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the data from the predominately shallow wells already present. The Wisconsiz Geological and Natural History Survey was hired to install three deep test wells in the study area. These wells had three and one half foot steel drive points on the end and were constructed of one and one quarter inch steel. They were protected from vandalism by setting four inch well casing over them and padlocking down a removeable top. The wells were vigorously bailed by using a pitcher pump. Two wells were installed on the state highway wayside. One of these was 103 feet deep and believed to be close to the granite and the other was 70 feet deep. Besides the waysides existing handpump a forgotten driven point well from some other researcher was also found. This one and one quarter inch well was 19.6 feet deep and dubbed the "Unknown Soldier". It too was pressed into service for a nitrate sample. The third test well was installed just off Forest Avenue and it was sixty nine feet deep. The WGNHS felt they definitely hit granite when constructing this well after examining the drill cuttings recovered. We now believe the well serving Plover Pine Village System No. 10 also termintes just above the granite as it is nearby. Another deep well chosen for this study is the one serving Sunrise Restaurant. A new two inch well was constructed there during the summer of 1986 to try and avoid the nitrate problem. This well is 72 feet deep and the contractor felt he was definitely stopped from driving further because he hit the granite . Since this area has few large rocks, we encountered none, he is probably right. Water samples were also collected at the deep wells serving Sunset Terrace Apartments and Mid Wis. Inn. - 11 -
By sampling these deep well sites, as shown on Map No. 5, I was able to get data from several deep wells located fairly equidistant along the Highway 54 corridor. The amount of sand and gravel overburden above the granite lessened as one drove closer to the Wisconsin River Results From looking at table one, you can see most of the area wells had an elevated nitrate nitrogen content in their water. Thirty one of the fifty five wells sampled showed an elevated nitrate content above eight parts per million (ppm). There were a number of wells with nine to ten ppm nitrate and these might easily exceed the health limit of 10 ppm under certain conditions. Twenty two of the wells sampled were actually above the 10 ppm health limit for nitrate and four of these wells were above 20 ppm. The highest value reported being 27 ppm nitrate nitrogen. The area most affected by the nitrate problem is the strip between Adams Service, plotted as site number 4 on map No. 4, and Ribstone Silo, plotted as site number 19. Most of the wells in this area had an extremely elevated nitrate content and high nitrate water is still present just above the granite, although not as high. As you go further southeast, the sand and gravel overburden increases and it appears one could drill a deep well to get beneath the problem. This idea is best illustrated by the work done on the state wayside. At 70 feet the nitrate level was 13.9 ppm but at 103 feet the nitrate level had dropped off to just 5.5 ppm nitrate. The wayside itself is an interesting study area. It is literally surrounded by irrigated agriculture yet the 23 foot deep handpump tested - 12 -