Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-4 : Species and Subjects

ing ~.n 
though I 
birds cc 
birds w~ 
garian ~ 
were in~ 
be at ii 
and Hill 
in tena~ 

" By December all of the imorted birds confined& 
were dead, but the four reared from eggs were doing well 
that eggs from the wild birds in Lenawee cou.nty can be ha 
to continue the experiment indefinitely. With souznd etocJ 
wire, the chances for suaccess will be greatly imroved. 
It .is not certain that it will prove practicabli 
ficially but with imorted stock so expensive and so apt' 
dangerous parasites and diseases, native-reared  birds are 
ever they i   cost. 
If artificial propagation fails or proves too e: 
observations indicate that the species is apt to fit into 
of the state, the live-trapngen transplanting of nati' 
probably prove practicable. 
F'rom the record of the bird in other narts of A 
to indieat, 
it is a grc 
tries to f: 
will d   a 
work at al: 
octed to do well anyhere  in lMichi 
t least fairly well, Like the i 
Lid to differ from both in  that wh 

Otober 3, 192. 
Dr. T. 0. Stevea, 
Woringsie College. 
Sioux City, Io., 
Dear Dr. Stevonst 
I had a very interesting repl from Mr. Lnsdale about 
tho bose eat. 
San delighted to know that your student has coplete 
his report on the b.garian partridge. Hower, I bate like 
everythi   to wait until Marh before socin it, If there bappea 
to be a   rtbon cop available whic you coul with propriety sow 
m, I ud glrmtly appreciate the loan of it even If only for a 
few days,  I would, of course, safeguard agalst n  lekge of 
the material prior to publication. 
My rson for being in suha hur      is that I a jst 
writing 9 Ohio report where the quetion of AWarian partridge 
is again 'up and I woud liike to read this report merely sea 
background for a lot of questios in Ohio which I m unable to 
anser, but on$h it might shad some light. 
You and your student might both be intested in the 
attached tabulation exrated from Maxwell's book on the Hari 
partridge. This lineup Is unpublished material so I would appreoiate 
your using it only for your own infomtion. 
I bad a very friendly reception at Ames in connection 
with the proposed quail fellowship. Stoddard an I were both 
anxious to see you but we could not afford the time to make the 
special trip. It is barely possible that I might be able to te 
in the Wilson Club Meeting at Ann Arbor, With kindest regard*, 
Tour sinoerely, 
In Charge, Os IuMy. 
tnelesure  Tabulation. 

T. C. UTrPmeNs 
Sioux City, Iowa, 
November 15, 1928. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Madison, Wisc., 
Dear Tr. Leopold: The paper on the Hungarian 
Partridge is: 
"The Hungarian Partridge in Ncrthwest Iowa". My 
Chas. J. Spiker.    There is a map to go with 
th  article which I do not yet have.. 
I will be glad to see you again at Ann 
Arbor.    The thought just occurs to me, and I 
will write to Mr. Spiker asking him if he would care to 
have this paper presented at the Ann Arbor meet- 
Sincerely yours, 

aWaukesha & leffes, o., Wis., 1929 
On aInuary 31 1 went from      n to Onoow., arriving 
at 0. about 5 pao In the whole drive frm Madison, no Hunarian, 
Partridge were aeon, and only 1 pheaaant, in the city limits of 
Osmwwo. Wther         s ex  sivly cld,   It may have bee a 
few mmnts too late in the afternoon. 
On February 1, lhrden F      Stlbauer and I loft 0. at 
7:15 and droe dawn around Golden Iakse, and oe to the eafforson 
Coo          line. In the 29 mi. dr'ive we found onl 1 flck 
Of HOP     This flock as at a foo bed (station) and conisted 
of 5 birds* A foet or s frm the bed we feund 1 dead I.?., and 
as Mr. Stiglbauer had been there the day before we know it to 
have died within PA heus * F ed bed was located along a roadside, 
a   there was a quantity of loose  ravel and suitable grit. 1 
bird appeared ratber weak and bad difficulty in flying. rood 
onditins were fair.    On this 29 zi, trip we saw 1 hen pheasant. 
eturnin   to Oeowo at 10:15 am we left in a few mnutes 
for the     arklaud vionity. About 11 ocloak w  aan to a" flocks 
of H    i       a  parenty the birds had been huddled together 
earlier in the morning,, sime it was about -10 dogrss. (Note: I 
do not vouch for the huddling together par, aitbough I have been 
told that ia do this in severe weathr). They esn out only 
after the sun cames out In earnst, During the rest of the day 
we aw  n te nighorbod*f 1M5- 150 Hus and  prtael 
o Ring Neek Phsants. With mnly on* eception all birds appeared 
to be in very excelent ondit ion. 
A fewor told us of a flock ot fli aontining one weak bird. 
No hunted around, leoated the covey, and found this bird to have 
a broken wing. -    I abased it on skils and after rning tbre 
fourths of a mile, managed to secure the bird. The striking thing 
about it was tbat the bird, although crippled, wa in such good 
oodtion that It could out-ru a man flor eight or more blocks, 
and when captured it was not winded. 
I us ewrrised at the gret number of farere * o are 
actively feeding the birds. --    It w   deciddly evident that 
the Emns were coentrated around feeding aras, and where these 
were not available, in cornfields* Practically skll birds seen 
were in the vicinity of shocked corn or standing corn. Man of 
the corn shocks are covered with elect and ice on three sides$ 
leaving anly a rew earn available, and the Smin is soon piclod 

Feb.9 1929      no 
off of thee. ears. By obtainnlg permision of tb farmers, and 
oeig up shocks, stripping a few ears    a geat quantity of 
too4 Is md avai11.. to the birds* 
of ps               e         e fsh mae had 
been taa 
been seattored abou.t sd before the ear had been start,, they 
were beak at the feelng station. 
Mr.. StIgbauer tells m  of two dif'trnt oecasions os vhih 
he bas seen coek pheasats casing Huns auay fm   fee   .He has 
observ4 hen pheasants and Huns eatng toether, a    duing the 
day w saw a cey of Huns and a aole Ring Neek Pheasant feeding 
peasefully, but this is the fis t reliable instance I kno of in 
*hih a pheasant has ben   se nlesting a Hungaria Parridge, 
likely teoorqs wilbek uip in pairs witi a very abaut 
Wr, Stigbauw sail he kaw of e#wo    coveys ofj.a befort 
sno-wfal, but at the present tins be di4 not kn   where to go 
to find a single oey. 0L the thzee     iffert trip    I have 
made to Waukesha bdA  refers   counties this wister I have seen 
so Qua1. 
Cottontail rabbits a" vTry mmies 
(Note: I remiber a mber of eompalints by famers who 
hat orwhadso and distilntly remmber seelg a good mwy 
rabbits ad twcs  myself. As I recal, conditions her. 
wor. aproaehing those around the Moo IcA    Refuge, *ere 
Cottontal     a"geeral1y. in my experiqc., abulsat.) 
The terito y covered In the above iaenlude the viciiti is 
of Ixoia,          *e, Lake 01auehee, Lake Nagawieka, Hartland, 
Pewaukee ad Pevaukee Ishe, ad Deafield, Wisconsin* 
Snow was lees, roads drifted, sal often blocked, ant wins 

March 1, 1929. 
MARCH Delivery 
$12.50 per pair in 27-pair lots, f.o.b., New York. 
These birds arrive from Europe packed in standard crates 
of 27 pairs, and 54 pairs each, packed 3-bird in separate 
compartments, Male and Female separate. 
Strong healthy birds f.o.b., cars New York, I not assum- 
ing any liability for losses that may occur after delivery 
tG the Express Company in New York. Sufficient food and 
water is provided for the birds enroute from New York to 
$15.00 per pair for l0-pair lots, same conditions as above. 
FALLs 1929 Delivery    $30.00 per pair in ten pair lots, f.o.b., Colorado.

$20.00 per bird for extra hens. 
Pure blood wild turkey, young stock this summer's 
hatch.   Raised in the heart of the wild turkey county, 
many miles from the rail roads, in the state of Colorado. 
Reservations should be made now. 
MARCH Delivery 
$6.00 per pair in 12-pair lots, or $7.50 per pair for a 
lesi number, f.o.b., California, live arrival guaranteed 
to your express office. 
These are pen raised birds. 
16.00 pair in 12 1jair lots, or $7.50 per pair in 
less numbers, f.o.b. Texas, live arrival guaranteed. 
The~e are wild trapped imprrted birds. 
$2.50 per bird, March delivery expressed 25 birds per 
oikate of 12-hens and 13 cocks, f.o.b., Texas, 96% live 
arrival guaranteed. 
April delivery, the price $2.75 per bird, same conditions. 
TERMS. Cash with orders. Or Use City National Bank, San 
Antonio, Texas as Qscrow agent, pending shipment of your 
crder, payable to me upon presenting the bank the express 
receipts showing your order has been expressed. 
M. E. Bogle, 
P. 0. Box 837, 
San Antonio, Texas. 

Excerpt from      "The Gne Breed er"                     nun folder

June, 1929 
One of, the readers  of  The Game 
Breeder writes: "I wish to obtain some 
information about the gray partridges. 
1) When do these birds begin mat- 
ing ? 
(2) When do the   partridges begin 
laying eggs ? 
(3) How many eggs are     produced 
by each hen?" 
We are always glad to have such in- 
quiries since we know they will inter- 
est our readers. The gray partridges, 
often are called Hungarian partridges 
in America, because many of the birds 
imported to America come from Hun- 
gary. They are, however, the    same 
species which is abundant in England, 
and most of the records we have are 
of the nesting habits of the  English 
birds. Here, as elsewhere, the mating 

~frvt~~Tt~j9o.> u . 
Introduction of Hungarian partridge 
(European  native  Gray  Partridge). 
Alberta's stocking  experiment with 
these most successful ever known. Put 
out 21 and 22 years ago, they   have 
spread from Calgary north to Lake. 
Athabasca, down into Montana, west 
into British Columbia, and east into 
Manitoba. They are bigger and strong- 
er than stock from which they sprung; 
weigh at least two ounces more on the 
average. Hardy, good parents, bring 
up big broods; farmer's friend as weed 
seed and insect eaters; make wonderful 
hunting with dogs, fast on getaway 
and hard to hit. 
Question is whether these birds will 
thrive in other parts of Canada. If they 
will, they should be introduced to re- 
place game birds that have vanished.-- 
Dominion Fish and Game Ass'n. 
f 44! 

File Hungarian 
Excerpt from "The Auk" 
July, 1929. 
General Notes, p. 387 

During the period October 1 to December 31, 1927, a sporting 
goods store in Victoria, British Columbia, paid bounty on 271 Horned Owls

all of wnicn had been killed locally. At the Provincial Government Pheasant

Farm 29 others were shot during this time. For the same period during 1928

bounty was paid on 5 birds only. As was the case ten years earlier the 
Horned Owl invasion of southern Vancouver Island took place during two 
successive winters and then, quize definitely, ceased. 
The localities and number of birds turned in at eacn place are as 
follows: Ashcroft 20, Clinton 414, Oranbrook 1, Fort Fraser 1, Golden 13,

Kamloops 100, Lillooet 2, Merritt 141, Nelson 17, Pouce Coupe 3, Penticton
Prince George 49, Quesnell 103, Revelstoke 6, Rossland 1, Smitners 6, Vernon
Williams Lake 33, New Westminster 18, Vancouver 8, Victoria 2. Reference
a map of Britisn Columnia witn these figures in mina suggests a prooaDle
vasion through the Cariboo, Nlicola and Skanagan regions of the interior,
important migration hlgnway, ana a relative scarcity west of the Cascade

mountains ana in the eastern part of te province. 
In recent years, since the Ring-necked Pheasant and European Grey 
Partridge have become established in the region surrounding Vernon, Okanagan

Valley, the number of wintering Goshawks has increased perceptibly even when

allowance is made for the periodic southern migration of the species following

the "rabbit plague." 

Pabo Ieorolb' 
*ANP tomAr  * aw  Wo Ww 
Visa* Hu foldte  -I folinbS  t116 X 

lubo r wpolb 
ptwm, $*..1920 el *alox&(20avw 
& 15 pair Ansted 10 at. S. of W*wr ta I"Y of 
161rhoo"ANU411  UK%  AddAttood vUaft wAst Wk A"       to NMI  
150 *Ar4t. *Uft *o"ttm*Ad to mdtiply svA sprftd all av*r tW 
-2-aaaft SUend In All0ft $&om! 19LI4 " WASLUW- kr#Sftt *MOM 
d t7 
. lk 

The use of imported wild trapped 
Hungarian Partridge for propagation 
at the Mason Game Farm proved to be 
an almost complete failure. The im- 
ported birds laid almost no eggs. But 
handreared birds from native eggs are 
now laying well, according to a report 
from the Game Farm operated by the 
Michigan Department of Conservation 
at Mason. 
Two years ago the State imported 
100 Hungarian Partridge at a cost of 
$6.50 each. Although many of the birds 
paired off in the Game Farm pens, the 
wild birds laid only a dozen eggs and 
only four of these hatched. These four 
birds, however, continued to thrive so 
that no difficulty was found in feeding 
or rearing the chicks. 
Last year eggs were taken from the 
nests of wild birds in Lenawee County 
and set under Game Farm bantams and 
from these six "tame" hens and two 
cock birds survived. This spring four 
cock birds from those imported last 
winter in cooperation with the Shiawas- 
see  Conservation  Association  were 
taken to make up six pairs. The re- 
sults of these six matings have been 
beyond expectations. One of the hens 
has established something of a record 
by laying over 30 eggs so far this year 
and she is still laying. About 130 eggs 
have been laid so far by the six hand- 
reared hens, and have been placed 
under bantams for hatching. The first 
hatchings were successful and others 
are due during the next two weeks. 
Obtaining the eggs and getting them 
hatched  has apparently  been  more 
difficult than the rearing of the young 
partridges, according  to the  Game 
...Division. No seriouS trouble has been 
found to date in feeding the young 
birds or with parasites and diseases 
in the home-reared birds. 
Since more wild eggs fro'n Len. wee 
County have been obtained azain thisi 
year and seem to be hatching well, 
present prospects are that over 100 
Hungarian Partridge chicks will be 
saved and will be available to continue 
and expand the experiment. 

/ To date the officers of the Game 
Commision have reported on approxi- 
emately 215 coveys of Hungarian Par- 
tridges covering 2,400 individual birds. 
It appears that most of these coveys 
have been noted in Cumberland Coun- 
ty, the game protector for that district 
reporting  on 40 coveys or approxi- 
mately 623 birds. 

chis ou in  vtiqrif 
P t                     d G*s 
*i,         *  *   ais**  .4  ,a 
*              t  tisi 
Rio tm          #f199P&o 
eo stt      tofn te     sa  o 
iTi ns   Prtidg txened  ts aa  fomthers  oti 
nsg*uhodaot194adIsa  yfrt pi  n m  1t  ftefolwn 

Set. 1, 1930 
Central States ftrst Up.rimnt Station 
On Pg 33 Of Your 1930 renart you, give figurs for the 
N.1wexpne Of T0 Ohio famers.      Is th  figre $1.09 for wood a 
*as expnit for wod Tmca         from othrs or, a  as value for th 
farera labor In coerting his owm wod or is it smthin else? 
Th usability of these figars for my pupes reqares this additional 
Ithe evet that   m do nt have It, I -m enoing a extra 
copy of this letr with the r@esut that you forwrd It to the prpe 
party at the Ohio Agriculura   Upetet Station. If they have a 
publication on this I woul very muh preciate reiving a copy. 
I an sry Yu did not get to th National Ard~r Tewme 
whcum very inUrestIng. Mrs. Lsopold wo     fourth place ink h 
ww nt caminsipand als wn the wand shot ane got high sore 
for the oe at 60 yrs. I bae. nt yr anthing aot your shoot- 
ing and am wondrig whter you are still at it. 
Yours sinol,, 
Inare     Gw    ure 

ANN ARBOR                p-' 
April 22, 1931. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
In Charge, Game Survey, 
404 University Avenue, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
In your letter of April 16 you mention 
using the map on pheasant and Hun planting in a Joint 
article. The map is, of course, not finished, but 
perhaps far enough along to warrant using, if explained 
tiat additions and corrections are desired. I have no 
infornation from the State Departments of California, 
Oregon, Colorado, Georgia, Tennessee or Massachusetts, 
but may be able to get some of this by writing again. 
Wight has pointed out that the distribution 
of pheasants shown in the Rocky Uountain states is mis- 
leading, according to his experience. The map is un- 
questionably crude, but since it is based largely on 
reports from the State Departments I think it would be 
possible to use it as a tentative record, 
I am returning the mobility charts with the 
figures I have. 
Very truly yours, 
g. Eea  soat 
Enc.                      Research Associate. 

Table 4. 
(Banding records enclosed in circle, opinions enclosed in parenthesis) 
Species         Observer       : Dail radis miles        ealz 9r ad ie miles

:                     t Average : Matmum   : Average    : MaUMxi- 
Bobwhite   :Stoddard, Georgia      -        - .   .. ..: . 
:Zrrington, Wig.      :  (1/4)  :(314-1 3/4) 
Ringneck   :Wight, Michigan  - -: "      "    - .     : ..    
      -    (i) 
Pheasant   : 
-     McClure,r-              :-....    :            : . 
-+   _+   +                                                - 
Teatter, Michigan   : -(1 )- : ....       : -  (   ) 
%iffed     I King, Minnesota -    --(/):       (1/2)  : 
Grouse     : 
SAllen, Now York     -         -. 
Gross, New England :-        -: .       -  .           :-_ 
raire        Game Survey     -                                          
Chicken    : North Central 
:  S t a t e s        a                     4,            a 
Red Grouse "Grouse in Health                - - -      - -    - ....-(2030)

: and Disease*a 
& Scot-    : Malcolm&                                           
lamd)    :   Maxwell   ----               -(1 1/2?) 
Elk         Rush, Yellowstone   - - - - ---        -.              :- - 
a              0 
Mule Deer :"California Fish      -            - - -                
:-- __  _ 
and Games                    aa                        - 
: Mcutire, Routt Co.,:-     -            : -.     ..-  - 
Colorado            a                     a            a 
--a I,                                                     a I I-  i    
* Pen-raised bird released for stocking; probably above normal for wild stock.


*  Loca1i~y 
~  Ob~ervez' 
-- - 
: Ro~d ~ 
Ci~ ~&,4e) 
Jei~rson Cob, 
(Aa~ ,~) 
~ 1~ 
L3Y:e, ~ilThe 
- 1)30 ~ ~12to1~ 
Englajid          ~a11          1 
?artrid~e         QAaxwell)                 (with the 
_______________________________________       wi~4)t 
2ed Gro~se     : Britalu                       6~J 
(xA ______ 
',Grouse Pa rt)' 
BX~c~~ai~  Britin     -- 77 
~I1j - t ~t rte~ ±'ro~ a hi~i place 
0A113o saw )4-5 mile f1itht~ in 3 st~es. 
Tabl 5.'uI' 
1g5.>. - 
?iLT~ ~A 
O~m~ber~ 2~. 
~in ~eck 
1 1 /2 


UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN                  f,.   1 
Novemebr 29,1931. 
Miss Vivian Horn, 
Secretary to Mr.Leopold, 
4O4 University Avenue Bank Bldg., 
Madison ,Wisconsin, 
Deq r Mriss Horn: 
I am enclosing the weights of young Huns 
for the growth curve to be zse( in :r.Leopold's text. 
There is an irregularity in the curve between 
69 nnd 106 drys. These weights were taken at the State 
Game Farm. The man who did it tried to pick out 
about ten birds of sverage size from a stock of 
-bout 125 birds for e-ch weighing. There would be 
some variation in weights resulting from this 
method.   The irregularity can be smoothed out somewhat 
i- the finl curve. 
I hgvetrken too much time about sending this 
to you. I hope Mr.Leopold has not needed it before. 
Yours sincerely, 
'eseircCh PCsociate. 
 Age, D ys 
210'Ki hed 
Ti--1. Gm) 
I     17 
9.4 1    9 
100 . 2 
295 . 
2991. 5 

An extensive survey to determine the present status of the 
Hinarian Partridge was recently undertaken. Hungarian Partridges were first

stocked in Pennsylvania in 1925 and since that time have been released in

various parts of the State whilch were considered ideal territory for these

birds. For a year or two after the first stocking, it was extremely difficult

to trace the movements of the "Hiins" and the CoMission was of
the opinion that 
they did not survive. Later, however, the birds began to show up in sections

other than those in which they were originally released. During the present

 open winter quite a few Eungarian Partridges have been observed both by
officers and interested sportsmen and farmers. Persons observing any of these

birds should notify the Game Commission at Harrisburg, citing the date, the

township and county in which they were observed, how many coveys and the
of birds to a covey. 
The Hungarian Partridge is a little larger than the Bob-white 
Quail, gray in color, with a dark brown horseshoe-shaped mark on the breast,

a red-brown tail, and reddish eyelids. The bright red-brown tail is very

noticeable in flight. 
The S.S.Dresden which docked at New York on Feb. 16 carried a 
shtpment of 1,200 Hungarian Partridges from Czecho-Slovaki'a, all of which
already been shipped to County Game Protectors for'release. 

t   4 1 1  ' " 
April 691932. 
MrQ R.WI 1l,ad 
eW@st the re) 
ve been @omw1 
Ib *uu h reI 
tareaIn the- 
)un In] 
ite r west 
De!-r Yr.Rolland: 

UlbrarY      f 4fAIfe Management 
Depcrtrnerf   '- 
UniverS!V ol wSo~f 
- VP 
j,         c 1  on 
~L0 r 2'.n I 
31 1~  V  2i1&t r~,in  ~Iir~ t 
it  tiP           - 11~~c~ 
~c ~r~ i K'vr~  r>Li7'r~mr ~'T ~QftK4 
~.hv-~  1  r~r~j-3a    '  ~          J 
7   u'1    iA~)           ~r' t'i 
in'vwit-iY~ir             i    ~     ' 
hv  -     r -hi>        K-wt    i 
ro .~p;-  t K'ne-vnru1  r  i13 

in the 
Sixty-four Huns have, within the last few days, been liberated in the 
County of Brome under the guardianship of the Brome Division of the Fish
ard Game 
Association and the special supervision of Mr. Clade Buchanan and Mr. Arthur
The birds were imported from Mr. S.HBendick's Game Farm at Leduc, Alberta.

It was at first thought advisable to bring the birds from their native country
but as 
the aeason was late, it was dvcided to secure the shipment from Mr. Bendick.
Time was 
an important factor to the ultimate success of the venture because it is
desirous to 
plant the birds just at mating time so that they will be more likely to stay
in the 
district where they are released. 
The shipment arrived on April the eighth in the early morning at Windsor

Station and were immediately trans-ehipped to their destination in Brome
County. All 
siity-four birds were in one orate Yhich was divided into three sections,
two containing 
eleven pairs and the other ten pairs. The Huns arrived in spleddid condition
and the Bird 
Committee are to be congratulated fo orderirg the shipment from Alberta as
it is doubtful 
whether birds coming frou Hungary would arrive in such healthy and lively
condition as 
thete Iroved to be. 
When the crate was put on the station -platform it was immediately taken

charge of by Mr. A. W. Westover and brought to vwhere the first pen had been
These pens, of which there were three, were constructed of half-inch chicken
wire firmly 
secured to the ground and the dimensions were roughly ten feet long by five
feet wide 
and three feet high and completely covered in with spruce boughs. Spruce
boughs were 
also attached to the top from the inside so that the birds if soared would
not hurt their 
head on the wire sereening. The idea of first releasing the Runs in the pens,
or runways, 
was to let them quieten down after their long trip and more likely to remain
neighbourhood. They wire left there for two days and then (an hour before
daylight) one 
side of the pen was lifted so that the little strangers could wander out
quietly and 
unmoles ted. 
The type of country chosen to release the birds was wild pasture land, 
small rolling hills and stretches of flat farm lands, dotted over with clumps
of spruce, 
birches and haw trees, The district would seem to be an ideal one for.Hungarian
as there is ample covert and quantities of food. 
The plantings were made from two to thoee miles apart, not less than twenty

birds in one location. The reason for locatin- the birds within such close
ranr4e of each 
other, was that the birds would be able to keep in touch as they, apparenly,
live in numbe 
and perish from lonliness more quickly than from any other cause. Yet the
planting were 
far enough kpart to allow for normal spread if the nerting period is successful.

We have great hopes that the experiment will bear fruit and that the numbers

of the planted birds will be largely increased by at least fifty per-cent
of the Buns 
mating and rearing averat;e broods. To give the birds a real chance of "taking-hold"
the Province more shipments should be added for at least two years, not only
to help them 
to spread but to stbp any possible ills arising from inter-breeding. 

The country that these hardy little chaps best love is the open country and

farm lands. This is the district that our native partridge does does nob
inhabit for 
lack of covert, so that there should be no interference between the Hunparian
and our 
Ruffed grouse. This e.reriment, if successful, will give to the RAITORN T
   ,0IPS a 
game bird to replace the Ruffed Grouse which has moved further back, a game
bird for both 
sport and eating it second to none. The bird does not tree at any time and
those wishing 
to enjoy dining from this little chap must be both skilful and quick with
a gun as when 
flushed they rise like small explosions, close at hand, making their get-uway
with a sudden 
rush of wings, 
Those on the Bird Committee and who have shown most interest in the project

are: C. R. Rolland -haifan, Colonel W. R. Brock, Claude Buchanan, Arthur
Westover, Dr 
Wesley Boxrne, Anson MacAuley, Charles Perrault, Rex Vickers, J. R. Sangster,
Maekenzie, Malcolm C. Oswald, J. R. Beattie, C. E. Curley, W. H. Miner, K.
S. McKay, 
Robert Newton. 

The Hungarian Partridge was introduced into Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1913,

and has not only proved of great assistance to the farmers, but affords good
and food for those who carry a gun. 
This Partridge is a "WEED SEED EATER," is also insectivorous and
is a ground 
bird of the open fields and stubbles. The farmers of the West have benefitted
by his introduction in as much as he has almost completely destroyed the
mustard seed 
weed which was so very prevalent amongst their grain crops. He is a bird
of the po- 
tato and turnip fields and will destroy all the insects from off the foliage

of plants and not hurt the foliage itself. He has also been known to com-

pletely clear a potato field of its bugs and do no harm to the plants. 
Unlike our present partridge he is a frequenter of the open fields and feeds
entirely on 
insect life, the seeds and roots of weeds, old wild flowers and on the tops
of uncut hay 
fields, when tops appear above the snow in the winter months. He is not quite
size of our present bird, will be found in large flocks in hay and turnip
fields and pas- 
tures. He will feed very close to houses and is a splendid neighbor. These
birds are 
of a light, brown and steel color with reddish head and neck, with a beautiful
brown horse-shoe on its breast. 
It is to be hoped that everybody, be it man, woman or boy, will assist this
useful bird in getting its footing in a new land far from home. Remember
is a stranger in a strange land, and it is always our duty to help such,
be it man, beast 
or bird.  Let us help in this movement.  It has been a wonderful success
Let it be so in this Province. 
Province of Quebec Association for the 
Protection of Fish and Game Inc. 

IOWA DIVISION           FA.      # 
1ay 5, 1933. 
r. Aldo Leopold, 
Nadison, W is. 
Dear Leopold: 
In a letter to Charlie Horn written last 
Monday, I mentioned the fact that I had seen three 
Hungarian partridges on the gravel road (State Road 
No. 21) four miles north west of Denison. Ia. on 
Sunday A.M. the day before and that Jno. Hoist, the 
local deputy warden, had stated that this is the 
farthest south record of Huns. in Crawford Co. In 
Horn's reply, received to-day, he asks me to make 
this report to you also. There seems no doubt but 
that these birds are slowly moving south on the Miss- 
ouri loess.  There are many reports of them in the 
southern part of Ida Co. and in northern Crawford. 

Hunarian Folder 
Huns arrived at South Leeds, Dane Co., in 1933. Young birds were 
seen by a farmer named Larch four miles east of South Leeds. These may have
from a plant made at Paynette, 
V       Hungarians arrived at Milford Meadows stock farm near Watertown about

1930. Now 2-. coveys. 

George Kaufman, deputy game warden of Lansing, reports that Jack 
Wiedner of Harpers Ferry sighted throe flocks of Hungarian partridge on 
Harper Island in the Mississippi River recontly. 

Memorandum for Hungarian and Accidents folders: 
Mr. Frank Tillotson in February, 1934, shortly after February 16, found 
five Hans dead on the roads in the vicinity of Lake Mills. 
At about this same time Gil Gigstead found 5 Hans dead on the roads 
between Milwaukee and Madison, and Jud Kempton found one which is now in

my University collection. 
Neither of these observers found dead birds either previously or after- 
ward. Rbe Kempton bird was very fat and there was no snow, so that any 
starvation or gravel hypothesis does not hold. 
Mr. Tillotson suggested that this was a time of very severe wind storms 
and that the birds in flying before the wind might have been more likely
hit telephone wires. It is important therefore that these observers 
remember, if possible, whether there were telephone lines along the roads

where the birds were found. Copies of this are being sent to Messrs. 
Tillotson, Gigstead, and Kempton with the request that they note on the 
bottom margin whether this was the case. 
Aldo Leopold 

~c~j~# ~ 
ra        Tillson in 7ebr37, 1934, shotly after February 16, found 
fite amne dod on the roads in the vIcnit7 of Lake MIlls. 
At about this s=9 tim Gil Git       fon 5 a. ded on the roa s 
between Milmxw*, and Madison, and .ld Kmipton fund one -hich is now in 
my U    irsity ollecton. 
Neither of these observers found dea birds either preously or after- 
ward. The Xepton bird was ver fat and there was no sno, so that w 
stavatIim or gvel hpotheuis does not bold. 
Mr. Tillotson           that this was a time of ve  severe wind atoms 
vin that the birds in flying befbre the wind miht have been mre liel  to

hit tephone wires. It is important therefore tbat thes obseres 
reebr, if poss ible, whther there wre tielphone lines alonag the roads 
here the birds were f        Coples of this awe being sent to Messrs. 
Tilltson, GsteA,       A Kem ton with the request that the note on the 
bottom irgin whether this was the case. 
ado Leopold 
New Soils Bldg. 
Madison, Wis. 
?~ ~ 
77  ' 
N - 

File Hangarian 
Peb. 16, 1934 
Male Hangarian partridge, found dead by roadside, Dane County 2-1/2 miles

east of Jefferson County line on Lake Mills-Madison highway. 
Skinned and sexed by John Gundlach. 
Neck broken, probably by flying into telephone wires. No concussion 
indicated. No blood around head or in mouth. 
Bird heavy, very fat, in excellent condition. 
Crop stuffed with green bluegrass. Gizzard, bluegrass and quartz grit. 
The green grass is noted as of unusual interest because: 
Although an open winter several periods of subzero weather preceded this

date, greens would be at a premium. The bird was within 30 feet of a field

spread with fresh manure containing plenty of grain, but the crop was filled

with pure grass,neither grain not even weed seeds present. 
At about this same time Frank Tillotson at Faville Grove, Lake Mills, 
found three  other Runs apparently killed in the same way. Gill Gigstead

also reported four or five ins picked up between Milwaukee and Madison at

about this time. At no other time this winter were Hans found in this manner

around the Lake Mills district. High winds and zero weather prevailed, but

practically no snowstorms or snow on the ground. 
Judson Kempton 
Gigstead suggests that the Hum being stuffed with grass may indicate sickness

of the bird. That grass may be taken in this way as a sick dog will eat grass.

However, the man, John Gkudlach, who skinned it, reported the bird to be

very fat and apparently in fine condition. 

rrom Tracy I. Storer's Notes, p. 1927 
Extract of notes made by Dr. Storer -Len with Middleton, for information

of Leo pold. 
M[ay 21, 1974. England: Oxford 
The "Euston system" (presumably originated at Euston, Suffolk)

is no fixed technique, but varies with different keepers as to the methods

employed. It involves taking eggs from certain (partridge) nests, incu- 
bating these by hens or other means, and -placing the eg-s as they are 
pipping other nests. As most often practiced, eggs from marginal nests, 
as along a roadside or field bordering a road, are renoved and when ready

to hatch are placed in other partridge nests in the portions of the estate

where greatest concentration of partridges is wanted for autumn shooting.

It also serves to get off a certain imber of broods at earlier dates than

would occur under ordinary undisturbed nesting conditions--the earliest 
eggs from a nxmber of nests are gathered, as soon as a clutch is made up

they are 'sat under a hen, additional clutches are similarly agvregated and

these early hatching clutches are 'oat out, at pipping time (about 24 days

incubation) under a hen partridge. Wnere eggs are thus removed from wild

nests, the keepers substitute wooden, painted durny eggs which serve to 
keep the birds laying and later incubating. This spreads the broods along

through the season so that if unfavorable weather conditions interfere 
at some stage there will be greater likelihood of broods of one or another

age-class surviving. The process just described means that somie hen- 
partridges will have a short period of incubation (those with co.Iposite

first clutches incubated under domestic hens while the partridges afield

are still laying) while others, spelled along by eggs of wood, may sit for

a month before being given a clutch of hatching eggs later in the season.

When concentration of uartridges is desired in a central area the partridge

nests there nay be stocked with as many as 25 "pipper" eg~s. The
systeml" also includes the exch-Ae of eggs, to introdue linew blood"
may be used to introduce Eungarian blood  (via eg-s) into stoch on an 
English estate. 
File: Hungarias 
European methods 

J-une )4. 19314 
St arker: 
Please enter below what year 
while crow hunting near the Cherokee. 
y             4 
-st saw Thingarian partridges 
to bring r maps ap to date. 
A ,,A 
-e44 - 

(:ot for publication) 
Game :angement 11 
Aldo Leopold, 1934 
Species      Place         Size,,f -ot t   Per lead          Remar-s 
Quail        Calif.        22,000 acres        11     UacLean,1930. Foothill
Wis.             600 acres          5    Univ.Arboretum,t7inter 1933-3W 
Mo.                6 sq.mi.         5     Leopold, unpubl. 
S. Iowa       Inhabited farms     2-4    Most frequent density, 1931-2 
Wis.           1,360 acres          6     Riley Cooperative, 1933-34 
1,1o.            2S0 acres          1.3  Fil '1V Smith fam, 1923 
,,               if   It           3.1    "   "    "    "
Pheasaat     Mich.            600 acres         2      Tight, 1931, fall

N                " It            12       #     "    winter 
Da2ota          640 acres          2.6  Johnson, spring 
IT.W. Iowa    Inhabited range     2-4    Liost frequent density,1931-32 
Grouse       Britain(Red)   5,000 acres          4    Leopold & Ball,
f     i                          1,5      a    "1 "1 , fall 
Minn.(Rffed)    640 acres          5     King, spring 
UT. Iowa 
6,500 acres 
Inhabited range 
4     Maxwell, spring 
5-12   ::ost frequent density,1931-32 
Rabbit       Pa,              35 acres          0.2   Barbadoes Island 
England           ?               0.15 Spring density (Haddon) 
Idaho (Jack)   5,000 acres "       1     Rabbit drive, tinter 
H      n       640  "            0.5   High of cycle 
Ariz. (Jack)   5,100  "            1.   April, 1925, drive 
"            1,290  "                  May, 1923, drive 
i            2,560 it            2.1  *Tov., 1920, drive 
7'. iex.        6 4O  "            4,0  June, 1927, drive 
Ducks        Ohio          1,500 acres          0.1   Fall density, locals
Minn.            g lakes           1.0   Fall density,locals (Leopold) 
Deer         I.Y.             750 acres         7.5   Enclosure 
Iinn,           390 sq.mi.       32     Itasca Park, 1920 
iich.             22 sq.mi.       30     Grand Island, 1923 
Ind.                              16     Morgan County, 1S20 
Pa............                    12.5   Present density of deer range 
__.... .....        25    Est.capacity of deer range 
France(Roe)        ?              25     Common density,roe deer 
Bohemia(Red)       ?             100     Common   "    , red  "

Calif.         1,l42 so.-ai.      30     Stanislaus '7.F., 1921-23 
T. Y.            16 sq.mi.        91     Adirondacks, 1929 
(Townsend & Smith) 
Antelope    rl.Mex.         4, 650 sc.Pmi.   1200     Ligon, 1926 
3, OO sq.mi. 
Yearlong range, 1927 

Mr Leopold 
marnh 19~ 1935 
Mr. Harry Fel! 
Finlater, Sa 
Dear  . elt 
letters of Fel 
that you give 
Dur interesting 
Li information 
prtridge in 
Saskatcewan isr       reting auG. 1 am seding it 
along to   ,. Yeatte  w   will, I kno, be glad to reeeive 
it.  While the situation in Sakatchewan appers in some 
respects to be very similar to that of the Great Lakes 
region, it is certainly very different in others. I am 
particularly Interested In your o     es regarding the 
destructiveness of the partridge to truck crops and the 
seriousness of the C.per's hawk as a predator. 
Very sincerely yours, 
D ean 
Forn. 2752  10-34  25\ 
0j   v 

Findlater Sask;March 13,th,1935. 
Samuel T* Dana, Dean, 
School of Forestry &   onsevation; 
Unlversity of !Ahigan; 
Ann Arbor; 
Deer Mr Danna; 
Acknowledgement of Bulletin No 5 
by mro Ralph E  Ywatte   ws previously sent you* In reply 
to your letter of Fbary 25,rd desiring comments in con- 
nection with this bulletin, I might say here that it seems 
the Hungarian Partridge in the locality of which the informa- 
tion embodieJ in bulletin No 5 very closely resembles the 
characteristics of the Hunarian Partridge in Sasatcheran. 
In order that I may not be corpelled to go into long 
details regarding this co-prison etc, I might mention 
that other factors, could be   r itten in this connection, 
but it would necessitate a lorg drawn out explanation, I am 
therefore quotin6 only those differences which appear to be 
outstanding, and are without any question of doubt as to said 
see page 51.  flere in saskatchewn the Hungarian 'Partridge is 
very destructive to truck crops. They are not local in charac- 
ter and are of sulficient extent to condemn the species. 
See page 64,  Here in sakuatchewan it is quite possible for a 
good bird dog none used to hunting them" to detect incubating 
females.  I personally own in English Setter that will do this, 
without exceptions, 
See page 66, Here, it is possible to drive a bird from their 
nest and have them return, Also in a great many instances 
nests actually plaughed into, and eggs broken and the remainder 
straightened out, the bird will return. There is however much 
variation among individuals as stated by Mr. Yeatter, 
Pege 72. The subject of "mudballing" was very interesting, 
owing to excessive drouth in southern Saskatchewan, this has 
been eli i       drdb ig h t s  fsie gears.             ye the 
seA&nreturn. We will, I am glad to say always be free from 
that in the Findlater district. 
Page 70. You may rely upon it, that the Cooper's hawks are 
exceptionally destructive to Hungarian Partridge, One Coopers 
will kill more birds than any 10 Redtail or Marsh, 

2v  S.T.D. 
Page 7. Ne have received no reports of disease nor of 
parasites from any point in the Provinoe to date, The 
possibilities of their contracting Poultry disease over 
the area rentioned should be reoognized. 
Page 70. The Artic 0wl in this arovince will devour every 
Hungerian Partridge he comes in contact with. le is not 
however destructive to &ny great extent, so far as Hungarian- 
Partridge are concerned, in this Province. 
Additional information: 
The average number of eg gs per clutuh, as observed here run 
17 or 18* The maximum 24. It is possible that in the case 
of over 20 eggs per clutch more than one female contributed 
to the nest, but in rany instances 19 to 22 and 23 young 
birds are hatched, and are accompanying only one female. 
Instances have been known here, where a Hungarian Partridge 
would make her nest and lay her clutch within six inches of 
a tame turkey, which had rade it's nest in a grove closely 
adJolning a farm house, There was no trouble between the 
two birds, and both brought off their young, 
[e frequently have found the nests of Hungarian j artridge 
within six feet of the Railway tracks here. 3ometime half 
a dozen nests within a distance of one ile.  "hey hatch 
well in such places, in spite of an average of ten trains 
passing every day, 
Further in connection with the Coopor's Eawk. I have per- 
sonally witnessed this Hawk plane down and deeaptiate a 
Hungarian Partridge. I have witnessed this, gone immediately 
and picked up the bird, and found the entire top of the head 
torn off, Let me say this. I do not believe you can expect 
a great increase in thn Hungarian Partridge where the 
Cooper's are numerous, 
The 1ortality Factors over the Great Lakes R1egion appears to 
be far in excess of what I had supposed they were, Farming - 
operations, and other factors which go with it, makes it most 
discouraging indeed. 
The first Hungarians I personally encountered, in the Find- 
later districtwere in 1927,   (1) covey -) about a dozen, In 
1928 I saw aproximately a dozen covies, the increase was 
tremendous - and last year (1934) possibly their nurbers 
would run into the hundreds of covies: 
Yours sincerely: 
H, L. Felt. 

Fefruary 28,th, 1935, 
Mro So To Dana; 
University of Michigan; 
Ann Arbor, 
De 1 Mr. Dana; 
Your kind letter of the 23,rd 
nst reeived and contents earefully noted, I very 
much appreciate your forwarding me Dr. Yeatter's bul. 
letin. I presume It will come to hand within a short 
time, and I V,111 make careful study of it and let you 
have any  ents I deem advisable, 
our birds, both Hungarians and sharptail have wintered 
exeeptionaly well. JIe have a tremendous number of the 
former, and we are certain to experience a great increase 
this comin season. 
There is a real fine article in the March number of Field 
& Stream, by Mr. fRay Holland-Editor in Chief, which gives 
his experience with these birdso  Le hunted with me here 
at Findlater last fall, The one he quite frequently refers 
to as "Canuck" is yours truly, 
It wuuld be quite dificult for one to realize what a tre- 
mendous number of birds we have in this district, Theor 
should be a 60% increase this year, so when you realize 
that we experienced something like 75 different oovies 
last year from sun to sun it will give you some idea of 
what one may expect during the coming season, 
I have Just written my good friend 11r,  ershon,  I have 
known this dear old gentleman for over twenty years, I 
have guided him and without question he is one of the 
finest individuals it has ever been my priveledge to eon- 
teat with. I do hope he comes back this fall, and I 
believe he will. 1l1 has a lovely hunting lodge on a lce 
Just south of here, 
Again I want to thank you very kindly and I will write you 
again at a later date, 
Yours sincerely; 
(Sgd) Harry L, Felt, 

KNEBWORTH"- HERTS      Spring 1935 
I.C.I. Game Researches 

North Lodge, Knebworth Park, Knebworth 
Captain H. B. Moser 
(Late Winscote Game Farm) 
Telegrams: Moser, North Lodge, Knebworth 
Telephone: Knebworth 238 
Station: Knebworth (L.N.E.R.) 

SEASON 1935 
N submitting this price list of pheasant and 
bantam eggs, we would mention that our 
birds have wintered well in large open pens, 
and are in fine condition. The greatest care 
has been taken in introducing fresh blood, while 
the stock for the laying pens has been most 
carefully selected. Pheasants will be penned 
for the laying season in small open pens, a 
cock and six hens to a pen. 
The following varieties and their crosses are 
Old English Black Neck, Chinese, Mongo- 
lian, Ring Neck and Melanistic Mutant. 

PHEASANT EGGS 19    (see page 3) 
Period. Date of Despatch 
April to 12th May 
13th May to 19th May.. 
2oth May to 27th May.. 
28th May to 2nd June 
Per ioo 
£s. d. 
45   0 
3 5 0 
2 10 0 
PHEASANT EGGS I935 (see page 3) 
Per 500 
£ s. d. 
I25 0 0 
20  5 0 
15 10 0 
II 5 0 
Delivery of pheasant poults can be given in August and September. Prices
on application. 
For notes on partridges see pages 6 and 7. 
Eggs 5s. per sitting of 15, and 3os. per ioo.  Pullets 5s. each.   Cockerels
5s. each. 
Pullets and cockerels must be ordered in May or June or the supply cannot
be guaranteed. 
See page 6. 
All prices are carriage paid. 5  discount allowed on prepaid orders. All
clear eggs will be 
replaced, or their cash value refunded, should the hatch be less than 9o0.
Such eggs must 
first be returned for inspection. (A clear egg is one that contains no germ.)

Per I  000 
X s. d. 
47 10 0 
38 IOoo 
29IO0 0 
21 10 O 
Per 2,000 
£ s. d. 
900 0 
73  0 0 
56 o0 
410    0 
Per 3,000 
x s. d. 
132 0 o 
107 0 o 
820 0 
6o o o 

There is little doubt that a good bantam is the 
best medium for partridge rearing. The bantam 
we offer is a cross between the Old English Game, 
the Silkie and the Red Jungle Fowl. This bird is 
ideal for the purpose and will cover twenty par- 
tridge eggs comfortably. Fresh Jungle Fowl blood 
is again being introduced this season. For prices 
see page 5. 
The partridge season of 1934 on the research 
estate at Knebworth was a successful one, and both 
the wild and captive partridges are in excellent 
condition. A stock of captive birds is at present 

maintained sufficient only for observation and re- 
search purposes, and the numbers penned are not on 
a basis to allow of any material surplus for disposal: 
moreover, a large number of partridge chicks- 
between 150 and 2oo-was taken from the rearing 
field last spring by barren pairs of old birds, leaving 
the stock available for mating this season lower 
than expected. For these reasons, we do not feel 
justified in offering any birds or eggs for sale this 
season. Should, however, we find that we have any 
available for disposal they will be offered in the 
first instance to those estate owners to whom we are 
indebted for the help that they have given. 

13/1251/135         Printed in England at The Kynoch Press 

Huns Join Grouse Cycles 
In a recent address on "Game Cycles 
in Western Canada" before the Conven- 
tion of the Saskatchewan Fish and Game 
League, Dr. Win. Rowan of the Univer- 
sity of Alberta ( Dept. of Zoology) point- 
ed out that the Hungarian partridges 
are, from all indications, joining the 
grouse in their periodic cycles of abun- 
dance and decline. 
It seems that since the introduction of 
these birds in 1908 and 1909 the first 
grouse and prairie chicken peak of abun- 
dance followed by the inevitable decline 
occurred in 1915. At that time Hans 
were, as yet, too few in number for any 
fluctuation to be noted. 
At the time of the 1925 grouse peak, 
however, Htuns had increased greatly and 
during the following decline many birds 
of this species, live and dead, and in 
various stages of disease, were sent to 
Dr. Rowan for examination. Last year 
another peak of abundance was attained 
and the decline started. At that time 
Huns had been abundant in Alberta, but 
during the open season of 1934 hunters 
everywhere complained of their comn- 
stock of young birds, IDr. lowan's recom- 
mendation is that a closed season is not 
desirable but he urges that the sportsmen 
"shoot and shoot liberally and retain a 
smaller nucleus of healthy breeding stock 
rather than a larger one of doubtful 
Squality." He pointed out that the mail- 
lions ofbrsnwresident in the north-_ 
west have been derived from a very small 
number of importations and that we can 
expect with the greatest confidence to 
the moment conditions again become fa- 
vorable. "But it is only if we are left 
,with the best available breeding stock 
that speedy recovery can be expected." 
parative scarcity. 
Study of the bags of numerous hunt- 
ers showed a remarkable scarcity    of 
young birds of the year. Everything con- 
sidered it appeared that the young birds 
had been subject to some unusual check 
and disease seemed to be indicated. 
Thus, for the second time the Hun 
depression has coincided with the cyclic 
decline of the grouse and rabbits. While 
it is pointed out that this may be purely 
coincidental, it is a point of unusual 
scientific interest. 
In view of this experience and the fact 
that a strong supply of birds seems to be 
largely dependent on a suitable breeding 

of     Z) e u t  d) e 5 a q b 
14              a T____ --- 
&'Rovem6er 1935 
'Ziegmal fffeAen fie iteil bocb, unb 
ic  fat)  ic nur ilod) fiber bert Slic, 
fernwipfeln b erjc  will bell,  alcif; bet 
Zeufel, too jic ebigefalleit feiii nibyti, 
benn 0 waren imwcr in gogen 800 
9Rorgen gefc lojfener Teitaub, bell, lie 
tiberqueren mutten.    94jigniert, pq 
id) wieber -auf meine Zxad)e 6uriid, 
too id balb ein neuei  Zoll fanb. 
Zie e Jtft ner fiefen auf einer ab- 
gegraften Ziel)foppel ein unb lie5en 
mid) and) nut 1)6cf)fteng M auf 
bunbert   Veter   beran,   unt barm 
I)od fiber bag Zorf wegauftreiden. 
Geitere Zerfud)e jd)fuqen and mel)r 
ober   weniger   fel)l, unb  tobmftbe 
fe4xte 2 mit ganSen brei 'Dfl nern 
am   Oa gen I)eim. %fie brei tvaren 
aft. - Zer Miterfolg bo $or- 
mittagg fiet mir feine TuI)e. Ofeid) 
nad bent %ifen roar id wieber 
brauten, biomal auf bet 'anberen 
Geite beg Zorfe& Ve effilabenben 
ftuerufffide, Wtiben, ftart6ffefn unb 
Vaigbreiten waren feet unb  oev 
laffen. , So fud)te id 4auptidcilid) 
tuieber auf blanfen $rac felbern, unb 
ftie  balb auf ein &lf loon mel)r 
afg 30 ftid, bag auf einer Giefe 
einfief. Um eg nidt fiber bie (Brenje 
fu brAden, umjd)fug id), eg wieber 
m gro5en 18ogen unb  afte aud) 
Offid infofern, aW ic  awei  Dfi ner 
4exau fcf)of;, woxauf bie anberen in 
eilleM fik)fiett Wifi--fiffla  P4"Gpjp 
!Dier getanq  0 Mir                    Zer erfte (5)net 
eillige I iibllcr AU ev=; bet 
Meft ftrid) bann met weit wie Weit; 
id) fonute Ilid)t mc r felifteffen, too fie eingefallen waren. 
9?acb enbfo em  Bcnfflljen fanb id) ein neveg $olf in einer Sanb 
grube tillb trieb 0 in eiiien etiva 50 Vorgen gro ett Rattoffelf(tfag, 
wo bann ba6 ilbfic e, a0lid)t4ofe Su*ii begann. Mein iveit fud)enbet 
!Dunb ftief; bie jd)fed)t Ijaftenben )ftfyier enblicb an eitter Winvallb
t110, lt"b oIq Re in -eiretn .004? tfot3 einfiefett, feiifte i(  m4eille
bortf)ffi, too id) einige abfd)o5 unb ben Weft iprengte. Witf bic e alei
gelaun c!  mir, nvc  eine leiblid)e Strede an macben; ba  (ftybuO 
bc  erfien  agbtage# belief lid aitf AtoOff  )iifmey. Mit Vilbe imb Tot 
fd)o  id) bann int Werfauf bet Sod)e hum Zeil bei ftrkicubeni Tegen 
nod) l)unbert  )iiljncr ab.  7;ic waren  auer oerbiert, bie I)unbcrt 
)fltorter, unb bO &r dftni  lion %fteii Au jurtyu luar efioa Awei  it

efii . Zabei f)atte ba  Tcoier, wie id) mid)  efbjt iiberAcuqt  attc, gar

Teinen  d)lecf)ten  Bcjat, abet bie aften qelvi tcn  )ft ttet, bic bei jebein

Boft in bet ftbcl:Aa l wareil, ri jcn bie aungen mit imb Oatten citie 
Zattif am 2cibc, um bic  ic manctlet ' cfbfiert beneibet ljktc. Wic 
layn jie in Tedittiq, immer auf freiem ! ,elbe, uiib ivurben fie erft 
eitimal fp( , jo ftrid)ert lie un efinlid) weit ebet ve0d)wanben gleid) 
fiber bem naf)en Ualb allf %ininiertoieberlef)eu. - . 
_Ivn bort fetifte id) meine Sd)ritte in unfere jd)fejijd)e Wflben- 
-fiegeub.  )ier jolfte ic  call einem grb5even Reviet etwa 200 lbfif)ner

in einet UL)d)e abjd)ic5en. Zag Oeffinbe roar infojern fdwierig, aIA 
berfcfliebene gro5e Steinbrftc e mit abgebauten  ?afben bqwijc en, 
loyn in bie lid) bie  ojgemac ten Miter fteW Suriidjogen, unb wo 
man fie nie mieber faub.- Vit meinem bral3en ,Seppef"Jagte id) nod)

am gleid)en Wad)mtttag meiner Wnfunft unb fc o5 32  ?tifmer. Zag 
roar b4 jd)on etwo nad) ben itrategifd)en  Dii nern beg borigen 
191voier.C' Wud) bie ndd)ften %age waren noc  gut, unb jo tam id) balb 
Auf 160  R ner. %bet auc  I)ier war bag %er4dItnig bon Witen Su 
aungen ntd)t giinffig, unb ein Zrittel bet Strede 4atte graue Stdnber. 
%ad) iDiertdgiger aagb wolfte eg nic t'mel)T Happen; id fanb feine 
IDfilynetme r in ben Sc ldgen. ein 05ang in bag unwegJame Oeldnbe 
bet Steinbrfi( e I)er aff mit an beg Wdifeig 26jung. *ier gingen 
gleidbeitig fiinf big JeM bufammengerottete 261fer  4, oexteilten 
lid Weft ing a-elb, nub mit einem j)neff ge olten Zrac en begann 
id) erneut ben aefbjug gegen bie Steinbrud ii ner. lZer Zracl)en 
4atte leiber bie unangenef)me (gigenid)aft, ba5 er nid)t vidtig au& 
balanciert war nub ftdnbig fiber effien lt lfigel im Stuxiflug wieber 
Sur &be fam. Rit einem Wiibenjd)ojjer an bet einen S( winge 
bej( wert, ging 0 bann Jo leiblid), unb id)jd)o5 !oon ben Steinbrud, 
I)RI)nern in ben nd)Ren Zagon bie ljorgenommene Bal)l ab. ffllmd lid 
tullybe bie Zedung immer fpdtfid)et, eg war (Ynbe September, bie 
)ii ner wolften nic t tne r  alten, Jelbit bet Trad)en Derfel)fte feine 
Uirfang, . nub beruffid)e Wrbeiten riefen, mic  nad),*aul e. 
SturAe Beit barcluf war id) in bent mir untetfiefften Teilier, wo 
0 toirtfid) me r'Rcf e alg Reb ii ner gibt, unb too id) in feinem,3allre

'Zon 13ucinSti 
mel)z aB  Od)ften# 20 Stfict abqejd)ojjen 4abe. M  ging am 3eitigen 
Wadlmittag an eine bid)te 6d)le enI)ecte, um ffir bie ftfid)e einige 
*61)ne bu fd)ieten, unb bummefte babei mit untgebangenem Oewe r 
quer fiber ein Saatfefb. $16 tid rourben um mid)  evum garthe Woftert 
ooll  i bnrrrt  od), ein $oft reibtr jic  alt bag anbere, wofifit id) fa
ilidite aIg Nibnev, kifter. Icb ftbertxcibe td" ruena icb bic  01 
aut 200 big 300 C-Wd jd)dbte 1 I u einent lic tfte enben 2upinenid)fage 
fiet On Xeif babon cill, bie anberen auf ftad)en unb Stoppeln rivq4 
erum 5) na4m ben  )unb fur6 unb ging unter Winb bie Ibfilmex 
an. Zod) faunt eircid)te icb ben 2upinenf)fag, aW aud fd)on bie 
ganAe @efefffd)aft faitt lodertb wieber aufftanb, unb i3on fiberaff  er 
TOtte id bag $urren unb warnenbe Rufen bet abffteid)enben Miter, 
bie qfeid) eirer bunfleit Gotte fiber bie: Sd)fel)bvrn ede bet Wtcii3e 
ftrid)eil. Tic t ein  )ul)n war butfidqebliebell, trie fel)t ic  aud) JuO)te
'ti ben tommenben Xagen fal  id nid)N mef)r oon aft bent Tebl)vlm- 
reidltuilt, bet wie eine gqta, Vorgatta, crid)ienea war. (&4 war in 
bet crftn !Ddifte beg Vtober,' id tatte e# I)ier mit auggelprodenen 
VanberI)RI)nern  U tu     60 m*ten       fie   vcgefommen  fein, 
Wo moc*n fie 4,vSie %I?     Senn aud) bag Web u n ein bobeno 
ftdnbiger %ogel ift unb lid meift je r treu an ben, $fat I)dft, 
wo a auggefallen ift, jd)eint mix boc  ein gewiffer Ganbertrieb 
!oor anben gu fein. Zej Reb u n# ua e j8erwanbte, bie Bad)tcf, 
ift ja jdjfie5fic  ein au gefprod)enev 8ugDogel, unb Welfeicbt jagt 
eine innere Gtimme bet 91atux aud) bem ffleb u n Smoeilen, wenn 
ein ftrenger Winter an erwarten ift, bat o ao unjeren norbi )en 
(Befilben aawanbern mut, unt fic  Dot ben Unbilben bet FMitterung 
au idfiten. 
Dierbei mbd)te id) rwc  furb exivli neu, bab id) im Winter 1930 
in ben tqo( fteppen beg Rifintanbiato bid)t am 2ougibo VaCI)teln 
unb Rebl)ftI)nev bu taufenben antraf, bjgloot4ex bort nie -gewefen 
waren. ad) fenne bag (Mebiet burd) bal)rr6c e 3agbeXpebitionen unb 
I)abe wol)l 5uroeiten mat im I)oben Steppengrafe ein paar  Dli ner 
bod)gemad)t. 'Zamc" abet ftie5 id faft bei.jebem Sdritt Bad)teln 
unb  & ner .1)erau4, bie foftft red)t jpdrlid in %frita !oe7:tretm jiub.

Edon bie unbd figen Sd)afate forgen baffir, bat fie nic t jonberlid) 
I)o( fommen. a  bertauldte bamalg bie 58ftd)je fd)neff mit bet al.inte, 
bie mein Oevve rtrdger ffir *erl ft ner mir nad)trug, unb  o 
il net, bie lid) nid)t I)on unferen 'europdijden unterfd fteuLal!Se' 
in methen Mid)enbettel angeneiote Wbwed,ifung brad)ten. - an 
alien fd)feiifd)en Sleoieren, bie id in-ben leoten 3al)ren auf  Dfit)ner

bejagt  abe, 4abe ic  leiber nidt einmal eine Vadjtel  oftemad% 
ein Beid)en, ivie felten fie.  don bei ung, geworben ift. Tur bunleilen 
im Sommer, mean id) auf ben toten 58od piixj( te,  Brte id ben 
Dertrauten 8ad)teljd)lag im  oben korn unb I)abe mid) jebeftal 
gefreut, bat bet feltene, Mine %ogel bod noc  in unleten jd)lejijdeu 
Nevieren iwr auben ift. 

0 e U tj C  e,3 a g b 
Nr- 32 
9lud) int Fitigen         Wellit gegen &tbe  -ebrvar auf ben 
luciten ' cfbern ant Soor bet (ad)nee jd)moj e Wettl, jucite C-treden 
miter Vaijor ftanbev, Weil bet 1 rvft im ftben W C-d-nict6traffer 
iiid t ebibringen fie , ftclIten lid) oft ftfi yifig bic V Og4le chi. 
C-ie iibernc#tetcn p ZanjeTtben in beif nod  wid t tegulierter, Rcr 
jd iluemniten  Lsliefcn  avb   fuf niebcruvqcn nvb pgcit bann mvTqcv,-',

frfib in bid ten, 03cid)Iuabern WoffevqTeid) 6u ben weitell ! elbcrn oil

ben Mooren, um burt auf ben Startoffetid)Mgen aO ben im  ierbft 
prfidq6ticbenen, berfaulten uiib rcitTodneten Aartoffefil bie C-tbrfe 
bcraO6uqudjd)cn urib Zuedej bcn p     jammeffi. Midi bic juity 
Nogynfaat diten fie init &Yficbe, abet bie Sthfeffiqcfd,cn  attcn 
6 i nen ganj bejonbeO angetan. Mit etwO Toib ja  banit cin 
aqbiind)bar 6um anberen  intiber, Vuenn auf beffen C-d)I gen bic 
(W*je in  cffcn S)aufen einfiefer. 9tuf hefen   efbcrn mad)tev luit 
fi je 2id)er, uerblenbeten fie mit innI)efflegerbem Startoffeffrout, 
jt ten nod) efilige prvbiforijd  mit  ,)ddjef an qcftopfte Ohic- 
aitroppen aO unb tvatteten in ben frfi en 9)(orgei1ftunben ouf bO 
CSilifaffen unb Utn erftreic eu bicier uvrfid)tigeTt  fopitvfCw6d)tcr. 
&i Negeubben, G4ueetreiben unb C-tutm I)atten Wit fteO C ,rfvfq, 
baqeqcn pGev bie Obje bei flarent 1 ivftwettcx nteiffev  p Y)od) 
wib crdugten nv ' in ben 2bcl)er-g.  &fd)vjjeTi wurbe ftet  mit 
3Y2 mm Sd rot, jebenjaM  attm Wit bomit bic beftev CRjofy. 
S ibrcvb ciner C-dynecidpnelp im Z orfrfil)livg erlegte id) bctwaf 
affein 14 Vitb&ije. - Wfle wurben fie 3ubereitet, teibe fogar 01 
C-pidbrafte ftiliert, tcif  qcbraten, imb felbft bie 61teten Odnje- 
jemeffer wurben. mit cincra Sd)ut epiTiW    lucid). Ver eradl)ft, 
baf  Uithganfe ungeyticf box unb tranig JiTtb, bem ift nid)t au  elfen 1

Oewif  eignet jid) ein ganj after ftuter !oielfeid t beffer 6u ! rifa- 
beften ueratbeffet, ba er fcid t bu, ,troden" ift, abet er.fann au)

gebraten Iverben, obre ba  man lid) bO Oe cge jetner 8d4ne 
baran auOei t.* ID fiegt eben wie fiberaff an bet ri&,tigeu Bu- 
bereitung. ZOjeffic gift aud  ungef6br f fir Wucr dl)ne. 
abcu luir faft jeben Zag fterwilb gegeliev, and) alte SM ve, nub 
txo bem jd medtcn fie befifat. SAffberitanblid) ift mir ein juTtger 
, abn OUCf) Heber CIO cin after, aber mid) biofer ift biir-oOatinobm 
bar! 'Zod) nun Edftf  mit biciem niatciiaTijtijd cn Zeit. 
C-d)iive Stunben uetbrad te id  unten am Mor, luenn qeqeit 
91beub bet Zag in Tad)t yrjfo , ober Wenn W Mtqcnrot im Efte-a 
aufflaninite uvb bie Wnd)t  etjaqte in ferne Wane  ; dfber. qmver 
War c,  jd bn bort, uilb ba O'iigerauge weibete lid) oftmW (in  Atcrcn 
Mit id)fagenbem  icr3cn jd-,aute id) int 2cvj 
bet viedemben  )immW3iege 6u, Wenn fie fd)rdg abfffir6enb bcn 
-Iaf, fnut T)o  ic  ober wenn taunichibe nub lid) fibcrfd fagevbc 
U"'    n, e r       c o       a 44, u n 
Z on Q . 'a 
Stiebibe mit luml)teffiben ? taqcIjcl)fdqcn ibren         oofj 
fftT)rtCv-  -imitfd)iffcnibc, wil)cTibe 6iten j,,t,,, T)i'ttereivanber I)er,

siranid)c tronipeteten jIfiqeI d)Taqenb im  8rncb, Ornug4nfe 8ogen - 
ba  ift bet  anbcr On Moor. Tod  wenn bO weif;e Uvffgra  bMI)t, 
Itenn W braune Wud  wie im ed vee uor nv  Ticgt, bet RieTiporft 
buftet unb nn  blutrot bet fIcijd)frejfcnbe Conne-atau cutgegen- 
Tead)tet, bann ift 0 jd)weigjam im Moor. Unter bO (24vvmcn bet 
fieneu imb )ummefn mevqt lid) Wie jciuc  fcije   6utcn W 2odcu 
jeglicben junGen C-unipf, unb                 n bet Shnberftitbe 
bet 9 cvvrbelvof)nct lebt unb raicbelt 0 i1berall gebeimnOooff. Ucun 
bann IpMer bic S)cibe wieber bffi t unb ba  ( 4viiclcvgrd lid) 
Tangfom fdrbt, lue-un bie, (t--d-,ifjfvTbcn jid  brduven itlib bie Moo&

beete ruitbe, rote,- gMd)te anje t, bann Wirb e4 lticber taut unb 
itnqenten, fteigen ungejdidt - attf au  qrfiffiberipomiencit 
Umpeln, Welaffinen jonnett fid), in injoraftigen Gs rfivben, Ix#cfnbc 
Stanipffbuier unb 'GtranbMufer joen gcjddffig vad) Na tiwq. 
f1beraft Toden jurge, jd edig Cefireifte Aiebio, aITO febt uoni 
itijefteitipenbenben Twor mtt feiren VafferWrteu, Zvrffu fcv, 
MobberWd)ern, 93infev- unb S)iTjqftrteTn. &rTi ftcf)en bort bie 
Tc e in bet flimmeruben fte W EpbtfowmeO, viib bet  ud 
pfiri4t bort nad) jungetn Saffergeftfiget nub Mulen.  e t emtet 
bet  dger uov bem, 6egen bdVoorO, anb mavd)e G-vte Watibert 
run an ben Nudfad. fienn fpdtet ber Trunft irjd) rbl)rt im vcl cit 
otft, bann Sie t Me in jebem  erbft Ivieber bie Otaugan v, utib 
ber * &pet jawmelt W  Gtredurn auf ben ! elbern. C-rft wetm bex 
Sinter eiufe rt, fiegt bO Poor bbe uub I)erIciffen, nur einhelne 
Wef e fiten auf bev 1 eibefaupeu in bet CoTine, unb Meiftet 91einele 
guitrt Der bie ptgetroreven Viinfen.     Ae tt bann tvieber mit 
2erc enqejang bet 1 tfibfinq in  2aub, bann Jitib fie tuieber ba, bie 
befiebetten f1fid)figen SonbMr.   Sir MeTIld)en  abeU fie 11i&t 
gefe ev, bie uiclev  dnber unb fremben Veitev, bie bet Sugboget 
in ben fut6en Uintermovaten fa . Vir ja en  ivter bem, Cfev, 
bud) bet Uanberpogel folgte bem natuTgewolften Zrieb iiber erne 
Meerc ulib Oebtrqc, itrib biefft Zrieb bracf)te R)n aud) luicber fibcr 
ben  Rquator prild in icine vorbif&e  )eintafl 2odenb urib jubehib 
lad)t bet ? rftl)fing WiebeT an ben Zntd bfdnfen, Werin bie pefiebeTtCTt

! -Teunbe i ren S.)od)5ciOrcigen tav6cit bott unten im 9J(oor. Cin 
Myen gct)t burd) bie Tatitt, affidl)rlid) immer wieber ba ,Jcfbe 
WbTien, Weiin vad  fturmburd)tobter  -ril ja Onad)t bet 2cv  mit 
Minnefang cinfe rt, benn: 
Aie ber ci UnG Voff 0 M116t - 
Wenn im Mra bie erfte P-etd e fingt!" 
c-n        e,'r       c 4,t c n             a      r  C 
man befin Wrbeiten qngetroffen  atte. alei  c bitftem 9-effer-begann 
id) bie etften Rartoffet- imb Ru"benid)ffige irtit vneinein  )unbe 
, abet 9tunbe atif Stunbe berging, unb cin P elb ad) bern 
=ftreijte i) anj unb nieber, o ne and) nur ein einjigno 
bon toeitem bu fe4eii! Go oft mein   unb ftanb, wurbe jdpveyjdIIiq 
ein aungf4fan  od, mit nad ivenigen 4unbert Tletern toteber 611, 
ft rumbe Mittaq, bie weipanne xiidte-n bom    aetbe, unb an 
meinem 03algen f)inn fein iuf)tt, bet  3rotoningfauf war hod) Want. 
c d)  ieft bie fyirnfeI)rcnben Wcferhied)te an unb ftaSte, Wife benn 
feine  )ftf)uer ne c ett f)dtten. Za jaqte init bet !BoAt, ba5 am VOTgen

ein  3olf pm tiaf)ett 03rabertranb geftrid)en Jei. ',Dort4in fenfte id) jeot

tneirte Sdritte, fiberquerte eine frijdy   d)dfbrad)e, itub fdpn  ftanben

brei  8off  )fi ner oor n1ir aitf! (  ie fiefen auf ber Zrad)e tviebet 
ebil uttb id) wrtfd)Iug  ie in qro cm $oqea, um jie mit in bie %ftben 
p bdidem Za  tuat aber feid)ter geJagt af  getan. Tie utt6ej&jjeneU 
?fi ner ginyit bei moinent Umqefpniq ',inanher bcreit  aitf  unberte 
uotl  Ijleterlt fpd) unb Rrid)en gegen jebe &rabrebinin iii einen kaf)1-

cf)laq. Zort  offte i(  jie itt betn  obeti  eibegrafe, ba   id) riebeii
neuen $ffanpngkiffelt eiiiqefunben batte,  idet 3u fyiben, abet au o 
bier erqfitA a Tnit nid)t beiJer, unb Jdpa auf itn imiige Cnitiertiang 
ftrid)en bic &Ifer ab. 
a irein eigene  Reoier feiber nar effieiv fe4,r ge'tinocit 
,rofit)nerbafa#  at, i(  abet Ieibeujd)ajt[iCI)er  b 
0 bin, bleibt Tnir nid)O weiter ftbrig, ' a14  u 
Jft nerjaqb auf Vanber d)aft jit qef)en unb batb  ier, bafb 
bort &taiuiten    imb   yreunben, bie wit i Teun Telif)u0niegen 
Ilid)t Cificin jertig werbelt tbanett, AH f)el erl.  If   flf)nCrid)floe

ift Inarl ilit afiqemeincit qern          be onber ,  werin  mart 
auc  einen braucf)baren  Dunb witbringt, effie  atibere gribitt, 
jcf)ie t unb feine Vftibigteit fpnnt. Uiib jo mandyn 18ocr bexbanfe 
id) af  be onbere %nerfennung bO 4dgb errn ffir gefOftete 9frbeit 
bei bet ' Uf)ner uc e Diefei meiner $a1lion.  Zer Girfung4frM 
meiner Nanberjbgerei fiegt in Vitiel- unb 91ieberjc fetien, too 
id) ja freicf)e Tei iere fenne unbo befc ojfen  abe. Zabei  abe idi 
mit beTi  )W)uern icbort Me jeftiamften (Etfa rungen gemac t, oun 
benen iCb bier fprec ca will. 
Qhtbe Wuquft ftaf id) rait ineinem  )uube ju adttdgiger aagb bei 
einem T"icrbelior ein, bet jeffift nur noc  gelegentfid) OTII ft cfpl

ciiiO quteu OodO unb piod)O   -reube f)atte unb bie ' Iinte f)bc fte"

maf pr eigenen Zteibiagb aij  bem St yanf ita m.  )ft vler jolltert 
qeniigeab i)orf)anben jein, ein Wbjd)u  twu 100 biM50 C-tad War jilt 
bie ac t Zaqe geplaut. Wm ndd)ften Uorgen roar id) im Neuier. CSin 
fiker, fyller 3uuge begleitete midi urib cqM)Ite uief ooa &tferrt, bie


Z) c UJ'T cb e, 3 a q b 
8. November 1935 
'ZiOmal ffiegen  ie fteil I)ocf), inib 
id) jaf) fie nut nod) ftber ben Stie, 
fernwipfelit locrictiwinbeit.  Veif; bet 
eufel, wo fie einfiefalfen fein m6gert, 
benu N wareit iminerfifit geqen 800 
Votgelt gcjcblo  encr &ftallb, ben jie 
iWerqueren muf;ten     %ejiqiliett 600 
id) wicber auf mcirte $rcube Aittiid, 
wo id) balb cilt neuec  &lf faub. 
Tie e  pftl)ner fielea, auf einer ab, 
qcqrafteu Vel)loppel ein !urib ticten 
mic])  and)  nut  bbc jten53 -W  auf 
fiatitbert  Meter   crani uIn   bann 
I)od) fiber bo Zorf toeg3u#rcid)en. 
Veitere &rfuc e fd)lugen au(  me r 
ober   weniger   f e4f, - unb  tobuttibe 
fcf)rte icfj init gan6en brei tittgtent 
am   Oalge" f)cim. WIle brei roaren 
aft. -    Zer Mterfolq 160      %or, 
tnittag  lie5 mir feine Wu e. Oleic 
nad) bem Tfien . toar i(  vvieber 
brauf en, biOutaf auf bet anberen 
Scite bc!  Zorfe,-',. Zie einlabenbeit 
$aueruftfide,         Aartoffelu uub 
Uai breitcu woren feet tuib ter, 
la  eu.  C)o jud)te id) baupt ad)lid) 
Ivieber catf Wanton $ra(fifetbern, unb 
ftie  bafb auf ein  Bolf von mor 
W 30 Stfid, ba  auf eiver Viefe 
cinfief. Um e  ri( t fibec brie lgrenAc 
p brticten, umjd)fuq id e# tvieber 
Im firden Oonen nub Ijatte and 
Nfild in ofcrn, ctb  id) bivej  Dflbnev 
eraa fd)vf;, wotauf bie anbefen in 
eivem lwf)en Tftbeujd)l4g einfielen. 
gelang 0 tair enblid, noc 
einige   nifp-ier  3u  extuild)en; ber 
91eft ftricf) bann wet weit tvie vveit; 
id) fonnte nid)t mef)t feitReftm, w 
?Qacb eitblofem  Bemftben fatib id) ei 
grube imb trieb e  in einen etma 50 9N 
too bann ba6 iiblicl)e, au jicl)Woje ( 5ud)en 
I)affenben roftfnter 
OW, unb al  iie i  einem Stlec d)taq einfi 
bortf)in, wo id) emiqe abjcfio  itub ben T 
pelang 0 mir, nod) eine teiblid)e Stte 
bc  etften aagbtaflO belief  i(  auf Aroblf 
jcfio  icb bann itit &rfauf bet Vocbe 6un 
nocti T)urtbett  )fil)ncr ab.  C-ie waten 
t)fifnter' unb ba  &tl)dftni  I)on 911teu a 
ciio. Tabei Ijatte bo Neuier, wic id) in 
teinen  cftleclteu 58ejao, abet bie aften ge 
&11! in bet ftber6al)l waren, riffen bie 
Zattif am  Leibe, um bie fie matutier ; 
lagen fie in Tectunn, immer auf freicin 
eimnal I)od), fo ftrid)en fie unf)eimlic  w 
fiber bem nal)en Valb auf Timmerwie 
$on bort fenfte id) meine Sd)ritte 
pelietib. -  )icr foffte id) auf einem lirbf;e 
in einer Uocl)c abjcf)ief;eu. TO Wefditb 
uricbiebeite grof;e Steittbrfid)e mit abq 
lagen, in bie jid) bic bod)gemad)ten  8611 
man fie nie ivieber faub. Tlit mcinem br 
am gfeid)en Wadpnittag meinct Wnfinift 
roar bod) itbon etn)a  nacl) ben ftrateg 
TeoieW Wud) bic n6cfiften Zalle waren 
auf 150  )ftfpter. %bet auc  I)ier roar b 
' Ungett nicf)t ganiftig, nub ein Trittel bet 
Tact I)iertdqiger jagb wollte e  nid)t 
) bner mef)r in ben  Iagcit. (fin Oan 
bet C-teinbrfidy !oeroaff inir An b6 N 
gficid)3eitin fihif bi   ed)  3u ctmmengcro 
icfi weit iiO aelb, irttb init eirem jcbn 
id) erneut ben ! ,efb3uq ygen bie Steii 
Oatte beiber bic unaugenome (Yigenid, ja 
balcinciert war utib ftOntbig fiber eitten 
6ur (Rbe tam.    Mit eincin Tftben d)oj 
befd)wert, ging 0 bann  o feiblid), unb i 
I)iifutern in ben natliften Zaqeu bic Dorgen 
wurbe bie Tectung immer jparticf)er, e 
)Rf)ner wofften iticbt mel)r 1)(ilten, jelbit 
Virfunii, unb beru ii( v Wrbcitm riefen 
Slurp  eit barauf war id) in bem 
Z)cr erfte (Za)ncc 
0  fie  eirgefoltell  waren. 
n netto &lf in einer eanb- 
orgen gro en Stattoffeffd)lag, 
befiann. Rein weit jud)ettber 
enbficb (in ciner 9fnwanb bet- 
Olen, [clifte id) nicitle C-cbritte 
eft  Pretiqte. fti biefe vci e 
de An macben; ba  ergebnO 
' filutcr. Mit Vfil)e imb Not 
Zeil bei ftrbmenbem 9legen 
aucr nerbient, bie f)unbext 
U ' Ungen war etwa 3wei in 
id) felbft fibeqeugit I)atte, gar 
mitten 9)W)rter, bie bei jebem 
jungen mit nab I)atten eine 
efbl)err betteibet I)dtte. Tic 
; elbe, nub murben fie erft 
eit ober oerid)manben gfeid) 
betJoen. - 
in unfere id)le ijCbe Nabon, 
ren  Jeuier etma 200 'Diifuter 
e war infojera fifnvierig, al 
ebanten   albeu bajWijcf)en, 
er itet Auxiidjogen, imb wo 
auert         jagte icl) iiocb 
imb  d)of  32  iilmer. Ta 
ijd)eh I filmern be6 loorigen 
nod) gut, ttub jo tam id) balb 
a  Zer OltrtO Von 91ften An 
(2 trede I)atte graue Slanber. 
mOr fla0pen; id) fau6 feine 
q in W umueg ame Oefdnbe 
Ocl  $Ibiling.   )icr gingen 
ttete *Mfer lpd), oerteilten 
ell qel)vltert Trad)en begaim 
brud)bii nex. Ter Zrcu en 
it, bat er ridt ricbtiq au - 
gWgef int SturAffull wicber 
fer tin bet einen Ccfpoinge 
cf) jcfwf; I)on ben  ateinbrudy 
oninteue 3af)f (it). fflfirid licb 
war ftbe  n-cptember, bie 
bet Ttad)en I)erfef)lte feine 
Mio Ilact) ' )auje. 
mir untetitellten Tevier, too 
0 toirtlid) iue r &bc af  Tebf)uIpter gibt, Unb too id in feiriem 30rc

'Z3on 13ucineff 
meor aO I)6cf)ftc10 20 Stfid al3geidof eit f)abe. -jcb ginq am jeftillen

91ad)mittcig an eine bid)te Sd)lefienf)ede, um ftir bie Shlitie einiqc 
pdl)ne An jc ie en, unb bummelte babei mit untgel)ciagenem Weruefir 
quer fiber ein Saatfelb. flbblicf) wutben um Tnicb I)crum gan3e Volteit 
bon-Nilmern        ein Wolf reif)f   id) an bo anbere, wol)iu icb  Clb' 
iiict)tc ali   )filjncr,  ufptct, s(l) ii bertrcibe nicbt, wenn id) bic jul)f

auf 200 W 300 Stfid  c dote!  n einem li(I)tftebouben   upirien cflaqe 
fiel ein Zeif bavon ein, bie anberen auf  Brctcl)eit imb C-toppelit rinq4

berum. Icf) italmt ben I unb fur5 nab ging tinter Shib bic  Mil)net 
an. 'Zod) taunt erreici)te id) ben 2upinenjd)laq, al  and) fd)on bie 
gany Wefell d)aft laut locletto ivieber aufftanb, unb uou fiberall ber 
brte id) ba  $urren vub warnenbe Titfen bet abftreid)eabeii  Bbffcr, 
bic gleicl) ciner buntfen Golfe fibet bie Sd)felporn ecfe bet 6ren3e 
jtric en. Tid)t ein iuoit war AudidAebfieben, wie jef)r icl) aucli  ud)te!

: n beit tommenben Zagen jal) ic  nid)t4 mel)r i)on all bem %ebIntl)n, 
reiifitum, bet wie eine  5ata Vorgana er c ienen war. &, war in 
bet erften   dlfte bee, Zftober, ic  batte e  bier mit ciu qe procbencn 
Uanberfialmern an    tun.   Go mod)ten    fie I)ergetommen     ein, 
WO Mf)d)teii jie I)in6ioe.  Venn and) ba  Rebf ufnt ein boben, 
ftditbifler &gel ift unb jid) meift  el)r treu an ben $lab I)bft, 
wo e  au gefaflen ift, fd)eint mir boib cin gewi fer Ucutbertrieb 
borbanben An fein. Ze  Tebl)uI)O    na4e Zetivanbte, bie Uacl)tcl, 
ift ja jd)Iicf;licl) ein au fiefpr4eneic 8upoilet, utib bielfeid)t fagt 
eine innere Stimme bet 91atur auc  bem Tebbubn pweileu, werin 
ein fitenner Vinter p   erwarten i#, bat 6  nio unjeren norbijcben 
6efitben av waubern muf;, um jid) bor, ben Unbilbeit bet Vitterung 
All id)fite". 
, pietbei mbd)te id) nocb furj ertod4nen, bat i) ini Ginter 1930 
in beit 'DoL fteppert W Mfintanbictro bic t am kongibo Uacf)tefn 
nub Oiebl)iilmer in tciu cnben antraf,, bie bor et bort nic gewe eu 
wareit. ' cb fenue bae  (13ebiet burc  5a lreic e 3agbepebitionett nub 
babe niobt 3umeifien inal int.  o4en Steppenj#aje citt paar iiifpier 
fivd)gcTuad)t. Zamaf  abet ftieW i) faft bei jebem 2  ritt Vad)tefn 
nub  Jfifmer f)eratL4, bie jotift redt fpdrfic  in 91frita vertreten Jmb.

Scf)ort bie unj4 1igen Scf)afale jorAen baffit, bcif  fie nid)t  onbcrlid)

ocbtommeu. ad) oertaufd)te bamctl  bie Nicbfe fd)nell mit bet 'C fiute, 
bic incitt Oeme rtrdqer ffir $erlbillmex mir nad)trug, imb jibo  einiqe 
)ftf ner, bie ji4 nid)t bon uni"en curopMicben tuiter cbieben, ab er

in meivien fthid)enjettef angeue me Mwed)JIung byad)ten. -  3u, 
alien fd)teiifd)en NeWeren, bie id) in ben teoten ; af)ren auf  Jftbner 
bejagt f)abe, I)abe i(f) leibef nid)t eirtmat tine Sad)tel 4od)gemacf)t,

cin Beid)en, mie fetten fie fc on bei uw   orben ift. Tur Ainveffen 
im  Eommer, wenn id) auf ben*roten'         pfivf)tei, I ikte td) ben 
t)ertrauten Sa(I)teliMag im Iof)en fforn unb  abe mid) jebOmal 
gefreut, bat bet jeltene, fleme Zolief bo4 nod) in unleten jd)lcjijcbeit

Reoier'en ovr anben ift. 

He7*7*n Professor A I(lo LeoooLdp 
M a d z s o n 
Aus der Literatur zst mtr nioht bekannt.,dass eta an,,-Zorers Ornito-- 
logisoher Fachmann a**hnlz*.oheBeobaohtungen -In Af7*z*ka gemacht hat wteN

C.411. Strach.loh wetso aberauoh aus etgener Er,-Pahrungdass in Deutsoh 
land die Rebh**hner h-Inundwieder aus unbe;Lannten B?**"nden sl*oh szzsax

aen soharen uncl, wette ffan/- 7.orungen unt.---?PnehNen, 
Ihr sehr ergebener 
jftritfUt f4r34SbfiUttbt 
.Roomftr. 21 
Torf4edoSonto'. ferfin 112 993 
(45totiInvat or. jbtv6rt) 
semrvr. legfenborf H 4 3179 

Lakeview, Oregon 
December 30, 1935 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
905 University Ave., 
Madison, Wis. 
Dear Sir: 
Chief Lumberman Walter J. Perry, employed on this Forest, in 
to retire with the month of February. The collecting of a sheaf 
of letters from friends of his to be placed in a suitable binder and 
presented to him at the close of his service is contemplated. 
I am sure from personal contact with him for the past several 
years that he would prize such a letter from you very highly. If 
you would like to contribute to the sheaf your cooperation will be 
very much appreciated indeed. 
Very truly yours, 
Forest Supervisor. 

1532 Uiveity Aveme 
Ja&1 19, 1936 
Mr. 11. 0. Hrrwiman 
7orst Muperrisor 
U. S. Forest Service 
Daov o, Oerls 
I = honored to be given the opportni    to 
contibute a letter abmut Walter P. It tnow tu 
years ince I bad the privilee of Aui      t   dq'ts Job with 
him, but that twenty years has srved to s         rather than 
dim, the outlines of hit peseonality. 
Tis statment, of ooure, rns the risk of betug 
oonstrued a  flattery, bt actually it Is far from that. 
arises from a conviotion based on a lifetime of observation of 
personalities in conservation wrk. 
It is the current assWtioA a       scientists that 
one has to be a Ph.D. to be an ecoloist, bt I "n now se* 
that Walter Ferry ws and is an colgist                  e st 
soneone else forget to mention it, I wmtt            sustalation 
of this opinion his aelo.e, ublished a the .ti.l of FJrestry 
ma    years ago, on the  rpodtion of western yllow pine in the 
Southwet. Walter bad simly been keeping     is  v open In the 
course of his dmties as a timbr scaler, and wrte this pper 
rgmaiuing him opinionsabout the meanism of pineon. 
At the time of writing it, he had never met the personnel of the 
Southwestern Yorest f.rient Station, much less had he W    d- 
tailed knowldge of       etaled,.epensive researc wr they 
had been carrying on in the same subject for a decode. It so 
happened that the erimsnt Station p iedho its report only a 
few months later. Thor* was an astonishing parallelim between 
Perry' a oonlusions, drawn without the o_ ture of a ent of 
funds, and probably with very little moral eement. and 
Eperiment Station's lrmnal findings, arrived at thmrogh the 
epeditLre of many thousands of dollars for formal research* 
If we oul~d only reognize and mark the Ferry* in a 
organi sation like the Forest Servioce, it might help to nticipate 
the remits of the heavy scientific labors which are   oessary for 
the uravolling of conservation probene. 

JaMa7 15. 1936 
I have had a pe.iar recen epeiee In connection 
vlih Walter. At the time I kw   im, neither he no I had 
~ee heard of an  se~rm  atemt to reviv ardbo    In the 
Uie States. In 1924 1 awih the arhr bag and I=no 
locally roonie      n a enhuiast. Imaie, thrfoe P 
wurprsin, In pickig  p 0. C. Ul's now archey paer, to 
sethat Walter Prr bad lkwis beams infected. Whe I 
got this uaw  it oo.mrred to me that the Iis longbom 
,e son the Battle of 0     proba    included a ume  of 
Water Perrys ae   or. He fits the part of an      t   log- 
bo     t a naiety. And there      have tt bbin He, Dai4el 
Boons,  td D   r of  h         all role into one nd oged 
th Amawioe puli will probably never unestand 
the psecl   a uaity of te  hen o eoonstitied the f 
Servie 'rig its tnition from pioeer to eologc        engineer. 
It I iwe ableto reco e    at trnition in tems of ether 
rm      or scienc,0 I would likely se4t bter Pew7 as the 
perionification of bt. Now that he to to lay aside his.m~o 
of offie-   e mardn-g =-    wis him   m   hapy, a  peafef 
years with his longbow. his books, and his friends, 
Yours sincerely, 
Aldo Leopold 
Profseesr of Gone Umag   t 
Vf, .O rma - 

Jan 6* rf. ftilore v ftm Miwo~m to mAlm on US 
~ A W, ~     b~ait~.79 
C.S, p  &  .  e =  cl"rsw h  olwn  AW& 
owl* 21. adl t ost  Pmimoi 
OO*W of TV wtt of Pwoe 
2.*wj vs ouboe UY tre 
Birds #~ b4.4 
mvey nea Mbtu 
,Ir L OW1*0 
Total seen 
F :--                                  OL.4 

January 1936 Census of Hunfriau Partridges at 
Blissfield, Michigan 
R. E. Teatter 
Three consecutive January censuses in 1931, 1932, and 1933 of gallin- 
aceous birds were made by the writer on an 1S20-acre study area near 
Bliesfield, Michigan. No counts were made on this area in 1934 and 1935.

A fourth census has just been made January 11 to 14 and the results are 
given in this report. Mr. E. L. Wickliff and Mr. Arland of the Ohio 
Conservation Division took part in the work January 11 to 14. During the

remaining tine the writer worked on the area with the bird dog used in 
previous years. 
Farmer observers whom the writer had frequently contacted previously 
and 17new to be reliable reported a general decrease in the number of Han-

garian partridges on the area first noted in the smunter and fall of 1934.

Observers in Wood county, Ohio, also reported a decrease in numbers but 
appar ?ntly extending over several years. As stated in the Hungarian 
partridge bulletin (1934) the population in the vicinity of the study area

had been increasing from 1931 to 1933. 
About five-sixths of the study area was covered in the present census. 
The work was done as thoroughly as possible, but lack of tim.e prevented

checking of the figures as was done on previous occasions. During the first

day's work tracking snow aided in locating coveys but raint and crusted snow

made conditions less favorable for the remaining time. 
My notes show that the January population of partridges on the actual 
portion of the area covered was as follows in the preceding years: 1931 -
birds; 1932 - 139 birds; 1933 - 229 birds. In 1936 12 coveys were flushed


and two additional ones were located by trachs, n1-ing a total of 135 birds

counted. Careful consideration of the possibility of error leads me to 
believe that this represents approximately g5% of the birds actually present

on the area covered. On this basis the population would be about 159 birds.

This fignire shows a decrease in numbers since 1933.  Reports of residents

in this area combined with actual census figures indicate a rise in population

to the fall of 1933 and a decided decrease in numbers beginnn rith the s'nmer

or fall of 1934. It will be recalled that the sunmer of 1334 was one of 
extreme drought and the breedii g season of 1935 was exceptionally wet. There

is a possibility that both conditions may have been detrimental to reproduction.

It is of interest to note also that the population behavior for the years

covered pcrallels the Wisconsin ruffed grouse cycle. The possibility that

the H   arians are exhibiting cyclic fluctuations in this region would seem
be worth further investigatim. Middleton and Rowan have presented evidence
cycles in England and Alberta and Wing is reported to have firther data on
A further item of interest is the increase of quails on the area since 
the 1933 census. flXring the years 1931 and 1932 the quail po-ulation decreased

and in 1933 no quails were found on the study area. In 1936 1l quails were

flushed. The quail population has remained small but has varied inversely

with the Hungarian partridge population during the four years covered by
In one of 12 coveys flushed there was good evidence that pairi:g had begAn,


File: Ran-arian / 
Minneso ta 
Extract from letter from Bunker Schlatter, Resettlement Adninistration, 
Big Falls, MiMesota, March 5, 1937: 
"..,,Yes, there are   rians up here and. more than I thought. You amst

have a n  of the area so I will tell you that there -re at least these that

I a&n sre of.  Five ata Cree, five west of Hay Creek on Highway 72, 
and two near    skish. The last two groups mentioned I have seen .Iself and

the others are certainly oresent." 

13 Lo'l 
alp z  tl 

424tniversity Uw  1l3*e 
Division of Wildlife                                        3ouom-se13 
Dr. 7. S. Heika 
State College of Washington 
Pullwm, Washington 
Dear ]ranklins 
I was h interested, to get the news. I have never heard of 
o[eanW   asnd I a quite ors that he has never published anthin   in the wild-

life measgesent field. It would be very valuable to as if you would give
your  oafidential size-up from time to time. It is important for the Institute

comittee to know uwat calibre of unit leader the U.S.B.8. is usin. 
Sohorger has as yet published no book. His only publication on 
pigeons is as follows *The Great Wisconsin Passenger Pigeon Nesting of 1571,*

Pros. Linnaan Society of New Tork. No. 48, 1936, published October, 1937,

pp. 1-26. Since you need ths right a-y, I am seing you m library eop. 
Kindly return when yo arn through with it. It might be tht Sohorger still

has reprints and you oould get one b7 asking him. In sn case you could hW

that number of the Unuasan Proceedings. 
Starker's address is 26 Panormi Way, Urkelqy. 
There were more bows and arrows in the woods this fall than &V 
previous season, but the net score to date is two cripplos, both due, I think,

to dull broadheads. I hunted about three wsends. Carl had two poor shots

and I bad one good one at a running buck in the open, 25 yards. Noy Case
over but I think got no shots. I am pleased to hear about your Uaha&

flight shoot. 
In one way it may perhaps be an advantage should yo end up hadqg 
the toohMcal work rather than adinistrative w k of the unit. Very fe of 
the unit administrator haUvo a time to do anything excpt make reports and

Love to Dorothjy. 
Tours sin$orely, 
Ald Leopold 
vu                                  Professor of Wildlife Managment 

iovec;ber 6, 1018 
?ro .... or  do 7epl 
nivcrsityj oF isconsin 
ia disn ilsConsIn. 
Dear Aido: 
ccasio:,ally it turnes out to be )rofitable to put thIn s of or. the ciance

that somethLng  ill h   pcen worth telling about. Tn the  -e r..nt instance
1  delayed 
v'ritin- you about the -'uinners    2ir-ienc:  'a ncr'  t t      oi to 
me w ith very little  otth cor mtiuicat ing.  travel setP  it    e tate nce 1   'yc no wray of. '.o ing 'at his potentiaiiti-s ar- along
these lines. 
All in all 1 t iirL that LYr. 1c Cauler *s -- plrying the Survey hard to
get them in hers 
,erhaps without realizing t'e             ofardnes a? the situation i  so
far as we are concerned. 
2orti a tely 1 ''nd i..elf in ' strong oosition 'a. o  ir as sugst ag probe
concerned, s nce 'or som     ks 1 have lIa  a   air: cript or ,ae research
reeded in 
aahirgton me'jta to      'o   also been oing sahe" t i fll Iiti II.
r La tr'i. ing 

~o  ry                       A ~   'r"  riby atn ont ire J  ' .-t  1t

I  t  P.                A-'   MGM  Wet  >      1< t~ o' or  .  ~  
ni  }ottj'p  ~ - )ro f7,n -:1  J L  nitt   ~o 
1 it  r 1 'p to  )ncr  int n ia  7rt  .''n* ox~~  1g ~ cn 
flock r, -Wt  in- V  u-  a  btt a'  >' cin  tiny t ake t o t  ' et 
0)  is dew  seam YPS  t2       in~a~p  t-'-  -c-i'.-  ton tt c-" 
>  1c01  0  and  Dr w 'r   1-  ,)(  t 1' Yide 11 717 mn1  l 1 I'vr 
U~~ilA A10  K2~t            0' tD o' utu   ni sQ"civt  t ~ 4 
UrD c  1-  day no v n " ar 0t i  t rt 0  c7  0  t  I' t  ± 
Pa'    b 0lt1  lood  tr'il  -~r , ;   ' he< could~ not 'r  oi(.T  lD ti

1- -l 7i  t  1 P- V t'nr  -'/k - ' h  eaonr e.  7 T   1'o   n   lo 
1-n'a  1"r Q tro.   -re youa/ cofV  MYl  ii  ro'rn  r  irtr ~L' 
Inc  W~ 11 tti-  k Ionri M-  1 have e~ver mgo tiV P~  Vo r& >  :v
i  f ik,~t 
o1 Va    -Tu' t' t 7v1rn til'ton t h;t on>1  - t,  ''  "   1 a  .i
 o  11 t  ~ ai 
c V  )n  a trib   t    -on-'n ' L ~ . '1   i ' j    O  t r  Y t  )  lii t

c nla'io ra>"t"  -!   "o A'2 - "ArtYun lt-ioiA  f
tr  to o'1 U ' H c 
''U unr '''"ib'  V 'v r~or  I-t   t' 
inn           5"voor'ot-s' -Y  AlF rt 
I  t t -v  i  .'i'nrr t   Unit a. L   o 

Z  0 
=   _   _ _    =   = o =f 
o~ o                      rl ( 8 
if z~37        7 

tlbo leopolb 
Reprinted from the Transactions of the Wisconsin Acad'emy f 
Sciences, Arts and Letters, Vol. 32, pp. 5-28. 
1940                                 .1 
The process of pioneering contains orderly developmental 
sequences and recurrent patterns of movement and behavior. 
This pioneering pattern, once discovered, makes possible the 
interpretation of chains of facts each hitherto standing in iso- 
lation, known but not understood. 
In human history the great exponent of this concept was 
Frederick Turner.' 
In natural history, a worldwide transplantation of animals 
into new environments is now taking place. Whether deliberate 
or accidental, success or failure, wise or unwise, each such trans- 
plantation offers a chance to observe the pioneering process in 
daily detail. 
A successful transplantation spreads like ripples from a 
cast stone. The rate of spread reflects the resistance of the en- 
vironment. Good records of the rate and manner of spread are, 
however, uncommon. 
The spread of the pheasant, for example, was confused by 
the great number of almost simultaneous plantings.2 That of 
the starling, on the other hand, took place unobscured and has 
been recorded.3 
The spread of the honey bee, like that of the starling, took 
place unobscured by plantings, but it was not recorded because 
it took place in the wilderness. European black honey bees, 
transplanted into New England in 1638,4 spread westward more 
rapidly than European settlers. By 1797 they had passed the 
Mississippi. In 1812 we find the hero of Cooper's novel "Oak 
Openings'"5 gathering wild honey on a commercial scale in south- 
ern Michigan, a region as yet devoid of settlements, and like 
the rest of the continent, devoid of native honey bees. The 
European bees had arrived long enough in advance of 1812 to 
enable the bears to develop a honey-hunting technique. 

6     Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
No one mapped the spread of the bee, and probably no one 
but the bears possessed the necessary data. 
The spread of the European gray (Hungarian) partridge 
(Perdix perdix) was, in most states, masked by widespread 
plantings.2,6 In a few states, however, these birds were al- 
lowed to spread, without interruption, from single focal points, 
notably in the Canadian wheat belt,7 in northern Iowa,8 in south- 
ern Michigan,6 and in southeastern Wisconsin. 
This paper attempts to amplify and bring up to date my 
preliminary accounts 9,10 of the introduction and spread of the 
partridge as a member of the Wisconsin animal community. 
The established partridge populations of Wisconsin originate 
(with minor exceptions) from a series of plantings made by 
Colonel Gustave Pabst of Milwaukee on his farms in Ottawa 
Township, Waukesha County, from   1908 to 1929. From this 
focal center the partridges spread, without interruption, for 
two decades, and with only minor interruptions for a third. 
Other plantings were made, but for at least 20 years none was 
Here then we should be able to reconstruct the pattern by 
which this pioneering species invaded a new but heretofore in- 
accessible environment. Fig 1 shows the spread contours for 
1920, 1930, and 1937, as reconstructed during this study. These 
are the "ripples" of the stone cast by Colonel Pabst in 1908. 
Walter E. Scott" has published a history of the Pabst 
plantings, but his dates are incomplete. My own previous ac- 
counts lack detail as to numbers planted, and contain errors in 
dates. To settle these discrepancies Scott has placed at my dis- 
posal all records available in the Conservation Department, 
while Colonel Pabst has loaned me what remains of his corre- 
spondence. The following account combines this authoritative 
information with data collected in the field since 1928. 
Colonel Pabst's gamekeeper, Jack Porter, remembers that the 
first importation of partridges was made in 1908, two years be- 
fore his employment in 1910. There is no record of the number. 
The birds were pinioned and placed inside a 40-acre enclosure 
which also contained deer, turkey, guinea hens, and ducks. The 
young were not pinioned, and were supposed to fly out. "The 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin 
FIG. 1.  Spread contours and arrival dates of Hungarian partridge 
in southeast Wisconsin. 
experiment was not a howling success, but.., a few       birds 
were reared.. and there were still a few pairs in the en- 
closure when Porter came to me in 1910" (Pabst letter of Oc- 
tober 11, 1937). 
It is doubtful whether this initial importation resulted in 
any wild coveys. It was followed, however, by a series of four 
shipments released directly into the field. Letters from Colonel 
Pabst written in 1924, 1925, and 1929 ascribe his first estab- 
lishment of partridges in the wild to these four plantings. The 
dates are not given, but each letter mentions four successive 

8     Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
plantings, made in identical locations, during alternate years, 
over a period variously estimated as six to eight years. 
There is an anonymous official report,12 published in 1919, of 
1,000 partridges planted by Colonel Pabst in 1913, and 1,000 in 
1915. Scott's "Conservation History"" draws its data from
source. The Pabst correspondence contains the statement that 
the first of the series came "about 1910," and the strong in- 
ference that the last came about 1918. I conclude, therefore, that 
1910, 1913,1915, and 1918 are the probable dates, the first three 
being accurate and the last conjectural. 
The anonymous report gives some interesting detail: the 
500 pairs importedin 1913 were kept confined until March, 1913, 
when 100 pairs died of roup. The remainder were then released. 
It also records a large shipment in 1914, all of which died en 
route. It estimates that a total of 25,000 "Huns" had been turned

out on the Pabst farms. This incredible figure undoubtedly refers 
to the wild population which resulted from the Pabst plantings 
up to 1919. Palmer'8 records only 98,000 imported into the 
United States from 1906 to 1911, Yeatter6 records 268,401 im- 
ported from 1900 to 1932. The Biennial Report for 1921-2215 6.' 
states: "About six years ago . . . Gustave Pabst . . . liberated 
about 1,200 pairs." This checks roughly with the summary of 
Pabst plantings recorded in Table 3. 
The geographic origin of the five Pabst importations be- 
tween 1908 and 1918 is indicated by the following quotations: 
"The majority of the birds I received were direct shipments 
from what was formerly Bohemia. A Mr. Sonnenschein, a large 
landowner there, living in the city of Prague, was one of the 
large growers and exporters of Bohemian hops, and from him 
the Pabst Brewing Company bought a very large part of their 
(hops) requirements. On one of his visits he learned of my im- 
portation of the Hungarian partridge, and from him I bought 
probably the largest number of birds" (Pabst letter of Novem- 
ber 11, 1937). "The Hungarians I partly bought from dealers in 
this country, largely from the old firm of Wentz and Mackensen, 
but the majority of the birds I purchased direct from Bohemia" 
(letter of July 30, 1925). 
The sixth Pabst planting came in 1927, and was made "to 
bring in a new infusion of blood." It consisted of 27 pairs pur- 
chased through Julius Loewith, Inc., of New York (letter of 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin 
September 5, 1929). Mr. Loewith writes me (September 21, 
1937) that all his partridges came from Bohemian estates. His 
retords are destroyed, but he remembers selling Colonel Pabst 
"several lots . . . a small lot right after the war." The "small

lot" may be the 1918 shipment. 
The seventh and last Pabst planting was in 1929, and again 
consisted of 27 pairs, purchased through Loewith. The purpose 
was to bolster a shortage, which, however, "it did not help at 
all" (letter of January 14, 1930). 
The total number of partridges planted is estimated by 
Colonel Pabst in his letters as "five to six thousand" (1925, 1929)

and "six to eight thousand" (1925). The assumed total of his 
plantings here used (Tables 1 and 3) is 5,000. 
Colonel Pabst was so beset by inquiries about his partridge 
enterprise that he devised a "form letter." Identical verbiage

recurs in many replies to correspondents. 
J. W. Foster of Brandon, Fond du Lac County, tells me that 
Colonel Pabst presented him with 12 partridges from his "first 
importation," and that he planted these birds near Brandon. 
He does not remember the date, but I here assume the Foster 
birds were part of the 1910 Pabst shipment. The site is now 
occupied by birds which have spread from the south. Mr. Foster 
thinks this present population results from his planting, but 
my evidence, gathered from other sources, indicates that the 
original planting died out about 1912. This is the first of many 
instances in which natural spread proved more potent than de- 
sultory plantings. 
About 1914 the Sportsman's Club of Independence, Trempea- 
leau County, bought three pairs from the Mackensen Game Farm 
and released them just north of Independence. The birds drifted 
west and raised at least one covey two years later. They then 
In 1922 F. R. Mueller of Waukegan, Illinois, is said to have 
released about a dozen "Hungarian pheasants" near Moose Lake, 
Sawyer County. It has been impossible to untangle the question 
of whether they were partridges or pheasants. This terrain is 
entirely unsuitable for either, and the release illustrates the 

1A    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
slight knowledge of partridges and pheasants then prevalent. 
The birds of course disappeared. 
In 1923, 20 partridges were planted near Hudson, St. Croix 
County. The origin is unknown, but some persisted until later 
state plantings in 1930. None now survive. 
During the period 1925-1931, the Rock Creek Trout Club 
in Polk County, after corresponding with Colonel Pabst, propa- 
gated and released a total of about 300 partridges. The'birds 
were reared by Joseph Burkhart from eggs bought in Alberta. 
These plantings did not become established, so the club is now 
trying chukars. 
The Berlin Izaak Walton League (Green Lake County) im- 
ported 20 partridges in 1929, the shipment being a part of the 
state's importation for that year. Later the state supplied addi- 
tional birds, a total of 118 being planted. Four coveys persist, 
but there is no indication of active spread. 
In 1929 the Milwaukee Izaak Walton League imported 20 
pairs for propagation on the Moon Lake Game Farm in Fond 
du Lac County, but failing to get any eggs, the birds were turned 
loose in 1930. In 1933 the locality was invaded by birds spreading 
from the south. There is no intermediate information, so the 
question of whether this planting survived must remain un- 
In 1931 Otto Beyer bought 20 birds and released them on 
his shooting preserve near Briggsville, on the border of Columbia 
County. They disappeared. 
In 1933 the New Lisbon Conservation Club (Juneau County) 
bought six birds, which were augmented by 20 state birds and 
planted. A covey was seen in 1934 but none persist now. A 
previous plant of six birds in 1929 disappeared in 1931. 
In general, then, no private plantings except those of Colonel 
Pabst show unmistakable evidence of success. 
The data on private plantings are segregated in Table 1. 
They also are included in a summary by counties (Table 3). 
Locations of all plants, both private and state, appear in Fig. 2. 
The Pabst plantings coincided with a wave of sportsman- 
enthusiasm over partridges which began as early as 1900 on the 
Atlantic seaboard, and reached Illinois by 1913. Imported birds, 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin 
?ZPabst platluS 4Np m  @VW3 
o P1&i1D 
Op 0  plantingti@ 
A  Tporazy covq 
or drifting -'NJ, 1937 bounary 
jT  :4 n population, 
:'.'-::pssibly      t 
FIG. 2. Plantings of Hungarian partridge in Wisconsin, also density 
of population within the 1937 boundary. 
purchased both by private individuals and by the state, were 
planted in Illinois'o near the Wisconsin boundary as follows: 
100 at Richmond, 1913; 100 at Fox Lake, 1918; 100 at Wauke- 
gan, 1918. These Illinois plantings were successful and may have 
spread into southern Walworth and Kenosha counties before the 
arrival of the Pabst birds, but the fact that the spread in Illinois 
has always lagged behind the spread in Wisconsin (see receding 
boundary, Fig. 1) makes it unlikely that they account for any 
great part of the Wisconsin stock. In the aggregate, Wisconsin 
probably contributed more birds to Illinois than vice versa. 

12    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
A wave of Hungarian planting passed over Iowas during the 
period 1909-1913, but none became established near the Wis- 
consin boundary. 
A persistent effort to establish partridges began in Minne- 
sota in 1926. Some of the heaviest plantings were made near 
Winona, opposite Trempealeau County. Partridges drifting or 
spreading into Wisconsin from Minnesota are of record in my 
notes as follows: 
Appeared Disappea~rd 
Near viilage of Trempealeau        1928     1930 
East of Fountain City, Buffalo Co.  20 in 1928  ? 
West of Viroqua, Vernon Co.      40 in 1928   ? 
South of Prairie du Chien, in Grant Co. ?? 
Locations of these drift colonies appear as triangles in Fig. 2. 
Two coveys of unknown origin appeared in St. Croix and 
Pierce counties in 1932 and 1934. These may have arisen from 
the Hudson plantings shown in Fig. 2, or they may have drifted 
in from Minnesota. They have now disappeared. 
Drift colonies from the Minnesota planting also appeared in 
the northeastern corner of Iowa.8 
All the Wisconsin colonies of Minnesota birds have, in so 
far as known, proved ephemeral. 
Previous to 1928 the partridge was considered by most 
state game farms as impracticable to propagate. In that year 
Michigan produced several hundred birds from wild-trapped 
stock which had spread into the state from Indiana. Encouraged 
by this success, Wallace Grange, Wisconsin's Superintendent of 
Game, in the winter of 1928-29 trapped about 100 partridges near 
Oconomowoc. The trapping was done by K. J. MacFarlane. A 
dozen of these birds were planted on the site of the present Uni- 
versity Arboretum near Lake Wingra (but never seen since). 
The remainder were sent to the Fish Creek Game Farm, Door 
County, for propagation. 
Fish Creek was the center of partridge propagation until 
1931, when the breeding stock was moved to Moon Lake, Fond 
du Lac County, and placed in charge of Frank Hopkins, who had 
learned game keeping in England and had operated the Moon 
Lake Refuge for the Milwaukee chapter of the Izaak Walton 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridgein Wisconsin 
League since 1926. In 1936 operations were transferred to Poy- 
nette, Columbia County, where a new propagating plant had 
been built in 1934. 
In addition to the initial stock wild-trapped in 1928, an im- 
portation of breeding stock was made in 1929.14 Hand-reared 
stock was borrowed from Michigan in 1931 and Oregon in 1932. 
Some was purchased in Manitoba in 1934 and in Wisconsin in 
To reconstruct an accurate record of the state's output of 
planting stock is difficult. Records go back only to 1933, recol- 
lections of previous output do not agree, and the Biennial Re- 
ports'5 do not always give usable figures. There is also confusion 
between the number reared and the number planted. Table 2 
attempts to select what seem to be the most dependable figures on 
the state's operations. 
In Table 3 all known plantings, both state and private, are 
arranged by counties. This table is offered with more confidence, 
-for it consists in large part of data gathered at first hand in the 
field from the sportsmen and wardens who made the plantings. 
Combining all available records, there appear to have been 
-planted in Wisconsin to date: 
669 partridges propagated by the state at the State Game Farm 
224 imported or trapped by the state 
5,460 imported or propagated by private persons 
There survive at this writing, in addition to the established 
populations within the 1937 spread contour, about 25 scattered 
,coveys, most of which appear in Fig. 1. 
The years of first arrival recorded in Fig. 1 were accumulated 
piecemeal during the past decade. Each figure represents the 
year of arrival at the spot marked "X", and is the outcome of 
personal inquiry among local farmers, sportsmen, or wardens. 
Such a process of interrogation disclosed a vast disparity in 
competence as between observers. Prominent sportsmen some- 
times revealed their inability to distinguish a partridge from a 
pheasant. Others had at their fingertips the complete chronology, 
size, location, mortality and movement of every covey. The best 

14    Wisconsin Academy of, Sciences, Arts and Letters 
information came from those who had conducted winter feed- 
ing operations. Some farmers had partridges in their fields 
without knowing it; others knew of the first outposts miles away. 
Many a day's questioning yielded only discarded data; again an 
hour's discussion yielded a clear picture of half a county. All 
data were accumulated on county maps. 
During the summer of 1937 John Beule, one of my students, 
mapped the spread in Dodge County and adjoining parts of 
Fond du Lac and Sheboygan. His data are incorporated in Fig. 1. 
Both my own work and Beule's support the hypothesis that 
the Wisconsin partridge "front" advances by three mechanisms: 
(1) By slow yearly overflow into adjacent unoccupied ter- 
ritory. This is the "ripple" type of spread. 
(2) By salients suddenly thrust out into unoccupied territory 
and then slowly amalgamated with the main front. 
(3) By isolated outposts of population thrown far ahead 
of the main front. These may enlarge and eventually 
coalesce with the main front. 
While the long-time trend is one of aggression into new 
territory, this trend is the net resultant of many local retreats 
and halts as well as advances. Salients or outposts are thrust 
out only to encounter bad seasons or adverse range and die. 
"Bubbles" or vacant spots are left behind the main advance, and

may not become populated for a decade (for example, most of 
Ozaukee County). Some are submarginal range and persist in- 
definitely (for example, Horicon Marsh and parts of the kettle 
moraine). Others of marginal quality doubtless disappear and 
Teform with varying population pressure. But despite these 
local defeats, the partridge front has, during the 30 years since 
their introduction, advanced steadily across the fertile farm- 
lands eastward to the barrier of Lake Michigan, southward to a 
juncture with the Illinois populations, westward into the prairies 
of the driftless area, northwestward to the border of the sands. 
and northward into the rich clays of the Green Bay region. 
What will ultimately.halt their advance no man can yet say. 
The finer details of spread pattern during the early years are 
lost. The outward movement can be depicted only in terms of 
crude 10-year contours, such as those for 1920 and 1930 (Fig. 1). 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin 
Some of the more recent spread-phenomena have, however, been 
reconstructed in more detail, and are now discussed. 
Exodus of 1935-36. About Christmas time during the winter 
of 1935-36, Sheboygan and Manitowoc counties, up to that time 
unoccupied by partridges, simultaneously received an influx of 
"thousands" of these birds. There must have been a wholesale 
exodus from the established range to the southward. This sud- 
den invasion represents a northward thrust of 50 miles, a greatei 
distance than had been covered by the usual mode of spread 
during the preceding 25 years. 
It is hard to gather an intelligible account of this extra- 
ordinary movement. No one saw the birds move. No one knows 
anything except a few wardens, sportsmen, and farmers, who, 
in braving the historic blizzards of that winter to carry grain 
to their feeding stations, noticed the presence of the new ar- 
rivals. Their advent was regarded as lucky, but hardly as phe- 
nomenal. In biology, as in history, the greatness of an event 
is seldom appreciated by its eye-witnesses. 
The 1932 exodus of sharptail grouse into southern Canada 
was observed by at least one scientist,'6 but no scientific insti- 
tution even knew of this partridge exodus until nearly two years 
after the event. 
Warden James Edick of Sheboygan says "there were six to 
eight coveys of 30 to 75 birds each in the 10-mile stretch of 
lakeshore south of town. We put out feed, but they would not 
enter our shelters, so we fed them on wind-swept knolls." 
Warden John Egan of Manitowoc gives a similar account. He 
tells of one covey which appeared in a lakeshore willow thicket 
on the outskirts of the city, and being fed, spent the winter. 
Most of the new arrivals appeared on the belt of rich red 
soil, about 10 miles wide, which parallels the lake shore. At 
least a dozen known coveys survived until 1937. Two coveys 
even invaded the sterile gravel hills of the "kettle moraine" 
which comprise the western edge of these counties, and some 
birds persisted there, for a nesting hen was seen in 1937. By the 
fall of 1937, however, the upper half of Manitowoc County ap- 
pears to have died out. During the present winter (1937-38) 
four coveys persist in the southeast corner of Manitowoc County. 

16    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
Sheboygan County is at least sparsely populated over most of 
its area, for 135 partridges were reported killed during the 1937 
season (Table 5). 
During the same winter a similar but smaller salient was 
thrust northward up the center of Fond du Lac County, and en- 
countering the south end of Lake Winnebago, moved up its east 
shore to the border of Calumet County, a total distance of 20 
miles. This salient encountered rich farming soils similar to the 
Sheboygan-Manitowoc lake shore belt, and most of the coveys 
were represented by nesting birds and broods in 1937. 
A third salient was thrust up the Sugar River in Dane 
County from Belleville to Verona, a distance of 12 miles. It is 
not certain, however, that this occurred at exactly the same time. 
It is known that most of the coveys in this salient first appeared 
in 1936, that they nested in 1937, and that at least one made a 
further advance to the Riley Game Area in September, 1937, 
where it persists at this writing (January, 1938). 
All three salients have four features in common: 
(1) All were thrust northward. 
(2) All have, to this date, an extremely thin population. 
(8) The first two certainly (and the third probably) took 
place during the first onset of killing weather about 
Christmas of 1935. 
(4) All three were fed after arrival, and thus had a good 
chance to survive. 
The three salients are unlike in two respects: The Sheboy- 
gan-Manitowoc movement was partly into rich agricultural soil 
and partly into poor hill-land, whereas the other two were en- 
tirely into good soil. Those on good soil persist and have even 
spread; that partly on poor soil has lost half its original gains. 
It is doubtful whether these sudden winter movements are 
selective as to route or destination. They seem to be blind move- 
ments; those stumbling upon poor environment die off and are 
forgotten, or perhaps wander until good environment is en- 
Previous Movements. There is fragmentary evidence that 
similar movements have occurred before, some of them into the 
identical regions invaded in 1936. Thus a covey appeared south 
of Manitowoc about 1932, and may have persisted until over- 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin 
ridden by the 1936 exodus. The south half of Washington County 
was colonized in 1933, and the adjacent corner of Sheboygan 
received two coveys the same year, all persisting. The orienta- 
tion of this thrust was northward, Its date was probably late 
fall or winter, for local sportsmen attributed it to the scattering 
of partridges within the established range by pheasant hunters. 
The impression of blind movement is supported by sporadic 
appearances of single birds in localities far removed from in- 
habited range. Thus a single bird was killed by a snowplow in 
January, 1937, near Wisconsin Rapids, between Portage and 
Wood counties. Another was found dead during the same month 
near Reedsburg, in Sauk County. 
Depopulation. The invasion of whole counties by "thousands" 
of partridges implies depopulation of the region from which the 
birds moved. In the case of the 1935-36 exodus, there is histori- 
cal evidence of such depopulation. On the Faville Grove Game 
Area in Jefferson County, HawkinsY recorded a winter decrease 
of 50 per cent, despite continuous feeding. 
The state kill for 1936, the year following the exodus, shows 
a 35 per cent decrease over 1985 (Table 4). 
The exact region depopulated is unknown, nor is it possible 
to disentangle ordinary starvation loss in situ from loss by 
exodus. The only certain thing is that a widespread decrease 
within the established range coincided in time With the hard 
winter and the exodus to new range. 
In 1927 the main western front had just entered Rock 
County at Lima Centre near Whitewater. Further south it had 
advanced to Delavan in Walworth County. In January 1928 
(another hard winter), a covey of 10 partridges was seen near 
New Glarus, in Green County, 40 miles west of what was then 
the main front. In July, 1929, a single bird was seen near Clarno, 
40 miles west of the main front, and in July, 1929, a covey was 
seen at Oakley, 30 miles west of the main front. These outposts 
must have died, for during the ensuing decade no birds were 
seen, and the main front has just reached the sites where out- 
posts appeared in 1928, 
These outpost-colonies differ from the salients previously de- 
scribed in that the movement was westward, not northward. 

18    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
There is probably no real distinction between outposts and 
salients; a salient is a continuous string of outposts. 
All spread phenomena should be interpreted in the light of 
population density. There are available in Wisconsin three 
indices to partridge population status: 
Open seasons since 1921. (See Table 4). 
Kill records since 1932. (See Table 5). 
Census of the Faville Grove Game Area, Jefferson County, 
since 1935. 
Open Seasons and Kill. In 1919, 11 years after the first Pabst 
planting, the legislature opened Waukesha and Jefferson coun- 
ties for a five-day partridge season with a limit of two birds per 
day. This season continued through 1920, but in 1921 the limit 
was increased to five. In 1922, 1923, and 1924 the season was 
shortened to two days and the bag limit was reduced to four 
birds. In 1925 and 1926 the season was closed; this possibly re- 
flects the "die-off" of the 10-year cycle, which peaked in 1924.

1927 and 1928 were again open, but only in a few townships. 
The open area was so small as to induce a severe concentration 
of hunters and much annoyance to farmers. Severely localized 
open seasons have ever since been abandoned as bad policy. 
1929-1930-1931 were again closed. Colonel Pabst definitely 
records a scarcity during the winter of 1929-30, and mentions 
two wet, cold breeding seasons as the cause. 
Since 1932 a season of 4 to 14 days has been allowed yearly in 
a slowly enlarging area, which in 1937 included 9 counties. At 
least two of these, however, have only a sprinkling of coveys: 
Ozaukee and Sheboygan. 
Table 4 shows the kill, as reported by licensees and corrected 
by the Conservation Department for those not reporting. 
Table 5 shows the uncorrected kill by counties, and the per- 
centage of licensees reporting each year. Both tables go back to 
1932, the first open partridge year in which reports were re- 
The formula for correcting the reports seems to have varied 
from year to year, hence Table 5 is more reliable than Table 4. 
Both tables indicate that 1935 was a year of great abundance, 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin 
and that a decrease followed in 1936. This decrease may be 
ascribed to the killing winter of 1935-36, and to the exodus of 
birds during that winter into closed territory to the northward. 
The highest "corrected" kill, 23,252 birds in 1935, repre- 
sents the productivity of six populated counties, with an aggre- 
gate area of 3,300 square miles. This is a kill of seven birds per 
square mile. If we assume a fifth of the population to have been 
killed, the average density is 35 partridges per square mile, or 
one per 18 acres. 
If we take the highest uncorrected report for the best county 
(Racine, 3,739 in 1933), we get, by the same indirect computa- 
tion, a hypothetical stand of one partridge per 12 acres. The 
poorest county in 1936 (Ozaukee, 364) gives one partridge per 
85 acres. 
In the Canadian wheat belt, in England,'9 and in Bohemia,20 
densities of one partridge per acre are known, and one per two 
acres not uncommon. Sparse populations are apparently char- 
acteristic of all partridge range in the north-central states, and 
no game manager has yet succeeded in breaking this dead-level 
of mediocrity in abundance. 
Faville Grove Census. Arthur S. Hawkins has censused the 
partridge population of the Faville Grove Game Area as follows: 
1935         1,200 acres        118 in January 
1936         2,300 acres        223 in January 
179 in February- 
73 in March 
1937         2,300 acres        178 in January 
143 in March 
1938         2,500 acres        314 in January 
The density has fluctuated from 8 to 13 acres per bird. 1936, 
as already explained, showed a severe decrease during the win- 
ter, either by exodus or mortality or both. January 1938 showed 
an increase over November 1937, evidently by influx. 
The combined trend of all Wisconsin evidence (seasons, kill, 
and census) shows partridge highs about 1924 and about 1934. 
These are the highs of the continental 11-year cycle. 
That the Hungarian partridge does respond to the continental 
cycle, at least in Canada, has already been suggested by Rowan,2' 
who recorded a severe decrease beginning in 1934. 

20    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
The Wisconsin evidence, however, is too fragmentary to be 
considered as proof of cyclic behavior. 
One may deduce from the foregoing evidence certain char- 
acteristics of the pioneering process in Wisconsin partridge 
populations; and certain requirements for survival, both in na- 
tural spread and in artificial spread by plantings. 
Origin. With few and inconclusive exceptions, the 7,000 
square miles now constituting the partridge range in Wisconsin 
was populated by spread from a single point in Waukesha 
County, at which repeated large plantings were made for a de- 
cade. These repeated plantings unwittingly simulated the pro- 
cess of repeated colonization which takes place in nature. 
Spread Rate. The longest radius from the point of origin is 
102 miles (northeast) in 27 years, or four miles per year on the 
average. Single thrusts of 50 miles in a year are recorded in two 
Mechanism. The usual mode of spread Is by slow overflow 
into vacant territory, but at times advance colonies are thrown 
out either in strings (salients), or as isolated outposts, for dis- 
tances up to 50 miles in a year. 
Season. The season of slow overflow is unknown, but is be- 
lieved to be early fall. The sudden thrusts seem to occur in early 
winter, especially in hard winters. The two hardest winters of 
the past decade, 1928-29 and 19S5-36, were both accompanied by 
Orientation. The direction of large outthrusts was north- 
ward except in one case, which was westward. This seemingly 
northward orientation may be accidental, for Lake Michigan 
blocks eastward spread, while the adjacent portions of Illinois 
are not vacant, hence southward outthrusts would be obscured. 
Selectivity and Soils. The location of outthrusts is not selec- 
tive, for they blindly invade sterile, wooded, marshy, or sandy 
terrain. Survival, however, is highly selective, and is confined 
to the richest agricultural soils. It is notable that there have 
been no survivals, in the sandy regions to the northwest of the 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin 
center of spread, although the present boundary abuts on the 
sand at several points. 
The suitability of the unglaciated prairie of southwestern 
Wisconsin is as yet unsettled. Most plantings and drift colonies 
in this region have failed, but the steady westward march in 
Green County indicates the possibile suitability of uplands in 
the whole driftless area. 
Density and Fluctuation. Population pressure is doubtless 
the propulsive force behind slow spread of the "ripple" type, 
but not all sudden outthrusts occur during years of high popula- 
tion. The only area continuously censused (Faville Grove) 
showed a lower partridge population during the year of the 
exodus (1935-36) than during the previous year (1934-35), and 
the annual kill for the state supports this conclusion. The year 
1933, however, had a high population and also a considerable 
The density on territory acquired by outthrusts is at first 
low, and is built up by slow consolidation during the periods 
when the exterior boundary remains quiescent. 
Even the best stands in Wisconsin are sparser than those of 
Canada, England, and Silesia. Low densities are characteristic 
of all partridge population in the north-central states. 
All partridge populations fluctuate, and in a given locality 
fluctuations in reproductive success may be further intensified by 
influx or exodus. Fluctuations show some indication of being 
cyclic in character. 
Spread vs. Plantings. In many instances partridges have 
spread naturally over localities in which previous artificial plant- 
ings had failed, and also localities where previous natural out- 
post colonies had been extinguished. Pioneering is evidently a 
process which is indefinitely repeated. 
We may glean from the foregoing a generalized picture of 
the partridge's "march of empire." The impulse to venture forth

is born of adversity--either the adversity of too many neighbors, 
or the adversity of killing weather. Each adventure is a blind 
groping for pastures new, repeated until a favorable year and 
a good location happen to coincide and bring success. 

22     Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and. Letters 
TABLE 1. Private Plantings of Hungarian Partridge 
Gustave Pabst 
J. W. Foster 
F. R. Mueller 
Rock Creek Trout 
Milwaukee I.W.L.A. 
Berlin I.W.L.A. 
G. R. Rahr 
Otto Beyer 
E. L. Young 
New Lisbon Con- 
servation Club 
Fond du Lac 
Fond du Lac 
Green Lake 
Source of birds 
Gift from Gustave 
Purchased outside 
Purchased eggs in 
Purchased outside 
Raised from stock 
imported from 
Europe and Canada 
Purchased in Alberta 
Raised from hay- 
field (?) eggs near 
Purchased outside 
TABLE 2. Propagation and Plantings of Hungarian Partridge 
by the State Conservation Department 
Imported or                    Reared but Reared at 
purchased        Trapped      perhaps not Game Farm   Total 
Year Planted    Kept   Planted  Kept     planted  and planted planted 
1928                      12      88                            12 
1929    100      38                                   40       140 
1930    124      116?                                  32      156 
1931             24                       (40) 
1932             60                       (160)       120?     120? 
1933                                      (140)       224      224 
1934                                                   96       96 
1935                                       (50)         2        2 
1936                                       (75.)      155      155 
1937  _24        50               50                    0        0 
Total, 224     288       12     138                  669      905 
1928:    From Biennial Report 1929-30, p.84, also p.92. Also letter from

K. J. MacFarlane 9-24-37. 
1929:    A news release, undated, says 162 birds were imported, 24 be- 
longing to the Berlin I.W.L.A., 138 to the state. Another release 
dated Jan. 22, 1930, gives the same figures, but adds that 10 or 12 
pairs each were sent to River Falls, Richland Center, Tomah, and 
Argyle for planting. The Argyle plant is known (from field 
reports) to have been sick. The 1929-30 Biennial Report speaks 
of 70 pair (140 birds) stocked between May, 1928, and June, 
1930:    Progress Report of May, 1931, says 120 pairs were purchased in 
1929-30 and from these 32 birds were produced (and planted?), 
No. planted 
5,000 ? 
12 ? 
I - I - - - - 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin                 23 
presumably in 1930. Letter from W. F. Grimmer says 124 im- 
ported birds were planted Feb., 1930. 
1931:    12 pairs borrowed from Michigan as breeders, 40 reared, prob- 
ably none planted. 
1932:    Field record shows 140 planted in Green County, 1932-36, but 
only 20 appear on state record for 1933 or later. Hence it is 
assumed that the remaining 120 were planted in 1932. This, 
however, may be in error, since in another letter Hopkins says 
none were planted in 1932, although 160 were reared. 
1933-36: Plants from report by H. B. Kellogg to Walter Scott dated 9-4-37.

1937:    No breeding stock was available in spring. Some wild eggs were 
reared but lost, and no plantings were made.- In September 50 
hand-reared birds were purchased, which, with 50 wild-trapped 
birds, constitute the stock for 1938. 
TABLE 3. State and Private Plantings of Hungarian Partridge by Counties 
County         Year    birds Source           Planted by      Remarks 
Columbia       1931       20  Imported from   Otto Beyer      Disappeared

1933      40   State Game      F. B. Ernsberger 2 coveys persist. 
1933      28   State Game      Art Walters     Merged* 
Dane           1929       12  Trapped at      Wallace Grange  At Lake Wingra.

Oconomowoc                      Disappeared at 
Eau Claire     1934      50   State Game      0. W. Fischer   Near Eau Claire.

Farm                             Some persist. 
Fond du Lac    1910       12  Gustave Pabst   J. W. Foster    Near Brandon.

3 years. 
1929      40  Imported         I.W.L.A.        Near Moon Lake. 
Now merged. 
1933      44   State Game      L. K. Bryan     In Lamartine 
Farm                            and Oakfield. 
Grant           1936      24  State Game      C. E. Gordon    Near Fennimore.

Farm                            Disappeared 
1936      10  State Game       Russell Young   Near Muscoda. 
Farm                            Status 

24     Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
County         Year     birds  Source          Planted by      Remarks 
Green           1930 or    6?      ?           Dr. Stevenson   Near Brodhead.

1932-36  140  State Game       Geo. Luchsinger Near Monroe. 
Farm                             7 coveys 
by 1937. 
Green Lake      1924?     14                       ?           Disappeared.

1929      40   Imported from   Berlin 
Europe          I.W.L.A.       Near Berlin. 
1929-36   7$  Possum Valley    W. N. Craw-       4 coveys persist. 
Game Farm     ford & Frank 
1938-34   74   State Game      Dan Trainor      6 coveys per- 
Farm                             sisted, 1936. 
Juneau          1929       6  Purchased        J. C. Curtis    Near New Lisbon.

outside                          Disappeared 
1933      20   State Game      J. C. Curtis     Near New Lisbon. 
Farm                             Covey seen 
1934 but 
1933       6   Purchased       Conservation      disappeared. 
outside          Club 
Kenosha         1936      20  State Game       J.,W. Staple-   Near Bristol;

Farm             camp            near Silver 
Lake. Merged. 
Lafayette       1930      20  Imported from    Conservation    Arrived sick.

(or 1929?)      Europe           Department      Disappeared. 
Manitowoc       1936      20  State Game       G. H. Rahr 
Farm                           Near Manitowoc. 
1929,     40   Raised by       G. H. Rahr         Merged. 
1932           planter 
Milwaukee       1934      12  State Game       Haskell Noyes 
Farm                           Merged. 
1936      38   State Game      Haskell Noyes 
Ionroe         1930      24  Imported from    Conservation    On H. L. Stevens

Europe           Department      farm. A few 
said to persist. 
1936      10   State Game      E. Jenke         Status unknown. 
Outagamie       1931      49  State Game       R. J. Meyer     Near Appleton.

1933**    56   State Game           ?             I covey persists. 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin 
County         Year    birds Source          Planted by      Remarks 
Polk           1925-31  300  Raised by       Joseph Burkhart Near St. Croix

planter                         Falls. 
Richland       1930      20  Imported from   Conservation 
Europe          Department    3 coveys per- 
1936      20  State Game      Percy Button      sisted, 1937. 
Rock           1927      12      ?           Henry Knudsen   Merged. 
1936       4  State Game      Geo. Parker     Merged. 
St. Croix      1923      20? Probably        Andrew Hope 
2 coveys survived 
1930      20  Imported from   Conservation     until 1934. Now 
Europe          Department    disappeared. 
1930      30  State Game 
Sawyer         1922      12  Purchased       Mueller        Near Moose Lake.

outside                        Disappeared. 
Trempealeau    1914       6  Purchased from  Independence    Disappeared

Wentz and       Sportsman's     1916. 
Mackensen       Club 
Shipped by Mr. 
Waukesha       1908      ?   Sonnenschein, 
1910      ?   Prague, Bo- 
1913   1,000  hemia; also im- 
1915   1,000  ported through 
1918?     ?   Wentz and                      Pabst Farms, 
Mackensen,                        Ottawa Town- 
Yardley, Pa.    Gustave Pabst     ship. Spread 
over S. E. 
1927      54  Imported from                     Wisconsin 
through Julius 
Loewith, Inc., 
New York 
1929      54 
Waupaca        1936      20  State Game      A. R. Hansen    E. of Waupaca

Farm            and F. D. 
* This term is here used to describe the over-riding of a planting by the
front of established population before the outcome of the plant could be
** This planting appears on the state's records but cannot be traced on the
The record is probably erroneous. 

26     Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
TABLE 4. Open Seasons, Bag Limits, and Kill 
of Hungaman Partridge in Wisconsin 
Year    Open season 
1919,  5 days 
1920     (Sept. 7-11) 
*1921   5 days 
(Sept. 7-11) 
*1922,  2 days 
1923,    (Sept. 7 & 11) 
1925, closed 
1927   5 days 
1928   5 days 
(Sept. 4-8) 
1929-31 closed 
Open area 
Jefferson & Waukesha 
Jefferson & Waukesha 
Jefferson & Waukesha 
7 townships in 
Waukesha, Jefferson 
7 townships in 
Waukesha, Jefferson 
Pos-     reports 
session     (cor- 
limit    rected) 
1932   3 days              Kenosha, Racine, Walworth     4      8      10,926

(Oct. 1-3) 
1933   5 days              Kenosha, Walworth, Racine     4      8      18,310

(Sept. 30-Oct. 4) 
1934   4 days              Dane, Jefferson, Kenosha, 
(Sept. 29-Oct. 2)  Racine, Walworth, 
Waukesha                    4      8      22,181 
1935   6 days              Dane, Jefferson, Kenosha, 
(Oct. 19-24)        Ozaukee, Racine             4      8      23,252 
1936   6 days              Dodge, Jefferson, Kenosha, 
(Oct. 17-22)        Ozaukee, Racine, Wal- 
worth, Washington, 
Waukesha                    4      8      15,516 
1937   14 days             Dane, Dodge, Jefferson, 
(Oct.23-Nov. 5)     Ozaukee, Racine, 
Sheboygan, Walworth, 
Washington, Waukesha        4      8      14,669 
* The Conservation Commission issued orders restricting the statutory season
of 5 days 
to 2, and the statutory bag limit from 5 to 3, during the years 1922-1924.
federal bulletinsW erroneously give the bag limit for 1921 as 2 birds instead
of 5. 
The seasons for 1922-1924 are edroneously given as 5 days (Sept. 7 to 11)
of 2 days (Sept. 7 and 11). 

Leopold-Hungarian Partridge in Wisconsin 
TABLE 5. Hungarian Partridge Kill Reports by Counties 
(uncorrected figures) 
County           1932    1933    1934    1935    193.6   1937   Totals 
Dane                              275     410             586    1,271 
Dodge                                             905   1,861    2,766 
Jefferson                        1,296   1,812  1,518   1,754    6,380 
Kenosha          1,750   1,152    765     916   1,813            6,396 
Ozaukee                                   156     208     404      768 
Racine           3,002   3,739   1,817  2,128   3,241   2,261   16,188 
Sheboygan                                                 135      135 
Walworth         1,596   1,204    765     862   1,334   1,468    7,229 
Washington                                400     361     612    1,373 
Waukesha                         1,438   1,643  2,169   1,106    6,356 
Totals           6,348   6,095   6,356  8,327  11,549  10,187   48,862 
Per cent of 
reporting         62%    33%     48%     45%     80%     70% 
1. Turner, Frederick J. The frontier in American history. H. Holt & 
Co., New York, 1921. 
2. Phillips, John C. Wild birds introduced or transplanted in North 
America. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bul. No. 61, April 1928. 
3. Cooke, May Thacher. The spread of the European starling in North 
America (to 1928). U.S.D.A. Circ. No. 40, November, 1929. 
4. Phillips, Everett Franklin. Beekeeping. MacMillan Co., N. Y., 1915, 
p. 201. 
5. Cooper, James Fennimore. Oak openings. 
6. Yeatter, R. E. The Hungarian partridge in the Great Lakes region. 
Bul. No. 3, School of Forestry & Conservation, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, December, 1934. 
7. Leopold, Aldo. Game management.      Charles Scribner's Sons, New 
York, 1933, p. 80. 
8. Leopold, Aldo. The Hungarian partridge in Iowa. Outdoor America, 
February-March, 1933. 
9. Leopold, Aldo. Report on a game survey of Wisconsin. Manuscript, 
October 1, 1929. 
10. Leopold, Aldo. Report on a game survey of the north central states. 
Made for the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' 
Institute. Madison, Wisconsin, 1931, pp. 100-133. 
11. Scott, Walter E. Conservation history. Conservation Bulletin, Wiscon-

sin Conservation Dept., Vol. II, No. 9, September, 1937, pp. 26-31. 
12. Wisconsin Conservationist. Wisconsin Conservation Dept., Vol. I, 
No. 2, May, 1919, p. 13. 
13. Palmer, T. S. Game as a national resource. U.S.D.A. Bul. No. 1049, 
March 14, 1922. 
14. Monthly Survey, Wisconsin Conservation Commission, Madison, Wis. 
February, 1930, p. 10. 
15. Conservation Department Biennial Reports, 1921-22, 1929-30. 
16. Snyder, L. L. A study of the sharptail grouse. Univ. of Toronto 
Studies, Biol. Series No. 40, Toronto, 1935. 
17. Hawkins, Arthur S. Winter feeding at Faville Grove, 1935-36. Ameri- 
can Midland Naturalist, Vol. 18, No. 3, May, 1937, pp. 417-425. 

28     Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
18. Gjame laws for 1919 (U..D.A. Farmers' Bul. No. 1077) and 1920 
(Farmers' Bul. No. 1138). U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, 
19. Maxwell, Aymer. jPartridges and partridge manors. Adam and Charles 
Black, London, 1911. 
20. Leupold, Aldo. Farm game management in Silesia. American Wild- 
life, Vol. 25, No. 5, September-October, 1936, pp. 67-8, 74-6. 
21. Rowan, William. The Hungarian partridge on the Canadian prairie. 
Outdoor America, Vol. 3, No. 4, February, 1938, pp. 6-7. 

Jan. 31, 1940 
1021 North 16th St. 
Manitowoc, Wis. 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wis. 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
This is in reply to your letter 
of January 19th. 
To date, I have been unable to 
obtain a map of Marinette County, but the 
place where I saw the Hungarians last 
summer was in the town of Stephenson, in 
Marinette County.    There is no question 
that you have heard of the Wrigley Estate, 
(Marinette County) better known as Bucks 
Ranch. You start at the south line of 
Bucks ranch where the north branch of the 
Thunder River flows south and follow for 
3/4 mile south, and you will be just where 
I saw the Hungarians. 
to you. 
I hope this will be of some help 

April 18, 1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
In unpacking my reprints I find one which belongs 
to you, and I am mailing it to you. I am sorry that 
it became mixed with my things, and hope that it 
has notinconvenienced you. This paper is a reprint 
of a tree-ringed study appearing in "Ecology". 
In looking through my material I find that I do not 
have a reprint of your paper "Environmental Controls 
for Game Through Modified Silviculture" which appeared 
in the Journal of Forestry, Vol. 28, pages 321-426. 
If you have a reprint, I should like very much to have 
Your eincerely, 
,enard Wingi 
Assistant Professo# of Game Management 
e~Q~1 ~k 
'~14To                                                     7.7         7k4

March 11, 1941. 
Colonel Gustave Pabst 
Dear Colonel: 
I have a letter from J. Gilbert Hickcox of Milwaukee, advising me 
that he had luncheon with you a few weeks ago. 
I have not seen you for such a long time that I thought you might 
like to know that the results of your Hungarian partridge plantings are now

benefitting eighteen counties in the southern and eastern part of the state.

Birds are now spread northwest to Green Lake county and northeast to Manitowoc.

They are already over in the western parts of Green and Dane county, as you

undoubtedly know. 
The estimated kill for 1939 was in the neighborhood of 50,000 birds and 
this was probably increased in 1940. Unfortunately, we will not have the
returns until about the first of May. In no county where there is an open
does shooting appear to have any detrimental effect. Sportsmen are taking
increased interest in the bird. 
When we consider the results of some of our neighboring states in their 
trial plantings of the Hungarian, I know that you will feel somewhat rewarded

for your efforts when I tell you that your name has almost become synonymous
the Hungarian partridge in Wisconsin. The same is, of course, true in the
eastern counties with the pheasant. 
If you ever get to Madison, why do you not drop in to see us? We are 
located across from the post office on the eighth floor of the state office

Best wishes! 
W. F. Grimmer (Signed) 
W. F. Grimmer 
WFG:AB                                    Supt. of Game A'anagement. 

DEPARTMENT                                               BOARD OF NATURAL
REGISTRATION AND E 'CATIOq                                       AND CONSERVATION

FRANK G. THOMPSON, DIRECTOR                                  FRANK G. THOMPSON,
SPRINGFIELD                                            BIOLOGY   WILLIAM
THEODORE H. FRISON, CHIEF                      N 
October 31, 1941 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
Department of Wildlife Management 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
The Hungarian partridge manuscript has been 
revised and I have just sent a copy to Art. As he 
may want to discuss it with you, I am taking the lib- 
erty of sending you a copy. Any further coments 
that you might make on it will be very much appreci- 
ated. I believe that we should get it out soon. 
Sincerely yours, 
Ralph E.Y     ter 
Game Spe a ist 
REY/gc j 

The lielto  of '-rtaln  ,%aethr "actors 
to      vtuum aawt1E   n1to 
While con4licting Lnpn       tu~dis  Of .tO biolo,-Y 
and mraemnt of th duftbnprtr~d-le in tw-o nortt24am 
Lika Lttes tbi witera of t.:As papr    t an-a   recI.ords 
of i nter populati-on@- of p~t?14r'-*aO c,-r thekv mtdy areas, 
T*a*js  ,opllation atn4e,11s ha,, been conktinued d4,VZ~ olove 
y~ar  (1~  to  ~i lchteer #rid diurin- beven year  ( 
to 1 ,,) In 1r;on in I tIs paper we attempt to relate 
partrVid-,e popula tions in there araes to artaiin, wather 
o'iithoEo,1sts vee iiz tor Lo.han 10 subs,;o iea of 
gra  prtldex( 'Oers 1 Z!4) lior4ix *   w
in the Viddle :,**t wwar aiade *out 1;~l,,10.   tes  and 
Pubsquent release* the partrla,,e s~.lowly~ eztzided its 
raer, in several *tots,  n r t1no old er portions of 
Its ra,- iLS popu~lationas ore low ard tend to fluotut. ffrori 
year to ieVq 
t~~i~ra ~re    a~in  -orany in 1924, N~olte (Leopold, 
Mill) ennalude4lo  Viat partridge populations or yield are inr &e 
by sunshine, warmnth vd dew and decrased by eeaive rainfoll* 
Middleton (195) fro  an analst  ol' 
coverine .tMirti years in ln~and reported a dirct eaini 
between the nmbr of' hours of suinshine In Jw~in rnd ou~  nd 
the u~   a   r-p of youn,. piertrides, 
The dominat role of wrth-r on prrdepplin 
shown by those          studies an  tists thaot wethriyaso 
play an Important Dart in the welfare of the pvrtrd-,e ini thiAs 
ointry, lAopA4d ( Lj3'- end lw'3) obs~erved thnatqpwtri~ll-s hasve 
*xthnded tbeir ran~e fi-steet In n ra ,-on v~tb lif ,.t 
sprin;.- rainfall, x1& talym the prairie re.,eln of west central (7*naa

Fleld  a, -rvatlor 
p'rom intenaive fleld work du-ring the early part of the 
cenus period. the writers concluded that the critical period 
in the ex~steno of the partridz'a in this region is dkiring 
nest-inC an4 whAile the birds are very yo, Many ai-. nts act 
to reciuas the partrldle #-rop at thi-s tia   Averthales, the 
observed year to yaar fluotuations ap--eaved to be elfoenly 
related to weather codItIons At the tlui -,f restin,, and 

sOuthCrn 1   o         in 1'     ~   iffionntly b~ 
expressed    _ if   I       ste~    t~a1s, u~i 
nays           r. Ce        v~bI        ~ts 
We                 w~t}            rep 
exc3 a                 o         t   t~ 
t Id      p.    a             ~ 
de as b~~oU ~i~rao ~r~n~tos (A~ t~te ) ~ 
4AiS~) ~nid 

trtbi~tton of' certain native n4 exot'o bird.,, cofde roz 
'tinsatudles that extrwes ,of rainfall and te waatu re , ,rin 
~th rern.,o,.4 sean  are   fcctars In trelatl  t_ 
rm~hr.  t~a~ ~~eof       ~hap-1ipation of weathep 
1Pt to r  Aldlifo Probi. s tias in thes Past been heAitppo4 
both   lok of' adequate o.ens reordep  o~~t~      of c -nsaz 
records aid detailed data'on the wy in whiob weather fe* tore 
li~lueoepartidr   e  ianvolv4 a 1ari~s amount of field worxo 
on partrides         in the field 
Certain of these effects of' weet.hirobserve4  y the wrltors,,, .a 
to have a direct bearing6 on  Prtri a- fluctuations. 
Aity effet of weath;er on th  tchabi~ty  or ~g  or ta 
strength of you~ *t the tlie of hateqA;4 w11 A ive an in- 
portent effect kn reprdut lea. Stoddard1~     and 1l).9) 
eoncludes that altoh h eavy awl prao  id reint.all z   rin- 
atbout auterial loaes      ibolwhi tt quail In the  otat 
b~y oP,;s1;i6 aesartion W inests and drown- of the xf r- dro-i,!Iht 
09aISVI 7for. 
)1 elm!)b1 It t 
of water 
i~p,)~ton _  ou..twas  1"o.,- 
to ltan most hArmru to quaul ness in 0pn sandy areals 
In- th4 ese of' the Eugran partrid,6e, field evident* in- 
dtca tea that an zas of inisture is woehrfltotea~s 
then ls moderate     kiMtt Studiea in 
batcha'bility  of pawtrlie a *  a wafs OC 
rainy sasons of         -awiis and in) L:40 b-y7 tOb  Ar~n 
In hatchn periods wlth, moderae rainfall,                -myo hi 

oxplaln to P Ian,* eztent   ta red~ietion of pnrtrid4 e crops eitrlng 
wet years notaervod in V'.elgan ea Wisoonsiln, ,efo of 
prolorged wet weather wta 41idept, pawrtioularly on heav7 clay 
soils, Young broods are frequently kept In hiiuinjC In gis    rain 
Mild*a where thle feet ,f th Pon ro In direot eontact wtk t 6 
soil, Tr. tbewe locatl,ns rarz uiluition of oluiy on th-  10ot ,n 
wet weathew hobbles the yoianj  vrnd4 renduirs tile~  ep~a  k 
was ftotmd to be at ea~use co f nortaflty o  n tf e ol~sy  s~1 of othase

"inoblgan Ytter, l4,      ltazh hslosswrimed d:C- to 
-oderate sprir+T rainfall duiEteperla6       pintens lv. fleld work, 
of the foet ,-(AU_1 oi evd 
It was evident that eaUi was potentially.a s.rlis .betxar 
In 71his are* 
Althonuih the pmeet stuidles have divelosed no \Ovidenaq of 
mitirtlity of vow&, tird. frm ehI Tline d-,ilnv riiny periods, it 
sems likely that thtsaW also contributo to partri4~os losses)( 
in the Great Lakacsregion, 
i41e (193') frnur4 the&t ontin.a]Lly wet, rank grasses and 
a jourae of mortality   wn 
crops were ame;&@ hULSmo   t  young prirtridgeapt  4,1nd 
Flwr ohWsrwations ar available on the ef feet of 4roia~rht 
on partridge reprodetionp althmtuh later in Uiapapr It A-s sooa 
that dvougzht also msty redi-ca th., pertridtge cro-p, k.Ye.tter (1434) ro

ported low haehsbility of' pawtri *e e,,.~ a parently reesultlr  frox 
*exesive dryness In the rimir of 104,nl 
It is evIderit that ejctrena weetner a Infl,1"eo. reproduocti on 
and -Rtrvival indiroetly, throrvgh' Its effect or% cover, fo.od, f~l~ 
rh&,dts of Preaetovs, disoinotton of dist-ases avdO parselstes, *t4,,

Obvionsly tthese relationshis are complex arnd 1pr!Aly unpre<'dI ctable.


Ar ax#-1i  th-e ldirpe-! *tftes ot_ weather was reported by 
flwii~~s(11_o7) during a drou ~ts,,ne  in Wiscoonsin, o n 
th e winter proewilig_ the nestin.,' snason, a proloid 4oorint-. 
of th- fields by ice stiotherod out tro alefa, tihe chier 
nestinpg site of portri4,,ev up to toattie    Tedrut 
which. followed Prelrented the roeatablialluen~t of tni..1 
Partridges were foreod to nest In cover -;,at was not mowi~d, 
therby saviri- i-ists from destruction bV u.;owIn,;4 ab ina, 
4  Part of t ha benefits whiobl s.oremo4 to th-e part'rldfa whe..n 
the birds were forea. to J*ert tiiolr slfaI~fs fi.ld nestInge 
sit& were canolle   by) a            ofuinaion oft and het  Thou.e 
weath;,er conditions cnusied thei cover to  shrtnk after the nesting 
uA-Aon wats 0011 ad"va&nced, retIn n thie destruton of an-y 
Althouwhs nmber of weather factors seem to have a bearing_ 
On partridge rep   otion and survival, it wan foun4 that rainfall, 
and sunshine total* gave tne set corelations with observed 
partridt:e populations* T he rainfall eiata used In this ppoer re- 
present the total smount.e fron7 J*! ane 11 to Juily 11,p the avers,;, 
hatehinv period of the partridge, SiAnce only -~onthly sunshine total. 
were available the figures iaSid are tbe sumn of the holurs of s,)ns bina

In JuTn. and July during eo   year* 
The coesus r~cors are for the nost part the resxuits of :Ad- 
winter euto of partridg-es 11v1_Ir on tte st,;i~r arease,n~r1.n6 ronr 
yetars In,  Ichi an  -xi one year in M ohan when It weelp"i~l 

to obtain aompl.t, ocrsuzees it wsne>.saary to use appoimate 
*umcr bt.aed on partial ensusas ozj,.estimates of api~q 
coopertowar In all Ostes these figue wtro ohek~e &ainst 
reports  ir observations on  an,,r auroxiing the atudy areas, 
Af ter osreful    14.idration .,f a-11 avai able Infrtion It 1s the 
beliel of Ute writers th,.at the data reprcar.  a 
*oourute recor4 fc:~*~t~                    In thc inedleta 
Ea~ f tine 00"Us 6.ras was approximately two thvUan411 
aa s In ats*,  ihe iohig1&n ara Is slear I,ti~l4l, ILerawe 
0ountys In the &outheuaster part of' the istate, Finfhll reoords 
are from the Adrian, dAchigan, weathez station, twelve riles 
Sway, 2he caoeast wathr station. whioh 4-1ves total amuts 
of suhne Is near Toledo, Uhlo, &,;prol~tely twenty miles 
fCroR the consus area, The Wis  isn cenaus area is 4t PFavll 
Qrvq  ea  Ake  Jills, Jeffertson -C ;nty, In the southeastr 
part of the state* RaIntaUl was recorde at the nearby Lake 
Willa  ia',e station.o      insn Yacorda are frmMadison, 28 
141l(  aWay, Alty;ho  the l 'vill, G)rove ct.;T us areai i b tOut 250 
,,iles wes~t and 00cles not    fteMoia           a there arppers 
to 'be little dif'ference In t--s dates- of the bgnai anid ending 
of the nu   id  e nea.tii; season. 
11ting 'need not be considered In relatilon t. poplation 
on ei*ther census area, *inee the partrId e Is prot sated 
under the ihig_,an gar.z laws, azd th"e ? aville lr,_ve, ?4saonsiri

area was closed to huing 4- dturing the period covered by thte census. 
Th  nnual kill of prideon far-ma ail oundlr,-r thle !;isa,3.ia 
area Is S-al, 

Table I (Bllssfield, Michigan) 
-Inc es Rainfall, ...  Ter of Bis    Per Cent of 
Nesting   hours Sunshine,       June 11 to       Next January     Former
Season     June and Jul    .    July 15             Census         PoZalation

1929             --                --                 95* 
19 30           671               2.68               113              120

1931            620               3.43               177              157

1932            650               2.02               267              151

1933            720               2.72               275*            103

1934            692               0.73               220*              80

1935            515               2.36               152               69

1936            661               2.13               106               70

1937            520              11.94                45               42

1938            065               4,91                68              151

1939            611               4.34                70*             103

*Estimated from cooperators' reports. 

Table 2 (Lake Mills, Wisconsin) 
ifours Sunshine, 
June and Julyr 
Inches RIanfall, 
June 11 to 
J ly 15. 
Number of Birda 
Next January 
Per Cent of 
Former Years 
! opulation 
*Estimated from cooperators' reports. 
:  Y  L  ]  II  I      J       .... ... . .  . .     . . .  . .. 

Local eoveients of partridges during the winter moths, 
apparently resultin- in considerable changes in population densities, 
are reported by iddleton (1935) and Leopold (1940). These 
movements appear to be associated w1th h1 i. populations or un- 
favorable environment caused by prolonged cold weather and deep 
snow, which restrict the food supply, However, there Wo evidence 
that thinning of populations due to migration have contri I 
decreases of partridres on the census areas, both of which are 
well-established ranges at some distance from unoccupied territory, 
In this study the welfare of the partridge is expressed 
by the i(rease or decrease between one mid-winter census and the 
next, In the aceompanying tables and diagrams this has been 
expressed as a percentage, where 100 mean. no change, flgure. 
less than 100 mean decreases and digures over 100 indicate Increases. 
In Figures/   and  4- percentage changes in the       ation during 
each year have been plotted against rainfall during the period of 
hatohing and total hours of sunshine during June and July. 
In Figure     showing the results of the Michigan census, 
it will be seen that population increases between 50 and 60 per 
cent occurred during three years, One year showed an estimated 
increase of 20 per cent, All four of these years had between 2 
and   inches of rainfall during the 3    hathing per&       k a\    1

between 820 and 670 hours of sunshine in June and July. A year 
with 690 hours of sunshine and a small amount of rainfall showed 
a reduced bird population. Greatest reductlons took place with 
only 500 and 520 hours of sunshine during June and July, and these 

Increases oi 58 and 76 per cent occurred during two years 
in Wisconsin, and one year showed an Increase of 12 per cent,   These 
years had between 2 and 5* inches of rainfall during the hatching 
approximty the smea                   In 
period,                                   t# o'L  * ljL  1  ntof rair allkb

years of greatest increases in Michign.    It will be notled., 
vin                        durmn i 
however,      the 4              f sunshine la  une and July, 
hourn  hours 
540 to 690, was much wider tlan in years of corresponding in- 
oreases in Yiehigan. 
The apparent greater sensitivene  of Michigan partridges 
to low  unshine totals Is further s own by a comparison of the 
results of the 193  season, Partridges declined in Michigan that 
year when the hatching period was marked by mderate rainfall, 
but which had a total of only 515 hours of sunshine in June and 
July, During the same year partridges Increased slightly in 
Wisconsin in spite of similar sunshine conditions and somewhat 
higher rainfall, 
The different responses of populations noted above 
appear to be due chiefly to differences in the soil characteristic5 
of the two regione. The heavy dark-colored soil (Brookston) 
which forms mueh of the partridge range in aoutheastern ichigan 
often remains sticky, and hence a potential danger to newly 
hatched partridges, for considerable periods following rains when 
there is insufficient sun to dry the surface. In the vicinity 
of Lake Mills, isconsin, the soils are chiefly light silt loams 
which do not become excessively sticky when wet# and therefore present 
no special haards to the young birds, 
Both states showed the greatest decreases during years 
of excessive rainfall. A moderate decrease occurred in each 

etats urir,* ado,:t yoar In whio b th,.rc was lea ttianon    oz 
~rai*'C114uin   the hiatc.41b  perla, '!he dry hatching, Sa0n 
oJf 1958 In ',1ezs In,, hoeer  olloea *ever winter durln - 
~d~ in.~~i~or ...urtr~db ooourrw.4at Xukc 1111s In- 
torreedon tL, tb~ais ot fil4 4atu, It ma be a riolue that 
both. winter-idU~ng ard. drut ofeto   are repre..nt.4 inUb 
19J38 deraein E'.oonuit1A appoars Is 1N5             1~ to 
dry 0-outItIon at Cli ttm of ancl Iuzt bao,  44tohl~  are to 
be re~zrw;o as amu to the patrld, -           11. hia belief la teqi 
ad b , the flndtz, - of 'zrr1i7ton und  niaertro    who) raprt 
Ir  a seer  4rou,,t In the 1932 noaatingr sason* 
FI*Ad studI.a ahow a relatonship botwn 4estibutiono 0t 
too  and      u and winter aurvivl of ptiL     ifwto Uthat 
*h- wn t or tb,              (T frr.,in ,ton and 
the ffraot of wntr  wt       e  oltlons a,-or     to bo ud 
1643 4\ vwm )dZhn In  *~.ese of quali1w  Th a                      isn~ art

to  ,o rl~ivey trete 1arl~nc~t ll-*~  ciybflty o)f tlie P~art- 
rid-e &avol a  lloitsusal  m~vpedoaoof woody plants for 
tIAnter *out'-,r sevore enoglh to kill larp* rwm~s of 
partrid,,e havey.  ure only twi.vnlo ~   yae In   In, 
th 4wnters of 1-1* -9 04 opl         un_ aw of liS  -58,  )"IW 
to of thc thrt. vititers           lis1521 to 14 

in w' Ach field reor  wre obtined in        o, lors.  wre 
found not to exee   Fxeatly tY-ise :,,, Vh  f? ~1 moih*HLto    'a 
(1941) rocords on.losse  of powtri4ie. iri Noarth D*akcts 4dzitn  th 
w Inters of 1956-6 ond 1940-41 do nont indlos. t eavy 1..a imdar 
even : ore severe winte to i~tiO1ntte t t-rioun In thetac 
fnf19  i)t      from pouation rwaardtoa      aevr 
in~g norm tlian ee21 j'ars In Alberts that t1uctuottoss of -!,Ara 
partidgs crre~an a alse  w' t thoo .f tho nativo sharp. 
'w-yo'o'IR tht relm      Alth&oug-  the pvrtrIde ,k  azaally not 
regarded~y~i        it is Voinae  ouit by Lopold and ,rrIn 
(  )t at a spetI    may asl  #obtoll or noncT,,1t  w-tvlor ds~e." 
in  n th aninY ~ t# The qtk4ction of whther ViFP.,Artrie," Is 
*yeli@ In th Great Laken wogion tv left lstrgel1y !i-nnsr4e  ty th e 
ev*.4ia  presented in this paer    Althou ,, pPrtr1.d1.,a Iner ase4 
fro  1Mt to 19I   and deshinec   nr.    t.-s fol1-w1nf, 5 fir  of 
abO~R      trei4 soynwhst lixe t)lt cOowr '1, the narther  er~z 
,-nd rebbita, th'  WIscoonik hir-d t2uctn&.to  Irreguarl with little

apparlt rela tion to the, troz-d In VMtohIe~n 4dwiri  this period* Pale 
fVg.1) fonc t'he t patrtd-es have oatinii4 to doobleiIn sztii 
sinlbIa       aeo  1)3t, This proone   dowrivk  tren 
in,, may repets &r earlier tInieo a      wid4. paolatlons in 
nort~o.n Ohio reported b7 D)r. L, i  * ?Ii~ka Th.3 de.r.,ss sem to 
be indioatWv  of noav v.-iab 1. c   sIn            atr 
environment, peaislly ro1.toLt.or fra1yooxroo 

Phead sants w~lc- t~tvo inrf-e4        r  tly 5r    o ~i t I: 
*rt~nL!'Ats ti'na of' tho metho4 of .omprn weather 
dfrtA with- pertril tle In this atnly are evdet 
For oxawp1., 94lniftaprit vaitins In wather may ocu  betwee 
a wather station and# enias Pea only a tew miles say,, Moreover, 
wea ther totle do nt give adeq~tat. walht to shiort porioids of 
extreme weathew ao.urrt.7 at critteal sewmzos f opArd      Erno. 
Thus a tow days of rain end clou401. weatkwer wr k.ez dn  Is at a 
peak In lwt* JIe -nay be more is to tk. ourtr!4.d ero)p ".an 
considerably longer periods of iutavorsbI, weat-:er earlier or latear 
in the nosting 80an    )Ivtie lss the rosuatlts of this stxdl In- 
dOlete tht winter and laes prin.,F w  athr reod  fuarnish a iss i 
Itaex  f prtidg poultions in the rtort.rier t~akq 13,atas T-  censas 
dtinlddIn      nle     ix,* ret  fvv t:,, ah W   A   .ut or rain- 
fall n   sauns.,irne for parrW.-1:e, Itii.o  this mieth~ Is 
desirahIs in olt-her Ptkrts& cd tihe rvri  - 92-901ally in states  hr

raser-es if' annuel kbuntrs' reoorts* are stvil.14,, 
in LI, of tfio ISM~ per cent) of the sesonnl)e     in 
,he '-c1Pc   end 'Wisconsin aetnauedg Mltion angswr closely 
relteA to the" wather 4.ta, In the remainki,. 5 (2  por cet   asu-ns

fell populetiliis wr lower tian wiou14 be expected an uhe basils of' 
w-4athie rooordso Althouin, *Ui!S  ~~  et~t9rsl 
osnalls or        wather dat    it sboukd tbe p nte4 
oA th ,at fo  o  tha , aerrxit asevc w ouirred it., sout.haesrn 
,)b1s ~ re, ns  .revlonzl~i    lox~t partrld4 ,ea hews 4olned 

In 47):,v* -)f ..,One ,,Sar*,o 
It a in t ii* w  or 
riror r-tpr        obserwO d- rlttl: 
favaroble weatbor p-sr1r),de lvi pro,,-nbj:? e ie a talfl-,  to 
' invlmnmevtal rovista.,ce" nht dirfactly "lotod lto woor, aro

PrOW"IM fro 
l'-t;,tsa Mrtas are o0now frit too Wet In 10) a *prl  i", C*nb  t' l
to -4 
t Oy tro voll wlz.,  L-1                      rpf,-4,ia*  ho 
a ,ioars to be %,dq, tacl to v 
pravlelad It Is *i,,IIo 
Ito yowik ,-       .ha ariticel sarLy ttre ,o&  jjf,- * 
lo*,el        o%tvl 
5At      V 'ele                                     -.lrtend !to r*vv* 
for Z, oro tntr, s               In t-be northnrn si, Atiax 
t t y  '00VIva OlLdnatlorl It 
Y"E's) o 1 iU In southeastom          &u4 from 1934 to 
In i5oatlums torn 34laonxist.n. 
2a Tn       three f'ort,:,s T  ,ha 3o*Aa             -*rLrIc 
pp Als'-Aow wore olos*ly i-llnted t j 
r -- 
,uvor p*rtrid .,o raprvd iatlon                       vn"I 
ri-infall or                            ttA 
4* -Ainuir loio4os WOF-7rO  tl'U! 4' 0 
o) ly twloo in         ee rs 

bo Field stde    In$.  Mb4 tht sever re~               "hz ~~#ke 
*, thohwlit  of eggs*o         aoaflt       f.~    ~      u~4   ~ 
nrtsilt. of yu  bird    waa casdc    atlekI  *oll s4      b1   by 
In .-ears wban ralnt,11 avma 2 to 5 1-non,*a d4uwin tho hathn 
,)e r4 o 
h:usof sushn   In J    FeAM JUly 4 wIrln; which 
arespopulaio    inrae oc        e    range fro  Q to 6701in. 
Mihiran and fromf 60 to 690 in" Wlis'conein.* Decreases 
in Xlhiob    urng yetirs with low suine otels were probably due 
to sog  cbrcersls 

.11 ]" A -j,:I&  , E 
a 0I* Fro 
Irii   tor. 
1-41. ~uv.1 %uM    'OhAvi-or rX the Inqir [frrdl, 
~#1L. and t.mrstom , I, Jr* 
1956,h    northern hbbwhito'e wlltr taritory. 
8,I 11. L. ar 
FiA  adw141,.r                              r ra r.4  tp.  I ~ 
v .o~:c 
Arthuir 8,* 
I2;,&, 7. ru~we prtvi%,   tr  *t, ,Ies at Va11 I rov. 
1rr~rey of te -mrth 'emtrol ststeo v,  Vx.Io, 
1%40,~ Ai  .'n  ira   <5 th 
L4 .  I'  8pr.   of,  th'   6C1  (~in  -VOSS) 4~   in0e~r s 
Vilode-n, A, Do 
(Pord.x perd1,zJ i 1-..t~t~n     #.4cj.    c 
S. he     nt 4 ari a." p r t ril  ort  Garv, Erl , i - 
$tJoG~fkr4 Hrbrt Lo 
lllOV         borhi, 4oroert L.~ 
~L A  uinI~p, t ui*Gop~~t~e  ~il~1td~Auoo 
tp     ke?, 

C11o~4& h~ u~i*of ~rtn ±trr. qn.ea qz.d A- 
! TZ 5 1 Anr4 pa VtrVI e In Via (.iat --'a re 
17ivratttf tihi s scool of Forestry and Oon- 

January 5, 
1 9 4 2. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Professor of Wildlife Management, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Professor Leopold:- 
I may have neglected answering your letter of 
several months ago, but in the interim I am pleased to say that 
I have found more Hungarians than I believed there were. Un- 
fortunately, I am not in position to get out and about so very 
much, but on traveling towards the West from Oconomowoc and there- 
abouts, I have seen a great number of "Huns." 
I am sending you a copy of 
ceived from W. F. Grimmer, Superintendent of 
the State Conservation Department, and which 
pleased to read. 
a letter which I re- 
Game Management, of 
I think you will be 
At this late date I wish to acknowledge receipt 
of and thank you for the six copies of your pamphlet on the planting 
of Hungarian Partridges, which you were good enough to send me. 
Hoping for a further increase in Hungarians, our 
wonderful bird, with best wishes for a Happy and Prosperous New 
Year, I am 

A unpublished adda.sDo not publish without   owan's Rermission. 
Resum talk given at Moose Jaw on June 22nd, 1942, by 
Ztt oWilliam Rowan 
Stzo LTeo                                                               ...

The subject i    1 cycles in Western Canada has been a topic of personal

interest to the 4    for some 20 years. Dnring that time there have been
other active inve tor on various parts of the continent, while the recently

fn       zreau of ]  Bopulations at Oxford, England, under the brilliant

directorship of my friend. Charles Elton, has become the centre and clearing

house for informatbn animal cycles of the entire globe. The subject in 
Canada is one of ptnd importance not only to animal economy, but to the 
ilfare of the bumqlation at large, for the question of periodic disae 
eic is part aarcel of the problem. 
While this tal*s in particular with the Hungarian partride and its 
conclusions are sp4%ve, a brief        ry of animal cycles as they are known

In the D oinion seerwotlal by way of introduction. 
The most famouv tht worldls fluoating populations are Scandinavian 
lemmings and Canadi   shoe rabbits, (actually a small species of hare). 
T   ks to the record: the Hudson's Bay Company it is known that these rabbits

have cycled for the 200 years, with an average periodicity of 9.7 years.

Roughly speaking, ras et extremely abundant throughout the Dominion every

ten years, reacl-ing sk of unbelievable nmbers under favourable conditions

an  then dropping ofter suddenly to the low, when one may tramp the 
wilderness all day azt see a single rabbit. Yet within ten years there 
will have been compleecovery with rabbits absn. abounding. Such is the case

at the moment. The pis not universal at all places at the same time, but
one looks back over t ars and allows for all the known discrepancies, there

sees little questiont, as far as the Dominion is concevned, the phenomenon

is one. 
Concurrently wit4 rabbits (approximately, at least) there is a similar 
cycle among sharptale.use (prairie chicken of Alberta) and ruffed grouse


(partridge of popular usage). Both these species are attaining a numerical

peak with the rabbits at the moment. The pinnated grouse (prairie chicken

of the United States and the older literature) agrees with both these 
species in its cycles also, as do some other resident birds. Practically

all the fur-bearers show a ten-year periodicity but it does not synchronize

with the rabbits. The lynx, for example, lags about 2 years behind the 
rabbit while many other fur-bearing animals similarly have independent 
cycles. Muskrat and beaver, both water dwellers, show cycles that are 
secondarily subject to water levels. 
The Hungarian partridge was introduced onto the prairies by a few 
ardent sportsmen at Calgary, Alberta, in 1908 and 1909, some 200 paq2s 
being liberated during those two years. The birds did so well that a first

open season was declared on them in 1913. This ran through October and 
November with a daily limit of 5 birds and a season limit of 25. Up to 
about 192 (the year is not certain) shooting of Hungarian partridge was 
only permitted south of the Battle River, but about that time it was thrown

open throughout the Province. The largest bag-limit to date (1941) was in

1934 when this species was everywhere abundant, with 15 per day and 200 for

the season, which ran from September 15 to December 15. (Some year prior
this a daily limit of 50 was allowed in the game regulations, but being a

typographical error which had escaped observation, it was promptly recalled.)

The present distribution of the species, resulting from the Calgary 
introductions 34 years ago, is over the three Prairie Provinces in general,

north to the limits of settlement, and into Montana in the south. Like 
rabbits and grouse, the Hungarian is also attaining a numerical peak at the

moment and has this year been recorded far into the wilds of the northern

sections, as well as into the mountains in the west. 

For the past 12 or 15 years, my shooting partner (John N. MacDonald, 
I.O. of Edmonton) and myself have kept detailed records of our bags in thq

matter of sex, age, weights, moults, etc. Our own data have been augmented

on occasion by examination of other peop&e's bags. A brief summary of

these records is of interest. 
W         (averages of hundreds of birds) 
September 15-30     13.2 oz. 
October             1 .5  " 
November             .7 
December            15.2  " 
January             16.o  " 
(The January weights refer to only about 20 birds, collected for examination

during various years on a special permit while the September numbers are

also small.) 
The lightest bird I have personally weighed during the open season 
(September) failed to reach 9 ounces, while our heaviest bird, a female,

(Dec. 7, 1934) turned the scales at 18 oz. 
Food. The Hungarian partridge has taken more liberally to cultivated 
grains during recent years and crops xxx*ki* examined have contained wheat

(the most frequent) oats, barley and flax. Grass and weed seeds are also

consumed, though in smaller quantities, while two January birds have shown

crops filled to capacity with nothing but moss. Both these birds weighed

a full pound. 
.    . Eungaiisas are in full moult in September and through October 
and still moulting through most of November, although some birds are 
finished by the middle of the month. The moult is in all probability the

primary controlling factor in the weight-scale above, although age is no

doubt also significant eiy on. 
Sex and A.    The sexes are very evenly balanced. Faring the average 
season and in an average bag, however, over 60% are young birds of the 

Zoology. The fulV effects of inclement weather are not certainly known 
on the prairies. Protracted wet through the breeding season is considered

the ain factor in inducing partridge disease and a high rate of mortality

in hgland, but with our very different soils the situation is not necessarily

the same. No dependable observations exist, but the present season (1942)

is being very carefully watched and checked (as far as it is possible without

the unlimited use of a car). The Ednonton district of Alberta had a 
June rainfall of 91 inches, with a continuous four-day rain (June 15-19)
A total precipitation of 4.3 inches. The first two days (15th & 16th)

were windy and cold and all small birds' nests personally known to me were

either washed out or blown out. The earliest Hungarian partridges were 
then hatching. This species is, however, a persistent breeder, and it 
seems probable that any birds that may then have lost their nests will relay,

but any that have lost young, especially if one or two have survived, will

probably make no further attempts. Similar conions have been general 
elsewhere this year. 
The species can survive extremely severe winter conditions. During the 
very hard November of 1935, with constant below-zero temperatures and 13
of snow, the average wilght of birds obtained was only about half an ounce

below the normal November weight. As far as I am aware, there was no 
Horned owls certainly (and goshawks probably) take a heavy drain of 
Hungariaz partridges (especially after a rabbit "erash"), while
the snowy 
owl is a lesser offender. Hay-cutting during the breeding season takes an

annual toll, while fires account for an unknown number that is probably much

larger than one would be inclined to estimate. It is open to debate as to

whether competition with grouse and pheasants has any material effect on

Rws arian numbers, but the evidence is against. 

As to the drain imposed on this species by gunners, there seems lkttle 
question that save for a few exceptional districts (such as the immediate

environs of the largest cities, e.g. Calgary and Edmonton in Alberta) the
of hunting is virtually nil.   I am not sufficiently familioar with Calgary

to offer any opinion, but I have found little difference in the partridge

population within five miles of Fdmonton and outside of 50, despite 
Edmonton's heavy population of hunters,  There seems little question that

a far larger p   limit than those to which we have become accustomed would

have no detrimental effect on the Rungariau partridge. 
Cycles. Rbbit and grouse rnaks have occurred in the Prairie 
Provinces approximately in 1996, 1905, 1915, 1925 and 1934 (thes dates 
do not fit all localities but all districts were within a year or two of
By 1925 (a grouse peak)Rungarian partridges had attained sufficeint numbers

for the season to be opened throughout Alberta for the first time. In 
1926 I had dead and Aiseased partridges sent in to me for examination from

some southern district, of the Province. The Dssible significance of this

laot was not appreciated at tne time. However, ten years later, (another

grouse peak)j, in 19341, the species had again attained enowmouso numbers

and the most generous bag limits and the longest season on record were that

year allowed. Mr. MacDonald and I again kept our usual records but as neither

of us hunts Hungarians seriously till mid-October the season was well advanced

before we made the striking discovery that we were getting some 70% adults

ad 30% young, exactly the opposite to the normal. We thereafter travelled

long distances from Edmonton to avoid a purely local pzlmk  picture, 
but the percentages remained essentlly the same. This led to the issuing

of a Province-wide questionnaire. From widely scattered districts through

Alberta we received the same verdict - during August the covies of young

that happened to fall under the eyes of observant farmers hd dwindled in

some cases from 20 to nothing and all wore drastically reduced. It was then


too late to ascertain the possible cause, or causes, but it was evident that

something had decimated the birds of the year in August. In no districts

had the weather proved remarkable or of such a nature as to suggest that

it could provide the explanation. That year also witnessed the "crash*
rabbits and grouse. By 1936 the Hungarian partridge had reached the full

ebb and birds were scarce from the Rockhbs to Winnipeg, although already

showing undoubted signs of recovery at the extreme north of their rang. 
Again it is nearly ten years later and once again the Eungarian partridge

is here in enormous numbers, but so are rabbits and grouse. A legitimate

inference - though not necessarily a correct one - is that this species 
has Joined the native cycling fraternity and that when we lose our grouse,
we inevitably will, we shall also again lose our Hungarians as we did nearly

a decade ago. 
(All of which spontaneously raises the question of pheasants, which have

at long last become fully established over large areas, after introductions

numerically far exceeding those of the Hungarian partridge over about the

same p riod of time, 35 years. (The first pheasants appear to hav been 
liberated in southern Alberta about 1905 and thousands have been twued. 
down since.) The explanation for this belated success in all probability

lies in the opening of a shooting season on cocks four years ago, but be
as it may, it remains to be seen what may happen to our flourishing pheasant

population of the moment when our other upland game birds succumb to the

ten-year "crash#. I mention the pheasant particularly in the hopes that

sportsmen at large will keep *A ee on the situation in their own localities

and that we may ultimately derive the benefit of thdr obse vations.) 
The question of cycles further raises the problem of approximate 
bag limits and length of shooting season. As somewhat of an epicure, 
who refrains from shooting half-grown and moulting Hungarians early in the

season despite the legality of doing so, I am naturally in favour of a 

delayed opening. From this angle (but there are also others) October the

first would seem to be the earliest date worth considering. With Hungarians

in their present numbers, a three months season - October, November and 
December - would certainly not be too long, with a daily limit of 25 birds

and 250 for the season. Whether really heavy shooting, such as obtains on

European estates (more strenuous than anything Alberta could provide with

no limits at all), would eliminate the cycle is a matter for debate, but
is a legitimate viewpoint that too small a kill may do more ultimate harm

than a heavy one. With the tire and gasoline restrictions now in force, 
and the reduced hunting that must inevitably result in the fall, a large

limit and a long season would seem to be directly in the interests of the

Hungarian partridge population. It Light even be argued that the best conser-

vation policy for Huns at the moment would be to pay a bounty on them. 
cc mCabe 
Hungarian partridge folder 
cycles folder 

Department of Zoology 
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 
24. VIII. 42 
Dear Mr. McCabe, 
Your airmail letter of the 19th has got here this morning. I am sending 
you by return airmail - but I hope it does a bit better than that - talk

I gave to the Game Leagues of Saskatchewan earlier this summer which may

contin stuff of interest to you. I would like to have this back since it
my only record of what I said. It accompanies this letter. 
Your Alberta facts appear to be correct except that you have doubled the

number of birds actually turned out in the first place. Altogether 
200 brace (they use this British term here still) were turned out in 
190 and 1909 together, i.e., a total in the two years of only 400. The 
only additional releases have been very small numbers of birds in northern

sections of Alberta (around Edmonton) around 1925 and t is with the idea
introducing fresh blood, not boosting the numbers of birds. The Saskatchewan

people told me recently that practically all their birds cam directly from

Alberta by immigration and very few were liberated there at any time, Whether

the same is true of Manitoba or not I do not know, but I rather suspect 
the case is similar. 
The first open season was restricted to Alberta south of the Battle River,

not, as you state, the entird Province. The entire Province was opened 
about 1924, but the Game Department has no exact record. I couldn't hit 
them in those days and so have no record of my own as I didn't shoot them

and closed seasons or open were all one to me. But I t"ink 1924 was
the first 
year for all Alberta. 
Our longest open season was in 1934, the only three months season we have

had although it is to be that again this year. The same year applies to 
the largest hag limit. It will be 20 this year, and maybe even 25, although

I think the Game Commissioner has cold feet about the upper limit. There

shouldn't be any limits at all to my mind. The countryside is sizzling with

Huns have sp-ead into much of our wilderness again with the current peak.
are quite plentiful in Jasper National Park, for instance, in the Roc]es
roughly 100 miles from the nearest farming country proper. 
What the annual kill is, I haven't the least idea and there is nothing at

all on which to base an estimate. The southern half of the Province kills

many more than we do for it is the only abundant game bird they have. It

might be anything from fifty to 100,000 and for the good of the birds ik

should be ten times that. 
Yours sincerely, 
lilliam Rowan 

THE STATE COLLEGE OF" WASHINGTON                    U') 
Augrt 5, 1942 
Lear Mr. Leopold, 
The letter which I wrote to Doctor  radley was aoout the 
mice population experiment. One of the problems I face is 
finding some way to measure the animals on the experimental 
and control areas. Weight fluctuates and is so bound up 
with so many factors as to be rough at oest. Several 
yeasr ago Loctor Bradley suggested zomp poopibilities anr I wantP4 
Qcyy- fntthpr cr-. 
OC,' of the ideas that see.,s feasible ic activity measurement. 
Several ye;-ars ago a paper in the Journal of Mammialogy gave 
a method for studying activity on areas by use of electrical 
contacts and recording drams. Dice at Michigan studied activity 
by using a trea4-wheel hooked up to a recording drum. 
I agree that Elton's book is a darn good job. The thing that 
struck me first was his relegating Dice's very great work on 
census techniques to an inferior place. As I remember the 
passage, Dice's work was passed over as merely an elaboration 
of an linglishmsn's method. The latter's work (as cited) came 
out several years after Dices and wasa two page note. It 
didn't strike me as a fair way of treating Dice's work. 
I don't know whether or not I mentioned it, out I received a 
boost inalary tnis year. 
Yocom's thesis on the Hungarian in the Palouse Region of 
Washington has been accepted by Icological Monographs, and it 
will appear in the April 1943 number. It is a darn good paper. 
I would call it a better Master's thesis on the Hun than 
teatter's was a Doctor's thesis,...jist for comparison. 
Y ur    cerely, 
Leonard Wing 

Hungarian Partrif ge 
1937 boundary. (S 
Leopold: Spread 
Hung. Partridge i 
Wisconsin)   " 
Th ersi ty n  Wisconsin 
'Oeartment of Wildlife Management 
Alo Leopold 
t;7 h 
19)40 Till as reporteA to Conqrvatlon 7enartmont 

Page Ten 
Mussel Dredging Ban 
Effective This Month 
A five-year closed season order of the 
Conservation Commission prohibits, for 
the first time, taking of mussels in the 
month of July in waters of southern 
Michigan counties. The order was issued 
on the showing that mussels were seri- 
ously depleted in these waters and that 
an extended period of protection was 
necessary to give them a chance to re- 
establish themselves. 
A one-time half million dollar indus- 
try, the Conservation Department has 
issued as many as 2,500 licenses annually 
for the taking of mussels, shells of which 
are used in making buttons. 
Submerged Lands Will 
Present Lease Problem 
Proposed future leasing of submerged 
lands along the Michigan shoreline of 
the Great Lakes, for oil and gas explor- 
ation and development, presents prob- 
lems which the Conservation Commission 
may consider at its meeting in Ironwood 
July 16-17. 
Pushing of drilling operations to points 
near shorelines, especially in the Saginaw 
Bay area, is raising questions of policy 
which must be decided. Lessees of lands 
fronting o the Great Lakes will seek 
such leases to complete bli-kings incin- 
plying with federal regulations. 
Principal difficulty anticipated in de- 
termining future policy   will be the 
method of apportioning royalties. Since 
owners of shore properties have title to 
the water's edge, rise and fall of lake 
levels will complicate the problem. 
Six Southern Peninsula 
Counties are Closed to 
Pheasant Hunters in '44 
Grand Traverse and Leelanau counties 
will be closed to pheasant hunters next 
fall, in addition to Alcona, Benzie, Ma- 
son, and Wexford counties, closed last 
fall, and all of the Northern Peninsula. 
Open season in other counties below 
the Straits will be from October 15 to 
November 5, inclusive. 
Protection f r Hunkies 
Extended for Five Years 
An additional five-year period of grace 
has been extended to the Hungarian part- 
ridge now present in Michigan by Con- 
servation Commission action in prohibit- 
ing the taking of the exotic species be- 
fore October 1, 1949. Present protection 
dates from 1941. Sportsmen and farm- 
ers, questioned last spring, thought there 
had been little change or perhaps a slight . 
decrease in numbers of hunkies during 
the last year. 
Beaver Study Is Begun 
In Northern Peninsula 
Study of beaver on Northern Peninsula 
streams has been* undertaken by Con- 
servation Department game and fish au- 
thorities as a preliminary to future Con- 
servation Commission action in opening 
or closing the peninsula to beaver trap- 
ping next spring. No beaver trapping 
was allowed in the Northern Peninsula 
last spring. 
The survey is being made during the 
hottest weeks of summer when it can be 
determined whether water temperatures 
rise to a point which can destroy trout 
in stream._.that -aveen ,Aned _by 
Michigan's Iron 
(Continued from page 7) 
depend on the metallurgist, and chemist, 
to make our once-rejected low-grade ores 
valuable. We have used much, but the 
end is not yet, and even when the vast 
war demands have ended, new construc- 
tion will demand Michigan iron. 
Up to the end of 1942, Michigan had 
shipped 603,542,183 tons of iron ore. 
Think of all the steel that has been made 
from that ore-steel for bridges, rails, 
ships, furnaces, pots and pans, refrigera- 
tors, automobiles, and bombers, as well 
as the 110 pieces of steel that the aver- 
age man carries on his person, the 89 
pieces the average woman carries, and 
the 327 tons used before the war for one 
year's supply of holders for lipstick red- 
dened by iron pigment. 
This is the story of the billion year 
long formation of Lake Superior iron 
ore, and of Michigan's 100 years of pro- 
duction. This is the story of the founding 
of  Marquette, Negaunee, Ishpeming, 
Crystal Falls, Ironwood, and all the 
other cities and towns that grew up 
around the sites of mining operations; 
the story behind the centennial celebra- 
tion of the discovery of iron; the story 
of a part of the wealth of Michigan that 
was received in exchange for the "Toledo 
This is a part of the Michigan chapter 
in the fascinating romance of steel. 
The End. 
Stream Is Set Aside 
'For Ladies Only' 
North Carolina is probably the 
first state in the Union to set aside 
a "no man's land," an area exclu- 
sively for ladies who want to fish 
without male company. For the 
first time one of North Carolina's 
better trout streams has been posted 
with "For Ladies Only" signs. Up- 
on  the banks of this beautiful 
stream the female Izaak Waltons 
may discuss lures and lingerie, 
backlashes and babies, without in- 
terference from the male element. 
Map showing location of Marquette, Gogebic, and 
Menominee iron ranges. 
Young Pheasants Aided 
By Weather Conditions 
Weather   conditions  generally  over 
lower Michigan areas where pheasants 
are found have been mainly favorable 
for young broods during recent weeks. 
More young pheasants should have sur- 
vived than was the case during the 1.943 
spring season which was marked by a 
period of heavy and continued rains. 
Emphasis on Education 
In Fox Control Program 
Fox control measures, in Michigan, are 
to be mainly educational. 
Turning down bounty payment pro- 
posals, the Conservation Commission has 
approved the employment of trapper-in- 
structors to work with individuals and 
agencies wishing to apply control meas- 
ures. The trapper-instructors will give 
assistance in trapping the animals in 
areas where they are an especial nuis- 
A $20,000 appropriation for fox control 
activities is available July 1. 
Port Huron State Park 
Land Purchase Approved 
Purchase of 1,000 feet of Lake Huron 
frontage is to complete state ownership 
in thePort Hurom-tate Par  _aeabe- 
tween Highway US 25 and the lake. The 
Conservation Commission has approved 
the $25,000 purchase. 
The Commission also has approved 
the purchase of 239 acres for recreational 
development as Pittman-Robertson proj- 
ects in Kalamazoo, Barry, and Lapeer 

file Hun 
Ru   icei     alueRgin         Leoniard Wing says 
the Hungri an Population crashed in vicinity of 
Pil    , Wash. &ring winter of 1912-*43. 

From the book "TI-e 7ne Birds of California" 
Grinnell - Bryant - Storer 
(P& ished by University of California Press) 
Berkeley - 1p1c. 
(C' oapter on 7on.-:ptive Oane B r s, paes 37-3'.) 
"Ir 1?05 attention be-n, to focus on the HuLnarian, or connon European,

Partti_ e (Perdix perdix).  For a tie attempots to procure birds for -ln-t-

i  here failed. Finally . . Gerber sacceeded t'rou2h his personal efforts

ir n rbasinc in 3u   ry and shipping to Californi, fifty-four of these 
.artridses.  Half of the birds died in transit; t     -- remainder upn arrival

Tre  olaced in an aviary on his ranch near Sacra-ento (Calif. Fis> Con.,

1907, pp. 6i-65). Ho success attended the effort to ropaate the birds in

captivity;  in fact only t"o e.s were laid. TI e birds were finally
but nothing further was heard of then 
In the springL of 10S, the Fi0h and Gnme Csission purchased, from 
eastern gate dea ers, for stocking -ur-oses, 395 Hanuarian Partridges, and

in tne foilovi  year 2,127 more. T'ese birds were olanted in lots of 20 
to 5  in more tan inety localities in the st' te, from Sr Diei.o County to

Siskiyou Counuty 'nd from sep level to hiL  in the moutains. Tric t'e sme

year 35 H~oa~rian PartriLes were received for Cropa.ation purposes at 1e

State Ga1e Far;   in i010, 093 were received there, 1d n Fehrr, 1012, 
24 more.  otwithstsndin  this large breeding stock, not a s .le yo'ig bird

was reared at the Game Farm. The birds died off rapid.y, ad       19124 not

one remaied.   flurinj the first ear after plantin&, broods of zo   were

reported to have been seen in many parts of the state, but such favorable

reports soon ceased.  As an exaille of the resdt of California's attempts

to estcablish the Hungarian Partrid:e we qu-ote a report fron George leale:

,A:--  t'e year 1910 I received a small shipment of Hunjriau Partrides 
fro: -he Fish and Gane Conmissio.  I liberated these birds on the RaLgin

Grant a' ont einht miles from Sacramento. About a m:nth after the liberation

I saw e nale bird. This was the last seen of any of them."    Indeed,
the attempt to establish the H77niarian Partridge, California has 
sacrificed over 7,700 birds costinf over $3. 0 each. 
A recent exPeriment under private aspices is that of Ki, Macomber, 
vho, in 1014, imor ted fifty pairs of Hunarian PartridLes ar    co fined

then on his rnncb i- Sa Bnito Couty in a lre outdoor e-iar etendim 
over about 'n acre of nitural cover.   S      oall rodents were  p i. to
destroyed the feb ea s id i l1l, 'rt sev ral clutches of e-s are 
re-oorted to hae been de osted in 1916". 

Ext rv c  from the boc     n~~ 0i of WII ilid E ' 
by~ ier'bert K. Job. 
(From C-   e  V1, 11Ot'l-er Frc I                        P ~  e9  . o~ 
Conitins ±  pstrn  urye. An article descri ,tive of thiE re- i'n,

written     Ii W. Iprsen, of t1c   .me-exportin. irm of 2oey-it'  c L,- rc

in T11      B=MDR is ver;l n~St rCtive.   I. n  arts of easterni Burope *
n~ytl- svis of th      -aprtrid&-es pe nete  fo    hiret to AImerica,
followin.- ore the co  ions:  The peas:,nts live incooc      villa et-, -).t

on t' Cir farwII 1' '1, and  o back.- an -frth to vvorh4.  For miles thlere
laninterprvted Stretches of Lrl-in and cro-s, no houses to  a'orerts or 
cat s, ~ovosto shelter foaxes.      The f~ed   -rovide abuanda-it f-od and

h eI lt1e r.  YovnL'coois  undistured, -row -- in thound~is.  He,7  on the

oth er h>anc,,te  encojanter Tintcr starvation and enemies on~ evr",
comIned V'i th indiSc r i, nate gmni in,cl wh ch i s the re -prol- ir)ite

-dtt.4 by John        :nbub     htL Birla~.5   (-4'an.) 1857 
A       y0 4l rove the crown =it of the eeor   it bo -   -irrv  or hrqebss.

p.563. :Xj=     'as artUiaitay fattenod vwjt, ,jqet f )r t b, e ua-, # aowis

P. 5   2:=     "(m.e                   con pr~.  etain :.)r* Th12* 
1*rti  the 
P. 57".   r-x azm at £r1 Z0% Xa     ,s 41nr to 1.mhiti@p of  
    1"~ )70: 
2W0 aronei 
1400Q rabb It z 
,0 bi tm 
I00 curl aw 
1W0 rn'X41 
hovu0 leer 
(?Y~bt~ly x   .hIu* to 
f~~looua).QZ A t'                 t 1   ~ . ~ t 0 
P- 777                         - ~~)~  1,ax ~Io wt4  ItAla ta--m, in 
p. 610                              Trmpre 15h 'eruidrtw   ora abva~lit.

fora Li        t   lvrd ode 
'172.      t,, 1g~j jo: 7t 1T" tn ~0  t~tef~rz7~a.od 
I tu theton., 1 Sredev 11. iu 1,  th~rvefor &?7ynr ad 
~. 9~A. 
~. it 
qrf=         6  0 
bm~utai e  6r, vrer Sat  0   i 
llabblt, out o-fC 
tie -narran    0  2-/ 
P1 lovers. rmn 
~;, it 
Al- 0 
o   4 

~.         Z~oweeiu        M till1 thoir In7.,ortti f.rom Jraiec In the 
p. 10084  *t '    ReCpez~~             e  1~a 
Cal f        7 
tha     tks   t) f  2#4 tlv.    J           too  Ue- b  xet4 -An   *ft 
their -,"7-t rtvlerr-.                                            a,:,,
hr  nrnt1&8.7o  te  ~in  ~  the 
0.- of~ theo )"toy.  ixi ol'" the  taaver (of -i- Iitnlzv w   a~r
onyIn thn -Orifle in wale.; fir th.ier otter li,  it  nib~  r to sek  in

wwV but , ma2t %trrnta ,f tud i<1-'1  sit, It -z~1  1!ei  tc ha nx 
thew. ars I d*f fixwlly thek r+v n,,      of h   ~~;~to          for 
wwer I wort.>7~ lwbt  *otaie                        rt 4i   iy be~~w~~
thoykst to be the o. 
1100lQ. Alsi       ,f      s   rn brW L,~          TA   Vlo thcr- ie, bitter,
a tw  ,mx,                        ,jjjj1Con  ~~*1ant,  zorw1i or doffrel,

brwt lfl, 7lover 3ofP batli sortr, ( -reen .-Md i"rl'). 'awrinv-. teal,
w~ar.,S-*eIWr~k,  bval.r- (n1v).              .ea             , quals 
uott  (1cmt), it,-e oliet o olfc, r dxn1b-rd    eked,~ dit _ litcho 
fea-,e wl4genn), mooc, pertria. .    ieaant, b69Wwa d$lvertt thrs.* 
(J*9't Of theme 29) zpaese, 1,wLtric- i m.    t                  ta-~o41s

w~trly ot oeme o  qfjalty.) 
Of 17 7nxcasi99 in the accoa.a, tncluian.,thwtmpl            rt 
bla~birds, meithew or *~eaant  r wotio-aw4 

fli-est of 
~.lor,  icard0, 'n Irlht, John.                             f -l~  odn, 
bri~re 1  Son, l5,q4G. 
p. 6.   "You plow. aucd w,myu riae eanrly enmd .l-A the br- of crfle
coto twice a yar wiAth, Ita inxor-alo   -ni yet 7ou - a -re dowi< to co

thae t,                                     ari-t-bli*)ited  lesitiyw by
(tre.Atu   whi4 -youd be de.qaed 
yerAn, bat for the 3anction whiah the 1 ,ls'aI1 yor nitc  7  lve to their

nrei)eratiou, and whch exint for no !Advant&age to you,  for nwgo to
puzblic, but solely to- afford a few da-ys mus~ent inayea r to' the p roprietors

of th ol." 
p1. 13.          r=oh~x  a be itsore -md.erse to cili1zAin tha  dpeden  po
p. 22. "It is an irvariablie lwthat w ild.r! i1   recede ap~lo     
a~nd, cdtlvatiou advanceu.1 
P.37. "It In well na    that hr  travel one or two      fole  ~r fool.1

p.3S.  "o        wi=, ll eA th e  ,raus In the nci hood- of covers?
-ihre the rabbts 
havs riz .,,ioot very =%ch.'l 
p.70.  "Ooe of Vie m-,azaes of the very  !nrcd d~vreae In phe.  te .A,,
liere  for a  tine 
they were -sterielaperved, to the -utire d.estr~xction. of li"_ets 
variousz 1dnde."Avetsc~ai~t. out d               allwrlwi-e~t to o,,eb
p.    ! 11, ~  edction In rent aledfaraerrs of prseve  la     theo      ort(iaphr)

7.17.  Lanlords             --itiu t   art  In  ,-"irtA~n C nrs an 
cov ertt. 
.153., b; reductiot~n in rent -alowed! in_________ 
p.221. :Soot used tokeet rabbits off       O (aly ->O-! till t;he next
p. 223 7~           0stimated to be twice the taxes- on the lan. 
p * 2l. 200 hres  illed from~ N0A0 ncrepti )orfol3.k. 
p.11Q. A aandy wrren of 2000) acre5 kIlled  000-5,0   rabbi per ya.Atfcal

fed with turnip, s and hay.  Zhin  are  etiA ted wouldl ca  00100rryrr 
12.,000 left an stockc. Totnl -po-.aation 23,000j (?) or 14 peOr acrm. .
ient of 
6,, pe)r ace paid,1 on this wrarreni. JPabbit-c bring7 12C. p er dozmn. 
p. 2iet5-Ljakb                       by G';0. Geyford., in1 Suffolk- , Pnwe-!an

12 as  rabis iabildng~ndwe~We te ee   joats, brn, carrots3, turnIp,,)a 
ndsinfoin) fr 6   oc, Sheep- ate 25r buishels (wt. 4I5 sitone)  rabbis3 
busherls (-wit. 6,3 stone), Trhinkm thelse  rabbi-ts -;to i- _
Hungarian Partridge 
Compliments of 
'Gene M. Simpson 
Sup't State Game Farms 
Corvallis, Oregon. 

ftsrduso  bas     o2 mile, uaarouI oil 
4Cvraator contrl  o   5miesae m mo 

This clipping from the Calgary Daily herald, 
"Hungarian Partridges have migrated in large numbers to the northern

part of the province, 
C. H. Morse, district forest inspector, who has recently returned 
from a visit to the territory north of Athabaska, reportea to The Herald

this weeK that he had seen a group of about 30 Hungarians. This, be felt,

was something unusual for this particular section of the province. 
Sir~ce Hungarian Partridge were imported into the province some years 
ago and liberated near De Winton, they have increased to a remarKable 
degree and are spreading out over the entire province. 
Mr. Morse also said that he saw a large number of prairie chicens 
while on his trip north." 

A      (, A              ___________ 
-4 ~NA 
V- L 
GOM      M~E 13Y 
ftwo~mt Ovkvi4$*LoOIw 
UsmAu ov iicivYiC II5IA~cw 
oWO 0%islos of CONlISYATIOff 
X   I< 
LtI ,D  i OHIO 
&I -FAIRLY CommoN 

Hungarian part ridge folder 
Mau*&. wOP00ta tho status of Variou species of em- 
in Se   t   ,nj  cmpi~le tr CinIelaa u  rdmw     Inabte a .14b~$ 
Umos     In wild *mks, but a *orss in Ial o1thow "pI* of Sw 
'birds inpt the Wavim partr.ift, whiC1   It apfts ha. op" 
ontol fro Alberta until It has reaebo    the bswews of 1Iatoha 
&"~ ocupi. es  et5 .w*Air s usb   P*ti.= of hgsktcho .  ft  s~nb

namt of this eps4.s of Its  *vlition ove sel a vat ama insa 
shot opme of tImw Isa a rzmxkabe eIreu   ta. Mr. b.4sh* aso 
disseuate te claim ma,% by se that the Nuagrimm exerts ev ham 
ful2 lfuene an native "ies, suc. h as the prairie. chci 
A  .omsmtiv  statemmt, of gm  Urv4  killed~ JA See 
Is hew.i qute ~to parts from Yr. 'Ara4owa roprtt 
eef~ , . . *. ,    d&. . *   0 #   ZO         230S28 
Zatleate4 nmr of shoters. *     . # , 20,1w      161 total s*&*= We of all 
birds per Obaoter* * o w * * * *         42 

%-     C\ l  A"*"-0 (Iw w ot wUt. 
i~  ~~a.*     tot  - -L~ 
*i Pa*l  L.b  tvo) 
(a) 3IU'de laNao (UbO) U9m 10.0. im Omir t 
(0 hI'lda is Anu4a (ih km,) uAL mo"  WA1 
-moro ~~ti).ws or~e rw& *UW- Wr~ 
loaio la 94        %a ism I126A Uwe""~ l.trn 
~,3sotal~ts tauI. a. "0 10 of U.S.) 
(b) 41004 
('a'. - o6 
(u) sak   -s. s- 

eoWprso of s)aosoo (*wm~i) -' 
7rm ol 111404*AM gp ofbn 21U PhOOmsm Wt~~yZm~~q 
t   B l a8f~ e dtR   ~ a a 
j    .-        1       a a s 
30Apa to Isviromo 
1. Clearing* of s51a11 
& clmatiR, 
boes tebs s gW 
-i~s. (cu brju~ 
Lo  ilo&4oamt 
Up to 22OO 
IPWlr Morin & )at* SOftop. 
IVwdl 2-3 hen. $e- a To*. 4 be". 
t ~i.e MORS        a 
Cok owl                                    IL on. Als Sep.Ot. 
hikstr ttigs"   I                    t I oksod 
$Ot an b~ wa#14 a                     Oc   r w 
t                  6I 1 
Wwtor 'brod                                usmtie %re   t a  a 
fmw                  rat o    "a 
*9   A84*            : 
Ant=ft f"din tbo 
loon I t. ) 

$Mo In Iss"Ors 
b~~~~t1~~~       ~O 11111 I  1t1.I  * ~ ~ Y 11 
t  fr"*.t ftor. vom     - in low tvs 
loI  vaa UwIo           lat~s*, 
I ~R. ffttl  a~xa  IbMa. - gr , gmt. 
I   W*Ree & gra tips  i Apri- gwe" immetR, *a~ 
*             I    spin crttiRR,*4 
I lw.- Mwtsl insects mg, 
yon ; 11, OSs. C~M. 
*            I 5.$ cA., ise. 
A Iug.- ric, aleans, 'b 
II Sept. -Ct um.S~t.r" 
I              OcNt.- %*n* *)al1, msmts 
t NO. SGr~ otamd ie 
S              b. moods  Ins te  u ns 
01t-" tax raeaae               og 
t Usa tax,     alegi,  weOl, ketin, oga, old 
I Soba k          ie~v~   a s  lkaa fstn1,  ore, 
@*Ueeo P"MIte trw 1a 
-m.   Not  Mtfoeo 
Watt" b~~~~~t~~vS~   t IAay *. If wltb ItroirSM14a" 
41Q P.0  pair~, Tiflis  ,vp toe000 bOOO fta 
I Iakwow                 al 
M1*claW spees  I btA le4V PartwU~  I Doo, hao PIC. 

3-0ae N.sts 
1Nttm N. 
panr art-. R"lwa 1 I M 
fla4 for **mat. 
bhLUS - Menm.t 
t. VOI Of Rt..~ SOM       Ai Malts afafa) 
%A kM UUPA AMd"d IN IMIL SMA Xhaft ft W. 
ts" ftwt nit). 

S915 1u. Sa 40"  " 
a          $ 
1      5 
U? I 
I          I 
5          1 
*          $ 
5          a 
to       6 
1     10 
,.ra7 Lull 

lovautims & Tiolds. , 
owwoofu* of so* famust com"? 
subulty of pwrastuft ommok. 
UvA basoftowt vw bmtw. 

Qiap. on Rmn~waia 
North Central Report 
Hwy-ake PT~x~t~on . T~ density figares gathered during the survq 
are not safficient to justify a       Mnp  e distribution of density classes

by states was as follors: 
Over 32 
~in~r~a:Pieannt  io.L the T-1iccoae nortiern Ii   Ocitaty has 
the hcavlest r-Aio of Fk-riu, uPly abouo-t 10-5. Soutl-er !-*e Cmmty~ 
has a p-re7onderanee of)' pheaants  l~eIy  1. ieT~   a  -o0nu~ation 
fades out .,orc rap idly vetad tlin thie phaat  eci    in northem 
MceHenry Gomtly tlhj ratio of 1-10. 

ViaAA                                Novi2~4 :yi~ 
I1 Vestgtlon 
Sportsmen Supporting Inquiry 
°Periodic Grouse Shortage 
Contributing Fund of $i5,ooo 
The King of American Game Birds 
O  I[I IIII                                                             
                             I  II II I I I I 

The Grouse Disease in North America 
HE        RUFFED     GROUSE     is almost 
universally conceded to be the finest 
of our North American game birds. It 
is found in suitable localities throughout the 
northern United States and Canada and, 
where the forests have not become too re- 
stricted, still occurs in considerable num- 
bers. Owing to the difficulties in hunting 
it and its skill in evading the hunter, it is 
able to maintain itself even in much hunted 
areas. It has many natural enemies and in 
addition to these, unfortunately, it is sub- 
ject periodically to the ravages of some 
mysterious disease. A similar disease of the 
European Red Grouse was investigated for 
eight years between 1904 and 1911 by a 
Committee of the British Board of Agricul- 
ture and Fisheries but until recently  no 
scientific investigation of the diseases of our 
native  ruffed  grouse  has  ever been  at- 
Investigation Under Way 
At the tenth National Game Conference 
of The American Game Protective Asso- 
ciation, Professor A. A. Allen of Cornell 
University presented the results of his five 
years of experimentation in the artificial 
propagation of. the ruffed grouse resulting 
in the discovery of a parasite which he be- 
lieves to  be the cause of the    so-called 
"Grouse Disease." His report was published 
in the BULLETIN   of the American   Game 
Protective Association for January, 1924. 
Briefly summarized, the discovery was of a 
small round worm which lives in the pro- 
ventriculus or glandular part of the stomach 
burrowing into the mucosa and secreting 
some toxic substance which causes the death 
of the bird. Photographs of the parasites 
and of infected stomachs were published in 
the report. In order to determine the prev- 
alence of the parasite in the wild birds, the 
New York State Conservation Commission 
directed its game protectors to send Dr. 
Allen stomachs of grouse shot in all parts 
of New   York State.  About 100 stomachs 
were examined in 1923 from    19 different 
localities and stomachs from  ten localities 
were found to be infected.   In 1924, 75 
stomachs were examined from 39 localities 
and 11 from nine localities were found in- 
fected. The important discovery this year 
was that in each of the localities where the 
parasites were found in 1923, the birds were 
uniformly scarce in 1924, strengthening Dr. 
Allen's contention that the parasite is the 
direct cause of the Grouse Disease and the 
disappearance  of  the  grouse  from  the 
coverts.  In addition to those from  New 
York State, stomachs of birds from Con- 
necticut, Rhode Island, New   Hampshire, 
and Massachusetts were examined and the 
parasite found in Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts; Prof. A. 0. Gross likewise reported it 
from Maine. Several dozen stomachs from 
Pennsylvania were examined without find- 
ing the parasite although  other parasites 
were discovered. 
The parasite discovered by Dr. Allen has 
thus far been called Dispharagus. A review 
of the literature and a study of the mor- 
phology of the worm by Miss Elizabeth L. 
Keyes, however, indicates that it should be 
called Acuaria spiralis Mol. unless it is a 
new species. Its complete life history is 
not known as thus far only the adult worms 
and their eggs have been found. It may be 
that one cycle of its life history is passed in 
an intermediate host but this has not yet 
been determined. Investigations of this kind 
are particularly difficult because of the value 

of the birds, the scarcity of the material 
with which one has to work, and the lack 
of funds for carrying on an extensive in- 
Grouse Conmittee Created 
At the recent National Game Conference 
a resolution was passed calling for an inten- 
sive study of the Grouse Disease over a 
three year period. It seenis appropriate at 
this time to mention some of the problems 
that such an investigation should attempt 
to solve. In the first place, inasmuch as 
such a start has been made in the study 
of cause and effect of the parasite Disphara- 
gus, an effort should be made to learn its 
complete life history.  Control measures 
can scarcely be worked out until this is 
known. Its status throughout the range of 
the grouse should be learned by an examina- 
tion of stomachs from  all over northern 
United States and Canada, and its effect 
upon the numbers of the birds in the coverts 
determined. This can be done only through 
the cooperation of a large number of sports- 
men who will agree to keep an accurate 
record of all birds flushed in their favorite 
coverts each time they go afield, so that it 
will be known exactly when an increase 
or decrease occurs, and who will preserve the 
crops and stomachs of all birds shot. 
Dr. Allen gives the following directions 
for preparing specimens.  "A  quart fruit 
jar containing a pint of five per cent for- 
maldehyde should be included in the equip- 
ment of every sportsman, and the crops and 
stomachs, tied together with a label bearing 
the date, time, and place of capture, should 
be dropped into it when the birds are 
dressed. At the close of the season these 
specimens should be removed from     the 
fluid, drained, and mailed to us together 
with the notes on the number of birds in 
the coverts. All birds found dead in the 
field should be mailed to us at once for ex- 
amination, unless they have already spoiled. 
If the weather is warm, however, it would 
be better to drop the entire alimentary tract, 
including the liver and spleen into the for- 
maldehyde for a few hours before shipping 
It is very likely that other parasites and 
diseases are of equal importance with Dis- 
pharagus and an effort should be made to 
learn all of the diseases and parasites to 
which the species is heir. This can be done 
by a careful examination of a large number 
of birds when freshly killed but even better 
by keeping a large number in captivity and 
watching them closely for indications of 
the various diseases as they appear. The 
diseases of the young birds can best be 
studied by raising them in captivity likewise 
and having them under complete control. 
This requires a considerable outlay    for 
stock, enclosures, and care. 
Life History to be Studied 
In addition to a study of the diseases of 
the grouse there are a number of facts in its 
life history that have a bearing upon the 
abundance of the birds that ought to be 
studied in a comprehensive investigation. 
The exact nature of the food of the grouse 
throughout the different seasons and under 
varying conditions should be known; the 
food of the young as well as that of the 
adults. Experiments should be made in food 
preferences.  We should know   the feeding 
range of the covies of young birds and the 
daily and seasonal range of the old birds; 
and the meaning of the erratic migrations or 
wanderings  in  which  some birds indulge. 
We should have a complete knowledge of the 
life history and activities of the bird from 
the time it hatches from the egg until its 
offspring begin the new cycle, for no one 
can  foretell what little  fact will prove 
most important in working out the life his- 
tory  of a parasite or the control of a 
Institutions Will Cooperate 
The National Game Conference has sug- 
gested that the investigation of the Grouse 
Disease be carried on jointly by Cornell Uni- 
versity, Syrazuzz Univzr ty, and the U  S. 
t44 fres xpernet Stauti0 
_                                                                      I
  I     I                                       MIS* 

Biological Survey but its success will de- 
pend  entirely upon the cooperation of all 
sportsmen  and  the  Conservation  Commis- 
sions of the various states and Canada where 
the grouse is found.    Scientists of other 
institutions of the United States and Canada, 
within the range of the ruffed grouse, are 
invited to cooperate in this investigation and 
those who may be willing to do so should 
correspond with the Chairman of the Com- 
A start has been made, a good race can 
be run, but whether or not the goal can be 
reached will depend upon the interest of 
those who are best able to help-the sports- 
Modern   conservation  methods must em- 
ploy the help of the scientist. The investi- 
gation of the grouse disease will tend to as- 
semble facts which may make it possible to 
eliminate  or  avoid  these  epidemics  and 
thus render the grouse supply more per- 
manent and dependable and improve shoot- 
ing  opportunities.  It is incumbent upon 
sportsmen to make it possible to carry on this 
Subscriptions Coming In 
A resolution was passed at the Confer- 
ence providing for raising the sum of $15,- 
000. to be paid in three annual installments, 
to defray the expenses of this investigation 
and a committee of five sportsmen    and 
scientists was appointed to have charge of 
this work. About $2,500 was subscribed at 
the time, and other subscriptions have since 
been received. 
The New York Conservation Commission 
has given assurance that it will co-operate. 
Opportunity for Sportsmen 
This is the first time an opportunity of 
this kind has been presented to do some- 
thing constructive and worth while for the 
preservation of the partridge. It is very 
desirable to have the full amount needed 
for this investigation pledged at once so 
that plans can be made for a definite cam- 
paign covering the three years. 
All sportsmen interested should be will- 
ing to assist in this campaign. Those who 
are, should immediately send their pledges 
to Mr. John B. Burnham, Chairman, 2273 
Woolworth Building, New York City, nam- 
ing a specific sum to be contributed for 
1925, 1926 and 1927, and, if possible, to ac- 
company pledge with payment for the first 
Mail pledges at once. It is important that work be organized now 
for 1925 season. 
JOHN B. BURNHAM, Chairman 

claw am Alatk 
Sid Lores 29th Ohwstw  ena(e. 25    92) 
(Limte. to a *umitr 15 mils i Iaistw) 
@mpllt 44Y J~     Mal* 
Nuber of sta4tions repowtig Ja 00e V. S. mAt *ast of tbo Missssppi, 159 
(Zulu&* Minn. sat lows) 
Satons oel~ 
*V  o. #oft 
14 out of tho 22 repotol only I en an& tt is Ilk*1 
that morq# If not mors, of tho otberw soon siuv1y, 
If Us Nov Ing1at States s" *2ote* tursanca 
10 tlatins "porting ad only 2D birds seon. 
Sttns  mavru 
AT. so. soft 
3ecos ov spoeo11y mti~oe as sean. These *ompris 
4Wbirds, ansvg of 12-2/3 to a coey. Asumn tW          in 
-om  es iye ko ew~iaot, i to is neerb loss probable 
tkat the sags failyva fme 10 to 11 bids, singly 
1anoem=U    of yvo  to grow to maturity. 
Tbr then to te Increas not Uroatet? 
Are the do1.stiag fto"tmoe effoctivo after maturity tha 
bfWeT Os would "a~t tulte the reveres, *zmept for abootiAg. 
IndtvUas a 

2T taios eprtd  o los 1indat$k quit*. asgeera 

Digest of 
WHistorial Colle0tioas of Ida Count* 
D. 0. C. Userehead, Pioneer Reord Preis, 1929 
P- 5. Water. "Wild ducks and geese lazily swam in the river, the water

of which was so clear that schools of fish could be seen on the 
hard clean sandy bottom.' (June 16, 1956) 
rd w1ter, 156-7      olest ever known in Iowa.* Also 1090-91, 
P. 7. Migration of elk. 'At one time, when the floating ice filled the 
river, the elk travelling north gathered on the laud now occupied 
by Ida Grove in sach ==bers that they covered the ground and 
extended south ae far as comld be seem.' (Ink lasted till 1570, 
p. 26). 
*Prairie OOhERZ~. wero almost tame and woe trapped and shot at 
4m       wer  as abundant as sparrows today.* 
'Dcks, gae, ourlln     and sandhill cranes nested.' The latter 
species is substantiated by a pet, which must have been caUght 
p. 16. Prairie firem. *At times deer and elk and prairie chickens were 
driven south by *ms   fire*, and w     the first warning the set- 
tler receted. 
p. 102. M      o     *Cattle never learned to migrate as the elk and 
buffalo did.'O 
Prairie hickea    .. 
Iowa report 

Prairie chicken foider 
Detaile  reports an the statu of vrius spei ofSa 
U~~r~~se, Inwidduksuuta ueres in all oto   specie of gam 
Urd *cot heNmarbm partift       *hIb, it apes ha       pra 
easeryfomAlberta util It has reached tb bordes of Mntb 
mot of Wes pecies of Itsv voition ove       mh a vast are   in a 
short spw   of timm is.a remakable *icmta.. Mr. Bradsha als. 
discouns the claim =a* by a*that ths Ivxarian oexsa7hi- 
fwul inat1ew an native spcies, suc as the prairis chilces 
A ceatt" v.t~temt of &am bir4. killed inskaasm 
Is emin quted In part from Mr. Brashaw's report 
Pririe Ob..             ....       180,000      70*132 
tstimtod total sason~ beg of all 
'birds per soter. * a W*      *  * * 4 

I tIbrarp ot 
Rtbo leopolb                             Zi    ( 
A few obcervations on the siatux oJ a borlorn game bird 
An Editorial 
OW      INDEED is this famous bird. So low in fact that 
the mere handful that remains is little more than a 
stinging reminder of what might have been. 
When the early settlers of the North Atlantic coast looked 
about them for natural resources, they found among the 
native birds one that they chose to call the "heath hen." 
We now know that it is a relative of the pinnated grouse or 
prairie chicken of the west. Nevertheless, it is a separate 
and distinct bird that once had its abode from what is 
now southern Maine to the Virginia Capes and perhaps 
ND what a battle for life it has been. In 1890 there 
were between one and two hundred birds. In 1892 they 
befits us to begrudge the inroads that were made on these 
birds by the early settlers through their necessities. Neither 
can we be too severe toward those who later, in their blind- 
ness, continued the process of reduction as a vocation. 
Sportsmen as a class have never figured conspicuously in 
heath hen history. The low status of the bird was ap- 
proached ere the sport of field shooting had become a factor 
of any great importance. 
In the year 1834 a few heath hens were reported in New 
Jersey, on Long Island and in Connecticut, but the last 
record of a heath hen being killed on the mainland of New 
York was only two years later. In 1844 the bird was prac- 
tically extinct on Long Island. 
The bird did not survive as long on the mainland to the 
north. It had practically disappeared from the Connecticut 
Valley by 1820 and in 1840 none were believed to be in 
existence on the mainland of Massachusetts. By 1875 all 
the remaining heath hens in existence were on Martha's 
Vineyard Island off the southern coast of Massachusetts. 
There on that sea island the little remnant has fought its 
fight for existence, and still fights on, perhaps twenty, per- 
haps fifty, probably no more. 
ND what a battle for life it has been. In 1890 there 
were between one and two hundred birds. In 1892 they 
were reduced to some. 
thing like the present 
day  numbers. 1894 
saw a forest fire that 
swept the   breeding 
grounds and hope was 
practically given up 
Three years later the 
birds were still there, 
twenty or so. The 
next year found the 
number doubled. 
The year 1907 saw 
some real constructive 
work done. The Corn- 
monwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, sportsmen's 
organizations, the Au- 
dubon Society and a 
group of public-mind- 
ed citizens, completed 
the purchase of a 
heath hen refuge. A 
warden was placed on 
the grounds and forest 
fire lines established. 
As a result of the pro- 
tection  afforded the 
increase was almost 
immediate. By 1911 
the number had in- 
dred, and by 1916 there were between 800 and 1,500. Then 
came hard times. Another fire, a flight of goshawks and 
bad breeding seasons reduced the number to below a hundred 
in the spring of 1917. 1918 saw an increase to over four 
hundred in 1921. Then down again to fifty in 1923 and 
still less in 1924. In 1925 hope was again practically given 
up, yet fifty were reported in 1926, and the beginning of 
1928 finds the number about the same-less if anything. If 
tenacity is a virtue, the heath hen deserves to live, as its 
vast history shows. 
It is reported that from 1907 to date, the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts has spent nearly $60,000 in an attempt to 
save the heath hen. If that figure represents money paid 
in by the sportsmen of Massachusetts to make the hunting 
and fishing conditions better in that state, it is a lot. Only 
by a miracle can the heath hen ever again become a game 
bird. There is not one chance in a thousand that it will. 
A continued drag of any great size on the sportsmen's funds 
would not be justified from the standpoint of sound business. 
Although an average of $3,000 per year for such a cause is 
not an appalling figure, there are healthier issues that need 
the State's attention. Perhaps the State should be pardoned 
for what seems like a rather dilatory attitude. However, it 
is to be remembered that about $30,000 was spent from 
1907 to 1916 and included the purchase of the heath hen 
refuge. During that time the birds increased from fifty to 
one thousand, more or less. 
B UT what of these societies that are committeed to the 
cause of conservation and who solicit funds from well- 
meaning people for use in furthering the cause to which they 
are dedicated? It looks to us as if they were hog-tied with 
a bundle of scientific red tape and petty politics. As sports- 
men we always thought that just such a situation as the 
heath hen now presents was where such organizations were 
supposed to shine. If the heath hen in its present status is 
not in their field, what on earth is? 
Here are what we consider the facts of the case. The 
State, perforce, must 
place a limit on its 
heath  h1-  ... 11  T- 
did. Then up pops a 
bird club of strength 
and power. This or- 
ganization employed 
a special warden to 
devote all his atten- 
tion  to  heath  hen 
guardianship,  a n d 
armed him   with  a 
state collector's per- 
mit in order that he 
might  overstep  the 
written laws on the 
taking of species of 
birds that, in his 
judgment, were a 
menace to those few 
remaining and valu- 
able heath hens. The 
club gained no little 
publicity and credit, 
and incidentally col- 
lected funds by pub- 
lic contribution. 
THEN comes a 
heinous crime. Two 
screech owls - birds 
ctvidence                             (Continued on page 54) 
creased   to two   hun-                                  Wvhat Pr;ice 

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(Continited from page 20) 
and  hooked   beak-became   troublesome. 
They were probably just curious, but any- 
way the warden shot them. He figured 
that two owls less in the world was a good 
gambling chance when a perverted taste 
for young heath hen might send the latter 
species into oblivion. We believe the war- 
den was right. However, what a hulla- 
baloo there was. The warden was repri- 
manded for not knowing his ornithology 
better. He was threatened with arrest. 
All the book scientists got their heads to- 
gether and mourned the loss of the owls 
through such colossal ignorance. That was 
the beginning of the end. The warden's 
collector's permit was finally revoked. Shed 
a tear for the poor heath hen. The red 
tape will probably get him-but not yet. 
While all the doctors and professors 
were passing judgment on just which flesh- 
eating hawks and owls would eat a young 
heath hen and how hungry they would 
have to be to do it, and how a warden 
could tell when they were that hungry, 
etc., etc., the bird club, dedicated to con- 
servation, just naturally leaked out of the 
picture. The heath hen was again aban- 
doned to what care the State could give it. 
Then the local sportsmen's club, made 
up for the most part of residents of 
Martha's Vineyard Island, not being will- 
ing to see their bird go by the board with- 
out another effort, organized the Martha's 
Vineyard Heath Hen Committee. They 
employed the same warden that the bird 
club left an orphan along with the heath 
hen. They employed him because they 
knew him to be an earnest man and one 
who probably knew the heath hen situation 
better than any other. He did what he 
could but without a collector's permit 
which the state refused to grant, his previ- 
ous crime having so shocked the library 
The work of the Martha's Vineyard 
Heath Hen Committee has been compara- 
tively short lived. Their resources were 
limited and they had no efficient means of 
raising funds. As a last resort the Com- 
mittee asked for financial aid from  the 
biggest conservation organizations in the 
East, including the National Association 
of Audubon Societies, which reports its an- 
nual expenditures as about $200,000, and 
an endowment fund now nearing the mil- 
lion dollar mark. Aid was refused by the 
President, Dr. T. G. Pearson, his reason 
being that any effort on the part of his 
organization might offend the Conservation 
Department of the State of Massachusetts. 
Dr. Pearson was also the President of the 
bird club which undertook to save the 
heath hen in 1925 and suddenly abandoned 
the project in the spring of 1927. 
The warden, of his own free will, 
worked on about six months, and then that 
was the end of that. Shed another tear 
for the poor heath hen. If the red tape 
doesn't finish him, petty politics probably 
A GAIN the last few heath hens in the 
world were facing a winter on Martha's 
Vineyard practically unprotected. Although 
NATIONAL SPORTSMAN is bending its efforts 
on the progressive program of Game Res- 
toration depending on the organizations al- 
ready dedicated to conservation to take 
care of such cases as the heath hen, we 
could not let this cause go by default. We 
will finance this same warden until after 
the next breeding season and he is back on 
the job again. We haven't any idea whether 
the heath hen will be saved, but we do 
not propose to turn a deaf ear at such a 
critical time. 
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March, 1928 
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21 December 1928 
MLr. Aldo .Leoiold 
Game Survey 
421 Chemistry Bldg. 
}kadison, Wisconsin 
Dear Sir: 
I have your letter of December 12th and am sending 
you a copy of Article 10 of Volume 14 of our Bulletin in 
which you will find Professor Gross' data with regard to 
the prairie hen in Illinois.   The index to the volume re- 
fers under this head to pages 408, 416, 417, 418, 420, 4 7, 
and 439.   Professor Gross' field notes would contain only 
more detailed information as to precise localities and situ- 
ations in which the species was noted. 
If I can give you any further information on the 
subject, I shall be pleased to hear from you. 
Very truly yours, 
Wrote 12/27/28: Not yet                      - 
received.                                 -- 4 

F -- Th f 
Copyright. by Rm.od 31(Nafly & Comipooy, ChicagQ 
I ~ (3 
6m~N ROE 
---1GREEN     1ROCK 
, NOo 00 
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jWAS -11 ZAUI( E 
The Law Prohibits CopyinIg or Reproduction by Any Procena tor Personal Use
or Resale. 
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Map    - 
Distribution of ? 
Game Survey 
Aldo Leopold 
INC_._ :.A 
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Oct. 1, 1929 
Pinnated Grouse 
Sharptail Grouse 
Boundary Accurate 
Boundary Approximate 
Isolated Occurrence 
Migratory chickens nest 
Migratory chickens winter 
Drifting chickens seen 
Counties not covered , 
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From the Wilson Bulletin, March, 1929, pae i3. 
From General Notes, Conducted by M. H. Swenk. 
Prairie Hen (Tympanuchus americanus).--Ricnard %. Durst and myself 
recorded a fenale of this species at Bay Pointl May 2, 1923.   It 
was discovered while sunning itself in the clearing of an old wagon 
road, and ran sho-,ly ahead of us for about 200 yards at a distance 
of from thirty to sixty feet, following the deep rut formed by the 
wagon wheels. The bird seemed little frightened by our presence 
and we did not succeed in flushing it until the distance between us 
was cut to less than twenty feet. The head and neck, the barring of 
the heavy plump body, the short feathered les and the very short 
tail with prominent blac: bars were all cleerly observed, both with 
the naked eye and by the aid of 3x binoculars, removing all possibil- 
ity of confusion with any other species. This bird was though by 
many to have become extinct in Ohio a number of years ago, as there 
have been no recent records. Evidently a few scattered individuals 
have been able to survive in unusually favorable habitats, as it is 
unlikely that the species would ever be able to re-establish itself 
in the state once it had been completely wiped out. Several rumors 
of birds resembling Prairie Hens have come from the Huron Marshes 
regi)n and it is altogether possible that they may sometime be found 
there, or somewhere in the Oak Openings region west of Toledo. 

Prairie chicken folder 
From tbe 'Wilson Sulletia, March. 1929. PMO 43, 
From Geeral Notes. Conduted by L. $Suk. 
S(Tympnebus mericns).-icbd~ S. Daw4 and myself 
reorded a femle of this Opecies at by Point, May 26, 192L. It 
was 4iscovred while canning itself in the clesrig of an old wagon 
road, and ran slowly ahead of us for about 2   yards at a distanc* 
of from thirty to sixty feet, following the deep rut formed by the 
won wheels. The bird semd little frightened by our prestace 
sad we did not succeed in flushing it ntil the distance between us 
was cut to less than twenty feet. The head and neck, the barring 
of the heavy plump body, the short feathered legs and the very short 
tail with proinent black bars were all clearly obsrved, both with 
the naked eye and by the aid of ft binculars, removing all possibil- 
ity of confuslon with any other species. This bird was thaht by 
many to have become extinct in Ohio a nuber of years ego, as there 
beve been no recent records. Zvidently a few scattered individuals 
have been able to marvivo in      aly favorable habitats, as it is 
unlikely that the species would ever be able to reestablish itself 
in the state oncs it had been completely wiped out. Several   .Lyse 
of birds reenbli Prairie  ens have come from the Huron Marshes 
region and it in altogether possible that they y sometime be 
found there, or soTiewhere In the Oak Openinjs re-ion west of Toledo. 

Prairie chicken folder 
E. G. Bowman of Alton, Illinois, told me on April 2, 
19a9, that in September or ea rly October, 1002,he h d seen all 
of the buildin  s in Fargo, North Dakota, covered with prairie 
chickens   hich had stopped there to rest durin- their   igration. 
As I recollect,he said this was in the early    orni  and the 
chickens were sunnin; themselves on the buildings. 
In 19©3-04 the crop was pro -ressively reduced by 
reason of special tra1is of huters which were run out of 
Chic&o.  (See Illinois notes pae 33A.) 

Sharitoi Grouse folder 
Lxtract from Journal of a'reiogy, May 199, Pae 14G. 
"?hronghorn Antelope" by eorge Bird Grinnell. 
In southern Iontana in the country between Tonue and Powder Rivers 
lives a ranchman - ho for more than twenty-five ye rs >as himself been
the antelope, and by his precept and examle has induced     is neighbors
to do the 
saie thin(. At one tLme so-e y'rs a o he wss oblined to sp&ak very sharpy
so7fe of the neighbori1g Indians   ef re he could. ers e theC to let the
lope alone, but wit in the nast dozen ye-rs he has not     noi of the   
 lingln  of 
a single one, thsh, perhaps ten ycrs                    r he he rd a runor
th t a Cri1ed 
" antelo oe had. been seen. 
This man, Bater Pierce, is a lover of wild thins.       very wte 
about his bouse a flock of sharp-t iLed --1rouse, which are about as tane
chickens.   T ot long ao,  hen kinJ-herted but ill-infored people objected
tte distribution of poisoned r:in for the pur ose of     ilLing Lohers and

prairie dogs, because they supposed th t eating this grain    o.uld kil the
and other birds, Mr. Pierce captured four shar4--tiled rouse and sent them
(ae Montana  ame warden for experimentation.    He told me thUt the  ame
fed these birds for a week on poisoned grain and that none of them showed
effects of thenpoison.   Similar experiments h-ve been tried in   ew York
with pheasants. 

WASHINGTON, D. C.                  IN 0 
AND REFER TO                             July 30, 1929. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
421 Chemistry Building, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
I have your letter of July 26th in regard to the sharp-tailed 
grouse of the Apostle Islands. I was collecting on the islands from 
June 19 to 24, 1919, at which time I was alone and spent most of my 
efforts in collecting mammals.  I revisited the islands the same year 
from July 4 to 24, when I had with me two assistants, one of whom 
devoted most of his time to collecting birds. We saw no sharp-tailed 
grouse on any of the islands at that time, but have a note as follows: 
"Harvey Tann saw a flock of about 40 prairie chickens at Grant's 
Point on Madeline Island in the sumner of 1917 and reported that a na- 
tive of the island killed nine in that vicinity." 
You will notice that Mr. Tann speaks of these birds as prairie 
chickens but I feel quite confident that they were sharp-tailed grouse 
since the latter were at that time fairly well distributed over a 
great portion of northwestern Wisconsin and in most places were local- 
ly known as prairie chickens; in fact, in the south-central region of 
Wisconsin where both species occur I could find no local residents who 
distinguished between the two species. They simply called them all 
prairie chickens. 
I have been working on and off on an annotated list of the birds 
I of northwestern Wisconsin and when it is complete and has been publish-

ed you will see there are several different records for the sharp 
tailed grouse in the northern part of your State. 
With kindest regards and best wishes, I am, 
H. H. 'I 

ILtbrar  of 
Mbo leopoTh     %09 eathersand Ar 
Sharp-tailed Grouse                              Pinuated Grouse 
The Pinnated Grouse and The Sharp-Tailed 
Both of these famed game birds of Minnesota 
are called "prairie chickens" indiscriminately by 
the average sportsman; the pinnated grouse is 
the true prairie chicken, the sharp-tail is usually 
termed "grouse" by those who note a difference 
between the two. 
A casual glance should distinguish the two 
birds; the markings of the prairie chicken or 
pinnated grouse run strongly to cross bars while 
in the sharp-tail the black markings seem to 
border the feathers, especially on the breast, giv- 
ing a different effect from the "plymouth rock" 
pattern of the prairie chicken. 
The feathering on the legs is also different in 
the two birds; the sharp-tail being quite heavily 
feathered, especially in the winter; the feather- 
ing on the prairie chicken is comparatively slight, 
although the entire leg, in full winter plumage, Is 
feathered. This statement may be contradicted 
by some hunters, especially of the older genera- 
tion, who frequently ask what has become of the 
prairie chicken they used to shoot which was 
clean-legged-had no feathering on the leg at all. 
This question having arisen at severa] County 
fair exhibits by the Department, the writer ex- 
amined a collection of mounted grouse owned by 
his father, some of the specimens of which dated 
back nearly twenty-five years. Among them was 
one prairie chicken, which at first glance seemed 
to be clean-legged but more thorough examination 
disclosed the fact that the legs were fully cov- 
ered with minute pin-feathers---evidently the bird 
was a young bird, shot at a period when the sea- 
son opened before all the young birds were in 
full plumage. Evidently the recollections of these 
other hunters were based on this same cause, the 
shooting of young birds at a much earlier date 
than is legal or ethical at the present time. 
The prairie chicken is also distinguishable from 
the sharp-tail by the rounded tail as contrasted 
with the pointed tail of the latter; in the spring, 
the male prairie chicken is adorned with an 
orange colored inflatable sac on either side of 
the neck, immediately under a tuft of straight, 
stiff feathers, which are part of his courting pan- 
oply. At that time of the year they gather at 
some favored spot, usually a knoll in a meadow, 
and strut for the edification of the unadorned fe- 
males, accompanying their anctics with boomings 
and cacklings which sound quite foreign to the 
murmur of a peaceful meadow. The full Wagner- 
ian symphony of such a conference in the early 
morning or dusk is surprising to one hearing it 
for the first time. 
The two birds overlap in their habitats, both 
species being found in the same territory occa- 
sionally, although the pinnated grouse is essen- 
tially a bird of the open fields and prairies, while 
the sharp-tail prefers his open spaces interspers- 
ed with brush-lands. The prairie chicken will 
thrive under moderate civilization but his doom 
lies in too efficient cultivation of prairie farm- 
lands; the preferred territory of the sharp-tall 

234                  fins, PeaI lers am &fr 
usually will not admit of the same degree of cul- 
tivation and as a result the sharp-tail has beu.i 
holding his own fairly well, but the prairie chick- 
en is rapidly approaching extinction; the eastern 
representative of this bird, the Heath-hen, is now 
reduced to one solitary specimen, living in ma- 
jestic solitude in Martha's Vineyard, an island on 
the Massachusetts coast. 
Successful propagation of these two species in 
pens is very dubious, occasional birds have been 
raised to maturity but they cannot be handled 
like quail or ring-necked pheasants. If we wish 
to maintain these birds in Minnesota, we must 
nurture the remaining stock and furnish the re- 
quired natural food, cover and, protection which 
they enjoyed in our grandfathers' time, prior to 
the period of barb-wire fences and billiard table 
cultivation of fields. 
The Country Newspaper As Anl 
Aid to Conservation 
One of the strongest factors in Minnesota in 
building up a public sentiment for conservation 
of natural resources is the country newspaper. 
Our state press is fortunate in having, as editors, 
several of the recognized leaders in this endeavor 
in Minnesota, and the newspapers as a whole are 
always willing and eager to do whatever they 
can to further the cause. 
Editors, as a class, are interested in any pro- 
jects which affect the welfare of the coiumunity 
which they serve, whether it be politics, political 
issues, community problems, or the restoration of 
natural resources of the contiguous territory. The 
editor may not be personally interested in any one 
of these community projects but he is interested 
in the sum total of them all-furtherance of the 
community good. 
The game warden who avails himself of this 
opportunity for contact with the people of his 
district in the solving of local problems saves 
himself much unnecessary work-a half hour's 
talk with his local editor will give him contact 
with thousands of individuals, which he could 
not obtain by months of traveling over the ter- 
Many of our wardens have taken advantage of 
this co-operative possibility in the past and have 
always found the editor very willing to co-operate 
with him in publishing appropriate articles, es- 
pecially such as are of immediate interest to the 
territory served by the publication. 
We are reprinting below several articles pub- 
lished in his local paper by Felix Klet, warden 
at Spring Lake, as examples of what can be done 
by contacting your local editor: 
Game warden Felix Klet of Spring Lake 
sends the News an interesting discussion of 
the evils of using poisoned bait, which will 
prove good, reading to every friend of con- 
servation in Itasca county. 
"One of the best game laws we have," says 
Mr. Klet, -"is that prohibiting the use of any 
kind of poison for bait. In my opinion, any- 
body found gui.-y of this offense should be 
given a double fine. 
"Many trappers think it is all right to set 
vo-.oned bait for wolves. But a wolf bait 
i a bait for many otner things. Song birds, 
grouse and partridges pick at the bait and 
ule. Valuable ur-bearing animals eat such 
bait and crawl off to their holes, die, and are 
a total loss. If trappers were really mind- 
ful of the damage, poisoned bait would not 
be used. 
"Owners of summer resorts should impress 
upon their patrons the importance of game 
conservation, and willingly co-operate with 
wardens. Game and fish are the resources 
which make resort .prpofitable.' 
VAGRANT HOUSE CATS                / 
'The greatest destroyers of  birds  are  our 
ousecats. They destroy our most valuable birds, 
those that were created for our benefit to de- 
stroy noxious weed seeds and all kinds of harm- I 
ful insects that are a menace to livestock and 
necessary vegetaion. 
Not only do the cats destroy the small birds 
but they do not spare the lives of partridges 
and grouse while they are small and helpless. 
Tiey will even catch full-grown birds to some 
it is not difficult to count from one to a dozen 
cats at various farm homes-and we wonder why 
our gardens are eaten up by insects and cattle 
driven home from pastures. 
A house cat is too destructive and expensive 
to keep just to kill a few mice. A few cents worth 
of traps will catch just as many mice as a dozen 
cats and one sparrow-hawk or screech owl will 
kill more mice, gophers and grasshoppers than 
any cat." 
Warden Klet's reference to the house cat's de- 
struction of game birds recalls an instance re- 
lated by Warden Sheridan Greig, of Pine County. 
His children being pleased with a large black 
cat that strayed into his place one winter's day 
several years ago, he let it remain, against his 
better judgment. Several mornings later the cat 
was missing and seeing that the trail led in the' 
direction which he intended to patrol that day, 
he followed it to see what the cat would do. 
Within the first mile that cat had caught and 
partially eaten two grown partridges. Needless 
to say, Warden Greig snowshoed that trail until 
the cat was eliminated; and the trail was seven 
miles long before the demise took place. 
She: "So you kissed that painted creature?" 
He: "Yes, I saluted the colors." 
Proud Parent (who served in the A. E. F.): 
"And that which I have just told, you, son, is the 
story of my experiences in the World war." 
His Son: "But, papa, what did they need the 
rest of the army for?" 
Eight thousand loaves of bread and a large 
quantity of grain were distributed in the Chicago 
forest preserve one Sunday, to keep the 4,000,000 
birds of the preserve from starving. Let us give 
a great white mark, despite the many black ones 
it has received, to a citizenship that can thus 
look after its little feathered friends. 

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DigePt of 
Tousle, Mrs. John H.        W Aubun              Banta Pablishing Co. 
(Covering period 1831-1533) 
P. 13 "littie glades of Prairie opening to the water" on shore
Mackinaw Olty, Mieh. 
p. 22 Rattlesnakes @omwn at Portage (Carver     kes seams utatement). 
p. 5F Sandhill Crmes seen at Dffalo aike. 
p. 56 Wild rice plugs river between Twiffalo Take and Porte". 
(Carver also says this). 
p. 59 Prairie lay between Portage and Fox River, Othickly wooled 
ri'~ro* to 9, 
p. 103 Osomttmes the elevations (in the rollt  prairie) were covered 
with a thicket or cope, in wh ch our loes wnull -ener-11y 
rouse up one or more leer." This Just south of 4Adison. 
P. 107 'In this oren ctnintry there are no lanimarks" (Srke of

trail from Blue Mounds SE to "Hamiltonts djrgings". 
(Iota, Tafayette Co) 
r. 115 Pecstonica ws broken and ttmbered. 
P. 142 Sand dunes at Chiiao covered with "stinted cears,   ines, 
and dwarf willow trees." 
P. 153 rXaes outfit,    "To these (articles) If his deatination 
were  lk Serlor or some -nint fUrthr north, where such 
rtieieA were not to be obtained were added one or two 
skeod deerskins for moccasins." 
p2014 ftiwn hnntinr diary In "CiaoAnt iquiities 1991-rppF9-92.0 
p. 23  1. of Barney Lawtons lay "a nrairie, atretchtn  :way to the 
NI. No livinr creAre ws to be sen--but circlin over 
our heads were Innmerable fl.c!s of curlews" loc? 
p.   0 "Sassafras" in oak openiwg at Dnkl-eyls Orove. 
p. 256 Brook trout caught -t Trtle Creek,, N. of LiAe Geneva. 
. 5   Decr.  f bir- son-s inclule "the wrbling bass of the 
rse, the !runi:xA    of the pnrtrile."    Th1s was in spring. 
ShArptail or P C ment by*grouse". 
,K-  1 

p.256 Forest Othick anl t~AIV"ed* bstween Turtle Cr. a.nd IKoshkOnonk5

htid to sweup moA with an axe. Vanks of YoahhonnA, ere 
wooled with oakc oneninirs At -,muth o)f floc', Piver. 
p. 260 OTwenty-mile Fra irWe lay uotwe;4n ToshkoniojW and 1    . 
n. 262 RHutlwng Wloode0 -t Poynotte. on CTanO. 
P. 375  &Old$ alive With' pige~nl" on uzmk of. !Fox River 112 diq

northi of Fot   .halfw-Y to Thatte Iu Morts. 
P,* 337 *%ollti -*k" on Garlin Island, The innebuago. 
"Evidently clhiAT±ers. 
'p. 3911 Winter of 19-2-31 wa ml14;  gsnow %(-aroly enolvwti A~ Lny 
time to pe~xtthe InditAns to tr-ricz thc deer.' 

Xt|brarp of 
RUbo Rcopo1b 
of the 
HE prairie chicken or pin-            Wallace 
nated grouse has long been 
T     held in the highest of esteem  Photographs by I 
by sportsmen, ornithologists 
and nature lovers. Those who have 
watched the curious mating antics   CONCERTED effort 
of the prairie chicken in spring and   from going the wa 
who have listened to the "crowing"  perative. All states w 
survive must do their u 
or "booming" of the proud cock     studies must be followe 
birds as they strut with dragging   hearted measures will 
wings, raised tail and great inflated  tells what one state is 
orange-colored neck sacs, hold the  will fall in line immedi 
sight and the sound as among the 
most interesting in nature. 
The sportsman who, on a frosty fall morning, traverses 
stubble fields, marshland and upland wastes accompanied 
by his keen nosed dog will testify that a covey of prairie 
chickens is a reward to thrill the heart. Unfortunately, the 
reward of starting a covey of these birds has been all too 
rare in recent years, and in many once famous chicken 
grounds this sport is now but a pleasant memory. 
Strangely, too, when one searches for reliable informa- 
tion concerning the domestic life of the prairie chicken, he 
discovers "many eulogies but few facts." Should he wish 
to learn what the prairie chicken eats throughout the twelve 
months of the year he finds information meager. Inquiry 
concerning the effect of predators is met by guess. Data 
as to the percentage of nests actually producing young is 
unheard of. The ravages of disease are vaguely thought 
to have influence, but in 
no consistent way. 1 he 
percentage of cock birds, 
and the possible effect 
of a decided surplus of 
cocks, is not even thought 
of. Changes in agricul- 
tural methods seldom are 
considered as a prime 
factor, the easier a n d 
more common explana- 
tion being t h at "they 
were shot out." 
This is a bad state of 
affairs. Much of the pes- 
simism voiced about the 
future of the prairie 
chicken as a game bird 
is justilnecl; Out it is jus-  A pile of unthreshed buckwheat in a 
tified only because it can             nated grouse awaiting dis 
U. (irange            be truthfully said that conserva- 
tionists in general have not bothered 
Alfred 0. Gross      to dig up facts necessary to any pro- 
gram aiming to correct conditions. 
When the real facts are brought to 
save the prairie chicken  light on most conservation projects, 
of the heath hen is im-  optimism is justified, because facts 
re these splendid birds  will generally point out the necessary 
ost to this end. Expert 
with real action. Half-  remedies. 
ver do it. This article  One of the first facts which be- 
ing. It is hoped others  came apparent in Wisconsin's study 
ly.        EDITOR.    of the prairie chicken, undertaken 
by the Research and Game Bureaus 
of the Conservation Commission, 
was that food conditions are of very great importance in 
determining the number of birds surviving the winter. Al- 
though this is an obvious fact in many places, it is not so 
generally understood that a particular territory which may 
be attractive to prairie chickens in spring, summer and fall, 
may be permanently uninhabited by them because of poor 
winter food conditions. Prairie chickens may be extermi- 
nated in winter, to re-invade the country only after many 
years. (Information as to the migratory habits of prairie 
chickens is being found in the present study.)  Further- 
more, an area which may be good permanent chicken 
country, unquestionably can be made to support more birds 
per acre than it did previously if systematic feeding is car- 
ried out. Fundamental as this is, it seems not to be common 
knowledge even among many well informed sportsmen. 
Closely tied up with 
tood conditions are cover 
necessities, and these two 
are tremendously influ- 
enced by changing agri- 
cultural conditions. Fun- 
damental again, but very 
infrequently given 
proper emphasis. 
I asked a hunter how 
his luck was. "Oh, the 
hunting's all shot," he 
replied. There is truth 
in the statement that 
hunting accounted f o r 
some of his poor sport, 
but in all probability 
food and cover condi- 
ood location for sharp-tailed and pin-  tions had quite as much 
bution tofeeding grounds,         to do with it.   Disease 
a4,S    1  3 
*    f l, 

and predators are often responsible for the decrease 
of upland game birds, but by and large in agricul- 
tural communities the presence or absence of thickets, 
hedgerows, ungrazed , oodlots, marshes and other 
coverts, and the supply, or lack of it, of winter food, 
are of equal or greater importance than hunting. 
This is particularly true of prairie chickens although 
we must not minimize the toll of excessive shooting. 
In a certain part of southwestern Wisconsin there 
were many prairie chickens twenty years ago. "You 
could hear them crowing everywhere in the spring, 
.ent the local 
s. Twenty 
today the 
ingf stalks 
that the 
forest in 
e area in 
mas almost 
v~ere aban- 
e and corn 
airie chicken 
lerritt L. Jones, 
Bureau, and long 
es and his friends con- 
the food supplies which 
disappeared with the abandonment of farms in the sand and marsh 
In 1928, three of these permanent feeding stations were estab- 
lished. Unused land was plowed tip and sowed to buckwheat. 
Part of this matured grain was cut and stacked; part left uncut. 
Prairie chickens came to the feeding stations as soon as the buck- 
wheat was ripe, fed upon the grain until the snow covered the 
buckwheat. stalks over, and then when the stacked grain was 
opened up at the time of natural food shortage, chickens and sharp 
tailed grouse flocked in from all the surrounding country. Mr. 
Irv Van Wormer, a sportsman who assisted in this project with 

ing the double purpose 
of feeding game and 
educating the boys who 
will become our future 
Last winter the con- 
servation wardens of 
the state did effective 
work in winter feeding, 
several of the men 
carrying out very large 
programs which f e d 
hundreds of birds. At 
Hancock, J o h n Wor- 
den had three hundred 
birds feeding within a 
stone's throw of the 
railway station; at 
Stevens Point, Horn- 
berg fed many prairie    Corn planted especially for winter ga, 
chickens from  c o r n       were flushed from this station ju 
shocks; at Oconomo- 
woc, Stiglbauer carried on extensive feeding of "Huns" and 
pheasants. These are but a few of the outstanding examples. 
In the present winter every warden of the state is paying 
particular attention to the food conditions of his locality. 
If Wisconsin has not already assumed leadership in or- 
ganized winter feeding, especially planted stations, she is 
making a real bid for the place. With the anticipated plant- 
ing of approximately one hundred stations in 1930, she 
takes one of the most important steps in the conservation 
and management of the prairie chicken lever attempted. 
Extensive as Wisconsin's prairie chicken country is, not 
all of her excellent game lands are adapted to the prairie 
chicken. These birds do not thrive anywhere, apparently, 
in the shadow of industrial cities such as are found in 
southeastern Wisconsin. Even here scattered covies per- 
sist, but not in large numbers. 
The first state game farm is already turning out thou- 
sands of Ringneck pheasants to the territory which is 
proven pheasant country. This splendid native of the 
Orient has "its place in the sun" in Wisconsin; a very large 
place indeed. In the southeast, it is destined to provide 
excellent sport within range of our industrial centers. 
Reserving for the splendid newcomer its proper sphere, 
Wisconsin will not forsake its own native game in its ex- 
tensive game program which is now going forward. An 
intensive study of the 
prairie chicken and the 
sharp tailed grouse, be- 
gun in 1929 with the 
assistance of Dr. Al- 
fred 0. Gross, special 
investigator f or the 
Commission, will con- 
tinue in 1930.    Dr. 
Gross is well known for 
his work on the ruffed 
grouse. The study is 
accumulating practical 
and fundamental infor- 
mation about predators, 
parasites, disease, in- 
cubation, and cover and 
f o o d  requirements. 
Facts are beine' uncov- 
Facts.a.e..e.. ov. 
feed. Twenty-seven prairie chickens  ered which will be of 
before the picture was snapped,  great importance in our 
future game manage- 
ment program and of use in other parts of the country. 
A significant point developed is that our prairie chicken 
problems are with the environment rather than with propa- 
gation. Pheasants must first be artificially propagated to 
supply initial stock which will then thrive in the well popu- 
lated environment of southern Wisconsin. Prairie chickens 
have successfully propagated in Wisconsin since the days 
of the rudely cultivated Indian cornfields, and an abundant 
stock remains. Agriculture has increased their numbers, 
as a general thing. Our problems are now to further 
develop suitable environmental conditions in the prairie 
chicken's favor. In many cases this development is actually 
cheaper than artificial stocking with exotic birds. The big- 
gest step in this direction now is in providing feeding 
The outlook for Wisconsin's prairie chicken is very prom- 
ising. With continued attention to these problems, the Wis- 
consin sportsman can look forward to many a covey of 
prairie chickens, poised on motionless wing before him, and 
to many a covey of cackling sharp-tails rising from the 
marsh at his feet. With the ready sport of hunting splen- 
did cock pheasants, famous as game birds in China, India, 
England, Europe and America, he will have the added zest 
of hunting native pinnated grouse, those "blue-bloods" ol 
field and prairie. 
fI    A T 0 
SAW    them limned against the clear, blue sky 
Steadfastly winging their majestic flight, 
A long, dark wedge of wild geese, flying high, 
Their great wings flashing in the golden light. 
Though autumn colors scarce had tinged the trees, 
Though summer langour lingered in the air, 
Their wild, sweet clamor floated on the breeze 
And' woke in me strange longings, listening 
L AST night, while warm winds drove a drenching 
That broke the silence of the muted streams 
And stirred the dormant earth to life again, 
The same wild music drifted through my dreams. 
The leader's clarion call to homeward flight, 
The eager flock's response my fancy fed, 
And as they journeyed northward through the night 
In dreams I wandered where the wild geese led. 

Ulbo leopolb 
The Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Investigation 
Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, Special Investigator for the Wisconsin
Conservation Commission. 
Photos by the Author, Courtesy of the Wisconsin Conservation Commission 
HE Prairie Chicken, a close relative of 
the Heath Hen, still holds an important 
place as a game bird in certain fa- 
vorable regions of the Middle West. Unlike the 
nearly extinct Heath Hen, it is maintaining its 
numbers especially in those places where public 
sentiment fawrs rigid protection. 
The recently created Research Bureau of the 
Conservation  Commission   of Wisconsin, of 
which Dr. Merritt Jones of Wausau is chair- 
man, has among several projects, a compre- 
hensive study of the Prairie Chicken of the 
state. The practical aspects of the problem 
will be emphasized but the Research Bureau 
ui-ds. This parasite, as pointed out in prelimi- 
nary Progress Reports of the New England 
Ruffed Grouse Investigation, is of consider- 
able pathological importance especially to the 
young birds. 
There were an unusual number of cases of 
Heterakis or Caecal worm in specimens of 
both Prairie Chicken and Sharp-tailed Grouse 
but none were found in specimens of Ruffed 
Grouse received from -Wisconsin.  Heterakis 
is a parasite known to have an important rela- 
tion to the transmission and spread of the 
dreaded bird disease "Blackhead."  As is well 
known, this disease is often troublesome in 
rearing certain game birds in captivity. In 
this connection it is also interesting to note 
that "Bleackhead" was a factor in the decline 
of the Heath Hen.    On Martha's Vineyard 
the Heath Hen, because of its habit of appear- 
ing in the open fields near farm houses, was 
thrown into close relation with poultry. Tur- 
keys were raised on the Island in large num- 
bers until Blackhead made the business unprofit- 
"T~ e. It is thercfore reasonable to infer that 
Above-Prairie hen on nest. 
Right-Nest and eggs of Prairie Chicken. 
Below-Just hatched. 
intends to include every factor which has a 
bearing on the life of the Prairie Chicken, a 
study to be continued over a period of several 
years.  The Wisconsin Commission through 
its wardens, has up to December 1, 1929, se- 
cured 116 specimens of Prairie Chickens and 
other grouse which have been used for a de- 
tailed study of plumages, parasites, disease, 
food, weights, measurements and other matters 
of special interest. During the summer of 1 929 
the author spent two months in the field in 
Central Wisconsin making a study of the nest- 
ing habits of the Prairie Chicken. 
In the examination of the specimens of 
Prairie Chickens we have found several para- 
sites of varying importance. The parasite As- 
caridea lineata, as in the case of the Ruffed 
Grouse, holds first place in numbers of infected 
this disease in the Heath Hen was derived by 
contact with the feeding grounds of domestic 
turkeys. Whether such relations with poultry 
are important in connection with the Prairie 
Chicken in the Middle West is yet to be de- 
Dr. E. Cram, of the United States Bureau of 
Animal Industry, who has been working at 
Bowdoin College in connection with life his- 
tories of parasites of the Ruffed Grouse, has 
identified the parasite Cyrnea colini in the Prai- 
rie Chicken. Dr. Cram described this parasite 
as a new species which she found for the first 
time in the quail. This parasite has a certain 
resemblance to the parasite Dispharnyx, whch 
has been the cause of the death of many Rutted 
Grouse especially in New England and New 
York. Cyrnea colini usually establishes itself 
in the constricted region between the proven- 
triculus and the gizzard. Whether this parasite 

will prove ot pathological importance to the 
Prairie Chicken we have not as yet sufficient 
evidence to form  an opinion.  The parasite 
Cheilospirura spinosa was found in many of 
the specimens of Ruffed Grouse and Sharp- 
tailed Grouse collected in Wisconsin but we 
have not as yet found it in the Prairie Chickei. 
External Parasites 
Practically all of the specimens of Prairie 
Chickens examined during the summer con- 
tained specimens of lice which have been de- 
termined by the United States Bureau of En- 
tomology to be a new species belonging to the 
genus Chapina. A new species was also found 
on the Sharp-tailed Grouse, which belongs to 
the genus Goniodes. 
satisfactory, that Mr. W. B. Grange, Superin- 
tendent of Game, has decided to increase the 
number of feeding stations for the Prairie Chick- 
ens. Another striking feature of the food of 
the Prairie Chicken is the large number of 
grasshoppers which these birds consume at 
nmies when these insects are abundant. Some 
of the crops examined were literally stuffed 
with grasshoppers, other food being merely in- 
Measurements and Weights of Birds 
There are about thirty measurements made 
of each bird, which are of importance to us 
from the standpoint of growth and morphology. 
The comparative weights of Prairie Chickens, 
Sharp-tailed Grouse and R'ffed Grouse, based 
on the weighings of nearly 200 specimens, are 
Burlap blind used by Dr. Gross in his Prairie Chicken photography. 
The Investigation owes a great debt to the 
Biological Survey which is cooperating in the 
examination of the food. Without the help of 
the Survey the exhaustive reports of the food 
of the grouse would not be possible. The ex- 
amination of the food of the Prairie Chicken 
and Sharp-tailed Grouse nave not been com- 
pleted but a casual examination indicates that 
these birds depend more on cultivated grain 
such as buckwheat, oats, corn and wheat than 
does the Ruffed Grouse. The Wisconsin Con- 
servation Department has already taken advan- 
tage of this fact by establishing feeding sta- 
tions supplied with these grains in favorable 
places especially in Central Wisconsin. Corn 
left in the shock and standing, or shocked 
buckwheat has proven to be the best. During 
severe winters such as was experienced in Wis- 
consin in 1928-1929, it is of the utmost im- 
portance to provide food for these birds during 
the times of deep snow. Wardens who had this 
work in charge stated that it was not unusual 
to have 200 to 300 Prairie Chickens at a single 
feeding station. At such times the birds were 
so hard pressed for food that they would allow 
the observer to go within very close range of 
them. This plan of winter feeding has been so 
of sufficient interest to be given here in the 
form of a table. 
Male           Female 
Species          Grams Ounces    Grams Ounces 
Prairie  Chicken .......  881.2  31.0  743.2  26..; 
Sharp-tailed Grouse... 893.6  31.3    797.6   28.1 
Ruffed Grouse ........ 590.2  20.8    519.1   17.9 
It will be seen from a glance at the above 
table that the Prairie Chicken and Sharp-tailed 
Prairie chickens in the coulee, 
Grouse and quail by every stream- 
I just stuff my pipe -t bedtime 
And hug close that dear old oream, 
\hen they courted on the stubble 
And went nesting qp the draw, 
Ere "no hunting" signs were posted, 
And there was mote love than law. 
There is splendor in the pheasant 
As he flashes down the air, 
But he's just a bit too kingly, 
Just a bit too debonair, 
And my heart turns from Itis whirring 
To that coaxing boon, Iocm saw, 
When a sod shack was uty palace, 
And there was more love than law. 
Millionaires now go a-hunting 
In a lot of uppish togs, 
Heading in at dusk to hotels 
With their lordly English dogs. 
I don't fault them, I don't envy, 
I'm no hand to pick a flaw, 
lut oh, boom, boom, boom of chickens. 
When there was mere love than law! 
-Will Chamberlain in Minneapolis Journal 
Grouse are of about the same weight, whereas 
the Ruffed Grouse stands very much lower in 
its average weight. 
In Wisconsin the Prairie Chicken with rela- 
tively few exceptions is represented in every 
county, but it is chiefly in the drainage areas 
of the great Central Plain that they may be 
called abundant. Certain of these areas, within 
the bounds of the ancient glacial lake "Wiscon- 
sin," were drained ten to twenty years ago at 
great expense, but most of this land has never 
proven a success for agricultural purposes. 
Today more than 75 per cent of the farms have 
reverted to the state because of delinquent taxes. 
This land, though not well adapted for agricul- 
tural purposes, does provide an excellent envi- 
ronment for the Prairie Chicken and inciden- 
tally for such rare birds as the Sandhill Crane, 
which still breeds in the remote recesses of the 
prairie region. It is hoped that Wisconsin will 
be able to set aside a large part of this land 
as a permanent sanctuary for the preservation 
of its characteristic flora and fauna and es- 
pecially the Prairie Chicken. Unless something 
of this kind is done on a large scale the Prairie 
Chicken can never withstand the shooting of 
the 155,000 licensed hunters of Wisconsin, many 
of whom desire to shoot Prairie Chickens, their 
favorite game bird. When armies of men go 
through cover after cover driving ten, twenty- 
five or fifty miles or even greater distances, 
what else can you expect but irretrievable 
losses ., 
Nesting and Nest Destruction 
During the past summer a study was made 
of twelve nests of the Prairie Chicken found 
on  the prairies near Plainfield, Waushara 
County. To the westward of Plainfield as far 
as the Wisconsin River there are wide stretches 
of flat country which lie within the so-called 
drainage area of the Central Plain. Here there 
are many extensive marshes interspersed here 
and there by sandy islands on which jack pines 
pin cherries, poplars and a diversity of flowers 
prevail. It is usually in the region of transition 
from marshes to the higher ground that most 
of the nests are found. Of the twelve nests 
studied only three ever reached the period of 
hatching. It was not possible in all cases to 
definitely establish the cause of nest destruc- 
tion. but it was necessary to depend on circum- 
stantial evidence. In two cases the adult birds 
were killed and the eggs destroyed presumably 
by coyotes as the tracks of the animals were 
found in the sandy soil around the nests and the 
mass of feathers left behind seemed to indicate 
the work of such animals. Coyotes are a great 
menace to ground nesting bird and that they 
constitute a serious menace in Wisconsin is in- 
dicated by the fact that during 1928 alone over 
$80,000 was paid by the Commission for boun- 
ties on predaceous animals, a large part being 
expended on coyotes. One incubating Prairie 
Chicken was killed by a Horned Owl; the eggs 
of another, located in an open situation, were 
destroyed by crows, and in the case of two other 
nests the eggs disappeared without a trace of 
the intruder. One nest was accidentally de- 
stroyed by a farmer while plowing, and the eggs 
of two others were deserted. In the latter in- 
(Continued on page 50) 

(Continued from page 42) 
will kill a deer every two weeks. That is $1 
per deer for one year only. That is reason- 
able enough for a deer. Suppose a cat kills 
one hundred (leer per year, which is per- 
fectly possible, lives five years, and repro- 
duces during that time another ten cats or 
so, that have all been killing deer (luring 
at least the greater part of the time-how 
are we going to reduce that situation to dol- 
lars and cents? 
"It is obvious the first year of a $25 bounty 
would be costly-and then it would gradually 
diminish as the cats are thinned out until it 
would be less than at present, because the cats 
are holding their own now at least, and that 
means continuing the $10 bounty indefinitely. 
But a $25 bounty would clean them up quickly, 
and (lead cats do not reproduce. It would, 
therefore, seem more economical as well as 
more sensible to pay $25 for a short time 
than to continue the $10 bounty over a long 
period. And in this case, the best interest of 
the State and the best interest of the deer 
are one and the same. 
"As an interested sportsman and by-stander. 
I hope that Maine will give earnest considera- 
tion to the $25 bounty, if for no other reason 
than to save one of her best crops from ser- 
ious if not total depletion, at the hands of 
this all-year-around hunter that recognizes no 
game law. 
"There are a great many people who do not 
bclies e that T- xildcat aTr-k-t a --k-1ecr-w- 
ever, there isn't the slightest question that 
they not only kill deer whenever they can, but 
kill them just for fuil. I would not blame 
the cat for killing if it were hungry, or ate 
the meat once it had killed, but I do think 
that when we have an animal that is appar- 
ently on the increase, or has increased for 
the past ten years, in places like Maine, it is 
time to do something about it. 
"The animal I refer to is the common bob- 
eat or bay lynx, not the Canada lynx. The 
cat that we killed was a large one. It meas- 
ured 38 inches in length over all from tip 
of nose to end of tail. We had only crude 
appliances for weighing, using a 25-pound 
bag of flour and a broomstick in one method 
by which it weighed 34.3 pounds. By another 
improvised method it weighed 36 pounds, so I 
think it is safe to state that its weight was 
close to 35 pounds, plus or minus, which is 
a good sized cat, but not particularly unusual, 
according to Archibald who has killed a great 
many of them." 
Mr. Newsom says the natural histories give 
the usual weight of the wildcat as 24 pounds 
and that Seton says 44 pounds is the record. 
Anthony's North   \tnerican Mammals says 
the length of the various subspecies of wild- 
cat varies from 32 inches (California Bob- 
cat-Lynx rufus Californicus) to 40 inches 
(Nova Scotia Bobcat-Lynx gigas). 
Maine paid a bounty of $101 each on 723 
bobcats last year and the game department es- 
timates that each cat kills an average of six 
deer, besides many smaller victims, each year. 
This would appear to be a very conservative 
estimate in view of Mr. Newsom's experience. 
It is reasonable to believe that it is especially 
destructive of fawns. 
The Case Against Bounties 
.'s an argument against bounties and for 
the hired hunter plan of predatory animal 
eradicatic- the Bureau of Biological Survey 
reiports the following recent incidents: 
"Individuals who have been defrauding sev- 
eral counties in eastern Washington by un- 
lawfully collecting bounty money have been 
exposed recently as a result of efforts by one 
of the U. S. government predatory-animal 
hunters. Sexeral counties in th. State pay 
bounties of $5 ott bobcas an,! $1 oil coyotes 
on presentation of the pelts to the proper 
county official, who removes the right front 
foot when he allows the bounty. The claimant 
retains the skin. 
"An auditor of Whitman County, Wash., 
asked the Biological Survey hunter how many 
bobcats he usually caught in the county in a 
season's work. The hunter replied that ordi- 
narily he did not take more than fotr or five 
in three seasons. The auditor intimated that 
perhaps the Federal hunter was not fully ac- 
quainted with local conditions, because that 
day a man had presented for bounty 34 Iob- 
cats and had declared on affidavit that he had 
caught them in the immediate vicinity within 
a period of 30 days. The matter was then 
reported to the sheriff, who soon apprehended 
the man. It was found that he had collected 
a total of $652 in bounties on 129 bobcats and 
7 coyotes aid also that most of the skins pre- 
sieted as bolcats were of small ocelots, ai- 
mals of the far Southwest, and of little south- 
ern wildcats, also taken outside the State. 
"Not long after this incident, another bounty 
hunter entered the State and presented 35 bob- 
cats for bounty in Pend Oreille County. He 
then went to Stevens County and collected 
bounty oii 48 more. He then collected on 30 
more in Chelan County and later on 40 in Kit- 
titas County. The county officials became sus- 
picious, started ati investigation, and succeeded 
in having the man arrested at Spokane. They 
found 75 bobcats and a sack containing 356 
extra bobcat feet in his car. Close examina- 
tion revealed that feet had been sewed onto 
some of the skins. The Biological Survey 
learned that this same man had appeared be- 
fore the Whitman County Game Commission 
recently and had strongly condemned the Bio- 
logical Survey's paid-hunter method of pre- 
datory-animal control. 
"The bounty system of encouraging the cap- 
ture of wild animals has often led to fraud, 
say officials of the Biological Survey, who 
characterize the Washington cases as particu- 
larly pernicious examples. Fortunately the ar- 
rest of these fraudulent bounty hunters has 
broken up the activities of thieves in the State 
and the Biological Survey believes it should 
go far to demonstrate some of the serious 
disadvantages of the bounty system  as an 
agency in predatory-animal control." 
More evidence regarding the habits of "pred- 
atory" species is needed. AMERICAN GAMFE in- 
vites and will publish well authenticated re- 
(Contited from page 40) 
stance it is problematical whether the incubating 
birds were taken by some predaceous bird or 
mammal or were merely frightened away in 
some manner. If this great loss in nests is 
typical, conservationists will do well to give 
this aspect of the problem special attention. It 
is reasonable to infer, however, that some of 
the enemies such as the coyotes, were directed 
to the nests by following human tracks and 
without ly visits to the nests the latter would 
never have been discovered. 
The courtship performances of the Prairie 
Chicken begin (luring the first mild days of 
March and reach their maximum during the 
month of April. They are continued through 
the month of May and a few birds were still 
booming when I arrived on the prairies the 
first week of June. One nest was found early 
in May but the height of the nesting season, 
judging from  the nests observed aid others 
reported, is the month of June. Two nests 
were found after the middle of July. These 
very late nests probably represent second at- 
temps after the first set of eggs was destroyed. 
The nests studied were in a diversity of situ- 
ations ranging from a place in the dense grasses 
of a meadow or prairie to others surrounded by 
dense shrubbery an in one instance the nest- 
ing site chosen was underneath a pile of brush 
at the margin of a woodland. Within close 
range of these nesting sites, however, there 
were considerable areas of open land, marshes 
or meadows. which apparently are essential 
features -of the Prairie Chicken- el'-irrnment. 
The nuiber of eggs varied from seven to sev- 
enteen eggs, but one iest reported contained 
twenty-one eggs. Such large sets usually rep- 
resent the eggs of two females using the same 
By the use of burlap blinds detailed studies 
were made of the activities of the birds cell- 
tered about the nest. The nesting season is a 
most important time in the life cycle of any 
bird and hence all iltimate study of conditions 
during this period is eminently worth while. A 
large series of photographs were taken, which 
serve not on1  as scientific records but are 
also useful in stimulating public interest in the 
conservation of these valuable game birds. To 
continue the study of the young several sets 
of Prairie Chicken eggs were taken to the 
game farm located at Fish Creek, Wisconsin, 
for artificial incubation and rearing. The ex- 
perimlent was not successful, but the experience 
gained in this first attempt will be of great 
value in the work we are planning for next 
year. In addition to these methods, W. B. 
Grange, Superintendent of Game, has proposed 
to use large enclosures of several acres, in- 
eluding typical Prairie Chicken cover. With 
this equipment he hopes to breed a number of 
Prairie Chickens in semi-captive conditions. 
The Game Department has initiated the mak- 
ing of an annual detailed statistical survey of 
the Prairie Chicken and other grouse of the 
state. Such a survey accurately made will be 
a great aid in detecting fluctuations in the num- 
hers and distribution of the birds. The State 
Department is leaving nothing undone which 
will insure the future welfare of this favorite 
game bird of the prairie regions. 

Prairie Chickens 
Paerican Con~lir Service 
Ea~ib~rh, 3cotland, July 1, 1930 
Mr. F. F. Bown 
&isoL.  qisconsin 
The receint is aciowlered of your letter     ted Jue 16, 
1930, resect!n   te conditions of grou e shootir    it  cotlPnd. You 
understnfd th't -hen  rouie lands are leased it i:7 ,sol for the lessee 
to unrdertake t  shoot a mnln-   rmber of birs    hi  prevents the too 
rapid nulti~lic tion of gruise  nrd thereby lessens the ch-nces of  rs 
disease."  If this f    t is trule yu believe that it Is : ortent in
nection rith the problem of -nme nresertion in the United States. 
A conrission Mas set up :om  yer   o in ;0otlhn to 4-ndy 
grouse d    es       inend   o    son found  " nv ite    of ntere t

rwarding rouse the cause of te disease     as nver discovered.   It was 
learned tha.t the disease occ a-s more often iu ftochs of' 1 r e size Th
t on 
the other hand it has occurred in smll cove   and ths it cnnot be     aid

that the size of the flo   cse the dise0!e. 
Grouse shootin  in Scotlndc is of to kinds: (a) bha grse 
driving, a-n  (b) "over the rn." Te foyer method lessens the chnces

of the disease occrrint becomes by flushing  any  veys the bids inter- 
mini!e arn  inbreeding is prevented. Inbreeding, wbih Is t ot to be 
a contributin  factor to grouse disease, of ourse wekens tie birds 
maikes them more susceptlble to the disease. Experienced   rae    unters

aLi to shoot off the old birds, particularly the cocks, and wen t ii is 
not done by a lessee through ignorance, the owner gene-raly instrts the 
aekeepers to shoot off the cocks in order to "roiud      t" the
In addition to the above It has been found tit grouse disease 
is less apt to occur rhen the heather on the moor is, in a sense, rotted.

That is to say, the owner burns off the heather in small patces every 
year. Thus in a small area there ill be a heather growth of several 
different years. 
The Consulate has been advised that a lessee never undert-aes 
to shoot a minimum numnber of birds but a axmum figre is sally fixed. 
However, in a spirit of fair play and for the preservation of game the 
lessee will not shoot the maxtm number if the land is not as well stocked

as calculated. 
Very respectfally yours, 
Harold D. Finley 
American Consul 

(Wad lmrxt 
sa WImytj=&ht. After a             otle   kf md~ wtntmr it kas "Jwwm

th              atw N4t~~j cm fvn  W3"a  . t   of 4)tt.A1.mvne 
A~rOit~I'in nt zAttc "it it at M18Le . 
Oltm bunmtin tbs i ortlinn of the otate t  f 
YalV 2lof Rivw,. A M111o r1St.  (awl I*  up vhis w~rOvi) 
O W  of mmM(Ostryn vitwirze) * *      i-tet al*tA- their 
o~lueo4 In vwnter ham..I 
atatMd tht Twirte      Tv" q   o see '&A first but 
trn*W the eouthwan lim- of -1,,tribtioa.  In Ll."  JWzoi 
be qyve wm      in Cone * l 3f the 'Trh~t 
;ZLa. 33 ywr -M(abmzt 3G51).     wt a n-,we MN4 In 111. 
TO-   TA.  .  af lae  'c15,1 n "nu  kw(1I)1 

LQAv  AL) aa0f44 
Dear Sir: 
I am preparing a book on "Game Management," and also a 
report on the "Game Survey of the North Central States." 
I am lacking the information specified below and would 
appreciate your filling in the reply blank in so far as you are able. 
Please return to me in the enclosed envelope. Thanks for your cooper- 
at ion. 
Yours sincerely, 
In Charge, Game Survey 
Subject:    U-4~k           , 4,,_~     ~   c~     IA 
L44~~i~ 10t- 240   4~r 
Reply:   In fourteen nests which f had oportunity to get counts 
last summer there were 159 eggs representing an average of 11.8 or 
roughly an average of 11 eggs to a set, I regret that I have no 
records for the Sharp-tailed Grouse but hope to get them next summer, 
The Prairie Men sets were as follows.-ll.lO.,7,!O,ll,12,13 
12.9 and 12. The case of the set of 7 was complete as it was followed 
up, Tt may hayverepresented a second set of the year after the first 
was destroyed. I am not sure of the title of my report but it will 
probably be called. Progress Report of the Wiscon Prairie Chicken 
Investigation. 1930. 

Dear  zv"4 
I am preparing a 
report on the "Game, Survey of 
book on 'Game Management,' and also a 
the North Central States.v 
I am lacking the information specified below an& would 
appreciate your filling in the reply blank in so far as you are able. 
Please return to me in the enclosed envelope. Thank you for your 
Tours sincerely, 
In ChaMe, Game Survey 
&               4aL'4 
..   4. 
t q7  I 
__ I%~4.A1~ 
Que st ion: 
1 --.-1930 

inrel  4t~  to  4a:e of 1ntin- -1ie eg 
-.33  ~Rdae~     aietoo~btheb~nt~o' 
tt~~ae to ti~ae frau. tieir  _-'A~n hbt~  n ae' 
T. ~T. lrwnla~o  0i  Z1~ 3I  I9?  etyi 
to  ie  abou  i0.o tinaf~y~ n-,ftrtV  ,  or 
ti.02  "O-"t ~r  oer~ro  fr~£ae. .  ~~fa  ' 
a~~Jse n-11ott  h  eo  'vro  he'o.  ~oi 
the o  l~f IT oa t.l~n  to  lr~o~1~aa0v1 
ul~io  ine~n 1 d -1ke  oxte.0~  ~nAt~a  & 
'AerncAw~iCuty  ?at o  h  ot~  idot 

coiles to King &' Yetter                 F~ile:Thara 
Afwv dlistrint referred to In thi article ies7 sou-th o)f the Cyp-ress2 
Hills In the  -etre southwest, co n- ofSs1theai.    e riter  r7e to 
thi s )ttlnt inth v-aley of the Trpnchman river In. 1I1 
'Te ~hngrin  arrigeexendits ag    fromewe~ t tAg 
neighbou-uoo  abu  91 adIswmyfrtoir on M         1to     h   olwn 
year. 11y 1926 thie patir   )Abcm      lentlil, 'but s-inc.e then- its 
.ubmers ceo- to have- fallen  gan  Tiaprn dce         i  p)ossIblw dle 
to the 1 st  t-7 muiase 12   -a19,haig been more than usualy wt, 
and- Is p)roibably only a tiqraystbaic)k. The Thziff*'ed C rus  j~ obr' of

greneral distrlrbution across  the contine ,nt adIt is  -~roi ~t th  t- te

specie asnot indig eun. In thef spir  f 194221 a ube  fths     ri 
we-,re liberated in the dAstric3t by, the ane ie arit soe)f -i ,wthi 
10 mle of he1re; ITu-t tk, t azof ther  se~t;ttvetdys 
tun7 1kcly. I h'vew. beenm infore nw  and v a  of the I innate  ros  crri

he-re, but it Is still. -m-rce, TI v y nverJ ee n -t exe1 o- -en# oc 
an' tJ, t w"s -iiAle, -m2otrorln- i.7- sot-  s  braInr. 

to                        e:     ra s'-2,                     12,1   C; 
rton                Cycle 
'rr'n,                          -ol er 
Tn an alrlr- - by III Com; :,ncho                ""Oer 2.) 
th  ,t m,711 -erp excpod.inrly irmp-rous in S.M.          -rev--Tai 
In       or l2'>-.1    spver-   sleit storm in wprSn,-   - ,),;t of  
  -.nd he 
*erson-V-., foun  rww rv)-a- frozen covies. After Mai , it-r, th-- -.-er-a
quail left exc, -it --l-cm- the river botto-is,                    t ,.(3v
SCattC,                       ,Wf,  -.jC_                    -ver.      
not rfrae.Juer -.ior lon:- )roviwo.s to  -,j tiie nl)vuilance   or      -)on

after  ,-DLlnc 'anCC;   ^, (IOVered.  2x3e --iiole  - -o-Ju:-11 t-  ie lik-
irri.-Alnn (soe nort i, central rf,  ort). 
-vith buffnl 
on the ivolan s, w-  .IrAc chic--cms ,- ere co'i-line" ;o tAe Aver 
Aft  r 'Vae extei-Anation of thr? i-Aif.'alo r-c-to   tlie          t o 
b-: bi-a--stem, they wDc,-1,1-,,e                         bun';,,nt.  T1,
i i a 
Inorpasp -v7, Pirt7icr a,i _-2entpcl -r).v tiie Jant! L- of  -ero-r-s,"
171lich il,) Mt 
qettler olowed n strin --rmuid ' A-i cl,,Am,  vl  it!-,v f,)r the -m-M, ose

tdat he 
of T ,--r- inl- it, c nd seedrrl -ho-t 1 , the -)1ov.,erl  . , 
has fretTo-outly fill   rw on uox of --i a vi.Tr,          t,    Fas duri'v
g a 
fe-r,,  i,)ur-i      in         aloii-       hed--erovs.      7aid he crml
ioe ajer no 
Aldo Leo-oold 

fins, 4eahers a in 
G. M. CONZET, Chairman 
STAFFORD KING, State Auditor 
WILLIAM D. STEWART, Commissioner 
LOUIS ENSTROM, Assistant Commissioner 
E. H. FARRINGTON, Business Manager 
Published at the office of the Department at the State Capitol, 
St. Paul, Minn. Yearly Subscription, 50 cents. 
No. 97              45                MAY, 1931 
Under recently approved Federal regulations, 
Minnesota duck hunters will start the 1931 hunting 
season at noon, Thursday, October 1st. 
For many years there have been advocates of 
such an opening date in Minnesota and this will 
afford an opportunity to prove their contentions. 
Two reasons have been put forward in support of 
such a measure; one is the fact that very frequently 
the weather during at least the third week in Septem- 
ber has been so warm that thousands of ducks were 
spoiled before they could be used. 
Another is the fact that if the preceding hatching 
season had been late, many of the young ducks were 
so full of pin-feathers as to make picking almost 
Against these arguments is contrasted the plaint 
of the hunter who likes to shoot blue-winged teal 
and who contends that most of our locally hatched 
blue-wings are well on their way out of Minnesota 
by the first of October. This is quite true, although 
if the weather remains fairly warm, the blue-wings 
will stay around a little longer than ordinarily. 
The noon opening should be welcomed by the 
average sportsman-it will eliminate the irresponsible 
"sooner" inevitable on the larger duck hunting areas, 
who trusts to the fact that he is impossible to detect 
in the darkness and the hordes of hunters on every 
lake the opening day. It should prevent the wanton 
slaughter and waste of coots so prevalent the opening 
day, when many so-called "sportsmen" shoot first 
and see what they get afterwards; and it will un- 
doubtedly cut down much of the "limit in half an 
hour" shooting so common under the old regulations. 
After all, most of our fishermen take to our 
waters for the sport of angling, and not for the meat 
that they might bring home. If it were only for the 
meat, most of us could buy more fish at the market 
for the money expended on the average fishing trip. 
Such being the case, the use of the barbless hook 
should be worth at least a trial to the average Minne- 
sota angler, not only for sportsmanship, but, under 
our present no-size-limit regulations, as a conserva- 
tion measure. Many small fishes, caught on barbed 
hooks and then returned to the water, fail to recover 
from the lacerations following the removal of such 
a hook. The use of a barbless hook would eliminate 
much of this useless waste, and add a sporting angle 
to even the most plebian form of fishing. 
In this day and age of reasonably priced and yet 
efficient cameras, include one as part of your fishing, 
hunting or camping equipment. It need not be large 
or bulky and you have a means of capturing forever 
those little bits of nature and wild life that make 
out-door Minnesota so interesting. 
GROUSE     00.....   o 
We often read of the flight speed of ducks and 
geese but it is seldom that any definite information 
is made available on the speed of upland game birds. 
District Chief Warden Joe Brickner is respon- 
sible for the following bit of information on this sub- 
ject which he garnered on a trip through his territory. 
About daylight recently he was traveling along 
the highway near Cotton when a sharp-tailed grouse 
got up along the road and flew parallel to it. Chief 
Brickner slackened his speed a trifle until he was 
behind and pacing the flying bird. After a half mile 
the grouse crossed the road and still continued paral- 
lel to it until a meadow was reached, where the bird 
joined ten others grazing there. 
In all a distance of over a mile and a half was 
covered and the speedometer remained quite steadily 
at 33 miles an hour-a good speed when the apparent 
ease of the sharp-tail's flight is considered. 
In view of the decrease of prairie chickens through- 
out their Minnesota range, it is gratifying to learn 
from Mr. Brickner's report that he sees Sharp-tail 
Grouse nearly every day and that this species is 
evidently holding its own. 
"Speed" iHolman, premier flier of the Twin 
Cities, carried his hunting license in the cock-pit of 
his plane for 115,000 miles during 1930. 
At that, and according to his report, he lit long 
enough to bag 30 mallards, 14 blue-bills, 5 blue-winged 
teal and 6 pheasants; evidently his training in speed 
helped him considerably in judging the flight of birds. 
The   earth's circumference  is approximately 
24,000 miles; it is rather surprising and also indicative 
of the immensity of the fish propagation program of 
the state of Minnesota to learn that during the fiscal 
year ending June 30th, 1930 the following mileage 
was covered in the distribution of fish from the state 
hatcheries--enough to encircle the globe four times 
and traverse the United States several times. 
Regular Fish Car .............. 19,702 Miles 
Baggage  Car .................. 16,157 
Trucks ...................... 56,890 
M essengers .................. 11,514 
Total ................... 104,263  M iles 
John Ferguson, a farmer living near Freeborn, 
saw a hawk swoop suddenly into a nearby field and 
pick up something. He noted that the hawk flew 
almost straight up until almost out of sight and then 
came down like a plummit. When Mr. Ferguson 
rushed to the big bird he was surprised to find a 
weasel lying near it. The weasel, when picked up, 
had sunk its teeth into the hawk's body and killed 
it in mid-air. The weasel was apparently dead also. 
When Mr. Ferguson looked for it the next day, he 
found it gone. Apparently it had been only stunned 
and come to life.-Litchfield Review. 

June 17, 1931 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
404 University Avenue 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Sir: 
Dr. Merritt L. Jones asked me to answer your letter 
of June 4. the statement that chickens have flown from a distance 
of five miles to the feeding station is correct. The flight 
of these birds was watched by several of our club members on 
several occasions and there is no doubt in our minds that the 
birds came that distance. 
However, the foregoing does not prove that one 
ffeding station will serve 75 square miles and we do not believe 
it can be done. We do not believe that all the chickens in such 
a large area would find the feeding station. 
Our station is located on the top of a hill. 
The country to the south of it is all open country; while on the 
other sides there are trees. The birds came in from the south 
side only and while there were chickens two miles west of the 
station it is out belief that they never came to the station or 
even knew of its exsistance. 
In locating feeding station it is desireable 
to select a high spot away from timber and brush to keep away 
from snowdrifts and natural enbmies. We have found shocked corn 
and ears of corn left on standing stalks and stacked grain to 
be the best decoys. 
'Pie observed the time of day the birds came 
to the station varied with the time of the year; it being a 
half hour after sunrise and again about two and one-half hours 
before sundown. 
Very truly yours, 
WEP:U                         Win. E. Payne, pres. 
o.c. Dr. Jones 
:            Organized to Promote the Propagation of Fish and Qame 

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History, Tradition and Adventure 
in the Chippewa Valley 
I am greatly pleased to learn that there has 
been reduced to permanent literary form some of 
the splendid contributions of William W. Bartlett 
on the early history of the Chippewa Valley. I 
consider Mr. Bartlett the highest living authority 
on the subject. To have allowed him to pass with- 
out making this contribution would have been a 
calamity which only the next generation would have 
fully appreciated. 
The new volume should have an immediate place 
in every private and public library in the Chippewa 
Valley and I believe the demand for it will be state 
Editor of Stanley Republican, 
Stanley, Wisconsin. 
I-*wish to add my word of appreciation to the 
many expressed to Mr. Bartlett for the service he 
is rendering to us and our children in giving us 
the interesting story almost first hand, a-story of 
the land of which we are proud and which we love. 
Superintendent of Schools, 
Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 

"I have recently had the opportunity of examin- 
ing the material collected by Mr. William W. Bart- 
lett of Eau Claire on the History of the Chippewa 
Valley, and have been very much impressed witl 
the completeness of his collection and the in.elli- 
gence with which the collection has been made. It 
will be a distinct and permanent contribution to 
the History of Wisconsin as a whole as well as to 
the particular region in which he has been interest- 
ed. I have no doubt also that it will be as inter- 
esting to the general reader as it is valuable to the 
Department of History, 
University of Wisconsin. 
You have done a nice piece of work in compiling 
all this old material, and accompanying it with so 
much very readable description and explanation. 
I find it of fascinating interest. It is all first hand 
information, which makes it extremely valuable 
from the historical standpoint, as it helps one to 
visualize those early times when the foundations 
of the commonwealth of Wisconsin were being 
laid. Everyone who wants to keep alive the memo- 
ries and matters of the trappers and pioneer days 
will be greatly indebted to you for your work. 
Author of "Sandy MacDonald's Man", 
Michigan State Normal College, 
Ypsilanti, Michigan. 

Notation With Remittance 
A very fine book indeed. 
Compliments of 
J. C. BAY, 
John Crerar Public Library, 
Chicago, Ill. 
I have been reading Mr. Bartlett's book with 
interest and delight.  Mr. Bartlett combines the 
historical sense of true values with a fine narrative 
style. This book should be in every library in the 
country and should have a wide distribution among 
the people of this territory and book lovers in 
general.      ROBERT LOHRIE, 
Superintendent of Schools, 
Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. 
I regard your book as a treasure. Shall add this 
copy to my private library. Please send another 
to the St. Louis County Historical Society. 
Your work gives a clear insight into life in the 
forests surrounding Lake Superior during the nine- 
teenth century and you have depicted with much 
fidelity, it seems to me, many of the pioneers who 
would otherwise be forgotten. 
President St. Louis County Historical 
Society, Duluth, Minn. 

"It is a pleasure indeed to have the opportunity 
of looking over a copy of William W. Bartlett's new 
book, 'History, Tradition and Adventure in the, 
Chippewa Valley'. In this volume Mr. Bartlett has 
confined his efforts largely to the fur trade and 
Indian activities, barely touching the lumbering 
industry which was for many years the principal 
activity of this region. It is hoped that this mater- 
ial will also appear in book form at an early date. 
Mr. Bartlett's style is particularly readable. 
"That the schools of the state will welcome his 
volume as a valuable contribution to local history 
is an accepted fact. However, it makes a very 
direct appeal not only to the residents of the state 
but to those hundreds of visitors from outside who 
yearly come into this region not only for vacation 
but to learn more of the background of Indian lore, 
logging camp activities and historic landmarks 
which belong to the C~impewa Valley of an early 
day.          "CLARENDON S. SNYDER." 
Former Principal of High School, 
Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 
I am enjoying your book very much. Am sure 
it should be on our approved list.  Although its 
title limits it to the Chippewa Valley it is of state 
wide interest and should have its place as a very 
fine contribution to Wisconsin history. 
Supervisor School Libraries, 
Department of Public Instruction, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 

It was a pleasure to have had the opportunity 
of reading your book.   You have rendered the 
people of Wisconsin and Minnesota a service in 
collecting this material, much of which is out of 
print and inaccessible to the ordinary reader. 
From a TEACHER OF HISTORY in a Catholic College 
I am greatly pleased with the character and in- 
terest of your book. The chapter on Fur Trade 
Lore I find particularly interesting and hope often 
to refer to it. You have done well to thus preserve 
all of this historical information. 
Secretary of Wisconsin Archeological Society 
and Curator of State Museum. 
Your book is one of the most intensely interest- 
ing and absorbing that I ever read. It contains so 
much of historical fact and also is interestingly 
'written. I feel that this splendid material you have 
gathered will some day be woven into history and 
romance which will leave to future generations 
some of the inspiring pictures of what has taken 
place in the past. You have made a contribution 
to our Indian and fur trade history that entitles 
you to a great deal of credit. 
Editor Rice Lake Chronotype, 
Rice Lake, Wisconsin. 

Appreciation by Author 
The author of this book is especially gratified 
at its reception outside his own state. The Indian 
story, fur trade lore and pioneer adventures seem 
to have a wide appeal. 
Price $3.50 
Sent on approval to schools, libraries and histor- 
ical societies, with return postage guaranteed. 

IM1.11,4i"dua Pallrg giistart-ral 
lEau (glaire, Moranoin 
l&zu (Uhdirg, Moani 
-    -00  -?  40L   4t2: 0Z-0.4-  dA---  1 
w 1*               4 

NOv. 16, i91 
Mr. Im. W. i3atlett 
)431 L-,e Street 
En Claire, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr, Bartlett: 
I have been out of the state on field -rk, 
hence my delayed reply to your kid letters of Ootober $ and 
November 4. 
Your last letter  ontains the meat of the 
thing I was after,    -uely the date of arrival of pinnated grue 
or prairie  chlkens in your part of WTisoonsin.  1 )7 pitti 
this down as 1990. Th 1)ird arrived in southern Thimrnsi 
Illino s ,bout 1S4O. 
I a rtuz~ri. the cli-p'pi in acordanoe with 
Thank you very w=*h for your coo--peration. 
Tours sinerely, 
JVDO I,&   .D 
In Charre,      3kirv# 

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The following report on the population of grouse in Wisconsin was 
drawn up to suppleaent the game observers' reports relative to opening 
the hunting season on prairie chicken, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse

in 1931. 
The figures are given by counties so that a comparison may be made. 
i. Prairie chicken - Figure (I) shows the number of prairie chickens 
in those townships where counts have been made. In the other townships 
the flocks are too scattered to make a definite count possible. 
In Cary township 100 were seen at threshing time by George Smith in 
oat stubble. On dance grounds 57 male prairie chickens were counted in 
May. Allowing 50 females in the same area the total for the three sections

would be 114. The total number of counted birds in Cary township was 214.

In Remingtown township 277 were seen in cornfields and at feeding 
In Port Edwards township 140 were counted in cornfields. 
In Seneca 40 were counted in a stubble field. 
In Rudolph 45 were counted in a hayfield. Scattering flocks of 20 
or more have been reported in the other townships. Allowing 50 for each 
of the townships in which counts were not made, the total population for

Wood county would be: 
Counted townships - 716 for 5 townships. 
Estimated townships - 850 for 17 townships 
Total - 1566 
The total prairie chicken population for Wood county is about equal 
to the figure estimated for 1930. The above figure is the spring popula-

tion so in order to compare it to the 1930 figure, which was a fall estim-

ate, the increase for this summer should be added. Of the 38 nests studied


i~or+ Ec4 
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Fii.  e 2.. 
I -- - - 

this spring, 50% hatched. The average number of eggs is 11, and theieove

each pair of birds raised on the average five young. 
Provided that the number of males and females is e     , the fall 
population for 1931 would be: 
Total spring birds - - - 1566 
Number of females -   -   783 
Number of males -..       783 
Number of young - .9 
Total fall birds - - - - 
The chief reason for the slight increase was fire. Some observers 
estimated that as high as 50% of the grouse in Remington and Hles town- 
ships were killed by the fire. The chief damage was not in the n     er of

birds killed but in the destruction of the nesting cover. In Remngton 
township there were practically no nests in May and most of the nests re-

ported were destroyed by predatory animals, due to the lack of grass for

concealment. On May 29th, 30th a4d 31st about 2,000 acres of burned marsh

in Dexter township was thoroughly gone ower. About 75 birds were living 
on this area but no nests were found. In three places single eggs were 
found on bare ground* It is probable that eggs were being laid without 
a nest being made, due to lack of nest cover. 
In Port Edwards township there were several sections of land wkich 
were not burned. As this area is largely grassland it is a natural nesting

ground. Thirteen nests, of which six were prairie chicken and seven were

sharp-tailed grouse, were located, As all of these nests were made in-May

or before, it is probable that nesting aover in the form of dry grass in-

duces early nesting. On the basis of one female for each male there were

75 prairie chicken nests in this area. 
2. Sharp-tailed grouse - Sharp-tailed grouse are more numbrous and 
mre uniform in distribution than the prairie chicken in Wood county, but

the pap-tailed grouse is limited to that part of Wood county that lies 
west of the Wisconsin river. 

1, Total number in Wood county on May 1# 1931 
The flocks listed on the map in figure (2) are not all different 
flocks as both feeding station and doe         flocks are listed, The 
following are separate flocks. 
Flock No.    No. of birds 
1.           20 - feeding station 
2,           22-    "       " 
3.           40-    if 
4.           50-    "       " 
5>.          12 - Seet budding 
6.           55-    "       " 
7.           60 - Feeding station 
8.           10 - Seen budding 
9.           21 - Feein  station 
Is.           24 - Dance ground 
15,            0-Fein       tto 
1.7.          1.8 - Dance gon 
18.           21 -   "t 
20.           12 - Feeding station 
21.           20 - Dance ground 
22.           50 - Flushed May 30th 
25.           18 - Dance ground 
24.            6 - Dance gound 
25.           1   _# 
26,                 " 
Of the 500 sharp-tails counted at feeding stations and dane grounds, 
140 were banded. The number banded at     ding stations was 130. Of these,

51 were females. Flock number 4 was at a feeding station and dance ground

and as a result all of the birds trapped here were males. At station 
number 9 in figure (2) all of the sharp-tails were banded, and at station
or flock number 15 in figure (2) all except one or two were banded, as 45

was the most seen feeding here and 40 were banded. Six of these birds were

shipped t the Game Farm, reducing the flok to 59. 
Allowing one female to three males, the total number in the mapped 
area shown in figure (2) would be: 
Feeding stations & 
budding grounds    .      322 male and female 
Dance grounds -.....       .178 males 
59 females 

Deducting flocks mber 22,23,S4 and 25 there would be 472 sharp-tails 
for the three townships In whicha thorough count was made. The population

on this basis would be a little over four sharp-tails per square mile or

157 per township, The total spring popAlation for the eleven townships in

which sharp-tails are evenly distributed would be 1727. Using the same sex

ratio as was found in the banded birds, the number of females would be 575.

As each female should raise on the average five young the total fall pop-

ulation would be: 
Spring -1727 
Young      2875 
Total fall 
A total fall population of 4,602 sbarp-tails is about 5,000 loss than 
the number estimated for 1930. It is probable that the 1930 figure was 
overestimated and that actually the number of birds is about the same. 
The main reason for the small number of sharp-tails in 1931 is the 
loss of birds in the fire of September, 1930, and lack of cover for shelter

and nesting. A few of the effects of the fire are discussed under prairie

chicken nesting on page (2). 
3. Ruffed grouse - The total amount of partridge cover in Wood 
county is about 20% of the total area or 150 square miles. In the Babcock

region, 5 coveys of young birds were located. Along the river bottoms there

were about 2 partridge for every square mile during the winter, or 7 per

square mile in the fall, provided each female raises five young. The total

population would then be 1,050. 
The number of prairie chickens and sharp-ailed grouse in the 
other counties is considerably less than in Wood county. 
The counties in which information has been secured are listed below: 

1. Waushara county - The nmber of prairie chickens counted at 
feeding stations was 190. The total for the county is estimated at 2,000.

2, Portage county (prairie ehickens only) - The number counted 
at feeding stations was 300. The total number in the county is estimated

at 2,000. 
3, Adams county -(Prairie chickens only)- The number seen at 
feeding stations was 45. The total estimate for the county is 500. 
4, Juneau county - The number of sharp-tails seen at feeding 
stations was 40. The estimate for the county is 200. 
5. Ashland county - 
Sharp-taild grouse - One covey of 13 seen 8* miles west of 
Butternut. Two square miles of good sharp-tail nesting grounds were studied

18 miles west of Butternut, No sharp-tails were located on this area and

it is therefore probable that the flocks are very scattered. Mr. Charles

Rindt fu    11 nests in 1929 that had been burned. 
The total population is estimted at 2,000. 
Prairie ohiokens - None seen. 
Partridge - Two seen 10 miles west of Butternut. The number 
of partridge is at least 10 per square mile in the areas not burned over.

The partridge cover in Ashland ecounty is extensive enough to prevent over-

shooting. The total number of square miles of partridge cover is estimated

at 900. Total partridge population - 9,000. 
. Rusk county 
No sharp-tailed grouse or prairie chickens seen. Resort owner 
on Potato Lake reports that prairie chiekens are nearly extinct in Chippewa

Partridge   Four sections of land in western Rusk county 
were studied. A total of 24 were located. There were four coveys with a 
total of 18 young or 4j young per covey. The country is rough terminal 

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moraine with steep gravel hills between which are lakes and alder swamps.

Two coveys were found on hills in a growth of aspen, white birch, hazel,

pinoherry and blackberry, with wild "apes and Smilax (7reen briar) in

the more open spots. The other two coveys were in alder-willow thickets 
on swampy land. Figure (3) shows the exact locstion of the birds. 
This area represents the best ruffed grouse cover in Rusk couty. 
As one section of the area has not been investigated, the nuer per section

of the three sections that were thoroughly searched was 8. As the cover was

very dense it would be safe to estimate 10 partridge per section for the

partridge cover of Rusk county, The total area of partridge cover in Rusk

county is 625 #quare miles. Due to fires, the 1931 figure is about 500 
square miles, The total nuber of partridge on this basis would be 5,000.

As the area between Island Lake and Btrchwood is difficult to penetrate 
and is similar to the Potato Lake area, there would be no danger of over-

shooting in Rusk county, 
7. Washburn couty. 
Prairie ohicken - None seen. A flock is reported to have winter- 
ed at Stone Lake in 1930-31. 
Sharp-tailed grouse - One covey of 13 was seen 13 miles southeast 
of Spooner. Several other woveys have been seen by the soils survey men,

but the distribution is not uniform. In the terminal moraine areas the 
sharp-tails are numerous where the brush has been kept dow by fires or is

pastured, but such lands are not very extensive. In the Jackpine areas 
there are very few birds to be seen. A party of four in crossing a four 
mile strip of meadow, Jackpine and aspen did not see a grouse of an  des-

cription. In Evergreen township in the Yellow River Valley, three farmers

were questioned. The first farmer had seen no grouse during 1931. The 
other two reported that each had a covey of sharp-tails in the secti&n
which he lived. The fall population for the Yellow River Valley is about


C I aYk 
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10 per square mile, These farmers reported that about 10 years ago prairie

chickens could be lard in the spring, but that none were heard in 1931. 
Estmte    sharp-tail wver          100 sqare miles 
Shartails per squnre mile    -   .0 
Total shap-til             --1,000 
rairie chickens                    V one reported 
stmted partridge cover - - -  - 360 square miles 
Lstimted partridge per square mile 16 
Total prrd7                          16 
One square mile of partridge oover north of Sarona was investigaUed 
Two partridges were seen and dust baths and feathers were found on the 
forties in whi  h birds were nt seen, It is safe to estate 16 partridge 
per square mile of cover, 
8, cl1ark County - In 930 sharp-tails wr   seen in Mentor, rester 
and Hwett townships, The sharp-tailed    ouse cover in Clark onty is 
200 square miles. A much of this area was burned ovar at the time it was

visited in June 1931, it is probable that there are less than 1,000 sbarp-

tailed g       in the county, 
In 1928 fifty-six prairie chickens fed on standing corn in Worden 
township during the winter, During the sumr none were seen, In 192 
none we   seen by the farmers. In 1930 a flock of forty or fifty re 
and fed on corn one half mile north of the 1928 corn field, In the spring

of 1931, these prairie chickens established a         ground for the first

time. No nests were found and it is probable tht a1 of these birds were 
males* See figure (4). 
Due to fires in 1930 and 1931, the prairie chieken and sharp-tailed 
grouse populations have beenmduzed or have rined stationary, In wood 
county, en open season would result in serious over-shooting due to 
reduction of eover by the peat fires of 1930, In the other counties the 

population per square mile is less and the ooer is less extensive, 
Areas of open land in Ashland and Washburn counties which should make 
good sharp-tailed        cover are still uninhabited by this grao. The 
prairie chicken has not yet returned to the areas which It inhabited in 
1920. (See Washburn county) 
Partridge were        a in the areas studied in Ashland, Rusk and 
Washburn counties, and most observers report the partridge to be abundant.

The manager of Johnson's Store at Web Lake, Burntt county, wnted a closed

Season on partridge as well as sharp-tailed grouse, but all others were in

favor of open partridge season. 
T1e total area of ruffed grouse (partridge) cover in the northen 
counties is extensive enough to prevent over-shooting in all except a few

localities, but before it is decided to open the season on partridge it 
should be taken into consideration that much of the partridge cover was 
burned over in 1930 and 1931. 
.r. T. W. Sobmidt, 
Assistant Biologist 

~IgGL ~7L6% 
-,c0~i. 'U 
13L4~~L ~o-Oo 
b(~q~A /o-~o7e 

Populations of People & Grouse in Scotland (U) & Wisconsin (0) 
In Relation to Intensity of Management     Aldo Leopold 3-23-31 
(a) People 
per sq. 
Probable upper 
limit of possible 
Kill      16o 
Upper scale of 
intensity not 
needed in Wis. 
52 times present 
(d) Kill increase 
necessary to 
give Wis. same 
per capita shoot- 
ing as Scotland 
"-- e/.--- 
(c) Kill per 
sq. mi. 
(b) Grouse 
per sq. 
I00o - 
50   " 

or' game filea 
Janary I1, 1924. 
Turky  1lntina in Htialp&is tn 
Mr. Devine of Kingm&i, trizona, told me at Flagstaff t}Dat 
14 turkey were liberated in these mountains three years ago. They 
did well butthe Indians andcoyotes have kept them thined d      . 
Some stock still persists.     . evine think    there were no turkey 
in the Huapais originaly. 

Pheasants - 
Food & cover 
Jan. 13,12 
Cherk-e towar 
Der        tire roti'Vn-aevs 
I  ttree,    ton  tettle   Yor td a ei t  of4 ho  crc so  tstes 
and to) try to fllo  tro h  ou of theeeosb  znicte 
and noigay  e  pa~ta tion in th-e si~ei~rusr 
.ug~  s  ~re,-  by b-r Is ani 3  so  t.,,o  yaho  uib. 
letter to my  ell!10  1ps -ic I) 'vnr  -hey  ilbe  tr el 
8 trestel. 
of the firs  intnV6er  ~y  recie t. vn1n  o  e',r 
f'ro  one wo e  trooneetI ou  no it  nlyacet I 
hve hea-rdth "Istoy~zn  ftmsbtawy  ri  ape  hs 
~~~jaYI aci~ f bird, etc.? 
of the bultqo r~iis 

Zibran ot 
cold for best results duri     e sum- 
mer, an additional intake    means of 
a tee or Y joint with valve, located    A 
near the shore in shallow water, will 
allow that from the surface to be mixed 
with the cold bottom water in such pro-  Bure 
portions as is found best for an ideal  durin 
temperature. This surface water intake  en p 
would be shut off entirely during the  ine 
winter months. 
C. Streams 
The water from streams, while used 
extensively for fish cultural purposes, 
is not a supply the experienced fish man 
would select for his own use. Even the 
so-called spring-fed brooks and creeks 
are continual sources of trouble. There 
is always danger of contamination, es- 
pecially if the supply is taken some 
distance down the course of the stream. 
Even though of crystal appearance, it 
carries considerable amounts of organic 
and inorganic matter that cover the 
eggs in the troughs with sediment and 
algal slime, and   during  periods of 
heavy rainfall and melting snow cause 
untold trouble. 
The   water  temperature   of  most 
streams will range   from  just above 
freezing during the winter months to 
a point where they become dangerously 
high in mid-summer. Regardless of what 
experiment station investigators may 
have to say on the subject, success- 
ful propagation of any species of trout 
or salmon cannot be prosecuted with 
water temperatures that exceed 60 de- 
grees. They may get by for a time, but 
sooner or later they will get into seri- 
ous difficulties. 
D. Artesian Wells 
Except in a few favored sections of 
the country where it is possible to de- 
velop numbers of shallow driven wells 
from which the water will flow without 
pumping, the use of artesian water as 
a supply is seldom practicable. When 
it is procurable in quantity and is of 
the right quality and temperature, it 
has  certain  advantages  over   other 
sources of supply; but it is almost cer- 
tain to be devoid of oxygen as it comes 
from the well, and frequently carries a 
super-saturation of noxious gases. 
Whatever the source of the water sup' 
ply, its chemical and gas content should 
be thoroughly investigated before any 
amount of money is expended. To go into 
(Continued on page 54) 
any f 
Game Farm    Superintendent Peninsula State Game Farm, Wisconsin 
T the request of Dr. Meritt Jones,  The chicks appeared strong, and the 
Director of the Wisconsin Con- brooding progressed nicely for three 
- servation Commission Research     days with no mortality. From June 9 
au, the Game Division conducted    to June 11, nine birds died, apparently

ng 1931 a small scale Prairie chick-  from  soil contact. Five more chicks

ropagation project, prior to exten-  died during the next three days. One

experimental work to be carried on  bird lived for eight days. Feed consist-

32. No special equipment was con-  ed of hard-boiled egg, partridge meal,

ted at the state game farm for the  angleworms, lettuce, tomatoes, apples,

work, nor was any study made of    sand and grit. Sour milk was the only

former Prairie chicken propagation  drink. 
ct.                                  Nest No. 2. The hatch from nest No.

2 was placed in a Poorman feather 
brooder with   125 day-old  Ringneck 
pheasant chicks.  Both  brooder and 
brooder run contained wire bottoms. 
Of thirteen eggs set May 25, two were 
broken, one on May 27 and one on May 
29. Two eggs were candied out June 8. 
Six chicks hatched June 12, two of 
which appeared weak. The two weak 
chicks died June 13. Two more died on 
June 14. It appeared that the liveliness 
of the pheasant poults was too much for 
the Prairie chickens, inasmuch as the 
latter were being trampled on to a great 
extent, and the two remaining chicks 
were removed and placed with a ban- 
tam hen in an ordinary brood coop on 
the ground. Both chicks died within 
two days. Feed consisted of hard boiled 
egg, partridge meal, chick mash, angle- 
worms, tomatoes, apples, lettuce, sand 
and grit.  Sour milk was the only 
'X  -'71 V9 1 m +  1,  + Tn 9 
by F. 
of th 
the e 
a dist 
ant or 
ing o 
ried o 
in a 
feet s 
25, on 
hen o 
ree settings of Prairie chicken eggs  was placed with a bantam  hen in a

one setting of Sharp-tailed grouse  specially-constructed wire-bottom brood

were secured from Wood county     coop and run. The wire-bottom    run 
J. W. Schmidt, Assistant Biologist  was approximately 2% feet wide and 6

e Game Division, who transported  feet long. After the first week the run

ggs in special containers, by auto- was extended to include the same space

e, to the game farm at Fish Creek, on the ground. The. feeding ration was

ance of 225 miles. All eggs were  the same as that of nests 1 and 2. 
diately set under Silkie bantam     Of fifteen eggs set May 27, fourteen

with nests prepared as for pheas-  healthy chicks hatched June 2. One 
r quail eggs. All bantam hens ap-  egg was infertile. Unfortunately, the

d to be disease free and were free  hen was restless and four chicks were

vermin,                           killed in the nest by the hen June 2. 
t No. 1. The experimental brood-  The birds were removed to the brood 
f the hatch of nest No. 1 was car-  coop on June 3, and two more birds 
n by the usual confinement ground  were trampled on. The hen was then 
n. The foster mother was placed   changed. Two birds died June 4. There 
small wood brood coop which was   were no more casualties until June 15.

unded by a vermin-proof yard ten  At this time the run on the ground was

quare. Both yard and brood coop   extended to Include a space 4 feet by 
moved to fresh ground daily.      15 feet. On June 15, one bird that ap-

14 Prairie chicken eggs set May   rarently was slow to develop, died. The

e egg was broken by the bantam    survivors continued to grow, with good

* May 27, and on June 6, twelve   frames and feathering, and these birds

ie chicken chicks hatched. The    were thirty days old before any more 
thing egg was partly developed.          (Continued on page 59) 
1bO     3 Leopofb           The G A M E        R E E D E R for February,
1932                     (jk. 
to furnish by gravity pipe line the re- 
quired volume of water. If the pipe           isconsin's            Prairie
        C  hicken 
Is. extended out into the lake to wher 
the depth is at least 40 feet, this          Propagation                
provide a supply whose temperat s 
fairly uniform during summer   win-                         By HARRY JOHNSON

ter. However, as this water   e too 
A I P C.,O, 

The   A M-E B R E E D E R for February, 1932 
(Continued from page 45) 
deaths occurred. One bird, the slowest 
of the five to develop, died at thirty 
days of age. The four remaining birds 
centinued to five weeks of age, when 
they were placed in a specially-con- 
structed open-topped yard about 80 feet 
by 30 feet. Cover over two-thirds of 
the yard was very dense. The four birds 
continued to grow until suddenly, at 
seven weeks of age, one died. One bird 
disappeared, three days later (horned 
owl, It is believed). At nine weeks of 
age, one bird was killed by flying into 
the fence. On August 24, the final sur- 
vivor was beheaded by a horned owl. 
Nest No. 4. The hatch of nest No. 4 
(Sharp-tailed grouse eggs) were placed 
in the same type of brood coop and run 
as hatch No. 3, Prairie Chickens. Feed 
was the same as nests 1 and 2. 
Nine Sharp-tailed grouse eggs were 
set on May 27. Two were broken by 
June 1. Two eggs were candled out 
June 7, and five birds hatched June 13, 
two of which appeared weak. One bird 
died June 14, two lived four days until 
June 18, and one bird died June 23. The 
sole survivor was turned loose with a 
bantam hen and at this writing, No- 
vember 14, is still living, practically 
IT CAN readily be seen from the fore- 
going report that Prairie chicken 
eggs that were incubated by the Prairie 
chicken hens for fourteen days or over 
before being moved, resulted in high 
hatchability and strong, husky chicks. 
It is a difficult matter to safely trans- 
port grouse eggs for over two hundred 
miles after they have been incubated 
for less than ten days. During the 1932 
project, no wild eggs will be moved 
until after the fourteenth day of the 
incubation period. 
Of the four rearing methods used dur- 
ing the 1932 experiments, one, the 
ground confinement system, will be 
eliminated. Further experimental work 
will be carried on principally by means 
of feather brooders and runs, both with 
wire bottoms, and with specially con- 
structed wire-bottom brood coops and 
Feeds for the 1932 project will consist 
of the same rations as in 1931, with the 
addition of meal worms and other in- 
Approximately three hundred Ruffed 
grouse, Sharp-tailed grouse and Pin- 
nated grouse eggs will be collected in 
the wild for the 1932 project. Eggs will 
be secured as early in the season as 
possible. Experimental work will be 
carried on at the Peninsula State Game 
Farm and at the Moon Lake Experi- 
mental Farm, with special equipment 
and on areas set aside for this particu- 
lar purpose. 
Shipping to U. S. A. 
and Canada a special- 
ty. Shipping Agents: 
Messrs. Van Oppen 
& Co., Whitehall St., 
New York City. Ref- 
erences can be made 
to agents or to The 
G a m e Conservation 
Society, New York. 
Hambledon, Hampshire, England 
Guaranteed 1929-1930, mostly Ringnecks and Blacknecks for 
stock and turning down. 2 hens to i cock      $i6o.oo per So, 
$3,ooo.oo per i,ooo. C.I.F. New York. Live arrival guaranteed. 
Special prices quoted for Pure Chinese, Mongolian, Dark and 
Versicolor Pheasants. 
Guaranteed twelve-weeks-old Pheasant poults, cocks and hens. 
$i25.oo per 5o, $2,350 per i,ooo. C.I.F. New York, live arrival 
Golden, Silver, Lady Amherst, Reeves, Swinhoe, Peacock, 
Soemmering, White, Blue and Brown Manchurian-Eared, Elliott, 
Fireback, Edwards, Horsfield, Impeyan, Melanotte, etc., etc., 
actually in stock. 
For dispatch between October and March; guaranteed pairs. 
Strong and healthy birds only. $io.oo per pair. C.I.F. New 
All varieties 
PEAFOWL-Four varieties 
Native and Mexican, range or pen bred. Delivery, De- 
cember through April, any number. FREE FOLDER. 
18 BEAUTIFUL            t       One 3-year renewal, or one new 2- 
F    R          4-COLOR GAME     .0 with     o year subscription, or two
new 1-year 
B I R D PICTURES                subscriptions to The Game Breeder 
Now booking orders for Spring delivery 
PETER STUDER, Clinton, New Jersey 
Birds bought on price alone are almost sure to be disappointing in the breeding
Why take a chance when you can get 
Handreared, Northern-Bred 
birds at such attractive prices, for quality stock, as our illustrated price
list quotes. We're 
fast selling our surplus birds, but still have breeding pairs and odd birds
in many varieties 
of             Geese-Ducks--Swans-Peafowl-Phea3ants--Quails 
After this season's breeding surplus is sold, we shall have no more to offer
until after 
the 1932 breeding season. However, it's getting along toward time for 
Hatching Eggs 
and you'll be interested in our offerings. Send for price list today, it's
free. Service and 
Satisfaction await you at this address: 
SUNNYFIELDS FARM, Box G., Wallingford, Conn., U.S.A. 
"WHAT you want WHEN you want it." 
PHEASANTS for Breeders 
Pure Mongolians, Chinese and Blackneck English Ringneck Pheasants bred 
from Mongolian and Chinese Cross. 
Our spedalty is furnishing high-grade stock and eggs to breeders. 
Prices of birds, brails and eggs on request. 
THE HUDSON GAME FARM CO.                           Hudson, Ohio 

Ce ~to 
I H c. 24 1IAI L    Vt/ r      5t V1 511 
AORSRPL is61O ~  la3j~               MADISON 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                      Apri1l *t 1932 
D.A. 0. Grss 
It is so lonr: ait  11avee written to y,')u thet 7 
6o  otkn ow if you answer.4( ;q last letter of If 32 answered 
yorlast one, 
.TPhe wintrr ti~nuod~t bee arood     f~ 1or bEnding. 
hede Z"50 eh    tel        -)40 prEi.j  a'alu ,    tvorke 
ItoSt of the, wintir on ~~na trap that w -u14 trap pra-Iri~e 
chickens kaw4 found that v trap with,9 bi-' door w-orke  by a 
strinr fror- t blind w-oult 4 etulh 10 or 1U _$,e.~ai 
that trvp was probaobly unwec~tsery tc.,r T fcunZ thet thesy woulde 
,-a into t, mwou el trarp If v alLerptil was 1w it. The orwlY 
reaeon they would not cgo in wee that they l-eked the nerve to 
be the first ine to  7o tr. 1 first found this ou&t --eni "2 wzas

trappiug! west of X ltt.,ivkll whore the  floo k6 wce 'L)-.Thre 
I eu  t?~r~9oho1~nwith s "rp-tti1la in the fnl tra Ps. 
Also after a pra Ifle ohiokur ',i beer 1ii , aet *a will ilo back 
in evtn if there is not a sisirtM ii 'Ia t  t s-tA  32 i--t e big 
!dak !ont of watahing  Vth  prairie ohiokta& trialnt .40 Met into 
the trap with tbhe drp front. Two ,,r thrz-. ucl4 be iide 
eating a nd several on tbe outside would try to e.,,t Vtru! he 
nettni, bofor. comng in.     h  jzza inaide wc~ul4 always take a 
Dookat  he  ns&that atuae , their heads '!,rog  tzoa the outszide. 
Onthe floot wa savr4 wa whetu ofr1.7 t'irete were in the trap. 
In. teed of flyln  out the open dorthoy triod 0 tou: 
thentitin. As the reat werze all  ,ve T      trhulle4 the string, 
he  oorsht with r b*naC'4, aar.  the. oickens cn4dr 
ably until I2 put * rs 6    a o  loaw_ the bottl of Vth door to rwuffle1

the nos     After that they did no-,t even notice * haa the door 
drope Wht.   It the mixd 4 .ock wetof 'Ittavill. _f ba.4*4de 
twohybids. C'e ws oorod like a aharpitall but hnad ei1   t 
dxr   feathevr. In the tall, ", he othact wra 4ooloxr*4 like a sharr-

talbut had she-rt pinsts featherse like ,. h11.e prairie chickn 
it we a  rno~ter 
I '-ot  r~ eturns on lat yea r's bade   birds, Akll except 
two were in their last year.z feding        4*rtij this winter although 
te2  utivir returns ahoc    -,      ".-ar  of ty.0 or thrsee~~a 

St, *roue No. 15832 banded at No, 9 in 1951 fed at No, 9 in 1932, 
St, grouse No, 15310 banded at No, 6 in ?M!arch, 1951. FI at 
7o. 16 In 1932, 
St.r rouse No, 15353 banded at No. 2 in  rch 1931,       led nt 
No, 15 in 1932. 
Feeding station No. J was discontinued in 19:2 end replaced by 
No. 15. 
S.,t. grouse No, 144, Fed a   both No, 3 and No. 15 durin-w FebrurY 
and parch, 1932, 
8o. ouse No. 157. Fed at both No. 3 and No, 15 in February nnd 
Meroh, 1932, 
Lririe ehicken No, 170. Fed at both No. 4 and No, 5 in Mar,1ch  92, 
21 ashrp-tnils were bended at No, I in 1931, 
Six of the 21 were retrapped in 19&2      No. 1. 
tone of the 21 were retrappeO at the othcr stations, 
As No i is also a dane. groun   it is unlikely that more than 
of the 21 are elive, but the flock increased to 39 in 1952, 
At No, 3  there were 18 sharp-tails banded in 1931. NIne were 
retrapped and 19 new birds were b     4 in 1932. It is unlikely 
that any of the other nine er alive or they would have Showed 
up at No. 1 or a)t No, ISas No. 144 and 157 Indi ate that hils 
flock mixes with or overlaps the one fe~eing  et station No. 15. 
On the basis of the flocks at feedini stations No. I and 
-o. 3 the mortality rate of old birds for one year is irn the 
nei hborhood of 50,.   (50% at No.3 and 6    at No. 1) 
The shp-ail flocks which are practically all roosters are 

probably roosters from a nearby dance ground. This is known 
to be the case at fee(ing station No. 1 and at feeding station 
No, 16. it is not known whre the roosters at feedi,$r station 
No. 3 dance. This feedin station was set up in November, 1131 
on a ditch bsn where sharp-tilas fed on white birch catkins 
in the winter  E331. i ighteen sharp-tail roosters were banded 
here in Marcho 1931,  The first thing to appear &t this station 
was a flock of quail which arrived December 1, 1951 and fed all 
winter,  The sharp-teils arrived on January 5, 195, Part of 
this flock fed at - o. 15 an shown on Map of 1931 Returns. At 
present there are nine birds wearing 1931 bands and nineteen 
wearing 1932 bands.  Two flocks* of sherp-tails with a Mjority 
of hens were looted which indicates that if all of the flocks 
were trapped the sexes would be about equal, There should be 
therefore, a bi, increase in sharp-teils in 1952, 
In the flocks of prairie chickens studied there were 
from eight to ten rooster for every hen, 
iPtttsville -2 hens, 15 roosters - bnded, 
Bancroft - 21 roosters, 1 hen - One hen and five roosters 
shipped to game farm. 
Babcock - Feedin- station No. 4 - 13 roosters - banded, 
Feeding station No. 5 - 45 roosters, 6 hens 
observed - one hen banded, 
?;o, 45 - 15 roosters, $ hens. 13 roosters and 
3 hens banded. 
No, 9 - 40 roosters, 5 hens - ne hen banded. 
No 1  - 22 roosters, 3 hens, 
itther there is an excess of roosters or the hens migrate. There 
is no evidence to prove that they do migrate in Wisconsin. The 
flocks studied were flocks that migrated to cornfields in the 
fall. If hens migrate to feeding grounds these should hate been 
hens. The flock at feeding station No, 45 die not arrive until 
January 28, It was a migrstin  flok, There      e only three hens 
in the flook of 18, "Phe flock that migrated to w'orden tonship, 
Clark county in 1928 was a flock of roosters. 
In the meantime we are trying to figure out a way to get 
sIe information by mens of an  xperimentl game  naent area, 
ie would like to find out if possible the answers to these 
quest ions: 
1.  Can the sex ratio be regulated by moving the excess 
roosters by winter trappin7? 
2, How far would the roosters have to be moved? 
3,   iow far would mbved birds travel? 
4. How much of an increase canbe expected where food 
patches and winter feeding are provided? will winter 
feeding prevent migration to distant regions provided 
such migration occurs? 
5#   Ohat are the effects of hunting? 
SSee 1937  ndlnr, table 

6,  Is the eight year cycle due to disease?  If so, 
the nmber of birds on a closed area should rop 
as low as on an area open to hunting, 
7,  ,'hnt is the mortality r tte?  At present fitures 
are only available on two flocks, 
8.  :low many birds oen be shot on a -iven area? 
9,  If the hatch is poor on certain years, what is the 
10. Can preirie chickens be raised in captivity?   This 
work is beinr eaned out at the Game Farm, 
All of these questions cennot be answered by experimenting 
on any one area, The ares picked will be the one that will pro- 
vide the -mst information. 
Both prairie chickens and sharp-tails same through the 
winter without loss where feeding stations were provided and also 
where there were no feedinp stations,    Yere there were no 
feedinp stations the sharp-tails fed on white birch oatkins, aspen 
buds, and the seeds of                      ,I flock of prairie 
chickens, one hybrid ane              a  west of 'ittsville fed 
at a feeding stetion located at the edge of a pasture,  These 
birds were seen etin  aspen buds when the snow w s deep and 
green leaves w        there were bare patches, A creo   of a 
prairie ehicken conteined corn (from ftedin  station ), 10%, 
white birch oatkins, 40 , aspen buds, 5%, green leaves, 45-. 
The green leaves consiated of wintergreen, goldenrod, clover, 
and others not yet identified. 
Both sharp-tils and prairie eheikens eat buds, All 
sharp-tails eat buids, but it is not assumee that all prEArle 
cicAkens eat buds, although the prairie chickens mentioned above 
ate as many buds as the sharp-tails with whIch they treveled, 
It is possible that prairie ohickens learn tb eat buds when the 
flocks are mixed, At wlnter feeding statlons sbarp-ti4ls eat 
either buckwheat or corn, They eat buckwheat either from stocks 
or from hoppers. Prairie chickens eat buckwheat from shocks only. 
V132 T3&rdin (includes 18-returns) 
. Ianoe ground - Section 13t T.1 Y, R, £ n. 38 male, 
I female sharpteiled irouse, 
3.- Feeding station - Sec, 18, T,21 N,, R, 3 F. 28 male %t.greue. 
4.-                   See. 10, T.2l T.1, R, 3 1E, 2 female, I male 
sharptailed grouse - 13 male prnirie ch'oken, 

Feeidng Station 
- Feediri station 
tv            IS 
9 - Corfield 
eeding station 
i-             if 
Lif           *9 
46-   If 
-  ,e.ll, T.*1 N  , 1.3 E. 1 feale  .llioken, 
- -eo,33, T1 ,21 N,, -.4 E. 3 female, I male 
Ot, -rouse, 
-   @,je35, T#21 Nt 1R.3  13 fmale, 7 ile 
st,   T.rous  - I fe.le prairie chi en, 
- £5ea,321 T,21 N,, R.4 E, 3 me St, rouse, 
See, ?, T#21 N., R.4 ',4 fwaal sot. grouse, 
S, 8, T,21 N,, 1     7,3  26 male 9,t, grous, 
I femle st* grouse, 2 male p. ohkens, 
See. 9, T.21 No, R,2 E. 9 mes.t. grouse, 
See, 8, T21 N,, R,4 E, 3 male sot, grouse 
8es,, T,21 'N,0 R,3 2, 13 male p. ehickena, 
3    ale P. nickens, 
Sec.O, T.21 N,, R,2 2, 5 male, 6 f e 
5, t. grouSe. 
SeoL , T,21 N., 11471.5 irAe  , t. grouse 
10 miles west of Pittsville 
22 - eedin 
atati  -, - Se.14, T.23 N., ,2 E. 45 mle, 16 female 
e.t* grouse, 
  Seo,27, T,23 N,, ,2 E, 1 male  7 f le 
st. grouse, I male prairie ehicken, 
3ee,28, T,23 N, 1.2E, 1 male, 1 f1emale 
p. ehiken, I hybri4,(mle) 1 mele s,t!grouse, 
* a a - a 
.26 Buckwheat field  -  e. 29, 'T.24 N,, 1,2 2. 19 female s.t,prouse, 
14 -ale aot, ,rouse, 1 female p,eiikeTI, 
I imale -o. chicken. 
5 female so.'t. grouse, 
-a -r f at 
Five roosters On  one hen prairie chicken shipped to    me Ftrm, 
.  bcoak 

:Coruf i.14e - tandim- or shocked 
: Ruokeat fields 
+±Gr- .r lefaves, ,e-enerally clover,? 
nspn, or sahee- ore 
D.c.~ber shift 
7hite 71Roh catkins                 '-)eeiber 
Aspen  U65                :January 
Feeding stations-coorn or buckwheatt February 
:8hoke  cor   ifnear buds            1erch 
-01 IA   Januory  sabift of roostari 
:Dance ground - I per section 
: 3ude and green leaves 
t 7eedinv- *V:tions if near dance 
t round 
April shift 
D~anceO Trouno 
*       Fruits 
*       _eeds 
~ren- I~eaves, 
Webrue ry 
-' ay 
of -e.ns 
-7 Jun 
July 1- 
Aveageradius of shift in  ane   birdt  is two Miles, 
kaximu known shtf't iz o-i  ht i, 
Roosters do "lot c~nebuddli ",.rounds froma yo,,ar to 
year, as far as bandin- returns indiate,  'o ..anded. 
hens were retrapped, 

&RQ~1  htts- Pririe chiclen 
$eptm~ba - Otobe Shft 
.=ree eavcu~m 
clover, aspen, wlrte r -r~en,~ 
z SheP 5orr*1 -ind strewbrry: 
Deoember     it 
,Corn 'eedingr stt~QflR 
Ifarvwe if available 
4-    leaVOS when  roun4 
4.I;;;;. if ava ilable 
S4 Buds duriwn snow 
Is bare: 76bruary 
Muroh Shift 
:Dnnee Grounds 
Dance 'rroi-ds 
1stn; 'Go-unds 
7  -,, cs 
In octs 
Aril hft 

Relation of ,uail to 'rouse 
Six coveys of quail fed at feeding stations. in the 
Babcock area. Three coveys fed with shar-p-tailsd grouse and 
three coveys fed with prairie chiokens. In all cases the 
quail ate from hoppers. This did not interfere with the 
feeding of the shn-r-tails as the quail ate in the afternoon 
and the shsrp-tsils in the morning. The ate both shelled corn 
and buckwhet from hoppers. There were no losses from cold 
weather or predators in the coveys feedine at feeding stations. 
It was found that quail scratch a larqe aiount of feed out of 
the hoppers unless wire netting is taeked across the opening of 
the hopper. 
It is probable that this is the beginniug of an irruption 
of quail in ;ood, Juneau and Adams counties. A big crop of weeds 
as rown up on the areas burned in 1930 and it is probable that 
this is the cause of the quail increase.    It is peeulier that 
these quail did not mke use of cornfields. There were l6 coveys 
of quail in the Babcock area, and although six coveys located 
feeding stations, none fed in cornfields except one flock which 
was in a cor feld before the foedin    station at that 'paee was 
re~ innry Pl-ans for 1eprrimental r-rov;.senaentra 
The purpose of this experiment is to test out the facts 
and theories resultinr from the Pririe C7hiken Investig ation 
which are likely to shorten or make unnecessary the period closed 
to hunting in the low years of the grouseycle       Although the 
experiments will concern chiefly the prairie chicken and sherp- 
toiled grouse, the ruffed -rouse will also be studied. 
Methods of feedin the sharp-tailed grouse and prtairle 
chicken during the winter have been worked out to such an extent 
that winter feedin  can .be practised on a large scale.  inter 
feeding will be especially suitable for refuges or state owned 
public shooting grounds WiAch have a resi6ent refue keeper in 
charge, AlthougP winter feeding nay not b absolutely necessary 
for prairle chickens and shrp-tailed grouse from the standpoint 
of cood it has other i   rtant ndvantoges to be described later. 
There has been no evidence of widespread disease during 
the pest three years.  If the cycle follows its regular course 
there should be a bir' drop in nubers within the next three or 
four years, If disease is the cause or one of the causes of the 
cycle, it will be possible to determine the neture of the disease 
on an area under close observation. It is proposed that sick 
birds be dellvered to Dr. 7. O. Green at the Univerity of Minnesota 
providing Dr. Green is willing to do this work in addition to the 
study he is ;aking- of disease in ruffed rouse.   It is iliportant 
that sick birds be delivered alive as dead birds are L   diately 
after death invaded by the becteria causing decomposition and it 
Is generally impossible to isolate the bacteria responsible for 
the death of the bird, 7o control measures against disease can 

be taken until the iVentity of the disease has been established, 
It will be important to get information on baecterial disease 
in Wisconsin to cheek with the findings in Minnesota and the 
findin.s of the hew En-land Ehzfed (rouse Investiiation. 
_he factor which is probably next in importance to disepse 
Is the sex ratio. It is importent to find out whether or not 
the sex ratio can be regulated. In the case of the red prouse 
of -eotland the excess Iales are s1't durin   the winter, It 
is pro-osed that excess males In Wiconsin be trapped and shipped 
to those counties which are not nestin,- areas,. The excess pri& 
chicken and sharp-tailed grouse roosters are not detrimental to 
the ralsing of the young as the roosters do not accompany the 
hens during the nesting period, For the same reason It is pro- 
bably not necessary to have even as rny rom tens as hens. The 
chief obleation to an excess of roosters is food empetition. 
It takes just as much feed to winter 100 roosters and 50 hens es 
it does to winter 75 woosters and 75 hens.   The 75 hens would 
ra is a0, more young than the flock of 50. 
It is important to deterin  the value of refu7e and their 
bearing on the      cycle. It is probable that refues under 
the ontrol of a refuge keeper and regulated according to the 
fIndings of the present investipation wili better the hunting 
around the refuges on ordinary years and lessen the nbar of 
years which would be closed to hunting, It is proposed that the 
experimental area in the present Investigation be closed to 
hunting at all times, but that the ares adjacent to it be open 
to hunting in order to determrine 'tho effect of hunting on such 
adjecent areas end on the reruge itself. The chief thing to be 
determined will be the extent of migration into and out of the 
rfuxre before, during and after the hunting s.ason and the cause 
of the migrations, 
It is import-nt t)  ew what causes miratlons and how to 
prevent them,  The diitance that sharn-tailed rroure and prairie 
chickens travel is being determined by banding,   It is probable 
that food patches and winter feedi.  will regrolate migration. 
It is therefore proposed that winter feedin- and banding be earried 
out as oxtensively as possible in addition to food pntlheN the 
chief use of which will !e to co centrate the frouse to facilitate 
winter feeding and banding, 
The above work will also furnih, by neene of the banding 
records, a cheek on the yearly mortlity rote ftom all causes, 
It is proposed that observations be mdc on prodalory animals. 
Control measures will be used or not used depending on the area 
chosen for the experiment, If the eperiment is carried out in 
Nprthern Forest _tAte Park there would be no hunting or trapping 

under park regulations, 
I should like to have any sugestions you may have in 
reard to any observations you may hiave in mind thet should 
be made on the experimental area, in addition to those - have 
It will not be known until after the c     sion meeting 
in July whether or nt the experiment will be made by the 
Tisconsin (onsevation Department. 
It has not been decided as yet just which area to use for 
the experiment.   ,ood and Juneau counties have been under con- 
sideration, but we h-ave not been able to get control of a lare 
enough solid block of land in those counties to suit our purpose. 
I am of the opinion that the refuge area should be about six 
miles square in view of the fact that the seasonal shift radius 
of the sharp-tiled grouse is from two to three miles and of the 
prairie chicken from two to ten miles, Although an area in 
Juneau or good county would be close to ?"dison and easier to 
supervise than an ares In the northern part of the state, there 
would be advantages In makln  the experiment in a northern cointy, 
when we "-ve decided which area to use, and if the plan is 
approved at the com  ssion meeting, 3 will prepare a map of the 
ares for your files, 
Very sincerely yours, 
'T T.    T, K'ttTTh, Director 
F/e: it                     Assistant TBiologist 
CC to 
MW, Leopold '- 
Dr. orange 
Dr, Jrones 

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When the Indians with their simple tastes and 
requirements inhabited this country, the natural 
fauna and flora were not disturbed a great deal. 
Crude weapons and a disinclination to cultivate 
the soil prevented the red men from doing much 
harm to the wild life. The squaws might scratch 
up the ground in some unoccupied places and 
plant patches of corn, but nothing happened that 
really spoiled the face of the earth, from a nat- 
uralist's point of view. 
But the white man came in much larger num- 
bers and with more elaborate wants, so that the 
natural products of the country did not suffice. A 
variety of crops had to be raised and domestic 
animals introduced to furnish food and raiment 
for the larger and more exacting population. It 
became the first duty of every pioneer to destroy. 
Forests were cleared away to make room for the 
wheat fields. Many wild creatures were killed 
for human food, and the predatory animals and 
birds were destroyed to save the more productive 
domestic flocks and herds. The settler, being 
hard working and generally poor, had no time to 
contemplate the beauties of nature, to consider 
d1 Eggs       ff 

the conservation of natural conditions.  His 
greatest struggle was with nature; a conflict to 
reduce the wilderness and to prepare the soil for 
the production of the necessities of life. 
My father's first duty after coming to Keokuk 
County, Iowa, in 1853, was of course to carve a 
farm home out of the wilderness. By hard and 
unceasing toil a log cabin had been erected and 
sufficient oak rails cut and split to fence the por- 
tion of the farm that had been cleared of trees and 
brush and converted into a garden and field. In- 
asmuch as all kinds of live stock were permitted 
to roam at large in those days, outside fences 
were imperative. At intervals of several years 
additional tracts were cleared and broken to en- 
large this field, and the rail fences were corre- 
spondingly extended. 
In the spring of 1870, father had finished clear- 
ing a tract of about ten acres for the breaking 
plow. All trees and bushes had been removed but 
patches of hazel brush, pussy willows, and briers 
covered most of the ground. Among the under- 
growth was also a thick carpet of the last year's 
blue stem and other dead prairie grasses, inter- 
spersed "with considerable growth of green grass, 
as the season was advanced. The man with the 
oxen and breaking outfit who had been engaged 
to turn under this tract of brush, willows, and sod 

undertook the work on condition that it should be 
carefully burned over first, for the mat of grass 
and brush was too heavy for the capacity of his 
On the day that father decided conditions were 
right to burn off the tract, he invited me (then 
five years old) to go with him and see the fire- 
works. As an exhibition of pyrotechnics this field 
of burning grass and brush was a grand success. 
Showers of crackling sparks rose to the sky and 
great clouds of black smoke ascended mountain 
high. All of a sudden and with a loud whir of 
wings that sounded like a burst of distant thun- 
der, a large bird flew out of the smoke and dis- 
appeared over the hills.  "That's a prairie 
chicken", said father. "It must have gotten too 
hot in there."  At the same time we noticed a 
marsh hawk flying uneasily about over the burn- 
ing area and occasionally uttering shrill screams 
of rage. Smaller birds were darting away in 
every direction. 
When the fire had died down and the smoke 
had blown away we walked about over the 
charred and blackened turf. In the vicinity from 
which the prairie hen had appeared so suddenly 
we found her nest with nine nicely roasted eggs. 
Father examined one, found it to be fresh, and 
"done to a queen's taste". We had a rare feast 

of roasted eggs on the "half shell" for dinner that 
Before returning to our cabin, however, we 
walked over the remainder of the charred tract. 
The marsh hawk's nest contained five eggs which 
were also roasted brown, but we left them for the 
foxes and skunks. Further search revealed a 
quail's nest containing about a dozen eggs, burned 
black and so nearly destroyed that it was difficult 
to determine their number. 
These were all the nests we found, but the 
thicket must have contained a large number of 
smaller nests with eggs or young birds which 
were completely annihilated. Fortunately prairie 
fires at that season of the year were not common, 
but the incident was a vivid demonstration of the 
tragedy of cultivation to the wild life of the 

Ditribution-    The area included in this report is a strip 
two miles wide and ten miles long with Babcook at the east end and 
Jaokson county at the west erd. About 15 per cent of the area is 
inhabitd ran-e during the period of the day open to hunting. The 
uninhabited range inoludes: 
1. Ope meadow with no trees. 
2.  Swamps with heavy grass. This part of the range is used 
at night as a roosting site. 
3. Open peat marsh burned bare by fire. Sometimes used for 
4.  Solid Jackpine. 
The heaviest stocked ranges for shar-tailed grouse are aspen 
thickets in the peat marshes, oak ridgee, and white birch-chokecherry, 
ptnoherry thickets along ditches. The heaviest stocked range for 
prairie oeickens is oak ridge where the oaks are not dense and where 
open grassland is nearby. Ruffed grouse were found in the heavy 
oak forest on the river bottom and in denae aspen-alder-white birch 
thickets, but very Tew ruffed grouse were shot compared to theother two 
Sh to    - Very few of the leaves had fallen. In central Wisconsin 
the oaks were red and purple and the aspen bright yellow, making the 
m-rsh country look its best. In the oak woods where mot of the 
shar--tiled grouse and prairie chicken wre flushed, It was necessary 
to shoot before the birds raised above the branches. In general there 
was an open space of about 20 feet between the branches and the grund. 
Punters that were good snap shooters had good hunting. The average 
hunter either shot too soon or too late. When flushed the birds gen- 
erally flew across the open marsh to the next oak ridge. 
October 1-6, 1932                             y   V~ 

About two-thirds of the flushes are out of range. Of the other 
third a iod hunter can get two birds out of every three shells. The 
average hunter gets one bird for every 15 shells. 
E    - Acorns, and ao galls were the two key foods. Corn, buck- 
wheat, birch catkins, chotecherries, and grasshoppers were found in a 
few crops. 
The crops examined contained: 
Two prairie chickens - acorns, 100% - ful1. 
Two prairie chickens - acorns, 2; oak galls, 75%. 
Two sharp-tails: 
One - acorns, 50%; oak galls, 51K - full. 
One - oak galls, I00 - full. 
Cenvi - The following estimate is for the entire area of 20 squore 
Per cent of blank or nearly blank range              85% 
Per cent of inhabited range                           15% 
Acres per bird on inhabited range                     1.5 
Acres per bird on whole block                        10 
Per cent of birds killed in six day season           5o% 
Per cent of cripples lost                            10% 
Number banded on same area                          132 
Per cent expected to be on area scoording to banding 
Per cent of banded birds killed of total kill         5 
66 x 20 -- No. on 20 square miles                 1,320 
1,320 + 20 =average per square mile                  66 
* on an average 50 of banded birds are shot within one 
mile of the place where banded and the area In question Is two miles 

!rdA see andkill 
Figures of . R. Van Wormer, Babcock Prty 
Flushes Sbots Kill Cripples lost Fours 
Oct. 1 
Popple         7     :   7     : 50: 28:      3        3  :(14) 
thickets .  , 
Oct. 3  A.M:         :       4          4             : 
Pop)le   :     3     :   30: 12:      6:       1     :(4 :13) 
*                     :            :     ,9 
Oct.2 P.M.:    3     :   80 : 40      9:       4        2  : (12) 
Oa    rid j..        2   75- -  3   :          :   0  --   2.  : 
Oct.3 A.M.:         :   50 : 15 :    8:       0        3  z(6) 
Oak ridges: . 
!.     !:            :    :            : 
Oot.4    :     2         80:   30:    8:       0     :4    :(8) 
Oak rid-Res: 
3ak r ~ j         3 , ; . .  :  , , :  . .. :  , . .. .; ..4.. 
Oct. 5 P.M:    3     :   60  :1   : 11         0     :3    :(9) 
0  k .ri .: a                                             : 
Oot.SPo.M.:    3         50 60:0    132        1     :     :(12) 
-Oak r Idgs:3 
490    193, 
Birds flushed per 
Per mt of fluhes killed 
Per cent of flushes shot at 
Per cent of shots killed 
90 + 
193 + 
90 + 
73   6.5 
193 :46 

Parasites - The following figures are from 59 birds examined by 
F. J. W, Schmidt and S. X. Cross. 
No. prairie chickens examined......        18 
Per cent infected . . .... * . . 50% 
Average no. per bird . . . .......          1.2 
No. sharp-tailed grouse examined . ...     37 
No.  wit  tpworms  .  . .**. ... .....    *     1 
o.  without  .  .  .  . .. .. . .. .. ..   16 
Per cent infected. .    ..... ..           57% 
Ayerae no. per bird   . .     ..       .   3 
Average no. per infected bird . . . . ..    6 
No. ruffed roouseeamined . . . . . . .      4 
Vo.  infect   ..     .  . . .  . .  . . .  0 
No. prairie chickens examined ......       18 
No. infected with Heterakis .    * . . ..   1 
Average No. per infected bird   .....       3 
Per cent infected with Reterakis .5..       5 
No. infected with Ascarldia . . . . . . .   7 
Average No. per infected bird. . . . ..     8 
Per cent infected with Ascaridia ....      39 
No. of sharp-tailed grouse examined . ..   37 
No. infected with Heterakis . . . . . ..    0 
No. infected with Ascarldia . . . . . ..    6 
Average no. per infected bird . . . . ..    2 
Per cent infected with Ascaridia . ...     16 
No. of ruff,d grouse ex mlnecl . . . . ..   4 
No. infected with Meterakis . . . . . ..    0 
No. infected with Asoaridia . . . . . ..    1 
Average no. per infected b     . . . . ..   2 
Per cent infected with Ascarida & Reterakis 25 
No. infected with Filaria . . . . . . . .    2 
Per cent of birds Infected      ...    ..   50 
Average no. per infected bird        . . .  10 
No. of prairie chickens examined . . . . . 18 
No. of birds infected. ...........            7 
Per cent of birds infected . . . ... . . 39 
No. of sharp-tailed grouse examined . . . . 37 
Yo. of birds infected .......        . . .  5 
Per cent of birds infected . . . . . . . .. 13 

Number of prairie chickens weighed 
Average weight of 10 males 
Average weight of 7 females 
Number of shp.-rtails weighed 
Average weight of 28 ialee 
Average weight of 20 females 
Wet ght of one pririe chicken rooster 
Weight of same bird dressed 
Weight of one ahrp-.tail hen 
?eight of same bird dressed 
34.2 oz. 
30.6 oz. 
33 oz. 
28.5 oz. 
37 oz. 
23 oz. 
27 oz. 
15 oz. 

S- To determine the sex ratio of the birds shot, birds 
were examined from hunters' bags and oomiared to banding records. 
Nuber of sharp-tailid grouse exained         -      115 
(Does not include banded birds) 
Number of roosters                            -       76 
Nuber of hns                                 -       39 
Per cent roosters                             -       66 
Per sent hens                                 -34 
Banded roosters shot                         -        24 
Banded hens shot                              -       13 
Pr cent bauded roosters shot                -        5 
Per cent banded hens shot                    -36 
Per cent shot of total banded sharp-tails     -       12 
Total sharp-tails banded in 1932              -      297 
No. of roosters                               -      318 
No. of hen                                    -       81 
P r cent roosters                             -       73 
Per cent hen                                  -       27 
Per cent of banded birds among birds checked for sex 5 
More banded sharp-tail hens were shot in proportton 
to roosters than the proportion of banded hens to banded roosters, 
but the difference is not enough to warrant the statement that 
hens are more easily shot thanrooster8. 
Number of prairie chickens examinted          -66 
Nwber   roosters                             -       28 
Number of hens                                        38 
Per cent roosters                                     42 
Per cent hens                                         58 
Banded roosters shot                          -        5 
Banded hens shot                              -        1 
Per cent roosters                             -84 
Per cent hens                                 -       16 
Total prairie chickens banded in 1932        -        55 
Number of roosters                            -       47 
Number of hens                                -        8 

Pr cent roosters                        -    86 
Per cent hens                            -    14 
Per cent banded birds among birds checked for 
sex    None 
The proportion of banded hens to roosters is the same 
as the proportion of banded hene shot to banded roosters shot. 
The number of bands returned was too small to give an accurate 
estimate. Last winter, when the birds were banded, 86 per cent 
were roosters. Of the birds checked for sex from hunters' bags 
only 42 per sent were roosters. 8ome of the possible explanations 
are as follows: 
1.      Hunters can shoot hens more easily than roosters. This 
does not check with the banded birds shot. 
2.      kost of the hens migrate in the winter. There is no 
evidence as yet to prove this statement. Perhaps If banding 
were extensive enough to include birds from all over the state 
this question could be solved. 
3.      Most of the young raised were hens. Six hens and one 
rooster were raised at the game farm so that under artificial 
conditions this statement is true. 
4.      Perhaps if 1,000 birds had been ohecked the prpostion 
of hens would have been less. 
Prepared by 
F. J. W. Schmidt. 

Digest of 
S. A. Barrtt .         A       . 
(On Crawfish River n   le Mills, Jfferson Co.,Wis.) 
Dletin of the Public Museuu of t. City of Milwee, 7ol, XIII, 
pp. 1-602, APril 24, 1933. 
P. 356. P     . 'Hwew, we find interest in he ,rk of Semers who, in 
18, mae a "cial collection of bone fr-        ts f     the 
heap along th river. He states that he hA. identifie4 the bones 
of 'bear, raccoon, buffalo, mose, dear, squirrel, woodchc, 
rabbit, wol.t, p--ieeon, V.ail, duks, re.dbfrd, turtles, picokorel, 
ik, ,perch, bifl-hea4, and na*ers," 
(Note absence of turkey. prairie chicken. raffel! rronse, elk.) 
p. 379.   notine 1, T.   te'r.    v't in 191-: 
"N m,.3ai  a section of the, wall we ccul& see each stratwa 
nrich emented the amt at every poInt crit throlgh 
thie       Mel (*n vftkeelo q wa nixd rith -Iithe rchra  or the 
stalk-s of M~r jn rhiih grow abiimdant'ly in the strewu-n near by."

P. 396. Again Tati"     S4ftT 
"A. IM-- 
"B. irds- 
Wild, pigeon       e    r          . 
.4tor~qs),and several other wua   bid not yet d*tmne. 
Soer, A. X. 
1892. "Prehi.toric Cannibalis in America." 
Vol. 142, PP. 20 207. (Reprinted in 'lie. 
Popular Science Moathly, 
Archeologist, Vol. 19, 

(Predatory Animal Hunter) 
TWO mountain lions were killed this month (May) both females 
and one carrying an embryo. Two bobcats were killed, one 
carrying two embroyes. I hunted the entire month north of 
Gallina, N. M., on the French Mesa the first part, and the latter 
part on the Canada Ojitos game refuge east of Tapacitos in Rio 
Arriba county. 
I was camped at Mud Springs ranger cabin and will be located 
there some time yet as lion signs seem plentiful west of the cabin 
along the refuge boundary. I have worked the refuge very care- 
fully and find lion tracks on most every section. Am sure there 
are two or possibly more lions yet on the refuge. I trailed a male 
lion four different days and finally tracked him into the Apache 
Indian reservation, headed northwest toward the Jicarilla Forest, 
but lost the track in this dry country. 
So far I have found only three porcupines and no deer killed by 
lions, but have received reports from a rancher that several deer 
were killed the past winter by lions in Ojitas canyon. 
Bobcats are numerous in this locality but the dogs are unable 
to trail them very far because the country is so dry. I am pack- 
ing canteens of water for the dogs. I have not found any damage 
done by cats so far. 
Bears are the most plentiful game animal on this refuge. In 
every canyon and on almost every trail I see fresh bear tracks 
each morning. Judging from the reports of the ranchers and the 
signs I find, bears are increasing here to a certain extent. Only 
_--two or-three were killed here last season.. ..... .. 
The deer are not as plentiful on this refuge as they should be, 
with plenty of food and such an ideal range as is found here. 
The decrease in deer undoubtedly is due to the lion population 
mainly, but there is no doubt there has been considerable poaching 
both in and out of season on this refuge. 
There are four kinds of deer browse found in this locality. It 
is in good condition and shows no sign of over-browsing by either 
deer or cattle. 
This refuge is very poorly marked with only a few posters to 
a number of miles and no painting. The north boundary is a fence 
along the Apache Indian reservation, which does not have any 
markers whatever. 
Not a single turkey track has been seen on the refuge where 
they formerly were plentiful. The winter of 1931-32 killed off 
some deer and most all of the turkeys. One turkey track was 
seen between Deadman Lookout and the Chama river and several 
on the French Mesa. 
Poaching must be stopped and lions and bobcats kept down to 
a very low number in order to permit turkeys and deer to restock 
the range. 
ans Being Made to Develop 
Large Prairie Chicken Area 
D URING the past winter and spring, J. Stokley Ligon, author 
of "Wild Life of New Mex'co" and Game Specialist, who 
has been employed by the Game Department for the past six 
months, has made an intensive study of the prairie chicken situ- 
ation in Roosevelt County. There are approximately 390 square 
miles of prairie chicken country and plans are being worked out 
to develop this area to the highest degree of productivity. 
As a step to assist in the increase of these prairie chickens, 
through a cooperative agreement with the U. S. Biological Survey, 
a large area was treated with poison grain for the purpose of 
destroying rodents and especially Kangaroo rats which infest that 
section, and which are highly detrimental to prairie chickens' 
What Game and Fish "Departmen, 
Each month the report of a Field Man or Deputy War- 
den, as written by him, is published so that the public may 
have a better understanding of the work being done and 
how it can cooperate with the department. 
June, 1933 
nests. The rats, finding the nests, will invariably destroy the 
eggs and in this way do a great deal of harm each year in pre- 
venting a normal increase of the chickens. 
The prairie chickens during the winter months feed in the 
farmers' grain fields to some extent, and have occasionally been 
accused of doing considerable damage. Investigation, however, 
has proven that rodents such as Kangaroo rats, mice and jack- 
rabbits, are doing ten times as much damage as the chickens, and 
through this relief to the farmers by the poisoning of the rats, 
undoubtedly the complaints of prairie chicken damage will be 
greatly reduced. 
The Kangaroo rats are not the only animals doing damage, 
however, as only a few days ago, a local farmer, R. S. Smith, 
found a prairie chicken's nest one day with a nice clutch of eggs, 
and the next day again passing this location found that the nest 
had been destroyed by a coyote. 
It is difficult to estimate the amount of damage done to game 
birds and their nests by pests of this sort. However, the Game 
Department is cognizant of the situation and is doing everything 
possible to control vermin which is known to be deleterious to game 
birds and game animals. 
Mr. Ligon reports that the prospects for a good crop of young 
chickens is excellent this year, as to date there has been no hail or 
heavy rains in that section, and many nests formerly destroyed 
will this year escape the Kangaroo rat. 
'Don't Pick Up Young Animals! 
ANNUALLY in late May and June many reports reach the 
Department of Game and Fish of picking up of young animals, 
mostly fawns, and occasional cub bears, by persons who find the 
little wild creatures apparently abandoned. 
State Game Warden Barker has asked that the public be cau- 
tioned against picking up these young animals, as it is a violation 
of the state game laws, unless it is absolutely certain the parent 
animal has abandoned the young. 
"Many persons, who are well-meaning, pick up these little ani- 
mals," said the game warden, "but in most instances they have 
made a serious mistake. In a majority of cases the animal will 
not live in captivity and few of them have been actually abandoned 
by the mother. 
"I would like to caution alt persons against this-practice because 
in nearly every case the mother of the little fellow is not far 
away and will return to it if it is left alone. If it is certain that 
a young animal has been abandoned it should not be held by the 
person who finds it, but it can be taken up and turned over to the 
game department. No person is allowed by law to keep a wild 
animal in captivity without a proper permit from the department. 
"It is much safer to leave the young animals where they are- 
they have a much better chance to survive. Most of them appear 
to be thin and weak, but that is the usual condition with a fawn 
or a cub. They are thin because they are growing so fast and 
due to the nature of their existence cannot be as fat and sleek 
as a young domestic animal. 
"Don't pick them up." 
Rough Fish Campaign Successful 
REARING and planting of fish has been found by the Game 
Department not to be the only requisite for keeping waters 
well stocked. Many of the waters, particularly in the southern 
part of the state, are infested with great numbers of rough fish, 
such as carp, suckers and gar. For several years the department 
hs been carrying on a campaign against these undesirable species, 
7 Aich probably account for more game fish each year than are 
taken by anglers, and during the past season unusual success has 
been met with in controlling these pests. 
District Deputy Warden M. Stevenson at Roswell, has had 
charge of this work, and according to reports just received from 
him, he states that to date he has taken from the fishing waters 
of Chaves and Eddy County 17,000 gar, and 12,000 pounds of 
carp and suckers, together with a large number of turtles. 
Not only is this work making it possible to maintain a better 
supply of game fish, but at this time the carp and suckers have 
come in mighty handy as a relief measure for destitute people in 
those sections. All of these fish have been distributed to charitable 
agencies in that section for distribution to needy people. Twelve 
thousand pounds of fish has gone a long way toward helping feed 
the poor in that part of the country during the last few months. 
Page 35 

)               2IA bAat   A _tI  F 
EBQo leopolh                                                      Ltl 
Professor Dakin: I should Ii e n xt year to be able to have 
more freedom of experimentation. You can understand that when Mr. Wick- 
liff says he wants chicks, then I do not like to take liberties with the
that he brings me; so we did as little experimenting as possible. As a matter

of fact, you might say we did not do any-we simply observed it; we did 
not experiment. But to get at the root of this there must be some checks

and balances, which mean experimentation. 
The Chairman: We will now hear some more from Ohio. I will call on 
Mr. Trautman. 
By Milton B. Trautman, Charles F. Walker and Raymond H. King 
What appears to have been the first experimental work on upland ga 
birds by the Ohio Division of Conservation was conducted by Miss Nor 
Frank in 1930 and 1931, on the electrical incubation and brooding of rin-

necked pheasants, under a fellowship granted by this Division to the Poultry

Department of Ohio State University. 
Commissioner William H. Reinhart, appreciating the value of research in 
a program of game production and realizing the revolutionary nature of the

changes that are taking place today in the technic of game-bird production

throughout the country, has desired to continue this work and eventually

establish an experimental game farm. Due primarily to his efforts, a modest

program has been initiated this year; because of economic conditions it was

of necessity upon a very small scale. This project was placed under the 
supervision of the senior author, and he was assisted throughout the season
Messrs. Walker and King. Considerable assistance and advice was given by

E. L. Wickliff, Chief of the Bureau of Scientific Research, Ohio Division
Conservation, and upon several occasions Dr. Paul C. Bennett, Assistant 
Pathologist of the Division of Animal Industry, and Dr. E. K. LeDune, Tem-

porary Pathologist of the Ohio Division of Conservation, assisted by making

pathological examinations. 
A small tract of open woodland at the northeast corner of the Urbana 
State Game Farm was used. Due to unavoidable circumstances it was im- 
possible to begin operations before May 1, although some of the material
ordered and certain arrangements made before that date. From the start, 
considerable attention had to be given to construction, and this, of course,

proved to be a handicap, detracting as it did from the amount of time avail-

able for the actual care of the birds. There were several occasions during

the season when it was a matter of only a few hours between the completion

of equipment and its use. 
It was apparent at the beginning that the first season's work would be 
of a most preliminary nature. There were three primary objects: first, to

investigate the possibility of the propagation of species never before reared

on our game farms, largely in response to an ever-increasing demand for a

suitable game bird for the hill section of southeastern and eastern Ohio;

second, to continue the experiments begun by Miss Frank in 1930 on the 
practicability of electric brooding in Ohio; and third, to continue her work
the nutritional requirements of pheasants. 
The work involved five species of birds: ruffed grouse, valley partridge,

Hungarian partridge, pinnated grouse or prairie chicken and ring-necked 

pheasants. Several different types of brooders were tried. A ration developed

by Dr. A. R. Winters and Professor E. L. Dakin of Ohio State University 
and based on inexpensive foods which could be obtained locally was tried
As a result of the first season's work, we are able to report some progress

toward each of our objectives. Varying degrees of success were met in the

propagation of the different birds mentioned above, and considerable informa-

tion was secured with regards to the different types of brooders. The pheas-

ant ration was used with a fair degree of success, although at least two
trials are necessary before a definite conclusion can be reached. It is not
purpose at this time, however, to present a detailed report. Rather it seems

preferable to give a brief account of one project, which although a minor
of our work still may prove of the greatest interest to the present audience:

namely, our attempt to propagate the pinnated grouse. There seems to be 
little known as to the propagation of this bird aside from Mr. Grimmer's

report, in the Transactions of the Nineteenth American Game Conference 
(p. p. 299-303), of last year's work in Wisconsin, and consequently we feel

that any contribution, however small, we have made in this work should 
prove of interest. 
Our purpose in attempting the propagation of the pinnated grouse was to 
determine whether it might not be possible to restore this fine game bird
its former haunts in Ohio by this method. Prior to 1900, there were a num-

ber of localities in the central and western parts of the state where pinnated

grouse occurred in fair numbers and were highly prized as game. The cause

of its extirpation is unknown. While this may have been due to over-shoot-

ing, it appears quite probable that the more important factor may have been

the proximity of the domestic fowl, with its attendant diseases and parasites.

If this latter was the principal cause of extirpation, then the restoration
the pinnated grouse in Ohio is doubtful. 
There were received at the Urbana Game Farm in the middle of March, 
a gift from the Wisconsin Conservation Department, five pairs of pinnated

grouse in excellent condition. These were confined in a wintering pen by
Nash, Chief of the Bureau of Game Propagation, until April 20, when they

were placed in a 100 foot by 400 foot enclosure in an isolated corner of
game farm. The site was an old blue-grass pasture at the edge of an open

oak-hickory woods. There were a few small trees in the pen, and several 
brush piles were erected for shelter. The pen was visited once daily. The

birds refused to eat a laying mash and consequently were fed only scratch

Between May 16 and June 6, twenty-five eggs were secured from these 
five pairs of birds. Three nests were built which yielded five, eight and
eggs, respectively, while three other eggs were dropped on the ground away

from any nest. These eggs were set in three lots under bantam hens, and 
twenty-two or 88 per cent of the eggs hatched. An examination of the re-

maining three eggs showed that two were partly developed and only one was

infertile. This seems a surprisingly high fertility for eggs obtained from

wild birds in captivity. 
Our experience with these chicks parallels that of Mr. Grimmer in many 
respects, although we used different methods of brooding and a different
All of the chicks were placed in electric brooders of the Coleman type. Dur-

ing the first two weeks a temperature of 100' F. was maintained under the

cover. This was gradually lowered, and during the fifth and sixth weeks the

artificial heat was discontinued, The food schedul' was similar to that used

for the ruffed grouse. The chicks were started on lettuce in clabbered milk

and egg yolk dried in growing mash. Clean fly larvae were offered from 
the third day on. The mash was-changed gradually after the first week to


include whole egg, biscuit meal and growing mash. Tomatoes and various 
berries and fruits were added during the fourth week, and were eaten 
Considerable difficulty was experienced in getting the chicks started, 
eleven dying during the first two weeks with no symptoms other than ema-

ciation. Once started, however, the birds ate well and grew rapidly. Clabber

was not consumed in such quantities as by the ruffed grouse. The fly larvae

were eaten with great avidity, and as long as these were supplied in quantity

the mash was also eaten. Our birds, like Mr. Grimmer's, were exceedingly

tame. During the sixth week, the males began to go through their courtship

On August 1, when our oldest birds were about seven weeks of age, an 
outbreak of ulcerative enteritis occurred, in spite of the fact that from
start our daily routine included painstaking efforts at sanitation. This
demic resulted in the death of seven of the nine remaining pinnated grouse

chicks. The source of the infection is not known. 
In spite of our efforts at control, this disease took a heavy toll also among

the ruffed grouse and valley partridge. The Hungarian partridge, kept in

the same row of brooders, were not affected, nor were the pheasants which

were housed in the colony brooders near by. 
Two of the younger pinnated grouse either escaped infection or were 
resistant to it, and developed into fine young birds. Two of the ten adults

were killed by opossums during the summer, and with the slender margin of

eight adults and two young remaining it was decided not to attempt to over-

winter them. Therefore, all were released on August 24 on a prairie area

in Marion County, where the species was formerly common. At this time one

of the chicks was sixty-two days old and the other fifty-three. 
Judging from the experience of Mr. Grimmer in Wisconsin, as well as 
from our own, we conclude that there are two outstanding obstacles to be

overcome before the pinnated grouse can be propagated on a practical scale.

One is the lack of a satisfactory starting diet and the other, enteritis.
have no doubt that a few seasons of systematic experiments would overcome

the nutritional difficulty. The second problem, as in the case of the ruffed

grouse, is much more serious. It appears that no brooders have yet been 
designed which are enteritis-proof. 
Rearing birds on wire seems to have reduced losses from other infectious

diseases and from parasites, but enteritis still occurs much too frequently

even with optimum conditions of sanitation. There is no reason, however,

for doubting the eventual success of efforts that are now being made to con-

quer this disease. 
On the other hand, our first year's experience with the pinnated grouse 
was by no means without an encouraging side. Our success in obtaining 
fertile eggs from wild birds and the fine growth, perfect feathering and

tractability of -the chicks which survived the first two weeks were all grati-

fying features of our work with this splendid bird. 
Dr. Pirnie: In the course of my own experience in caring for caged 
birds I have seen nine sharptails die in a period of six months, six ptarmigan

in three months, and so on. I should just like to say that aside from the

usual purpose, which is to produce for liberation as a restocking measure,

there is another value in keeping in captivity wild-trapped native upland

game and also in the attempts to rear from wild eggs these game species.

This purpose is to learn more about the disease susceptibilities of the grouse


22  omm-LL& zl -14,O "         x ot    rptao fDr 
Oree on*M~e~t&Wil.. Lfe iseso Ivesigaton*conai wigtso 

File Prairie Chicken 
(Extract from letter from A. A. lichol, University of Arizona, April 7, 1934)

* prairie chickens dive into the snow from the hihest tree or stack 
they can find adjacent to uitgale snow cover (p. 3e9, Gle anaement),    
have watched them plunge out of the tope of 40 foot oak trees with such speed

thft light snow would fly for .any feet when their bodies strack.   They
go under so   dicly that I never was sure quite 'ow their bodies were set,
I always had the unsatisfied impression th'-t just before they disappeared
neck -nd head were dran far back on the body and the breast took the shock.

Several times, as a boy, I have mrked one or two of the outside birds byi
dried stalk of aster or lamosquarter, Thlly expecting to sneakc on them in
morning and catch one. But I never did. Sometimes as close as 20 or 25 feet,

and then they would break cover under sach conditions,--as el1 sync.ronized

as a covey of Mearn's quail.  They went under the snow the sme way, like

a well patterned load of shrapnel." 

Pa. Game News 
MaY, 1934 
Sharptail Grouse 
A NEW species of grouse was introduced 
and liberated In Pennsylvania on March 
31, 1934. The liberation of the sharp-tailed 
was conducted by the Pennsylvania Sharp- 
Tailed Grouse Club under the supervision of 
Adolph Muller, President of the Game Com- 
mission, and State Game Protector Ambrose 
Gerhart, in the vicinity of Valley Forge, 
In all twenty-five pairs of birds were 
imported by the Pennsylvania Game Com- 
mission for experimental purposes.  These 
birds have been under close observation for 
the past two months at the John S. Fisher 
Game Farm, Limerick, Penna. Six pair have 
been retained by the Game Farm for propa- 
gation purposes. 
"The sharp-tailed grouse," said Lambert 
J. Bordo, of Roslyn, president of the club 
bearing the name of this game bird, "have 
all the habits of the bob-white quail. They 
favor the same environment, form coveys and 
require much the same food. But they have 
this advantage over their smaller brothi-s in 
that they can stand temperatures of 40 to 
50 below zero, without hardship. 
"Several other States," continued   Mr. 
Bordo, "'have already introduced these birds, 
and in five years they have become plenti- 
ful enough to permit an open season. Years 
ago the 'sharp-tail' was native of Pennsyl- 
vania, but intensive market shooting wiped 
out the species. With protection we hope to 
build them up again to the point where the 
man who can't afford to go to the moun- 
tains on a prolonged ruffed grouse hunt 
may enjoy the sport within reasonable dis- 
tance of his home. 
"Mr. Muller was enthusiastically in favor 
of the introduction of the new species to 
Pennsylvania's list of feathered game. "If 
this experiment succeeds, and there is every 
reason to believe it will," stated Mr. Muller, 
"it will be one of the best things the Game 
Commission has fostered in the interests of 
the average hunter-the man who must of 
necessity take his hunting close to home." 
The sharp-tailed grouse attains a maxi- 
mum weight of two pounds. In appearance 
they are colored much the same as a female 
ring-necked pheasant, but not quite so large 
in body, and with a short, pointed tail. The 
only markings to identify the male from 
hen birds is a narrow yellow strip running 
just above the cock bird's upper eye-lid. 
The Pennsylvania Grouse Club, with head- 
quarters at Willow Grove, was the primary 
force behind the introduction of these birds. 
With a membership of over a hundred it has 
done all the preliminary survey work, and 
submitted its findings to the State Game 
officials. The club is headed by L. J. Bordo, 
of Roslyn, and Rudolph W. Walther, secre- 

File:PFood & Cover 
5/34                                                       Prairie Chicken
Sweet Cloer as Gme 
Mr. K    erie of More Gae Birds in America sas that white 
biennial set clover is good Phea       t food in      ta, but that 
arians and gouse do not ta          it. 
He sas that the yellow       Il     et clover is not t    n by 
aygae bird as far as his knowle         goes. 
Is there a white amxal swet clover? 

xUbra0v ot 
Rlbo leopalbh 
'Progress in Restoration of the Prairie Chicken 
'B) J. Stokley Ligon 
(Map Prepared by Author) 
T WAS in Southern Roosevelt and Norhern Lea 
Counties that the prairie chicken made a successful 
stand against extermination in the State. It is from this 
remnant of the former abundance and extensive distribu- 
tion that the Game Department is now endeavoring to 
restore one of our finest game birds to lost range. 
Until a few years ago this remnant of prairie chickens, 
then threatened with extermination, was regarded by 
law abiding sportsmen and violations were exposed. In 
short, prairie chicken protection and restoration in the 
State began when the Legislature provided for the five 
day season. To Mr. H. P. Saunders of Roswell, Dean 
of Eastern New Mexico Sportsmen, for his personal in- 
terest and foresight, goes a good share of the credit for 
bringing about this new lease on life for the prairie chick- 
en, recognition of the law abiding sortsman and justice 
II1UsL  .3 V L'  J-O~   - 
mers (there are 
150 occupied 
farms on the 400 
square miles in- 
volved) as a nu- 
isance rather 
than as an asset. 
The farmers 
were no more to 
blame f or this 
attitude than was 
the Game De- 
partment, as 
there existed 
practically n o 
working contact 
o r cooperation 
between them for 
t h e betterment 
of prairie chick- 
en protection. 
Today a majori- 
ty of the land 
owners manifest 
an entirely dif- 
ferent attitude 
toward the prair- 
ie chicken. This 
change of senti- 
m e n t portrays 
a beautiful and 
convincing ex- 
ample of cooper- 
ative relations 
between the 
G a m e Depart- 
ment and sports- 
men on the one            LEGmND  = Establiebment Pose 
hand an d te           +,    Native Grass Res 
hand a n d the                       Plantings Made Dur 
land owner on   ______________ 
the other. 
The beginning of respect for legal protection of the 
chickens and the change in sentiment on the part of the 
farmers were coincident with the beginning of an an- 
nual five day hunting season on the chickens some five 
years ago, terminating a long period of ineffective c'osure 
with no open season but the running riot of illegal hunt- 
ing at any time. With the beginning of the short an- 
nual open season, better deputy patrol was provided, in- 
terest of sportsmen throughout the State was aroused, the 
royal sport of prairie chicken hunting was available to 
le-- (De nding on     UIAIVIMLNT Ur" 
oration).           GAME AND        FISH 
Last Two Years. 
LU  LlIt  voilaL r. 
At the outset, 
the fact was rec- 
ognized by the 
G a m e Depart- 
ment when a 
change for the 
better w as un- 
dertaken that the 
fate of the prair- 
ie chicken  on 
the limited sur- 
vival area rested 
a 1 m o s t wholly 
with the f arm- 
ers who not only 
own the land but 
also, with their 
crops supply 
much    of the 
chickens' winter 
food. This rec- 
ognition, w i t h 
t h e  admission 
that under cer- 
tain  conditions 
the chickens do 
times damage 
c r o p s  some, 
cleared the way 
for orderly- co- 
operation a n d 
mutual benefit in 
handling the 
somewhat deli- 
cate problem. 
As an educa- 
tional measure, 
the value of the 
pra:rie  chicken 
in contrast to the 
vast numbers of 
wholly detrimen- 
tal rats and jack-rabbits that heavily curtail the farmers' 
earnings, was featured. The chickens are potentially a 
cash crop for the farmers; they add to the attractions of 
ranch property and enhance its value, and besides they are 
consumers of destructive insects. The open season brings 
potential purchasers of farm products to the very door 
of the farmers. Their hunting is a sport of the highest 
order, and they do not destroy one-tenth what the rodents 
do, since, for the most part, the prairie chickens eat waste 
(Continued on page 35) 
MAY. 1934 
Page 30 

New Mexico of taking game fish by an illegal method and were 
fined $25 each and costs. In addition, the seine which they had 
been using was confiscated. 
According to witnesses in the case the three men apparently had 
decided to take plenty of the big trout from Eagle Nest Lake 
before the season opened on May 20, and were not particular about 
the methods they employed, so long as they got fish. The date of 
the offense was given as May 5. They pleaded guilty and paid 
their fines the next day. The report was made by Tom Holder, Jr., 
District Deputy Game Warden. 
Mountain Sheep Near San Andres Peak 
REPORTS that have been received at intervals over a period of 
years that there were mountain sheep in the vicinity of San 
Andres Peak on the Jornada range apparently were verified on 
April 22, according to a report by the U. S. Forest Service. In 
a bulletin issued by the Forest Service the following is included: 
"Seven Rocky Mountain sheep were seen April 22 near the sum- 
mit of San Andres Peak on the Jornada Experimental range. 
Three rams, three ewes and one young lamb were observed on the 
steep rocky east slope of the range at an elevation of about 8,000 
feet. At a distance of 300 to 400 feet from the writer of the 
report they remained in plain view for a few minutes." 
According to records of the Department of Game, and Fish, 
previous reports of sheep in this location have not been verified 
but apparently there is some justification for them. 
Restoration of the Prairie Chicken 
(Continued from page 30) 
feed. But the Game Deparement went much further than to preach 
rodent devastation and prairie chicken values. So far as funds 
would permit actual assistance was given farmers of the prairie 
chicken range. Some were paid to plant patches of feed solely 
for the prairie chickens where the birds were most numerous. 
Las spring, with no actual monetary outlay on the part of farm- 
ers, a rodent control campaign by the Game Department in co- 
operation with the U. S. Biological Survey, was conducted; while 
the past fall those interested were given instructions in the trap- 
ping of coyotes, a serious enemy to their pigs, sheep and poultry 
as well as to the prairie chickens at breeding time. This educa- 
tional work was conducted by a skilled Game Department preda- 
tory animal trapper. Game Department employes, as well as sports- 
men during the chicken season, also benefit the people through 
the payment for various services and for subsistence. 
In addition to the kill of chickens by hunters during the past 
two winters, the Game Department has trapped and moved more 
than 400 from the most heavily populated places and scattered them 
far and wide over range formerly inhabited by the species. Trap- 
ping by the Game Department is a direct and effective way of 
meeting damage complaints and at the same time provides needed 
birds for restocking. 
The result of all of this contact and cooperation is proving to 
be of much value in cementing friendship between the Game De- 
partment and farmers in building up a program of game protec- 
tion and a management which is mutually beneficial. If intelli- 
gently and unselfishly pursued, this work has far-reaching possi- 
Transplantations made indicate conclusively that this method of 
restoring the prairie chicken to former range is practical. The 
only question involved is that of sane, reasonable range forage 
protection. Destruction of vegetative life, particularly rank grass- 
es and weeds, and not hunting by man, was indirectly the cause of 
the disappearance of prairie chickens from practically all former 
range. Such vegetation supplies the two most essential needs of 
the birds, protective covering and food. 
The accompanying map indicates range included in the present 
restoration program and also plantings that have been made. These 
plantings, with the possible except'on of two, one made in Re- 
serve, northeast of Las Cruces, have resulted favorably. At best, 
the Jornada Range planting was an experiment, however, had it 
not been for the abundance of coyotes and eagles on the Range, 
the birds no doubt would have given better account of themselves 
than now seems to be the case. Some of the chickens released 
during the winter and spring of 1932-33 moved to what were evi- 
dently more suitable locations for them; the 1933-34 plantings were 
governed largely by the final settling or locating of the former re- 
leases. Also, during the last season more birds were released in 
a place, special consideration being given locations from which 
spread over extensive range is assured. The chickens locate best 
and are more contented when a considerable number occupy a given 
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MAY, 1934 
Page 35 
Buy Direct from the Indians 
Pottery - Jewelry - Rugs and Indian Art Work 
Correspondence Invited - References Furnished 
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Wholesale and Retail 
Roswell, N.M.                Phone 634 
The Willis Ford Agency Co. 
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Roswell, New Mexico 
Everything For Your Automobile 
24-hour Filling Station and Storage Service 
ROSWELL                       NEW MEXICO 
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Roswell                       New Mexico 
The Southwest's Most Complete Automotive Equipment 
Supply House 
Page 36 
MAY, 1934 
Roswell Machine & Welding Shop 
General Machine Repair Work 
222 S. Main St.     Roswell, New Mexico 
range. The releases made in 1932-33 averaged a little better than 
17 birds each while those of the past season a little better than 
24 each. 
The known original distribution of prairie chickens in the State 
is proof that the species will not thrive on the more desert types of 
range lands. In fact, they are most at home on sandy types of 
soil favored by sufficient precipitation to insure rank grass and 
the growing of the more hardy farm crops, as corn and head 
feeds. Such be:ng the case, the birds will thrive only, except 
possibly locally, along the eastern side of the State. There are only 
a few limited areas west of the Pecos on which plantings might be 
worth while. Their nature is not such that they can adapt them- 
selves to the irrigated districts. For such reclaimed lands, the 
pheasant is far better suited. On the other hand, in order to safely 
protect the chickens, pheasants should not be stocked on prairie 
chicken range. 
At the time the Game Department began to manifest real in- 
terest, the principal prairie chicken population was confined to an 
area of approximately 250,000 acres of Southern Roosevelt and 
Northern Lea Counties, where there were probably not to exceed 
8,000 chickens. There was also an area comprising 60,000 to 
70,000 acres directly north of Logan, comprising parts of Harding, 
Union and Quay Counties, where probably 500 birds had managed 
to survive and these have increased in numbers through protection 
and have begun to spread. While some chickens were to be found 
outside of these areas, they were mostly stragglers, or the num- 
bers were so few that restoration without new stock would have 
been doubtful or would not have been effective for many years. 
In contrast to the little more than 300,000 acres of this naturally 
occupied range, there are more than three million acres involved 
in the Game Department's restoration program, formerly inhab- 
ited by prairie chicken, with the possibility of having this greatly 
increased through range forage restoration. Refuges insure a safe 
reserve of chickens on the original survival range, while releases 
of birds are made on refuges or otherwise protected. Prairie 
chickens formerly occupied in excess of 8,000 square miles or 
more than five million acres in the State. 
Prairie chicken restoration is a well worthwhile project and 
should be carried to a successful conclus'on. This work is depend- 
ent, to a great extent, upon interest and support given by sports- 
men but more especially on normal range forage. Prairie chickens 
may go out into comparatively open places, as in cultivated fields, 
in winter to feed, but unless they have a reserve range of thick 
grass, such as the sage grass, in which they may retreat and find 
protection from the elements and natural enemies, and a suitable 
environment in which to raise their young, efforts to restore them 
will end in failure. 
Mr. and Mrs. Trout "At Home" 
(Continued from page 13) 
In the Capitan Mountains there is a small group of streams, most 
of them affording only a small amount of fishing. They are found 
in Copeland Canyon, Michael's Canyon, et cetera. 
Although the listing of streams as we have given it necessarily 
is brief and the information offered is largely a matter of giving 
the general locations and the names of the fishing waters, it is not 
difficult to obtain detailed information concerning pack trips, or 
accommodations for anglers at any one of the places named. 
Requests directed either to the New Mexico Magazine or to the 
State Department of Game and Fish will bring the information 
In most all of the mountain areas recent road building programs 
carried on by the U. S. Forest Service by the CCC and other 
governmental agencies have made many additional streams access- 
ible even by automobile. Of course, in the upper areas the streams 
are accessible only by some other mode of travel and probably 
never will be reached in any other way than by horseback or on 
foot. Nature has safeguarded them with such rugged formations 
that road building is virtually out of the question. 
In these hghup streams, however, the fish are gamier, the scenery 
more beautiful, and the seclusion from everyday affairs more abso- 
lute for those who desire it. 
Those who accept the "at home" invitation of the trout family 
of New Mexico for the 1934 season-whether they be New Mexico 
anglers or our friends and neighbors from other states-will most 
certainly be able to say on their return from their fishing trips 
"a fine time was had by all" with, perhaps, the exception of the

trout themselves. 
Going fishing is the greatest tonic of them all! Let's take a 
liberal dose of Nature's invigorator during the 1934 seasonl 

New Soils Building 
June 1, 1934 
Dr. Johannes Lid 
Botanical Museum 
Oslo, Norway 
Dear Dr. Lid: 
Thank you very much for the reprints, in English, of your 
Cron Contents of Ptarm ans froa Taimyr. Pub. by Geofysisk 
Institutt, Bergen, in co-operation with other 
institutions. 1933. 
TMe Food of 2Jorwegian Grouse Chicks. Nyt Magazin for 
Naturvidenshaberne, B. LXXIII, 1933. 
I am sending you the following Wisconsin publication bearing 
on grouse food: 
Gross, A. 0. Progress Report of the Wisconsin Prairie 
Chicken Investigation. Wisconsin Conservation Com- 
mission, 1930. 
Additional publications are in preparation by Ralph King 
of the University of Minnesota (Ruffed Grouse) and FranUlin Schmidt 
of this University (Prairie Chicken and Sharptail Grouse). Dr. Gross 
and also Dr. A. A. Allen of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 
have earlier publications on Ruffed Grouse food Which they may be able 
to send you. I have also heard something about Dr. J. Grinnell of 
California undertaking some work on Blue Grouse. I am sending all 
of them conies of this letter to acquaint them with your work, and to 
request them to send you material as it becomes available. 
Your work will be a valuable addition to our background for 
American grouse studies. 
Yours sincerely, 
In Charge, Game Research 

File: Prairie Ticken  " 
Fooda Cover 
Mr. Albert of the   nc~toc  Z  eriment Station says that prairie 
chic:ens ate 'an    soy beans on his station &Lri   recent winters 
aVparently fon   them very palatable. They also ate pro so millet. 

.,inn. Waltonian                                           $barptail 
October, 1934 
No Sharptail Grouse 
Chicks Survive 
LTHOUGH efforts, to hand-rear sharp- 
tailed grouse from  eggs obtained in 
the upper peninsula have not met with suc- 
cess this year, the Michigan Department of 
Conservation is not discouraged. 
"We believe we have learned something 
about handling eggs and young birds of 
this species and that the experience is worth 
while," said H. D. Ruhl, of the Game Divi- 
sion. "Next year we will try again with 
improved methods. 
"All of the birds hatched from eggs 
brought from the western part of the upper 
peninsula to the state game farm, near 
Mason, have died. A number of the eggs 
failed to incubate and of the birds that did 
hatch few lived more than several days. 
"Our efforts at feeding the chicks did 
not have the desired results," Ruhl said. 
"That seems to be the principal reason for 
the mortality. There has been no indica- 
tion of disease.,. 
'The failure of many of the eggs to de- 
velop normally and the extreme weakness 
of some of the chicks that hatched, is due 
possibly to the 500-mile trip from the upper 
peninsula. Twenty of the eggs hatched in 
transit and the chicks seemed healthy, but 
they died within a few days after reaching 
the game farm. 
"The sharptailed grouse is an excellent 
game bird. According to Ruhl it is desir- 
bale for stocking in several localities of the 
eastern half of the upper peninsula and 
northern part of the lower peninsula where 
conditions are suitable. Most of the sharp- 
tailed grouse eggs this year were placed in 
incubators of a type which were success- 
ful in hatching pheasant and Hungarian 
partridge eggs, but some were put under 

Xtbrarp of 
4       leopoib 
George Davison, Founder of the Davison 
N THE year 1881, the writer then a b 
of age, arrived in Charles City, Floy 
where the family home was to remain 
a quarter of a century. At this time 
..     .. . . .  ... fi. . . ..nd.a ty 
rie rolled away mile after mile, with 
prairie grass upon it. Land could be b 
twelve dollars an acre, which under the 
the World War was sold at five hundred 
and the difference in the price of land 
than the difference in the number of ga 
found there. 
Prairie chicken shooting in those days 
of a king and even a very fat monarch c 
it in comfort. Shooting prairie chicker 
was hardly exercise enough to preserv 
Three or four men with from two to 
would go in a double-seated hack and d 
unfenced prairies. When the dogs point 
driven up behind the dogs and the men 
and shoot, and when they had finished w 
picked up the dead birds, they climbed in 
to find another covey. Under those condi 
difficult to bring home a hundred prairie 
From the age of twelve, prairie chicl 
my mind was so far ahead of any other 
sport that there could be no comparison. 
rie chicken season had passed, I lived in 
the next; and even with a shepherd dog 
loading gun, could shoot, in a day, all the 
I could carry home. Most sportsmen 
chickens in the corn, but to me that wast 
able part of the shooting. Occasionally, I 
into the middle of a flock of more than a 
chickens before the birds discovered me, 
those chickens rising from all around a 
one's feet was indescribable, and when th 
above the corn the sun shining upon the 
of their feathers gave a spectacle I have 
passed. Of course, these large flocks w 
until the northern birds from the Dakotas 
had joined their Iowa cousins.. 
How the Davison Ranch 
Produces Wildlife 
Thirty thousand acres of ranch land in western Oklahoma is 
being utilized as a production area for prairie chicken. Here 
the Biological Survey and the American Game Association are 
cooperating to demonstrate methods of aiding chickens to in- 
crease under as natural conditions as possible. Verne Davison, 
manager of the demonstration area, is also president of the 
Arnett, Oklahoma, Chapter of the Izaak Walton League. 
boy twelve years   It was only twenty years from abundance to scarcity, 
I County, Iowa,  and by 1901 an old chicken hunter mournfully said to me

i for more than  "the chickens are about gone-nobody keeps a bird dog

a large part of  any more." 
I- ---.   q "a-i N-,h       -' *   -  "                  "
I  -  .. a ce 
only the native  of the prairie chickens in Iowa, and when I came to 
iought then for Oklahoma in 1904 I found that only a few birds re- 
stimulation of  mained where previously they had abounded as they had 
dollars an acre,  in Iowa. Learning this, I never, expected to see prairie

was no greater   chickens, in abundance, anywhere in the world again. 
Line birds to be   But -in September 1   , I was invited by the State 
Game and Fish Warden--o Oklahoma, Robert P. Chand- 
swas the sportlean 
:ould indulge in  let, and by Verne E. Davison, to go out to the Davison

Ranch, and there I saw what I never thought to see 
e one's health,  again. I saw a part of Oklahoma, more than a hundred  g

four bird dogs  thousand acres of it, in Ellis County, covered with shin-

rive over those  nery, and I found that this shinnery was the home of 
countless prairie chickens. You could see them every- 
ed, the rig was  where, and I saw more prairie chickens flying through 
would get out   t 
ith a covey and  the air, with no apparent reason, tnan I had ever seen 
41  : ,  in the State of Iowa. 
tions it was not 
.en shooting to 
amusement or 
After one prai- 
anticipation of 
and a muzzle- 
prairie chickens 
scorn to hunt 
the most enjoy- 
have advanced 
hundred prairie 
and the roar of 
nd from under 
ey had climbed 
brown and gold 
never seen sur- 
rere never seen 
and Minnesota 
'For the benefit of those who (like myself up to last 
September) do not know what shinnery is, let me say 
that shinnery is oak brush. It, is oak brush about two 
feet high, which is burned off every year, and which 
completely covers thousands of acres in that country. In 
this shin oak the prairie chickens live and nest and feed, 
and I cannot conceive of anything better fitted for the 
welfare of prairie chickens than this shin oak. Every 
few hundred yards one finds a small hill usually not more 
than a hundred feet in diameter at the base, and often 
not more than fifty and about ten feet high as a rule. 
On these hills or knolls, the oak grows as high as twenty- 
five feet. The prairie chickens and quail, too, spend 
much of their time on these knolls lying in the shade 
there in the hot weather especially. It forms an ideal 
cover, and I , aagine it gives great protection against 
hawks, crow , and most of the enemies of the prairie 
It itr ist not I be supposed that this -anch has always 
been swarming with prairie chickens. The Davison 

OCTOBER, 1934 
Ranch which consists of more than a hundred thousand 
acres of rolling prairie was established by George E. 
Davison in the year 1910. At that time prairie chickens 
had not become as scarce as they did later but still they 
were not plentiful, and by 1918 the prairie chicken was 
virtually gone all over Oklahoma. To save chickens and 
quail, too, Davison turned the ranch into a game preserve 
and in 1921 he enlisted the aid of the state and estab- 
lished the whole area as a State Game Refuge. Under 
this protection, prairie chickens rapidly increased and 
spread over surrounding areas. Not only prairie chickens 
but buffalo, deer, and elk are increasing very satisfac- 
torily on the Davison Ranch. The prairie chickens taken 
on the Davison Ranch in September 1933, seemed some- 
what smaller than the prairie chickens we had known in 
northern Iowa and considerably lighter in color, the 
whole bird seeming to be gray. In Iowa, the young birds 
attaining their growth in the fall were decidedly brown 
on the back, with gold markings, or so it seems to me as 
the birds are recalled to mind. 
The protection of the birds alone, while bringing about 
a gratifying increase in prairie chickens and maintaining 
the quail supply, develops only a portion of the potential 
game production possibilities of the ranch. Efforts to 
further increase production revealed that practically no 
information applicable to this particular type of country 
Encouraged by the success of Herbert Stoddard's 
quail investigations in Georgia and Florida, the Amer- 
ican Game Association and the Biological Survey deter- 
mined to try out the southeastern methods elsewhere, 
fixing upon the Davison Ranch because of the types of 
land available and the conservation record of its owners. 
Another reason for this selection was the availability of 
Verne Davison for Project Manager as the success or 
-altfr-i the project would-depend largely upon the sci- 
entific ability, interest, and persistence of the man in 
charge, and these qualities seemed ideally combined in 
Verne Davison. 
With this background on which to build, the Davison 
prairie chicken and quail project was organized in Janu- 
ary 1932, with the financial assistance of the Oklahoma 
Game and Fish Commission. With the aid of Biological 
Survey representatives, a plan was formulated to pursue 
the principal objective which was the increase of prairie 
chickens and quail by deliberate improvement of sur- 
The Davisons have devoted considerable time to the 
study of the seeds eaten by the chickens on their ranch, 
and they have specimens of these seeds, dozens of kinds, 
neatly filed in cabinets. It was very astonishing to see 
how many, many seeds of wild plants went into the diet 
of these prairie chickens. 
By banding many hundreds of prairie chickens, the 
Davisons have learned a great deal about their habits 
and range; and they have discovered that prairie chickens 
migrate often many miles. 
Space will not permit us at this time to go farther into 
the splendid scientific work that has been done on this 
ranch, and which has brought such wonderful results. 
It should be said, however, that more than a thousand 
prairie chickens and hundreds of quail have been netted 
and placed in other territory, often being transferred to 
remote parts of the state. Among many facts estab- 
lished, it has been proved that quail move from two to 
twelve miles from their summer breeding grounds to 
winter quarters in every direction, and that chickens have 
migrated as far as ninety miles. Recently an organiza- 
tion has been formed known as the Cooperative Prairie 
Chicken and Quail Study Association of Oklahoma, with 
Verne Davison as Director. 
To the writer, the work of George E. Davison and his 
son Verne, is the greatest achievement in game preser- 
vation and development of anything that has ever been 
done by private enterprise in the United States so far as 
we know, and the writer feels that it gives the greatest 
hope for the future, and is the most encouraging thing 
along the line of game preservation. 
EDITORS NOTE-Next month we will bave an- 
other article on the management of the Davison 
Ranch for prairie chicken and quail production, cov- 
ering some of the observations of Verne Davison, 
who has served as Project Manager since the dem- 
onstration was established two years ago. 
Young prairie    chicken 
raised on Davison Ranch in 
Right-Shinnery, shown in 
the foreground, is chief 
cover factor in   prairie 
chicken production   on 
Davison Ranch. 

esb  130 1934 
ioot of M. wwe4 at&%* ll of 19141 4 
Ordinarily he iouldo ill a  mos ina oTs few44 b~d h 
hvr bon iledW Iwabmorswmr~tIoa to bealol n 
iafst wit Om~tomrwtat0 s few itun irs arewosok a hwo 
wI s ~ uows tesso that th eceseIUdcdelaoe.0 
PMI&Q -got~ p~tfl  shp %a ,Wa atya.bk 
th ormobsbenmhls rwundtaen afdgue 

Xibrary o 
4     1ibleopol,     THE NATIONAL WALTONIAN 
Learning How To Produce 
Game Birds on the Davison Rdniich 
HE Davison Ranch, founded by my father George 
Davison, thirty years ago, embraces one hundred 
thousand acres of rolling prairie country in Ellis 
County, Oklahoma, where game reigned in abundance. 
Game was still plentiful by 1910 when my father under- 
took personal supervision of the ranch, although market 
hunters had already impoverished the northwest. But in- 
adequate game laws and lack of enforcement were fast 
permitting unscrupulous hunters to take advantage of 
the diminishing supply of prairie chickens and quail until 
by 1918 the Lesser Prairie Chicken was virtually gone 
over all of western Oklahoma. 
The area in the Davison Ranch contains the state's 
most abundant supply of prairie chickens and is the only 
area from which stock can be netted for transfer to other 
portions of the state for propagation purposes. Quail 
are fairly plentiful, particularly during the breeding and 
rearing season from April to October. Winter finds most 
of the quail on surrounding areas for a distance of from 
two to twenty miles, a fact that makes this area unique 
and improves the possibilities of research. 
Protection has increased the game manyfold from only 
a meager supply of chickens to several thousand. I can- 
not say that protection has been so successful with quail, 
though there was no shortage in their numbers when 
protection was begun. Yet by 1932, the limits of increase 
by protection alone seemed to have been reached and 
the investigational study was begun to learn how to man- 
age lands, the natural growth of food and protective 
cover to produce more quail and prairie chickens than 
knowledge then in hand permitted. 
The theory around upland game propagation is to af- 
ford shooting for the sportsman on as many acres and at 
the least expense possible. The first phase requires first, 
a stock of birds with natural nesting and rearing cover 
supplied with food and protection from enemies. There 
is still no surplus for shooting until the young have been 
Verne E. Davison who is directing wildlife investiga- 
tions on the Davison Ranch 
In this second article on the Davison Ranch 
project, Mr. Davison, manager of the area, 
tells some of his observations in the field. In 
its present status the project represents an ex- 
perimental laboratory where, through exhaust- 
ive study, methods can be developed for the 
management of 100,000 acres of Oklahoma 
prairie land to produce a shooting surplus of 
quail and prairie chickens. 
matured and adequate provision has been assured for the 
survival and increase of the brood stock left throughout 
another year of their lives. These provisions are easily 
generalized but specific knowledge of the necessary 
foods, cover and protection are matters upon which many 
legends are known but of which the facts are uncertain. 
Uninterrupted study and experiments to carry on these 
fact-finding efforts are needed. These are applicable to 
the areas that still have brood stock left in spite of the 
ravages of agriculture, the elements, shooting and preda- 
The second requirement, "on as many acres," demands 
the use of the knowledge gained in the first phase upon 
lands now devoid of any game or upon lands where no 
surplus is ever produced for shooting. This requires arti- 
ficial stimulation of nature's provisions supplemented by 
proper introduction of additional cover and food that 
are not native or common. It also makes necessary, 
particularly in the case of prairie chickens, study and im- 
provement of methods of catching, transfer, and care of 
game from areas of abundance to newly built-up areas. 
The third requirement, "at the least expense possible," 
introduces a powerful factor in the future annals of 
sport. Without its consideration future shooting in most 
of Oklahoma will be closed to those not having moderate 
wealth. It recognizes the impossibility of "free shoot- 
ing" which only appears to be a possibility when hunters 
fail to consider the acres of land required to reproduce 
that which they have just taken. Game can be produced 
on any land at some cost, and the means by which it is 
produced govern the cost per bird. It is readily recog- 
nized, therefore, that the establishment of cheap cost 
methods of game production are necessary. to the sports- 
men, and those methods can only be perfected by field 
study and experiments. 
What Bird Studies Reveal 
To learn the facts concerning the living habits of the 
birds requires field observation to ascertain where they 
spend their hours each day; what they eat; what cover 
they prefer; what their enemies are, and why all these 
What do they eat? How long do they live? How 
many years will the old stock raise young? Are there 
equal numbers of hens and cocks? Do chickens pair off 
like quail? Will either lay again if broken up while 
nesting? Do quail really raise two coveys a year? Do 
they require dew or other surface water? What crops 

can be grown that the crows and mice will not eat up 
before winter snows and cold spring rains? How can 
natural foods be increased cheapest? How much in- 
crease does actually occur in the wild? What is the loss 
of young after hatching until maturity, the cause and 
correction ? 
The study is made with open seasons, increase per- 
centage, manner of conducting game farms and trans- 
planting to new localities; in short everything that has 
to do with the bird's welfare, the game department's suc- 
cess, the sportsman's sport and the producer's cost. 
Methods to determine the facts include field observa- 
tions from cars which seem to be the least disturbing of 
any method and the banding of both quail and chickens 
requiring complete records of date, place, age, sex, covey 
number and regrouping. The taking of specimens for 
stomach examination is the only way to ascertain food 
preferences. A reference collection of more than 150 
kinds of native weed, flower and shrub seeds is main- 
tained and experiments carried on to determine ways of 
eliminating the worthless species and increasing the valu- 
able ones. Isolation of small areas for nesting and study 
of natural development is a major method, and this addi- 
tional space is used to plant domestic grains and shrubs. 
Promising plants that are not native but show adaptabil- 
ity to this section are annually secured from the Federal 
Field Station at Woodward, Oklahoma. 
Chickens Do Not Pair Off 
One of the most interesting facts now proved indispu- 
table is that a gobbling ground is selected by several cocks, 
from one to fifty, in early March and much maneuver- 
ing takes place as they jockey for their choice position. 
In a few days each is securely entrenched in his location 
to which he goes every morning and again at evening. 
The-boundary -f one's domain is roughly about twenty 
feet across but constant care is exercised to maintain it 
which requires fussing and fighting every day, generally 
every minute. To the grounds come the hens, singly or 
in threes or fours, and in the course of their walk through 
the grounds create a unique and beautiful display of 
strutting by the nearer cocks, who dare not advance much 
past their usual boundary lines though the hens find no 
such barrier. 
Prairie chickens do not pair off like quail and the only 
possibility of their laying more than once in a season is 
when an early laying hen is broken up before actual set- 
ting has begun. Actual breeding is rarely seen, though 
the "gobbling" or strutting and courtship are easily 
watched and admired from an automobile at as little as 
ty feet distance. 
.e hen lays her clutch of eggs, sets, hatches and 
her brood with no companionship of the cocks, no 
ction except her own smart maneuvers with what 
re has afforded in shrub growth. Old birds banded 
32 are still living and raising young. In 1933, the 
ng records showed a ratio of 140 cocks to 100 hens 
V the young birds being considered). From a series 
.2 young birds, the 1934 records show 146 cocks to 
Takng the uensus 
To return to the old cocks on their grounds, the same 
performance is repeated every day until the first hot 
days of June, and every ground can be located, the birds 
counted, and observed. This method of census is pur- 
sued each spring on the Davison ranch project and is 
nearly one hundred percent perfect. Add your ratio of 
hens and you have an accurate count of the birds, making 
allowance only for a possible change in ratio from the 
theory that hens suffer greater loss than cocks, a theory 
that has no foundation in observations so far in this ter- 
Most of the summer knowledge is learned through 
banding activities which are carried on during the hot- 
test days of July and August. Then the birds, the hen 
with her young, the old cocks by themselves and with hens 
that have not raised young, seek the shade of the low 
oaks for protection from the sun's 120-degree heat. A 
net is placed over the oaks, the birds driven into it, each 
bird banded, recorded, examined for peculiarities and 
released for further propagation or study. More than 
1900 chickens have been handled, some more than once, 
in the three years of the study. 
One dangerous fact which has been discovered is the 
presence of parasitic growth in almost all of the birds. 
While this has not yet shown any ill effects in the field, 
it is a potential danger to be observed and controlled if 
needed. We have tried to rear more than a hundred 
chickens in captivity during the past three years but with- 
out success. Parasitic disease may be the fundamental 
factor in the universal failure to rear these birds in num- 
bers in captivity. 
What Do They Eat? 
Nature's best food for the prairie chicken is a diet of 
insects, mostly grasshoppers in midsummer, and acorns 
in winter and spring with an overlapping and mixture of 
Net used to capture birds for banding and study purposes. 
Note dense shinnery which provides excellent cover. 
the foods by degrees in fall and early summer. Now, 
fire destroys both of these foods, yet is necessary to con- 
trol them when a certain stage is reached. When you 
apply management to increase game you must also con- 
sider the usual basic industry of farming or stock rais- 
ing. Doesn't this present an idea of the hundreds of 
possibilities, problems and records that must be kept 
from an experimental viewpoint? 
The value of native foods over domestic is several 
fold because native species have survived by virtue of 
their peculiar hardiness in spite of the elements, rodents, 
and agricultural practices. Domestic foods are not suit- 
able to withstand the freezing and thawing, moisture, 
dirt, rodents, etc. Crows and blackbirds will eat a 
forty-acre field of kafir or maize before snow, leaving 
nothing by later winter for the quail. Cultivated fields 
do not produce the entangled cover necessary for quail 
though it has no ill effects on the prairie chicken. 
There are native foods in excess of 150 species on the 
ranch, only a half a dozen or so important to chickens, 
but probably more than 75 of which are important quail 
foods. Most all of them have a place in the protective 
cover scheme. Yet, several that are worthless are quite 
abundant, and several most important are rather scarce. 
Nature has a way of its own of controlling this abun- 
dance with not always any apparent good reason for the 
selection. By intelligent management, it is man's privi- 
lege and purpose to aid nature in many ways to increase 

the abundance of those things most sought by man. 
Any of these feeds can be increased, but as a public 
aid, only the methods that will bring the increase at a 
reasonable cost are worthy of perfection. The two cheap 
methods are discing and burning, both of which, unless 
properly handled, are detrimental alike to desirable and 
undesirable plants. As an example of knowledge already 
variably accompanied by more than one pair of old birds. 
The usual ranger reports, and those of sportsmen, gave 
out encouraging figures and theories so that when 
November 20 opened the season, many sportsmen were 
disappointed and should have been directed to other more 
fortunate areas. 
These advances in methods of regulating shooting to 
A close-up of net showing captured prairie chickens awaiting removal for
observation. Short, narrow-spread hoop nets are more easily 
handled than nets of great length and spread. 
gained it has been found that ragweed is an important 
food for quail and used some by chickens. The land is 
saturated with the seed but no plants mature when grass 
has ample opportunity to take its natural course. 
Grassburs are also well seeded but do not thrive in 
competition with pasture grass. They are probably of 
little use to game birds. Discing in the late fall will 
produce a very heavy stand of ragweed, but discing in the 
early spring produces a very heavy stand of grassburs. 
Simple, isn't it? But that is not the end. Stock do not 
eat ragweed during the growing season, but are so fond 
of grassburs that they will not permit the plant to seed. 
After the season has been ended by frost, cattle will eat 
the ragweed upon which the seed is still clinging but are 
reluctant to use the grassburs until later. 
Water Requirements 
Water requirements do not exceed that secured from 
insects and vegetation though some birds use it when 
easily available. Winter water requirements are more 
likely to be advisable, although many birds live without 
it the whole year. 
Quail Facts 
The major fact obtained on quail is the habit of migra- 
tion from this range for the winter months, a unique sit- 
uation according to the officials of the Biological Survey. 
The reasons for this migration, which reaches about 
ninety percent, have not been satisfactorily determined 
though a continuance of the research will doubtless solve 
the reason and provide a correction. 
Migration as far as 26 miles has been determined, and 
the range of five or six miles is very common. As early 
as July 1933, we predicted a short crop of quail in north- 
west Oklahoma because of severe drought early in the 
season. These views were merely reflections of the band- 
ing records showing small coveys of young almost in- 
the known crop of game are naturally the result after the 
haphazard methods employed for so many years on the 
theory that nature will provide. And she would, were 
it not for man's interference. Still man may improve 
on nature by cooperating with her and this is the object 
of the field experimental laboratory being conducted on 
the Davison Ranch. Frequently the project is mislead- 
ingly referred to as a game management project. Instead 
of managing the game, we are endeavoring to control 
all the factors surrounding the game, and then the game 
will manage itself quite well. 
The successful culmination of this field research is a 
necessity to the advancement of game propagation. 
Birds hatched in captivity require the same, or even more, 
protective cover and food than is needed by the hardier 
wild bird. Few lands now devoid of quail are suitable 
to stock because something is wrong with the manage- 
ment of relative agricultural operations, which could like- 
ly be corrected with little inconvenience or expense. But 
until these requirements are discovered and in form to 
be taught, little advancement can be expected. 
It was recognized from the start that a three-year 
period would not be long enough to establish all the 
needed facts for the production of prairie chicken and 
quail in their natural environment, and would in fact but 
lay the experimental foundation on which to build a com- 
plete study which should be carried on for at least five 
Editor's Note:-Mr. Davison is carrying on the game work on 
his ranch at considerable personal sacrifice. To assure successful 
culmination of the project, a Cooperative Prairie Chicken and 
Quail Study Association has been formed with membership dues 
of $200 a year. You are invited to join in sponsoring a unique 
and worthwhile conservation project. judge John T. Bailey, 
Oklahoma Tax Commission, Oklahoma City, serves as secretary- 
treasurer to represent contributing sportsmen and supervise dis- 
bursement of funds. For more detailed information write Judge 
Bailey or National Headquarters. 

XX          4      Q 
As mentioned in our last issue, the grouse we found were 
in~concentrated certain favor&ble areas of the state and further in-

formation coming from wadens and sportsmen since the close of the 
season would indicate that there was a normal hatch of young last 
spring, but that by the middle of July the birds had, due to lack of 
feed., cover and water, started to leave their accustomed areas and to 
seek surrounidings which offered them the necessities of a normal ex- 
_istence. It is believed that in many instances the birds during the 
following eight weexks had mizated from twenty-five to one hundred 
fifty miles or more from their usual habitat and by the time hunting 
season had opened they were concentrated along, water courses and in 
lake areas which were about the only locations where they were found 
in numbers by the hunters. 
1hat is true of the grouse also applies to the pheasant 
to a somewhat less degree in that the pheasant is a bird that is 
more at home in a populous district and for that reason did not mi- 
grate such geat distances, and then too, the eastern half of the 
state where the pheasant is most numerous differs widely from the 
range country of the Grouse occurring west of the Missouri River. 
We have reasons to believe that the grouse were more successful in 
producing young birds this season than were the pheasants, due per- 
haps to the fact that the majority of pheasants are to be found in 
highly cultivated sections where the wind had an opportunity to 
pick up large quantities of soil which in turn no doubt smothered 
many a clutch of eggs, also auring June, July, and August terrific 
rain storms occurred in local areas which again destroyed those 

nests which happened to be locatedin low spots such as along small 
draws ana ravines. Hal also occurred in spotted areas, which, too, 
is most destructive to any nesting bird. In fact, there are many 
reasons which could be cited why our hatch of young pheasants were 
not up to normal. 
xx                             xx 
"Rastus, I understand that you have become 
the father of twins, have you named them yet?" 
"Yassuh, Ah done called the first Adagio All- 
egro, and Ah'm gonna call the second, Encore." 
"lWhy are you going to call the second one 
"Well, yu see, he wasn't on the program at all'" 
xx                              xx 
The Black Hills area, the Hudson F1atsand.'the larrold. 
district are only a few of the places where skunk are reported more 
numerous than for many years. It is not unusual to see several of 
the d.ead animals in a few miles of travel in these vicinities, all 
killed by motor cars and principally at night when the animals are 
1934 has been a very difficult year for South Dakota's 
muskrats. Many of the 'rats' old favorite marshes and sloughs Ihave 
answered the call of the drouth and are no more. The muskrat, like 
the turtle, frogs and toads have had to migrate, and this of course 
seriously interfered with the natural reproduction because they were 
compelled to leave their old dens and houses and did not have time 

SEt bm fromlet ter Prom .L. W f, C eation  t ,  t, Oio 
"I amqnte =  t ilftoet o t nw htMr. Olle Ni~ 
y    o o rii  hik ,teapatrotof   istocin  tl  rode  Ur 
so Jugsf t.U 5a s   ofors iViedlrptof 
the ime V     i h*"q$I feel mreIs a4tete. 
*If at W t you sodiopUathogOhowsoudbgldoh 
ym stp an wewilltak yutoQo* of onrrnan& haatWe .i 
W             will s* a vey mlc tration of these birs. 
In fat, last winter  wihaats d           stiup 
ated wehMdleft a b rdst* of o 0bids. !This  e*sists of 
oniT 560 ac . 

PRAIRIE CHICKENS IN IOWA                ' 
The office of the Iowa Fish and Game Commission received a number 
of reports from pheasant hunters who had noted flocks of the prairie 
chicken or pinnated grouse, particularly in northwestern Iowa. An ef- 
fort was made to determine the extent of the distribution of tiese 
1chickens" during the present winter. 
The regular wintering flocks, that enter Iowa from Minnesota and 
the Dakotas, were first seen in October. Since then flocks have been 
observed in most of the northern and western counties. In the vicinity 
of Round Lake in Clay County a flock of nearly two hundred prairie 
chickens has been noted. 
The present breeding colonies of the prairie chicken in Iowa are 
widely scattered and in rather small numbers. Nesting birds have been 
found in Clayton, Wayne and Lyon Counties. There have been other re- 
ports which may refer to nesting pairs or may be wintering birds noted 
late in the spring. 
It is expected that the retention of an increasing number of these 
winter migrant chickens as nesting birds will follow in the present 
waterfowl restoration program. 

File: Prairie ChickenV/ 
Water Requirements 
Extract fmwm General Notes, Wilson Bulletin, December, 1934, pp. 262-63.

Ch   es in the Habits of the Prairie Chicken.--In a former note the 
writer mentioned the habit of prairie-nesting birds of resting in the 
shade of fence posts daring extremely hot weather. This last June (193W)

while in western North Dakota, Prairie Chickens and Sharp-tailed Grouse 
were found on nuerous occasions resting behind telephone poles along the

country roads. The average pole casts a shadow just about as wide as the

width of the sitting bird and here they were found during the worst heat

of the day. Several times as many as eight and ten birds would be found 
in the shade of consecutive poles, and although they were located only 
a short distance from a slowly moving car, they would not budget from their


rile:   arptau 
Prairio Chi u 
Sox RAU 0 
Gmt sing Radins 
S   idt 
Xxtract from lettor fvm P# A. Tlweru#r, Ott&vft, OwmaUir Jano, To 1935t

01rou note also (in *G*M# vilaina  V) wi th reoworations Viat the fli&t

*f sigrating Sharp wtpdled 4rouso 'it largvly or &ntlrely owiposed of
while the "at      vintoring grmps wm       S* 
yen P" boly know 0 f the    raordinaxy flight of this speeiss into 
tho mors vmth#rz sections of northo    Ontstrio aM  4a#b#c tho vintor of
and 1933,6 Wo remlyod smo twentr or so specimens from 'this flight froa 
the wuthern Oge of tho main ba4yo Of theso all were femaos bmt onve Of 
courso tho nVetory to vbq smeh a vddo sproad     intonsive Plautilig of thill

spool** U4 xwt make som permaumt'settlement, which in no case as far as 
kww eemrred, It mW be that this lack of malos is the &u#w*r.# 

Game Breeder & Sportsman, January, 1935 
Wobrarg Ot 
wUo 3teopolb 
Supt., Kansas Sfafe Quail Farm 
EDITOR'S NOTE: In the September is- 
sue, Game Breeder and Sportsman car- 
ried a news item of ten Prairie chickens 
being reared on the Kansas State Quail 
Farm, of which six were thirteen weeks 
old at the time and four were ten weeks 
of agq. We promised an article on this 
accomplishment by Superinten- 
dent Ramey. All of these birds 
have been brought safely through 
to the present time (December). 
Six are now 28 weeks and four 
are 25 weeks old. This constitutes 
a real milestone in game breeding 
progress. We take pleasure in 
presenting Mr. Ramey's story of 
how it was done. 
WE doubted as much as 
anybody this story could 
ever be told and still 
catch  ourselves  counting  our 
chickens, but of the ten prairie 
chickens we have reared to ma- 
turity by hand here at tle Kansas 
State Quail Farm, six are now 28 
weeks old and four 25 weeks of 
age. Barring accidents, we will 
start next season with these hand- 
raised birds, six hens and four 
cocks, of which there are four un- 
related pairs, putting us over the 
top of the greatest difficulty in 
artificial rearing of upland game 
birds. We now have tame pen- 
raised breeders, and are hoping to 
be among the first to report prairie 
chicken eggs laid by birds in cap- 
Our experiments in raising 
prairie chickens have been carried 
on during the first year of opera- 
tions at the farm situated near Pittsburg, 
Kansas and officially opened last Decem- 
ber. This Quail Farm is a part of a 260- 
acre state game refuge located in the 
heart of the strip mine district and is in 
a little valley of 30 acres, nearly isolated 
by the enormous ridges of earth and rock 
thrown up by giant shovels in digging 
to a floor of coal. Surrounding the valley 
on all sides are these man-made moun- 
tains, affording a natural windbreak and 
giving the Farm an unique scenic setting. 
The Bob-white quail is the third of 
chief importance on this farm. The 3000 
we raised and liberated the first year, as 
well as the small-scale breeding of 
Mountain, Valley, Gambel and Scaled 
quail made it impossible to do more with 
the prairie chicken experiment than to 
keep it an interesting sideline. 
Our first prairie chicks were one day 
old when they were brought to us on 
June 2. The farmer who discovered the 
nest in his field found from one broken 
were fed like quail: four feeds of moist 
mash, egg yolk and finely chopped let- 
tuce daily, on napkins, the first three 
days; then on wood feed trays, keeping 
dry mash before them all the time. The 
mash was mixed according to the Game 
Conservation Institute formula B-32. 
.    .. nt  o t el sl~ Alii ay, 
we had lost six birds. After ex- 
amination, we concluded that 
death was from lack of nourish- 
ment. This seemed strange, for 
all of the birds had seemed strong 
and healthy, had picked busily at 
the mash and seemed to be taking 
enough food. On the seventh day 
we found another dead bird and 
decided to augment the mash 
feedings with grasshoppers. The 
chicks were gluttonous and of- 
ten consumed as many as 50 or 
60 hoppers at a single feeding, 
within three to five minutes. The 
little birds' crops would be so 
crammed they couldn't bend their 
necks and several times I was 
sure we would lose some of the 
chicks from overfeeding, but in 
a few minutes their heads would 
be bobbing around looking for 
more grasshoppers. 
After putting them on this 
diet there were no more casual- 
ties, and the six survivors thrived 
so well that at five weeks we 
moved them to the rearing pens 
and discontinued grasshoppers, 
giving them two moist mash and 
Superintendent Ramey and one of his 
prairie chickens 
egg that the remaining 13 were ready 
to hatch and took them to a commercial 
hatchery where all 13 hatched the fol- 
lowing day. The next day they were 
brought to us, a distance of 100 miles, 
in good condition. 
These chicks were handled exactly as 
we do young quail: They were put in a 
colony brooder we prepared for them. 
The starting temperature of 950 F. was 
maintained the first week, and the birds 
confined to the heat. Then the tempera- 
ture was dropped five degrees each 
week until the end of the fourth week, 
when all mechanical heat was turned 
For the first six days the prairie chicks 
LIIcU .t ioLLuce i nuings daily. 
They continued to prosper, and 
at ten weeks we left off one feed- 
ing, putting their ration in the 
pens at one o'clock in the afternoon and 
keeping dry mash and scratch before 
them all the time. 
On June 7 a clutch of 11 eggs was 
brought to us after they were found in 
the wild on June 4 and transported 103 
miles to the Quail Farm. One egg was 
broken when received and candling 
showed the remaining 10 had been in- 
cubated approximately four days and that 
one egg was infertile. The eggs were 
put in the incubator along with quail 
eggs, and 19 days later all of the nine 
hatched. The chicks were transferred to 
the colony brooder at one o'clock in the 
afternoon, and that evening we fed them 
(Please turn to page 28) 

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Brailing is the scientific way of check- 
ing the loss of full-winged birds. 
Brailing eliminates wing clipping, pull- 
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penning and other unsatisfactory meth- 
ods of stopping losses. 
The birds regain full wing strength 
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The brails are made of genuine calf 
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(Continued from page 6) 
a few small grasshoppers in addition to 
the moist mash, egg and lettuce. We 
continued to feed hoppers, increasing the 
size and number as the birds grew. With 
these chicks we used a commercial turkey 
grower in place of the B-32 mash. 
One chick of this clutch was crippled 
when hatched and lived only a few hours, 
four more had died by the end of the 
tenth day, leaving us four in this hatch- 
ing. As with the first birds, examination 
showed unmistakable signs of starvation. 
It was notable that the remaining 
chicks seemed to develop more rapidly 
than the first ones, and by the time they 
were four weeks old we moved them to 
the growing pens and stopped the grass- 
hopper feeding since it was nearly im- 
possible to feed them on wire. Like the 
other birds, they were given two feed- 
ings of moist mash and chopped lettuce 
a day, with dry mash and scratch avail- 
able to them all the time. Later we re- 
duced the feed to one ration. In both 
cases we gave'the birds oyster-shell grit. 
The birds were flushed once a week 
with Rochelle salts. 
The birds were weighed for the first 
time on October 31 when the older ones 
were between 21 and 22 weeks old and 
the youiiger between i8 and 19 weeks. 
We found by the record of weights that 
our casual observations of more rapid 
development in the younger birds over 
the older ones was correct. We also 
found a great difference in the weights of 
the heaviest and the lightest birds. The 
heaviest bird was a cock, and the light- 
est one a hen. However, in one or two 
instances a hen out-weighed the lighter 
male birds. The average cock bird in the 
two flocks weighed 1.95 pounds and the 
heaviest one 2.09. The average hen 
weighed 1.63 and the lightest 1.56 
pounds. We weighed the birds again 
on November 30 and found the average 
gain in the males was .11 pounds with 
the heaviest cock weighing 2.20 pounds; 
the hens showed .10 pounds average 
gain, and the lightest hen weighed 1.66 
We followed the usual routine in the 
matter of sanitation. The incubators 
were fumigated once a week; foot-pans 
containing a creosote solution were in- 
stalled at the door of each brooder to 
make sure no attendant could carry in- 
fection to the chicks, and brooder-houses 
were gone over once a week with flame. 
When we transferred the older birds 
to the growing pens, they were put three 
in a pen. All four of the younger birds 
were put in one pen, but when the 
prairie chicks were about 12 weeks old 
they went into a molt and started feather 
picking. To overcome this, we separated 
them one to a pen. They appear quite 
contented even though alone and never 
seem as restless in their close quarters 
as some of the other game birds. 
These growing birds have been inter- 
esting all along. Among other peculi- 
arities we found, contrary to old beliefs, 
that the young males were doing their 
dance as early as at six weeks, making it 
possible to sex the birds at that age. 
Two of the cocks have continued to dance 
every day; one of them will dance any 
time he can interest a sizable audience. 
The tameness of these prairie chickens 
has seemed remarkable from the start, 
and we have allowed visitors at the pens 
at all times. Some of the birds will come 
to the sides of their pens to take grass 
from the fingers of callers or to nip at 
them through the wire. 
Excepting for larger rearing pens for 
the prairie chickens, quail equipment 
was used throughout the experiment. As 
the Kansas Quail Farm is one of the more 
recently opened game breeding farms, 
we have been able to install all modern 
equipment, a factor that has contributed 
materially to our success this year with 
both quail and prairie chickens. 
All birds at the Farm are reared by the 
artificial method. Hatching is done in 
two all-electric incubators- one a ma- 
chine of 600-egg capacity, and the other 
of 900 egg capacity. The four colony 
brooders we installed have been alto- 
gether satisfactory. They are patterned 
after those used at Game Conservation 
Institute, but are made in five compart- 
ments and have kerosene-heated hot-wa- 
ter systems. 
All laying pens, rearing and winter- 
ing pens have wire bases elevated eight 
inches from the ground. However, by 
next year, all laying pens are to be three 
feet above the ground, insuring more 
comfort for the birds and better egg pro- 
duction in the intense heat of Kansas 
Next season we will give different 
sizes and types of laying pens for these 
prairie chickens a trial and will do some 
experimenting with polygamous mating. 
While scientific data is lacking this 
year, another season there will be no 
guess work. We will keep detailed rec- 
ords and an accurate chart of develop- 
ments, so as to be able to offer the game 
breeding fraternity the findings of our 
experiences in chronological order. 
Their Lives and Homes 
A 2-volume set describing in detail practi- 
cally every species and variety. Tells how to 
distinguish them by their colorations. Gives 
the secret of their homes. 
$7.50 Postpaid in U.S.A. 
Limited stock now left 
205 East 42nd St     New York, N. Y. 

Ottawa, Canada 
Jan. 17 1935 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
New S6ils Building, 
Univ. of Wisconsin, 
Dear Prof. Leopold;- 
Regarding the 1932 invasion of Sharp-tailed Gu 
Grouse.7Mr. L.L.Snyder    has been-working  this up   at the 
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, therefore I have not interfered 
K'     i~   in the subject. I think you can get any information from him.

You are at libetty to quote anything I said regarding our 
specimens, I do not think it will anticipate anything he may 
have to say on the subject. 
It is too bad that a properly equipped biologist   could 
not have been sent to the ground immediately on receipt of 
the information  of the invasion to study  the inevitbble 
disapearance of the birds. It was a great opportunity. You 
know that in some of the small northern viliages the birds 
were salted down by the barrel, an enormous peak population. 

Ten carefully guarded prairie chickens, strutting proudly about 
pens at the State Quail Farm at Pittsburgh, Kansas, today have the 
unique distinction of being probably the most valuable specimens of 
America's upland game birds, according to More Game Birds in America, 
Inc. The birds, four males and six females, are the first of this once 
widely distributed species to be successfully reared to maturity entire-

ly by artificial methods, according to the More Game Birds Foundation. 
State game officials, scientists and expert game breeders have 
been experimenting for years in an effort to obtain captivity-reared 
prairie chickens for the purpose of propagating and then restoring them 
to sections of the country they formerly roamed. While success has at- 
tended similar work with practically all species of quail, and more 
recently the northern ruffed grouse, disease and the inherently wild 
nature of the prairie chicken have proved difficult problems. 
The Kansas farm's success is attributable mainly to two things, 
Sup't. Daniel J. Ramey declares: surgically sterilized electric incu- 
bators and brooders--and a grasshopper diet. From the eggs, secured 
from wild nests, to fullfledged pinnated grouse or prairie chickens, 
T-        Y a machine-made" throughout. Previous attempts to propa-

gate the species, with poultry foster-mothers, are believed to have 
failed because of the susceptibility of wild birds to domestic poultry 
diseases. "We doubted as much as anybody this story could ever be told

and still be able to catch ourselves counting our chickens," Sup't.

Ramey reports. "But, barring accidents, we will start next season with

these hand raised birds, putting us over the top of the greatest diffi- 
culty in artificial rearing of upland game birds by having tame pen- 
raised breeders. We are now hoping to be among the first to report 
prairie chicken eggs laid by birds in confinement." 
Why not take the boys in your community into your organization?  If 
you have work to do along conservation lineg tboe bovA -ill A- 
Well nnr I'--  -1 

Copiou fort sebodat 
Pood & Ca"r 
2umAWL      In 1934# lat*Augmsto sinssAt 
s*Odjj on the f&m of go jO o0odri*hs ustborot TVIor Oo., Wisoonift, w*"
by Pralrio (Utdcan and !%arptatl vhiah *4mt In mdOr thO frm*s tO *at m"d.
gLto SInveng sood boing ralsod in "*do#, lh* OW Is U a/bort7. 2 **ads
olnstor of borrios, 

e1u#4? #to b al -k"  " &MM,itgn 

lettJ.1. J           , Pb  12, 19351 
*I asa             @1xrchold  i hstor  n in 19  . 
ttdaewH.tA.       as 
reetdyso  riiodikn  tecptol squa  , adtebnigof qa 
thr  was. .T lastd killed wtint  site ws 1wi 7*a  d 
S.*wywasor  e  e     i n. XHowas se  1Tat h.wasxnt 
uni utedat t o o bo . Baewr oowle  mrboo, 
an  ho  id a  s I  poprton.  In fishan  fwls topresnt(194)vmrai 
hae  t  *efainot onptionofth   of t 
wu Ithey w  4  at %ms in mrrwsport . a  i wte.  I 1549 th 
sone  ia              a5a of sntoe   ndwthe 
off  ba .  de  evrraoee  ha  aalri, 

SObservationsh°f sharptailed grouse made by 
SFarley F. Tubbs, ornithologist of the Gamei 
Division, in the upper peninsula during Feb- 
ruary, revealed something of the daily winter 
schedule of the birds. 
Tubbs learned that the sharptails usually 
emerged from their beds in the snow between 
7:30 and 8 o'clock in the mornings, walked a 
short ways, then flew into the trees to begin 
budding on birch catkins and occasionally on 
a poplar. 
Were the day bright, the birds might remain 
in the trees until 10:30, basking in the sun. 
Then, later in the day, they would usually fly 
onto the snow, walk a short distance and bur- 
row into the snow to spend the night. 

416 Sharp Bldg., 
Lincoln, Nebr., 
March 21, 1935. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Conservation Division, 
University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis. 
Dear Aldo: 
I presume you have read of the severe dust 
storms which have been occurring in the Shelterbelt States 
this spring.    I am enclosing an interesting clipping in 
regard to the flights of prairie chickens, in this connec- 
tion.    You, no doubt, would be interested in such a 
Very sincerely yours, 
PAUL H. ROBERTS, Acting Director. 

~librarv of 
Blbo leopolb 
Reprinted from THE CONDOR, Vol. XXXVII, July, 1935, pp. 211-212 
On the Drinking Habits of Gallinaceous Young.-In late June, 1930, at Jackson,

Michigan, I came into possession of a set of ten Prairie Chicken eggs, partially
bated, through the nest having been run over by a mowing machine. This nest
situated in the middle of a fourteen-acre hay field of mixed clover, timothy
alfalfa, about a quarter of a mile from the booming ground that has been
used by 
the males for some years. I placed the eggs in an incubator containing turkey
and on July 6 nine of them hatched, the tenth embryo dying after pipping
the shell. 
The next year (1931) I obtained six eggs from the disturbed nest of a Ring-necked

Pheasant. All the eggs hatched on May 8. 
For some years I had been interested in the problem of the drinking habits
birds. I therefore carried out a few simple experiments with these broods
chicks, to see what instinctive drinking habits, if any, they might exhibit.
I placed 
small shallow pans of water in front of the chicks, but they gave no response.
elevated the pans of water, finally placing the pans on a level with the
eyes. The 
chicks seemed not to recognize the water. When the water was upon the floor,
even walked through it without visible reaction. However, a chick often picked
its toes and apparently water entered the bill, for it sometimes lifted its
head in 
the drinking act. 
I placed particles of food in the water. The chicks sometimes picked at the
ticles, and occasionally this was followed by the drinking act. Removal of
particles resulted in a loss of all interest. 
I tried to dip the bill in the water, and while the chick went through the
ing act after the immersion, it never drank of its own accord. 
,The next process tried was to fill a pipette half full of water and insert
it in the 
box, holding it near the chicks. They showed no more apparent concern than
any other object similarly placed before them. I then squeezed the pipette,
a drop of water to appear at the open end. The chicks instantly showed great
ment and clustered around the pipette, picking at the water. Each time a
picked the drop (which I maintained by continued pressure upon) the bulb),
it went 
through the drinking act. I released the pressure on the bulb and the chicks
quiet upon the disappearance of the drop. The formation of another drop resulted

in a commotion as before. I found that alternate appearance and disappearance

of the drop resulted in the same set of reactions-interest and excitement
by quiescence. 
I raised and lowered the pipette to determine if elevation influenced the
nition. The chicks did not respond to a drop lower than half the distance
from the 
eye to the floor nor when higher than the normal reach of the bill. I repeated
experiments several times from shortly after hatching until they were nine
old. In all cases they failed to recognize a water surface although they
were stimu- 
lated by a drop of water at the end of a pipette. 
A drop of water at the end of a pipette is a good simulation of a dew drop
glistens in the sunlight. The behavior of the chicks leads me to think that
dew drops 
form -an early, instinctively sought source of water. The presence or absence
of dew 
may be a potent factor in gallinaceous well-being. Drinking from surface
as pools, may be a secondary, learned source of supply. 
The problem of water supply, especially in the young, is one of the most
to birds. Animal food, the staple food for the young of seed-eaters, may
be more 
than a source of concentrated nutrition. It may be fed the young, not because
its superior food value, but as a source of moisture. Dew and water of exudation
serve to furnish the remainder of the necessary water for precocial birds
and as such 
be a vital determinant of the success of the family.-LIONARn  WILLIAM WING,
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, Marck 28, 1935. 

Program of Activities of the 
Chicago Academy of Sciences                               Pr. Chicken folder

..... 3   6, No. 4, October, 1935 
The sand dune region southeast of Kankakee proved of special interest and

Messrs. Komarek and Necker made a rather extensive survey of the region,
larly in the sandy area near the Indiana line. 
Several thousand feet of motion film were secured by A. M. Bailey and F.
Dickinson through the cooperation of various organizations, especially the
Natural History Survey, the Wisconsin Conservation Department, the Utah Fish
Game Commission, the U. S. Biological Survey, the National Park Service,
and the 
Colorado Museum of Natural History. 
Now that many species of birds and mammals are reaching the vanishing point,

it seems especially desirable that records of the living animals be made,
and we were 
fortunate in obtaining in our own state motion film of pinnated grouse upon
dancing grounds. The male prairie chickens gather on favorite strutting places
spring, where they go through their courtship antics for the benefit of the
females. The 
magnificent males were photographed from blinds, and many "close-up"
A group of a dozen males was located in Cumberland County through the friendly

cooperation of the Illinois Natural History Survey; the birds were performing
on a 
bit of flat prairie country, no different apparently, from the surrounding
region. We 
were informed by a farmer, that they had been using the same site for at
least the last 
sixteen years. 
The males came to the strutting grounds before daylight, flying to within
hundred yards, and then, in the greyness of the coming dawn, walk to their
tomed places. Each male has a little area of his own, the birds being spaced
about thirty 
feet apart. They droop their wings and lower their heads as they strut about,
the fan- 
shaped tail erect, and emit resonant booming notes as they swell orange-colored
on the sides of their necks. They often get together in pairs, charging fiercely,
as thougn 
to tear each other apart, but we failed to see a feather disturbed. They
would go up 
in the air like fighting cocks-but never touch! Other observers claim prairie
fight fiercely; it may be they do earlier in the season, but we did not observe
a single 
combat. But when a female arrived at the trysting place, the actions of the
males were 
entirely different. They had no time to eye each other. Instead each one
seemed to 
get in the center of his particular claim, and with flapping wings, jumped
a few feet 
from the ground, crowing in his eagerness to interest the invading lady They
did not 
pursue her. When one nonchalantly fed along the edge of the strutting grounds,
males remained in position, all facing her way and crowing their invitation,
but they 
waited for her to show her preference. 
Similar studies were made of the sharp-tailed grouse in Wisconsin, through
aid of the late Frank J. W. Schmidt of the Conservation Department of that
The sharp-tail performs in a different manner in his effort to secure a bride;
like tne 
prairie hen, the sharp-tail arrives on the performing area early in the morning,
remains until well after sun up. The actions of the males of the two species
are not 
unlike, so long as a female is not near, but when one arrives, there is little
between the two. The sharp-tail holds his wings outstretched and his notes
are so sub- 
dued that they can be heard only a short distance. Instead of a male carrying
on a 
solitary performance, they act in unison, facing the female, with drooping
wings out- 
thrust and head lowered. They stamp their feet and whirl about, making a
sound resembling the staccato firing of a machine gun, dancing together while
might count ten-and then stopping abruptly, each bird remaining motionless;
in unison the dance starts again, the birds whirling rapidly, facing the
female as she 
moves along. The action is so fast, and the performers move from the eye
of the 
camera so rapidly that it is extremely difficult to make a satisfactory motion

Now Soils ~31n 
Noveber 2. 1935 
Mr.~ C. T.Mc 
2o~4 ft .zoo3.. Lab, 
University of nliuois 
n llnois 
Dear Ur. Bladla 
You  supicion of sharpt.ils in the Woodstok ron ooincides 
with & partiuar interest of my own in both the fomr and present dis-

tribution of this species. 
About all the lit I can give yu is that there is a fairly 
conclueve record of a flock of aawptails in southen     Dane County, 
Wisonsin, whic persisted up to 1935, but when I cat one of W students 
to finally verify the thing they had di        o            I  m   t 
be sure. 
Thee Is soe evidence to inditoate that harptails occasionally 
perform a winter migration like prairie cickns,    Tere are three or 
four eigt recrs from Dane and Jefferson cntie, all in winter and a 
good 75 miles .outh of their rear rang      hih in indieated on the 
attaded bage ma. 
I m   s  positively that there have ben no artificial plantings 
near the Iliis bondary. One was made in MaA~ Ommty b7 aw student. 
F. J. W. Schmidt, who very tragically met his deat  this suew.   If ho 
were only here he would be the most competent to advise on your question.

I would appreciate your keeping me in toue with my no 
dovelopments, and I will do the sme. 
If you find a reaaat at Woodstock I would like to cooperate 
in setting up and improving a refuge. The questton, I imagine, would be 
,wat environmental manipulations would be in order. 
Yours sincerely, 
Aldo Leopold 
vh                                   In Charge, Gem. Researoh 

204 Exp. Zool. Lab. 
University of Illinois 
Champaign, Illinois 
October 7, 1935 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
College of Agriculture 
University O Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Sir: 
I am working with Dr. A. R. Cahn of 
the University of Illinois on a book on the Birds 
of Illinois. Recently, while passing through 
Woodstock, Illinois, in the northoentral part 
of the state not far from the Wisconsin boundary, 
I noticed a mounted specimen of the Sharp-tailed 
Grouse, which was said to have been killed in 
that vicinity. I am writing to the owner for ad- 
ditional data. Have any Sharp-tails been intro- 
duced in Wisconsin close to the Illinois boundary? 
Also, have any Wisconsin-bred Sharptails been sold 
to Illinois farmers or gun-clubs, etc., for distri- 
bution? I should like to have this information, 
because the Sharp-tailed Grouse has not occurred 
in Illinois, to the best of my knowledgeduring the 
past forty or fifty years. I therefore wish to find 
out whether these birds were introduced, have spread 
into Illinois from Wisconsin, or whether they may be 
an overlooked remnant of the native birds. 
Very truly yours, 
G. T. Black 

Now Soils Bilding 
October 25, 1935 
Mr. C.T. Bl 
20~4 Up. booX, Lab 
University of Illinois 
Chpin      Illinois 
Dear Mr. Blact 
Tour letter of Ootber T, izimtring about *arp- 
tails in Illiis, ha. cme duig Professor Lepold's abomm 
in hrope, m*       he to stuyg   gm  unagment methods frothe 
Carl Sc   wils Yoadeation. 
Si~oe Mr. Leopold will probably not retun til the 
latter part of Noembr, I would hiWst that in the mantmeO 
yon write to Mr. bm. F. Grimer, giuerintendeat of Gm, Wis-. 
consin Conservation DepArtent, Maison, to se if he am help 
79R out, 
I will haold ywmr letter for Mr'. Leopold's attention on 
his etu. 
Tors sncerely 
sftretay to Mr. Leopld 

204 Exp. Zool. Lab. 
Univerbity of Illinois 
Champaign, Illinois 
November 25, 1935 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
New Soils Building 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
I regret that I must repprt that 
my suspicions as to the presence of Sharp- 
tailed Grouse in north central Illinois have 
been entirely dispelled. At the same time 
I wrote to you, I communicated with a Mr. J. 
Charles Asmus of Woodstock, who I had been 
told had mounted the birds which I had seen 
in a Woodstock hardware store window. He 
informed me that the birds in question had 
been mounted by him, but that they had come 
from the game farm of a local doctor. They 
had been kept in pens at all times, and had 
finally d&ed from causes unknown. Mr. Asmus 
being the local taxidermist, the doctor had 
brought the bkwds to him for mounting, and 
had finally left them with him. 
I should like to know whether the 
state of Wisconsin has done any liberating of 
the more spectacular of the Asiatic pheasants 
near the Illinois-Wisconsin line. I have re- 
ports of Golden Pheasants being killed near 
Rockford, and cannot find any information con- 
cerning their being liberated in Illinois. 
Can you help me in this respect? 
Very truly yours, 
0. T. Black 

Prairie Cicken folder 
Gycle folder 
frinpealeau Go, 
June 17, 1936: a Steele     ys in winter of 1935-36 there were E    h 
in the Trempealeau area. He did see one sarptail, 
Also few chickens in Goose Island, LaCrosse Co., last winter. Much fewer

th   preceding years. 
The sharptail was nt positively identified. It was Just above Trempeal e

Mt. sitting in cottonwood. 

Precarious Status of the Attwater Prairie Chicken 
Lebmann spent two days (May i and 2) with Game Warden T.T. 
Waddell of Eagle Lake, Colorado County, inspecting the three Attwater 
prairie chicken colonies near Eagle Lake. Large scale maps were secured,

and a number of photographs taken. The field notes, with these documents

attached, have been forwarded to Washington. The species is in an ex- 
tremely precarious situation.. The most effective possible action both 
on tho part of the State and the Government will be ncessary to conservo

Armadillo ,-uail Project 
Shaler E. Aldous of the Food Habits Section, Division of Wild- 
life Research, arrived May 27, 1936, to take up work in continuation of 
thatdone on the economic status of the armadillo in previous years by 
Kalmbach and Lehmann. Aldous established temporary headquarters at Hunts-

ville, where it will be convenient for Lebmann and Hahn to work with him.


Proposed Franklin Schmidt Memorial Fellowship 
for a'study of 
Franklin James White Schmidt 
In 1929 Franklin Schmidt resolved to dedicate his career to the conser- 
vation of the prairie chicken. 
He had just been graduaated from a biological course at the University of

Wisconsin. He had been raised in the Wisconsin chicken country in Clark 
County. He had acquired skill in field research while employed on scientific

expeditions for the Field Museum. Herbert Stoddard, his friend and advisor,

had just shown, by his studies of bobwhite, how a technique for conservation

and management could be built up by first constructing a foundation of life

history facts. Schmidt resolved to do the same thing for prairie chickens.

He got a job as assistant to Dr. A. 0. Gross, who had been employed by 
the Conservation Commission to study prairie chickens. At the end of the

summer, when Dr. Gross had to leavo,Schmidt was put in charge of the project.

For five years, with intermittent support from the Commission and from 
interested sportsmen, he worked early and late at his self-appointed task.

His work centered in the "sand counties" of central Wisconsin,
the largest 
remaining chicken range in the Lake States region. 
By 1935 he had won a research fellowship from the University, was within

easy distance of his doctorate, and had accumulated more new information

about prairie chickens and sharptail grouse than had ever been gathered 
by any naturalist, living or dead. At the insistence of the University, he

had sot down the gist of his findings in a series of eight papers. His plan

was ultimately to publish a monograph on the chicken and the sharptail, 
equivalent to Stoddard's "Bobwhite." 
On August 8, 1935, while stopping overnight at the home of his parents 
in Clark County, Wisconsin, he met his death in a midnight fire, which also

destroyed seven of his papers and most of his photographs, notes and records.

The presumption is that he was overcome by smoke in trying to gather up his

manuscripts, on which he had been working before going to bed. 
One of the eight papers had been submitted to the Wilson Bulletin, and 
will be published shortly. 
It is proposed to establish, at the University of Wisconsin, a 
Franklin  chmidt Memorial Fellowship for the study of prairie chickens Pnd

sharptail grouse. 
The purpose of the fellowship is to resume Schmidt' s work at the point 
where it was snatched from his hands, and carry it forward to the point 
where a monograph can be published. 

To this end, the duration of the fellowship should be at least five years.

The cost per year would be: 
Stipend  of  Fellow ........................... $900 
Field  travel  expense ........................ SO0 
Equipment, supplies, etc .................... 200 
Sinking fund for ultimate monograph........ 200 
Total .............................  .  ..... $2,000 
The University is prepared to furnish supervision, office space, clerical

and stenographic service, laboratory facilities, and possibly field assistants

as needed. The fellowship could be administered by the Graduate School through

the Chair of Game Management, College of Agriculture. 
Facilities for Work 
In preparation for the resumption of Schmidt's work, the Chair of Game 
Management, after wide inquiry for promising timber, has tried out a series

of men and is prepared to select an extra good one for this project. 
The salvaged portion of Schmidt's notes, photos, files, papers, and 
specimens has been organized for use. 
The cooperation of the following agencies which own prairie chicken range

or maintain field forces on such range can be counted upon: 
1. State Conservation Commission 
2. U. S. Biological Survey 
. U. S. Resettlement Administration 
*U. S. Forest Service 
For work affecting diseases, the cooperation of the Biological Survey 
disease laboratory at the University of Minnesota can be counted upon. 
The prairie chicken is a cyclic bird. The University supports a fellow- 
ship on the wild life cycle, The two parallel studies will illuminate each

For the identification of difficult crop contents the Food Habits 
Division of the Biological Survey at Washington would continue the cooperation

already extended to Schmidt. The bird banding division would also continue

to furnish bands and banding records. 
The University offers consulting facilities in almost any kind of 
question which might arise in the course of the work. 
Another prairie chicken investigation is under way at the Davison Ranch 
in Oklahoma. This, however, deals with the small southwestern species on
range much different from ours. The two projects do not duplicate, but they

can probably learn much from each other by periodic conferences. 

- 3 - 
Plan of Work 
The proposed research is to be focased on the accumulation of facts 
applicable to conservation. 
In such an investigation, it is seldom possible to see more than a year 
ahead. The strategy for any one year is largely based upon the new leads

of the preceding year. Hence the new work planned for the immediate future

must rest upon Schmidt's latest findings. 
Banding. At the time of his death, he was trying to learn more about 
migratory movements by banding. With the cooperation of the Upper Mississippi

Refuge, he had trapped and banded some of the prairie chickens which winter

there, but whose summer range is unknown. This should be continued until
source of the Mississippi winter flight is definitely located. 
A similar flight occurs along Lake Michigan. Its limits and extent should

be determined. 
The flights in central Wisconsin had been quite well unravelled by Schmidt.

Sex Ratio and Breeding 5abits. Schmidt suspected that some of the rem- 
nants in southern Wisconsin failed to increase because they are all males.

Meanwhile a demonstration area has been developed at Faville Grove, Jefferson

County, where this question can be studied in cooperation with the student
The assumption that a given group of males always booms at the same 
booming ground is now open to question. This should be checked. If not true,

it might considerably alter the technique for arranging nesting cover. 
Roost over. Schmidt had discovered that in winter, chickens are very 
particular about roosts. They seem to insist on one of three or four kinds

of marsh growths. This lead should be tested by actually developing such
on "weak" ranges, to see if the population may thereby be built
Foods. The broad outlines of food habits had been pretty well worked out

by Schmidt. Much detailed testing work, however, remains to be done. For

example: the exact palatability and sustenance value of bAds under various

temperature conditions is not sufficiently known, but could be tested on

captive stock. 
Schmidt believed that certain foods of known value, such as false climbing

buckheat, ought to be greatly increased by treating the soil. This can be

tested. It might prove superior to grain food patches, especially where the

frost risk is heavy, as in the central counties. 
The Kill. The effects of shooting have never been studied except on a 
small scale. Schmidt suspected that the effect on sex &nd age composition

of the population might be more important than the numerical effect alone.

With the central Wisconsin game area about to be put under administration,
large-scale study of shooting effects should become possible. 

Several hundred birds banded by Schmidt are now at large. Any recovery 
of bands during the next open season would have special value, because such

birds will have survived the low of the cycle. 
Minnesota and Michigan pursue shooting policies quite different from 
those of Wisconsin. A comparative study of the effects would be valuable.

The foregoing are merely samples of the kind of work proposed. 
Information concerning the proposed study can be obtained from 
Aldo Leopold, Professor of Game Management, College of Agricu4ture, Madison,

This proposal is sponsored by the KUMLIMU ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB, of which 
Franklin Schmidt was a charter member. 
May 12, 193G. 
- 4- 

Iowa Conservation Department News Release, I 
In a lecture delivered in 1932 by C, Wo Hargens, M* Do, of 
Dakota, conservation was the subject. Dr. Hargens, who was 
reminisces on "what used to be" in the early days of huntinl 
were very interesting indeed and a copy of his address is p 
others may know of the methods of hunting in those day. 
Dr. hargen said: "'Before entering into a serious discussio: 
phases of conservation, as we see it, a little personal rem 
establish our claim to being a 'sportsman' may not be out o 
'brought up' on a farm in the Missouri River Valley, 22 mil 
Bluffs and 75 miles south of Sioux City, Iowa, 
"We attended school in Missouri Valley, Iowa, walking one a 
town, along the track of the old Sioux City and Pacific Rai 
the Northwestern Railway. In those days--we now are sixty- 
in the RY7Tig ann ral i We conit rlc Ui%   a1onr  the railroad raL--way.
61. . 
prairie chickens our family could consume, T 
the height of a telegraph pole, had been kill 
I have seen the hand-car of a section crew th 
cone in of an evening with all the chickens, 
crew required for meat.. I have seen ducks an 
the-year, that they looked like a cloud, and 
literally millions of them, My father bought 
nine, not for the purpose of sport or getting 
to keep the Canada geese from utterly destroy 
the newly sprouted gwain. Many a time have I 
irksome WORK, and the apparent futility of ch 
field to the other. When we wanted reat, we 
and using her as a blind, steered her up to a 
proceeded to mow them down.  ater my brother 
punishment was being compelled to clean the b 
we fed them to the hogs. Wild game was the w 
filled the markets at ridiculously low prices 
for $2.50 a dozen to the Pullman dining cars 
to shooting, there was no limit of season on 
the age of 64, it is a shock to see the decin 

Fish  at"O'?ark Fall#, niconin 
Cheu&-oa                                   Pebrway l0, 1937 
Upland GiSkm  Qr  use 
vm Tuesday aminjr, isruuI7 9,, X *hookod on the ood1i 
of theq cap ""ine food patch, north of County G m the F1ambeau,

Stm wa e ld day, wIth bri&t sm on snow, The temperture 
was-10whe   I estt  out but wred up esiserably trd no=, 
Thr v&# a sr wind* The *now was 26 inches deep =n the level 
aMA -v t-) fe),x foot In drf# 
In about 2-mie MI am threes ete of snowshoe rabbit trak 
a.nd four sets .  grvue traeks, Tho Ivoune track ere within one 
hundred ud of the food patch* At the feeod patch the snov *&a 
nework of tmakes   Groue tmk were a tdrt and there wr        lso 
mmlloUr traoke, posuibly Chickadeew or no buntzgs, No birds wr 
The he   and .ufawwe *tlks were etiekiag well aboe the 
&n#  m  of the bukweat and ,ovnas &Is also     the snmm The 
birds wore leading heavily mn the  wVand bukiet        All the hemp 
b eeds that I inined were well tilled, Onl about onethird of 
the buaeWiat grin romino     on the stalim. Two mmll corn shok 
were put up last falle Orrsus had neeod these *hooks for sheltar, 
but had tiot qioned anyo Rare of orn paralstiug on the stalks abmm 
the xem -,are not husked* 
In the vicinity of the food patch, groewer~e feeinr, on 
Sgoldonrod. They mer bu(Idng, on low aspan brush *ero 
they could reach the buds twin the snow* The crust an the snow was 
saflalent to hold the birds but vms so thin that I sank at least 
one foot mn sn-ooe 
Is not necessary for sherptalla in winter, the havy use of 
m) Nine tood pateh indicatee thahthywl       aoginhe 
~ble, There wore ver fe   tmoks In teoe     (minee the 
pateh, r-h ea ~     dens. blaok apriaes eovr Mny &*ount for the 
sears ity of grus si"    in the open, This food patchlhas been 
used by grows sine late smer 
ees labu (1)                        Wildlife Assistant 
InetorOs a f O 

I trarv of 
Wlo Loeopolb 
Illinois Conservation 
Mid-Winter, 1937 
For Illinois 
Illinois State Natural History Survey 
that a decided in- 
y agricultural de- 
Ls the result of an 
eport on a Game 
s (1931), by Aldo 
how that chickens 
andance in central 
ereafter. An early 
. . inIllinois as 
V lucky if he could 
s later, with much 
n a day, and there 
the prairie sod for 
the food supply, 
e cover areas and 
ins of cover areas, 
nds in fairly close 
tial to the success 
e rarely found in 
cultivated regions. 
s by plowing, ex- 
al Illinois by other 
grazing, grass fires 
d for the manage- 
the State Natural 
Ligation of prairie 
acre study area of 
per County, south- 
arried on since the 
region are gray silt 
Because of lack 
y, portions of this 
early one-fourth of 
A characteristic and abundant game bird of the 
Illinois prairies within the memory of older sports- 
men, was the prairie chicken or pinnated grouse. 
From about 1900 until 1930 its shooting was re- 
stricted by small bags and short seasons. Since that 
time it has been protected. At present it is showing 
sufficient ability to hold its own or increase in its 
remaining range to make it worthy of a united effort 
to restore it in all suitable places over the State. 
Formerly distributed throughout the grasslands of 
the State, the prairie chicken is now restricted chiefly 
to the poorer prairie sections of the south-central 
counties and to some of the more extensive sandy and 
marshy areas of the northern part of the State. 
Scattered colonies remain in several of the black soil 
prairie counties of the central part of the State, but 
in most cases these appear to be gradually disap- 
Although the decline of the prairie chicken is com- 
monly associated with the advent of intensive agri- 
Photo by 
Dr. A. G. Vestal 
Excellent Nest- 
ing Cover for 
Prairie Chickens 
and other 
Upland Game 

the land in the vicinity of the study area was not 
under cultivation. The area lies in an extensive sec- 
tion where red-top grass is grown for seed. Other 
crops include corn, small grains and soybeans. The 
gray soil prairie of these south-central counties ranks 
with the best game land of the State, chiefly because 
of the presence of considerable brushy cover and the 
presence of idle lands in many parts. The prairie 
chicken population on the study area has averaged 
between 40 and 50 birds per square mile in late 
The prairie chicken study includes many lines of 
investigation, including life history, food studies, 
mortality factors, and movements, and considerable 
progress has already been made. It is obviously 
necessary, however, to obtain much field information 
before conclusions can be drawn as to best manage- 
ment practices. Nevertheless, certain tentative con- 
clusions may be made from the material already at 
Cover. The red-top fields of this region are cut 
late in summer for seed, and from the time of hatch- 
ing in May or early June to midsummer they furnish 
cover and feeding places for the broods of young. 
Numerous osage hedges furnish protection for young 
birds and provide shade and partial concealment for 
birds of all ages. Untilled fields are habitually used 
as cover and roosting places throughout the year. 
Increases in agricultural activity usually have an 
effect on available cover areas and hence quickly re- 
duce populations. For example, during the World 
War period of agricultural expansion, the birds de- 
clined in numbers throughout their range in Illinois; 
fifteen years later, during the recent depression, they 
extended their range noticeably. 
Food. Available winter food in the fields includ- 
ing corn and weed seeds was sufficient to bring the 
prairie chickens of Jasper County through the severe 
winter of 1935-36 without heavy losses and without 
forcing migration. 
Nesting Sites. Contrary to prevailing ideas, the in- 
teriors of red-top fields are not used extensively as 
nesting places. In order of decreasing importance 
the three chief kinds of nesting places in this region 
are: (1) idle fields, (2) low ditch banks covered with 
low, somewhat sparse growth of brambles, (3) edges 
of hayfields close to brush or herbaceous plants. 
There is a tendency to concentrate nests in the best 
nesting cover, usually the uncultivated fields. 
In Wisconsin, Franklin Schmidt observed several 
years ago that nesting sites and roost cover were im- 
portant factors in determining summer range of 
prairie chickens. Likewise in Illinois the present dis- 
tribution of breeding birds appears to be closely asso- 
ciated with the presence of suitable cover and nesting 
Under ideal management conditions, areas that 
serve as nesting grounds should be left out of cultiva- 
tion for several years to allow full development of 
nesting cover, inasmuch as the best nesting areas are 
fields that have a scattered growth of dewberries or 
other low vines. 
Diseases and Parasites. As a result of studies of 
mortality in the flocks of young during the summer 
months, it became evident that numbers of young 
succumbed to diseases or parasites before reaching 
maturity. This was especially evident in the summer 
of 1936 when several young in various stages of de- 
composition were found in the field and unthrifty- 
looking birds were seen in the flocks. A limited num- 
ber of young were collected for disease and food 
studies. The majority of these were found to be 
rather heavily parasitized, and certain other evidence 
of pathological conditions was found. A special 
study of diseases and parasites is now in progress. 
In this connection the question of transmission of 
poultry diseases to prairie chickens is under consid- 
eration. It is possible that the presence of poultry 
on prairie chicken breeding grounds limits the num- 
ber of game birds an area will support. 
Management. The relationship of diseases and 
parasites to  possible  cyclic behavior of prairie 
chickens in this region, and to weather, are also re- 
ceiving consideration. It is of interest that heavier 
Photo by State 
Natural History 
Survey   *  *  * 

Photo by State Natural History Survey 
losses of young occurred during the extremely dry 
summer of 1936 than during the wet summer of 1935. 
The question may then be raised of the relationship 
of development of diseases or parasites to periods of 
drought. These and many other questions await the 
securing of more data. 
Management of prairie chickens in Illinois for 
recreation or cash seems best adapted to the less 
fertile prairie or sandy sections of the State, where 
part of the land is, or can be, withheld from cultiva- 
tion; since maintenance of well-distributed cover and 
nesting areas is the keynote of management, land 
managed primarily for prairie chickens, but which 
possesses hedges or brushy cover and where winter 
feeding would be practiced when necessary, could 
yield in addition to a sustained annual crop of 
chickens, a supplementary crop of quails, rabbits, 
and furbearers. Since such a management program 
involves expense, it goes without saying that land- 
owners would need to be compensated for time and 
money spent. Inasmuch as prairie chicken manage- 
ment does not seem feasible on areas less than 2,000 
acres, farmers' organizations or farmer -sportsmen co- 
operatives would probably be the best available 
means of handling such a project. 
Present Range. The State Natural History Survey 
is endeavoring to obtain information on the present 
range of prairie chickens in Illinois. Readers are in- 
vited to inform the Illinois State Natural History 
Survey, Urbana, Illinois, if prairie chickens are pres- 
ent in their locality. Information on recent or past 
extension or loss of range in various parts of the 
State, with approximate dates, is also desired. 
Sanctuaries.  One or more public-owned sanc- 
tuaries for prairie chickens in their Illinois range are 
desirable for two reasons: First, to guard against 
possible drastic reduction of range in periods of agri- 
cultural expansion, such as during war when high 
grain prices lead to cultivation of all available areas. 
Second, to act as study or check areas for prairie 
chickens in an extensive region where little or no 
agriculture is carried on. 
Construction of A Self-Feeding 
Hopper For Wildlife 
In building this low cost winter feeding hopper 
for game the following list of materials will be 
needed: 1 nail keg, 1 1" board 12" x 12", 1 piece 
2" x 4" x 9", 1 piece tin, 6 or 8 six penny nails, and 
1 rivet. 
Bore five or six 3/4" holes around the side of the 
nail keg 1" from the metal band around the bottom 
of the keg. These should be spaced at equal distance 
from each other. The tin is cut from any scrap tin. 
A circle piece 18/2" in diameter, cut in equal parts, 
will make two cones which will fit the keg. A brad 
is riveted into two holes near the bottom or large 
end of the cone to make it conform to shape. This 
cone is then placed, point up, in the bottom of the 
keg. This insures a flow of grain from the holes and 
prevents the possibility of the grain matting in the 
bottom of the keg. The top is made from a board 
1" x 12" x 12" with the four corners cut off. This 
board is then nailed to the 2" x 4" which has been 
cut to exactly fit the interior measurements of the 
keg. The winter food hopper is now complete and 
ready for operation. 
HARRY E. GEARHART, JR., Biologist. 
Nail keg with lid at- 
tached and five %" holes 
around the bottom. 
A tin cone bent from a 
half circle of 18/2" di- 
ameter is set in the bot- 
tom to keep grain at feed 

or grain so placed should be inspected at regular in- 
tervals to be certain that the grain is available. 
It is necessary to have grit in all feeding rations 
and all feeders are cautioned not to forget one pound 
of grit to ten pounds of feed. 
Feeders should also keep in mind the fact that all 
wildlife has many enemies such as cats, foxes, etc., 
and all feeding shelters should be provided with an 
exit at the rear so that birds can escape from their 
enemies if attacked on the feeding ground. 
The cooperation of school children on farms will 
mean much in the saving of wildlife through the most 
trying period of the year which is during the months 
of December and January and many times in Febru- 
ary. The development of quail, pheasants, and other 
bird life is very necessary in order to secure protec- 
tion from crop destruction by grasshoppers such as 
that just experienced this year. 
I am writing you concerning Club activities at 
McLean, Illinois, and am sorry that you have not 
heard from this Club more often, as Mr. Longworth 
who was Club Secretary, has moved away and has 
been active in his job. I have been elected to finish 
out the year for Mr. Longworth and will try and 
keep you posted from time to time concerning the 
doings of our Sportsmen's Club here at McLean, Illi- 
We hatched 107 nheasants this last venr and 
last of January to have enough for two or three. 
We intend to have some basket ball games this 
winter, so that we may raise money for them. 
I wish to report to the Department that while 
hunting west of Hillsboro I got up three prairie 
chickens, a cock and two hens. Am informing you 
of this because these are the first prairie chickens 
I have ever seen in this county. 
Also wish to advise that quail seem to be plentiful. 
At the annual meeting of the Alexander Chapter 
of the Morgan County Sportsmen's Club, K. V. 
Beerup was re-elected President; Lester R. Gray, 
Vice-President; and W. G. Parmele was re-elected 
Secretary- Treasurer. 
The ladies of the Catholic Church cooked and 
served a very delightful dinner which was enjoyed 
by about sixty interested sportsmen. Music was fur- 
nished by the McLain Family of Franklin, and how 
these boys can furnish music. 
After dinner, a very instructive and interesting talk 
was made by Mr. Clyde Taylor, acting forester of 
the Jacksonville CCC Camp, who is exceptionally 
well informed on matters concerning reforestation in 

away in the city this week, and our descendants will 
suffer severely for this wanton waste. We unfortu- 
nately have as yet no ordinance in Missouri against 
spring shooting, but there is a clearly cut law in 
Illinois against the use of swivel guns and night- 
shooting, and it is simply scandalous that the au- 
thorities of East St. Louis and Canteen Lake do not 
put a stop to these practices. For every duck killed 
by a swivel gun two are crippled, and as, for instance, 
one man brought 400 in from Canteen (Madison 
County, Illinois), as the result of one day's slaughter 
last week, it is easy to guess what the total waste 
amounts to." 
again two. They were all shot within about four 
minutes, the magazine being refilled once only. 
J. S. J. 
Galesburg, Ill., August 26.-Lewis Duncan, of Gil- 
son, a town near here, was recently fined $5.00 and 
costs-13.00 in all-for shooting prairie chickens out 
of season. Our club offers $10.00 reward for all vio- 
lations of the game laws in Knox County. There 
were hundreds of prairie chickens killed as early as 
August 1 in this county. The birds were very plenti- 
ful here; as high as three coveys were found in a 
forty-acre oat stubble. It is estimated that over 
1,000 were killed in this county on August 15. 
A. B. C. 
CHICAGO, ILL.                         *  * * * 
Editor American Field:-The Game Warden ap- 
pointed last winter by our Legislature for Chicago, 
has made game very scarce along Water Street. 
Last year at this time and into March v ej=, 
prairie chickens, pheasants and quails were to be seen 
in great quantities alover the city in groceries and 
meat shops. In a conversation a few days since 
ith a commission merchant he said that there were 
a few firms ,who were still slyly filling orders for 
game. It is not, however, reasonable to suppose that 
this illegal and shameful traffic can be suppressed at 
once; but there has been a good beginning made, 
and if all the parties who know, or have reason to 
believe, that their neighbors are violating the law 
will report the same to Mr. C. M. Hardy (the war- 
den) we shall soon put a stop to this business. 
It is evident from all past experiences that laws 
will not be enforced unless it is clear and explicit 
who is to do it. The Game Warden is an officer 
needed in every state to look after all persons who 
disregard the statutes made for the protection of 
game. It is sincerely to be hoped that legislatures 
in session this winter will follow the example of our 
own State in this matter, and pass such law as we 
have, unless they can devise one more stringent and 
The awful waste of game is unknown to all but 
a very few persons. There is no doubt that more 
than 30,000 pieces of game were spoiled here in Chi- 
cago alone from August 15, 1885, to January 1, 1886. 
Piles of ducks and other birds were lying in front 
of stores day after day on Water Street all last fall 
and all were worthless, while ducks keep coming now 
every day from far off Southern points. *   *  * 
St. Louis, Mo., December 26.-Mr. Gwynne Price 
of this place bagged eleven jack snipes a few days 
since near the race track, using a small, twenty-six- 
inch barrel Spencer repeating shotgun, belonging to 
Miss Annie Oakley of Buffalo Bill's Wild West. 
There were only eleven birds on the place; four rose 
together and were all killed; then two; then three and 
A letter from the vice-president of the Lafayette 
(Ind.) Gun Club denies the report that quails will 
be used in their tournament on October 20, 21 and 22. 
GIRARD, ILL., October 22. 
We are having royal sport now shooting squirrels, 
as they are very plentiful here; but quails are scarce. 
Editor American Field:-One day last autumn, 
having arranged to go duck hunting, I took the train 
to a quiet little suburban village south of this city, 
*  *  * 
From nine o'clock on we walked through the tall 
marsh grass, getting up ducks once in awhile, and 
making more misses than hits; *  *  * 
Jack snipes and rails were fairly plentiful, but the 
former were hard for novices to shoot; we got only 
eight birds out of about eighteen shots. Rails are 
easily killed, and we got fifteen without a miss. Old 
hunters would easily have tripled our scores, but we 
enjoyed ourselves immensely. We got home about 
one o'clock, having twelve ducks, fifteen rails, seven 
jack snipes and ten plovers. 
-                     G. B. H. 
We are indebted to Dr. David H. Thompson of the 
Illinois Natural History surVey-,   tohe 7 foregoing 
contribution, one of a series on "When Conservation 
was Young." The items have been extracted by him 
from issues of Field and Stream, printed in 1886. 

Book No. 2 
Observation No. 90 
Date: F    u    17, 1937 
Location: Juneau Co. T18N-R3E. 
Time: 8:0 AM 
Weather: No wind. Cloudy. Temp. lb0 
l pinnated grouse were sighted flying south over the Village of 
I ecedah. They were flying at an elevation of about 400 to 500 
feet. They flew straight south for at least 3 to 4 miles and 
were still at same elevation when passing out of sight. This 
looks very much like a migration flight as they do not usually 
fly as high or as far when in regular flight. 1nother noticeable 
feature of the flight was that the birds did not seem to change 
their flight formation all the time they were in view. The flight 
had two birds at the head, followed by five, then six, and then 
two. This is the first time I have noticed a flight of birds 
where the birds did not change formation in flight. 

N d: : J.  ?OY GOODLAD 
Book lI\o. 2. 
Observation N\o. 86 
Date: iebruary 26, 1937 
Location: Juneau County T20N RPE. Sec. 27 
Time: 1:45 1i 
Weather: Cloudy. iliild. 
,,.red tail hawk was seen eating a pinnate along side of Co. 
T.H. "F". just north of the road about 100' and along the 
east ditch bank where there was fairly good cover of popple 
and birch. 'e flushed the male hawk and I gathered the crop 
contents. The female hawk was near by in a large popple 
and had practically half of the bird. It was interesting 
to note the following: 
(a) Impetus of blow from red-tail hawk had driven the 
chicken about 8" into the snow. 
(b) The hawk was able to get the chicken in fairly good 
cover, having a space about 4' square to strike in. 
(c) Breast bone and tibia were sheared off as clean as 
a horned owl shear. 
(d) The day was cloudy thus no shadow from predators 
(avian). The kill was not over 3 or 4 minutes old. 
This is not the first time I have seen red tails kill game 
Crop contents of kill (pinnate) were as follows: 
(1) Blueberry (Vaccinium pennsylvanicum) bud tipe and 
stems; 100 in number and 62 grains in weight. 
(2) 6hite birch (Paprifera) buds 59 in number and 60 
grains in weight. 
(3) White birch (betula Alba) catkins (staminate) 288 
in nui ber and 880 grains inweight. 
(4) Immature Jack Pine (Banksiana) cones averaging about 
3/8" long. 56 in number and 129 grains in weight were 
present. I think the cone is the pistillate, for 
Mr. Running, our forester, was quite positive that it was. 
The last part of this observation is very valuable information and is one

that 1 have been searching for ever since I have been doing field work here.

It refutes the theory that the birds (when picking around in Jack pines)

were a bit nervous and were not actually eating. 1 have watched them for

hours via the field glass and was of the opinion tnat eating was in progress,

now 1 am positive. 
The total contents weighed 1131 grains or 2.36 ounzes. 

Texas Cooperative Wildlife Service 
Activity Report, February 1937 
PROJECT NO. 398       The Texas Prairie Chicken 
Month: February, 1937 
Author: V. W. Lehmann 
Lehmann spent February 22 and 23 with State Game Warden 
T. T. Waddell in the Colorado County Attwater prairie chicken terri- 
tory and among the records accumulated were the following: 
(1) A thorough census of approximately 3,500 acres of 
land in the northeastern part of Colorado County revealed 109 to 118 
'prairie chickens (9 possible repeats). This population of about 1 
Itbird per 32.1 acres is the heaviest known concentration of Attwater 
chickens in the State. The observers estimated that approximately 
S1175 percent of the chickens which they found were males. 
(2) Prairie chickens were heard drumming on February 
22 and, although residents reported having heard a few calls as 
early as February 12, it is evident that the mating season is just now 
getting underway. The booming notes that were heard on February 22 
were short and lacked the deep, mellow, resonance of mid-season calls. 
The booming was intermittent, not continuous or nearly continuous, as 
it will be when the mating season is more advanced. A few males were 
observed to approach each other in a defiant mood, but no actual com- 
bats were seen* Also, the chickens were much wilder than they were 
found to be in May, 1934. 
(3) The morning of February 22 was clear and cold; a 
heavy frost was on the ground. Booming began at 7:15 A.M. after much 
of the frost had been dispersed by the sun, and the last calls were 
heard at 7:40 A.M. The morning of February 23 was cloudy and warm; 
there was no moisture on the grass. Booming began at 6:45 A.M. on 
February 23 and ended at 7:45 A.M. No drumming was heard in the after- 
noon. Persistent males are known to drum in the afternoon when the 
mating season is more advanced. 
(4) It was evident that winter flocking was not concluded 
on February 22, for a group of 24 chickens (mixed sexes) was flushed 
at 7:45 A.M. at a distance from drumming birds and apparently taking 
little interest in the ritual. 
(5) At the end of the booming period (about 8 A.M.) it 
is common for flocks to rise from the drumming grounds and fly to 
favorite feeding areas. Flocks have been observed to fly distances 
of over 1 mile to margins of corn and cotton fields, rice stubble 
and other parts of the tall grass pastures. 

(6) As the morning advances, it is increasingly diffi- 
cult to approach drumming chickens. 
(7) The booming grounds in the Eagle Lake territory are 
short grass "hard pan" flats or recent burns surrounded by heavy
grass. The drumming areas are usually from 1 acre to 10 acres in size. 
(8) The arrangement of sexes on the booming grounds is 
in this manner: Males in the open near the center of the area; females )

near the edges or in the heavy cover adjoining. 
(9) Attwater chickens have not been observed using mounds 
or knolls as drumming sites; flats seem to be distinctly preferred. 
(10) Our present data from the northeastern part of 
Colorado County suggests a seasonal migration of chickens from the 
sand hills bordering the Bernard River to the flat open country to 
the south for spring mating and nesting and a jeturn to the sand hills 
for residence during summer, fall and winter. 
(11) A migration of this sort would aDpear to be partially 
explainable on the basis of cover preferences. Chickens are known to 
favor the flat open prairie with its numerous short grass "hard pan"

flats for mating and nesting while the sand mounds with their accompanying

flora of perennial ragweed, doveweed, partridge pea and dog fennel 
provide excellent feeding and loafing grounds for broods and old birds. 
Water may also be an important factor governing such movement, for 
the shallow ponds which form on the hard pan flats during the rainy 
season are normally dry by June 30, while surface water is usually 
available in the sand hill ponds throughout the year. 
(12) Management practices developed in the course of 
periodic investigations during the past year are already being put 
into effect by some progressive ranchmen who are working in close 
cooperation with State Game Warden T. T. 17adell. For example, all 
pasture burning in the Earle Lake chicken territory has been carried 
out prior to the nesting season and the usual heavy annual nest loss 
due to late fires has apparently been obviated. On several pastures 
burning has been supervised by Waddell and at least 30 percent of 
each tract has been left unburned. The February survey indicates 
that prairie chickens in Colorado County will not be handicapped by 
a shortage of nesting cover in 1937. 
(13) Most of the owners of good chicken range in Colorado 
and Uarton Counties have entered into an informal agreement with VTarden

T. T. addell to limit hunting and thereby attempt to save the Attwater 
prairie chickens in that section. Lehmann has received the assurance of 
several of the most influential of these men that a formal, permanent 
organization pledged to save the Attwnter chicken is desirable.   Plans 
are going forward to organize owners of inhabited prairie chicken range 
in Austin, Wharton and Colorado Counties along lines suggested by the Ex-

tension Service of Texas A.& M. College and it is likely that this work

will be completed within the next few months. 

Wilson Bulletin, Vol. XLIX, No. 1 
March, 1937, PP. 37-42. 
The Dance of the Prairie Chicken            37 
We awoke at five o'clock, dressed hurriedly and started out at 
once for the blind. The sky was cloudy, the wind fresh and chilling. 
Keeping to the main road for a short distance, we presently turned off 
and followed a lane, flushing a pair of Hungarian Partridges by the 
wayside. At the end of the lane, we left the car and headed north, 
our path lined by a row of venerable willows. Open country stretched 
before us as far as the eye could see, and also toward the east, where 
the land lay low and flat to the river, a mile away.* 
From a distance we could hear the mellow whistle of an Upland 
Plover, and from overhead the winnowing of a snipe. A pair of 
Short-eared Owls weresweeping the fields with their singularly rapid 
wing-beats, while from lagoons toward the river we could see ducks 
rising-Mallards, Teal, Baldpates, Pintails, and Shovellers. It was 
easy to understand why this was once a favorite resort of the Indian 
tribes, and of the mysterious people who built the pre-historic village 
of Aztalan, a few miles down the river. 
As soon as we emerged on the prairie we could make out with 
our glasses the blind, and near it some cocks, whose booming we had 
been hearing, but so wet was the intervening ground from recent 
rains that much wading was required before we could reach the rela- 
tively dry area surrounding our observation post. Long before we 
arrived the birds had flown off, so that it was a matter of awaiting 
their return, sitting on a bench in the blind and watching through 
loop-holes left for the purpose. We could hear booms in the distance 
and were fearful lest our birds had chosen some other spot, but before 
long they began coming back, one at a time, stalking warily through 
the grass, pausing every few steps to look around and size things up. 
They kept on coming, however, until finally they were again in front 
of the blind, the nearest scarcely twenty feet away. When all were 
accounted for, there proved to be eleven of them, all cocks-this, ac- 
cording to our host, being the number that has commonly been present 
during the month or more since his observations began. 
The so-called booming ground comprised a space some twenty-five 
yards in diameter and differed from the surrounding marsh only in 
the absence of the tall, dried stems of the prairie-dock, with which the

latter was sparsely covered, and in the fact that the shorter and thicker

*The date was April 24, 1936; the place, Favill's Grove, near Lake Mills,

Wisconsin; the host, Mr. Arthur Hawkins. 

The Wilson Bulletin-March, 1937 
blue-joint had been well flattened down. Beneath this grass the ground 
was quite soft, differing in this respect from the locations usually 
chosen for these assemblies. 
As each cock appeared on the scene he at once began his exhi- 
bition. He lowered his head, puffed out his feathers, and raised his 
tail to show its white under-coverts, the wings being held down, stiff 
and straight, so as to scrape the ground. He distended the hidden 
sacs on the sides of his neck until they were the size and color of 
oranges. He stamped the ground like a maddened bull. He made sud- 
den rushes at a real or imaginary opponent. He gave sudden, upward 
leaps, often making complete revolutions in mid-air. When not other- 
wise engaged, he contented himself with walking slowly about with all 
the dignity of a turkey gobbler. There were two cocks off by them- 
selves at either end of the line, out on the wings of the stage, and it 
was interesting to observe that they went through the same roles as 
the others, each with complete absorption in his own performance. 
One of these took first prize as a high jumper, clearing the bar at a 
good four feet. During all this time every one of the cocks was giving 
vent to a varied assortment of booms, toots, calls, and cackles, which, 
combined with similar outbursts from all the others, produced an in- 
describable medley of sound. 
Encounters were frequent. Every now and then one cock made 
a rush at another, whereupon the two stood face to face, each ap- 
nrentlv trving to stare the other out of countenance. In this. one 
would turn and move 
ild assume a crouching 
antage in this manner, 
On only a few occa- 
times they flew at each 
ash of wings. In the 
In fact, it was, at any 
vere in earnest or were 
side, possibly the same 
ch time was promptly 
was he?   Was he a 
een expelled for some 
If the latter, we can 
apleted and the doors 
closed to new arrivals. 

The Dance of the Prairie Chicken 
FIG. 5. Mounted specimens of the Greater Prairie Chicken. 
From the Milwaukee Public Museum. 
FIG. 6. Mounted specimens of the Sharp-tailed Grouse. 
From the Milwaukee Public Museum. 

The Wilson Bulletin-March, 1937 
After we had watched for some fifteen minutes, we saw that a 
hen had arrived, and had become the center of interest for several of 
the cocks. These cocks did not show any inclination to fight, being 
apparently content with showing off. Their efforts were not notice- 
ably different from what they had been or from those of the other 
cocks, who went on just as before, each intent on his own affairs and 
wholly unmindful of the lady's presence. She, meanwhile, seemed 
equally indifferent to the attentions of her suitors. She remained 
motionless most of the time and apparently took no notice of them 
whatever. Experience may have taught her that this is by no means 
an ineffective way of attracting admirers, but at any rate none of the 
males was given preference and no mating took place. 
An interesting question arises as to the presence of this hen. Our 
host states that out of a dozen mornings spent in the blind this spring,

he saw hens on the booming grounds only twice-one at the time 
mentioned above, and two at a later date. This is in accord with the 
testimony of other observers, many of whom have never seen a hen 
present, while few appear to have seen more than one at a time, and 
these usually at long intervals. What does this mean?  Why was the 
ben there?  Was it for the purpose of mating?  Being unsuccessful 
this time, would she come again?  Had she been successful might she 
have come again? Is a single mating sufficient to fertilize a clutch of 
eggs? Does mating usually take place on or off the booming ground? 
Intriguing as these questions may be, it is the behavior of the 
cocks themselves that excites our curiosity most; and this brings us 
to inquire the meaning of the whole performance. It should be, one 
would suppose, a fascinating employment for an ornithologist. Though 
many observers have described the scene, not one has yet offered an 
interpretation that is wholly satisfactory, nor has any one made any 
serious attempt in that direction. It has usually been thought suffi- 
cient to define it as a courtship ceremony attended by nuptial displays 
and more or less fighting between rival males-a description which 
could be applied just as well to the courtings of countless other 
species, from  bluebirds to penguins. Another authority has stated 
that these exhibitions are merely an outlet for the surplus physical 
energy incident to the mating season, but he does not explain why such 
single-handed performances as the drumming of the Ruffed Grouse or 
the thrilling head-dives of the male Marsh Hawk do not come in the 
same category. We would all probably agree that the mating instinct 
is the actuating force behind our little drama, but the question as to 
why it expresses itself in this singular form is still unanswered. 

The Dance of the Prairie Chicken 
Let us take the fighting, for example. Many of the older writers 
such as Audubon, Nuttall, and Brewer believed that this was the pri- 
mary purpose of the gathering. According to Audubon's lively de- 
scription, the males "to the number of a score or so, before the first

glimpse of day lightens the horizon, fly swiftly and singly from their 
grassy beds, to challenge and to fight the various rivals led by the 
same impulse to the arena." ("Birds of America", Vol. V, p.
Modern observers, however, generally agree that the fighting plays a 
less important role and this opinion was well borne out in our own 
case by the fact that no encounters took place until the cocks had been 
for some time on the field. Accounts also differ as to the character 
of the fighting. The battles are sometimes described as extremely 
fierce, with much shedding of blood and feathers, but in our case, at 
least, such fights as took place were hardly worthy of the name. They 
were very brief affrays and though some spirit was shown there was 
never the least sign of injury or exhaustion. Again, most observers 
have assumed that these battles are analogous to those commonly in- 
dulged in by rival males contending for a female-battles in which 
one or the other is decisively whipped and thereby eliminated for all 
time as a contender. In the case of the prairie cocks, however, there 
is an important difference in that there are usually no females present.

Moreover, this analogy fails to account for the fact that the same com- 
batants return each morning throughout the mating season, and re-enact 
the same scenes as though nothing had happened. 
Finally, there is the rest of the performance, the displays, the 
dancing, and acrobatics. We saw, as already stated, but one hen, and 
while it is possible that there were others concealed in the grass near 
by, it was doubtful if such was the case. If, therefore, we should 
assume that the whole show is staged for the benefit of the hens, we 
must be ready to believe that the actors would continue day after day, 
and week after week, playing to empty seats. Moreover, even though 
the cocks thought that members of the other sex were looking on, we 
would still be in the dark as to what they were° trying to accomplish.

We can not believe that any one of them had in sight any particular 
lady-love whom he was seeking to captivate. Was he, then, going 
through his act on the mere chance that some susceptible female might 
be enticed from her hiding place? If so, he should have borne in 
mind that she would be equally exposed to the solicitations of his 
rivals. Or was he hoping so to charm his imaginary admirer that 
when he had finished his act and left the stage he could make an easy 
conquest?  Or are all these antics, as they are called-the puffing out 

The Wilson Bulletin-March, 1937 
of feathers, the stamping, leaping, and rushing, and the threatening 
attitudes-are they only meant to intimidate the other cocks and thus 
better his prospect of victory over them? Similar instances are in- 
numerable; for example, a cat raising its back, a bristling dog, a 
gorilla pounding its chest, the hunting cry of a tiger. 
It may be that we shall never find a satisfactory answer to the 
questions here raised, but if we are to attain any measure of suc- 
cess we should not overlook the really distinguishing feature of the 
performance, which lies in there being not one but several partici- 
pants. It is a communal affair, and if we are to explain the conduct 
of the individuals we must first ask ourselves why they come together. 
Whether there is any end, important to the welfare of the species, 
which is better served by them if acting as a group than if acting 
singly. One thing we know, that there is a contagion in numbers 
whereby emotions are greatly aroused, well shown in the actions of a 
mob, or in the war dances of the Indians. It is also known that the 
physical forces respond to the increase in emotional ardor, so that 
feats of strength are performed which could never be done without 
the emotion. So, in the case of our prairie cocks, we must assume that 
their passions and vigor are, at such times, inordinately heightened, 
and it does not seem difficult to believe that some relation may exist 
between this condition and the all-important mating. 
Edmund Selous, in his notable book entitled "Bird Watching", 
makes the suggestion that actions which were at first performed for a 
definite purpose may in time become only a ceremony. To quote his 
words: "In this case we should have a pure antic or display, the rea-

son for it being unobvious and its origin a mystery." If anything is

needed to corroborate this theory we need only cite the yearly flights 
of Golden Plovers by land and sea, which can only be explained as a 
habit that has outlived its original purpose and the environment under 
which it was formed. To say that the dance of the Prairie Chicken 
may be a similar case of survival, though of less ancient origin, may 
be unwarranted; but it would seem, at least, that some student of 
ecology might well make an effort to determine whether it serves any 
useful end; or whether it is only a ceremony, an empty ritual whose 
meaning lies hidden somewhere in the past history of the species. 

The grounds of the Northern States Amateur Field Trial Association, together
with locatiAnSf  ) 
House, Grain Patches, and 64 Winter Feed Hoppers with shelter houses over
them for winter feed- 
ing of birds. 
0             0 
~ Po.rnhcoioe 
S+k F-r,a 
B-.nh 1-1O   is   - 
Jox k 
--T .i F sl - hil* 
C.. . . . aJ co o 
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M5vOC POS5IBEj. Bty 
. u R O1 A5ocIATIOIE O Co,  MLRCe. 
CLeioP L WtLDLco. *5C. 
5v.or-o, Wisomoon. 
This 20,000 acre bird sanctuary near Solon Springs, Wis., is claimed by prominent
sportsmen to be the 
peer of any similar field trial grounds. The courses are over 12 miles in
length, starting west from the club 
house, and returning to the club house. The area is protected, no shooting
or trapping being permitted at 
any time. 
This has all been possible by aid of the Federal Goverrnent, with the co-operation
of the Conservation 
Commission of Wisconsin, the Douglas County Board of Supervisors, and the
Superior Association of Commerce. 
The terrain itself is sandy in nature, rolling in character, running to low
hills and ridges, with occasional 
broad flats, with sharp tailed Grouse, commonly known as Prairie Chicken,
on every course, and here and 
there a Pine Forest, Popple Woods, and thi'ck swamps, intermingled with Sweet
Fern, with delightful vistas 
from the high places as one follows the dogs. 
The setting is attractive to any ambitious hunting dog and one becomes keenly
enthusiastic in this 
picturesque wild life sanctuary. 
We invite you to come to our trials each May and September. 
I        sa-cb 
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Monthly Activity Report 
Texas Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit 
College Station, Texas 
Pr. Chicken 
Project No. -96  1     EEolocal-WildlifeRelationships:  The Effects 
of Soi, Grazin, Burnin , Etc. on Wildlife 
...........  0d  "and -Cove r....Plants 
On November 8 Taylor conferred with Dr. S. R. Warner of the 
Sam Houston State Teachers College, Huntsville, and Dr. Frederic E. 
Clements of the Carnegie Institution of  'Wshington, relative to Dr. 
Warner's plans for the future work on the project in Walker County. 
Project No. 398 -I- The Attwater Prairie Chicken 
Lehmann found that November coveys ( observed in Colorado 
County), averaging about 12 birds each, favor weedy areas, seemingly 
because of the food available there,  An adult male prairie chicken 
collected in northeastern Coloredo County on Novcmber 3 had fed almost 
exclusively on the seeds of perennial regwec4 ( Ambrosia psilo.;L-achnya);

it weighed 874 grems. 
From 10,000 to 12,000 ducks, mostly Mallards and pintails, 
were noted on 20,000 acres of prairie ch>hen territory on November 2.

Less than 1/5 that number was observed ".n the same area in 1936. 

0,  ,  .          ?          ---. v      .. , 
-           C> 
F l..- 

Dear Professor Trippensee: 
can't add anything to Leopold's list of references 
on cover requiements of sage grouue, but here are a few 
more on prairie chicken and sharp-tail. You probably know 
most of" them, but here they are -- 
7erahmann, V. 77., 1939 "Th H'eath lien of 
, exas Game, i'sh, an Oyster Co=., 3ul. 1. 
He will have an even more detailed account in a paper 
which will Le the next North American F auna. Verne '. 
Davison has a very good ms report (1935) "'The :esser PC 
in Oklahoma". lenitt, 'udolph, 1939, "Some agricultural 
characteristics of the li.iri PC range", Trans. 4th N. 
Amer. wildlife Conf. Leopold's "Game Survey" I of course. 
T have some more on the treater PC which has nt been 
worked up yet (not in =y theais), which is no help. 
Yeatter,    E.9 19379 "A PC management program for Illinois" 
Ill. Conser-ation, md-winter issue. 
Sh   -al: Snyder, L.L., "A study of the sharp-tailed 
rCuse"7ontrib. L.oyal Ont. Mu.. of Zool.,     .aumgartnert 
F. 1, 939, "Studies on t e distribdtion and habits of 
the ST grouse in Michiganl"l, Trans. 4th N. Am. "ildlife 
Conf. "arshall, '".H., and M. S. Jensen, 1937,' inter and 
sring studies of the ST-grouse in Utah", Jour. "'ildlife 
Mt v., vol.1, pp 87-W. Johnson, CJ-.  (can't rmemier the 
title), -ilson aul., vol. 41, p. 37, . 
These are listed in no good order, and contain varying 
amounts of data on cover; I hope that they will be of 
some use, however. If you know of any others, will you let 
me know? 
ay I have a separate of your paper "The developent 
of state forests in New -ngland in relation to forestry" 
(Jour. Forestry, 1937)? 1'1d appreciate anything else 
published outside of the Jour. w'ildlife Mt., Auk "ilson 
Tu., Jour.  1amalov, "cology, or Trans. 1 "'"ildlife 
Conferences. Thank you very much. 
F,.  . Burtrom Jr., 

Portion of report pertaining to sharp- 
tail grouse, taken from the regular 
monthly report. 
A  e Q- 

October 16-November 15(inl.), 1937 
The following is a narrative report of the progress made on the PineS 
ject from October 16 to Novembr 15, inclusive, as submitted by 1. B. Schlatter,

Sharptailed gouse Preect: 
The banding project was ontinued at Ray Creek. the new type of lath 
trap is being used exclusively this year after experiments last year 
proved it the most satisfactory type of trap. To date, fifteen new 
birds have been banded and a total of thirty-two retakes made. A 
complete and detailed report of the aotivities at this site will be 
submitted at the close of the season. 
As two of the traps are located in a field frequented by horses, it 
has been found necessary to mcloso these traps with a pole fence to 
prevent breakage of traps and removal of bait. The fences do not af- 
fect the birds however. The traps are banked all around with un- 
threshed buckwheat vine and it was learned that the birds acquired 
the habit of approaching the trap from the rear, climbing p on the 
buckwheat straw, and eating from the bait cans without getting onto 
the drop door. Therefore, willow brush was woven into the back of 
the trap with the ends protruding over the back slightly, causing 
the birds to feed on the bait from the front and, in so doing, step 
on the trap door. 
After last year's experience in which practically every trapped bird 
roeived head injuries from the wire mesh traps, it was gratifying 
to got the following record. One morning, after a slight flurry of 
snow, thirteen birds were found in the traps. sven birds were in 
one trap-of these, not one sustained any Injury whatsoever, and after 
weighing, banding, and feather marking, were apparently as fit as 
ever. With the use of the new gram scales, accurate weight changes 
can be noted from day to day. 
Prom Big I7als8 some grouse reconnaissance work was done. Two flocks, 
number uncertain, were located in the vicinity of Center Camp. Con- 
sequently, two shelters were constructed and unthreshed buckwheat put 
into them; later self-feeding grain heppers with shelled corn will be 
Another flock of grouse was located in Sec. 21, T. 156, R. 25 and a 
shelter with feed was put there in a suitable place among available 

No Dw %* fiad a largo we of **at*, proportt.o13l 
V" tg at.,,al?  (Rp.rted JW Gros as aba   two 4WO 
POT wm ) lest ported pluie abatiou pet. 
3. elaitin btweoa stL *"UmesW "a~ beou *AM 
Are s. awptatl mssi actually sea3d, more vswftllw 
N. esting territory rlatlieashtpe, beth later- &M 
~. be w~st~sesw?    1W  broost 
7 M~ti..ase of msiv less.. (as e.*aed wit* 
aparnt wW ,ata ae*% failures wrbod qmt, I& 
theory, fer 7tmase). 

new nursery occupies ten acres and an additional fifteen acres is 
now being prepared. There is also a greenhouse for experimental cutting 
propagation work. One hundred species, approximately, are now growing 
in the nursery, including beech, maple, mulberry, hickory, willow, oak, 
yellow birch, juniper, viburnum, sumac, elder, mountain ash, sassafras, 
bittersweet, grape, green brier and arrowwood. It is later planned to 
add an aquatic food nursery along the Wisconsin River. In the future, 
it is planned to include strips of hardwood in all the conifer planta- 
tions. It is believed that this practice will be valuable from the stand-

point of insect control, fire control and for wildlife. Two thousand 
plants were shipped out this fall and it is believed that 2,000,000 
will be ready for lifting next year. Most of the cost of this nursery 
was borne by CCC funds. 
Ruhl (Mich.) Are there plans for following up this planting to 
determine results? 
Grimmer. TWle don't have all these answers now but will try to 
get them. Quite a bit of the stock being grown is for streamside plant- 
ing. Also, we will take advantage of Prof. Leopold's management areas 
in sothern isconsin. 
Elkins (Forest Service) 'What is the source of the seed? 
Grimmer. All native species were collected by the CCC boys. 
By L. E. Hicks & 
D. L. Leedy (Ohio) 
Mr. Leedy stated that the pheasant problem in Ohio was a double- 
barreled one; the problem of pheasant production and of pheasant harvest-

ing. He characterized the Ohio farmer as being very cooperative. He 
said there were a number of important factors on each of the refuges- 
the purpose, size and location, law enforcement, attitude of the people,

food and cover, control of predators and cooperation. The Ohio refuges 
are from 80 to 520 acres in size and it is believed a 2- mile strip 
around the outside is supplied with shootable birds. The extent of 
improvement needed in any one refuge depends entirely on the present 
carrying capacity. He said that law violation in the organized townships

was not serious. Out of 1500 htinterst cars that were stopped, only 
five violators were found. Mr4 Leedy also presented material on the 
comparative values of pen reared versus wild pheasants.  He said that, 
pheasants tend to stey put if liberated in areas at all  itablo. 
Discussion.                                         a)l 
A game farm man said that all pheasants were wild after libera- 
tion. Leedy said that in Ohio he saw 1,000 pheasants for 1ery Hungarian 
partridge          heasants for every quail. 
By R. E. Yeatter & 
and ditch banks were the bird nesting locations. The average clutch in 
1935 was 11.58 and in 1936, 12.98. Failures in nesting were due to de- 
sertion, predators and agricultural activities, Hatching took place in 
early June with one clutch ending in August. " census showed 190 birds

in 1935 and 120 in 1937. The young decreased as follows: In 1935, 110; 
1936, 70; 1937, 50. 
. heavy rainfall at the time of hatching may be the cause of the 
decrease in 1936 and 1937. Twenty-eight birds were collected in the 
field. Tapeworms were found in 10 of the young birds. There were five 
species of tapeworms, three of which were new to science. Sixteen of 
the birds also had roundworms. External parasites which were conmion 
were lice and mites. 
man from Illinois stated that 35 nests had been recovered from 
fields which were about to be plowed under. The eggs were hatched arti- 
ficially and 46 birds were hatched. Of these 19 survived to maturity 
and there still are 18 of the birds in captivity. 
Leopold (U'isconsin) Professor Leopold made some remarks regarding 
the value of food patches for upland gSme. lie said that to be perfect, 
a food patch should have the following qualities. (1) It should be a 
fall bait to draw the birds to the right area. (2) It should contain 
some very palatable foods aid other less palatable foods which will be 
reserved until later in the winter. (3) It should have value to song 
birds. (4) Game foods should be able to stand up against snow. In 
order to check on the value of food patches, stomach examinations are 
necessary as well as observational data. Corn was found to be the best 
all around food. Artichokes were also readily taken by the pheasants. 
GRLY SQUIRREL STUDIES I OHIO                      By Chapman, Ohio 
1r. Chapman said that there had been big decrease in squirrel 
population in Ohio from 1935 to 1936 due to the fact that the food supply

did not last through February. Many skeletons were found in trees as 
they were cut down. He said that in general in Ohio the fox squirrel was

prevalent in the glaciated areas and gray squirrel in the unglaciated areas.

FOX SQUIRREL STUDIES IN O1IO                    By Baumgartner, Ohio 
Ir. Baumgartner reported that the fox squirrel study was just 
getting under way in Ohio nd that to date he had trapped mnd tagged 280 
squirrels. He was making collections at all seasons of the year for food

habit studies. Special problems which will receive consideration are the

effects of red squirrel, effects of pheasants, effects of pasturing on 
the fox squirrel population. lie also raiaed the question as to whether 
or not den trees were essential to fox squirrels.  ie stated that he was

finding strong indications of the cyclic phenomenon in the species. 
Extensive dataits being collected on fox squirrel by use of a card census

through the wardens and hunters. 

An historic record in 
the passing of a 
splendid bird 
Illustrated by R. Bruce Horsfall 
HE FIRST settlers to cross the Mississippi and come 
into Iowa found the flora and fauna of the great 
prairies so rich and abundant that they thought that 
there would be no end of this great storehouse. Dotting 
the landscape were thousands of sloughs, marshes and 
"pot holes." Here in the dense growth of cat-tails, bul- 
rushes and blue-flag were the ducks, and other dwellers 
of the marsh, filling the air with their lively chatter. The 
music that can come from an Iowa marsh was known only 
to those sturdy pioneers. Vast acres of blazing-star, prairie 
clover and purple cone flowers nodded gaily in the breeze. 
On the uplands the long prairie grasses bowed before the 
wind and waved like billows on a vast ocean. "Prairie 
pigeons," golden plovers, were plentiful, and wafted on 
the summer breeze came the sweet soft call of the upland 
plover and the louder call of the long-billed curlew. 
There was life everywhere. 
The bird of the upland prairie that filled the larder of 
many a hungry pioneer family was the prairie chicken. 
They were here in countless thousands. Their weird 
"booming" indicated that spring had come, and with it 
the mating time for the chickens. The males would then 
select an open spot on the prairie where they would go 
through their strutting and courtship antics while the 
coy females looked on from the nearby bunches of prairie 
grass. This booming, like the tolling of a deep-toned bell, 
resounded over the prairies everywhere. 
With the coming of the railroad in Iowa, telegraph 
wires were strung like a web across the state, and many 
chickens were killed by flying against this new and strange 
obstruction. The section men working on the railroad 
could always find a plentiful supply of fresh meat by 
picking up the chickens along the tracks under the wires. 
My father, being one of the early pioneers of Boone 
County, in central Iowa, used to enjoy telling me of the 
incidents that occurred then, and one of these stories 
concerned the last organized prairie chicken hunt in our 
county. My old friend W. H. Crooks of Boone, Iowa, is 
342 Nature Magazine, December, 1937 
now the only survivor who took part in that great hunt, 
and recently I stood at his bedside in the Boone Hospital 
and listened to the same story that my father used to tell 
me. Far too many of the stories of those days have been 
lost and forgotten, but this one should live, for it deals 
with the prairie chicken, the greatest of all upland game 
birds. It also portrays what Iowa was, and what Iowa is today. 
In those early pioneer days, there was a great deal of 
rivalry in every community as to who was the best marks- 
man and the best hunter. Every man and boy aspired to 
be the best shot in the county, and they had plenty of 
practice as there was an abundance of all kinds of game. 
It was a custom each fall to have an organized chicken 
hunt. The two best hunters would "choose up sides" and 
the losing side would have to give a banquet at the leading 
hotel for the winners. This was a great event of the year 
and one always anticipated with much enthusiasm. 
Boonesboro was then the county seat. The small village 
of Montana, near by, was later destined to become Boone 
and the present county seat. My father worked in a har- 
ness shop in Boonesboro from 1870 to 1874. When he 
later told me these fascinating stories during my boyhood 
days in Ogden, Iowa, he did not tell me the exact date 
of the last hunt but said that it was sometime during 
those four years. I asked Mr. Crooks at the hospital and 
he said, "The date on the gravestone of Gene Soule out 
in the cemetery will settle that." I drove to the cemetery, 
and after searching for some time finally found an old, 
weather-beaten marker on which the dates were barely 
legible. Dimly I read-"Born June 2 1849-Died Aug 
15 1872." 
This twenty-three-year-old Eugene Soule, commonly 
called "Gene," was the local gunsmith in Boonesboro, and 
was also considered one of the best shots in the county. 
He was accordingly chosen as captain of one side. Each 
side had an equal number of hunters and the hunt was 
to last three days. They assembled near the old court house 
and scores of people were out to see them start and to 

wish them success. Father watched 
them from the front door of the 
I--                -MU~a    te 
e~ocLmat  harness snuop as they 
started, four or five loads in each 
party. They used spring wagons, 
three-seated buggies and single 
Mr. Crooks, being then but 
twelve years of age, was too young 
to be a member of the hunting 
party, but by consistent begging he 
was finally allowed to go as the 
driver of one of the rigs. Young 
"Willie" Crooks was much elated, 
for his father was one of the hunt- 
ers and he wanted to "go with 
Dad" to see him shoot chickens. 
Their party drove southwest of 
Boonesboro, across the Des Moines 
River to Marcy and the surround-   FOR THREE DAYS 
ing townships just south of what       CHICKENS. TO 
is now Ogden. The other party 
went northwest from Boonesboro, also crossing the Des 
Moines River, and hunted up in the northwest part of 
the county. 
It was a happy, jovial group of hunters and dogs that 
started on that morning of August 13, 1872, each bent 
on killing the greater number of chickens. If there hap- 
pened to be a farm house on a section they would go 
in at that corner of the farm and would hunt right through 
that section. "Willie" Crooks would then drive the team 
around the section and meet the hunters after they had 
crossed the farm. The whirr of wings and the rapid shots 
were music to the ears of the men and boys. The dogs 
were all trained retrievers and few birds were lost. At 
night they would stay either at some farm house, or 
sleep in the hay loft of a barn. 
For three days-the hunt continued. There seemed to be 
no end of chickens. Gene Soule had a "brown hunting 
dog" that was a good one, and Gene, being a good shot, 
got plenty of birds. 
Late in the afternoon of the third day the parties began 
to return to the old Occidental Hotel in Boonesboro where 
the banquet was to be held. One by one the wagons filled 
with men and dogs and chickens arrived. The chickens 
were counted and a careful record was kept of them all. 
The last load to arrive was the one containing Gene 
Soule and his "brown hunting dog." The awaiting crowd 
was tense with excitement for the kill of Gene Soule and 
his party decided the winners. With loaded gun in hand, 
he sprang from the light wagon, and placing his firearm 
against the wheel, he called to the nearest group asking 
how many chickens they had shot. After hearing their 
reply he loudly shouted. "That's nothing. I shot fifty- 
five myself." 
As he did so, he slapped his hand on his thigh with a 
resounding smack. His dog, still in the wagon, thinking 
that he was being called, leaped toward his master and 
landed on the loaded gun against the side of the wheel. 
The gun was discharged into the side of Gene's face and 
he fell, a victim of the two things that he loved the best- 
his own gun and his "brown hunting dog." He was 
carried to the Occidental Hotel where he died. Suffice 
it to say there was no banquet there that night. 
My father, standing across the street in the doorway 
of the harness shop, was a witness of the scene, as was 
also Willie Crooks. A total of about fifteen-hundred 
chickens were shot by both parties in this three-day hunt, 
and these were now given away to the citizens of Boones- 
boro. The men dispersed and there never was another 
organized chicken hunt in Boone County. In fact even 
single individual hunters were scarce for some time after 
this tragic hunt. 
During the sixty-five years that have passed since that 
day, great changes have taken place in central Iowa. The 
prairies of waving tall grass have been broken and now 
one sees little but endless miles of waving cornfields. 
With the passing of the prairie grass we have also wit- 
nessed the passing of the prairie chicken. No more do we 
hear the booming in the springtime or the whirr of 
wings in the autumn. The passing of this great upland 
bird from Iowa has been a tragedy. Where once fifteen 
hundred could be killed in a single hunt, now not a 
single nesting pair can be found. 
As I knelt in the deep snow of the cemetery, trying to 
read the inscription on the gravestone of Gene Soule, I 
wondered whether some day there might not be others 
kneeling before a monument somewhere, reading the date 
of the death of the last prairie chicken. I am afraid that 
that date is not far off. 

December 1, '93y 
University of Wisconsin 
Banding Returns - Report No.l 
(a) Wild Birds Released in Place 
Band Number Sbecies 
Dlat e 
Dat e 
B671606 us 
B671566 us 
B671506 us 
235853 us 
235859 US 
235860 US 
303344 US 
303345 us 
303-47 US 
303350 US 
456978 US 
A626609 US 
A626610 US 
A695914 us 
A695953 US 
Pheas at,  2-26-35 
rouse ,F 
Pheasant,M  2-4-37 
Pheasantj    2-4-37 
PheasantM. 2-4-37 
Pheasant ,F. 2-4-37 
hawk J 
hawk J 
hawk J 
hawk J 
hawk J 
hawk J 
hawk J 
Faville Grove 
Faville Grove 
Faville Grove 
Faville Grove 
10-25-35 Arboretum 
5-15-30   Verona 
5-17-30   Denzer 
5-2-31    Middleton 
5-2-31    Middleton 
5-2-31    Middleton 
5-12-31   Baraboo 
' 7-3-31    Bear Bluff, 
Jacksrnn Co. 
" 7-18-34   Cranmoor Twp., 
Wood Co. 
Ladysmi th 
Faville Gr. 
Faville Gr. 
2-5-37      (raptor 
11-15-35    Green lake 
10-13-36    Green Bay 
2-14-31     Hopkins Co., 
1-31-31     Eunica,La. 
100 m!. 
30 yds 
1/4  :. 
1/2 mi-. 
Pries a and,Wis. 
Wonewoc ,Wis. 
Coloma ,Wis. 
DeKalb Co.,T1l. 
Mineral Springs, 
12-10-32   Jackson Co.,Miss. 
12-25-30    Elgin,Tex. 
11-5-30    Rayne,La. 
8-21-30    Downs,Kan. 
12-5-30    Branch,La. 
2-11-31     Santa Rosa,Tex. 
10-2-31    MerseMo. 
8-22-31     Lowry,Minn. 
(found dead) 
10-31-31    Cassoday,Kan. 
9-30-34     Lindsey,Neb. 
Band ITumber St)ecies  Date 

Banding Report No. 1 
(b) Wild Birds Moved 
Band Number 
recovered Distance 
37-7o4804 us 
37-7o4so6 us 
B671554 us 
B671558 US 
Pheasant ,M 
I)diarc iF 
5-4-37      North Leeds 
to Madison 
5-4-37      North Leeds 
to Madison 
1-1)4-37    Madison to 
Fish Hatchery 
1-15-37     Madison to 
1-15-37     Madison to 
1-9-37      Madison to 
1-15-37     Madison to 
1-9-37      Madison to 
1-23-37     Madison to 
Faville Gr. 
1-23-37     Madison to 
Faville Gr. 
1-23-37     Madison to 
Faville Gr. 
1-24-37     Madison to 
Faville Gr. 
10-25-34    Madison to 
10-25-34   Madison to 
4-19-37      ? 
4-8-37     Fennimore 
7-7-37     Fennimore 
3-12-37    Nakoma 
3-19-37    Fennimore 
4-6-37     Arboretum 
2-9-37     Faville 
10-34-37   Faville 
3-18-37    (found 
5-20-37    (found 
10-19-35   L.Puck- 
12-25-35   Found 
8 mi. 
10 mi. 
2j mi. 
1 mi 
1- mi. 
* mi. 
1* mi. 
2/3 mi. 
(c) Artificially Reared Birds 
Band Number 
A626604 Us 
34-702382 us 
recovered Distance 
(Many artificially reared pheasants banded in 1937 are being returned. They
be covered in Report No. 2.) 

Activity Report, Texas Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, January, 1938

Project No. 398 -I    The Attweter Prairie Chicken 
Spending Jonuary 27 through January 29 in Coloradc% 
County, Lehmann found that booming began on January 26, or 17 days 
earlier than in 1937 when the first courtship activity was noted 
on February 12. Hens, however, are still in their winter flocks 
or packs. Marsh hawks are worrying the chickens a great deal,f 
especially the males on the courtship grounds. 
First draft of the manuscript,"The Attwatcr Prairie 
Chidken, Its Status, Hebits, Limiting Factors, and Management," is 
completed. Lehmann concludes that the Attwater prairie chicken 
population of Texas in 1937 was approximately 8,088 birds as revealed 
by rope counts of sample areas aggregating 30,933 acres, Over half 
the entire Attwater prairie chicken population, or 4,242 birds, are 
listed in Refugi* County. 
Booming began in January or early February; is completed 
in late May. The normal clutch is 12 eggs and hatching occurs in 
23ff days, although re-nesting following predation is evidently frequent,

nevertheless, the size of the annual crop of young chickens depends 
largely on the fate of the first nesting attempt. 
Mortality is heavy among young birds, especially during 
the first month. Lost chicks, or young separated from broods, are 
thought to incur a large part of this loss. The food of the young 
chicken is 77% animal matter and 22% vegetable materiel; adults 
diet is 14% animal and 86% vegetable. Grasshoppers of three species 
and Acanthus ( Ruellia sp.), perennial ragweed, and buttonweed 
(Diodia teres), are favorite foods. 
Flocking begins in October. Flocks increase in size from 
October through January. Chickens segregate into flocks or pack. 
according to sex. Well-marked shifting or "shuffling" of terricorire

occurs in May and September. 
Limiting factors of importance are excessive rainfall 
during the nesting season, floods caused by heavy rains "upstate",

hail, fall storms, drouth, the encroachment of mesquite and other 
brush on what was once open prairie, agriculture ( especially rice 
farming), fire, heavy grazing, hunting, oil development, drainage 
enterprises, poisoning of cotton with arsenic compounds, pasture 
mowing, and a misfit open hunting season which legalized hunting 
at a time when the birds are most vulnerable to killing. So-called 
"vermin" are considered to be of negligible importance; for 12
the size of the annual crop of young chickens has been negatively 
correlated with the amount of precipitation in May. 
Ideal conditions for chickens obtain in moderately grazed 
grassland where ridges or knolls are frequent and supplies of surface 
water are available, each not more than 1 mile removed from the other 
in summer. 
The prairie chicken should be accorded increased protection 
against illegal hunting, especially during the spring and during the 
open duck season. Food Pnd cover should be improved. The annual kill, 
if and when it is biologically justified, should be based on quarterly 
counts made in March, July, and December. When sufficient stocks of 
birds have been built up, an open season can again be allowed. 
Such open season should be in NOVEMBER, not in September. In any 
event, no open season should be permitted when the rainfall in May 
is excessive, 

Activities Report, Texas Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, 
College Station, Texas. April, 1939 
Project No. 394 - A Survey of the Wildlife Resources of Walker 
County, Texas 
Taylor did some work on the Walker County manuscript during 
the months of March and April. 
Project No. 394 - A   A Survey of the Vildlife Resources of Kerr 
County, Texas 
Taylor visited Tarleton F. Smith in Kerrville March 24-25. 
Project No. 394 - B   A Survey of the Wildlife Resources of 
Colorado County, Texas 
Taylor spent March 30 - April 1 with Lehmann, Siegler, and 
Waddell in Colorado County. A number of sites for quail plots were 
examined on Vance Duncants Ranch, and observations made of great-tailed 
grackles and deer. Under effective protection by State Game Warden 
T. T. Waddell of Eagle Lake, deer have substantially increased in the 
county. Twenty were seen in one morning. On a later occasion 35 deer 
were seen in an hour and a quarter. 
Lehmann and Siegler report the following findings from 
Colorado County: 
Six pastures totaling 1,617 acres contained 2,090 birds and 
rabbits, or 1.29 individuals per a-', when censused by rope counts from 
April 15 through April 23. There were 48 Attwater prairie chickens, 
VC           4 bobwhites, 36 mourning doves, 8 mottled ducks, 39 upland plovers,

41 golden plovers, 5 greater yellow legs, 8 killdeers, 21 knerican 
pipits, 243 meadow larks, 39 red-winged blackbirds, 11 cowbirds, 5 
great-t~iled grackles, 1 nighthawk, 4 ATrerican bitterns, 3 marsh hrwks,

4 short-eared owls, 119 jprck rabbits and 2 cottontails, 1,449 sparrows 
( vesper, savannah, chipping, field and grasshopper), in the counted area.

Nests and adult small birds in exposed situations were destroyed 
by a rain fall of about 6.5 inches which occurred from April 24 through 
April 26. Old rice levies in the Egypt section, Wharton County, retarded

run-off; accumulated water flooded out the nesting prairie chickens, 
meadowlarks, rails and other ground nesters. One yellow-breasted chat, 
1 yellow warbler, 1 indigo bunting and 4 English sparrows, evidently 
drowned, were found on lawns in Eagle Lake on April 25. Stimulated by 
the apearance of hens which had lo   ther_, M&  mAle pririe chickens

S    ased  th e  courtship activities, and boomed from dawn to dusk on 
~~~A     p r i r -  a n   ... ..................... . 

Wisconstin Prairie Q iCkz  ~Y 
Meritt Jones, Wallace Grane, 
Fed for svjimer 1929 an  1930, Scli 
n~ 1930.  In 1931 S b~it toolv ova: 
tment. Ployed out Janary, 1933. 
Ldt' s death Au. 7, 1935, Again 

S-169, 8.165, 5-166. Danoe  Tounds found to be permanent 
IX-14. Veber's painting of S.T, dace ground. 
52$.     Nests are periph~era1 to the dance grond. (Qhick 
40O nets studed by Gross 4 Solnidi, 1929 and 193 
* 'c nests studied by $chmidt later, 
'nests studied by Hameistrou, 1936 an     1937. 
)(gat ion and     Rai, Trpig& a 
X--      What is konabout moveents (revision of Schmidt 
JasedL on b~fnis as follows: 
Bobmidt              275           681 
Haertrom                            L(  5 
_. Hawkins                              0 

Pr. Chicken folder 
Re: Raising young prairie chickens in captivity 
424 University Yarm Place 
Juano 1, 1938 
Mr. Harold Shine 
State xperimental Game & Fr Farm 
Poynette, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Shine: 
Rochbaum tells me that yon are raising some young prairie chickens 
and are interested in learning about proper feed for your birds. Here is

what I have on the subject. 
In a paper by Milton B. Trautman, Charles . Walker and Raymond 
H. King entitled "Recent bperimental Work with Upland Game Birds in
reprinted from Proceedings of the 27th Convention of International Association

of Game, Fish and Conservation Commissioners, 1933, they say: 
"There were reeived at the Urbana Game Farm in the middle of "arch,

a gift from the Wisconsin Conservation Department, five pairs of pinnated

grouse in excellent condition. These were confined in a wintering pen by

Mr. Tom Nash, Chief of the Bureau of Game Propagation, until April 20, when

they were placed in a 100 foot by 400 foot enclosure in an isolated corner

of the gme farm. The site was an old blue-grass pAsture at the edge of an

open oak-hickory wod*s There were a few small trees in the en, and several

brush viles were erected for shelter. The pen was visited once daily. The

birds refused to eat a laying mash and consequently were fed only scratch
"Betwmen y 16 and June 6, twenty-five aggs were secured from these 
five p irs of birds. Three nests were built which yielded five, eigt and

nine eggs, respectively while three other aggs were dropped on the ground
from any nest. These eggs were set in three lots und er bantam hens, and

twenty-two or 98 per cent of the *es hatched. An examination of the remaining

three eggs showed that two were partly developed and only one was infertile.

this seems a surprisingly high fertility for es obtained from wild birds
"Our experience with these cicks parallels that of Mr. Grimer In 
many respects, although we used different methods of brooding and a different

diet. All of the chicks were placed in electric brooders of the Colmn type.

During the first two weeks a temperature of 10OF. was maintained under the

cover. This was gradually lowered, and during the fifth and sixth weeks the

artificial heat was disoontinued. The food schedule was similar to th-t used

for the ruffed grouse. The chicks were started on lettuce in olabbered milk

and egg yolk dried in growing mash. Clean fly larvae were offered from the

third day on. The mash was changed gradually after the first week to include

whole egg, biscuit meal and growing mash. Tomatoes and various berries xnd

frits were added during the fourth week, and were eaten greedily. 
"Considerable difficulty was ex-perienced in getting the chicks 
started, eleven dying during the first two weeks with no sMtoms other then


e-maciation. Once stArted, however, thebirds ate well and grew rapidly. 
Clabber was not consued in such quantities ms by the ruffed g"ouse.
fly larvae were eaten with great avidity, and as long as these were supplied

in quantity the mash was also eaten. Our birds, like Mr. Grimmer's, were

exceedingly tame, During the sixth week, the males began to go throug their

courtship dance." 
.  . .   #              , #  .  .  #  . V  #  .  9.  . b  #  .  .  *    .
  0   0 
"JVuing from the experience of Mr. Grimmer in Wisconsin, as well 
as from our own, we conclude that there are two outstanding obstacles to
overcome before the pinnated grouse can be propagated on a practical scale.

One is the laok of a satisfactory starting dint and the other, enteritis....

It appears that no brooders have yet been designed which are onteritl-proof.0

Charles 0. Handle  ("aising Prairie Chickens in   ativity,' Trans. 
21st American CGae Conference, 1935) tried for several years to raise prairie

chickens from eggs hatched on a game farm, ad found great difficulty in 
getting the chicks to eat. Ftnally he used a diet of clabbered whole milk

with fresh finely chopped grpens as a starting ration, with good success.

Grit was provided rfglarly.At four weos, 4       1small amount of Coleman's
mash was mixed with the clabber. and at six weeks a mixture of quail mash

and grain, with an occasional feed of ground raw peanuts, was given in addition

to clabbered milk and greens. 
Dan Ramey, superintendent of the Kansas State Quail Farm ("nd Now! 
the Prairie Chicken," Game Breeder & Sportsman, JsiuAry, 1935) had
raised 10 
birds by 1935. The chicks were handled exactly as young quail in a colony

brooder. For the first six das they received four feeds of moist mash, g

yolk, gzd finely chopped lettuce daily. Dry mash was kept before them all

the time. Mash was mixed according to Game Conservation Institute Formula
Several birds were lost during the six days, consequently grasshoppers were

added to the diet and losses stopped. At five weeks the birds were moved
rearing pens, grasshoppers were discontinued, mixed mash and chopped lettuce

were fed twice daily. At 10 weeks the feedings were cut to one per day and

dry mash and scratch was kept before them all the time.  In a second lot
same system was followed U*a commercial turkey grower was substituted for

the B-32 mash. In this paper he speaks of contining the work and says that

a detailed record will be mblished of it. I do not have a copy of this 
later record and don*t kn6w for sure that It has been published. It would
well to write directly to Namoy for it. 
Leonard Wing, in a note in The Condor for July, 1935, entitled 0On 
the Drinking Habits of Gallinaceous Young," found that drops of water
at the 
end of a small pipette were far more sucessful in getting young chicks to

drink than pans of water; In fact, the chicks did not seem to recognise water

in pans as anything of interest. 
The only other thing we have is Harry Johnson's "Wisconsin Prairie 
Chicken Propagation 7-,xpriment" (ame Breeder, February, 1932), with
you are doubtless familiar. 
I hope you hbave very Mod luck raising your birds. 
Sincerely yours, 
F. N. Mameretrom Jr. 

Sagamore Farm 
Paradise, Utah 
July 6, 1936 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
I want to thank you for writing a letter of reco :mandation to 
Mr. lucker in Texas. I greatly appreciate all you have( done for me. 
The positions in Texas were filled bi men with ex ,erience in the st! te.

I am 'njoying my work here very much. I idade an extensivw survey 
the sharftail grouse dancing grounds during April and May. I located 
the majority of the grounds in the northern part of the state. After 
I became acquainted with the habits of the birds it was much easier to 
II to locate their mating places. The majority of the jrourids were 
located on the top of the hig hest hills in the rangLt . The males make 
enoug< h noise to be heard for half a mile on a clear morning. 
At the preient ti ae I am viorking on my nesting study. Tie 
majority of the nests had hatched b".fore the alfalfa hay ,as cut this

year and nest mortality is not serious. I found 4 nests and Z broods 
in a 6 acre alfalfa-weed field---rather high density isn't it? The 
thin stands of alfalfa make good nesting cover it seems ad are 
preferred to diense stands. IncidEmtly, I found one clutch of 17 eggs. 
Have you ever found this many eg s in a clutclr of a prairie shartail? 
I am very much encouraged by the interest the farmers are taking- 
in the sharltcil ,rouse in this section. It seems that many of them 
had almost forgotten the. 1irds after the season v. s closed soAe 20 
years ago. Several of the fariers became kenly interested in the 
dance of the grouse when I told them about it. One fellow had "rounded

up" his milk cows each morning during May without seeing the dance 
and there r, a, dancingaround in his pasture. he said that he had 
heard a noise but didn' kno' what it was. Another farmer watcne. 
the grouse dance from a blind constructed on his land. I have had good 
cooperation from the land oeners in m- n' sting study. 
I almost imagined I ye s in the Mid le-West this eek because of the 
weather. It has rained every day for te        eek. I sup lose you crf 
awarc that it seldom rains here during the su-hmer months except for a 
few thunder showers. The country is green and beautiful this year anid 
the crops are very god.  e had the coolest July 4th that I can remember 
when the therometer droped to 35! le haven',t had any frost since the 
middle of May so this must have been a freak storm. 
I trust that everything is goin , alo g nicely at the T"offi 0'. 
I would be very much intereoted to learn of the pheasant conditions on the

University farms. Did you find much corn damage this year? Did Don et 
many returns on his marked birds? 

Sagamore Farm 
Paradise, Utah 
iy second youngecst brother is leaving tomorrow for New York City 
and he wil sail July lA th for Belguim and France. lie will act as a 
missionary for the "Mormon" church for the next three years in
countries. This is a great opportunity for study and development and 
we are al. hap y that he is able to go. In the ".ormor" church
is no paid clergy--the members donate their services to the c lurch. 1"lly

brother, li e oth r "M10ormon" missionaries, xill be supiported
by us (his 
folks) while he 'L the field and he ,ill take i, some vocation after he 
returns home. He g-raduated from college last month. 
I , urely :njoyed my last ti.o visits b your home nd I a &nt to 
a ain express ty  a reci'Aion for thc very cordial en tertinment. I 
wish I could spend some more evenings L it you al . 
I haven' t herd from Dou- for som cize.  hat is he C oin  this summer? 
I suppose he carried on nr lother extensive ;lti  ro ram mi  l rt 
coin ty. 
In ce you :re Able to come out i.est this su ir 
to entert in you here. I iould enjoy very c.ucl to 
of tae r nge. i suppose you are going to 1e 
occupied in  isconsin but xe "oeld velcome a visit from 
could come est. 
ell, I must visit Jith y brother   fre   lea 1 
close. Kindly e'tend            i rst ishes to  rs. Leopol J   a 
and tell Vivitx  sJ t- ,nj" lio for te. 
e st %ish   Jo        j i1"L. t  "u er vac'tion  criod. 
do 0 Iy  1IS 
i1 you 
your   fly, 


The following credit line must be print ur- 
der each reproduction of this photograph: 
WisCOnsi      Conservation      Dept. 
After it has beens used, please return promptly 
to:       DepartMent 
WisCoflsin   Conservation 
State Capitol 
Madison, Wisconsin 

1  24 University Pan Place 
Division of Game Mtember 6, 193 
Dr. R4olf Benmitt 
Wildlife Conservation uildin 
University of Missouri 
Columbia, Missour 
Dear Rudolf: 
I am answering your prairie chicken cioular by number as folloI 
(1) The chicka density immediately previous to closure was very 
variable. In a couple of countis the maxim probably ran as high as a bUrd

per four acres. The avera   was doubtless moc lower, The peak of the high

came in 1932. I wculd estimate the decrease between 1932 and 1935 as between

70 and 90 per cent. 
(2) No. 
(3) The reported kill as published by the Conservation Department 
was as follows (prairie chicken and sbarptalled grouse): 
1931 -  36,453 
1932 - 123, 012 
193- 14o,o9 
Nw-     7T2,039 
1935-   33,476 
(4) Ye, beuse birds were gettin    scarce. This was not becuse of 
huntig and probably not because of land use chnes, but rather beoause of
cycle. It may, however, have been augmeted by land use changes. Some heavy

peat fires in 1931 were temorarily favorable to chiokens in Indu ing a big
crop. These burns subsequently grw up to willows. which tended to exclude

(5) Closure is necessary during the low of the cycle. 
(6) Tes. 
(7) Too broad a question to be satisfactorily presented by letter. 
Yours sincerely, 
Aldo Leopold 
vProfessor of Game Management 

IN REPY RIEFR TO                                                   WLDUFE
September 23, 1938                      SOLUMBIA, MD- 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo:- 
We are seeking some infornmtion about prairie chickens in connec- 
tion with the work I have been doing this year. I am writing to you 
because I do not know anybody in the Conservation Department and because

you probably know more about the situation than anyone else there. If 
there are any of the questions below that you cannot answer, please say 
so and I will write to Mr. Grimmer or anyone else you may suggest. 
I note that in 1934 Wisconsin had an open season in 35 counties 
from September 29 to October 7 and in 10 counties from September 29 to 
October 2, the season being closed in the rest of the state. 
(1) Can you give me the approximate population density 
in the counties that had the heaviest stand of chickens at 
the time the season was closed? 
(2) Have you a rough estimate of the total population 
in Wisconsin at that time? 
(3) Are there any figures showing the annual legal kill 
at that time? 
(4) I presume the season was closed because the birds 
were getting scarce. Was this because of the hunting or 
because of land use changes in Wisconsin? 
(5) Is there any evidence that closure has increased 
the chicken population or are Wisconsin increases or decreases 
to be attributed to other factors? 
(6) Was it found that placing the chicken season at a 
time by itself resulted in any undue influx of hunters into 
the prairie chicken range? 
(7) Were there any particular administrative or enforce- 
ment problems that we in Missouri ought to know about should 
our prairie chicken season ever be reopened? 

Professor Leopold                -2-                September 23, 1938 
I should appreciate very much any information you can give me. 
Hope to see you at Columbus. 
With best -wishes, 
Sincerely yours, 
Radolf Be itt, Collaborator 
RB aw                             Chairman, Administrative Committee 

REGISTRATION AND EDUCATION                                            JOHN
SPRINGFIELD                                                  GEOLOGY    
November 1, 1938 
Dr, Rudolf Bennitt, Chairman 
Administrative Committees 
Missouri Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit 
Columbus, Missouri 
Dear Bennitt: 
Dr. Frison handed me your letter regarding the status of prairie 
chickens in Illinois same time ago. I have hesitated to answer, hoping I

could get together more information on some of the points you bring up. What

I have obtained is rather meager, but I will try to give some kind of answer

to your questions. 
1. The two enclosed maps give the best information we have on 
the distribution in 1929 and at present. The earlier map is based largely

on Leopold's manuscript on "A Game Census of Illinois" (1929) which
he loaned 
me some time ago.  The 1938 map brings together our present records. 
2. The closed season first became effective in 1933. My belief 
is that population densities in 1932 were about the same as now, although

somewhat lower than in 1935 (populations have declined somewhat sine6 1935

because of renewed agricultural activities in the best range). The average

of the best areas is probably about 40 per square mile in the fall. This

refers only to the occupied range and not to whole counties, as the distri-

bution is spotty even in the best counties. 
3. I believe the total population was slightly higher six or 
seven years ago than it is now, because some of the range in the central

highly cultivated counties has since been lost and the northeastern counties

have lost some colonies and others apparently are now reduced to small remants.

4. Dr. Thompson estimates the annual kill at that time at less 
than 50 per year. My guess is that it was somewhat higher, probably 300 to

500 per year. 
5. Reduction in range and in numbers was undoubtedly chiefly 
because of continuous intensive cultivation and grazing. Disappearance of

birds in some of the highly cultivated counties apparently has been gradual,


Dr. Rudolph Bennitt - 2 
sometimes not taking place until a few years after agriculture and grazing

had reached their peak. Undoubtedly in the Chicago area hunting was a 
rather important factor. 
Even in the best range in the south-central part of the state, 
numbers had been reduced up to about 1930 by fairly intensive agriculture.

Possibly about 10 per cent of the land was out of cultivation in 1930, and

by 1935 this had raised to 20 per cent. 
6. Chickens increased and extended their range during the 
depression years up to 1935 in the south and have declined somewhat since

1936, when farmers began to plow up their idle land. They continued to 
decline steadily in the black soil counties in spite of the closed season.

I doubt that the closed season has had much effect except in helping to pre-

serve some of the remants in the northern part of the state. 
7. Perhaps 5000 in the southern range and 800 in the whole 
northern part of the state. 
8. I am confidant there has been some reduction. 
9. Illinois has had a late upland game season for about 15 
years.  I could not learn the circumstances of its adoption. To facilitate

enforcement, I believe the Department aims to have the seasons of as many

upland game species as possible start at the same time. I do not know that

the fact that young chickens would be warier in November than September was

especially considered. 
10. The chief enforeement difficulties were in the areas fre- 
quented by Chicago hunters, where rabbit hunters shoot someprairie chickens

in winter every year. The same is true in the coal mining districts. There

is still poaching of young birds in August by farmers in the southern areas.

Public opinion is usually against this, however, and it apparently is not
serious drain. 
I hope this will be of some use to you. If I can be of any 
further assistance, please let me know. With best wishes, 
Yours sincerely, 
R. E. Yeatter 
November 1, 1938 

(14181) 14.Wi~~c 

J--ap A"" p                e. .2 

(14181) 1.44. 95 

ff 38 

Division of Wllife Maguien 
421"T UmvenityT rams Plac 
Noivember 5, 193 
state Natural History 8urve Division 
U'rbaaa, 1lh1Aose 
Pgur Uh 
I appreiate your oondig me a "pr of the 
yrairzie chicken maps for 1929 and 1939. Hamer~sto 
will be mob intereted In thoe and I will ox.h13. 
preserve them as a rooord. 
I hope toseeyunet month. 
Pr'ofess.or of 'Wildlife Mammt 

III, Wildlife Resources of Second-growth Pine 
Taylor and Davis finished the editing of Lay's "Relations 
of Bobwhite Quail to Second-growth Pine Woodland in Walker County, Texas".

The manuscript is now in the Washington office of the Biological Survey 
for further editing. 
Lehmann spent October 19 at College Station where he and 
Taylor cooperated with the editorial committee of the Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station in work on a paper on "Pasture Improvement in the Gulf

Coastal Prairie of Texas" by R. H. Stansel, E. B. Reynolds, and J. H.

Jones. It was pointed out that this paper, devoted to an exposition of 
the advantages of pasture mowing, should take into account the important

wildlife resources of the coastal prairies, including bobwhite quail, 
Attwater prairie chickpea, shorebirds, waterfowl, and fur animals. 
Editorial work was completed on a part of Lehmann's manuscript 
on the Attwater prairie chicken. 
The fall census of Attwater prairie chickens in Colorado County 
that was begun by Lahmann and Smith on August 20 was completed by Lehmann

and Baker on October 7. The "rope count' census method was employed

throughout the study. 
Attwater Prairie Chicken Census, Colorado County, Texas - 1938 
Locality     Area inhabited  '   Area   ' Number   ' Density     Est. 
by  chickens     censused   of birds               pop 
Bernard       14,670 acres       4766 a.      138    1-34.5 a.    425 
Bucksnag                      ..    .   . 
Prairie       19,470 acres       4879 a.       33    1-147.8 a.   131 
Total      ' 34,140 acres       9645 a. '    171   '           ' 556* 
..  Estimated total population of Attwater prairie chicken in Colorado 
A flexible steel cable 1 of an inch in diameter and 100 yards 
long was found to be excellent for prairie chicken counting because it is

much stronger and easier to drag than a rope. 
About October 20, chickens began to congregate in "packs" ac- 
cording to sex but singles and small groups still are common. 

carries very far, and you get fooled twice if you start 
walking towards the sound. 
When we are far enough in the woods, Hupi is given 
the word that he is free to go-and he is off like a flash. 
These dogs are not trained along the same lines as our 
bird dogs here, because "pointing" the bird in the dense 
woods would be useless. In the first place, the Black 
cock is very shy of man, and you could very seldom come 
within range. And, if you did get close enough, your 
shooting would not be easy, because the Black cock 
starts off low and fast and puts the nearest tree in be- 
tween himself and the hunter. It is an old saying in these 
parts that, "the crow is a wise bird, but it takes seven 
crows to outsmart one Black cock." 
For the above reasons we let the dog run at will and 
he covers miles of ground while the hunters walk slowly 
or sit down to wait for the signal from the dog. When the 
dog finds the bird he rushes it, and the Black cock al- 
ways makes for the nearest tree when rushed by the dog. 
ButIt, if the intruder is man, then he flys away like a shot. 
He seems to know that dogs do not climb trees, but that 
a man has a gun and the tree is not a safe place to go 
when a man is in sight. 
When a bird is treed Hupi stays under the tree and 
starts barking in short, sharp yips. That' is the signal 
for us that Hupi has done his part and it is up to us 
to start doing ours. We proceed first at a fast walk until 
we get glimpses of Hupi. From there on utmost caution 
must be maintained, because the bird is watching Hupi 
and amusing himself at the dog's helplessness, making 
sounds like laughter and chuckling at him-but, at the 
same time, he is keeping his eye on the surroundings and 
if he spots the man he is off at once. 
That is why only one of us goes on from here, and 
Michigan Attempts To Spread Sharptails 
SHARPTAIL grouse are now being trapped in five 
'  different areas in the Michigan upper peninsula, 
some for banding and release and others for transplant- 
ing to new ranges. This is the second winter of the con- 
servation department's attempt to spread the sharptail 
over a wider area in Michigan and the schedule calls 
for the planting of about 50' birds in the Fletcher settle- 
ment area in Kalkaska county and about 30 to 40 in the 
Pigeon river forest. 
About 20 birds were planted in the Pigeon river area 
last winter. The trapping operations are being carried 
on at scattered points in the upper peninsula. Tentative 
plans call for the planting of sharptails next year in the 
Molasses river area. 
So far as is known the sharptail grouse has never in- 
habited lower Michigan. In the upper peninsula, this 
bird has ranged chiefly in the western half, but appears 
to be spreading east. Some birds were planted around 
Trout lake and a number have been seen in that area 
since this year's hunting season. 
Sharptails also have been sighted in the Pigeon river 
area since this year's hunting season and the continued. 
presence of the birds in these areas is regarded by game 
workers as encouraging to the hope of establishing the 
bird in new ranges in the state. 
The preferred habitat for sharptails provides large, 
grassy openings, or areas with a light stand of hardwood 
second growth, this type of cover being something of a 
compromise between that which is most suitable for the 
ruffed grouse and the prairie chicken. 
Rare Bighorn Gets Protection 
TOROWEAP VALLEY, part of Grand Canyon Na- 
.....  a Tn aMnniiment-.. Ar;zonn  ,. mpn  f t   fp . . . . . 

Extraot from Activities Report 
Oominssion, Div. of Res. & Zdx 
Phil Goolrum, ft-_ervisor, MM 
Ten quail shelters have s 
Hawkins Nstate in Matagorda ec 
by the Manager, Jim Lewis, an 
chickens wereroleased on the 
become established. 

Pr. Chicken folder 
424 Univetity Farm Place 
Division of Wldlife    mma  t                             vaist 14. 1939

Dr. Ifwrence M. Maku 
Ohio Wildlife Research Station 
Ohio State Un-ivesity 
Coumbus Ohio 
Denr 14wre1 
I would rWpreciate it yer m     if you ul  have one of 
your man give me the fures abut the prairie chicen m shatail 
platings which have suceeded in Ohio. r would like to file this 
Information In r  species folders. All I noed is year eM date of 
plantin, place a m        , orign of stock,    idenoe of suwvivl, 
Raneretros will be ,,articularly iaterest.4 in the new 
that these pantings hae met with succes, so I = sein his a 
*opy of this letter. 
Qlfallan told me that n dancing gro      for the s*apW  s 
ha been located despite the fact that tqV r~nge over only three 
fas.    Do yo  sspect that these birds are matin   withot bving a 
definite daing gro    ? If so, this information would beof ver 
reat inteest to     mwstnu. who has beega to suspect that not all 
matings take place on reglar grond. 
I enjoed4 meeting you and you  grop, 
With personal regrd$, 
Sincerely louis, 
Ald Lo"ld 
Go HamrstroxProfessor of widlife )bagsAt 

PC - ST 
Letter from hr. ". T. Cox, Feb. 13, 1940: 
"No doubt you are aware that sharp-tails flocked up 
strongly this winter and a eared in large numbers far south 
of their winter range4 s      This was especially true in 
western I       a eisota an eastern South Dakota." 
"... but while prairie chickens nest in that territory" 
(Wilton, Minn.) "to some extent it would appear that they move 
out for the winter. At least I note that only sharp-tails were 
trapped by Mr. Virtue."   (Virtue babded 63 ST) 
"... I made a number of trips through the upper Minnesota 
Valley counties and the counties immediately north of that 
territory this fall and winter and found the usual coneentra- 
tion of pinnates in their favorite wintering grounds. There were 
more than 100 in each of several places. 
"It would be fine if some organization, possiblelthe State 
Conservation Department, could arrange to trap and ba!Rd pinnates 
next fall and winter in trte following counties in Minnesota: 
Pope, Swift, Stevens, Grant, Ottertail, Lincoln and Pipestone." 

Game Bird Study In 
Northern Peninsula Scheduled 
p LANS are nearing completion to station 
an  experienced  ornithologist in  the 
northern peninsula to carry out an extensive 
investigation  of sharp-tailed  grouse and 
prairie 'chickens. This is one of five new re- 
search projects which are being set up as 
part of the Pittman-Robertson Federal Aid 
to Wildlife Restoration Program in Michi- 
The leader of this project has not yet been 
announced but the game division expects to 
have a man on the job this month. Headquar- 
ters for the project will probably be set up 
at the Cusino experiment station, but the 
work will extend over considerable areas 
throughout the northern peninsula. 
The primary objectives of this project as 
submitted and approved by the Bureau of 
Biological Survey are as follows: 
a. To work out the geological distribution 
and range of both species. 
b. To locate the principal centers of 
abundance of both species. 
c. To find out how prairie chickens and 
sharp-tails affect each other in areas 
where their ranges over-lap. 
prairie chicken country and good sharp- 
tail country. It is also well known 
that prairie chickens and sharp-tails 
are not generally found in good ruffed 
grouse cover. It seems likely that 
through a period of years, an area may 
change sufficiently due to growing up of 
brush or trees to transform it from a 
prairie chicken habitat to a sharp-tail 
habitat. It is the game division's idea 
to study the rate of these changes and 
their significance with respect to up- 
land game birds. 
g. To set up experiments concerned with 
the  management of sharp-tail and 
prairie chicken range in an attempt to 
find keys to a practical management 
d. To find out as much as possible about 
individual range and habits of both 
species throughout the year. 
e. To determine what factors in the en- 
vironment are responsible for limiting 
the numbers of these birds. Factors to 
be considered here are: weather, fire, 
accidents, predation, and hunting. 
f. To find out how natural changes in the 
kind and condition of forest growth 
affect sharp-tails and prairie chickens. 
It is generally recognized that there is 
a  marked   difference  between  good 


rile: Sharptail Grousew 
Dane County 
Hamers trom 
Now that the sharptail grouse remnants at Blue Mounds have 
definitely disappeared, I asked Prof. J. G. Dickson to give me the 
principl facts for record purposes. 
He first saw the birds in 1932, at which time there was a 
considerable flock (he does not remember the number) which had a 
booming ground and raised young that year. The birds were last seen 
in the spring of 1935, at which time there were only 5. By 1936 
they had disappeared and they have not been seen since. 
The exact number seen in 1932 and the dates seen are probably 
of record in Mr. Dickson's notebooks, but he hasnot looked them up. 
Ruffed grouse are now very abundant on the area, he says. 
LI  aq ( q,,A.L. 

424t~nvsri&l', Pas  ao 
,100 Teit. N.!. 
Dea Johns 
The ptr*ofths1 Mi#t 
Now moxi to 
1000 or 1 *so 
a tow 
*  mpt thi4mieg hrnkge It h si.ll. has   ft sO&O 
Noo~  hs *, vto  ocet  ta,,Ohc  hs  wo gahethestwoes 
Robrtofla  ,ivi.nt the WAsQ.or* s toi s o *a t ur*a* t 
befoo, .vm~ #*Ynowhavebtmmuse to stil4*  w euo orsap1 
rooord with yvu this -nr*oaftous 
Inforowtion rmwhing so 

17. II. 4O o     'Y 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
College of Agriculture 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wis. 
Dear Dr. Leopold, 
I believe you have recently been having some corres- 
pondenee with titblado of Winnipeg concerning the possible banding of 
chicken in Manitoba. As you know, I have been directly interested in 
chicken (and rabbit) cycles for many years and attempted to get a 
trained pathologist attached to this University over the last cycle 
and crashto work on nothing else. I had to raise the cash for salary 
myself one way or another and didn't then succeed, but the prospects 
for the present cycle look a great deal more promising. If we get 
such a fellow established here, extensive banding of chicken is on our 
slate. Some successful trapping has already been done, but more infor- 
mation on traps would be useful and if you could send us any useful 
suggestions, they would be much appreciated. I hope, if we get a path- 
ologist solely for the purpose, that he will be able to cover Saskat- 
chewan and Manitoba also to some extent. 
It might interest you to know that the first pinnated grouse 
since the last crash 
to return to Alberta i hoi(we never have more than isolated colonies 
on some of the larger lakes during the breeding season), showed up 
last summer. Alberta boasts the northernmost record for the continent 
for these birds, I believe, at Lao la Biohe, procured during the peak 
of 1925. 
Yours sincerely, 

424 University yam Plae 
rebruary 24, 190# 
Prof. Wtllim Bon 
Dearwtant of ZoOlOe 
University of Alberta 
Mmontonz, Alberta 
Dear Professor besnt 
I am =joh pleased to hear from yf  agai and to kNOW 
of the prospect of some banding work on sharptanl ad pinnate 
under your d1reetion. 
I am pleased to send you   r trapping 55528  (which 
Is out of dat) and the recent lsao of the ne" letter of the 
Lake States Baing Ooperativ*. This Issue describes most of 
the recent ImproTents in trapping toohaiqo.      ugest that 
If you run into  nags, you correspond directly with 1. 1. Usrstrom, 
Jr., Plainfield, Wisconsin* who is aw head man on chicken studios 
and techniques. 
t m mch interested to hear of the pulsating northern 
boundar of pinnate, and I wish sometime you would sketch rouhly 
on an outline ap the maxima and minium bow-dary during the last 
high and low of the cycle. I could sake good use of this in classes. 
Mr. Oeninam      onc, promised to get It for me, but was unable 
disentangle the evidence. 
I am sending you eamsrtrom'e resent publications on 
Sincerely yours# 
Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Manegment 

Departmen~t of -Wildlif'e' Mariagem~nt 
Aldo teop'old *'''''' 
.Prairie Chiclren an 
A 10 ill    as reoorted to Consevation rwoartment 
Oi-jjjt.jpq                 In j0tI()* 
X  Tn()-n 'R(omnqnts r)-P Proirl,, CbIr-l-r. 

by Glen Vleuaieyer 
In the Logan Gounty Area and In Holt, Brown, Aok 
a-nd 4eya Paim Counties 
(Taken foma Outdoor Nebraska, Winter, 1941) 
There has ben an upturn in the prairie ohioken po tlatin 
of the nebraska sandhIll region. This specie that had 
reiu4. in n   er that it was In grave dger of extinotion hae 
inres.4 to the point wre extinction ie unliel, Iis possible 
that, with a otInuatlon of te present favorable breeing cn- 
litions, this bird   y again beoe     eDZrosu enough 'to take Its 
rightfti plas as ag#.e bird. 
Me past %hree breeding have Increased the chicken 
population of tm 4       County area 300 per cent. Rpoorts of 
flo ks of 50 to 200 bir s are frequent along the 'outh Lup River 
and on the tablelan4 to the south.   It appeare that the estluate. 
30" per cent Inreose may be low when a reasonably acerate census 
Is taken. 
In April and June, 19M, I spent three wees In Hiolt, iRik 
and brown oountoe, drivin   ,I approi:aely 1,200 miles tnruh the 
range 1&a. During %his trip I kept a record of the birds teen 
and counted 63 ohkens and 9 shar    tAile gr    se 
In the fall of 1940 (October l6tA to NoveAber 27th), serving 
as a   nservation offieer with the Game,  ~oestatlon and iarke 
Commission and travel  about 2,500 miles In the above   rea and 
In vestern Keya PaM County, I saw an estimpted 1,500 chiekens 
and 1,000 grouse. 
I believe thls estimate to b% fairly aceurate. Many of tbe 
flocks were so large that we found It lmossible to make aeurate 
counts. In keeping my reoovis I at no tUie oounted bivs seen 
In territory that we at prevlously patrolled for fear of 
-1uplicating records. 
T   heaviest po-,ulation appear  to be In western Leya Paba 
County, where on 'ovember let, 1 counted a43 ohiokens and 89 grouse. 
I believe that there  as been a 400 per cent inease In this 
area since 1965. Farmoer, ranchers and sportamen are aVreed that 
there has b-en a greAt Increase in the nuIber of ahikene en 
rouse.       amen give estates rang     from 300 to 1,00) per cent. 
In c   aing the 1936 figures with those of 194, a number of 
things must be taken Into ooa1sderation. 
sh eason of te -,ounts. 

In 1936 the count was made In late April and In June, after 
the bi: winter flooks had broken up and Many of the birds were 
nesting and were spread out over the terrty, while in 1940 
the birds bad flooked for the winter, 
The 193  count was made while traveling alone In a car driven 
at a fairly high rate of speed. I undoubtedly passed numbers of 
birds without seeing them. 
The 1940 enunt was wade from a car driven at a low rate of 
speed by Coneervation Offleer W. J.  eller of Atkinson, giving -e 
* betvor op+ortunity to make observations as woel as the help of 
The dltanee traveled and amount of terltory ooviee4 vas 
mueh greeter tian In the 195 count. 
In the gan County area I have been able to make very few 
observations, having bren absent mush of the time. During the 
week of November 10th we were In Logan County.  I-any of the road* 
were blocked wli snow and trfvel oonfined to the mai  odps. 
A g         r of birds were seen. hwever, converaations with 
hunters who were In Vte fleld during iheasant seazon Indlcate 
a cdeeled Increase. These reports, with the data collected by 
me during the past three yfears, ferm the basis of my estimate 
of Inresase. I betieve that the cause of Inerease oan be 
attributed to one ,a#or factor and probably one or more secondary 
Thes, : ange Proga practice of "D)ef erred 1Orazlng' has been of 
major isprtanoe. This progrpa has each year e@sablshed arseas 
with  ufficient vegetative growth to pTrvide nesting cover for 
the chickens and grouse. 
I   rtant secondary factors have been eIasons favorable for 
rallnKyoun  bi1rds and an abundane of foodL. 
WITH T   OOI    TI0 OF A   P      Thk!   RVIfl SJITARIX 
O*V  Tiff i1 RA(W OOUT|Y WIIIE)U  IT, I B1-7    )O0MK. 

A ~   <'~Winter 1941 
Vol. XVI Number 1 
By Glenn Viehaeyer 
There has been an upturn in the prairie chicken ponulation of 
the Jebraeka e9Ahill region. This specie that had been so reduced 
in nLuber that it was in grave danger of extinction has increased 
to the point where extinction is unlikely. It is possible that, 
with a continuation of the present favorable breeding condlitios, 
this bird may again become numerous enough to take its rightful 
place as a game bird. 
The past three breeding seasons have increased the chicken roou- 
lation of the Logan County area 300 per cent, Renorts of flocks 
of 50 to 200 birds are frequent along the South Lou) River and on 
the tableland to the south. It anpears that the estimated 3G0 -er 
cent increase may be low when a reasonably accurate census is taken. 
In April and June, 193, I sent three weeks in olt, Rook. and 
Brown oountlee, driving approximately 1,200 miles through the range 
land. During this trip I kept a record of the birds seen and counted 
56 chickens and 9 shar-tailed grouse. 
In the fall of 1940 (October 16th to November 27th), serving as 
a conservation officer with the ae, Forestation and Parks Commis- 
ieon and traveling about 2,500 miles in the above area -'d in west- 
ern Keya  ah  County, I saw an estimated 1,500 chickens and I,000 
I believe this estimate to be ffairly accurate. Many of the 
flocks were so large that we found it Irmpossible to make accurate 
In keeping my records I at no time counted birds seen in terri- 
tory that we had previously patrolled for fear of duplicating records. 

The heaviest population appeared to be in western Keys Paha County, 
where on November 1st, I counted 33 chickens and 89 grouse* 
I believe that there has been a 400 per cent increase In this 
area since 1936. Farmers, ranchers and sportsmen are agreed that 
there has been a great Increase in the number of chickens and 
grouse. These men give estimates ranging from 300 to 1,000 per cent. 
In comparing the 1956 figures with those of 1940, a number of 
things must be taken into consideration. 
The season of the counts. 
In 19U the count was made in late April and In June, after the 
big winter flocks had broken up and many of the birds were nesting 
and were spread out over the territory, while in 1940 the birds had 
flocked for the winter. 
The 1935 count was made while traveling alone In a car driven 
at a fairly high rate of speed* I undoubtedly passed numbers of 
birds without seeing them. 
The 1940 count wvs made from a oar Oriven at a low rate of speed 
by Conservation Officer W. J. Weller of Atkinson, giving me r 
better oDportunity to make observations as well as the help of a 
second man. 
The distance traveled and amount of territory covered was much 
greater than In the 19   count. 
In the Logan County area I have been able to make very few 
observations, having been absent much of the time. During the week 
of November 10th we were in Logan County. Many of the roads 
were blocked with snow and travel confined to the main roads. A 
good number of birds were seen. 

However, conversations with hunters who were in the field during 
pheasant season Indicate a decided increase. 
These reports, with the data colleeted by me during the past 
three years, form the basis of my estimate of increase. 
I believe that tho cause of increase can be attributed to one 
major factor and probably one or more secondary factors. 
The Range Progrm practice of ODeferred Grazing" has been of 
major importance. This program has each year established areas 
with sufficient vegetative 6rorth to provide nesting cover for the 
chickens and grouse. 
Important secondary factors have been seesons favorable for 
raising young birds and an abundance of food. 
Copied: geh 

A total of eleven hens were counted out of twenty-seven 
Prairie Chickens trapped by Harold Shine on Buena Vista Marsh 
in Portage County on March 4 to 6. These birds were captured 
at a point where 50 had been observed by Shine and about 200 
were reported by local residents. As no nesting chickens are 
known to the local people at this locality, this record of sex 
on the trapped birds is of interest. 
Passenger Pigeon. Vol. III, No. 3 
March, 1941. p. 30. 

PC. I~L~~5 -~       -~~ 
~~~~ A 6~~/A' C      6.e b' R,  d Afo. J-,, 
4 7~ 
_Z  OZ~o- 
Azc Z;1x~ 

The Effect of Excessive Hunting Pressure on an Area 
of Southern Miohigan Pheasant Range 
It is not unusual for the Game Division to receive post-hunting- 
season WDoots of cook pheasants being completely #shot out* of local 
areas. Although these birds do, at times and in some places, appear 
to be quite wary and difficult to see after the elose of the hunting, 
an investigation usually reveals that sufficient cocks have escaped 
the gun to insure an adequate number of breeders in the following 
spring. Sueh studies have been by no meants intensive, but we have 
found no area where cook birds were depleted to the extent that hens 
laid sterile eggs. 
Investigations on our own, or borrowed land have now reached the 
point where sove of the effects of heavy hunting san be evaluated; and 
I wish to call attention to data for the past two hunting seasons at 
the Rose Lake Wildlife Experiment Station. 
The state land and adjoining privately owned farms, have been 
managed at a hunting cooperative, with  05 acres Included in 1939 and 
1175 acres in 1940. Tickets were issued to hunters, who filled out a 
report giving the hours hunted, animals flushed, the kill and other 
As the graph on the lantern slide shows there was 99 gun-hours 
of hunting for each 100 acres of the area in 1939. The kill was 10.8 
cook pheasants for the same unit area. A preohunting-season man-drive 
census flushed 9.8 cook birds per hundred acres on a centrally-located 
census unit of $00 ares. 
At the close of the hunting season in 1939 we felt that the Rose 
Lake land had been heavily hunted. There were suggestions by people 
in the vicinity that it had been hunted too heavily. However, field 
work during the winter and spring showed that there was a perfectly 
adequate number of cocks for breeding purposes. 

Inoreased publicity certified that the public request for hunting 
privileges would be still larger in 1940, but it was decided not to 
limit hunting. Observations during the summer and early fall showed. 
a pheasant population slightly higher than the year before, although 
in our pro-season census drive the same number of birds were flushed 
as in the praeting year. 
Hunting pressure in 1940 was 178 gun-hours per hundred acrest, or 
three-fourthe again as much as in 1939. The kill remained practically 
the eamne, being 10.2 cooks per hundred acres. 
These figures tend to substantiate an idea that had already been 
suspected from kill records obtained at the prairie farm in Saginaw 
county; namely, that there is a point of diminishing returns in the 
hunting of pheasants on such an area as this. Beyond a certain level 
it is evident that hunting was largely unrewarded. Gun pressure in 
1939 was probably more than was necessary to harvest the rop, and 
In 1940 It was probably near twice that amount. 
The Rose Lake area contains numerous marshes, swales and kettle 
holes which provide well-spaoed and effective Oescape* soverte. These 
lowlands are always difficult to hunt and the wet season of 1940 left 
them well-fitted with water. It is our belief that the harder the 
birds were hunted the more quickly they took to the heavy cover and 
that this reaction compensated for the excess gun pressure. 
From thsoe figures It is evident that hunter-success is not a 
reliable index of bird numbers in heavily hunted areas, and that the 
reports of hunters may also be conditioned more by gun-pressure than 
by actual pheasant populations. The only reliable measurement of 
populations to be derived from hunting ts the actual yield per unit 
Durvard L. Allen 
W                                           March 1, 1941 

~424 Uiversty 7&ws PI&a. 
uq 20, 19g41 
Mr. buM. Goo 
h~bk, Its*.atan 
This is Ina wrpy to yourw Iaquir~ *f "y 1~4 abot F7,ankli 
roosor   shows that he PlARsI 22 sh~wtatls in J&Mary  1933 
in &aprosimately section 5, icield Tomashlp, Ad&As 0Oaty. 
The source of this inftrmtloa ts not Indieate*d, bu~t I A. 
almost sure I gt It from Trantlin himself. 
You are right in asuan Mat Profs.*w 3chmid~t will 'b. 
iter.est.   Hone* I am sendin hm your Istkr &ad this rep47# 
His address is Dr. G. W. Schmidt, mo 2. Box 40, Staalo7, 
Your* sincerly, 
Ald la~oU 
Pmtfosor of Widlife Maagement 

-4 0 eoob 
Native Prairie Chicken Count Indicates Birds May 
Be on Decline in Northwestern Indiana 
Record of 848, Made in 1941 by Observers, Shows These Grouse Favor 
Native Prairie Growth for Habitat 
F ROM observations of native prairie chickens, 
made by employes of the Division of Fish and 
Game, operating under the Pittman-Robertson act, 
a report has been made on the 1941 observations 
of these interesting game birds, now protected by 
law. The report gives a recorded population of 
848 of these birds in Newton, Jasper, Lake and 
Pulaski Counties, and says a few of the species 
may be found also in other counties, and reports of 
others will be appreciated and such reports will be 
kept for future investigations. 
The report records 546 prairie chickens in New- 
ton County, 196 in Jasper County, 62 in Lake 
County, and 44 in Pulaski County. It is mentioned 
that there are reports of these birds in northeast- 
ern Indiana. 
The count of birds was made last spring during 
the booming season. Twenty-five booming grounds 
were located and observed. Of the twenty-five, 
thirteen were in bluegrass pasture, five were on 
native prairie grass lands, and four on winter 
wheat, two on soybean stubble and one on clover 
It is pointed out that the old Beaver Lake area 
is a favorite area for the prairie chickens, and the 
report says: "Most of the birds are located in 
Newton and Jasper Counties, which are bounded 
on the north by the Kankakee River ditch. Years 
ago a large, shallow lake covered some 50,000 acres 
in northern Newton County. When this lake was 
drained for agriculture several hundred acres were 
found to be unsuitable for farming because of poor, 
sandy soil. This area was soon covered with typi- 
cal prairie grasses and sedges and is now referred 
to as the Beaver Lake Prairie, taking its name 
from the lake that was there at one time. This 
prairie has by far the heaviest prairie chicken 
population in the state. Some of it is grazed, but 
a few sections are never grazed or farmed. The 
greatest concentration of the birds is confined to 
McClelland Township, Newton County." 
In other words, the prairie chickens, it may be, 
have moved out as the plow moved in. The chickens 
seem to stand pasture land but do not do so well 
when the land is plowed. Yet, in the spring, the 
birds are often seen on plowed ground. 
The report says: "The prairie chicken at one 
time inhabited all of Jasper County, but since the 
prairie areas have been cultivated for crops, these 
birds have been gradually fading out of the picture 
as a native species. There remain a few widely 
scattered flocks in this county." 
"A few small flocks of prairie chickens are in 
Lake and Pulaski Counties," says the report. 
"Reports were also received from Benton and 
Warren Counties, but so far these reports have not 
yet been verified by the observers. No doubt the 
birds were found there a few years ago and in all 
probability they are still there, being greatly 
reduced in number." 
The report then tells some interesting facts 
about the nature of the prairie chicken. Among 
facts related are the following: They began gath- 
ering on the booming grounds late in March, grad- 
ually started booming. Booming was at its height 
the two middle weeks of April. Booming activity 
then declined, the last of the birds still gathering in 
very small numbers on May 20 late in the after- 
noon. No sharp-tailed grouse were seen on the 
booming grounds though the species has been 
stocked. Booming started between 4:00 and 7:30 
a. m. and was also observed from 5:00 p. m. till 
dark. More activity was shown by the birds in the 
morning than in the evening. The largest number 
of birds seen on a booming ground was twenty- 
eight, the lowest, four. All booming grounds were 
in the open; none near brush or woods. The crop 
of one dead bird found was examined and showed 
it had fed almost entirely on soybeans. 
Referring again to the Beaver Lake area, the 
report says: "The major concentration of the pres- 
ent existing prairie chicken population is in the old 
Beaver Lake Prairie. This is the largest remnant 
of typical prairie vegetation which exists in the 
state. Dominant plants are big bluestem, little 
bluestem, switch grass and spike gayflower." 
The report shows faithfully the facts as found 
in 1941. Further investigations undoubtedly will 
give additional information, and it is hoped-but 
without too much confidence-that the prairie 
chicken population is larger than the report shows. 
From left to right, these turtle hunters are Chet Elliott, 
Francis Ballinger, Ernest Clark, Norman Cortright and 
Art Cortright of Hartford City. The turtles, weighing 22 
pounds for the largest, with three 121/2-pounders and two 
7-pounders, were caught in Big Lick in Blackford County. 
OUTDOOR INDIANA        ::  Page Thirteen 

712~, 9 
Pc A 04,   ..L 
~'d 4 ofCX..I IVC 

ThoughRAR1 itOW ison o  te potir gm bidofnrh 
Rtciggthepaii         &idko usall     sticks faW2   *loss to xxft 
m.)aU 1, Dm~gas,    wunthlo4.t, nrrs thAt of A boming 
-ruvs   loated, TO wer vdtin~   n mil of cltivAe fields# 52 
wr within a qmwt?"r-ile 2 wer      on ealtivat4d field4s 6a two 
Another belief anisdb ? th. mlys is tbth prdrl. ahinken 
prefes   for oen sitos forbmfe rud.The-nreso ' 
sit,, we" iasq, onl     A few bru4 words wvew. Of the 04 sit...* 3?

wre    a x nll or bill; only 11v we onow, vt g     .ud 
Cawsing of pvslit   ohc-in by observing their atinr d 
on the boming gronds In stin     In ann   ie  oe of the mest 
Velunbsekns of kespig tva* of these birds. Her thnw 500 
wer  .b..r~ an the sits ov4red by tho Investigtion. 

MURRELL L. BUCKNER, CHAIRMAN                                            
                        DEE DAVENPORT 
                      MI OSSION 
D.K. MARTIN                    AME     FISH           OYSTER            
SAN ANTONIO                                  AND                 COMMISSION
G. F. STEWART                                                           
                        T. S. REED 
JUNCTION                                      AUSTIN, TEXAS             
AUSTIN                                      AUSTIN 
200 S., gain St. 
Shamrock, Texas. 
August 26, 1942. 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
University of Wisconsin 
tadison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Aldo: 
You ask what news; well there is little to report from this part 
of Texas that will be new to you. However since otr mimeographed quarterly
report has been discontinued for the duration you may not be up to date on

our chicken work. The )ast month we have been trying our best to trap broods

for restocking purposes, to establish sex ratios, and to band for research

purposes. We have had little success, for two moist seasons in sequence have

given us so much ground cover in large shinnery pastures that PC broods are

not coming to the mottes for shade. The weather has been rather cool. seldomo

over 90 degrees, and that simply is not hot enough to put the chickens in

the mottes. They do use them a little for dusting and loafing but will not

stick In them while a trap is set% up. It looks therefore as though we will
V : 
have to rely on winter trapping to get our birds. 
Our nesting study fell below expectation as we found only thirteen nests
over 350 miles with the blitzbar. I figure we did not miss many nests since

all nesting cover on our ten section project area was covered three times

during the season with the bar. Also, we would find more broods now had we

missed any appreciable number of successful nests. We had a male breeding

population of 298 cock birds on the ten sections and normally one could expect

at least 100 nesting hens. In early April the project was acci6ently burned

over denuding close to 90 percent of nesting c :ver. The remaining ten percent

was distributed over the area in patches large enough to accomodate many
nests than were found. rNy best guess is that the females pulled out for

neighboring unburned pastures to nest, and several landowners near by reported

a big influx of chickens at the time our area burned. We tried to check on

this by barring neighboring pastures but apparently did not get far enough

away from home to pick up vagrant hens. 
-y the end of the nesting season we had made improvements to the blitzbar

and now believe that it is nearly foolproof and will flush almost every nesting

hen it goes over. I have some better pictures that 1 will send along sion.

Lest you get the impression from previous pictures that our project area
smooth as a golf course, 1 will tell you that it is plenty rough, and if
saddle muscles are not in good shape you would not be able to take a full
on the observers seat. I lost fifteen pounds during the nesting season as
result of the jouncing, hence can recomrend the treatment to anyone interested

in reducing but will not guarentee it to be painless. Nine of our thirteen

nests were successful, & this includes one nest of infettile eggs (supposedly

infertile as did not hatch in six weeks incubating). 

Starker and family came through Shamrack a few days ago and it was my bad
to miss them. They stopped at our house just a few minutes after my departure

with Stokley Ligon . Have been camping with him the ast week and have become

much better acquainted, and needless to say like him very much. 
Our knife maker is still at Alanreed, and 1 am trying now to get him to finish

up an order for Roy Case before he has to go to the army. Will send you another

blade when he gets them finished. Lot me know whether a horn handle will
do or 
do you prefer to make your own. T may be in the army myself before ahother
as 1 recently received notice from the War Department that nV former commission

may be restored. [kost of my Lubbock friends are already in, especially those
Texas Tech College. There is 1 presume a good bit of difference in feeling
the war in different States. Out here we all expect to be in it one way or
before another year regardless of develoomentt in the immediate future. 

2    niversity arm Plaoe 
Mr. 7. L     ersto, Jr. 
Ewin S. Gorge Rerve 
Pinok. Michiga 
Dear Raam: 
Profeseor IskelLa Mdels whom you ma     remember " "b1n~r 
M3W, tells   o that Mrs. Archie Ward, who on a farm in 
Arpea, Wisconsin, Wood County, bad a loae prairie chicken 
cook which boomed while stsaing on her han. The two 
photogrphs attached were taken by Mrs. Ward, an authticate 
the ocourr.o.e. Mobel persoally saw the bird perform. 
I was told that the thing starte when this lone bird 
rushed. Ms. Ward's son while he was in the field.   The 
son subsequently traine  the bird to mount the hand and 
boom. He was in no way oonfined., but simy mmde his 
appearance whenever anybody showed up. 
I take it that this represents a perversion of the booming 
Instinct# the person being in the mind of the cook another 
prairie ohioken eook thst he was booming at, Just as a 
person Is substituted for the mother bird i perversions of 
the 'foliwing instinct". 
Y   may use this instance iany way you see fit, and you 
could doubtless get additional details from Mrs. Ward. 
A third photograph is being kept in my album as no. 14I43. 
With best rord.s, 
Aldo Leopold 
oo   oldel 
p. *. f'ol, AewV 

flU. ~ 
c~7k~V '~a 
Midland Co, 'juoh of the chicken country is quite 
similar, in general appearance, to the grownup parts 
of the central Wisconsin       -- sand and marsh, oaks 
and popple, few farms* The ca   areas were a surprize, 
however, Altough we did'nt give the place a fair trial 
-- it was raining all the time we were there -- it loo&s 
like the old failiar story of a chicken rare reclaimed 
by bruh (equals too acuh fire protection) wth very few 
birds left, Eldred agrees with this diagosis, 
e stopped at ilay City to see Creec4 'ut he oould'nt 
tell us much about ghickens, fie sent us on to Standish, 
where we looked up your man Corneal (selling?), C 
sent us A place near Omr, where he said there was a sial 
remnnt flocks two miles east of Oiner to what was called 
.. Silver Gables 80 rods south, east again about a mile to 
a pine thicket., South and west of this thickeS is an odd 
formation -- looked like a shrub bog (low 
perhaps?) but on sandy soil; also a marsh east, the bed 
of Duck Lake, It was still raining, so we went on, 
On the way to Standish, the country aroimd Pinconning 
looked very likely, but Corneal said that he knew of no 
chickens to apeak of there; HeIld seen one or two, Do 
you know anything about this country? 
Froz   er we went to Prescott, I suspect that there 
Efn      a, the other  Pre scott hi~melf estLates that 
there are about 200 birds on the twP places and, if one 
*fen'arges the area somewhat to include neighboring lands, 
I suspect tt he's about right. 7e saw two flocks of 
i V"-\r I q V V, 

Donald Douglass 
p. 2 
about 30 each S  of town, both of which used both injide 
and outside of the Prescott Ranch, "e did'nt hunt on the 
1J4 farm, but it looks about the same and is considerably 
larger, The Prescott cattle business is what makes the 
chicken cover    big fields (80's and larger) of red-top, 
with some timothy and quack,  oebugas          n   lvr 
some corn; corng small gra     alfalfa and clover outside. 
I've forgotten how big his holdings are: do you remember? 
%ust be at least 4000 acres on the two places, 
The surprizing thing to us  after working in Wisconsin 
was to see a chicken range comletely independent of warsh. 
7e spent three days there, but the birds were packed 
and very wild. It wa too hard to hunt them, because they 
ranged widely enough to get off Prescott's L    into a 
bunch of small holdings -too mny per-iasions to ask 
every day. 
At -est Branch we iere told of several simll flocks 
Snearb: one about two ;iles east of town, another a few 
miles south of 55 alont  th Rifle River; one a few miles 
south of 1aple Valley (    o     CO*); one at Gel's 
Landing (ditto), 7e hunted one evening at the place 2 
miles east of town, and saw sin but only one bird; 
did'nt try the other three places a they were said to 
have very few birds, 
T forgot to say that wile we were in M'idland Co, 
we went to see Frautchi, the dog trainer, who lives about 
fv miles M." of Gladwin* Hie can hear booming in spring 
cUY from his place, but 00 had' nt found any birds in the 
neighborhood this autuw., He thought there might be some 
east of his place, about three miles east of 184' 
From  est Branch we went to hoso  on, and inquired 
at the District Office, They sent us to the smaller 
station ac-os the oad, where we were told that there 
was' rt much In the neighborhood: some sh-arptails be-,tween 
1E.oscoaan and Ljovellsq and a few chickens at Shupak Lake 
(IJJE Crawford Co. )* Otto Failing later told us that the 
ST were the birds planted near 'the dlartwick P.-ines,, and 
that the planting did' nt do very well, 
W,'e went on to Failing's, and he took us over to 
ltr Sette       nt ard showed us where to hunt, That is 
fine country --really special, but again it looks as 
though the chickens were due to be crowded out, and soon. 
It' s .harptail country nw  for the most part9 and your 
planting seems to have caught beautifully. Our largest 
count on chickens was 20, and there were many more ST. 
- e could'nt get an accurate check on either in the two 
weeks we were there. There were 7 chickens several zorning 
sitting on the booming ground at the Set      nt, and we ia 

Donald Douglass 
p. 3 
a second bunch of 7 (not the same ones) in an alfalfa field 
in see. 20; occasional singles in the thornapples in sec. 
28, where we saw the bunch of 20. Towar  the end of the 
season there was a Uxed flock of about 30 in the thorn- 
applest , prhaps    T and 18-19 PC (at least they seemed 
osplt up            e, although I can't be quite certain 
that the two oun  es really did result from a split of the 
larger one. I think so, though) plus at least 6 ST and 
probably more iL ,he thornapples and more in sec's. 21 
and 22, and probably still mo e ST near Grass Lake 
(northern !ssaukee Co.). F.,arlier in the season there was 
said to be a        a bunh of about l6 PC Just NT of 
Grass Lake, but we never found them for sure, 'e did see 
about 50  mstly ST but possibly with a few PC, at the 
extreme    corner of the Lake one morning: the ST were 
gobling in the tops of some Jack pines. 7e followed the 
sound in, flushed the birds (N) from the trees, looked 
for a dancing ground but couldnt find one. 
Found a m dancing ground with 10 ST in see. 33 
about the    (perhaps SE) of  V; we showed Failing where 
it is, 
While hunting near the Settlement, we           6 
STs all birds og the year, all males.     4L 1G, 
We went over to Ve Johannesburg area one morning 
with Twork and four others. Saw about 26 -C  none near 
enough for a shot. No marsh cover there either - 
bluegrss, timothy, and quack instead, 
7e were told of snal bunches of cs near 
Alpena and near Cheboygan, but as there V    pposedly 
few birds and as those places were so fart we did'nt go 
to look, I've also been told that there is god chicken 
hunting near Clare; on the way ho;e we inquired there 
but drew a complete blank, Do you know anything about 
it? And wat about Star City (1issaukee Co.)? There's 
some very nice looking country there. 
That about covers our trip. According to Failing 
and Twoi, we covered the best of the Lower Pdnnnula 
chicken country. If so, it looks as though the I. P had 
more small bunches of chickens than   iscri sin, but 
nothing as good ab the best isconsin country, On the 
other hand, we did'nt get into all the places shown on 
your L-booming gund map, IEldred said that he thought 
t  Iosqo Co. birds had pretty well petered out in the 
last year or two, but it looks as though we might have 
misod somethi    in S  Ogemaw Co. and in 2oscomion 
and Crawford Co  . I'm puzzled about these last two 
neither Failing nor .he Eioseo=on office knew of many 
chickens there, 

Luther L. Boumgartner                      r 
ame flivision 
Taken from Michigan Conservation              V 
February-arch, 194, - Volume XII, Number 2 
In the oourtship antios of prairie chicken and sharptaled 
grouse we can observe each spring a spectacle that matches sur- 
prislngly well the descriptions of fantastic Indian war dances 
reported by the first white men to visit this region. For orni- 
thologists today these extraordinary spring performances are more 
than a spectacle, for from them they can compute, roughly, the 
populption of these game birds In a given area. 
In early times prairie chickens lived In the virgin midwest 
prairies and sharnptalls lived along the forest edge in the west 
and northwest.   oth species became moderately aindant In this 
state after lumbering operations end repeated fires created 
extensive openings, and the epread of the sharptal3 was assisted 
by systematic Conserv-tion Department plantings. Yrairie chickens 
were found In the openings first. Shsrptalls were observed 
on Isle Royale In 1904, and they entered the western end of the 
upper peninsula between 1910 and 1916. 
Forest-Fire Affects Range 
rhe influence of fire In the distribution of these birds, 
though diffliult to evaluate precisely, has been tremendous. 
Just as lumbering and fires created much desirable habitat for 
them, so protection of the forests from fire and replanting 
openings with seedling pines took much of this desirable habitat 
away from them a.gln. heforestation plans of the Conservation 
Department now make allowance for these factors, and some openings 
are reserved from planting so the best chicken and shartail 
range will contine to furnish sport for Xichiganle bird hunters. 
While prairie chickens stay In open country and sometimes 
Invade farmland, and ruffed grouse prefer timber and brush, sharp- 
tails choose to live In an intermediate zone having some open 
area and some brush. In summer sharptails spend most of their 
time In openings where insects and seeds are plentlful -nd In 
winter they prefer lightly wooded areas in which they can find 
bude and browse to eat. To escape hardships of winter weather 
they freouently dive or dig into snow banks to roost, but In 
mild weather they often roost In trees. From 85 to 90 per cent 
of their year's diet Is vegetable mFtter, the remainder insects. 
Michlgan prairie chickens are now north of their normal 
range, which may affect them unfavorably. They probably are 
dependent upon some farm crops for successful wintering. 

Full Grown in Two Months 
GharptAils and 'chicken ordinarily do not associate with 
each other but occasionally the two apeeies will interbreed. 
The resulting offspring mal look like either parent or heve many 
characteristics of both.   ens of both specie nick out & small 
depression in the ground and line it with dry leaves or grass 
to make a nest. The average clutch contains 10 to 17 eggs which 
may be laid on conseeutive days or at intervals of one or two 
days between eggs. While soot of the eggs in successful nests 
hatch, sometimes only half the chicks live to attain adult Orie. 
4hile Incubating the eggs (21 to 24 days) the hen does not fly 
directly to or from her nest unless suflenly disturbed, but 
uses her wings only when at a safe distance of 15 to Z0 yards 
from it. The down-covered young can follow their mother within 
a few hours after being hatched, but must be brooded at night 
to protect them from dampness and chills. Hens of both speetes 
are exrert at feigning injury to lead enemies away from the brood. 
The juveniles are feathered at six weeks and fully grown when 
two months old. 
The author's first visit to a grouse dancing vround 
provided some unforgetable thrills. This dancing ground was 
a small flat area, ;bout 70 feet long and 40 feet wide, on 
which the xras  and soil had been packed flat by the feet of 
dancing birds. The watohers were in the burlsr blind at 
5:40 a.m. At 6:01 a.m. a male sharrtAl walked out on the flat 
space, followed by two moie of its kind and seven prairie chickens. 
The shabrtails showed little activity, but the prairie chickens 
danced with vigor. Hens are not frequent visitors on the dancing 
ground, though they sometimes are seen near it. 
One bird started the show by moving around in a small 
circle, with its neck outstretched and its feet striking the 
ground so Nast they could barely be seen. Other birds followed 
suit, but at Intervals, one would stop to chase another. The 
"fights" betteen the birds were seldom vicious, seem to be 
mostly blufflng. 
Booming Seard Three miles 
During the prairie chicken dance the egg-shaned orange 
height the concerted booming becomes a low roar which on a 
clear morning can be heaprd for three miles. Some of the birds 
also Jumr or flutter into the air and cackle like a domestic 
The dance of the sharptaIls differs from that of riairle 
chickens only in detail. Sharpt~ils tenl to dance in unison, 
hold their wings further from the body and rustle their tails 
as they strut. Instead of booming they emit a series of abrupt 
cooing notes. They have been seen dancing in almost every month 
of the year, thounh the height of their dancing seaon it In 
the spring. 

Populntions of both species are eubject to cyclic 
fluotuation. In 1941 hunters, who often confuse the two, 
reported takIng 2O,500 prairie eIokens and 16,000 uharp- 
tailed grouse. 

RM Ti ppm PR M  CKW IN IDIANA                          4~ 
Wm. B. Barnes, Project Leader 
Up until 1941 no detailed study was ever made of the pinnated grouse or prairie
as It is comonly called In Indiana. With the initiation of the Pittman-Robertson
life Bsasearch Program in this state, district leader, W. E. Madden took
a census of 
these birds In 19 1 and 1942, and 0. D. McKeever, the present d-strict leader,
this work in 1943. All of the information regarding the past and present
status of the 
prairie chicken in this report has been obtained from the Investigations
of these two men. 
In early pioneer days the prairie chicken could be found In Indiana in great
numbers. It 
inhabited all of the original prairie area extending as far as I0iox County
on the south 
and Steuben County on the east. As timber land was cleared this bird took
advantage of 
these openings and spread into adjoining territory. 
The report of George W. Miles, Indiana Commissioner of Fisheries and Game,
in 1912 showed 
that 28 counties reported having these birds, and that there were at least
100,000 in the 
state at that time. The shooting season had been closed since 1909 and )tr.Miles
out that this was probably the reason for the increase in the population.
The season was 
aga-in opened in 1915. It continued to be open until 1936 when it was closed
for a 5 year 
period. This did not result In any marked increase In population so this
protection was 
again renewed in 1911 for another 5 year period. 
Tbe prairie chicken was driven from Its native habitat by fire, grazing,
and cultivation. 
The practice in the early days was to burn the prairie grass in the spring,
in order to 
get rid of the dead grass and to hasten new growth. This practice was responsible
for the 
destr action of a great wan nests and resulted in a decrease in the population.
As the 
more fertile areas Vero developed for cultivation, grazing declined, but
ich of the 
original prairie grass was destroyed by the plow. The chickens retained their
range for some time, but the flocks gradually decreased In number and size.
15 square miles of the Beaver Lake area were not grazed or cultivated and
typical prairie 
vegetation took Possession of the site after drainage. The soil vas of a
fine sandy 
nature, being very low in fertility and too wet in the spring for   ,ood
grazing purposes. 
This area was later to beco the final concentration point of prairie chickens
in Indiana. 
By 191 it had been further reduced to approximately 3,000 acres. During the
past two 
years this remaining acreage has been fenced and converted Into pasture.

Efforts have also been made to establish the sbarp-tailed grouse in this
state. These 
releases consisted of 22, 5y, and 199 birds released in 1939, 1940 and 1941
All liberations were made in Newton County with the exception of one in Lake
County. All 
subsequent sight records of sharp-talls have been received frm Newton County.
one brood 
of eight was seen in 1942 as well as other reports of smaller observed nuabers.
This in- 
troduction has evidently proved to be quite unsuccessful. 
During the 1943 season 33 booming grounds werelocated in the state. These
areas were 
spread out over 9 different counties in the northwestern section of the state
with 13 
of these grounds being located in McClellan and Colfax Townships, Newton
County. All 
grounds were visited at daybreak and the total number of males, along with
any females 
that might be present were counted. Using the numer of males, it was assumed
that this 
represented 50 per cent of the total population, giving approximately 700
birds in the 
state. Compared with the 1942 estimate of 900 birds, it Is noted that a decrease
of 200 
has occurred within a one year period. 
The last remaining good habitat for Prairie chickens exists on the 3,100
acre tract owned 
by 8. N.     ig of Chigo. About 230 of the total 700 prairie chickens In
the state can 
be found on this tract. The winter population consists of about 200. The
purchase of this 
tract will not be An absolute assurance that the prairie chicken will exist
however, it will be the best step we can tak in an effort to save a reAent
of this once 
abundant gams bird. state ownership of this tract would also be effective
In the event 

adjoining acreage is purchased for vaterfowl restoration. In fact, a few
potholes on 
this tract would be good for both waterfowl and prairie chickens. 
No information is available regarding the present price that would be asked
for this 
land. It is certainly a submarginal tract; otherwise it would have been in
as the clearing costs would have been negligible. In dry years the sand blows
crops are a flllure. The present owner has fenced the area and is attempting
to graze 
It as w ll as to harvest the marsh hay. This practice has resulted in a f#duction
the cover preferred by the prairie chickens. We may expect a continued reduction
of the 
birds and possible spread to other areas that have not been favorable to
high production 
of chickens In the past. It is therefore, highly desirable that sowe action
be taken in 
public ownership, however with the acreage involved considerable tunds will
be needed for 
acquisition. This would involve the cooperation of all agencies concerned,
and in all 
probabilities a minlmm price that could be expected is 450,000 to $60,000.

In order for the Indiana Division of Fish and Game to obtain money frou Pittman-Robertson

funds it is necessary to receive prior approval of such a purchase and to
purchase this 
land in accordance with the valuation that is determined by the Federal appraisers.
appraisals have revealed an average price of approximately $19 for either
wild hay or 
second class graztig land. Second class agricultural land Is appraised at
$   per acre. Any amount paid above these prices would necessarily have to
be borne by 
the Division of Fish and Game, or ether cooperating agencies. 
The purchase of part of this property or other smaller tracts vhere the birds
are now 
present would at least be a start In the right direction, however, their
value to re- 
storation of this species would be such decreased and of questionable use.


,irch 2 . 1943. 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
University of isconsin 
D adison, Wisconsin. 
Dear M4r. Leopold: 
Am cnclosing the notes I picked up after leaving you on -.arch 
We travelled into Oneida, Forest back into Vilas along highway 
45, but the only information we could get that the deer were 
surviving in good shape, as food was sufficient, the same story 
prevailed in Iron  County 1ichigan. 
The people I spolKe to upthere regarding the dead fawns near 
Boulder Jct, refused to get excited about it, saying when a 
district is overbrowsed, the fzwns die first, it is natures way 
of keeping a balance. 
here is some additional information on the prarie chicken in 
.iilwaukee County, There are twelve chicken in flock and 
they live in an area of two blocks at Oklahoyna and rp2nd Streets 
this is four blocks froiii the Heil Body plant. The cover they 
have is a creek bank. Hate been there all winter and were there 
last week. 
When and if I receive information on the Blue Grouse, will forward 
s awe prompt ly. 
The OttEawa Tourist Association, Asa Cross,  M9n ger, Iron River 
Michigzn, is desirous of information where to get Blue Grouse for 
Kindest regards from your former student, 
Frank M. NYeu                                    '~ 
Waubesa Beach 
Oregon Wis. 

Can Save Our 
Prairie Chicken 
The picturesque prairie chicken is 
following the "Fading Trail", but 
prompt action will preserve a rem- 
nant of these grand birds in the 
Middle West, as well as a bit of his 
remaining habitat. You can play 
an important part in this program 
of preservation. 
The plow, the gun, and fire have reduced 
his numbers to a pitifully small remnant. 
To permit his total eclipse would be noth- 
ing short of a disgrace. Let's not repeat the 
history of the Passenger Pigeon, the Heath 
Hen, Carolina Parroquet and far too many 
more of our native birds and mammals. 

Excerpts From Address Delivered Before 1943 Conservation Conference 
Indiana Division, Izaak Walton League of America 
By Len Hofmann, Pres. Indiana Division 
One of Indiana's greatest birds, the prairie chicken, is going down the 'fading

trail'. It will be to our everlasting disgrace and shame if we permit the
disappearance of 
this great bird from these midwestern states. So here's a suggestion, but
first, may I quote a 
paragraph or two from 'Fading Trails', prepared by the U. S. Department of
the Interior? 
"Early homesteaders on the prairies found pinnated grouse in abundance.
They called 
them 'chickens', 'prairie chickens', or 'square tails', the last name being
used to distinguish 
them from sharp-tailed grouse. As Herbert Quick said, in 'Friends of the
" 'I grew up on ... the old prairie ... which we feared and loved, and
we saw no reason for not killing as many prairie chickens as we could, so
in winter we 
trapped them by the thousands.' 
"All the way from the western edge of the Appalachians to Colorado,
down through 
Kansas, Oklahoma, and parts of Texas and New Mexico, square tails were found
slaughtered. Particularly in the eastern sections of the range of the prairie
chickens, they 
were killed for market by the carload. 'Squealers'a... that is, birds of
the year . . . were 
particularly easy to shoot. They were choice food and were as limitless as
the vast prairies 
that stretched for miles and miles in every direction. The old, familiar
terms, so often and 
so tragically used, were applied to the prairie chickens. They were 'without
'everywhere abundant', and 'unlimited supply'. 
"The supply was limited, though, as we soon found out when the prairie
habitats were 
destroyed by the plow, and birds were shot in uncounted thousands."

The other day, when a few of us were tramping through one of our western
counties, Bill Barnes pointed out the last stand of the prairie chicken in
Indiana, the last 
concentration of any size whatsoever, an estimated mere 230 birds. And this
a bird that 
once inhabited the prairies in countless thousands! But Bill also called
attention to the most 
alarming fact of all . . . not only is this the last of the prairie chicken
habitat in Indiana, 
and the last of these wonderful birds, but even this tiny area is rapidly
being destroyed. 
This patch of original prairie grass is being grazed, and mowed for marsh
hay! Something 
must be done without delay if we are to preserve even a remnant of prairie
chicken habitat 
in Indiana. And this land is comparatively low in price.., land that probably
never would 
be turned to other uses except under the pressure of war demands. 
Here is a magnificent opportunity to perform a public service worthy of this
tion. Arthur Senior, Warren Chase, Cap Culler, Ivar Hennings and I discussed
this matter 
briefly at Elgin a few weeks ago, but never had an opportunity to go farther
than this brief 
discussion. However, we agreed that action is imperative, and Arthur Senior
was all for 
taking up the question immediately at the Illinois Division Conference. But
schedules for some of us made this impossible. 
Therefore, this suggestion: that we in the Izaak Walton League undertake,
joint action of National Headquarters, the Illinois and Indiana Divisions,
to raise a fund to 
purchase these lands, or a substantial acreage therein, and present it to
the State of Indiana 
to be maintained as a prairie chicken preserve. It could be financed by contributions
the National office, various state divisions, chapters and individuals .
. . just as the Jackson 
Hole hay lands were bought by the League years ago and presented to the Government.

Let me also point out that this is part of the land involved in the Kankakee
proposal, and will provide an anchor point at the western extremity of the
area for further 
acquisitions. Thus, we shall perform a triple service: establish a refuge
for a vanishing 
species of Indiana wildlife, preserve an area of great botanical interest
as the last of the 
original prairie grasses in Indiana, and start the program of land acquisition
in the Kan- 
kakee Basin for the benefit of all who wish to restore and preserve a portion
of one of the 
greatest and most interesting river valleys in the Nation." 

Excerpts From "Report On Prairie Chickens In Indiana" 
Wm. B. Barnes, Project Leader 
(Indiana Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Investigation Project) 
"Up until 1941 no detailed study was ever made of the pinnated grouse
or prairie chicken 
as it is commonly called in Indiana. With the initiation of the Pittman-Robertson
Research Program in this state, district leader W. E. Madden took a census
of these birds 
in 1941 and 1942, and 0. D. McKeever, the present district leader, continued
this work in 
1943. All of the information regarding the past and present status of the
prairie chicken in 
this report has been obtained from the investigations of these two men. 
"In early pioneer days the prairie chicken could be found in Indiana
in great numbers. 
It inhabited all of the original prairie area extending as far as Knox County
on the south 
and Steuben County on the east. As timber land was cleared this bird took
advantage of 
these openings and spread into adjoining territory. 
"The report of George W. Miles, Indiana Commissioner of Fisheries and
Game, in 1912 
showed that 28 counties reported having these birds, and that there were
at least 100,000 in 
the state at that time. The shooting season had been closed since 1909 and
Mr. Miles pointed 
out that this was probably the reason for the increase in the population.
The season was 
again opened in 1915. It continued to be open until 1936 when it was closed
for a 5 year 
period. This did not result in any marked increase in population so that
protection was 
again renewed in 1941 for another 5 year period. * 
"The prairie chicken was driven from its native habitat by fire, grazing,
and cultiva- 
tion. The practice in the early days was to burn the prairie grass in the
spring. * * * This 
practice was responsible for the destruction of a great many nests and resulted
in a de- 
crease in the population. As the more fertile areas were developed for cultivation,
declined, but much of the original prairie grass was destroyed by the plow.
The chickens 
retained their original range for some time, but the flocks gradually decreased
in number 
and size. Approximately 15 square miles of one western Indiana area were
not grazed or 
cultivated and typical prairie vegetation took possession of the site after
drainage. The soil 
was of a fine sandy nature, being very low in fertility and too wet in the
spring for good 
grazing purposes. This area was later to become the final concentration point
of prairie chick- 
ens in Indiana. By 1941 it has been further reduced to approximately 3,000
acres. During the 
past two years this remaining acreage has been fenced and converted into
"During the 1943 season 33 booming grounds were located in the state.
These areas 
were spread out over 9 different counties in the northwestern section of
the state with 13 of 
these grounds being located in two Townships. All grounds were visited at
daybreak and 
the total number of males, along with any females that might be present,
were counted. Using 
the number of males, it was assumed that this represented 50 per cent of
the total popula- 
tion, giving approximately 700 birds in the state. Compared with the 1942
estimate of 900 
birds it is noted that a decrease of 200 has occurred within a one year period.

"The last remaining good habitat for prairie chickens exists on about
3000 acres in west- 
ern Indiana. About 230 prairie chickens in the state can be found on this
tract. The win- 
ter population consists of about 200. The purchase of this tract will not
be an absolute 
assurance that the prairie chicken will exist indefinitely; however, it will
be the best step we 
can take in an effort to save a remnant of this once abundant game bird.
State ownership 
of this tract would also be effective in the event adjoining acreage is purchased
for water- 
fowl restoration. In fact, a few potholes on this tract would be good for
both waterfowl and 
prairie chickens. 
"... It is certainly a submarginal tract, otherwise it would have been
in cultivation, as 
the clearing costs would have been negligible. In dry years the sand blows
and crops are a 
failure. The present owners are now attempting to graze these lands as well
as harvest the 
marsh hay. This practice has resulted in a reduction in the cover preferred
by the prairie 
chickens. We may expect a continued reduction of the birds and possible spread
to other 

areas that have not been favorable to high production of chickens in the
past. It is there- 
fore highly desirable that some action be taken in public ownership; however,
with the 
acreage involved considerable funds will be needed for acquisition."

A special committee, with Arthur Senior, president of the Illinois Division
as Chairman, 
was named at the Indiana Division 1943 Conservation Conference to investigate
the pos- 
sibilities of purchasing desirable prairie chicken refuge lands. This committee
promptly de- 
veloped a plan of action. 
Every Waltonian is given an opportunity to participate through his personal
toward this most worthy accomplishment. The committee voted to raise a purchase
by subscription of League members, of interested chapters and state divisions.
Kenneth A. 
Reid, executive director of the League, is acting as treasurer of this fund.
William B. Barnes 
of the Indiana Department of Conservation and Warren W. Chase of the U. S.
Soil Conserva- 
tion Service are serving as technical advisors in the selection and purchase
of the land. 
Contributions toward this purchase fund will be acknowledged with a special
honor cer- 
tificate signed by National President Ivar Hennings and Executive Director
Ken Reid. And 
since this is a definite contribution to the educational and scientific work
of the League, all 
contributions are properly deductible in computation of federal income taxes.

The area to be acquired is of little or no agricultural value, but is: 
1-Of definite ornithological interest as the only remaining appreciable area
of prairie 
chicken habitat in Indiana. 
2-Of definite botanical interest as the largest remaining area of native
prairie grasses 
in Indiana. 
3-Of definite public interest as it is the first step toward placing the
sub-marginal lands 
of the Kankakee Basin in public ownership for the benefit of all. The Izaak
League is making the first step in this direction. 
We know that you want to have a share in this most worthwhile activity, something

you'll be proud of in years to come as you can point back and say, "I
Whether your contribution is $1.00 or $1,000.00, it will be useful. Checks
may be made 
payable to Kenneth A. Reid, Treasurer. A prepaid envelope is enclosed. 
Another Public Service of the 
.1izaak IiattonT eu'raguo uf Amerira 

Iftt40 ag4 44 
( 44  746 0110 
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WL &k   173G 
Cartwright, B. W. 
sharptail grou 
in western Ca 
predator. (I.. 
The "crash" decline in 
and Huwrian partridge 
x and the role of the 
Wildlife Conference 4-26     ) 
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tratical of V%" 1.1mirift dhAdken. 

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.4ly once coverd ohitl wtk ative buaah grasses ad asooli.44 herbaeous 
plns     During the period of pasturing and fanm, the bmh grsmos mer 
largel dQlaged by blue gras. Umvr man           of the native bunh gmasee.

still persist in~ limited quontitios throu~out the as Inluding big bluo-

s'tam  little bl-uetsu  krapostia, sovrl kinds of Psiamo *e. 
The bunch grasses retaina through Us winter *lums of deo" leave&
sewsa ad appear to make superior neetiag *ovr for ililito. 
PlantiM  Graso   an #4fliated Fields.~ --xoima   plating st 
bYveal vrss.-  an plsnm~d by the De   mmt of Conservtion, shoul1d give useftul

tafmrvtian on the use of this type *-e votation in wldlife and seil xszage-

sent, Probably, with the withd~rawal of burnln  tad gra4ng, sos   o the bunsh

grasse  now pr..U't vWill iAOrsa.*. t,ir rai~ 
I learned fr Mro Pierre c& the Urbana office *40 the V. S. soil can-

swyation Servio, that this orraetixn !its ozepr1nete with several kinds of

native banoh grasses, inolwdizig bik bluests., tnro~ofroau. small *lest41

nw preet loosily on the area. 
If seed is available these ;rasss, big bluwtm, little bluostea, 
and Indian crss, are roc.m.de4 for planting oi  the bettor soils. India 
grss produee. fair-sited needs sad appea s to be of som   iaportases as a

foed plat 

*roata um,,ba  amaioa    are two of the most e.tfint don fozr ft 
gr~wag in the *and areas of the *tat*, (IL A. Ooas The vegetation of the

Inlan *and4 deposits of fl~lizois. 111. ItatcJab, of Nat. Riot. Dal. IX (3)).

The stma  of theme plats gro rapinytb A   e sw  i pilin  up. IM $oil Con-

vervetion Urviao is reported to b* e   rwtn with switch gros onsM 
soils.  ? sume is eemw    an the tape of the inns an the Gree River

Area, ad apars to be btidig the *ad efttivly v     it aeus.   .vm 
could probably be sneomed there by planting cuttings or th# sharube t   
Prairie Chskox ha 
Aute, nesting cover, bemiag grws        A protection fros poshU4 
evo appaetly the chief roeutromte of pairto ohitkoas anthe Groa ii'e 
Ae*.  We to the xwbility of these birds gri    food patches anthe. aeas m
striotly nessew. 
NOM&Cov  .Groelea4d  I i.*h tUs past seasn Is goti aail- 
ahliv in the spiaL provides nesting ooe  .  GRovft  of bramblos, particulaly

the ...1l1 pasture rose, Ros* earelina. aMd the upland debry     Rubs tlagellAria,

imp""w nsting .amiti.mso The rose is now fairly obwdat a the Are
wilperhaps Inasea with the4aliation of posturving aMd bwuing. Dwbery 
doe not uppoa to be eaemn in this vicinity. If patshos of It o"n be
lished ft plating, this wu provIde, a profevved summer food for prairie 
ehishesep as will as oroating emw', Aa menticaed, the isoreas* of bnch 
vrasso should ale 1"rav awing er. 
BOMI! Orw  ,~x4s this loality  the flat marins of ponds a"0 
theft~itebomng rouds.     Birds have beoo& ebeervvi to emntimo Ooeving


In thme g     after hovv rin v   bft* they vero wtting in shallow

watr.   If poade am 4sp      4  it toured     *   r  possible. that the flat

are  an at least ane side of the pond be left,   Themepndeg.bmn 
ground ar e *-s  f t'he itertingj fturs of the aea. 
Zgq ?-rario ahse       A In  llits apparently do not **t buds of 
tr     an  shrubs In winter~ as extensively as do the kiohlga #M Wsm 
ehiekns  robably' sou  ootn     e   M an  plos are no  rwiqa the Grf 
*ivev Ae  to supply a soserbly larger ppltio of .hlakeas tha uAw 
*sur in that vleiaity. ?I.V* orWootawospr4                ol     tusa 
&4"to        ew-dspply for the fturse. If f*ad patehee are plated
a h 
ara  ors~k~s, te  ran*roomad4  restadngan  seeedemn, soy 
beams, feterita mad *hatlan4 milo. 
LOOe4 EMUe of gra.tie.-I the past, the prbwipal mego 
of obot  n  observed mn the Orem   River Area werei 
A.-Ievthoaat part of the Ar*a, apprxmtely the Sk of SOCt(M 7 
ad the NJ of Soatio 18. This, in wreeat years, has beon the bImot selmb~

_rudan tXe Are&,, Twlv   boemlag males were found hers in the spring
of t"  . 
B.-Ifest side of the Area, .0#prisiAg the R* ofte Wt  sqn theW, 
of the S8i of 8*9tion 19. The birds here also used part of the farlsan adjasant

to, and wst ot, the Arm. This latter for1a4 is aw wiltivste4 intensively.

No boamnag male. were found wiywhere in the vest part of the thmon Rive Area

by Nokins ad Teatter in the sprin    of19. 
It is believed esseatWa frm the stadpint of *Lesken nmamogn 
that the northeast rage (A) be kept favorabl~e for the birds. At present

this range is all grasslad ad marsh, exep    for the blowout area of the

It should be kept in gata with no busr* or plwing .xept to oontr.1 
Vrowh of wod plaat.     It is urge  that a* shruab or tro  plantings be 
*ad  la    thi  ag for 3 r~easns 
(L) 'Wod   plants will tend to sprad into, th  grass areas #-n4 
tims prosiot a problem fro& the st~p*    of presoing the grass. 
sit.. as booming grud    and 4estry astlAg. .wvr.' 
of pbq...ats to soo there by prov1~iig *rowti hear~ter for the r^19 
pheasants* Th fast that prairie .bioenm ar. threatne with exttesn 
in northern Il1acIs asie It highly desirable. that proautin be t~ to 
at.., that Is beisr awgo   prmrl     for ohiso. 
It Is bllwo that the wt baeg (B) i I"r       aaough to 
support a =al flook of ohis.eas it kept L &no, asptaly if later ftrag

bern.. loe. intsasivv on the taus, wetof Ihe *ro. 
Ralph 5. T..ttar, 
ON   speosiset 
JMMO 11,1 

Prairie Chicken file 
On September 30, 194I6, James Zimmerman saw a prairie chicken alight on 
the roof of his house at 2114 Van Hise Avenue, University Heights, 
Madison. After restdng a moment the bird moved on. He came in 
from the(v I J NW or S w)and departed in a socdh '.  a orA direction. 
Presuilably this bird was a migrant. 
Aldo Leopold 

l4brarp or               lr    atioi  Circul 
* . wj 
There are probably more Sharp -taied Grouse on the open aras of Dr 
mend Tlaand than on areas of similar size anywhere in the stat  at the present
Furthe.ore, there is still room for expansion and it em   probable that maximu

capAcitr has not yet been reache, TOz these reasona nd because information

during the hunting season is co,,jaratively to obtain, thb  sland was
as an area for intensive study of this secieso 
i report was prepared for the information of those who contributed 
information -a these birds and others who may be interested in the results
a purely tb-cnhcal point of view. 
1925      About 5000 acres of slash burned on the east end of the island
Ias ale a large fire on the Maxton PjAin    on th north part of the is 
lind about this same time or perhaps a year or t   earlier 
1931      First definite record of Pr 'e 0hickens     Two u n by conseration

Officer th -   en near Pilot  arbox  althou    some local residents 
believe the birds appeared sev< :al years earlier 
1932      Prairie Ohickens continued to increase but wer not hunted 
1933     Prairie 0hickens contPnukd to increase° Rue  aIen ,nd several
reaidents hunted them far Lhe first time They saw about ,O0. and2 
were nown to have been shot 
19314-    Large flocks of Piairi  Chicken  ser flying ove  the Detour Channel

and among the islands in Pota~nnisi~g Bay 
ff 1935      Peak of Prairie Chicken ubuni  c (ac.ording to £Em iiken

1936      Second fire on east end of iland burned over much the saui area
the firs  fire, Prairie Chicken popuiftion be innin    to decline   Lcal

residents are inclined to attribute this to the fire but it shouA'd b 
noted that there wee a general slun in arouse papulationa throuhout 
the stnte at about this time.  \ithermore, the fire was in isle July 
and early Augst when yeoung birds snould nave been nearly full gown 
k-Ial en failed to find any evidece of deed birds within the fie ar.ea 
lq37)   ?z irie thickeas continued to decline 
*This study is part of a stats, wide gruoe investigalou fiaanced. by the
Aid in Wildlife Reetoration progrrm whereby thxee qiusrt~   of the co o 
out of Federal funds and one quelrter from State fuds 

e~4l  P4 zrarl    1ckn  prbn1           )Od 03 Vli10i  useak~i  mrrty 
1942rten in Peb'Mr adMrhnr oiezood nlyoo these     , a 
re3e      rmteiln       AlO h~     id were1u  ad ithtl metal 
09 bu    15 Shrpalv ISho  durin (Znin I esn  Onl v,"krh 'IIne,  c.f:
h ~A 
bido t  ear c'e  '0oe1   wa b.d 
-%Q-rI  A.-z Ohtkn  acre  SV'pai1 mo-r- Z'bCu!dant~ sroba1blyn aou 
1946           istcnu of oa;2  cingcn  gruie'-qpri population atimated 
At.16  13apti' r-ad  (C d rIri  -'hiSher ne 
Fal1~  Atyeat 9  3z',~ls and            01rii  hcnso rma 
FSatio 1-        Prii ehckn walPolPrCire ntiie wibrmth 
nal need ay          r~m~n.Aoaetyte  re co!mplIezely gone,, for the oal eA-

I dn~ n te filof 914 thtteywer eo e present wan the, cn.. h t~i hot; 
Whaye th  asternubr       emt   a been on the decline. fcr a~ea 
year ~s'oreShaptais wre itroucedandtheycc.tiaued a  downdard trnd 
aftr tat im~  I dos at eemliklyth-t te '.icreaui.- abund3ance of the 
~~harptai ~ ~   F hdmcinleC-eo  h Prairi cn opultion for .?ralii 
suceelite ~riawii~c tif3 I~d  rmthe weser en"f the Nrhr 
Peiula  1 tFebrualry and Mrch. 1 -41  Th population has ' g-row'n rapidly
nad in 
stiLl. inraigin spite of' coatOAe opnSeasons  Acualy however,, very 
few hunvted these birds the tire*,hre ymarr to the effect was almost the,
as ii. theyv had b~e pau ce 

£  ~           ~8i' ~tI~J~t ~ J 
V                       ~1v~ LX                    A b~    Lhcd, ~'g   WL~
1   ~     n~rs t                n~  ~          u3t               ~  ~h'a
~ oi~~ b~ ~ 1~ cant a ~ U alinad ~< 
~ A~4~ i~t, ~    ~ r5~c  ~  0           nr  iL~b~ed Vc~ tb~ 
~i1i t~ j~ r~ ~iti~ ~ ~.i hu t~ ~V V ~nt~ v~ '~*~d no.1 ~o 
~Ja  p~ o~cai~ ~        f       ou. &~a~  b.  ~ 8       ~     ~tad ou
 r~ ~1t ~ 
£8 qXLiV~! ~~ib~r lh#i a t> £o 1. in~ 8 w~xw mie~ed bv~ A.

i~.    hua er~ ~    z~ort c~vu ~ ~       ~           ~ ob~a1rda~ th~   V
~   ~. tion 
(18 fd)V  (i8             Jfl I ~ 
~> r: ~1A A 
)   ~Y fl~  <0 0.) P0 ~ti(      ~2 ~oh 
~      and  'U          .io f\u'ni 
ru~t~. ~ AIII £8 l'k~)        to ~.     a 
to o ~'~in. ix~ t~ fl~e~ib. ~o ~on( o~ 
CT £~0 ~ ~3~i0t ~I8 
1~08 w   @)t~i I Va ia~1e V          Ca 
BA ~Idi1~ ~l I o~'iatLrn ~1ie~ ~j a 
ca the '~i~ber of ha~o and 1~ 
~'8 V'~1X8 we wif    /8      ~ 
:!Qt il bMcom n ~ ~ a~bl n  ray 1  0 -o  v  ibe~~ 
At             An  U  xP b 1   -a 
It 8~0UI  bo~itiZI~  Cha  tY t WnL Yt 0,  a31nion,  &L.  p~A 

$ummary of Shaptail Popiulation Data for DTemland Is1and 
Number of 
Cocks Actually 
Total No, 
of Cocks 
Total Adult                Fii 
Pop (Co!umn 2             Popuition 
plua ~1~cne~)______  (~iI  ote 
~iuinber of       Percentage 
3irdn ~            ciit~ ~opu1a 
in 5ea~on         ~   Shot 
iased on dancing grouud s not located but believed present 
Percentage obtained from fall kill and -int~ r 1ive trapping 
Calculated from age ratio of birds shot each y&    (se Table 5) 
TABL  2 
Summary of Bird Runtera& Success for Drummond I8an' 
Number of 
Ye~r     ~Recorded 
19)45       29 
Hunters Successful                    Birds Seen             Birdi Shot 
        Aiera  Th0e' 
in Be~in  at least 1 bird            Per Four of    Pr Hour of          
      of Bird  $h' 
Number        Per Cent        H__       untng__              u~izg~ 
M7 4% 
The Daily bag licit 
The daily bag limit 
in 1945 war 5; 
, 1946 was 3, 
season limi& 25. 
season limit 15, 

~r~4 ~ 
(~ i ( ___ 
- ~ 
2)     ~     :~ 
~i~)ft~ ~ 
Be ~iJ~v' 
~fflVz;~ ~ 
~t ~nd ~ 
B*r Oent 
!ow~g ~irC~ 
33 66 
0 14 
3 (3 
~2 ~ 
Days o-6'In 

~c~v~ve   a~1  ~sa~tins   adeIt rlifflac'- to 1-0-at~z 
~e  ii~ri  ~   ~    pncles,         Is V51  ~h eia.OA 
&t o!                             -lie inei~l  the o~l 
Ma              ~i     : uhai'Ptsils on  J~~~  Islanid 
2. ~~     o~ s     us planted on B3enmezr~1& 
6.'                         CA's  ~~l~~n4uo thM mairnlanI cfT.sL'e 
L~ a~e~c o?  Iz'~ chto~cne n the Soi,1harn h~ 
t~aI   a~repot~ ',5 -*d last yer 1r~itt 
t sb  d  r   e~z~eu1  rr or extina , Irt tWhifj mayt 
$~  ~, orn~tiol~~r~c~rdssty of Prairie ch'.0keze. In. 
easternMsa~k~e t    Mesay s~e e ven dei~ng grounds~ 
au~% e   Of 14his spu   observatiLon Is gl1A Tn able  most 
07 thO Old 9Tmd oheced vae looaited since 19140, a few bef~re thn,4 tie 

GA-12 5 

%Tble 1 
S   mx  of 1947 Dazaoinc Ground Observations 
3,71bor of old. faing grounds chocked In 14 
*brof old 4analng groun~ds aotlve In~ 1947 - --- 
tzla uo. of blredi fouad on danaing- Vovnds In 14 
Lower      Uppr   Zatirs' 
P~~s~aiaaPaaala state 
92         37     129 
12          9       a1 
134       243     6 
2c         12     3 
43 153 
Sharp-tafld Grouse 
Lower      Upper   - ntire 
PC~inSUI& PeziUSUU1 State 
10         41      51. 
5         32     .37 
50%TO5         72.5% 
35        325    366 
6-3        T-'    7-5 

deat~ b iv  Tminds crLto t.totlcos 
~ o  I&~tr. o ~ldo~o ~ ~    locatious, an  '0 to- ao sotet~ 
~~~~~~~~, bu  ecnpoU,   fl    Ar that the prslrie! olales oA- 
o   h ot an d1Ia ,:i,& a7La~        5 Per cent eince 191 - !Lhe 
~J~i~ ~c~s T~t heLo~~ ?niar~1 sffered a greter t1oUin  thaua .14 
Zb~tils lso Chow a decline, tat zmch lae severe, and xo'm Of 
it i   to  ~i~of dancing groml locictions nal the ds     ar      C±'

i5~*t2&~i~~~  i' ai~In the Lowger He. g     is h  Lowr 
~ ~i~n ~eeas ~e 1ime fared        crethan that In t     pe 
A--  t              '.  t sot ju~stifi1.d in view of thea  ta 
:xtG "Sben vGtn    tarted b-low the Stral'.  zti~  h  ~at 
"'he ~o      ll2 nes c-i al I lv, !he total nm~ber -f blrdls 1"

V01 ?din t  L'~ ~y, £~d ta@ a;7ra,-e w~mbars of bird; per danliz-g~t~

~~~~~1 stisly so o          on. Th large.nmsro 
D. A C            fthe i '46 and 1 l9matom 
0n o f   .priayobjeotIvos of this spzIng's survey va t 
~ l9~+Swith  ~  7 oxlato -: on the areas open aad cloe4,e to4wig 
in  he 9~b ~lan  ~ satson.  Mhe ramilts a'not t.' 
~       c~t'~for the daaIs tno mager. 
an ths fi~rst 371l,a, It tMS fit that M11 &aWR n F3~ 
~e~e ~h~ ~'in b.r~nwero~n~ ~hol4 b  einate&, since sm! l.' r s 
ti bettmsblo ra  -a'.~ P-n 'the case of singl1e birds) probly 
ddsp~'ce~  terrtoral'birds rather thanprn 
d~ci4~  o~d  ~    ~hI%   n Part A of Table 2 all dauming  n' 
~ ~o#,rbi.  (o i~o aez~~e)have been ellsinated. 
I1y      best 1c nrsons from year to year obvioav1y are 
ohs  il theszi. d, cng ronds, and w~hereas Part A (Table 2' nergisv 
M  o      p- bir i on  grO As, j  eective of their locntioas 
~5~it~ercsltsof Cali- tlosn g~r~  iahere a good observation 
~ar~obtinedin oth  oar. Ths nrrovu the results down to Afir pimirli 
ThoL~tte fo~ton loaa2.3t,- (za7;mnd IslaPA). 
In t-he case of tho prairie chickens, no conelnislons an ~xbe dm,,WA 
with re'ec    o thi effect of the diffrantal ihanting season. The*ra is 
an I  ~to     ht(judgi rg b7 tao larmr f looks) they are more &bunanmt

thtBspr      theney were last spring for tho state, as a whole. Par' A 
of Tabla 2             40iao  adoes (from 1946 to 1947?) In the popu.letion
the c eI open to hantIng, and an, Increase In the area closed Vo ktnreting

?ie ,of . seem to Indicate that surial, was better on the closod ares, 
andA the'- osme thing Is indicated In Part B,* bt based on still


Tabls 2 
Oompar1l.on of 1946 and 1941 Popuationsa oS B1oote4 DaDwing GrwwLU 
A. Avgwage 1aei. of BIrds oa all 1Dang Gr~ounds 
(M. aox Qof danZG g"- W.1! In pamanihisi) 
On area opea to buning In 1946f - 
0C,. axa cloed to IbaatIng In  96 
Over~ sn~1re state 
Pwaiwte Mek1ong                 hx'~fo 
5.0 (2)        14.0 ( 1)         11:3 (1)      9.3 (25) 
5.2 (5)         7 .0 (12)         6 0          9.3 ( 9) 
3. Aveag ftabo    of ftrds va SameLao   te           C hoked IA D~th Ym-s

On. xvc open to buVtizis In 194& 
owea 0106d too anting In 19 - 
~~A;_ _'~o  ,e' 7- e  C ooke were xaot 1-   her. " 
0600 mp  2 
Pr~d~C  oc~i~ab8rp=ta.1o Grouse 
1111.5         u. 
5,              1.0          2         65     13.51 
4          50      7.0                    170.i  11.7_ 
t4var entire Otato 

~~~rn~~ a'ip   ~ nte~~i  ~  ll 1tztt.1  A  A 
~t~X~od  ~~dso~~~i~dImaz~ (n 914) tade' birds 
o-~o conl~r1i ~  Ifti wa AlltAnd to ask 
che~ ~  ~ rjn  b~. w~--sizxin~&gr~ observai ' 
c~i~ ~? th ~: d~i~  ri~ from ear to year, 'bat aleor!hek h 
~1  ~ ~   ~~g   ~dsfor 9     Aetm of xpa4~ opaa 
b~~~~i ~ ~ ~     of  1~ d7 ioI Twd  hio r both  or 
M4iohi~mn Dapt. of OomsraL o 

Nebraska Game Notes 
Am. Field 27 (12): 268, .Mar.18 
"The reason the prairie chicken is a thing of the past 
in this country is that many years ago when there was 
plenty of prairie here the farmers would burn the old 
grass late in the sprint in order to get late grazing 
for their cattle. This was generally done just at the 
time the birds were nesting ... I know of instances 
when I have stood in one place and counted as high as 
8 or 10 nests over which fire had passed ... even the 
old birds are burned in defending their nests.., such 
has been the career of the prairie chicken for the 
past 18 yrs." 
Quails were plentiful up to last fali but they all 

froze to death last winter - have'nt seen one all 
winter. Jack rabbit alse thing ef the past. 

Pi le Wicas4n 
3zxtiw4s fro  *Th  Qmu    and 'W114 Tarkeso tb United Stqtes, &M Thi

~a~  T&     h -ZiWtzOt .0.        Dials 2"      Bull Al 1=O~ 
(Tmancusai  eav) 
Th  priishs      or 'prtwrs . cs * inhabits the    ~utr p)rt,,lrjv 
trv Matb V wrthar Toza.% &Ad Euiatm and f~m OhL to Nebraska 
Th  birds o)f ustmr ?ex... and Lwxiu4  a"   =Allor and 4Vr~r tlhnn tb

In Wu~    -pririt   1%en 7Qo.)  on the grun  In a fom1l  v~ay.   4o -*a 
th* bo~it%   but In vAte, in nian sectiae they WQ's in trees   In the 
fl *"ora coey canrsats Iz- a p~. .ftow tbo.hI         of ptamigans and

creted quail. Prof. 7. F., L. Seal Informs te writer that at A, ZoWA dxr

Igthe avrly eib    i he freqtn    found peck  nmbring amm  as a thaos' 
aMn bird, un   thbat they habitilly roosted In theLo 1W  Cv s i~id sohs.

The vrii he     is vat~ory In the nothern port of Its r zWa% nyi to4 aSttaiR

etet f-rthar ~*   also, The iill-kro~ aut~hority )i onaiiA~ mV~tha  Pro 
Cok, *V.I 
In riv~e nnd '7~eber      a   flooc-c of pw aliri ohican   e* fr=m north.

*M tow -m sotbeom~ 1w~ts to settl for the winter in %3rtirn Vi" 
o~a4 and southern,.Ti 44grtia n         ris in "trh With the .#vewtitZ
-4W 49W1 9 W9 ~40 W 4# 
The ,ativA,o  Lt vsich lhs $Ar  In h.4l bv: -e reo1Is-A lhe fac 
that A 1902 lhe ea g i at fr- m  'x Vi ',   bm~e      ,to th lbs  nd 
So roluct n   Qsi      1 Is It to- fly thA it  ardly~ be 1,4 ap, o 
Profeasor C*,r         theo lbsitear thA sava  tite ms~li humtlT,4 In nrh

Mno'ta 'no SAW a poilnt 14 ioc mta kd cs tub n lW  .ethuh   rim  rati hen

Al~~          ~ li e~m f lhe F4ntocath Oeutur lbthe rs  e  me ex reusly 
a i=I,,n thrik    ilju Oh o aM P,.tw)y  It to now rare in both states. A
ofm ls it Yas lout in thebsv ZIit ha. gl~ pt,7 a vwztv~ d and i-<~ 
nav nt.It bois fllowed the  raa flellA of the Aa nu   of the 'LIA".
wItnth b  exte.I n A :f grin orlture into MiaaoAstra aMKaltoboa it tua bs,-A

plifu  Ibero. AcorIw,1 - t r, l.atch, It us by L ntmaon a c,)n s ha the 

Rxtinets from x~rius & iWUl Turkeys of V-A U.S" 
,whte ma first mw   to MLaA&otv ande he sys t4 in Ilinois as late as
a hme    *-.s extremely luk  If he cauld b~ a dozen In a.   y   ,   yeairs
with hmw  less off.,)r . onec-al he shot 5D in a day, and there rer  moew4d
I100 to a a     In I gn 
Vw former statu of the bird in th Zast I* wel     indlcaite4 byAoA*1 
co04s.a* oab-ttAi  at Rendesan Xy., in 15110>,   uaoo-t 
In those 4ys 44wir the winter Vn QO*     wosi enter the fa. 
yar and feed with the 1.~ty allght 6n th hauuss or %9,k In tho 
w~r stinots of the IJa~s resollect "avW c~t seeal in 
a stal' at n~eadrson, whore they h;4 so A i11 Trky*.  In 
the e.uroo of the som  wlnttr, a friend4 of me.   w. f )n4 if  rC- 
tIchW rifle shoig      AI11s4 apm os f forty In )n - romtg bu 
Viskednu    of at ibo.up$ so satiated with Oros -a. he. as usll nveser 
oomer of bis fssalky. My @wn sorS!%    preferre  the fAtest "litch of

bheson to theIr fl#*, aMd not unfwsqatly 1 them taliae as unfit for 
*  *  0 Thy oosld not h^" 'been sold  ,t       Vh~ ct)   a 
a~pee. * * So mr have they b#Can Is the u.*ects of )I~ln*Lhia* 
Neiv T**,o .a4 3oatoa. * t they *all A frm ft"e to ter dal brs the pair.

So fir as the s votm;-#a is c inte.  tia prrArie 'ho  Is tww VAtlat In 
Th,w,'n its -;pertt an tie sale of the ,~rie '-,s wsc. virtuly ttope* 
Is 11,12 -1a; 1103 in U!1 the lrecities of the 1Last. 
P. 13 
3,Me1laxn Isfors the writer thA Is the farly sevest lee In usth~item 
1i~i  s the fslrr  in ianny *   1os  ~i   the pvtirlie U spwrir* afte, tht

prairie bens nesftet, ,an  ofter. t,, therr4  for houehal4 ufee 1,.rg- niwboe
 of the 
The pra.Ttirle hen hasi the idv Qt,  h~r  of yi*14i1&rA    re mdily to

4.ietisthea the boeihit, and as tr efforts 0,hould be m-a s to ,ttAbli*h

pi-*;emof 4f   t.fe      b4r~js fatr e Itockin cotty vl~  the species Is
ttInt.  Si-sesaful enterprtfes of this lciM  4   heLid t pwrfitabl*,.1% t
4,)stit~cti *n to  esi~jbi. and.i ov  feaslh1let the a"-,end. 6   ,A:tt
In from AM&bo 
7h  -inA*d Oaein asl         tv*4   .84d mza  lp t.  It 31*,1 brteds in 
Cost inato ,,   1 Mw.v Xfton felt swrleel tbr~t it has  t S te  fp-ir 
datst~icos&       -Ak 1t tndes, I  --rlmeM  listy alIve, thA vere ex-

p- ressly c,;etfor - within twelve miles. of tlb t, .84 hrnwt in
bh  lnida cross the b k-f a horse.   Icut the tips o.f thoirwirp;., and 
tarmd the   leasee In a , r  e  and oa'.rd ab u t touir ,r,.rs in extent.

1ztract% fr=   Gw0ouo & 1i14d % e of the U. S## 
P. 13 
a vee theY beer.. VmovtOht        110   0 to allowaS t  the witbiut 
their boind fr1&tena&     *   # *  In the cauim of the winter they

boctasso6Outl as tu food twos the rid4 of V aifel a" walked &ab

the grrde  like so vin lara  fowls, eImingiq ocanolow-ly with the 
£s#tia                     70hoqn ' *  *  6, sp otqrntum  they .trittedote,

ad f )Tt, a,. If in the vild4 *her they 'h 4 wIve4 Oheir birth. 
K*,ny laid   ujs r.04 a g.43o nwber of yow)un onet a mie, tlhir apram 
?mw ')e*ber to April, inclsV%  the prairie he7n takes litle1 
Vat yvet~bl* fod This element amumts to 93. '.1 pc-r cent for the 
yeet. Trk- eoaetitutss 1179 pvef.eatj leaws, flowe-rs, and sborit% 
215.,0  -mt   seeds, 14.q7 peentl grin, 31-06 rercnt, andA miseell- 
aus ve~etable material, 3-131  oarnt- 
Th prairie hen as a Ach inAor prortion     f aef.ts with the 
oe:,tinoa of) g-in, Vhan the *hb)t' .04A in thisP -agpect is loe 
useful tue. the latter bird*  It It, hiwwer, q bAttwr wede tan an 
o>ther gr-uj anIts it ei#.s In Vhis partlaiihr aio rtby ofcna 
The itomeks and crop.  tzme    In the i.veutL -I-ni~  contained 31.!06 
7*rweant if grtin. IT!'h bobAite, anot-her busy utubble; ft-e *sr, takes
Naturally the prnirie ben is na  less qzimer t-o Au4i, the-n the 
rifed vo uae, butt It haf. beeft %row   to    Vuls of poiat., pn* 
ap 10*, dvwar birch (3etulag      ow), &nd.' blai, birch (74. le'nt 
"I Wr~w. oate0 4) *o thwu 50, =o a siuole a.,leI true." rite. A,,dQon

'*the bu Ge which they entirely dartvoyod in a few ho)urs. * * 
?hey were, in fa ,t, l*04ka u-ponj with m~re '--bhrence then  the croin 
at prosent in iaacb~ts and Ualno, oa bceaunt of the wlaehiref they 
*.*~tteAthe      mitt trees. of the oroharos  xri wlnter, when they 
fed on- their bu,i* or 04ile in the spring ;Aontbeq they -icked Up,' thes
in the field** 

Zxtmcts from   Qnru and 411d To~    of the U. S.' 
TAIIV  'Brewster in 191 .@ceral     tbs4t, all t~ld. tbh-r veepabol 
oaiy ~  ~     ~     a   tbatID'hxt  oeu    the  unr emfut1d to abmt 40 sqr
of the Wand of Urtha. Ylney#r4. 
R, C. 0Yb*rholsr, of the '51oloqical Survey  found thw com.a ira AAauI 
111)1, in -,"heele C-my  -oz. 


Ontario Natural Science Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 2, issued May 18, 1906. 
The Sharp-tailed Grouse, so well known in the Canadian West as the 
Prairie Chicken, is represented in Ontario by two forms: one the well 
known Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse, Pedioecetes phasianellus camestris, 
of Manitoba, is of comparatively recent introduction, coming east after 
the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and occurring at Port 
Arthur, at the head of Lake Superior, and possibly elsewhere. The Northern

Sharp-tailed Grouse, Pedioecetes phasianellus, is the form of most interest,

and of which less is known, darker than the prairie bird it is not difficult

to distinguish. 
On the east coast of Hudson's Bay, Mr. A. P. Lowe gives lat. 570 as 
the northern limit of its range and says it winters at Great shale River.

He took a set of eggs on May 20, 1889, at Port George, on James Bay. These

eggs are a dark coffee brown, darker than any sets I have seen from Manitoba.

According to Bishop Newnham the Sharp-tails arrive at Moose Factory, James

Bay, from the north-east, usually when the marsh hay is being gathered, and

are shot in considerable numbers. They frequently stay all winter and leave

in the spring. At Lake Abittibi they are said to occur pretty regularly,

in October. On Lake Timiskaming they do not seem to occur regularly, though

the bird is frequently found there in October. 
In 1996 a flight passed south of the usual limits into the districts 
of Parry Sound and Miskoka. At Beaumauris, on Lake Muskoka, one was taken

on October 10th and examined by Mr. P. A. Taverner; others were reported
Huntsville, Port Cockburn and Bracebridge, in Muskoka, at Ensdale and else-

where in Parry Sound. The flight was not large, and had disappeared by the

end of October, assisted, no doubt, by the considerable flight of Goshawks

and Golden Eagles that came into Ontario over probably the same route as
--Toronto, Canada. 
Copies for Sharptail foldert-- 
Cycle folder 
Canada folder 

Prairie Chicken folder 
FROM "Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley" 
in the years 184 and 1895. 
By W.W.Cooke 
Page-104. 305. Tympanuchus americanus.        Prairie Hen; Pinnated Grouse.

The Prairie Hen is common on the prairies of the Mississippi 
Valley from southeastern Texas and Louisiana northward as far as our 
boundary, which it reached in 1881. In 1983 it began to be common at 
Pembina.  In 1984 it became common at Winnipeg, Manitoba, and appeared 
in large numbers at Portage la Prairie, on the Assiniboine River (lati- 
tude 50 degrees). It has gradually spread westward, and previous to the 
great extension of the railroad it kep just about abreast of the settle-

.ments. Dr. Coues, writing in 1974, said that it then inhabited the 
eastern half of Minnesota, but he had no reason to believe that it occur-

red at all in northwestern Minnesota or northern Dakota. In June, 1879, 
Roberts and Benner saw several at Herman, Minn., 40 miles from the 
Dakota line. In 190 I found it abundant in northwestern Minnesota up 
to latitude 47 degrees and only 40 miles from the Dakota line. I also 
heard that it was then not uncommon across the Red river, at Grand 
Forks, Dak. Now it has occupied the whole length of eastern Dakota, 
covering a strip from 30 to 60 miles in width. At the same time it 
has spread from middle to western Kansas, and from eastern Texas to 
Colman county, a little west of the middle of the State. Mr. Nehrling 
says of it in southeastern Texas near Houston: "Common resident on 
all the flat, grassy prairies. Is becoming scarcer every year." (Bull.

Nut. Ornith. Club, Vol. VII, 1882, p. 175.) In Indian Territory it is 
found as far west at least as the middle of the State. 
The following letter from Mr. C.W. Nash, of Portage la Prairie, 
Manitoba (latitude 50 degrees) gives an interesting account of the in- 
vasion of that locality by this species: 
"The first information I received of the appearance of the Pinna- 
ted Grouse in this Province was from a farmer living about 8 miles 
north of this town (Portage la Prairie), who had shot one in the 
fall of 1982. I did not see the bird, but from the description 
he gave me of it I could not mistake it. I immediately made in- 
quiries among the hunters of this locality, but no one else had 
seen it. In the fall of 1883 I again heard of the bird in one or 
two places, but saw none myself. In the fall of 1894 it became 
plentiful, comparatively speaking, in this neighborhood and to the 
eastward, that is to say, between here and Winnipeg. I had the 
good fortune to secure two specimens in rather lucky fashion.  I 
was out with a friend, chicken shooting, October 6, 1S64, at Burn- 
side, a settlement 10 miles west of this town, when we saw a large. 
flock of Grouse alight in a stubble field near us. When we reached 
the field three birds got up, of which I killed two with the first 

barrel, and the other with the second barrel. Of the two first 
killed, one was a Pinnated Grouse, and the other a Sharp-tailed 
Grouse; the one killed with the second barrel was a Pinnated 
Grouse. I got no others, but heard of them from nearly all of 
my acquaintances who hunt. Strange to say, all that were ob- 
tained, except one, appear to have been young birds, and this 
one was in full plumage, having on each side of the neck the 
long, pointed feathers peculiar to the species. So far as I 
can learn with any degree of certainty, these birds are not yet 
(March, 135) found much west of the place where I killed mine, 
nor farther north than 10 or 12 miles from Portage la Prairie. 
They are evidently working in here from Minnesota and Dakota, and 
are following the grain. Up to this time the Sharp-tailed Grouse 
has been very abundant, but, as might be expected, it is getting 
scarcer in the vicinity of the towns.  So far, both birds here 
associate to gether when they pack and find food in the stubbles." 
We have here a case of northward migration of young birds in the fall, 
similar to that which has been noticed so often in the case of the Herons.

At Portage la Prairie none were seen in spring until lS5, when a few 
were noticed and its "booming" was heard for the first time. 
The Prairie Chicken is commonly said to be a resident bird, and so 
it is in the larger part of its range; but in Iowa a regular though local

migration takes place. This has been mentioned by former writers, and in

the spring of 1S14 a special study was made of the matter. Many observers

unite in testifying to the facts in the case, and, what is still more im-

portant, there is not a dissenting voice. One of the observers does not 
exaggerate when he says: "Prairie Chickens migrate as regularly as the

Canada Goose." Summing up all the information received, the facts of
case are as follows: In November and December large flocks of Prairie 
Chickens come from northern Iowa and southern Minnesota, to settle for the

winter in northern Missouri and southern Iowa. This migration varies 
in bulk with the severity of the winter. 
During an early cold snap immense flocks come from the northern prairies

to southern Iowa, while in mild, open winters the migratioh is much less

pronounced. During a cold, wet spring the northward movement in March and

April is large arrested on the arrival of the flocks in northern Iowa; 
but an early spring, with fair weather, finds them abundant in the 
southern tier of counties in Minnesota, and many flocks pass still farther

north. The most remarkable feature of this movement is found in the sex 
of the migrants. It is the females that migrate, leaving the males to 
brave the winter's cold. Mr. Miller, of Heron Lake, Minn., fairly states

the case when he says: "The females in this latitude migrate south in
fall and come back in the spring about one or two days after the first 
Ducks, and they keep coming in flocks of from ten to thirty for about three

days, all flying north. The Grouse that stay all winter are males."


In the spring of 1934, at Iowa City, Iowa, the first flocks passed 
over March 10, and the bulk March 22; at Newton, Iowa, the bulk was noted

March 23. The booming of the species was recorded from March 7, at Caddo,

Ind. Ter., to March P4, at Barton, Dak. In the spring of 1835, the com- 
mencement of "booming" was noted at Richmond, Kansas, March 1,
and at 
Argusville, Dak., March 27. 'At Newton, Iowa, the northward movement was

very pronounced March 11. 
Early nesting wn reported at Durand, Wis., March 29; while at Ver- 
million, Dak., in 1,S24, a nest with sixteen fresh eggs was found as late

as June 9. 
In the fall of lS5, at Des Moines, Iowa, Pinnated Grouse were moving 
south in large numbers 06tober 17. 

Sharp-tail Grouse folder 
From "Report on Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley" 
in the years 194 and iSS5. 
By W. W. Cooke. 
Page 106. 
30gb. Pediocaetes phasianellus campestris (Ridgw.) Prairie or Common 
Sharp-tailed Grouse. 
The home of the Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse is on the plains 
and prairies of the U.S. east of the Rocky mountains and south to 
New Mexico. Dr. Agersborg states that at Vermillion, Dak., it 
"is getting rarer every year." I am indebted to Mr. Carr, of 
Waupaca, Wis., for the boundaries of its range in that State. He 
Sharp-tailed Grouse are quite abundant on Sisson's prairie, 
Portage county, in the fall of the year, but as soon as cold 
weather sets in they keep in the edge of the woods.# They are 
asoc iated inthe northwesternport ion  oit  st ateM, from about 
the center of Waushara county, but are found most abundant in 
Waushara, Waupaca, Portage, Shawano, and Marathon counties, 
though there are not many in the two latter. 
They are associated with the Prairie Hen. 
Colonel Goss says they are still resident in middle and western 
Kansas, but are becoming rare; while Dr. Watson says that in the 
vicinity of Ellis, Kansas, they disappeared in 1S75 and since then 
the Prairie Hen has taken their place. Even in Illinois a few are 
still found, according to Mr. Ridgway, on the prairies of the nor- 
thern part of the state, but are very scarce. They were recorded 
as rare residents at Grinnell, Iowa. In Grant and traverse counties, 
in western Minnesota, they are "the comon Grouse of the region."

(Roberts and Benner, Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. V, 1990, p.17.) 

Prairie Chicken folder 
(Recr.ation Veasi     1906) 
Di~est of 
S          OPO                       J    late t.nan 
p.1   5,00, N* Pmirie Chiekns estimpted killed in )ebraka Ia few 
yea   hence" of wich 4I,OO0,000 for market. 
p.    $ ;rh  true pinnated grouse is never fo-d except where m    has 
broken the sod, sown the wheat, and dotted the prairies with 
groves of trees." 
P.3   600 chickens killed in 10 dase in lS72 in McLean Qo., Ill. by 
lapt. A. N. 3r-rdus and Miles Johnson.    50 birds per pun per day 
considered "good hunting.' 
W"large locks - -                   during winter - - - in the 
imnens eornfieh!i  of S. W. Iowa, though a fair days snort on 
them during the open season is unknown." 
p.4     4     "In localities where the birds ari really scarce the 
ni~mber which will gather into what westerners call a "pack" is

realy remarkable, every grouse in the country seemingly haviag 
his fllows. "  (These packs   a be mde to be by repected 
p.5   "It I a bird that increases with the first stae     of eivilizatio,

paxses with the second, and disap!paars with the third." 

by Qlate tina. 
At a South Dakota ranchers early morning breakfast table 
one bright aeptember day in the late eighties I sat opposite a oharm- 
ing young woman -- a visitor from a distant city -- and with steal- 
ing glances noted the unaffected manner in which she made way with 
a skillfully broiled young prairie chicken. It did not take me long 
to reach the conclusion that any irl of city breeding who could a- 
rise with the su and eat a breakfast that would make a harvest hand 
think he had acute dyspepsia would make a wife that would -- in the 
vernacular of the day -- do to "tie to." And many chickens of the

kind have since been jointly discussed acros. the dining table by 
the same lady and 4youre truly." 
It is strsnge, then, the thought comes over me in my reveries, 
that the game bird which indirectly brought me a charming wife Is 
doomed to extinction in the very land where so much contributed to its 
happiness and, under reasonable conditions, a long life? For, be it 
known, no Irnd between the rising and setting sun on this continent 
is wo well adapted to the propagation of the pinnated grouse as the 
sparsely settled prairies of Nebraska and the two Oakotas. But men is 
much the same wherever you find him -- selfish to a degree. He recks 
not of the morrow, but kills, kill., kills, end with a reckless aban- 
don when game crosses his path th t paeseth understanding. It is nat- 
ural to believe that the commercial instinct of the average American 
would give him pause when the market shooter seeks a profit from the 
traffic in gnme birds for no other class would receive greater finan- 
cial benefit from a rigid protection of the pinnated grouse. 
One consignment of gme from Nebraska received in chiacgo 
a few years since contained eighteen barrels of prairie chickens from 
a locality where they were and are now comparitively scarce. A rog 
estimate of the number of these birds killed in Nebraska that year 
was placed at 5,000,000, of which all but 1,000,000 were for shipment 
out of the state. The frightful slsauhter of the birds in this state, 
Kanacan  t~ Dkoas -Ari4  L   1,-t five yea-4T  Las told5 wiith telin 
efeoot upon the supply; and tody ocalities which but three years ago 
gave the finest of sport are almost barren of even one day's fair shoot-

Ing in the very beginning of the season. 
No finer game bird flies the American continent than the pin- 
nated aroupe, and it is the wonder of all true sportemen everywhere 
that the great West, so geneneus in its te.perament, so indifferent to 
the dollar, should Countenance the destruction of practically the only 
game bird whioh it can really call its own. knd yet it is this generos- 
ity, this indifference, which le loth to take action against those res- 
ponsible for the certain and sure extLnction of tie prairie chicken, 
that is slowly, but none the lepp surely, driving the prairie chickens 
to finel extinction. Ihe violations of the eomewhat iibernal game laws 
are winked at when committed by a neighbor, and the stranger is given 
the freedom of the priries nnd the utmost courtesy to do as he likes. 
He may not only shoot all the birds that he and his companions anPd 
their hosts can possibly consume, but backs are turned when he packs 
for shipment what he cares to transport to his friends at home. If he 
meets with poor success,the local market shooter and his perfectly 
trained dogs can be had at a moment's notice to add to his supply. 
After his departure, and the local hunters have picked off from each 
covey a reasonably satisfying number of birds and the fewer has worn 

off to a great extant, the market shooter who knows the haunts and 
habits of pratioally every covey for miles around goes at his 
cursed work sad exterminates the remainder. The few old cocks left 
and a badly frightened hen or two get together along about Chriet- 
mas and take an aount of stock. They find It bad enough at best; 
and when the heavy rains of late upy and early June drown the few 
broods which the survivors of the iear before have by much pat lene 
and diligence brought into the glad sunlight of spring, the parent 
birds, with a persistence that deserves the admiration of the most 
stolid, try once more to raise their little families around the 
edges of the fast growing fields of what. If uccoessful in this 
maternal duty, the broods are but half grown in August, and it is 
then that the farmer lad or the "hired menw invariably rides with 
a loaded shotgun on his mower or binder with which to provide the 
breakfast table with a toothsome fry. 
This is responsible for the rapid extinction of the prairie 
chicken. Market shooters there are,ta be sure, any number of them, 
but as but few of this class go after birds until the open season be- 
gins, even the most persistent hunting would not have the same effect 
as the slaughter of the immature birds by those on whose lands they 
have hatched and who believe that they have a God-given right to them 
and the "public be damned.' The merest tyro of a farm lad, armed with

a four-dollar single breeh-loader and no dog, san with a seqson or 
two of practice do more deadly work on several coveys of psatt prair- 
ie  chickens than a wagon   ad of Oilberts, Qrosbys and their kind, 
led by the beat brace of setters or pointers that ever sniffed the 
morning ozone of a western prairie, could ever do. He gets in his 
work at most any old time, while the man from town or distant parts 
dare do nothing else but wait until the law says he nay shoot, at 
whish time the birds are full grwn, strong of wing and already famil- 
iar with the sound of a gun and the eight of a man. 
The history of the pinnated grouse is a pathetic one. The 
deetruction of the birds and the extinction of the buffalo are not 
balogous by any means. The American bison and man were never made 
to ocupy the same territory; and as the rich, grass-covered prair- 
ies that were once the feeding grounds of the buffalo have since prov- 
en to    he                          ct wi but 
natural that sooner or later tne buffalo would have to go. Not so with 
the prairie chicken. He loves civilization. The true pinnated erouse 
is never found except where man has broken the sod, sown the wheat and 
dotted the prairies with groves of trees. From far away Long Island, 
across the Jersey pines, through Pennsylvania, New York,Ohio, Tenne- 
see., Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and across the Missouri Into 
Kandas, Nebraska and the Dakotas has this beautiful bird followed the 
toiling and hardy pioneer. *Wither thou goest, I will So; ..... thy 
people shall be my people." With the exception of the few migratory

and uncertain flocks of wildfowl whioh each fall sped across the coun- 
try or tarried awhile for a rest and the few seeds floating on the 
lakes and sloughs of the pioneerl, home the prairie chicken was the 
sole reminder of the many varieties of game birds that he knew and 
loved in his early Eastern home. The "booming' of the male birds on

a bright sring morning in early April was the first welcome sound of 
spring, the sure forerunner of those days when the plowman goes afield, 
and the young brooeds to fly before the tellow-haired scion, astride 
a horse at sunrise, rounding up the scattered coe and yearlings, the 
most homelike feature the urchin felt of the land so strange and dif- 
ferent from that his infancy know. 

It was a half a century sinee the last survivors of the 
pinnated grouse in Long Island and northern Now Jersey met the 
fate that since has come to their descendants in the states of the 
middle West. Thirty years ago the prime of the shooting nnd pursuit 
of them was in western Iowa. TIfteen years later it drifted to Ken- 
sas, Febraska and the 0ekotas. At the present time good hunting 
of prairie chickene is confined to a limited district in Nebraska 
and parts of the Dakotas. 
At is a correct definition of "good huntingO on prairie 
ehickenp? If an old hmnd et the businee may be permitted to give 
It he will put it at, say, fifty birds per gun. Anyhow, there was a 
time when nothing less than that would eslisfy him. Capt. A. B. 
B   t    tells in his book, *Field, Qover and Trap   Uting,* that 
he and Miles Johnson, on a ten day's hunt in 9oLean county, Ill. in 
l872, k     6Qo prairie chickens, shooting but morninge and evenings. 
This was but thirty birds per gun per day, and, while nothing less 
than wicked slaughter, so plentiful were the birds in Illinois and 
Iowa at that time that their extermination seemed impossible. In 
later years, between 1.70 and 1880, thirty to fifty birds per gun 
was a common occurrence anI time between August 15, and September 1 
in Northern and western Iowa. That any have survived in that state 
seems incredible, yet so hardy are the grouse famitly that large 
flocks of preirie chickens are seen frequently during the winter in 
the immense corn fields of southwestern Iowa, though a fair day's 
sport on them during the open season in unknown. A few yeare since, 
when the hunting of prairie chickens in South Dakota was at its 
beet, a market hunter and his son got after a large peck of a hun- 
dred or more prairie chickens in late November. To the uninitiated, 
it is well enough to explain that the birds begin to assemble in 
large coveys about the middle of October, if much hunted and scat- 
tered, a week or two earlier. In localities where the birds are 
really soarce the nuber which will gather into what Westerners 
term a $pack* is really remarkable, every grouse in the country seem- 
ingly having joined his fellows. The two hunters referred to chased 
the pack for miles with a pair of fleet bronchoe and a light wagon, 
flushing them three times before the birds would lie to the doge. 
gt th*                                tl prairie     rs and well 
scattered. When they counted the dead birds they b     ixty-five. 
Tt Is unnecessary to state that both men were dead shots, but al- 
together, it was the most remarkable, and at the same time most 
merciless, slaughter of the beautiful pride of the prairies thAt 
has ever come to the writer's notice. It is mentioned here to part- 
ly illustrate what the prairie chicken has had to contend with and 
to show what royal sport the pastime of hunting them affords under 
the best of conditions. 
The prairie chicken has no show for his life, compared with 
his cousins, the ruffed grouse, the sharTail and sage hen; and in 
the comparison the quail, woodcook, snipe an their kindred of the 
woods and rwamp are almost imune. The prairie chicken builds its 
next, from choice, within call of the settler's home, in some grassy 
edge rank with weeds bordering a grain field, beside a pond that the 
settler has made by an artiflcial dam, or, failing in this, on the 
sunny slope in the heart of a broad prairie. From the time the young 
birds leave the nest in May or June they are without concealment or 
hiding places save that which the grasses of their priirie home give 
them. Frequently--more often than not-- the grass is not of suff is- 
lent height to cover the half grown birds Atanding erect, and they 
are plainly visible objects to the man afield, or on a roadside to the 

ecupants of a passing vehicle. Later, if the birds eeoape the 
rain of leaden hail through September, the neighboring corn fields 
may give them shelter from the pursuit, but gainst a good pair of 
well-trained dogs, a pair of stout legs and a well-maimed gun, there 
can only be one ending. The prairie chicken has but one recourse-- 
that is, to leave the country. Otherwise he is sooner or later to 
meet his fate. The ease with which a certain section--say a town- 
ship of thirty-six equare miles--can be cleaned up of prairie chiek- 
ens in two weeks can only be realised by those who have been on the 
ground and seen It done. A similar territory in extent in Teaneessee, 
Ohio, North Caroline, Arkansas or Missouri, well stocked with ruffed 
grouse or quil, would stand up under Feasons of hard shooting with 
no perceptible diminution of the supply. The wonder of it is that 
the prairie chicken has lasted as long as It has. Were it not one 
of the hardiest game birds that flies it would have been extinct so 
many years ago thrt what Is here written would be history long past 
,nd forgotten of sportsmen. 
It is sorrow tothink it; it is positive grief to write it, 
but I can see no hope for the prairie chicken. Under the best game 
law that can be devised and under the most rigid enforcements that 
any community or state could provide, the life of tne birds is bound 
to be a precarious one in the face of t" rapid settlement of the lands

where it is making It. final stand. 1ut Rd may be    long postponed if 
those where birds are now found in t"e greatest numbers can be made

to see the benefit of protecting ttieT and forced by public sentiment 
into enacting more effective laws. It is the history of every state 
in the Union that really efficient gpme laws have only been placed 
on the statute books after the game the laws sought to conserve was 
diminished to a point where an increase was hopeless. The man and 
the dog are not the only enemies of the gate birds. A large per cent 
meet the fate that comes to all wild life where one preys upon another. \

The people of the Western prairies should realize that all 
game lawp are not in the interest of the few-as some would have them 
believe--but In the interests of the many, of which they constitute 
the major part. The chickens sould be protected with reasonable as- 
suranee, ~ ~   ~    ~     4 ofmitii*tbespl  ffr rio otiher reuson tlian thes

food they turnioh the farmer, to the stockn and to the ranceer.with 
this, the purpuit of them furnishes the youth of the prairie homes 
about the only recreation with gun and doj that the country affords. 
The rich and well-to-do can either stock private game preserves or 
journey -far to distant lands where game is plentiful. To this latter 
class the going of coming of the prairie chicken is of small moment, 
for the whole world i. theirs in the pursuit of pleasure. lotwith- 
standing this, and the further fact that the prairie chicken is the 
best friend in bird life that the farmer has, destroying, as it does, 
myriads of bugs and grasshoppere and never molesting standing grain, 
nine-tenths of the opposition to effective game laws in every legis- 
lative assembly oom s from the farmer members. There is a feeling 
among this class of men that ge-e protection is in the sole interest 
of the city sportsmen, notwtkbtanding that the game laws of prac- 
tically all the states gives the farmer aboolute control of his lands 
from trespess. The "posting" of ferms, too, is approved by the
class of sportsmen, whom, failing to obtain permission to shoot upon 
such lande, can be reasonably sure of finding a fair supply of birds 
that have got over the line to other fields. It is a protection to 
the birds and a restraint on vandalism. That is to say, it is a pro- 

teation to the birds if the farmer himself will lot them alone and 
See that hie son and his hired help and neigbbors do likewise. The 
feeling so prevalent among the farming community that the protect- 
tion of game birds is but the saving of them for the town hanters 
Is a rank injustice and unfair in the extreme. The farmers who are 
directly on the ground are not only familiar with the haunts of the 
birds than any man from a distance can possiblybe, but they have 
thrice the time and opportunity for a few hours shooting when the 
open season begins thnt the businers man has. If the protection of the 
law conserves the  apply there cannot po sibly be ay class of citi- 
zens more greatly benefited than the farmers themselves. 
It e up to the Mktae to see that the next legislative as- 
semblies enact laws that will be protective of wild game and fish in 
fact as well as name. Such legislation should cover the following 
1. A state game commission organized on a non-partisan basis. 
2. Paid county and district wardens, the latter to be appoint- 
ed from the farming commuities. 
A resident license fee of Ql annually. 
Prohibiting all spring shooting a   limiting the open ses- 
on on prairie chickens to thirty days. 
When a system of puid game wardens, whose salaries are furn- 
ished from the license fund, is ones thoroughly established there'll 
be a quick ending of the oursed work of the Osooners which has had 
more to do with the gradual extinction of the prairie chickens than 
all other causes combined, and whether this despicable class of beings 
live in the country or come from the flotsam and Jetsam of the towns 
and cities--the latter class of whom by their contempt of one law do 
not hesitate to violate all law and create a prejudice in the farmiag 
community against all men who go afield. 
No bird ever lent greater charm to its surroundings than the 
Annated grouse to the prairie. fithout him it is no more the prairie, 
but a dim1wste. No bird has so tarilled the novice as the full- 
grown grouse roaring out of the grass almost at lis feet, or caused 
the experienced sportsman greater joy than watching a pair of blue- 
blood setters or pointers in pursuit of him on a cool September morn- 
ing. And when the ducks heve left the frozen slough, te sandhill 
crane no longer dots the plain, end the *honk" of tte geese has died

away in the south, then the groupe is about the only companion left 
to the dweller of the prairie. Our children and our children's ohil- 
dren may yet hear the mellow twitter of the woodcock's wing as he 
whirls upward through the somber shade, over the harvest field, may 
hear the fute-like voice of little Wb Mhite, and in the tangled 
brake hear the rushin  wings of the ruffled groure, but few s*all 
see the pinnated grouse except as a rare epecimen. Yor it is a bird 
that increaser with the first stpges of civilization, pauses wit 
the second tnd disappears with the third. 

Prairie Chicken 
bet04 of 
A pw#0441 Zt *fr A 00.1 low Too w .bn 
b~u m Ss~o  gio   at11a,   oI y~ovs ago*  o  t= 
IMP  Atto ths       sott  ~tbo  t 
~II ~ -n ino tfaa OV7V -W f WSbeoAsber 
2AWs IghPS. on M. D. 0114 soo UXiat (7tI~ al.  QVAss 
how  i, bposIt s (1114 tkU Wers o   oWgspls., b 
jakh-a-T Isa to, ts.kin Is ofs~ eM Zlss, 
=MAU"~ -l" O.i wk X..I4 mU.. 1tiA~ Ibe otv ise "t. 
UV.U lbo- to 1 0 e~X  6wr at(36 -s -* ra~it Las UI~   @lI 
*P.f? Xl%  XUS  160  in a w  as. a*insy to o   iat   wwo pimjwtm 
.1  tyb w #41 t O~at.) 'amorous1 "to"s  (ow 190  Z)st~#1 
Utter nlyA.            ton~ 
a  *tOO4#  ofm i o# so1m, s 1410 flnbsols ui  to~wle votao j 
Mimau  fvp Wml.  %to* t iea  sbtb  tv to too b mA in 9Aaunri 
for 0osoW10  at  "  vtrv4 0.0t#eot aw  cm 

M.9 a" Uf Inso.ft $nw to .in b*s. 
p.101 t IR a 196 )*0 SbO^ Grk 50 &. 1.# #I4;Oj , Mbe. o  II*OW1 
W I~t sI .  t*  U- k1  tad,5UZ mstsIamtI *wpat 
of. tousa ^ad I.. pr of4 ~   s.  al 
p~~l I*  am.,i41  15 Po  Mw 1Aia Coo Co., 111.Vlb 
-u b"   ro14 NoW 14  0i  ok  w"7hSx~ *i 
P133 Pr~d "s 411 ZWwta *a IA th*~1 g" . wwes ot* 

Prairie Chicken Folder 
Extracts from "The Grouse and Wild Turkeys of the United States, and
Economic Value" by, sylvester D. Judd. B, ,iol,. Survey Bull. 24. 1905,

P. 10 
(Tyumpanuchus americanus.) 
The prairie hen, or 'prairie chicken,' inhabits the western prairies 
from Manitoba to southern Texas and louisiana and from Ohio to Nebraska.

The birds of southern Texas and Louisiana are smaller and darker than the

common bird. 
In summer prairie hens roost on the ground in a family covey, as does 
the bobwhite, but in winter, in many sections, they roost in trees. In the

fall several coveys congregate in a pack, after the fashion of ptarmigans
crested quail. Prof. F. E. L. Beal informs the writer that at Ames, Iowa,
ing the early eighties, he frequently found packs numbering as many as a
and birds, and that they habitually roosted in the long grass beside sloughs.

The prairie hen is migratory in the northern part of its range, and to a
extent farther south also. The well-known authority on migration, Prof. W.
Cooke, says: 
In November and December large flocks of prairie chickens come from north-

ern Iowa and southern Minnesota to settle for the winter in northern Miss-

ouri and southern Iowa. This migration varies in bulk with the severity of

the winter, 
The estimation in which the bird is held may be realized from the fact 
that in 1902 the suoply at from $3 to $5 a brace nowhere met the demand,

P. 11 
So reluctant occasionally is it to fly that it can hardly be out up, and

Professor Cooke informs the writer that several times while hunting in northern

Minnesota he saw a pointing dog jump and catch a three-fourths grown prairie
At the beginning of the nineteenth century the prairie hen was extremely

abundant throughtoit Ohio and Kentucky. It is now rare in both states. A
of the ground it has lost in the East it has gained by a westward and northward

movement. It has followed the grain fields of the pioneers of the plains,
with the extension of grain culture into Minnesota and Manitoba it has become

plentiful there. According to Dr. Hatch, it was by no means common when the


Extracts from "Grouse & Wild Turkeys of the U.S" 
P. 12 
white man first came to Minnesota, and he says that in Illinois as late as
a hunter was extremely lucky if he could bag a dozen in a day. Some years
with much less effort, one could have shot 50 in a day, and there were records
100 to a single gun. 
The former status of the bird in the East is well indicated by Audubon's

classic observations at Henderson, Ky., in llO. Audubon says: 
In those days during the winter the Grous would enter the farm- 
yard and feed with the poultry, alight 6n the houses, or walk in the 
very streets of the villages.  I recollect having caught several in 
a stable at Henderson, where they had followed some Wild Turkeys. In 
the course of the same winter, a friend of mine, who was fond if prac- 
ticing rifle shooting, killed upwards of forty in one morning, but 
picked none of them up, so satiated with Grous was he, as well as every 
member of his family. My own servants preferred the fattest flitch of 
bacon to their flesh, and not unfrequently laid them aside as unfit for 
cooking. * * * They could not have been sold at more than one cent 
apiece. * * * So rare have they become in the markets of Philadelphia, 
New York, and Boston, that they sell at from five to ten dollars the pair.

So far as the sportsman is concerned, the prairie hen is now extinct in 
Through its operation the sale of the prairie hen was virtually stopped 
in 1902 and 1903 in all the large cities of the East. 
P. 13 
E. W. Nelson informs the writer that in the early seventies in northwestern

Illinois the farmers in many places burned the prairies in spring after the

prairie hens nested, and often gathered for household use large numbers of
eges thus exposed. 
The prairie hen has the advantage, however, of yielding more readily to 
domestication than the bobwhite, and strong efforts should be made to establish

preserves of domesticated birds for restocking country where the species
is ex- 
tinct. Successful enterprises of this kind would be profitable. That such

domestication is possible and even feasible, the appended quotation from
The Pinnated Grous is easily tamed, and easil kept. It also breeds in 
confinement, and I have often felt surprised that it has not been fairly

domesticated. While at Henderson, I purchased sixty alive, that were ex-

pressly caught for me within twelve miles of that village, and brought in
bag laid across the back of a horse. I cut the tips of their wings, and 
turned them loose in a garden and orchard about four acres in extent. Within


Extracts from "Grouse & Wild Turkey of the U. S." 
P. 13 
a week they became tame enough to alLow me to approach them without 
their being frightened. * * *     In the course of the winter they 
became so gentle as to feed from the nad of my wife, and walked about 
the garden like so many tame fowls, mingling occasionally with the 
domestic poultry. * *    * When spring returned they strutted, 'tooted,'

and fought, as if in the wilds where they had received their birth. 
Many laid eggs, and a good number of young ones made their appearance. 
P. 15 
From October to April, inclusive, the prairie hen takes little 
but vegetable food. This element amounts to 85-69 per cent for the 
year. Fruit constitutes 11.79 percent; leaves, flowers, and shoots, 
25.09 percent; seeds, 14.97 percent; grain, 31.O6 percent, and miscell- 
aneous vegetable material, 3.08 percent. 
The prairie hen eats a much smaller proportion of seeds, with the 
exception of grain, than the bobwhite, and in this respect is less 
useful than the latter bird. It is, however, a better weeder than any 
other grouse, and its services in this particular are worthy of consid- 
P. 17 
The stomacks and crops examined in the investigation contained 31.06 
percent of grain. The bobwhite, another busy stubble feeder, takes only 
17.38 percent. 
P. 18 
Naturally the prairie hen is much less given to budding than the 
ruffed grouse, but it has been known to pluck buds of poplar, elm, pine,

apdole, dward birch (Betu.La glandulosa), and black birch (B. lenta). 
"I have counted moie than 50 on a single apple tree," writes Audubon,

"the buds of which they entirely destroyed in a few hours. * *    *

They were, in fact, looked upon with more abhorrence than the crows are 
at present in Massachusetts and Maine, on account of the mischief they 
committed among the fruit trees of the orchards during winter, when they

fed on their buds, or while in the spring months, they picked up the grain

in the fields." 

Extracts from "Grouse and Wild Turkey of the U. S." 
P. 19 
ITympanuchus cupido.) 
William Brewster in 1390 ascertained that, all told, there were probably

only about 200 heath hens, and that they were confined to about 40 square
of the island of Marthas Vineyard. 
(Tympanuchus pallidicinctus.) 
H. 0. Oberholser, of the Biological Survey, found them common in August,

1901, in Wheeler County, Tex. 

t*   sain  ta  shrtUs frt  m  it  B  idC. 16 yai 
I t wud  a  * alif W , tS  t or  sef olineiw 

Digest of 
6. 16, ~    gn  fli. vater porio of thin rain~ ... stil at period of 
th  ato  kow as "th  roir     MURoW  1as mobes albado their 
tom  hats an, etming along th bowdews of om rivorso tak up 
thei A*s fr a ti the lwdeny. bMnro    of miles. pebp, 
theirl edngpaa         so  lop 129). 
P. 11T. 2"    gg    T   iar s no doubt that thero are/=do birs bho 
 ba fwoles,* 
P, 119. gg~MUt?          w1h  hen bird .. duin  Inmtioa. , ,dm~pse a partial

=*ttvwh~bprvids a few da=W feathers to assist In keeing ti. 
egswm dowtn her abse from the net,0 (Is thts possiblyonw~ 
p. 12%. JWt   Pitrides e vq fond of Indian orn. mAd in a state of *at~ivi

we  w  eenthem *at it In preference to al1 other gras mqcot bucwett 
IMI     #.i win~ter prrgs as voll as grose, *2* torw'o toon 
without mW Ill oowwain~es to theslvs, bu~t terfo       i   sad 
has oftn boon polnd to suc an *xitat..,that death, in some rar 
instncs, h"s rolted from persons partakin of tbsm *11. In this 
nexiou  state, 3uror w  w ~ f pu   v    sa aumnat of two cases of 
poionngarising from the, eatl~q of a phaat(ra~fted grao    sttffod itth 
p. 126,        v,r wetern1,at.,.aI Now Jorsq.,,,tm br~       that wrge 
pigh 139,*          Galh 4i 
'hih rouda, ad resorts In 1imnse  *15o, to the large r'iver course*,, 
ikens tie*y remain a few weeks, aM then travel bsak to their finr hnats.

..n3,4 wo eas=ted an Imns. drove of thoe nnin birds 1 the 
mdboho4of Mk Myw(lor,4           twittering a  whistling as fast 
ad as 1eos& as possible.  ,..tis .*apwW .. soat ed s0weral laws4 
Indvida, ad wa tho largost...w ove met with. Theoe migrtions 
to the sawst sd river shores are porovod, oa fot... early as 
P. 132. &J&W 
P.- 133, &A AWI     F-11d nar 1hld*ta         ate: ais   the first edition.'

the chafttorlttic of *vr   spe4*e of go. *o. (Wes Is followed br 
a exoriation of tbA poltw.~s) 
oaigt..friffoe soasn  a his oum estate, 9W0 psrttdgs,,hio 
he gave out to the nogres as ordina  food during the ramit  soao. 
Ts w  so= Saundible to those., ,t familiar imth..h  tassw 
armien of the*e birds that  up'regts together &xrln their nmIrtor7 trip*,


,=d the rogulawtj aM4 -pevtinwaty with wvhli thq -psa their aoou.z 
smetimes p&,,ig hr~    the heart of vi1les. Th iotat Is...& 
ao*k of low laMd..fomiuV a peiD*Uxa.1 
lo-a MU    A corresondent in Xmv ?wrritowy states that he 
nt odo  n  season, 10000 partridgs In the ustboho4 of hoAU1.'* 
KU11ag* WL .Tis sen of 1M5 and 1856 has boon partleula~Iy 
dosvittv  *othou Atlatic *oa4 and in the ws. 
3lighz 1an IntX4, 110 kile in 3 4qs* in Delavea  in shoe sap, 
O £~ wmvon, 18511852 Partr14* have been umaly plent. A 
gentlintAm us that a party vith nets left Veokul 1.atoly, arA 
wmpir.4 to the Island below that tomn. Th took 4I00 birds In a e1i,4. 
V. I7.1"AEag (quotig ufbou),          If a gobbler to killad *theoonam

trud hm n4r oo, at watIs st.,, wt with hatred, but wIV2 
all thi motions he uloy iA oayesing the foe     (see A. A. Alens 
Sex R~b   in 1htfd Grms*, 19310. 
p.  192. Origin of u  Ea*WV (thuwy),. 
p189.  'kMM,      At times tho  a" vr ai=4axt in the via* of Now Jereq',

.1914.            "Like the partri4ge and wild tuk, pomats e mid to

mobr partial aRtpatimn, fu awtheet to swthesst, at th. approa& 
of winter, btt thuir emrsins a" nither so goosrel nor so extenstve 
as these of the-xrtfO6 
p. 195.I                 frm eating gm  . Dimrodits It, 
0.    !(Lt A 3m  Still killed In N. J, iA 191.. 
2.0T. M-vg&&      12   r e sei to rwain sinr the mbole year rmM.

emso    w Usposition to migrat or tmael, as the TRtiffe4 Grue V 
1p. 215. J& Mas. 10 oz. .     lag  15 ot 
po . V irtion of gras IA Ohioin IM ), 
C*ies hor Ur. H=f*tv      Wat, %rW      ,2. 
Cv m0."ts 
- 2 4w 

On Rice Lake, a flowage lake, just north of Dulutk 
Minn., I found, one spring, chickens boomihg on the margin of 
the lake, the water of which was low at that time. At a later 
date, in June, I think, I returned to the lake, which had 
filled so that the water extended tnto dead timber at the marg 
margins. 4earing a chicken booming in the flooded area, I 
entered it in a aanoe, and flushed this bird from a rock still 
projecting above the water, perhaps not over three feet across 
situated in standing dead timber! The spot may have been 3oo 
yards from the original booming site, but it was the best a- 
vailable!                            F             ., 9 z t A 
CZ   .4u'. / At- Hkj 

t)f~~ o7                 o 
.nv- lv  '-v  nn~.   o  . of  'ol.~t 
~.      *     rjl1 i  t~3  ioie t -l l   lZini, 
(pii o t ) i -rthenri  t~ ot~  foa 
~~~ivi~~~~~~~in~Tu lienx vO i- e~e  r   iQl  id 2t 
Ju~ o he ~i hae ~reav one o~how~ hey1Jv m 
Ttrl -  th                    r.~l  o7~ot  ir  ~~ 
b-i oiox    Y ~. x a.' (to i - to tlv-. ein ~ '~o 
n~ly? --ion.o  v 
It  nrenly  -rw ol -A. r  th (  ie, Ihv 

Y-r lli m,  n-t 
rt nT  imo lot I 
th t                           .,brt  t" 
LA,                                rn 

Sharptail folder 
Divstof*ird. OSt tnsta" 
at*t (1862,.3)s . 
23  Ji*  g.4L bSagi.j vxc1#- 1alui4.  rpss i sa-J i.f 
SAMA (I  t. as craaaaM ? b3rore4 dida no v~iter tred Tefr 
39  j~g  Caou    thou ?j  y*,afl a   lse 
p,5t~ 42  I  stw.1d 5A*Lisig.RtAe f rim mu  -.l is  f, -rt D1% 't 
43 Jeu~   Issudb  at0Vt  a~ los  to expes i.t*tumbr  In former 
plazS*, tm  ate 4  ;*.iotby h unt ed th- i w ht   th eri 
crA5 t,sv 9.9  the 1*11.  t10 er tir Ist*.   f~sMS1~ 
3ttarat O*zrmts for b=&i45 In41 wth &ad.~ hetal We~att of 
Isto  In~ m he It-i ~ sass thrIqal galvll  dcr awdo-uuti   ab 
1345~J tewoentirel iae bsa r nn DIp.iie uwheresil n ~ 
diferot  t  a  of  bir ,  10tt * frt  'Uanr, hviw7 Iat wltarnu 
In smo ,AvvatheInt a t birs  ***a t . thv   w.rerf-j1s  -haveI 
0as oszy -rtttt ha  9t4wihte.t1rI5 h 
10 ~ m   la0s 1:20  1f  the   "C 'AS.T' 1 I5 r#pawsri.  ti06tiIN  nn0rh

In~~~mkp~ gtvIe norIthernamis  l~ig"  -stlirlv ~trtrim 
LIM~ta  tIMj 00u arrih at  in mn peart% -)f th* tt Ae  T'iwI  p*ri 
41jrrtSM     t3~ . &%V   -hye  vetvar   w~t   t voar-4ait ofu fh*e4)uary

Inthes einl  w~tea It wI a r.Wher raM 1.21a &, ta n  vA 
A.~ ~ ~               Itf~e  theat  dain  the paat* 14-3 yur 
i~~~~~~~~~~~: 33).3~kj# U~l kigwa otep rl o-eor~ 

Sharptail folder 
* rnat Wse-isi '4rds4 
of x5th.m liaeomsin, -nA va, -A thft time ortmtvl -,.bad_-t. Thu 
Lwvlies he4 bcon. a rol0fst of Amtoo--s aoeu     yc.r befave )h spv a 
p,,riri ebtae.   "r. Bay in 18    v s  'formerl uat amso     .rv 
in*, S n   14# dnmmt WiWU t J. M. Clgiko 1 m  C =ty  'quits comm 
tp .ab-ut 19,9, 'jt AOv (1902) beijii# Ysr ec~*     S-c  it lf~s la 
ir),Rvo n"w found it InLu   q&   with pLin, t(; Cr,)us, rihih is

4k ftw Orpt.JlS a $EtOWAS rWelat, s.c) attre r..oaat   a*.k 
*ea- ad o4ther Lkarth coutr~il poizt. ast LmA  o?) La souti was ar 
$aei1ll, 'oet, 17,6. Now Inutdbr anl7 In Luoh~l-    p, rto 
aa4 ua)WMtkom  iou      -; roby dwawa to apo46tiatl~r 14A 
the StaWo. 
p.5  7'jj&_2&jn  i~r Ry iiaL otbo4 m~ It vas abd,,ti ou.the  Wis.

c*ai pro to 13'W.     Th wint~rof 154 1AZRAql to turas    ta     o 
I ft. doe, i [a Kcb, withn a sto4 crstw jpo, r ,n4 m 'vc, the  oll a. 
iiy~h ka y pM7 t,3 wolves faXs wild cats, iniakt, 60.0 which ezte. 
mia6,a  al4 thc eatirt vo "   twit aten ztiA   u,46 (rq),   aks, 
liaSk, soutwhvetem Fzrt 4f smuto in uu4 o 19653, ext~m    aoutbmsit 
on riv~r 'bluffs, 1M4  Bossoh1  1,472 (awwqpp. 
ibn. a %III U79-63.    luct 1. r ;* =    eaxt   h at 
-r. ~Y. Q>Vr      om  la watr ill 30) yt: ra  qo may      nei.4. 
,bumnt i enrly fift is, (Mr*y). 
P.T _4lj ,j               lz In soth     Sp4dy Wesl*JI buL t*A7         s

p4*       ?w:1 r    iutc~r. NQ  y ic (: ~1. cc4 1it 
P. 72   '.am 'N! 

TABLE 1.-Preference of birds among genera of fi( 
Common name 
Juniper; redcedar ..... 
Greenbrier ------------ 
Bayberry ---. --------- 
Hackberry ------------ 
Mulberry ------------- 
Pokeberry ------------- 
R ose ------------------ 
Chokeberry -------- 
Hawthorn, or red haw- 
Dwarf apples -------- 
Shadblow, or June- 
Wild cherry ---------- 
Scientific name 
Juniperus ....... 
Sm ilax  ---------- 
Celtis -------- 
M orus ---------- 
Phytolacca .----- 
Benzoin -- 
Fragaria --- 
Rubus ---- 
Rosa - ------ 
Sorbus -------- 
Aronia -------- 
Malus ......... 
Amelanchier_ - 
Prunus ------- 
Rhus 5 .... 
of species 
of birds   Kinds of birds among those desirable to attract that 
known to                 are most fond of the fruit 3 
eat the 
fruit 2 
Yellow-shafted flicker, European starling, evening 
grosbeak, pine grosbeak, purple finch, cedar wax- 
wing, myrtle warbler, mocking bird, robin, eastern 
Cardinal, mocking bird, brown thrasher, catbird, 
hermit thrush, robin. 
Bobwhite, downy woodpecker, yellow-shafted flicker, 
eastern phoebe, European starling, meadow lark, 
chewink, tree swallow, white-eyed vireo, myrtle 
warbler, brown thrasher, catbird, Carolina wren, 
black-capped chickadee, hermit thrush, eastern 
Yellow-bellied sapsucker, yellow-shafted flicker, star- 
ling, cardinal, cedar waxwing, mocking bird, brown 
thrasher, robin, eastern bluebird. 
Yellow-billed cuckoo, red-headed woodpecker, red- 
bellied woodpecker, downy woodpecker, kingbird, 
starling, Baltimore oriole, orchard oriole, cardinal, 
purple finch, scarlet tanager, cedar waxwing, red- 
eyed vireo, yellow warbler, mocking bird, catbird, 
wood thrush, robin. 
Mourning dove, yellow-shafted flicker, kingbird, star- 
ling, cardinal, mocking bird, catbird, hermit thrush, 
gray-cheeked thrush, olive-backed thrush, robin, 
eastern bluebird. 
Kingbird, red-eyed vireo, wood thrush, veery. 
Bobwhite, kingbird, red-eyed vireo, catbird, veery, 
Chewink, catbird, brown thrasher, wood thrush, 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, red-headed woodpecker, 
yellow-shafted flicker, kingbird, European starling, 
Baltimore oriole, orchard oriole, pine grosbeak, song 
sparrow, fox sparrow, white-throated sparrow, che- 
wink, California towhee, spurred towhee, cardinal, 
rose-breasted grosbeak, black-headed grosbeak, 
cedar waxwing, red-eyed vireo, mocking bird, cat- 
bird, brown thrasher, tufted titmouse, wren tit, 
olive-backed thrush, wood thrush, robin, eastern 
Ruffed grouse,Laharp-tailed grouse, prairie chicken* 
Red-headed woodpecker, Baltimore oriole, evening 
grosbeak, pine grosbeak, cedar waxwing, Bohemian 
waxwing, catbird, brown thrasher, robin. 
Meadow lark, brown thrasher. 
Ruffed grouse, pine grosbeak, purple finch, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, ringneck pheasant, red crossbill, pine 
grosbeak, purple finch, cedar waxwing, mocking 
bird, robin. 
Yellow-shafted flicker, Baltimore oriole, cedar wax- 
wing, catbird, hermit thrush, veery, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, mourning dove, red-headed 
woodpecker, yellow-shafted flicker, kingbird, Euro- 
pean starling, Bullock's oriole, Baltimore oriole, 
orchard oriole, evening grosbeak, purple finch, rose- 
breasted grosbeak, black-headed grosbeak, Louisi- 
ana tanager, red-eyed vireo, cedar waxwing, mock- 
ing bird, catbird, brown thrasher, olive-backed 
thrush, wood thrush, robin, eastern bluebird. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, valley quail, downy wood- 
pecker, red-bellied woodpecker, red-shafted flicker, 
yellow-shafted flicker, phoebe, European starling, 
goldfinch, golden-crowned sparrow,chewink, white- 
eyed vireo, Audubon's warbler, mocking bird, cat- 
bird, California thrasher, brown thrasher, Carolina 
wren, black-capped chickadee, Carolina chickadee, 
wren tit, hermit thrush, robin, eastern bluebird. 
1 Barberries (Berberis), buckthorn (Rhamnus), and gooseberries and currants
(Ribes) are omitted be- 
cause they serve as alternate hosts of rusts attacking wheat, oats, and white
pine, respectively, 
2 When10 or more. 
3 Included on the basis of field observation or because fruit was found in
10 or more stomachs. 
4 Thirty-eight kinds of birds are known to feed on apples of various sorts,
but it is not known just how 
many seek the small-fruited flowering apples, which are the best to plant
for birds. 
6 Only nonpoisonous species of sumac are considered. 

TABLE 1.-Preference of birds among genera of fleshy fruits-Continued 
Common name       Scientific name 
Peppertree ----------- 
Holly - 
W ild  grape ----- ------ 
Virginia creeper -  -_ 
Buffaloberry - .. 
Silverberry, Russian- 
olive, etc. 
Wild-sarsaparilla , - 
Tupelo, or sour gum-- 
Crowberry -------- 
Bearberry --------- 
Beautyberry, or Me 
.can mulberry. 
Partridgeberry -_ _. 
Elder ---------  -- 
Snowberry ........... 
Blackhaw -. 
1 Schinus 
Ilex  ............. 
Berchemia     - -- 
V itis    I . ------- 
Lepargyrea ...... 
A ralia ----------- 
I"Nyssa ..... 
Empetrum      . 
Vaccinium ...... 
Callicarpa ----- 
Lonicera_ _ 
of species 
of birds 
known to 
eat the 
-  106 
SData given are based entirel1y on field observations; total number of birds
eating the various species of 
Elaeagnus unknown. 
Picnic grounds, fairgrounds, and parks may be improved as 
places of public gatherings, recreation, and education by increasing 
their bird 'population.   Moreover, the alterations that improve a 
park as a bird haven may, and should, themselves be made to add 
Kinds of birds among those desirable to attract that 
are most fond of the fruit 
Cedar waxwing, phainopepla, hermit thrush, varied 
thrush, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, valley quail, yellow-bellied 
sapsucker, yellow-shafted flicker, cedar waxwing, 
mocking bird, catbird, brown thrasher, hermit 
thrush, robin, eastern bluebird. 
Mocking bird, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, pileated woodpecker, red- 
bellied woodpecker, red-shafted flicker, yellow- 
shafted flicker, kingbird, European starling, cardi- 
nal, cedar waxwing, mocking bird, catbird, brown 
thrasher, wood thrush, veery, robin, western blue- 
bird, eastern bluebird. 
Red-headed woodpecker, red-bellied woodpecker, 
yellow-bellied sapsucker, yellow-shafted flicker, 
European starling, evening grosbeak, purple finch, 
scarlet tanager, red-eyed vireo, mocking bird, brown 
thrasher, tufted titmouse, hermit thrush, olive- 
backed thrush, gray-cheeked thrush, robin, eastern 
h     -tilesbeauk. 
Searp-dT grouse, prairie chiceecdar waxwing, 
Bobwhite, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, bobwhite, downy woodpecker, yel- 
low-shafted flicker, red-shafted flicker, kingbird, 
European starling, evening grosbeak, pine gros- 
beak, purple finch, white-throated sparrow, song 
sparrow, cardinal, cedar waxwing, warbling vireo, 
red-eyed vireo, mocking bird, catbird, brown 
thrasher, hermit thrush, olive-backed thrush, gray- 
checked thrush, wood thrush, robin, eastern blue- 
Yellow-shafted flicker, European starling, purple 
finch, cedar waxwing, gray-cheeked thrush, olive- 
backed thrush, robin. 
Pine grosbeak, snowflake. 
Ruffed grouse, dusky grouse, valley quail, mountain 
quail, fox sparrow, wren tit. 
Pine grosbeak, chewink, robin. 
Ruffed grouse, valley quail, kingbird, orchard oriole, 
pine grosbeak, chewink, cedar waxwing, catbird, 
brown thrasher, black-capped chickadee, tufted tit- 
mouse, hermit thrush, robin, eastern bluebird. 
Mocking bird, brown thrasher. 
Ruffed grouse. 
Valley quail, red-headed woodpecker, yellow-shafted 
flicker, eastern kingbird, Arkansas kingbird, black 
phoebe, European starling, California towhee, 
white-crowned sparrow, rose-breasted grosbeak, 
black-headed   grosbeak, phainopepla,     red-eyed 
vireo, mocking bird, catbird, brown       thrasher, 
California thrasher, wren tit, olive-backed thrush, 
Sluebird, eastern bluebird. 
harp-taile grouse   vening grosbeak, pine grosbeak, 
Ruffed grouse, yellow-billed cuckoo, yellow-shafted 
flicker, European starling, purple finch, rose- 
breasted grosbeak, cedar waxwing, catbird, brown 
thrasher, robin, eastern bluebird. 
Bobwhite, pine grosbeak, white-throated sparrow, 
catbird, brown thrasher, hermit thrush, robin. 

ggeimChioImn seen by Bob Lewis    at thm, old V.X.T. 
In 18909th1feean Xistmf~t thre The' raboutt 4hrpcb ymars 
subsequount to that 'tmt 

Dr.laynes saw 300 at Red Lalze in ono bun3hn-Roor"OVlt CO.I9i5 
sayf he shot fou or the!,1 with  0-30 
GalUsha report8 s eing then at Jmes Pu eblo in  913 
and that h zand Oonduotor Watson saw tbem at Deming 
in 1914.':osaty lots eof. thof,tlfhlands existed in 
QuayOuriy and Chaves C. (1915) 

lwo the book The          rds 4 of sl4forAsU' 
Oriwll-   - Soe 
(Pu   s        Uiversity of Calfornia V   .IMM) 
O~rt ngof the Sharptail1  Orouso in 1"T C9) +. J.rew r saiM 
oming north fro    an ?a     *i . w  first found it on a boa-atifil pzsii*

saT Canoe cree  (Nar Cssl, Shsta Oouty), bOwt fifty miles nort      t of

Tot    sdn; vbs.atly, afte p"i            the  ntain chain wich form
vF? mon of Pit Rir, we c          into a levl, gass-Oo vel plain, throu&

k*1   to wtllabldered rivet flows in a sin ous cue lik      a brook throuA

a madow (pro'bbl near    ikut. Mod.. Couaty). On this plain wr great AVbxs

of birds of various kin. and e many of the saptai3*t grouse, that, for tu

or thee     s, they afforded us fine sport an  an abundance of excellent
T a foumd them again about the   lath laes . . . 
In 18T9 bsabb   (18M, . 9- 3T) mwrs     "About Cap Bidwell (Modoc Conty),

Cal., tke  sharp-tails' ar mff ia    tly  --wous to ef  t  xelmt shoting,

mad good bags my be mad* there. doop     (1qOa, P. 533) belS0w    that tbo

spsi   mnged    ar  soUth   s latit*e 3    (lke Takoe), but was not ctain

of this; *hIle Beadivs (IM, p. ") baA *.ocoA of its oumow         on,
Inatern slopes of the 31 kirou bcnatains." N othing e1s biaa to ou 
%*on printed os..m1in  this grum   in Califo*M.     rrsadw*ws=draf 
by -  with loeal residts of tbh   atheastm *"tiom of the state, and
information Otaine   as to its mre rent status. 
Mr. Chas. D.  lsa   , Asistant bret lnger at AI.tuis, repots (in letter 
dasi ;wxaa  1.3, 1916) that a pair of "Prairie *hia" was soot by
hiz  urn 
April and Mk, 1915, %ou Ti~se Eewitaiz, antral Eodw County. The bowaior 
of the birds indicatet. that the7y we nesti$ng. They were always to be found
in a 
$srt~in locality, ope gramey corutry with but little sagebrush. The cock
the hen w   both g      mallo than the gae HAM and when fl-asad flew aor

rapidly And tcackle4 me  sbpy 'but msaie the s." 
Mr. C1au   L. )ro, residing at Lookout, Modoc County, writes u    (u  r 
&2, 1916) that he had nt seen                y "Prairi Ohickus"
himself for 
sevel years. mt that a friend had seen tw     ding the 411 0 1915 on the

4ai of Willia Krm    about me   ile northeast of Lookout.  "At oae time

plertiful. flock  of fifty or more being often  mOn, the birds have vrata3

diinsdutil almost extinat~h 
Mr. W. S. Criss, als of lekt writes va(unie       data R6bmay 25, 1916) 
that thee wre m       "little broma Pzairie QhIcns" oa his ranch
up t abov$ 
fiften yse    pwimul. T         w  at ano ti m   . sthi      on could not
t)ftu the f ields without scain Wp several bunches. 14 The 'boys killed thin

off vatil f~ima7 (about 1901) but oepair wsleft. Sixng         eemm Wf.#W
laist eart, but the entie family wxlater wipM out. 

Set iha"U8.dsio rkP O*V s5 ft~ml* writt 
ofifty Pwair$* CMk=  ow th zmkofU. U asU * t themtbo 
:mFpa 9uOk las  Caty I t that tin  o ko uW hb u s m lado 

ELEVATION C     '2W yf, 
14 0     2  3  4 _  5  a  7  8 '  0 
There are nearly as many varieties of pheasant pens as there 
are pheasant breeders. The design given here is not the only good 
one, but in my judgment the best adapted to all varying condi- 
tions and sizes of flocks from five to five thousand. 
The cock pheasant in the spring is so that it is impracticable 
to have more than one in a pen. The eggs from large flocks with 
many cocks are low in fertility; also the eggs are difficult to find. 
The best results are secured from pens of one cock with four or 
five hens. 
Vegetation is an important factor, and cleanliness paramount. 
Pens small enough to be appropriate for so few birds, if sta- 
tionary, are difficult to keep clean, and the frequent reseeding 
to insure vegetation must be hand work and therefore impractica- 
ble. A small pen which is easily movable to fresh ground with the 
least labor and a minimum of disturbance to the birds is most 
The accompanying illustration shows such a pen. The north 
end is covered over for three feet with light boards and tar paper. 
The door into the pen is at the north end. The top and three 
sides should be covered with 1-inch mesh poultry wire to keep out 
sparrows. The sparrows not only eat the feed but they bring in 
chicken lice, which are even more detrimental to pheasants than 
to chickens. 
Feeding and watering can be done most readily through small 
doors hinged at the bottom and opening outward similar to a 
pantry flour bin, obviating the necessity of entering the pen 
except to scatter grain and collect eggs. Both these operations 
should be done at one time. Water, grit, charcoal mixed with 
slaked lime, egg mash (as for laying hens) and crissel (ground 
dried meat) should be kept before the laying hens. The last 
named has in my experience prevented and cured egg eating. 
Fall is the time to procure breeding stock. It is cheaper in 
the fall and will become acquainted with its new home, thus 
producing much better the following spring. This fall buying 
applies even more to ducks. The penning of ducks, of course, 
is another subject. 
Move pheasant hens often. Keep the ground clean and well 
sodded. In this western country alfalfa is the best vegetation. 
I                I . - 
f I 
rQ      '     t  "         - 

Pheasants Accused of Ruining Highways in South Dkota 
(From N.Y. Herald-Tribune, My 20, 19281 
PIERE, S.D., May 19.--That pheasants are clearing the 
graveled highways of the state of their surfacing is the 
last complaint to be charged against these gaudy game birds 
by the Beadle County Farmers Association, which has been in 
a state of war with the state game department for the last 
two years in regard to pheasants. The association olaims 
that the birds are destructive to their crops and will not 
be satisfied with anything less than "extermination of the 
pheasants, that being their decree. 
The conflict has gone so far that the farmers' associ- 
ation is not only making their demands as to the pheasants, 
but also that the state department shall not "plant" any 
other class of game birds in their section of the state, and 
further that the department refrain from any further sinking 
of artesian wells for the purpose of building lakes for the 
extension of fishirg and huntinr privileees in this state. 
In an effort to snooth down the situation the game de- 
partment provided an open seson of ninety days in that and 
adjoinint counties last fall, but, %tile thousands of 
pheasants were killed and the number materially reduced, the 
irate farmers will not concede any other solution but that 
of extermination, and they have expressed their determination 
along that line with the additional ideas at a recent meeting 
which was held with the state Eame commission a few dals ago, 
which failed to find any cormon Cround in the controversy. 


May 29, 1928 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
2222 Van Hise Avenue, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
I am enclosing copy of clipping from the 
New York Herald-Tribune of May 20th, which I 
thought you might wish to investigate. 
Also enclosed is a photostat copy of 
a newspaper clipping from the May 17th issue 
of the St. Louis Globe-Democrat entitled, "Another 
Undesirable Alien". 
I would like to see you secure actual 
facts concerning the information reported in these 
articles. The editorial in the St. Louis paper 
impresses me as the most idiotic writing that I 
have ever read on such a subject. 
Yours truly, 
G.M.Olin :W 
General E. C.] Ml: 

WilteH n9_' 
bids  is an  uneial9le. N wtepol 
disppar   but no suhgo  uki9nsgt p 
parentl the bir              has! com  to sty  It now numbers 
obecina.  Th  evl  of thi   patidear 
e               to cositt  a  wos  mec.  It issidt 
hihw.  "Ltral  thu. nd  of th  galia9 o 
craurs     it i. soeml  asetd  ar  inadn  the *                      an  filn  thi  crp  wihtetn  il 
gtne                      of galnct, as-et  the Minaoi Jour- 
a  .  '  ~ ~ na . ..9 9 
Durin                  a peio  of vas  exedtre-n 
bulig               th ;m rato .tuf  a bir  was nothing;.  .. 
is              tha a.  cm . If  ther   is an  rthi h 
krevu   chrebogt9gis.t  ndi  h  tt 
1 99                         Gam  Deatmn  isrsosbefo  t rsne 
.  9 ai  01b 9*"rm a     tha deatmn is gult of detoyn  th  wor . 
Isue     DiydSny.         the Stat  Hiha  Bord  Can an  stt  rest &9.

.  .  HUE .        tha  tertrcm9vrad9ei  odsryMs 
Iln * coy  dal ....  ......  .2 cet  patide  eve  I"- 
Sinle  opy  Suda  .... :..,...... :1::::*ocns rw. O r G m   eat etsol  e
w re 
One   9a...   9 $.0(  V.  $1.0  tha  ca  bedn. Al.ih aswllhv ob 
Si  9ota..;i...3 5 5 5,  T5 
Tho  ots'9 ..  ,5 15   .2    ul  fcnree9n  idtatcuddvu 
OeII       I    I   I mot .....6.0 .0II0cnrt odwudbearr pcmn ned 
GiePs9 ffe  drs i9ul9nluigcut9Psil.n9norgn.te  osrcto   e 
-I            -             -      9    9      *        III 

IL   )( '~L  t4 
21L  t U~d 
(~ d .} 
K (K~  K&{ 
~dA ~           ~c4~__ 
13c7o~T~ Q~i2~O&    ~'\(2  V~~9~y    ct~4 ~c{, 
&               3                ~          clL{it 
ZOK~ ,~U 
$I7,2~L)~  ~2-O~    ~2   fvf~ tA%4J~ CIAJt 
~2~LZVD   U, 2~c i        ~         ~ 
K     ~~iC    -  ~Q-<~C)C~      ~>Aw6t~C~F&~ 
I ~          ~     ~ ~ 
&         t Kt f~   {~j           ( 
E                tA~d    f       ~ vLZL~*, L~&A~d  &#c~4) 
Yn I 

ocr,      00                               -!t 
L4                               94 
DO                                              cs 
      ce                               Cd 
rn                               ct 
C4-4            0                C4-4 
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                            0 4 

Ringneck folder 
Prm fteto Shoting Is Possibe.* 
Capt. Paul A. Curt i. 
12.500  *a  . 1 92T 
2,32  'birds sho 
$3.20  cos per bidtuid u        (ntf 
4.75 cost per bira bomt mm     mil 
$350  *olal. pric per brac 
5.00  yetail --rice per liac 
$5.000 proceed   from phasants sold 
)4,000 a~ppro. no. bird~s escapd 
$12,000  apro. cost 'birds escaped 
$5.00  *at. valu  to stt per bird esmp 
3,356 no. "ra kil.& 
43%  5,380 -Z,2,9  per.. ce t  W  mtm 
4?4% 2,324-' 5,39D per cent of toy94t shot. 
56% 5,.390-2.324 =;3,056 -5. 380 per cent of turouts esapeC 
U1LM0 3.20 1 530 net operting cost. 
$22,200 17,2004-5*000 gros operating cost. 
$5.70 17,2W0- 3,000 cost per acre per yea. 
Notes ft   costs per bird a     inc e  orad food crops but not fencin 
or beaters "go.    Id mrps used are oats, millet, buktbeat, whot, 

,,*~Na aR**# g#*9 999 
9140     o  09~ *   0 9  ****3 
'rem*  ,  ,, ,,,*, 
OmB  to *O S 9 9 9 9 , 9 0 
S£1*49   9 9 99 * 7 
"a Intmet      U3~2~intf 
so  at  -fot   MI ~  a"  9ug"  9m a~  9w 9 9 9  9 9 

Diget af tPartrik-es 4 Patridge Unnorr'      By Aldo Loopld 
fAm   & Cha. Black - L~m- 1911) 
V- 17  S1LS        eA* ~dgi thb inanous partridgs. C~i 
red-e~dpartriee, introwe. fro S. W. Euarope in tieo 
Chae  IT. Coned& '?reace      Latter not found In Scotlon& 
tic Circle, and oast to Altar Uts. 
40Rbt maaaos             Ma eieps re a     , yw . ly at I week.  Dust at

aiii-fed* ushupfoo  a   and th~en roost In circles on ope 
rising gruL    Fairing begins, in Jwary.   rrt e& laid. at noo 
and susqen      ags a lititle later eac day. F-s kept covre6. 
Desrt If disturbed first 2 dayvs of 1wnati.. wbic takes 3 weks- 
En said to suppress went during this time. Cock does not incubates 
but hoods chicks an hatched one b7   e 
49         ~Inflmtion of luns 6arin    vat spells, Capes. after dry 
&pl e6--phtbta (eyes). Foasalng 42*pgd by arseatoal vhet 
dressings, chemical inwus *Ad shep dips. On hev      lands killed 
by clay balls on feet. 
53A   udsirbl a 'brodin      stock after 2 years old. 
66 bwao On gun killed 300,000 head in 25 yr.. (124000 per year) () 
90                 8,UZ&I  00M ares  Sail sixed but l1iat and s4nd sails

prodmin   * 8ng   $m was  es but no  parmot 1*stmr. No railway 
or wires. N. ditabes. Divided Inte stroaes 200 acres by belts of 
bsardAs 10 - 20 treo. deep. I head keeper at 70) -~ 10 pouns plus 
30 - 5  pntiUps, house, gadn oew. 9 ssistantswith beat* of 
700 - I"sh acres. each-                            ak       sst 
and  rippest  educ nrs and rabbits; muitenano. of coverts. 
Savgn and trading ejgs.       Oct. Q010 days drivin.    v.  - ,  dqs.6 
Yield 6010 birds or 1 per 1-1/3 ace, leaving a pair to ever 
4 - 5cess *brooding stock, 
109  "ustf&Plan" Invntd by Pearson Grgoy    Ojectsi (1) to
js     (2) toshorten incuation from 3 wecks to I. After )4 as laid, 
all are %Wm and "eplcd by artificial eqs. Yg hatched to 
chiipia  stage In 1wcuatr or under hes, then Int bk vundr 
part4ijg  hen wh has sat a "ak.    Us man  as 30 chipred eis: are 
pt =dr I partrite hen. A Lincolnshire 'beat hatched 1,20 e&-% 
en 1,300 acre. by this system. 
112 TL1 - Ij birds per ar prothed by r. L. "ryr on s=11 e state at 
Newakt.    Re provides drinkng tountIaa*  a precautilon aaninst 

P- 113               .uY&LS  ats teas. 15-2a  Oa. h .6d ant .st  or pmwti~

mea mxe wth~ cusard. and Cree. ftd 5 tV1, per clay 1st week 4i 
tin,* for next 2 wek, 3 tims toreator.   Lowve foster mother at 6 
-ek (Wai goa. 
116 Eu1al    say haearing1 deterrtes the stock. ShQm14 be practiced 
onie" foes~., ay oil, or other conditione wak* natural ustbods 
imposi'be. Brds  ave lo instinct I~f hand r d. 
M"       §W ft in a enatr a pnin October. As pairs fom 1#4 
int su undngfamily pea s  eets a" md. Cove moved to 
fields and turne 4ow 6 dqe atter bscig       5D pairs should yiel 
30  on  birs er~ god manaet. 
129  ms wid, 1% of ae of gsands mut be plu4e tor food crops 
iftobeuse for partridgs. Thos fto   patches shiu  not coat o'ver 
1 pun  per #A.   Dawet with strips of millet tor ewer Is good 
food cop. 
TvOOQ ares l$%t soil.   Trnh   sysem weA. 
sag VLk   aces;    tock left I per 10 &or*. Yil increae 
rr~san HU, Xj~W   . 40 acrs heavy *oil,, 100V) ooM, 1,00 
turppat ,00pastre.  oub e      a*gs adwired b*Rks vae for 
Obr~ M~-jQOJUU                ,O aes low% 2/3 ond. ArtificId 
n~siagp~m  mae wt~hwi ato thorn brush; ere not use f irst years 
but sessful seon. Owls aMd bestrose prs   e    do no hxm 
A~r      'bag first 2# yers 610 'birds. Lot6 ys. 1dvin) 9W0 'birds. 
Max. UManbest bat lbird.per 3           acrs  n wole 4rud1 Po  ares. 
J1 K~dAr- g~dj~n   5,000 se cle,   315 cultivated- Um 
dv~e ew-  uit bt artidesprefe roadsides. Ascribs this to 
netof daM an   rt, so buildig dstine In h*4**. Pbasat 9rs 
a" lifted out of partridge nests to avoid ditur   c. tvqse    ued 
to food bird a4ring wow. Max. ba 1,60 bi~r - tik      l   Mm 
wil ary 
&&     -1o     a~n.       5M     ce.msl 11gt         Half cropped.

Doubs i inreeingdoesaxWham- ctesSwo  bicensinbedtor 
10 yes" without deteriortion. gas. broodin stock. Jan. I pair psr 
3 &0.9 
WelsAA%        Nta        O   *are*, heavy and IIt. not all shot. 
5 rsits n hi esat, -fece neetr Crwid of 11- 1 acre. 
Nomre nets Inside thga out. Idea1 breedi*Z stock to lewave is 1 pair 
per acrn, atual left 1 per 3 or  noacr.. Best beat on year yielded 
lEW birds on 1,200 acre. 

Fathul. jnU~iM    4,fY) csn  1000 in ass and p1atst1.s. 
Mad     Futry an stabbls vr hasm     . Good stocking I pai pe 
acrs. Best yield 1,600 birds. 
Claims aenic~ font 
jjgg~M$Aggg~.  *ry aro     s    typou,4%   Bolte of brooi -x 
platedfo  dwte an nsti ,. Md 10  o th  nst*. Voles dentrv 
up to Zl of the note by burrwiv unde     them, lests d4e.o   if bird 
flshed withina3 dq~s after Incubtion starts. A*ora     clutob 16, weag 
1atch 14     Not ove 201 wild p     heahad ealw.4 o   5,000 sor**. 
Idel broodin stock I pir per 14 -~ 5 acrs. Za bad years ohen drivine 
is idthh14~ but gos otadkills off the o1d birtw       walkie up the 
ewiss. In IM0 kille 14123 birds off 5,000 acrs, ad 135) off tbo 
best pr   (1)0 acre). 
WickbftwwU11, *KA   ,01Y)acre, l  b   iBote of birch, baesi, 
ftro ad  roo  pantd or  artide bt hos m& b  kpt low end 
Wa orthey wi* not uod.     Xw  yoa kill.4 trhy     oir.   Leaves last 
-ar  Ra cuts by hwa next day.  In beat yoar (10)kile AM birds 
an 3200 acres- 
benfical  n kllng  ats  lo  ftin  10 Tre. Z40 to 1900 per yr. 
1&rP  NO  lt~hs todr*Mchiks.   Leavs 1 pair 
yea" beg 2TW bird. 
1,0r  La res. D1514 
519MR~l C~bL4&~t&    5s50 acros 20501 11&t, rest hey .A4 
no oo fr  mw.tgs r*stsaM    with rube  stap on neet tq pr"M 
poscint.Idau stock 1 pairvperw5acre. Boot y~rs bag 2Wbirds 
Tb RM&A)dtr,4,5W scres lown. Small ilintea of Aire 
nttingI y, s     tms  ar pvet out. Idea stocking1 pair per 10 acre. 
Bags beet yr. 1 bird per * sctes, xwr.- 1 per l4. vert 1 pier 12 acres. 
Orwell W6 besA         f         beet yer 600" birds fro 17,TX0 
-a . 
51rattan.~n 1ggis 
124000 rate killed 1911. Yield beot 
per 434 
h a 
F. 196J bhead the ILot. I doe rat could t1**V~tiesli lea"e 35,000M 
in  rr.52 6-wks pemts killed by oe rat in I nitht. 
indgtoousto .omg.Iiao Croin4d the Volga in the 17th e.ntuz7. 
Brow rat 
rn1 o 
§MAllalij SNftnabirep Birds sto"Ilr dosereasing. 
in d**A birds (Trm chemical =unuvs). 

Ifa       isputed. Uh forw     but p4o fer rodet oatwel. 
AgdUM     istd. Nturalists say only ceraina ladivi-sle be& on eame 
9A   i L&            beb". 
IiAW   mu   be icpt wthbin 1 bites. 
isU ad i 5a4vid1s can be trappe. 
-1 bA Fr. Now protted. 
Xyn       Very useful. No longer killed    ke'epess 
5g4llats gva, On the i winter4rt. 
tgjjZg 1W7       9 laar o ijais 
211 AM    ~     w   aea of partrVae g     n of 5MO acres wtia obtainable

at Lvew  pr acr. This u$At yioeU 2,7 birds  ,rt 10 pound on the 
2W  Xf~c of  Alla~a jjjd  Gwsretev Ia Z~rwm thea in patridge. 2feots 
in ormr asesweims "ruy marve1lus" by reasn of remval of old   cck

andbare 'en  *  dest~wttw* as the mast vermin *hih old birds aro 
Onew -vo    sem obon ove dogs.       While tis~ happens wth partridge 
also *it is not cerain to *hat tent this lafiufe affocts the ss.*. 
Yearly partridge bog at lak   aicresed fro 3,010 to :3000 Mithin 
a few year after drivir %a a$54.te but this doss not pov* the cas. 
A4    UazwsU Maccpts for grus 'but not for partrike the theory that oetu4
blood~ 4W to 4ivtng is bisefioial. "~ partridge muh mor 1gs11m4d and

cowl's aq   retun, after driin. rhres grue4. not. 

00" I_ lipoo.- 
xrn. t-24 autoeloot 
10      4 
1     0                                V 
V             z 
I , 
12 t 
t      10 

som"4m atswof~mw cst 
-Uutro 1,i ow-, 

Votes on H. U. Wights Report (umpublished) 
Private Game Refues of Michigan, 1928. 
P, 37- Red fox  tf otin a lobing battle for survival*. 
145, jdpabltof Refuges- 
Ptairie chicken 
Yox Squirrel 
46. Coer     62% of 212 $meassntsow Yeb-May flushed from sedge 
mshes.   Leave in April due to flooding, - go to upland 
woed. Then stay on up ands till haying season when they 
gain sek the marshes.     Do not ase woods except when hunted. 
.q'a,.i T Frst pairing Mar 26. 
Wfed rouse"extremely rare" in Southern Michigan. 
Prii Cikn           None seen. 
57.  Cotnal 
42 species of food noted. 
59. §      of refugesz  half under 100 acres. 
I8terst    29 good, 23 v,,ALA-4-  , 13 poor, uninhabited2 
no supervision 10. undetermined 12. 
96. B         notcobserved account of winter season. 
Abundant     Comon       Present or 
Not Present 
Poorly Adapted 
Pheasant      9 
Bobwhit       7 
Prairie Chicken 
Grouse       0 
Cottontail   11 
?ox Squirrel I 
Muskrat       1 
0       0 

PAbundant or common cases mostly east of a line from 
naw Bay through 0 'rien County. 
Prreh            Oakland, Ingham, Hillsdale, Kent, Allegan, Midland, 
neesee, Washtenaw, Lenawss, and Jackson, Couhties. 
Northern Part. 
P. T Crawford Co. out of pheasant rasge. 
Typical Reftge Study 
(Paul D. Dalke, 1923) 
Northville, Mich. Novi Twp. 563 acres. 
return to 
35 - 0 birds wintered on 30 acre marsh. 10 - 12 stayed 
rest scattered to adjoining uplands. 
22 hens in i group (Feb.) Cocks in small groups, 3-1. 
began July 10 with many hens still on nest. Hens seldom 
eggs if disturbed more than once. 
*b~tI. Low at present. 

Modern Pheasant Raising                       X 
The Natural History and Raising of the Pheasant 
as well as a Plan for Pheasantry 
Robert Holz 
Pheasant expert of the pheasantry of Ganz 
in Eastprignitz 
With 24 Illustrations 
Publishing House of Paul Parey 
Publications for Agriculture, Horticulture, and Forestry 
S. W. 11 Hadenann Street 28 and 29 
Translated by Paul Affolter 
Under the direction of 
H. M. Wight 
School of Forostry and Conservation 
University of Michigan 

Chapter XIII 
Pages 105 F=107 
The Plantin& or Pheasants in the Preserve 
After all necessary preparations have been completed: 
the planting of berry bushes in coniferous and deciduous 
forests, the planting and building up of preserves and covers, 
the building up of feeding areas in a protected location, and 
a complete control of predators, then one resorts to the 
stocking of the prepared preserve with pheasants. The most 
opportune time to do this is late fall after the hunting season 
closes for all game, until the beginning of March. The number 
of pheasants that should be planted in a preserve depends 
entirely upon its size. On the average fifteen square yards 
of surface is allowed per pheasant. The sex ratio of pheasants 
in the stocking of a wild preserve is one cock for every three 
Should there be wild pheasants present in a preserve, 
and the propagation and increase are not favorable, then 
the trouble can be attributed to the presence of old pheasants, 
which have not been furnished with new strains of blood, and 
therefore have become incapable of continued fertilization. 
To remedy this condition by planting pheasants would not be 
effective, since the old wild cocks would peck and drive the 
planted pheasants out of the preserve. The purpose would 
entirely fail. No one can distinguish with certainty an old 
Scock from a young cock when shooting them during the hunting 
season. I therefore advise that the entire population be shot 
off, and to plant the preserve at the right time with young 

pheasants. Propagation is now favorable providing that in 
buying the pheasants good stock was chosen. To the preserve 
owner who stocks his preserve with wild pheasants of unknown 
heritage, great disappointments will not be spared. Yost of 
them will disappear, never to be seen again. Propagation 
will only occur in a few instances, since wild pheasants caught 
in the wild and sold are of different ages. It is therefore 
necessary to take the greatest precaution when buying pheasants. 
*  *  *  -1-;   4 i  * 
I have been able to allow the shooting of four hundred cocks in the 
first year in a preserve stocked with one hundred hens and thirty- 
three cocks. In each successive year the number that can be shot 
is doubled. 
The artificially raised pheasant will, in the ensuing time, 
become accustomed to the new area, since here he has everything 
which his old home had furnished him. 

(For   easat folder) 
F      4URTH BI                 77 
of tie 
1C27 -                              491 
PF e 331. 
The only atte ot at analysis of the cost of heasat proo ction 
ot Ivason appeatrs to have been neein 1927. This reoart comes to t-e 
concusion that birds g-12 week~s olJ ad fit for release hve been 
costig ahoat  2.07 each, 
Tis fijxre indicates that the Mason Far has been producing 'ith 
very fair effecicncy. In P32C the Staite f Penis yIve ia, with no State-

o ed same Fr, an     b~ing in the open voret,  aid $3.19 for live 
o'hea ts, delivered,  d~ in 1Q R bou~ht over 17,.000 ohetsnt e , s at 
25 cents each. 

n Fourth Bieiin~a1 Repoz't, Miehtga~ 
7-2S, p. 231. 

kiss jc 
(L ~ ~ 
cL% z7~~j 
K! $2 
1 9C4.4 

gzium~s a 91   25 I"l sk"Iw~ 
IWMYo swils    LOWI la the U. S. 4A 004 of te VISSISS1010 I" 
Unv~idus I-s      4 
AT, o. sof       2 
14 md of the 22 re e =4 I @m~ s.4 t to 1ii2w 
that mmy it a*$ must of the Others  siel *14r 
O- - - 
1.0 stall.,. rportio axA =4 2D bird moon 
statiam rpff"6 
Av. No. sof        12/3 
W bi~~~x#s           m  SUIf 2 2 3 to * c v .  Ass mi  US$  I 
so"~    - *as  -0O                   that Gaaki sng  oIo zo 
that~ th  eo  m   a    im 0to 11 '~   es * 
esstiol 1  thea Is ase slas mot ge$s 
AS tb* fC~tWt~tS"      etf~ttV 4tw =ltt7 tbhf 
We"u? ORO wuU  astlte  uthe me, orm .$ X   fer *LstI* 
""%oar mtmn~   . m 
*,im e. 'M        5 

97  stiw "rW  o l~eft btivobl p.1*.a s 
to,~ ~   ~  r tu law, ewwowot1ofmw*oo 

1W~s ZOP"   3/19 
rw 'Vol. III )0's #A Xsanh fU      1rest (V1t*ra...a1qU) 
416"r Inag"    #ets' 
1. cleaing$ of sizllax 
& 40tU 
2. R~d 
Low~e b w).  . U a, 
00            1 1  !i' 
Up to20 
i*  O  ft  4 
i larly ml     & late after- 
I uwlY 2-3 bA.. Som- i Too. 4 Uss. 
I  tims asams.       I 
I                     A- 
t                     I 
I *"ot"%*4tIo 
*~v 'boos not mual 
310,04M was 
2smt. o  awvat 
Mtm111  fodx  %U 

t who"v          in- i low$Iw 
I  *WIPA&  *i   s.  "~oals  " 
i sitrioT        .-ie s  rf* 
1         a ?*t   n~secs  grit 
Yon  I Inscts  grens 
3mC - r~o gmmso~5 -w" 
I       a       Ia Te, ie. 
I Oc.           mo&of*  utuo 
II NOV.         - sols  otud  in 
*I             O~s  fees 
i Dw.- cib, Smowwag 
3rdaee          om  d  a ojtet  fezo ra  Ong  g, 
Mas  toargis   001  et1,*lgol 
a *sak        I Sue Mas  t S grow*. 
*I ga.Ntoto" 
NM"$t*    *02,Cs   o doas Nosei  Iat, noeUf 
saitn  asaepswt 
Idoiw se ~   60Lprr~   I N O)m &Pc 
01            *~FIt~    u  SU 

*19mft MAO"      fboas.ini 
rm Tel. IZUr101 f* A Rekm~ of to fbosm (Wtbtr*vZON4 1hn) 
£'Us                  (2,. a4I ~ *  P~. twamhma1 
orow  i 4em fm4'se 
a looims  t 
& 4b0MU 
Demse bw&ts" alew 
rivom (out by Tmuuv) 
LM hills. 80k. ass=*. 
Ids*,, desm grass. Samb. 
No 41voys. 
?&A* mids (riselIbesto 
millet. vays). (Ckvmw da 
Alfituf                UPI~* Em0' 
cod *awe Alft Sept.-Oct. ~ 
sm"a I wuss 1610 
-lv                                        ms -*Wawa's 
I  e  t. 
11"Outs of Naviremout 
AuWM f"Aing tW 
I Urly moraine A late af%*rw 

I                  in-I  lwto 
Ub?*. maolt crofts ... 
216  mtw       iMa.  ibxom 
Iin~~~~ivos -6"A' sh  T  V2 
I Oct.. tms *"o9 usm. 
I    ""e-od" 
II me. p~s              -s68 **o* 
I               I    7mwk  I   -as us  40 
s 0041" -4**U f~ M 
s Co. Not t** 
joppav wA1 -            -   p to(V No "Pro ~ 
IN~~ I0A 1 1 - I 
t                I 
spost"~ lep er~ 

VIVOt I Zo.pod 3/5/29, 
04~prlouo 31alb4 h  (a0#*1s) aut 
i ....e Now-L~m (zo(s p..a. ti utu"A 
O  %ae  i Las.. fores9 
1. Qings of sizilax 
& lOastis 
2. ed, 
rivers. .cu 'b sasy 
Law )kil* oacsnt 
pie  oe gas     P 
k3.~4iwd                    a ~p ~ 
Mwtvm  fooin    tim 
2Wwly mo  n & late after.- 
lol              I   " 
aIuualr 2-3 eaa, Sa- I Too. 4-8 hens. 
t  tS ime 3oo"S 
V                          "2 
4 "RO  f- 1-- I  -               1 
3                3  1 
jaas of3wt os' 

3               t 
Shting mS                           t lt 
bootWg Plns          in donsO a  tinS In  I T1tu ya11.v6- angea 
s~~          n versa  1* 1w e tin.o 
Food,3                                 I11  ja' JinsctO,  *rb, O00. 
I 76b~a         a1.- tasets, gxt. 
3  o  fft* fit.m   I mar.-.   rm. 
3  *a &afttp       I Aril gras, insects, eary 
£og 3nec s~ b                  , grit. 
I 3 J~o- MWts: try Vain, crosF, 
3               I     ~I 6100a.tO  ios 
t 3 jr- grin, gresa, rice. 
SSpt. -0toum..d clft, rise. 
I Oct.- Uasig, am, abotats, 
33Nov... &*eas *ttems4d rie, 
us' gro, Auss.s xr' 
a SS~mws. aetOl 
Pro~erst ;ogl *1#4t' Zoed ad*     I @iet, fm 4  om.  doe,~g 
t Usk fax, pa~uIn,  t wasel, kostrels ose, owl. 
3ohxk                i 3~si Mack rs*.,ris 
Peslies Froibtt from killing 
go.     Not onfro. 
Native bvintn      I 7*4o7 gm. Ron d~oys bwrehai ux*, no., ko 
3 biin a" boas with  I do" 
Aseetat*& sis   ae loge pa trig       I 1W, Itor, Pig. 

'li AboomWA- 
-iet   JWt 
AaRwaft rum" 
lieUV. mU  . Udowt 
cre1e  -.a 
ot - (ama 00.).aboo) onwl 
tam Taw. sh  1.u ftvlm0 $L~ go  . 
(is. bbl of ams les". xt at.o) 
$o.  *UIV e      to 1*1Ia S%0I*b -~ft *WO 
ftUi., Orisa -ot (s.a, a.sto spWO 

(rs lot-r o 3/I5ft1 m t wslI.akoIT3Mu"so t 
or - 
w SOW 

ti   ec k Folder) 
(From letter of 3/17/29 from W.W. Cook, 1713 11onroe Street, Mdison) 
I believe tha't it is a generally accepted fact that the Rineced 
Pheasnt will when hard pressed for foodxfeed mpon the buds of trees 
the sane as our native prairiechicken, sharpt il and ruff .roose do. 
V1hen drivin  to 1iJwnu]we one~ norn~Ii , a3out %he midle of 
February, I observeci tvo hen lRin~necds hidd&i  in willow trees near

Pewaukee.  I was vithin 300 feet of them, stope. ny car and satisfied 
myself fully that tey were piciL the buds of the willow 
The snow was very deep ad food conditins were extrenely had[. 

Yuly 16, 1929. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
421 Chemistry Building, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Leopold: 
In response to your letter of luly 9, I may say that I 
am at a loss to know how the rumor arose as to exhaustion of the 
edition of the last report on the cooperative quail investigation. 
We have plenty of them and will send a copy to each of the addresses 
artificial propagation, but even so their success in a locality 
where ticks, redbugs, and other vermin are so abundant is a surprise 
.to me. This is the only place in the Southeastern States that I know 
of where the birds are doing well. 
Sincerely vours. 
W. L. McAtee 
In Charge 
Food Habits Research. 

File Ringneck Pheasant 
mx.rL 110%o P 387 
DII   00 perio 1coe    to Do3 sr 31, IVT. & oprf 
cot~     s   soet Vsto6 Britis ColwablU  paid buny on  ol d mowls 
all. of whic ha been killed 1locll. At tb Prci14     #ovrnjt pbesmt 
bounty was paid os 5 birds only. As was  00s ton years, earlie tb 
Ron*   Owl insion *1 sotr Uew Island too plac durin tw 
inmlvwinlter. an thm    quite definitely,, ceso 
The 4ealitlee and wo of 'birds tO in at 4e~k pC AM      So 
-al~p 100, rollt 2* Urwtt 14Z. Nesnl?. 3.7, 1    0p Ou3. eSnfltos 63. 
Prie Gerg 49. Q ineUl 103    3. vostke6 bes3se4 1* SmItbaw  6 Veron a 
IUtm Lak 33, New Westmister 18, Vacwe 9, Victori 2. Refrenc to 
a ma f British Colmbi with th*6 figlt In mind xq.ets a prbbe In.. 
vmis thrug tMo Caribo, Nicola and 1       mwd  regios of te interior, an

Im~ran  igato hgh, and a relative sarity rest o~f tbo Cascad 
Moutaiot "in the "Stern part or th provnc. 
Is recst years, since the Rignoe Phoaeet ea 1twpm % 
Patig bav ecome estisb*4eb     in te region us   ud     ennOaaa 
Y43.y, the =bew of wintering Oo~bee Ues Incsed perceptibl    wbox~ 
* .1oam   Is mad for th  eroi soutb~r s~at ion of tbe species f3.ol i 
the #rbblt plgu.* 

Pile Pheasants 
Wilmington, Delaware 
July 24, 1929 
Mr. Max Hart, Director of the Game Commission of Virginia, 
has given me the following information regarding the unsuccessful 
attempt to introduce pheasants in the state of Virginia. 
In 190b-300 English ringneck pheasants were purchased by 
sportsmen in Albemarle and Louisa Counties. A law was passed closing 
the season in these counties for 10 years. Two years later, in 1908, 
all of these birds had disappeared. In 1913 the American Game Protective

Association sent 100 trios, that is a cock and 2 hens, to Virginia and 
they were placed in 100 different places throughout the State and under 
the care of sportsmen who guaranteed that they would not be hunted or 
.snot. Two years later again, in 1915, all of these pheasants had disappear-

ed. In 1917 the Fish Commissioner of the newly created Game Ocmnission, 
Mr. J. S. Parsons, expended over $9,000 to establish the ringneck pheasant.

lie purcnased 2500 live birds and these were distributed over the entire

state. At the same time, he purchased a great many thousand pheasant eggs

and sent them out to be hatched by individual farmers and sportsmen. Fifty

per cent of the people receiving these eggs rendered a report and these 
reports showed that not more than 5% of the eggs hatched and grew to adult

birds. Again two years later, or 1919, all of these birds had disappeared.

Since this time the Department has not undertaken to establish the pheasant,

believing that it is impossible to do so on account of predatory animals
f(the apparent inability of the pheasant to take care of itself under these
. ditCions. 
A. . EYWAD                  / 

%Lbo ])epotr 
() V '  .,A 
Trapping Pheasants in Rearing Fields 
About two weeks before the time for 
catching up the pheasants in the rear- 
ing fields the coops are moved daily 
toward a central point where it is de- 
sired  to erect the catcher. In  this 
way it is possible to have a great 
number of birds concentrated in     a 
small area and get them used to the 
catcher and insure a good number 
when the time comes for catching up. 
For the average rearing field or a 
field containing fifteen or twenty acres 
holding two to three thousand pheas- 
ants two catchers should be sufficient 
to take up a majority of the birds in 
a short time. 
The catcher should be so constructed 
that it is readily moved, easily  and 
cheaply erected and nothing about it 
that will frighten or make the pheas- 
ants hesitate entering, such as a board 
across the entrance. The dimensions 
of the catcher should be such as to 
utilize the wire on hand to best ad- 
vantage. At Game Conservation In- 
stitute the catcher is made by putting 
up seven   7-foot  posts  one foot in 
the ground and six feet above. 
The overall dimensions are twenty 
feet by six feet, three posts being 
open, feed the birds through the gate 
and when a sufficient number are in 
close the gate and get crates ready. 
When crates are ready entar the catch- 
er, keeping all movements as delib- 
erate as possible, and wait until the 
After the bulk of the pheasants are 
caught from a rearing field it is neces- 
sary to use the small catcher or trap. 
The construction of the small catch- 
er is similar to that of the large. The 
dimensions should be about four foot 
square and two and one-half or three 
feet high. The four corner    stakes 
are first set and on one side a stake 
set to make the gate as in the larger 
catcher. Then on two sides loops are 
cut in the bottom large enough for a 
pheasant to enter. These are wired so 
that a pheasant entering with head 
down will go through, but once through 
and no feed on the ground it will not 
lower its head to get out. The large 
catcher can also be used for this kin& 
of trapping, it just being necessary to, 
place the loops at the  short  sides. 
The loops are made with    two  one- 
eighth inch wide pieces formed inti 
an inverted U, the dimension being 
eight inches deep and   seven  inches 
wide. They are placed about eight or 
ten inches apart and covered with two 
inch mesh wire forming a funnel. The 
front U loop fastens to the sides and 
top, the catcher wire being cut to fit 
and the second loop extends into the 
each long side and the 
cdd post being placed 
at one end  so as to 
make a gate. 'his en- 
trance should be about 
2% feet. Six foot 2-in. 
mesh wire is then fas- 
tened at   the  corner 
post which forms one 
side of the gate, run 
down the long side and 
around to the starting 
point where it is cut. It 
is then fastened with 
staples to  the  posts, 
not driving the staples 
all the way home and 
staked to the ground. The end form- 
ing the gate is of course not fastened 
in any manner other than hooking 
the wire ends into the wire stapled to 
the first post. Then it is simply nec- 
essary to cut a twenty foot length of 
six foot two inch mesh wire and lay 
it on top of the posts   and   fasten 
with wire along sides and ends. 
For the first three days keep the 
wire across the short ends free of the 
ground so that the pheasants will get 
used to running through the catcher 
and feed them into it. After the third 
day stake t02 ends and leave the gate 
aJ.. x en niulg ueyonIU 
the second  locp  and 
bent so as to make the 
opening smaller is the 
loose end of the two 
inch netting. 
It is always best to 
avoid having the phea- 
sants walk over a board 
to get in the trap, in 
-face some o>f the mosD 
wary ones will never 
go in if they have to 
step over anything and 
prefer to go elsewhere 
in search of food, and 
birds have stopped flushing    before 
picking them up. 
If after the first catch the birds are 
wary of    approaching  the   catcher 
again, never try to starve them into 
it. If this is done at any time except 
when snow is on the ground the birds 
are very apt to leave the field entirely 
in search of food and in this way many 
are lost. If they refuse to enter the 
catcher it is better to feed them at the 
coops for a few days until they forget 
the commotion their mates made in 
the catcher.  It is then possible to 
feed them in through the gate again. 
therefore  many fine 
birds are lost to  the 
breeder who dces not take pains to 
make it as easy as possible for the 
birds to enter. 
After each catch made through the 
funnels the loose ends of the wire 
must be inspected and adjusted or the 
opening might be made so large that 
it will permit the pheasants to leave 
the trap. 
If the rearing field to be worked on 
contains various aged birds, and it is 
only desired to catch up the older ones, 
three inch mesh wide can be used on 
the smaller catcher which will permit 
young pheasants to pass through. 

October 12, 1929 
Mr. Aldo Loold 
4121 Chemistry Buileing 
TUnive-sity -)f Wtorain 
7w..M "Science"~ Df thep ispue o? lctolhar 4, 1929, 
Iqiroto the follomilq, for yaQur infemntint 
"Tvdarsmia newly discovered dispase of rnbbits, rodeitz, 
and men, my also affect cos   msrm ptos,        ring-necicsd 
rpisasanta,      gris ad. qjal, it  p~rs fo twlies raporttd to 
the American Public Health A soaiatton ))y Dr. fl. 0. Green ea 
3.  . je, o)f thle Ual.srsty of Iinles'Ita a111 tle sts.-te -"epert-

ment 3f qeaOth. This re, Aiaeaels Y'nich hms cise4l mh concern 
in p-ablie 'health circles, is sequtiret by men who hadle infected 
Animalsa The fret th t Tpn aor-- k-Injis of nialm-  Mfy hf~Ve the 
ei6;r,-,, tlr,.~ie th-,e d,3ner t,) ;tinw biiuby icrss 
ix, the pozsible szoiaxees )f i-ifctieui. 

I                I 
P&~~4 ,cj4,~ 
/      UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN                      f 
October 31, 1929. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Chemistry Building, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Leopold: 
Dean Dana asked me to answer that part of your letter 
to him regarding methods - anything I know is always available 
to a young worker and just as soon as I can I am going to 
write it up and make it available to all interested. The crow 
work may be in print before LGrington will be ready to use 
it; if not, I'll send him that part of my manuscript 
The work with the dog is undoubtedly only in part 
adaptable to another man's work, depending upon the dog and 
the man. I have just come in from the first two days hunting 
season for pheasants, and I have seen many dogs in action, and 
I feel I am justified in saying that they have been without 
exception failures as pheasant dogs. But many of them would 
have been good quail and grouse dogs, especially the former. 
As &rrington is working on quail it would be comparatively 
easy for him to get a satisfactory dog. If you will write 
me just what you want me to do, Ill attend to it just as 
soon as time will permit. 
My dog met with some sad experiences while I was in 
Oregon and it will take me a long time to get him straightened 
out, but I value him so highly in my work ( and even more so 
now that I have seen other dogs in action) that I shall not 
give up if-it takes even a year's time. 
Yeatter is a hard worker and I believe will prove to 
be especially good in gathering statistical data from the 
farmers, sportsmen and others. 
Sincerely you-.,..s, 
H.M. Wight, 
Assistant Professor. 

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Game Breeding 
Year       No.       % Fertile       % Total 
Eggs         Hatch          Hatch 
1929     13,000          83           .56 
1925      g.000, 
1927                     32 
Adams, Mass. 
Brooder Houses used 
Hotwater system (Lange) 
Newton's & Simplex Oil-burning Brooder 
Portable with Simplex Stove 
Hopper-Weeds Brooder birds from 2-3 wks. 
In broods up to 5 112-6 112 wks. Their 
wing clipped & put into rearing fields where 
kept up to 4 mos. wintered artificially and 
put out In spring as adults. 
Costs per Purnace $8, 13, 11, 10,000 resp. 
excl. of new construction. 
Total 51,900 Plus 1300 for diet. 
Grand total of all exp $53,000 
Costs for 14 wks. birds-4 mos. birds: 
Total 1556 adults * 13,200 eggs + 12,718 young birds 
(total deliveries of birds). After crediting 
$3975 for eges and adults at $5-9 each (total,,,,, 
cost per young bird at 37,110 total cost was $2.59, 
per bird. 

Per cent of 
Per cent of 
Per cent of 
Brood stock 
total eggs hatched 50% 
hatch reared       50% 
total eggs reared 25% 
per farm SOcocks & 320 hens 
107 pairs, mated 
Average 69 Mix 125 eggs per hen 
6 year old hen had laying record. 
No foster parents used. All in Buckeye 
incubation. Eggs turned mechanically every 
6 yrs. Birds all raised in elevated brooder 
coops heated by 125 watt lamp in tin hood. 
97% of total (?) eggs hatched, 
some ee s up to Oct. 
7641 eggs gathered, 5727 hatched, 4O96 
raised.-38 quail ralsed for each hen used as breeder. 
W.E. Sanderson 
Amer; Humane Assoc. 
9O Howard St. 
Albany, N.Y. 
L.W. Rathbun Dublin, N.H. 
Forester Dablin Assoc. Game. 

Pile pheasants 
NebruaW 14 1930 
Prof. L. V. Wight 
School of foe~try* @.namttoa 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 
Dear Wightt 
I hav  nt soo.  r replied to your welIoe ltter 
of tJa. 9 I mnted to look up the matter of buddin 
I have reeive4 from Mr. Otto bye, proprietor 
of the   to BeyeGm* ?arm at Portage, iscaians     a specimen 
of a blackberry twig whih he personaly saw in procees of 
beig budded by a pheaeaat. 
The two phasants uic1h Cooks saw hs44ding were not 
ina eo   tr  Inhabite by any grouse except posibly migrator 
prairie chicenas in winter. Since Mr. Cok, however, know a 
grot ia1 more about prilie ehickens then paant, ha ing 
been raised amon  then In North Daota, It is hardly likely 
that he would astak* one for a DheaSant. 
I of cours  think you are thruhly right in wet- 
lug to'be show on this matter, and it sesc probable to me 
that the habit Is ocaetoJ. rather tha r           Lvon so, it 
seems to be established as an occasional phnomenon. 
I have eorreted the table in the introductor   state. 
sn      to the supervisio  of the Michigan pheasant itm   an Mr. 
bilke #. part init I   eeao, of *ours*, of for an  lengthy ex 
planation of the internal ogaist     , sine  that woul be mu 
of place in a brief preace. At any rate, I udetand prsoally 
bow the Mihia set-up is put together. 
You state that page 25 of the Report ca be improved. 
If your thought* on this are Imortat. I wuldA appeiate your 
letting mehave then. 
I naturaly em ver~y much plsse  with yow good epinto 
of the job ae a whole, and ppree late your taking the pais to 
write mein detail abeut it. 
Yours sixiVly, 

Mr. M. Hartley Dod'e, 
Nevw York, IT.Y. 
dee;r Mr. Dodge: 
1Answering yiur letter of February 14th with attached 
circular letter on the subject of raising pheasants in captivity, while 
I was fairly well acquainted with this subject, on a recent visit to our

State Capitol, I called at the State Ganx and Fish Commission office, and

the information which I received was just about in line with my own 
I note the que-tion is asked by the committee who wish to 
find some instance where pheasants have been bred successfully in captivi-

ty south of the line above mentioned, and in this connection wish to 
advise that my experience and the information which I received from the 
'   State Game Commission, was that we have no trouble whatsoever in raising

pheasants in captivity, for we have raised thousands of them at different

game breeding farms over the state in connection always with our fish 
<       hatcheries, but it has never been fodnd that they do any good
after being 
The only instances rep )rted to me by the 3tate Game Com- 
r      mission wher.  pheasants have propogated, or raised, were in our Pan-

handle section around Amarillo, Texas wvhere one bunch or covey hatched 
out anc raised, one at Mason, Texas, and one at Georgetown, Texas, and 
-while these birds that had been raised in ca tivity have be n placed in

-almost every section of the  tate, these are the only known instances 
where b irds have b__ een r aise  succe ss ally in capt ivi t.y , w 111 
ay 4  ia 
S      they have raised them right out at our State Fair Grounds here in
within the city limits where we have a fish hatchery, and I have see 
the young there by the thousands, but for some reason, they do not do 
well after being Liberated. While it may be the insects, vermin, or 
the climate, we have never been able to lezrn, but the three instances 
mentioned above are the only ones on record of pheasant raising in 
4 the open, this stock originally puachased from New Mexico, and not 
from birds hatched in captivity. 
Yours vy truly, 
(Signed'    J. W. Speight 
Februa ry 25. 19ZO 

Woolworth Building, 233 Broadway 
New York City 
March 11, 1930 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
421 Chemistry Bldg., 
Madison, Wis. 
Dear Leopold: 
The following information has just 
come to me from M. D. Hart, Executive Secretary, 
of the Virginia Commission of Game & Inland Fisher- 
les, regarding plantings of pheasants in that 
"Re matter of VirLInla's experience with 
ring-necked pheasants. In 1906 some sportsmen 
in the lower edge of Albemarle and the Upper edge 
of L-uIsa Co. imported 300 English ring-necked 
pheasants and liberated them in Louisa Co. in a 
section known as Green Spring Valley. A legis- 
lative Act was passe prohibiting the killing of 
either native or foreign pheasants in Louisa 
Co. for a period of ten years in order that 
these pheasants might be given a chance to pro- 
pagate. By 1907 or 1908 all of these birds seemed 
to have faded away. In 1913 the American Game Pro- 
te  tive Assn., through its then President, John 
B. Burnham, sent to the State of Virginia one 
hundred trio of English ring necked pheasants 
which were placed in one hundred different 
places in the State.   By  1915 these all seemed 
to have faded away.   In 1917 John S. Parsons, 
the then Commissioner of this department, spent 
nine thousand dollars in an effort to establish 
the English ring-necked pheasant; 2500 adult 
birds were purchased and distributed throughout 
the State and the rest of the money was spent in 
eggs which were also sent to every county in the 
State to be hatched as per instructions gotten 
out by E. A. Qgarles, who was then Secretary of 
the American Game Protective Assn.   By 1919 
all of these birds seemed to have faded away. 
Since then there have been a good many efforts 
made by individual sportsmen to establish the 
English Ring-necked pheasant but it has not 
thrived in this State so far as we have any 
Am rWt 19;zmr fronteive Assiatio, 

11r*Aldo Leopold.a 
"Our Commission is not encouraging 
the attempt to establish the ring-necked since 
from information we have received on this bird 
we are led to believe that the ring-necked pheasant 
and bobwhite quail are incompatible and cannot be 
raised in quantities on the same territory." 
Sincerely yours, 
Page 2o 

Chincoteague, Va. 3/15/30 
Mr. Carlos 4very 
New York N.Y, 
Dear Sir: 
Your letter received in regards to stocking Pheasants 
in the South.    I released 275 half grown pheasants on Chincoteague 
this Island is two miles wide and seven miles long and has a popu- 
lation of 4000 or more people, my stocking on this Island was not 
s8ccessful due to the fact that too many y~ung hunters roamed 
the woods in season am  out of season and were inclined to shoot 
everything that they sev . It ;asmy plan to stock this Island for 
shooting purposes in future years but I dont believe there is 
a dozen grown birds left.  L ast spring T found two old hens 
with their broods and a little way off from one of them I 
found a young bird with gapes vhich died in a short time and I 
think most of the birds mu  that were hatched by the one I re- 
leased m t death in this same manner.   This disease might have 
been the trouble with my stocking plan an< it might be the same 
trouble in places further South. 
Last Spring I supervised the raising of 250 Pheasants 
for the Assateague Island Rod and GuLi Club, near this place. 
These 250 birds were released first of Laugust 1929.  During 
the winter some of the club membf rs shot 8 few of the birds 
to see about their condition whether the, were getting enough 
natural food or not, and they found the ,birds in a good fat 
conditionp This year ought to shov some results if the young 
birds thrive. The Holly Island Club of achapreague, Va. 
stocked Holly Island successfully. They had to cut runs through 
the shrubbery so they could get at the birds to shoot them 
for the Island is so densely wooded with cedar and brush that 
they could not get at the birds . 
In all my Pheasant rearing I never had any disease 
except gapes in my young birds which I thought was because I 
had to keep the birds near my chicken pebs but after I found 
the young pheasant with gapes out in the open with the old bird 
I chailged my mind about that and have since come to think that 
the old birds might have tried to raise pang on this Island 
and finding they could not, theV might have moved over to the main- 
land.   I know that ducks will move their breeding grounds 
if they cannot raise their young  successfully.   I believe 
that full grovn birds should be used for stocking and that they 
should be released about March lst. The birds I released were 
put nut in the fall of 1925.   The -ggs were purchased from 
Twin Brook Game larm at Middletown, N.J.   The birds that were 
released on Assateague the eggs were purchased from Coville Brook 
Pheasantry, New York, EI.Y.  I understand the Holly Island Club 
purchased full grown birds. I don't know where they get the 
stock. I am real anxious to assist in any manner I can in furn- 
iahing o .all the informat [on I a3ca in.anything pertaining to wild 
lire %ng its stucy 0              ours Truyly, 
PS  Iz fyu ha pen down this way ltok me up. THOS J. R.Z 

"' -,   j              0  2  Y 
Trevilians,   Va. 
Mar. 20, 1930 
1r. iarlos Avery, 
New ork City. 
Dear Mr. Avery: 
Yours of the llth received.   Please pardon 
the delay, as I have been away for several days to trials. 
Pheasants have been liberated in a number of 
counties in Virginia.   The state game department liberated 
a great many, and a number of sportsmen have tried to stock 
their preserves.   And I have experimented with them in a small 
'way for several seasons,  But so far aso one has had any success. 
The state raised the birds they liberated at 
the state game farm, they raised over five thousand one season 
And they were liberated in suitable localities. And several 
sportsmen have raised birds and liberated them and birds 
have been .boaght in other states and liberated.    The results 
seem to be the same.   The birds seem to scatter over a wide area 
and are always found one in a place and have never been known 
to stay on the preserve that they were liberated on, and I have 
never heard of any one seeing a covey of young ones. 
I have been raising a few on free rgge and feeding 
them every day at the same place and I find they stay around near 
their feeding ground until they are almost grown, and then they 
seem to get restless and start wandering away and in a few weeks 
time they will be seen miles away.    I left out about sixty last 
fall   and there is only one cock bird to my knowing on over 
ten thousand acre.    This one comes back every night to roost on 
the garden fence or some times roosts in a tree where the bantam 
hen tacght them to roost.  And I heard of some of them being seen 
over twenty miles away. 
11y opinion is that there would have to be a 
great many birds liberated over a period of several years to get 
any results. 
And I do not believe it is advisable to try 
to introduce them in the south where quail will thrive. As I 
haveknown half grown birds to kill and eat week old quail like they 
were bugs.   And I have been told they were very destructive to 
quail eggs. 
Yours very truly, 
Willie Craig 
( Signed) 

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