Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-4 : Species and Subjects

				
Bi-903 
Jan. 128. 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 
TUL ABMIA, AN ANIMAL-BORNE DISEASE 
The disease "tularemia" has assumed such proportions in the 
United States that it appears desirable that the Biological Survey 
issue a statement summarizing the available information and the 
procedure that may be recommended by field representatives of the 
Bureau in their work with the public. The information here pre- 
sented has been endorsed by the Surgeon General of the United States 
Public Health Service, and the recommendations made are concurred 
in by him. 
NATURE AND HISTORY OF THE DISEASE: 
Tularemia is a plague-like disease of rodents transmissible 
to man, It was originally discovered in ground squirrels in Calif- 
ornia in 1910 by Dr. G. W. McCoy, of the United States Public 
Health Service. Later (1919) it was found in jack rabbits in Utah, 
in the work of Dr. Edward Francis and his assistants of the Public 
Health Service, and was definitely established as the debilitating, 
disabling, and frequently fatal disease locally known as "deer- 
fly fever," which was affecting residents and visitors locally in 
certain country districts in jtah. Of 500 human cases reported in 
the United States, 20 have terminated in death. 
Positive diagnosis of the disease, isolation of the causa- 
tive organism Bacterium tularense, and development of a successful 
cultural technique were important steps in the history of tularemia 
and of investigations of wild animals as carriers of this disease. 
Later work has disclosed human cases of the disease in all States 
except Washington, Wisconsin, New York, Delaware, and the New 
England States, twenty-five States having been added to the list 
in the two years 1925 and 1926, and four in 1927. The disease has 
also been definitely established as identical with the rabbit- 
borne disease in Japan, known as Ohara's disease, which affects 
people there. 
Discovery of tularemia has cleared up many puzzling cases 
of illness that in the past have doubtless been wrongly diagnosed 
as "flu," septic infection, blood poisoning, or other kindred dis-

eases, because of a superficial resemblance of the symptoms at some 
stage of the disease. Human cases have been traced to rabbits 
or other animals in the locality or to shipments of diseased ani- 
mals sold in the public markets. This specific knowledge lays the 
foundation for intelligent action in maintaining essential safe- 
guards and in protecting the ptblic in the use of important game 
animals.