Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-4 : Species and Subjects

Lecture 118 
Omary of 
Lnn, W. W., D. 3. Brown, J  3. UMcl  "tray, Jr. andW. W. 
Garner. Tobacco FollowiES Be   -     ~aa    Weed Fallow 
andPar# Stnd  of  LIi Cert i We~s  Ja. A. lea., 
- 59,              1, 1939, pp. 829-816. 
lxerizents conducted n Maryland since 1922   ad South Carolina since 1933,

by B.P.I., U.S.D.A. The snmary of the paper to quoted: 
'Since it had been observed that high-quality tobacco was consistently 
produced for the first year or two after a growth of natural weed cover,

experiments were Initiated to determine the value of natural wee fallow 
for preceding tobacco in the rotation as comared with that of certain crop

plants and some of the wild species comonly occurring In the natural 
woed fallow. These cemiparsons were based on bare fallow as a control. 
'It is clearly evident from the results heroin presentedthat tobacco 
which is fertilised intelligently and grown after natural weed fallow of

sufficient duration possesses in large measure these desirable character-

istics that are observed in the crop grown on virgin soil. The crop grown

after bare fallow has shown a rapid decline in yield and gross value. 
'The tests conducted with individual weed and cro  lant species 
have consistently shown that certain species are much more desirable than

others as over crops to precede tobacco. Tobacco following ragweed and 
horseweed was markedly superior both in yield and value to that following

bare fallow. On the other hand, tobacco following lambsquarters was 
inferior in yield and value to that following bare fallow. In these tests

annual lespedesa has shown no advantage as a cover crop to precede tobacco;

Sweetclover, rabbitfoot clover, and wild pea have not always shown a 
decided advantage; while partridge-pes has produced same increase in yield.

Altheugh the natural weeds occurring in these tests consisted principally

of species that produced high-quality leaf in pure stands, it is possible

that those found to be objectionable might predominate, under some con- 
ditions, with a resulting harmful effect on the succeeding tobacco crop.

It is hardly to be expected that a given woed species would have the same

effect on tobacco on all soils or under all conditions. 
*The generally beneficial effect of the weed fallow was that it pro- 
moted a quick start and very rapid and uniform growth of the tobacco plants

from transplanting time to maturity. Within normal limits this result is,

in tarn, associated with a uniformly high market vanlu per acre and average

price per pound.# 
Coet. Note that the preparatory weeds had to e         - on the fallow, and

were not effective when added as mulch later. Some direct modification 
of the soil beneficial to tobacco, or some inhibiting effect on dise 
(or erosion?) is plainly implied. 
Note also that the effect was SMaItt. Quantity can be had by 
ordinary fertiliser. 
The ecological significance is the probable conditioning of the soil 
by successive stages of the plant succession, each stage *benefiting' or

*injuring* the site for possible subsequent stages. The effect includes 
the kind as well as the amount of growth. 
cc Stoddard                                        Aldo Leopold  T/16/40


File Wisconsin 
Digest of 
Wisconsin Conservation Commission -ports 
1915 - 26 
N. E. arber. Comissioner. 1916. 
Grous. 'This fine bird is in iwnoh need of protection or its name 
will be inscribed with those that have suffered extermination. Not many 
years ago these birds were plentiful in Wisconein .. 
"It was a mistake that the last legislature did not prescribe a closed

season for partridge, for the past two seasons have been disastrous in that

the sleet, rain, and ice during the winter months covered the forage, des-

troying many of them. The cold rainy weather during the hatching season 
lessened the hatch of young birds. In the face of these facts it is no 
wonder that word comes to us from every part of the state that partridge

are very sarce and in some localities that there are none at all." 
Prairie Chicken. p. 117. "We can only repeat the ame story of the prairie

chicken that we have recited of the partridge. They are 'on their last 
legs' and imist receive attention from this legislature. Scattered flocks

of was1 nzabers are seen in some sections of the state, but from many 
counties the report comes to -as that not a single bi-ds ig seen.  "his
a melaicholy story as compared to tose of a few years ago w   they were 
seen in every county of the state in large flocks . . . 
Q      p. 47. 'Quail are coming ba&. c   hat soiads rood ad is Pall of

meaning for theae birds were -o nearly exterintn:Ited in -Iisoonstn that
22 years of continuous closed season they are just beinning to recover In

appreciable rubers. We believe that -t the e-rxrtion of the closed 
season which extends until 1921 we will have thm in sufficient numbers to

provide short open seasons for tak!ng thin." 
Zae last two winters were exceedin--1y severe, as the heavy sleet and rain

storms formed a coating of ice, covering the food s-iwi-ly, and Lmediately

following we were visited with heavy falls of snow acc   anied with severe

cold weather. It was only throu-h heroic work by this department that 
t      ous losses of theie birds was averted.u 
. P- 53. "The ismediate daner of exterminatia- our &eer was overcome

by the passae of the one buck law by our last legislature." 
"ie refer those who believe that the one buck law is not a conservator

of deer to the following schedule which shows the total number of deer 
shipped from the various counties darin7 the years 1913, 19141, and 1915.

This gives only the mneber of deer shi-ed and does not include those that

were taken by private conveyncee, which were many: 
1913 111          1i 
Total        6,969 
7.373   3,137