Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-3 : County, State and Foreign Files

         Pile all slash lightly alvng edges and on top of 
 sprout growths which have been bent over to receive them, 
 thus providing escape and shelter cover. 
         Clear center strip ten felt wide, dragging all stumps 
 aside and leave turned up with dirt attached for winter grit. 
         Plow and harrow, or grub those strips and   aovw in 
 scattiered patches to clover, buckwheat, Michigan mixture, etc., 
 perennials to be favored. 
 Permanent Food and EscapeCover Improvement - 
         In brush patches, along woods trails, around swamps 
 and kettl_ holes, where possible in the crevices of rocky 
 ledges, along food strips and fire lanes# plant persistent 
 fruit bearing and tho,-ny trees and shrubs, barberry, Washing- 
 ton thorn, hawthorn, blackberry, raspberry, wild rose, bul4 
 briar, etc. 
          Apple is our best all-round food and should be given 
 first consideration, prtuae old trees and set out new, graft 
 persistent bearing species. 
         3irch, poplar, oak, cherry, mulberry, beech, chestnut, 
 locust, sassafrass, etc. rate high a. food trees. 
         Azalea, grape, viburnams, bittersweet, rose, snowberry, 
 cranberry, partridge berry, etc. should be given every en- 
 couragerii .nt. 
 Swaddae Improvemont - 
         In tree swa.;.s thin at least 50% of the maple, birch 
if plentiful, and other swamp species that will grow sprouts 
to serve as brovise and cover. 
        In brush sa-_f '-s remove matured blueberry, azalea, etc. 
to encouraýge new growth. 
        Plant as schedule given in Winter Cover Improvement. 
        Development work should not be carried on in nesting 
cover during the season ii which these areas arc being used. 
Forest Composition Improvement - 
        Free thce more promising hardwood sprouts by cutting 
back the undesirable ones, and correct forked saplings. 
        Make coniferous plantings in groups of three hundred. 
        In soft wood forests reverse the above rule until the 
same hardwood softwood combination prevails. 

Waterfowl Environmont - 
         Select a swamp within the area which can be easily 
flooded and which will retain at least an average depth of 
at least throe feet of water. 
         Clear cut the smaller trees and brush on pond site 
and place slash in scattered piles. 
        Leave the larger trees for nesting wood duck, mer- 
gansers, etc. 
         Plant wild rico, button bush, etc. for food and cover. 
Strea:.. Imnrovomunt - 
        This would consist of the installation of chock dams, 
deflectors, brush covers where needed, and the planting of 
aquatic vegetation to oncouracv  fish life and fur bearers. 
Protection of VJil.d Life Area- 
        Prevent all trespass by enclosing area with single 
strand of wire. 
        Post conspoicuously. 
        Er.ect permanent gates at all entrances. 
        Control proeators by the most efficient and humane 
        In order to ascert definitely the result of improve- 
monts made, as to the incr:aso arid seasonal habitat of the 
Fauna, a bi.-monthly cen.sus should; be taken. 
        To proporly do this linces should be slashed running 
north and south and es st and west. Those should be cut at 
400 ft. intorz..als, and from ten to tvwolve feet wide. These 
lines should be permanently marked at all intorseci.ions there- 
by making the rocording of obseiv.tions more accurate. 
        These grid lincs ..lso act to breck up the density of 
the forest and create the border environment most necessary 
for wild life. 
        No set of rules can be laid down for maintai-lnng wild 
lifo at-as. Constant observations properly noted arc of first 
importance. If a species to be encouraged is consistently ob- 
served in a certain type of cnvironment, try to duplicate 
thosd surroundings in other places, thereby increasing the 
species without cover crowding.