND    E OCCUPIED HOUSE lSCHOOL        B-  "
          OF  STONES 
 DI-SCRUB OAK AND CA FARM CROPLAND O3 UNOCCUPIED " j CHURCH      Ba
-.               MUCK 
   SOME RED MAPLE  WITH STUMPS     1 SUMMER HOME   POST OFFICE   C-     
         '  CLAY 
 El-PIN-CHERRY   PP-PERMANENT      1 NUMBER OF a   FILLING STATION Y-   
   '      " SAND 
 A2-HCMLOCK WITH        PASTURE  -'TELEPHONE LINE 11 SUMMER HOTEL b-    
  "     "  GRAVEL 
   HARDWOODS     SP-STUMP PASTURE H-HRAILROAD   -POWER LINE     @)CAMP SITE

B2-WHITE PINE     A-IDLE OR ABANDO  I FIRE TOWER -'ABANDONED R.R. 5A-AREA
OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES tEX 
C2-RED PINE(NORWAY ED FARM LAND   ISTORE        I-SAWMILL         CEPT LAKES
ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
02-JACK PINE                     &LOGGING CAMP     CREAMERY 
A3-BLACK ASH, ELM, DENSITY OF STAND OI CEMETERY    CHEESE FACTRY     HARDNESS
O   WATER 
   AND MAPLE         MSd 
 83-WHITE CEDAR                        AQUATIC VEGETATION       M3-VERY SOFT
 IL-MEDIUM HARD 
 C3-TAMARACK         -            P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING      --SOF T 
 W-MEDIUM    K-HARD 
 D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) )IAAETER CLASS FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
 "W'-BALSAM      0-3 1           SP-SUBMERGED PONOWEEDS 
 A4-TAGALDER,WILLOW, 3- 6 AVEý DAM-CLASS P-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WIYH
FLOAT  * NAME NOT YET APPROVED SY THE STATE 
   RED DOGWOO{%ETC 6-12 FOR AREA   NG OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS GEOGRAPHIC
GOARD. 
B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH ETC.J (IN INCHES)  SEDGES AND REEDS 
WISCON31H DOPT Of AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN CO.OPERATION WITH THU WIS. CONSERVATION
DEPT. AND THE WI&. GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SUM1 
 
 
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  LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
      FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T. 44 N.R. 14 W.-1933 
 
 
 
 
 
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       C.I 
 
 
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                         Vf. 
 
 UPLAND-~rEST OctNDFRET r  OPE FRO  OET  pE  WMI1FR LN 
 NUEAL      , NMRA C,   IF EROO I L NMRAF7!C'P-S- 
                                            IPLANING  ECOMMNDED 
                         --    LAD COER --                             -LAK
   MAPING - 
 
 
""'..-'COVER BOUNDARY 
AI-HARDWOOD 
BI-HARDWOOD WITH 
   SOME CONIFERS 
"WF-INFERIOR BI 
CI-POPPLE WITH SOME 
   WHITE BIRCH 
 CI-NON-COMMERCIAL-C 
 01-SCRUB OAK AND 
   SOME RED MAPLE 
 El-PIN-CHERRY 
 A2-IHEMLOCK WITH 
   HARDWOODS 
B2-WHITE PINE 
C2-RED PINE(NORWAY 
D2-JACK PINE 
AS-BLACK ASH, ELM, 
   AND MAPLE 
 B3-WHITE CEDAR 
 C3- TAMARAC K 
 D3- SPRUCE (BLACK) 
 1W-BALSAM 
 A4- TAGALDERWILLOW 
   RED DOGWOODI ETC 
B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH 
 
 
C4,-GRASS MARSH 
TX-SEDGE MARSH 
D4,-LEATHERLEAF-BOG 
D5-RECENT BURN 
0-OPEN LAND (NW 
   FOREST GROWTH 
 C-CLEARED FARM 
   CROP LAND 
 CA FARM CROPLAND 
   WITH STUMPS 
 PP-PERMANENT 
        PASTURE 
 SP-STUMP PASTURE 
 A-IDLE OR ABANDOO' 
   ED FARM LAND 
 DENSITY OF STAND 
GOOD MEDIUM 
 
DIAMETER CLASSES 
0- 3 
3-: iAVE->IAC LAS4 
6-12 FOR AREA 
ETC.) (IN INCHES) 
 
 
-  ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS- 
- HARD SURFACED ROADS 
=      IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS 
=      PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADS 
-      IMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
==== UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
 
 
-X-X- FIRE LANE 
* OCCUPIED HOUSE 
0 UNOCCUPIED " 
  SUMMER HOME 
  NUMBER OF 2 
.TELEPHONE LINE 
H-HRAIL ROAD 
  FFIRE TOWER 
  * STORE 
* LOGGING CAMP 
09 CEMETERY 
 
 
- ....-TRAIL 
ili SCHOOL 
 CHURCH 
   IIPOST OFFICE 
   FILLING STATION 
 SSUMMER HOTEL 
-POWER LINE 
-ABANDONED RR 
-SAWMILL 
SCREAMERY 
J CHEESE FACTORt 
 
 
      AQUATIC VEGETATION 
  P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING 
FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
SP-SUBMERGED  PONDWEEDS 
EP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT 
  ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS 
ýP-SEDGES AND REEDS 
 
 
/SHOREUNE       L. LAKE   P-POND 
"I. BOG SHORE LINE1BPBEAVER POND 
-  STRAND IOIWIDEIBD.- "  DAM 
"-S- BANK I0' HIGH I X.BATHING BEACH 
4. FLAT DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75' 
 
 
   WIDE BANK 10' HIGH 
ST-SHOAL BOTTOM WITH 
B.   "            OF 
B- 
C- 
 
*CAMP SITE 
5A-AREA OF ENTIRE LAKE I 
  CEPT LAKES ON COUNT" 
 
 
DEBRIS 
STONES 
MUCK 
CLAY 
SAND 
GRAVEL 
 
 
N ACRES (EX 
I' BOUNDARY) 
 
 
      HARDNESS OF WATER 
S.J-VERY SOFT  IM.i-MEDIUM HARD 
_ SOF T    a-MEDIUM     b.-HARD 
 
*NAME NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
  GEOGRAPHIC SOARD. 
 
 
WISCONSIN DPOP  Of AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE WIS,
CONSERVATION DEPT. AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURI 
 
 
N 
 
 
I 
 
 
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   LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
        FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 44 N.R. 15 W.-1933 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                  OS A. .   14  a 
       1 4 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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 J 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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            .                "    !.. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
         e.04: ...4..3.L ¢,."" 
 
 
UPLANI-FOREST FLOWLAN-FOREST 
NUMERALS 1-2   ALL NUMERALS-3 
 
          - LAND COVER - 
 
 
              LEGEND 
              IOR          OPEN SWAMP     FARM LAND     !.VP LAN 
C,  u      COVER OD-05--Ell ýALL NUMERALS-   A CC-PP-SP-   3' 
PLANTING RECOMMEN-LAKE MAPPING- 
 
 
  .."COVER BOUNDARY 
Al-HARDWOOD 
BI-HARDWOOD WITH 
   SOME CONIFERS 
"TI-INFERIOR BI 
CI- POPPLE WITH SOME 
   WHITE BIRCH 
 Cl-NON-COMMERCIAL- C 
 DI-SCRUB OAK AND 
   SOME RED MAPLE 
 El-PIN-CHERRY 
 A2-HESMLOCK WITH 
   HARDWOODS 
B2-WHITE PINE 
C2-RED PINEINORWAY 
D2-JACK PINE 
A3-BLACK ASH, ELM, 
   AND MAPLE 
B3-WHITE CEDAR 
C3- TAMARAC K 
D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) 
ýf- BAL SAM 
A4- TAGALDER WI LLDW 
   RED DOGWOOD, ETC 
B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH 
 
 
C4-GRASS M 
C?-4-SEDGE M 
04-LEATHERL 
05-RECENT I 
O-OPEN LA 
   FOREST 
 
 
LARSH 
ARSH 
EAF-BOG 
BURN 
IND (NC 
GROWTH 
 
 
C-CLEARED FARM 
   CROP LAND 
 CA FARM CROPLAND 
   SWITH STUMPS 
 PP-PERMANENT 
        PASTURE 
 SP-STUMP PASTURE 
 A-IDLE OR ABANDOI, 
   ED FARM LAND 
 DENSITY OF STAND 
 GOOD MEDIUM  =F 
 
DIAMETER CLASSE! 
0- 3 
3 B )AVE-DIAM-CLAS! 
6-12   FOR AREA 
ETC,. (IN INCHES) 
 
 
-  ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS- 
-     HARD SURFACED ROADS 
SIMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS 
-     PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADS 
-     IMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
==== UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS 
 
 
-X-X- FIRE LANE 
* OCCUPIED HOUSE 
U UNOCCUPIED " 
S UMMER HOME 
  NUMBER OF Gi 
-TELEPHONE LINE 
H-HRAIL ROA D 
SFIRE TOWER 
  STORE 
ALOGGING CAMP 
M] CEMETERY 
 
 
----TRAIL 
IISCHOOL 
L CHURCH 
   POST OFFICE 
   FILLING STATION 
 G SUMMER HOTEL 
=-POWER LI NE 
-IABANDONED R.R. 
---SAWMILL 
I  CREAMERY 
   CHEESE FACTOcY 
 
 
      AQUATIC VEGETATION 
  P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING 
FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
OP-SUBMERGED PONDWEEDS 
-P-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT- 
  ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS 
.P-SEDGES AND REEDS 
 
 
/.SHORELINE     L. LAKE   P-POND 
   BOG SHORE LIEIBPBEAVER POND 
SSTRAND IO'WIDE B.D. "    DAM 
SBANK 10' HIGH   X-BATHING BEACH 
''& FLAT DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75' 
   WIDE BANK IO' HIGH 
 ST-SHOAL BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
 B-               OF  STONES 
 B-                    MUCK 
 C   "             '   CLAY 
 Y- "SAND 
 I '_                  GRAVEL 
 *CAMP SITE 
 5A-AREA OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES tEX 
   CEPT LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
 
      HARDNESS OF WATER 
 VMi-VERY SOFT  MQJ-MEDIUM HARD 
 k-SOF T    M-MEDIUM    H-HARD 
 
 * NAME NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
   GEOGRAPHIC 6OARD. 
 
 
WI3CONSIN DEPT OF AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE WIS. CONSERVATION
DEPT. AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SURM 
 
 
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   LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
        FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 45 N.RI 13 W.-1933 
 
 
 
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                                             LEGEND 
 
 
I UPL AN-D-.FORES_jrLWAD-OE 
  NUMERALS 1-2 ANRALS 
          - LAND COVER- 
 
 
    POPPLE  rE  OPEN SWAMP  [FARM I  WA LNLAND 
c,   _   _ co _Ro _,_I 9L MERALS- L A  KEMPS P IN 
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"*..COVER BOUNDARY 
Al-HARDWOOD 
BI-HARDWOOD WITH 
   SOME CONIFERS 
"W-INFERIOR BI 
CI-POPPLE WITH SOME 
   WHITE BIRCH 
 CT-NON-COMMERCIAL-Cl 
 DI-SCRUB OAK AND 
   SOME RED MAPLE 
 El-PIN-CHERRY 
 A2-HEMLOCK WITH 
   HARDWOODS 
B2-WHITE PINE 
C2-RED PINEINORWAY 
D2-JACK PINE 
A3-BLACK ASH, ELM, 
   AND MAPLE 
B3-WHITE CEDAR 
C3- TAMARACK 
D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) 
5T- BALSAM 
A4- TAGALDER WI LLOW 
   RED DOGWOOD, ETC 
B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH 
 
 
C4,-GRASS $ 
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D4-LEATHERI 
D5-RECENT 
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 C-CLEARED 
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 SP-STUMP P 
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DENSITY OF 
 
 
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SPARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROAD! 
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U OCCUPIED HOUSE Ii SCHOOL 
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FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
SP-SUBMERGED PONDWEEDS 
EP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAM 
  INO OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS 
P-SEDGES AND REEDS 
 
 
-' SHORELINE    L. LAKE  P-POND 
SBOG SHORE LIBPBEAVER POND 
- STRAND IOWIDE IBD      DAM 
VBANK 10' HIGH   XrBATHING BEACH 
""FLAT DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75' 
   WIDE BANK 10' HIGH 
 ST-SHOAL BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
 B-               OF  STONES 
 B-                "  MUCK 
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 Y-                "  SAND 
 I" iGRAVEL 
 @)CAMP SITE 
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      HARDNESS OF WATER 
 Y-S-VERY SOFT MI-L-MEDIUM HARD 
 J,-SOF T   M.-MEDIUM   H-HARD 
 
 *NAME NOT YET APPROVED by THE STATE 
   GEOGRAPHIC bOARD. 
 
 
WISCONSIN DIPT. Of AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN COOPERATION WITH THE WIS. CONSERVATION
DEPT. AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT. MIST, SURM 
 
 
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LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
    FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T. 45 N.R. 12 W.- 1933 
 
 
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IPLANTING RECOMME-LAKE MAPPING- 
 
 
.,'%..COVER BOUNDARY CA-GRASS MARSH  -ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS-        SHORELINE
   L. LAKE   P-POND 
Al-HARDWOOD     a-SEDGE MARSH         HARD SURFACED ROADS      BOG SHORE
LIIBPBEAVER 
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WATER RECESSION 75 
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OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES tEX 
C2-RED PINE(NORWAY -ED FARM LAND 8 STORE      ---SAWMILL       CEPT LAKES
ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
D2-JACK PINE                     LOGGING CAMP  j CREAMERY 
AS-BLACK ASH, ELM, DENSITY OF STAND [ CEMETERY      U CHEESE FACTORY    
HARDNESS OF WATER 
   AND MAPLE         MED IUMC                 E  T  I 
83-WHITE CEDAR                       AQUATIC VEGETATION       LS-VERY SOFT
 MJH-MEDIUM HARD 
CS-TAMARACK                      P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING     .j-SOFT   M-MEDIUM
  &-HARD 
OS-SPRUCE (BLACK) DIAMETER  LASSE FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
"Z-BALSAM       0- 3           SP-SUBMERGED PONDWEEDS 
A4-TAGALDERWILLOW 3-6IAVE-OIAIR-CLASSE'P-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT 
*NAME NOT YET APPROVED SY THE STATE 
   RED DOGWOOQ ETC 6-12| FOR AREA ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS   GEOGRAPHIC
SOARD. 
84-CAT-TAIL MARSH ETC.J (IN INCHES)  SEDGES AND REEDS 
 
 
WISCONSIN D*PT Of AGRICULTUREI AND MARKETS IN COOPERATION WITH THE WIS. CONSERVATION
DEPT. AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT. IiST. SURf 
 
 
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LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
    FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 45 N.R. II W.-1933 
 
 
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                                            LEGEND 
         FIN3FOREOR FORES                               OPEN Sý 
NUMERALS 1-2 A   ULS-3                   COVER 0 T-DOS-El [I IE 
                                IPLANTiNG RLCOMME 
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WAP "I L-AKE   A   I NG ' 
     --LAKE MAPPING-- 
 
 
                                     0      MILL      I 
  '..COVER BOUNDARY C4-GRASS MARSH - ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS-    SHORELINE
  L. LAKE  P-POND 
AI-HARDWOOD     "Z-SEDGE MARSH        HARD SURFACED ROADS       BOG
SHORE LI1E.LPBEAVER POND 
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I0WIDE1B.,  "   DAM 
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DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75 
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BANK 1O' HIGH 
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WITH DEBRIS 
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      II  CLAY 
 El-PIN-CHERRY  PP-PERMANENT    Q NUMBER OF Q    FILLING STATION Y- "
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OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES tEX 
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ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
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A4-TAGALDER,WILLOW, 3-6 AVE-OIAXA-CLASS EP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT,
*NAME NOT YET APPROVED bV THE STATE 
   RED DOGWOOD, ETC 6-12A FOR AREA    ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS   GEOGRAPHIC
BOARD. 
B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH ETCJ (IN INCHES) SEDGES AND REEDS 
WISCONSIN DePT Of AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN COOPERATION WITH THE WIS, CONSERVATION
DEPT. AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. SUAV 
 
 
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     FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T. 45 N.R. 10 W.-1933 
 
 
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oi  U      !COVER o -oo-0 ,I-5-El L NUME 
IPLANTING RECOMMENDD 
 
 
WAMP   r FARM LAND     J WA   L 
 
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OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (EX 
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NAME NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
   RED DOGWCODETC. 6-12 FOR AREA  ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS   GEOGRAPHIC
bOARD. 
B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH ETC.J (IN INCHES) "SEDGES AND REEDS 
WISCONSIN DIIPT OF AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN COOPERATION WITH THE WIS. CONSERVATION
DEPi. AND THE WIS. GEOL. AND NAT. HIST. 3U00 
 
 
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LAND ECONOMIC INVENTORY-DOUGLAS COUNTY WISCONSIN 
    FOREST AND GENERAL COVER MAP-T 46 N. R. I I W.- 1933 
 
 
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  FARM LANDA 
  NUMERALS -2       ERA           C   T      COVER 0-DI-D-EI ALL NUMERALS-C
[ c-c-PP-SP-A IUE 
                                   IPLANTING RECOMME.EDI 
          -   LAND COVER--                     ........G                
-ECOE - LAKE MAPPING- 
                                           0     MILE     I 
  .""..'COVER BOUNDARY C4-GRASS MARSH -ROADS AND IMPROVEMENTS-
        SHORELINE    L. LAKE   P-POND 
  Al-HARDWOOD       n-SEDGE MARSH       -  HARD SURFACED ROADS         BOG
SHORE LINEýBPBEAVER POND 
  BI-HARDWOOD WITH D4-LEATHERLEAF-BOG   -  IMPROVED GRAVEL ROADS       STRAND
IO'WIDEIB.D. -  DAM 
     SOME CONIFERS  D5-RECENT BURN      -  PARTIALLY GRAVELLED ROADOS-9 BANK
10' HIGH I *BATHING BEACH 
   "sp-INFERIOR BI   O-OPEN LAND INO       IMPROVED DIRT ROADS     
4- FLAT DUE TO WATER RECESSION 75' 
   CI-POPPLE WITH SOME FOREST GROWTH) ====UNIMPROVED DIRT ROADS        WIDE
BANK 10' HIGH 
     WHITE BIRCH     C-CLEARED FARM  -X-X- FIRE LANE ----TRAIL       ST-SHOAL
BOTTOM WITH DEBRIS 
   CT-NON-COMMERCIALIC CROP LAND     U OCCUPIED HOUSE If SCHOOL       B-
              OF  STONES 
   DI-SCRUB OAK AND C01 FARM CROPLAND 0 UNOCCUPIED "   CHURCH      
  B-         "     '   MUCK 
     SOME RED MAPLE    WITH STUMPS    SUMMER HOME    9 POST OFFICE   C- _"
               CLAY 
   El-PIN-CHERRY    PP-PERMANENT     3 NUMBER OF 3    B FILLING STATION Y-
"               SAND 
   A2-HEML-OCK WITH        PASTURE  .-.TELEPHONE LINE  SUMMER HOTEL   b-
              '   GRAVEL 
     HARDWOODS      SP-STUMP PASTURE I+HRAILROAD     -POWER LINE     *CAMP
SITE 
   B2-WHITE PINE     A-IDLE OR ABANDON FIRE TOWER     '-'ABANDONED RR 5A-AREA
OF ENTIRE LAKE IN ACRES (EX 
   C2-RED PINEINORWAY  ED FARM LAND    STORE         ---SAWMILL        CEPT
LAKES ON COUNTY BOUNDARY) 
   D2-JACK PINE                      * LOGGING CAMP    CREAMERY 
   A3-BLACK ASH, ELM, DENSITY OF STAND CEMETERY      if CHEESE FACTORY  
 HARDNESS OF WATER 
     AND MAPLE     GOOD MlIU    PR 
   B3-WHITE CEDAR      "iLCTTR             AQUATIC VEGETATION      
 Y.1-VERY SOFT  NH,-MEDIUM HARD 
   C3-TAMARACK                        P-PLANKTON LAKE BLOOMING       _-SOF
T    M-MEDIUM     _-HARD 
   D3-SPRUCE (BLACK) IAMETER CLASSES FP-DUCK WEED AND LIKE PLANTS 
   DS-BALSAM        0-3             SP-SUBMERGED  PONDWEEDS 
   A4-TAGALDERWILLOW 3- 8 AVE-DIAM-CLASSEP-ROOTED WATER PLANTS WITH FLOAT]
* NAME NOT YET APPROVED BY THE STATE 
     RED DOGWOOD ETC 6-12 FOR AREA     ING OR EMERSED LEAVES AND STEMS GEOGRAPHIC
SOARD. 
   B4-CAT-TAIL MARSH ETC.J (IN INCHES) E5-SEDGES AND REEDS 
   WISCONSIN DEPTI OF AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS IN COOPERATION WITH THE WIS.
CONSERVATION DEPT. AND THE WI&. GEO.. AND NAT. HIST. SURN 
 
 
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