(1) Vnless reindeer are kept from trampling dry lichen ranges in stmaer they
will 
be meplaced by cotton 8rass. Depleted lichen rai'!e requires 20 - LO years
to 
come back; depleted browee range 4 - 25 years. Deferred and rotation grazing

essential if range is to be maintained. 
(2) Fire must be excluded to prevent encroachment of weeds and brovise and

conversion to moose range. 
(3) Reindeer compete ith caribou for annual increment of lichens. heindeer

destroy caribou lichen ran' e by tranpling. ieindeer may degenerate ctribou
by 
hybridization. To prevent these their ranile must be restricted and regulated

by international agreement. 
1. Bonnycastle, H. H. G. 1936. Canada's reindeer experiment. pw. 424-42?.
Proc. 
for the Senate special corn ittee on conservation of wildlife resources,
74th Con- 
gress, 2nd session, l - 675 p, Sept. 
2. Georgeson, C. C. 1904o Reindeer and Caribou. U.SoD.A. Anitl Industry Cir.
i65. 
3. Grenfell, W. T. et al. 1913. Labradorl the country and the people. N.Y.,
529 pp. 
4. Groavenor, Gilbert ft. 1903. Reindeer in Alaska. Nat. Geog. Mag. 14)4):127-148.

5. hladwen, Seymour. 1922. Raindeer in Alaska. V.S.D.A. !ull. -069. 
6. Jackson, Sheldon. 1897. Report in the introduction of reindeer into Alaska

w:ith illustrations.  cn. £oc. 54th ',ong. 2m] -ession. "o. 49,
Pp, 1-144. 
7. Oack!.ion, Sheldon. 1906. Fifteenth Annual Report of the Introduction
of 
Domestic Reindeer into Alaska. Dept. of 1nt., Our. of Zd., Alaska 'iv., p.
7-40. 
8. Jones,O. Walter. 1914. Fur-farming in Canada.    Con. of ons., Can., Ottawa.,

278 Po. pp. 113-16, 152-154. 
9. uomen, Carl J. 1919. The Uamel of the frozen desert. Nat. Ueog. Ia . 36(6):

539-556. 
10. 'omen:  . J. 1920. Progress made with the reindeer. *an. Gam. Prot. Assoc.

Bull. 9(3). 2-4. 
21.  rie, Adolph. 1944. TIe olves of  oint Mc~inley. Fauna of the Mat. Parks

of the .S.1, Fauna Series /5, 236 pp. 
12. Murie, Olaus 4. 1935. Alaska-Yukon Caribou. N. Am. Fauna No. 54, p 1-93.

13. Nelson, Edward W. 1926. heindeer in Alaska thrive and multiply. Yearbook

U.S.D.A. 631-633. 
14. Palmer, Lawrence J, 1920.   Iaproved reindeer handling.  U.S.D.A. Circ.
63, 
p. 1-17.