Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-4 : Species and Subjects

From the bulletin 
Ruffed Grouse in New York State 
A. M Stoddart. 
Common Oats a Menace 
With regard to the house cat, as a factor in the decrease of the 
grouse, the result of the Commission's inquiry indicates that it is a very

serious menace, cats being given fourth place of importance by both 
protectors and sportsmen. One sportsman remarks that tracks in the snow 
are the best proof of the incredible number of cats ix the woods. Several

game protectors complain of the depredations of cats left in deserted 
lumber camps, which have reverted practically to a wild state. New York 
S tate's new "cat law" passed in April, 1919, should prove of greot
in the elimination of hunting house cats. By the terms of this law, game

protectors are required, and all holders of hunting licenses are encouraged

to destroy cats at large found hunting birds. 

Red Fox 
St. John, Harold. "Sable Island, with a Catalogue of Its Vascular Plants."

Proc. Boston Soc. of Hat. Hist., Vol. 36, No. 1, p. 28: 
"In 1882 rabbits were again introduced and the story is almost parallel

with the foregoing. They multiplied and became such a nuisance that in 1999,

seven cats were brought from Halifax and in 1890, thirty more. hile the 
cats were wintering and fattening on the rabbits, seven red foxes were 
brought from the mainland and in a single season they made an end of all
rabbits and the cats." 

Feral House Cats in Relation to Wildlife 
During November, Paul V. Jones, graduate student in wild game, 
traveled 2,555 miles on the highv ays in southern Texas. In this distance

he saw 41 cats (one to 62.3 miles), 9 of wshich were taken. 
The contents of 13 storachs were analyzed during the month. 
Garbage and carrion, and small rodents such as cottonrtts ( Sigmodon 
hisius texianus), hispid Docket mice (Peroanathus hispidus hispidus), and

cormaon house mice (:Jus musculus) made up the bulk of the food eaten. 
Three stomachs contained remains of birds. One, from e male cat killed 
in Colorado County, Texas,by Valgene Lehmann, contained the remains of an

Attwuter Drairie chicken (Tpanuchus cido att%,ateri). The others 
contained remains of a meadowlark (Sturnella ma)e and a mourning dove 
(Zenaidura macroura). 

Cat folder 
Note from "Progress Report of the New England Ruffed Grouse 
Investigation Committee," by Alfred 0. Gross, Bowdoin 
College, Brunswick, Me., Sept.l, 1920. 
Kitten found in stomach of a goshawk during 1926-27, 
New England Flight. 


Cat Folder 
Excerpt from "The Heath Hen," by A. 0. Gross, page 523. 
"The average weight of twenty-five adult cats secured on the island

was nine pounds but some of the largest specimens weighed more than twelve

pounds and one unusually large one trapped August 4, 1925, weighed eighteen

pounds. The majority of the cats killed are in good condition indicating

that they are able to secure an abundance of food.' 

Extract from the book "Proaation of Wild Birds" 
by Herbert I. Job. 
(Prom Chapter VIII, Control of Vermin, paLe 1og) 
Stray Cats.   The domestic cat is one of the worst >inds of "vermin"

with which one has to deal in increasing birds. The various devices suit-

able for such eanimals will usually reap a harvest of felines. It is 
astonishing 'ow many cats have taken to the woods, and are runninr wild 
and raising wild offspring. On the Eowell preserve, in a very remote 
and ountainous section of Connecticut, eleven miles from the nearest large

town, Winsted, the keeper, William Whisker, told me he had killed nearly

200 of these semi-wild cats. Many people would be asonished if they knew

how many miles their pussy, so quiet and demure in the daytime, had roamed

by night, and how much game it had killed in a year". 

Erringt on 
S. Dakota 
Cats.   Most of the cats away from houses are toms. Usually head- 
quarter at abandoned farms but sometimes in brushes on river banks, 
sometimes in muskrat runs. 
Hartl ey Jackson 
Feral Cats.   Many tracks in Lawrence County, I.W. Missouri, also in 
Oneida Co., Wisconsin. 2 miles from occupied dwellings. Never found 
litters.  In S. Wisc. ran cats into den (hole in ground, Rock County) 
which looked as if it were a cat den. 
In southwest Wissouri hunting with coon dogs would tree about 
b cats to 1 coon and about as many possums as cats. 
Major Goldman 
Cats.   Never heard of wildcats preying on house cat but would think it 
not unlikely. 
Bobcat.   Has instance of their killing grbwn deer. 

(Housecat Folder) 
From TEi SURVEY - March, 1924. 
One of our hunters in the Colorado District has written the 
followin, which is of interest as showing how rabies may be spread from 
coyotes to bobcats: "To-day while riding from the Dietz ranch to the
of Cottonwood Creek to follow a poison line down the Creek and back to the

ranch, about six miles from camp I was attracted by a barkin, noise that

sounded like a dog oing into a hard ficht. In some tall timber which had

a thick undergrowth I was led by the noise to a point Where I got a glimpse

of a large coyote and laree bobcat having a real battle.  I could not shoot

either of the animals from the horse I was riding as it was very scary. 
dismounted, all the time watching the fi ht, and then I tied the lines of

the bridle to the foreleg of the horse. The bobcat and coyote discovered

me by this time and as they ran I shot at the bobcat throukh the thick 
timber but did not stop it. In a near-by tree I noticed another bobcat 
which was not taking nart in the fight, but evi ently was looking on; I 
succeeded in shootii this cat, killing it. From all I saw the coyote 
seemed to be pushing the fiCht but the cat refused to take a tree. The 
snow was gone from the ground where the fight occurred and was only to be

found in patches. I could tell from the snow that the coyote and bobcat 
had moved as they fouCht. This particular coyote had the nerve to take 
hold of this very large bobcat four or five different times.  I col'Ad see

from the signs that the fi ht had been on for some little time. One place

in the snow showed the full print of the bobcat's body stretched out on its

side and from the way the snow was torn up it looked as if the coyote had

thrown him. There was plenty of fur ffom both the bobcat and coyote to be

plainly seen." 
(Housecat Folder) 
From THE SURVEY - February, l92 . 
Follows Lion Track Four ays.-- G. E. Holman, leader of predatory- 
animal control in the Utah district, reports that Hunter Taft strck a lion

track on January 23 and followed it for four 'ays. The do.s finally treed

the animal near the place where they first strick its tract just after it

had Rilled and eaten a bobcat caught in one of Mr. Taft's traps. 

October 3, 198. 
Mr. Jean Li.Ial% 
Mbsem of Vertebate Io1og 
University of Caifornia* 
Berkele, California. 
Dear Mr. Liasialet 
Thanks very .     fer your letter of October 31 eath 
house ca  question. Your conjecture   fit very well with uW -v 
ad I am oblied to yo for y        aeullont w   ry of the edition. 
I did not know that yu wer associated with Dr. Grinnel 
for who  I have a ver high rega 
I wish somebod cul4 make a special study of the house 
eat supplemeting the w    already done Iatts. With 
beet wishes, 
Your* sincerely, 
In Charge, Gape Suvy 
110 Ceistr B uildinM 

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File copy. 
421 Chemistry Building 
October 1?, 198. 
Dr. T. C. Stevens. 
MingailCide College, 
Sioux City, IOWa. 
Dear Dr. Stevens: 
r ws very much interested In th  article 
by Jean H. Linsdale in the September *Wilsn Blletin'. 
dee 170, Mr. Linsdale speaks of the oat as 
destroying many birds. I vonder, in his intensive 
stdy of this area, hether he obsorved any oats 
which seemed to be truly wild In the gone# of nt 
making their headquarters at eny hun habitation? 
Evidently there is a zone terminating somewhero in 
Iowa where the cats can stay outdoors the year long, 
and a zone north of that where they ordinarily do 
not winter outdoors. 
The GUme 8urvey is naturally concerned in 
looating the boundary between these two zones since 
control measures would have to be governed aocordingly. 
If you think Mr. Linsdale could give any light on this 
question, I woold appreciate your fomarding to him 
the extra    y of this letter, It might be that the 
members of     Wilson Club would have evidence pr 
and con which might be rublised in the OBuletino. 
With kindest regards, 
Yours sincerely, 
In Charge, gme Survey. 

ixhe WtlIsn IfluUitn 
Sioux City, Iowa, 
October 20, 1928. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
MaJison, Wisc., 
Dear Mr. Leopold;. I am very glad to 
forwardytur letter of the 17th to Dr. 
Linsdale.   This is an interesting 
I have just received a very interesting 
article on the habits and distribution of 
the Mungarian Partridge in Iowa, which will 
probably be published about March. 
Sincerely yours, 

Mr. Edwin Yhr"U 
Sc Stt Dept. of Arclue 
Dear Mr. 7ruh 
I roet yo       1abi   the * 
of a rther thrg stud of bos Cats .a 
i = sa2iou to obtain a cow of this publicatio 
sneI amocutierM soe interesting house- 
cat prols  in my GosSuvy 
Oulit you s     sopW    f It or toll 
- where I oa    t ot   If thre Is     c    , 
plea" 'Ill me. 
Yours sic   l, 
Feb. I * 1929. 

DR. ARTHUR W. GILBERT                               February 7, 1929. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
421 Chemistry Building, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Sir: 
Your letter to Mr. Forbush has been 
referred to me. 
His pamphlet on the house cat has 
been out of print for a number of years. You 
can possibly secure a copy by writing the 
Boston Bird Book Company, 162 Boylston Street, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 
Yours t 
2/13/29. Wrote to publisher 
asin for copy, or infor~intion 
as to vhere it cnn be gotten. 

Feb. 1, 1929. 
Mr. T. A. Colsn 
Moss Point, Kississi1ps 
Dear Mr. Onoulou 
Possbly you reeber ou     discussion 
as toa pssible rea      for th          of 
wild housne oas in the stal ft  oods? 
S*     h te Mr, . L. St*dar hs tl 
me that he   s e           a wis pradw beli 
o ol w.a that the bat                  on 
house at.and also a s       t lss prevalet 
blief that th   gy   fox does. 
Nam  yo   vr enonee &z evidw 
or even an  ruo to this effet? 
With kiMst regas,, 
Tours. strely, 
In Chare Gam   Suvy. 

Mr. esULflr 
Do   Mr. Lemlor 
Boo of      min *osu   Mko the Qe  -uve ha confronted 
-0 with -om q&ttOAs on the hm"Cat whih Ia entirel        =&Ue

to =SA90.  he rinl) 9quetitoo $s   der ibt sonditions Acer 
the boueseat r  rt t a UW     wild or feral condition in the sens 
Of hav1~g 4beS &A raising yob aM     frmildigs *ethev 
occupied or  oouwA 
Seth Gordo tolls as that it is his reoslecton that the 
JteZA Offiers of the ftmal1?ia Gimmssia somtime reprte 
cats ma and having yoa      in the open duin his 1nmbc tboe. 
If oucold' aein~intly w44 this and give so an ide wbre       I 
an  to *at extent it ocs~ in enaqlwia, I would gretly 
apreiate it. 
Uth Godo also told me that at abot 1924 ia Perry C~t 
Poanylq 1a, a wesl was sht cwryn a hoeat kitten about 4 
inhes loM.   I 1o    t I woul jt metion this a a intto of 
Seth thnk  tt coon huner tmree nd       ail   a.. oo   eats. 
This obioul ocur tosom -     extent, but a  evienc bearinga 
ftoter it Is a ro     trol of cat ppuation woul be "r wlom. 
Rvyo ,v mw heard of any wild nia e a. pry:go husooats 
With kindest rear* 
Turs sinerely, 

Board of Game Commissioners 
Harrisburg, Pa. 
February 19, 1929. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
421 Chemistry Bldg., 
Madison, Wtsconsin. 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
Your letter of February 15th addressed to Mr. Ross Leffler 
has been referred to me. 
I am sorry that I can ;ive you no personally collected data on 
reversion of the house cat to conditions sufficiently feral to induce the

animals to rear their young in dens away from buildings.  I do know, how-

ever, that in Pennsylvania and West Virginia house cats are to be found in

some numbers in wild timber so far away from villages or occupied dwellings

as to lead us to believe that they are, in virtually every sense of the 
word, wild. 
These animals are frequently chased, treed and killed by 'coon 
hunters. As I recall my own experience in this field we killed from one to

five such cats on every night trip. Incidentally, we also ran into a good

many skunks. 
I could not without special inquiry determine how many house ats' 
dens have been found in the wilds by our men but I know that a good many
been found. 
In your third paragraph you refer to a weasel which was shot carrying 
a house cat kitten four inches long. I do not know of this particular case

and the record was not placed in our mammal notes apparently. I do know,
ever, that at the farm of Mr. Quincy W. Hershey located near York Springs,

Adams County, Penn., a weasel killed one night a house cat kitten at least
inches lon (measuring tip of nose to tip of tail). The kitten was cau-ht
the back porch and its would, rescuers came to late to keep the weasel
killing it though they did catch the weasel. 
I do not know that either the fox or bob-cat ever preys upon the 
house cat; but I do know that both Great Horned Owls and Barred Owls which

I have had in captivity killed cats upon occasion. A Great Horned Owl which

I kept tethered in our back yard caught two half-grown kittens on one night.

I am sorry that this data is of frajientary nature and if you do not 
need the material for some time I can, no doubt, get more definite material
you within the coming few weeks. 
Very truly yours, 
George Uiksch Sutton, Chief, 
Research and Info rmat ion. 

___ 0J 
7e%. 24, iwa. 
Mz. Ald u~od 
Dea Mr.                twoo p. o             $A  t 
-X ftmkl ex 'that Us, bmt dos not ppe an bm Gtxp on& 
postivo thsat tbs gre fox does not. In AW OI~iw o a wo-t 
Ibav um80SA      hg that mU a    -O  m toble  tbgt 
t.bob ceat Sytax"osaggoft        how  Cat 
1A. 0 ulso. 

Fob. 19# 19a9. 
Mr. A. M. Stodart, 
Rod and Ou Editor, 
Nor York Su, 
ow Tor   N. T. 
Icar Mr. StQart: 
I have boo reaing with interst your 
bulletin -ubllizeb in 191., Ruffed Groue in New 
Tott State", paticularly the oxtraot enlosed on 
heu ecats.  If it is not too   ih tradble for yu 
to loo  it ~p would you kidndly let me know whoeth 
ai  of the answers to your qaestLowire indliated 
intanoes in which eats had mertod to an enti ely 
wild state, that its instances whore they were found 
dmnnin or having you    aay from any buildings? 
If there were such instances, I rould appreciate 
your putting s  on the trac  of them. 
Yours truly, 
ATIV"  TTrA"   5T 
In Cbare, Game Survey. 

~lut~~~4fl  4 lug ~ri~*edh~e ~~eig*i~u 
Woolworth Building, 233 Broadway 
New York City 
Essex, New York 
March 5, 1929 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
421 Chemistry Bldg. 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo; 
Alexander Stoddart had forwarded me 
your recent letter to him relative to his 
bulletin of 1918, "RIffed grouse in New York 
State." I got Stoddart to handle this question. 
I am very sure that there were no 
instances given in the reports to the questionnaire 
where cats were found having their young in dens, 
though of course this is entirely possible. Once 
in late Winter I killed two very large and heavily 
furred male cats on a mountain a considerable dis- 
tanoe from human habitation, and judged that both 
were living in an absolutely wild state and hunting 
in company. It was as much of a job to kill these 
cats as it would have been to bag lynx, and if my 
hound had not treed them, I would not have gotten 
them. One was killed several hours after the other. 
I never saw more thickly furred wild animals. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Traunsiplant Elk With  Trac~tor 
ONTANA sportsmen who have re- 
quested cooperation of the State 
Fish and Game Department in 
defraying half the expense in securing 
carloads of elk from the National Bison 
Range at Molese for distribution in 
suitable areas, have been   extending 
every assistance to make "the plant" 
successfully.  While many states are 
crying for Montana elk for transplant- 
ing, many of these monarchs of the 
forest have been sold to be butchered 
for meat and sold to eastern corpora- 
tions or given to Indians. Those which 
have been requested by state clubs of 
sportsmen have been moved in the 
dead of one of the hardest winters in 
the history of the state.  Sportsmen 
have demonstrated their sportsmanship. 
One of the most interesting incidents 
of the transfer of a shipment of these 
elk is explained in the weekly report 
of Allen T. Holmes, deputy state game 
warden stationed at Billings, who as- 
sisted in unloading and liberating the 
consignment for the Red Lodge club. 
They constructed a huge sled, hauled it 
into the hills with the aid of a cater- 
pillar engine and only three elk were 
But let Deputy Holmes tell the story 
in his own words: 
on bare ground. The cow     that had 
the hair off her left side was in the 
creek dead. We pulled her out of the 
creek and out of the way. Then we 
put some hay where this other cow 
could eat it. Another cow in the first 
load looked as though she had the 
"When we came back to the sleigh 
one bull was still there, so we threw 
out the hay in the bottom of the sleigh. 
He started to eat some of the ha  and 
was standing there when we went out 
of sight. Outside of the three I have 
mentioned I think the others will make 
it all right, after a few days of sun- 
shine and a little rest. They will get 
over their soreness and excitement from 
being penned up. The elk did well for 
wild animals not used to being handled 
by man, penned up and shipped by rai 
then unloaded from the car inn 
on a sleigh, and hauled      ad one- 
half miles by a cater4r tractor over 
a snow road one   ix feet deep." 
"John L. Corey furnished 
these. The poles were spiked at ends 
and to the upright pieces and the rear 
end was fixed so that poles could go 
through when the elk were loaded. 
We   used  one-by-twelve-inch  boards, 
eighteen feet long, and nailed them to 
the poles on the inside so that the elk 
could not get their feet through the 
cracks between the poles, four feet 
high. One cow elk was down in the 
car when we opened it and she had 
been tramped quite a bit. The hair on 
her left side was about half off, and 
left her skin bare. They showed fight 
from the start. 
"It was four and one-half miles from 
Red Lodge to the mouth of Nickles 
creek where we turned the elk loose, 
and the Red Lodge Rod and Gun Club 
had 15 bales of timothy hay scattered 
there but the elk did not stop to look 
at the hay. They went up on the side 
of the mountain and stopped and looked 
around. Then some of them started to 
brouse and didn't seem to be afraid. 
"When we got up with the last load 
two stood around close to the back end 
of the sleigh. Then we went up the 
creek to where one cow was in the 
snow up to her belly. We got her out 
WILk1 1 I,1aut1l  UUUUM UULUL U SCe le- 
line enemies of song birds, ground- 
nesting birds on farms and in the 
woods,     the club merits the com- 
mendati    f Montana sportsmen. 
The N     York City division of the 
American Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals reports the elim- 
ination of 322,279 cats in a period of 
eighteen months. It would appear that 
this society is alive to the importance 
of radically reducing the number of 
domestic cats in the Interest of increas- 
ing the bird population. 
James Sheldon, writing in this report, 
says that along the beaches near New 
York last year a multitude of cats 
were left behind by vacationists. They 
became ravenous and actually fought 
with the fishermen for the fish they 
brought ashore. They climbed porches 
at night and entered homes in search 
of food. 
FFICIAL        records of the    State 
Department showing     the  num- 
ber of beaver trapping permits 
issued at $10 each, where farmers 
and   stockmen   complain   of  beaver 
damaging irrigation ditches or flood- 
ing  meadows, make     an   interesting 
tabulation.  Before a permit is is- 
sued, the   Commission    insists that 
the premises be inspected by a game 
warden. During 1915 and 1916 there 
are no permits of record as none 
was required by law. Then during 
1919-1920 the fee was waived by law. 
In 1927 the largest number of per- 
mits, 641, was issued.    During 1929 
the total reached 582.    The follow- 
ing table shows the number of per- 
mits issued since 1915: 
19 15  ................   ............ 
19 16  ..      ----_------ 
1917   __...........................  213 
19 18  ................................  10 0 
1 9 1 9   ------------------------........  * 
1 9 2 0   ----_-----_-----------   - 
1921     ...................   242 
1922 ................... 244 
1923  ........... ..............   259 
1924  -----------------   139 
192 5  --------------------------------  5 62 
1927......    ........641 
1 928      -------      613 
1929  8-------        , r 2 
SportsmO~oii Wair on(Ct 
lt  ................................................ 

flume~~~~  0.uu  =rn n. nfA* o Oft 
AND REFER TO                                                      Jul. 19,
GP -5 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
In Charge, Gme Surveyr, 
421 Chemistry Building, 
Madison, Wisoonsin. 
Dr Mr. Leopolds 
Receipt is acknowuledge of your letter of Jay 12 and I want 
to &as=  yon that I enjoyed reading your report very much ineed ad 
an in a position to understa the tremeu             of effort which 
must have gone into its preaxtion. 
Perhaps in 7 commnts r.lative to boboats kilns house oats 
I should have explained that I had er witnessed evidence of such 
an attock personlly but I have heard of such      tances suffi oeatly 
often an  frm s   oes suffioiently reliable so that I feel assured 
of the facts, In my old ho     in Vermont when [ as a younster bob- 
oats were fairlyne rus and I used to hear the wosmn tell of 
loslng their house oats in this v      .nner  I have often hear of 
similar instmoes occurring in sections of Canaa where boboats and 
bay lynxs are fairly abuant. I ti4nk perhaps that an inquiry 
direoted in reg$ops where these anils are reasonbly abundat will 
furnish fresh f ots on the subjeot. In my boyhood I heard the se 
stories quite frequently ad ca     to accept them as faots without 
having an opportuniy to view any eviAene personall. I my say that 
I have no doubt as to this tenency.     here is some proof to substantiate

the matter in the knou fact that my of the half-wild male house oats 
'will attack and kill kittens at eight. 
Ton are quite welcoo to make any use of this statement that you 
wish and I am sorry that I cannot give you definite etails. 
With best personal viheso, I am 
Sincerely yours, 
H. P. Sheldon, 
U. S. Geme Conservation Offioer. 

Quotation from "The Arctic Prairies" by Ernest Thompson Seton,
page 13. 
"As I walked down the cro ked trail along whichsraggle the 
cabins, I saw something white in a tree at the far end. Supposing it to be

a White-rabbit in a snare, I went near and found, to my surprise, first that

it was a dead house-cat, a rare species here; second, under it, eyeing it

and me alternately, was a hungry-looking Lynx." 
(Passage has reference to the Indian village of Pelican Portage, 
which is 60 miles north of Athabaska Landing.) 

The Winter Status of the Feral Housecat 
in East Central South Dakota 
Paul L. Errington 
My generalizations deal with the Sioux River and the Oakwood 
Lakes of Brookings County, South Dakota, roughly, from 1917 to 1928. 
Cat tracks were to be seen along wooded lake shores and stream 
courses at practically any time throughout the winter months. The cats 
responsible for these tracks were, almost without exception,. old Toms which

often frequented brushy tracts as far as three-quarters of a mile from the

nearest inhabited human dwellings. Since the community referred to was 
well settled, three quarters of a mile represented the approximate maximum

distance that an animal would be liable to wander from an occupied building.

It was rarely that a Feral Cat shunned human society to the ex- 
.tent that he would not enter a farmyard, although he might be wild enough

to whisk under a shed or go bounding through the woods at the first appear-

ance of a man. 
Deserted buildings on a river bank usually harbored a variable 
fauna, among which could be listed Mice, Rats, Squirrels, Cottontails, and

Pheasants (in rank surrounding weed patches of Marsh Elder, Ragweeds, Nettles,

and Sweet Clover) in addition to transient or resident predators such as

Weasels, Skunks, and vagrant House Cats. Sometimes a Red Fox scouted the
Under an old hog house on an untenanted river farm, I caught in 
three seasons out of four, a total of 6 House Cats, all Toms, 30 Skunks 
(Mephitis), 1 Weasel, 2 Barn Rats, 1 Fox Squirrel, 20+Cottontails (no count

kept), and numerous Mice (Mus and Microtus). From the foregoing it can be

readily seen that a vacant farm affords food and shelter to a host of wild


life, not the least of which is the House Cat. 
In the hardwood river brush, I have tracked Cats to refuges 
which include holes in the ground (Rabbit and Skunk dens), cavities behind

overhanging root-tangles, hollow trees, and roadside culverts. Summer cot-

tages along a lakeshore, provided that they have holes underneath, prove
acceptable from the standpoint of stray cats. As a whole it might be said

that a Feral Cat will prefer a group of ruinous farm buildings, if relatively

undisturbed and grown up to weeds, to the more primal native timber environ-

ment. I presume that this is true because of retention of semi-domestic 
feline habits and the great availability of suitable food about places of
I have made it a practice to shoot tats whenever I could, unless 
they were virtually in somebody's yard. Examination of their stomachs dis-

closed that very few are mousers to any appreciable degree. The average 
(if an haverage'$ can be taken) stomach content ran something like this:

1 mouse, part of a Cottontail, part of a Pheasant. 
It isn't certain that every Pheasant or game bird eaten by these 
Cats was necessarily killed by them; however the general unfavorable evidence

against the hunting House Cat is sufficiently complete so that there seems
be little chance of unjust accusations in the majority of post-mortem cases.

As to effect of cold upon House Cats, I cannot recall having seen 
fresh Cat tracks at temperatures lower than ---- 20  F. In South Dakota ---20
is cold; ---- 30  F to ---400F, extremely cold. At the former temperature

the activity of most wild creatures will show a decrease; at the latter,
cease running and, consequently, one would expect to find no Cats abroad.

Some Cats are out at - 20  F. During a cold snap in the last of 
December, 1927, when the weather was seldom warmer than - 200 F, I remarked


on consecutive days the track of a large Tom on open lake shore. 
This individual had a regular den under the roots of a shore- 
line Cottonwood tree, though he spent time about a group of occupied farm

buildings more than a mile away. I suspect that he visited another farm a

half mile in the opposite direction from the Cottonwood, but I didn't inves-

tigate. While I had a trap set for his especial reception--which trap1in-

cidentally, was put out of order by drifting snow--I noted that he once stay-

ed in the den for two days without trying to leave. 
From childhood on, I have encountered Cats, mainly in town, which 
were suffering from frojen feet. As nearly as I recollect, these Cats were

either kittens or sickly, scrawny, under-sized animals in poor physical con-

dition withstand exposure. I doubt very much if a healthy, mature Tom-cat,

in ordinary game country, would succumb to Eastern South Dakota cold. He

might be compelled to go hungry once in a while or to lay up a few successive

days under a shed or in a hole somewhere, but he is quite able to take what

punishment he would need to. The periods of extreme cold are of relatively

short duration in the locality discussed, and there is always to be found
limited amount of food and wholly adequate shelter, natural or artificial,

according to the taste or requirements of the Cat. 
Madison, Wisconsin 
September 11, 1929 

September 10, 1929 
Professor H. W. Wight 
School of Forestry & Conservation 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 
Dear Wight: 
Last spring Stoll of the Detroit News asked 
us to loan him Sabin to break in the keeper of a private 
estate near Detroit. We diii this and Stoll brought in to 
me a list of "vermin" which he stated had been taken from 
less than 2500 acres during the two months ending August 15th. 
I know very little as to the location or character of these 
lands but Stoll thought the list was authentic and, if so, 
it would certainly seem that some manner of vermin control 
was in order on these premises. 
1 fox (red) 
-  9 cats 
139 skunk 
30 red sq. 
22 weasel 
11 house rat 
10 dogs 
2 badgers 
b mink 
75 crows 
629 Eng. sparrow 
18 starling 
2 great horned owl 
1 sharp shinned hawk 
2 yellow belly woodpecker 
1l snapping turtle 
34 gar pike 
56 wood cbuck holes gassed 
Yours very truly, 
P. S. Lovejoy 
Game Division 

Housecat folder 
Excerpt from "Fins, Feathers, and Fur," No. 77, Sept. 1929 
"The greatest destroyers of birds are our housecats. They 
destroy our most valuable birds, those that were created for our benefit

to destroy noxious weed seeds and all kinds of harmful insects that are a

menace to livestock and necessary vegetation." 
Warden Klet's reference to the house cat's destruction of game 
birds recalls an instance related by Warden Sheridan Greig, of Pine County.

His children being pleased with a large black cat that strayed into his 
place one winter's day several years ago, he let it remain, against his 
better judgment. Several mornings later the cat was missing and seeing the

trail led in the direction which he intended to patrol that day, he followed

it to see what the cat would do. Within the first mile that cat had caught

and partialiy eaten two grown partridges. Needlessto say, Warden Greig 
snowshoed that trail until the cat was eliminated; and the trail was seven

miles long before the demise took place. 

otor12, 12 
42 Ceity~  few zin 
my~ do a. -"I 
ft" V.ios of the Lom of~i  Octbe 16 192 
1 qoe0 Eeall.  fos w~u £i OY &Uo 
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&ad etn1lo fet a* wakm~ poms tg&ce 
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m~~ I~ Ill ~ k I op* .. 11 oa Ia  Q~ Ill 4  bZ* 
fl~~~~e        ioon  *n Ob 3444  -Thu  Ind y 116 ea 
Sare et il th  - Asrv- -fteCne?  ~tt1 
A         di 
-- -S'-- J ..... 

L. J. COLE                        MADISON 
23 April, 1930 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Game Survey, 421 Chemistry Bldg. 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
I Just got back a day or two ago from my western 
trip and am trying to get caught up on accumulated corres- 
I am returning your slip asking for information 
on the gestation period and breeding of the domestic cat. 
Marshall, in his "Physiology of Reproduction" gives the 
gestation period as nine weeks but I do not know the mini- 
mum breeding age and d     seem to have anything here in 
the office that gives it. I am under the impression, how- 
ever, that it is, as you suggest, a year. When I have time 
to get up to Agricultural Eibrary, I will look in some of 
the cat books and shall see whether I can find a state- 
ment on this point, or if you are in a hurry, I would sug- 
gest that you might look it up if you happen to be in Ag- 
ricultural Hall. 
Many thanks for the reference to Bergtold's 
paper. I think I have a copy of this but have not yet 
had time to look it up. I knew of this paper but did not 
appreciate that it was the one to which you were making 
I have got to go to Washington the last of 
this week and expect to be back about the 3rd of May. I 
hope then we may have time to get together occasionally and 
discuss some things of mutual interest. 
L. J. Cole 
LJC"n                              Professor of Genetics 

One of the largest half-wild domestic cats ever killed in the history of

the Ga-me Comission was received at their offices recently,  it weighed 12

pounds cnd me.sured thre feet from tip of heo-d to tip of til,  In coloration

the cat is a confused nixture of blacks, brovms, grc.ys and whites, soewh
tigerish in appeoarance.  It was shot from a large >ealock tree in Bald
Township, Clinton County, by Mr . Robert Farwell -end taken to Division Game

Supervisor John' B, Ross of Lock Haven, who in turn forwarded it to te Game

Comission.   The specimen -will be mounted. 

ReviewinA House Cats an, 
(I      Birds of Prey 
(In printing the various articles which we receive 
from our contributors we ofttimes find that such artices 
bring out opposite views expressed by persons who are 
readers of this magazine. Recently we published an 
article by Jack Miner, entitled "Hou s CATS AND B-ros 
op PREY." We now have an article from our frien 
Dr. A. K. Fisher, Senior Biologist, United States Bre 
of Biological Survey.) 
IT certainly does not help restoration, I purposely 
omit conservation, which word hai become so 
warped and distorted through improper usage 
to have such papers as "House Cats and Birds 
Prey" by Jack Miner broadcasted through the country. 
This paper is so full. of misstatements and errors 
it would seem to be wronging the public to let it 
go unnoticed. 
When men have outgrown hunting water-fowl 
for the market, and have become interested in a 
few species furnishing material for lectures and moving 
pictures, they rarely are tolerant of species that 
may interfere even slightly with their hobbies, or 
are of little pecuniary interest to them. 
Education may have had something to do with 
lessening wholesale slaughter of small birds, but if 
the Treaty Act with its over-shadowing penalty 
was not in existence, it is fair to assume that swallows, 
cedar birds, vireos, kingbirds, robins and other thrush- 
es, still would continue to be for sale in some of the 
markets and their killing in evidence eleswhere. 
Mr. Miner claims that the slow increase of "these 
cheerful, lovable birds" rarely shot nowadays, is 
due to their natural enemies keeping them down, 
which knowledge he says he secured from woods 
and fields.  He further states they are not winter 
kifled because they migrate. 
Such thoughtless statements are absurd. Orni- 
thologists know that perils may accompany migration 
at every step, and those who have made a careful 
study of the subject estimate that at least fifty percent 
of the migratory birds-even from extended areas- 
may be lost in a single trip. 
Wind storms, rain, sleet, losing their ffightline, 
or lack of food are among the more important causes 
leading to their destruction. 
In a locality a species may have been abundant 
GAIN has taps sounded for an employee 
of the Game and Fish Department; 
once more a beloved co-worker has 
been taken from   us. 
John F. Miller was born February 27, 
1880 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was 
a veteran of two wars, having served in the 
Spanish-American and World War; an injury 
sustained while in camp at San Antonio pre- 
vented service over-seas in the latter war. 
He was a regular army man, having retired 
from active duty some eight years ago. 
He faithfully and efficiently served the 
Department for the past seven years in the 
accounting division and his unselfish spirit 
of co-operation will be sadly missed by his 
fellow workers. 
He is survived by the widow, Mrs. Louise 
Miller, one daughter, Ethel, and four boys, 
Frederick, Gee       A    fred. Funeral 
services      uder Mason         pices and 
he w     ur    with   ilitaryMhon  at the 
Fo Selling Cemetery. 
before migration and then almost absent for a series 
of years following, showing that some accident had 
befallen them. 
The cuckoo was abundant about Washington 
half a dozen years ago and their notes heard in every 
good sized woodland-since then, a few only have 
been heard through the entire summer season. 
In 1895 a three day sleet storm practically killed 
all bluebirds in the states between South Carolina and 
Maine by covering their food and chilling their bodies. 
In February, 1897, Mr. Wayne reported thousands 
of woodcocks being killed in South Carolina by an 
icy storm. 
A protracted cold storm in June, 1903, killed 
large numbers of adult and young of the martin 
and other insect-eating birds, and in March, 1904, 
millions of longspurs were killed in a driving snow- 
storm in Minnesota. Dr. T. S. Roberts after making 
careful calculations, estimated  that there were 
750,000 dead birds on the surface of two frozen lakes 
about two square miles in area. 
Personally I counted two-hundred and fifty-six 
dead English sparrows under a tree in the Smith- 
sonian grounds in August after a cold thunderstorm. 
The above citations are merely samples, and 
plainly show what is happening to a greater or lesser 
degree at all times. 
It readily can be understood that an individual 
will become prejudiced against a Cooper hawk or 
sharp-shinned hawk that molests his chickens or 
birds, but how anyone with even a vestige of open 
mind can believe that a marked general diminution 
in the abundance of bird life is due to inroads of 
natural enemies is beyond normal comprehension. 
Point Pelee fifteen miles from his home is one 
of the well known flight routes of migratin  birds 
between the United States and Canada which ac- 
counts for his seeing all the hawks that pass to and 
from  the eastern United States. 
We are greatly in need of many more hawks 
because through ignorant intolerance toward their 
enemies, field mice and pine mice have so increased 
that millions of dollars worth of orchards are des- 
troyed by them   annually in the apple sections of 
eastern United States. 
If Mr. Miner thinks there are ten times too 
many hawks, why are there not ten times too many 
geese, and why should that fool change be made 
in the bag limit, impossible of enforcement, when 
there is not enough food to properly feed the present 
number of water-fowl? 
Where there is a hotel travelers go for shelter 
and not to see the proprietor or guests-and in the 
same way migrating birds that depend on trees for 
rest go there primarily for that purpose and not 
because other species are present. Mr.-Miner's grove 
is used as any other clump would be, along their routes. 
It is hard to understand the mental complex 
of those professing faith, and who approach the 
Infinite with full adulation attempting, without a 
blush, to rearrange in Nature to suit their selfish 
wishes, those things which have worked in harmony 
for millions of years. Believing as they profess they 
do, it would seem too mild an expression to refer 
to their action as travesty! 
Sportsmen and naturalists agree that cats will 
eat mice, but not if birds are available for food. 
In my old home in southern New York cats ate 
the young from sixteen robins' nests one season, when 
mice were common in the meadowsof adjoiningproperty. 
On this point I can not agree with Mr. Miner, 
but do agree fully with the editorial comment on 
the eat at the head of the article. 
If cats and rats could be eliminated other natural 
enemies of birds need hardly be considered. 
-Dr. A. K. Fisher. 
filas, 4Pallbers =aiuir 

The following extract is from an article by Jack Miner of Kingsville, 
Ontario, and is quoted as a matter of interest: 
"The house cat is the natural mouse hunter, but takes birds if 
he can get them; but these Hawks and Owls are natural bird hunters 
but will take mice if they cannot get birds. All men that are ac- 
quainted with the above mentioned creatures know that this is true. 
Now don't be led to believe that I am in favor of the house cat. I 
have not kept one on my premises for over thirty years and I destroy 
every one that comes on the premises; but the Great Horned Owl is 
five times more destructive on birds than the cat ever was. Never 
in my life have I known a cat to climb over fifteen feet high in a 
tree for the sole purpose of getting a bird's nest, nor have I seen 
his claw marks around an empty nest that high in a tree; but there 
is not a bird that can build high enough or low enough to be out 
of reach of the Great Horned Owl. Yes, it is true the Great Horned 
Owl will kill Crows now and then and that is the reason the Crows 
are fighting him and trying to drive him out of the country before 
he goes to roost; but remember, the Great Horned Owl also kills 
the Red-tailed Hawk, and a Red-tailed Hawk kills fully five times 
as many Crows as an Owl does, for the crow is one of the easiest 
birds for an awkward Red-tailed Hawk to catch. When we are catch- 
ing Crows here, one of our handicaps is the Red-tailed Hawk coming 
and disturbing them. I have seen this great favorite of mine dart 
right under my Crow net after Crows and you can well believe I 
didn't catch many Crows that morning." 

One of the largest half-wild domestic 
cats ever killed in the history of the 
Pennsylvania Game Commission was re- 
ceived  at their offces recently.  It 
weighed 12 pounds and meas>ured three 
feet from tip o head to tip  f al.I 
Coloration the e t is a confused. mixture 
of blacks, browns, grays and whites, 
somewhat  tigerish in appearance. It 
was shot from a large hemlock tree in 
Bald Eagle Township, Clinton County, 
by Mr. Robert Farwell and taken~ to 
Division Game Supervisor John B. Ross 
of Lock Raven, who in turn forwarded 
it to the Game Commission. The speci- 
men will be mounted. 

"The Service Bulletin of the California Fish & Game Depart- 
ment discloses a report from Pennsylvania of a twelve pound semi- 
wild domestic cat being shot down from a large tree-   he cat 
measured three feet from tip to tip and was tigerish in appear- 
ance, showing how rapid reversion to the wild state takes place, 
increasing weight and size. 
The Missouri Game Department reports that every time a 
hunter kills a semi-wild domestic cat he saves his daily quail bag 
limit. 1600 persons, receiving pheasant eggs in the state cooper- 
ative pheasant egg hatch, report that domestic cats caused more 
deaths of young pheasants than died from natural causes. Sports- 
men are urged to do their part in curbing the depredations caused, 
by house cats running wild, 
Farmers who permit cats to roam about their places are keep- 
ing away birds which aid materially in destroying insect pests. 
City dwellers cannot attract birds with bird houses, bird baths 
and feed pans so long as their greatest natural enemy, the cat, is 
sneaking, sleeking around, ready to pounce." 
This is all very true, as our men at the du Pont Experimental Game Farm 
at Carney's Point, New Jersey, can well attest. We recently began to suffer

losses in our pheasant pen. One or more birds were found dead in our winter

pen every day for several days,   Fresh tracks of a cat in and about the
offered the only clue to the reasons for this mortality.   Considerable ef-

fort was made to trap the cat, but to no avail, until the entire pen was
a trap by slanting a piece of two foot wire from the top of the fence inward,

so that a cat getting into the pen would be unable to get out. 
It meant the sacrifice of at least one bird more, but it worked. Two 
cats were trapped in this manner on consecutive days, less than fifteen days

after our first loss, having accounted up to that time for nine full grown

pheasant breeders. 

Refuge Keeper L. D. Rearick killed a 'rge house oat that had 2 
rabbit ears, the tail of a chipmunk, and the wi0 of a grouse in its stomach.

The cat weighed 10 pounds. 

A recent report from an Eastern state rev als that a 12-pound 
semiwild domestic cat was shot from the top of  large hemlock tree. 
The cat measured three feet from tip of head to p of tail. In colora- 
tion it is a confused mixture of blacks, browns, grays and whites and 
the animal was somewhat tigerish in appearance. The specimen will 
be mounted. This is believed to be a record. 
Missouri Game and Fish Department reports that every time a 
hunter kills a semiwild cat he can easily figure that he has saved his 
daily bag limit of bobwhite quail. A checkup of the results of the 
cooperative pheasant egg hatch shows that after the 26,000 eggs had 
hatched, cats caused more deaths of young pheasants than died of 
natural causes. The toll taken by predatory animals and hawks was 
very meager in comparison to the toll taken by cats, the report filed 
by the 1600 persons who received eggs revealed. Sportsmen are urged 
to do their part in curbing the depredations caused by the common 
house cats permitted to run wild. 
Farmers who permit cats to roam on their places are keeping 
away birds which aid materially in destroying insect pests. City 
dwellers must be content with only empty bird houses if they keep cats, 
bird authorities point out, as feeding places, houses and baths are not 
sufficient incentive for birds when their greatest natural enemy, the 
cat, is about. 
More than 300 semiwild house cats have been killed in Southern 
Butte County by an expert hunter for the Feather River Rod and Gun 
Club in California, according to reports coming to this office. Stomachs

of 100 of these cats were opened and in 99 of them was found bird meat, 
principally duck and quail. Only one cat was found to have fed on 
This gives some idea of the importance of elminating these clever 
creatures from our game lands. 

File: Cat I/ 
Hawks & Owls 
Predator chapter, text 
Extract from "Bird-Bandtig," Vol. III, No. 1, January, 1932. 
General Notes, page 33- 
AN INTRESTING GREPAT HORNED OWL CAPTURS--While returning from tending 
a duck trap on the Walter P. Chrysler estate at Horn's Point on the 
Choptank River, Maryland, just after dark on the evening of October 7. 
1931, I flushed a Great Horned Owl, which fluttered up in front of my 
car and flew laboriously down the road. The headlights showed it to 
be carrying something heavy, something which it could not lift two feet 
off the ground. I gave chase, and the bird dropped clumsily a hundred 
yards farther on, to crouch defensively atop the prey it seemed so loath

to leave. I stopped the car twenty feet away and turned on my strong 
spotlight. The owl's attention was riveted by the dazzling beam, and 
while it stood motionless staring into the glare, I crept up cautiously 
on the dark side, threw my jacket over it, and pinioned it down. After 
wrapping the claws in my handkerchief to prevent accidents, and folding 
the bird safely in my jacket, I stopped to pick up its prey, which, to 
my surprise (and delight) proved to be a half-grown house cati The kill 
evidently had just been made, for the llmp body was still warmand quivering.

The owl weighed forty ounces, and from its small size I judged it to 
be a male. The cat weighed nineteen ounces, almost half as much as its 
0. L. ihtta,Jr., Bureau of Biological Survey, Cambridge, Maryland. 

The house cat 
the ancient H 
and Babylonian 
ourus" of the e 
Romans,    origi 
"cat," is now ki 
a marten cat, a 
It seems to ha 
a wild species fr 
east central Afr 
cated by the Eg 
crossed with a 
species originall 
proved so valua 
fields of mice a 
stroying vermii 
tians came to de 
an extensive ca 
bodies of cats w 
preserved religi 
After the con 
cat was import( 
Rome, replacing 
and from there 
Game Commission     f 4    !,# C 
Game Protector Ralph A. iphart of Homestead Releasing Cock Ringnecked Pheasant

ING HOUSE CAT      ove  Europe generally. And some- like other things, 
was not known to   whe e along the line it was crossed  or starve, a cat
,brews, Assyrians   mode or less with the European    has no place in si

s, and the "ail- wilicat (Felis catus), a cat having, tory, and must
earlier Greeks and  in  ontrast to our own wildcat, a  to maintain our 
inally  translated  st ped body and a long ringed tail game. At presen 
iown to have been  --so that the present house cat is in the aggregate, 
very different ani-  partly European wildcat, and the  stroys more small

present European wildcat partly   other predator in] 
ave been originally  house cat. 
om north or north-    But somewhere along the way-- 
rica, first domesti-  due to changed conditions and      With all these 
ryptians, and later  man's mismanagement-the house     cigarette ads th 
decidedly different  cat has degenerated from a bless-  doors is gettin'

y from China. It ing to a very serious predatory       beauty contest. 
ble in clearing the  pest,-when  it is allowed   (or 
nd other grain-de- forced) to roam at large and sup- 
n thatl the Egyp-   port itself in a small game country.  The main diff 
fy it and developed   A cat kept at home, day and      a sport and a sp 
, religion, and the  night, is one thing; a cat roaming  man part of it 
ere mummified and   the woods and fields at night-and 
ously.              in many cases "dumped out" and 
luest of Egypt this  forced to go wild and live on small  This "cent
ed into Greece and  game-is a very different thing.    tainly would be t

their marten cat, And whatever one's sympathy with    representation. 
gradually spread  the victim of circumstances, that, 
shell" tax cer- 
axation without 
N  '"iQ \. '4 ' f  \ ' Fr 
must either kill 
ost emphatically 
nall game terri- 
killed if we are 
stock of small 
t the house cat, 
undoubtedly de- 
game than any 
billboards and 
e great out of 
to look like a 
erence between 
ortsman is the 

-2-                    (JV 
E. E. Lee will put in some winter bunting for mountain 
lions in the Chiricahuas where lions are damaging game and live- 
stock quite heavily. 
We are Dleased to state that all of our hunters are 
now operating at lower elevations where severe storms are not 
likely to damage their catch. Last year we had several men 
snow-bound and considerable time was lost thereby. 
WUe notice that the skins coming in are being very well 
taken care of and the new stretchers that r. Gilchrist designed 
for us are greatly improving the appearance of the furs as a 
We note from the reports received from Denver that you 
are continuing to turn in stomachs in good shape. Please con- 
tinue to do this. 
Domestic stock and game listed below represent depreda- 
tions by various predators that were actually found by hunters 
during the month. No effort is made to show similar reports 
reaching this office from other sources. 
Killed b-v Lion:  17 deer, 5 calves, 5 sheep. 
Killed by Coyote:  4 lambs, 9 sheep, 107 chickens, 
8 turkeys, 6 calves, 8 goat kids, 
10 goats, 3 deer. 
Killed by Bobcats: 4 quail, 70 chickens, 33 turkeys, 
1 sheep, 2 lambs. 
Killed by Bear: 6 hogs and 1 steer. 
Killed                       se cats. 
Killed by Eagles:  1 turkey. 
Killed by house cats: 1 lamb. 
Rodent News: 
November finds all of our rodent work getting under good 
way for the winter. The following report from the various coun- 
ties has been taken in part from reports submitted by the several 
assistants in their respective districts. 
Yua County - P. IU. Mercer, kssistant in Charge 
Gooher control operations were carried on in Yuma, 
South Gila, North Gila and Mohawk Valleys, poisoned sweet potato 
bait being used for the most part. Traps were used in the South 
Gila Valley on some land that had been treated with poison and 
resulted in almost complete eradication. The acreage that was 
trapped is fairly isolated from any infested area and should be 
free from infestation for some time. 

An ordinary house cat, eighteen inches 
high, killing three six weeks old pigs. It 
happened in Erie County several months ago 
and the farmer and owner of the pigs acci- 
dentally told the story when he brought the 
pelt of the cat to the environmental exhibit 
of the Board of Game Commissioners, then 
on display in that city, and desired to know 
if a bounty was paid on such an animal. He 
was disappointed when be was Informed that 
such claims were only paid on the wild cat. 
"It was about ten o'clock at night wht4 
we heard the pigs squealing," the farmer 
excitedly informed Trapper Blair Davis at 
the exhibit. "We ran to the barn, and the 
animal (we didn't know what it was at the 
time) was finishing the last of the three 
young pigs as we approached. It ran out, 
up a tree, down again and then up a tele- 
graph pole where It stayed until we shot It." 

The Problem of the Vagrant Cat 
Circular No. 18 
I T is a widely recognized fact that domestic cats are great destroyers of

wild bird-life. Particularly is this true during the spring months when 
the young birds are leaving the nest. Many people do not observe the 
destruction which these animals inflict upon the bird population about 
every town and in the countryside, because the killing is done largely dur-

ing the hours of darkness and in the early morning. Drivers of motor cars

at night frequently see the eyes of marauding cats by the roadside. 
Control should be exercised over the cat population and arrangements 
made for destroying humanely vagrant and unwanted cats, the numbers of 
which are exceedingly great. 
Cats are known to be carriers of disease, their cries at night disturb the

slumbers of men and women everywhere, and thousands of sick people are 
rendered nervous and irritable by Grimalkin's nocturnal serenades. 
Legislation has been enacted in the following states to encourage the 
destruction of bird-hunting cats: 
California Fish and Game Laws. "All cats found within the limits of
fish and game refuge shall be considered and classed as predatory animals

and subject to all provisions of law relating to the destruction or killing
such animals, and the Board of Fish and Game Commissioners, their depu- 
ties and employees are hereby empowered, authorized, and directed to kill

all such cats so found within the limits of such fish and game districts;

provided, however, that the provisions of this section are not applicable
any cat while it is in or at the residence of its owner or upon the grounds

of the owner adjacent to such resident." 
Conservation Laws of Maryland. "Any person may and it shall be the 
duty of any deputy game warden or other officer of this state to humanely

destroy any cat found hunting or killing any bird or animal protected by

law and no action for damages shall be maintained for such killing."

New Jersey Fish and Game Laws. "Any person holding a valid hunting 
and fishing license may, and it shall be the duty of any Fish and Game 
Warden or peace officer, to humanely destroy any cat found hunting or 
killing any bird or animal protected by law or with a dead bird or animal

of any species protected by law in its possession; and no action for dam-

ages shall be maintained for such killing." 
New York Conservation Law. "Any person over the age of twenty-one 
years, who is the holder of a valid hunting, trapping and fishing license,

may, and it shall be the duty of a game protector or other peace officer,

humanely destroy a cat at large found hunting or killing any bird protected

by law or with a dead bird of any species protected by law in its possession;

and no action for damages shall be maintained for such killing." 
The National Association of Audubon Societies has on numerous occa- 
sions called attention to the perfectly natural bird-catching habits of these

animals. It financed the publication and distribution of the most complete

treatise on the subject that has ever been issued, viz., "The Domestic
by Edward Howe Forbush. For many years we have urged the passage of 
state laws and municipal ordinances intended to reduce the surplus cat 
population. The Garden Club of America and many other organizations 
also have sought to have the stray cat evil mitigated. 
The International Cat Society of New York City, formed in 1931, has 
tried to induce municipal authorities to enact cat license ordinances, and
two years has been successful in three instances. The Audubon Association

recently wrote the mayors of four thousand cities and towns on the subject.

One hundred and fifty-six answers have been received, about half of which

ask for further information. We know of only ten towns in the United States

which have adopted cat ordinances. These are: Harrison, Larchmont, and 
the Village of Roslyn Harbor, New York; Milburn, Montclair, and Pomp- 
ton Lakes, New Jersey; Seattle, Washington; Grand Rapids, Michigan; 
Massillon, Ohio; and Maywood, Illinois. Communicating with the authori- 
ties of these towns, we found that there has been extremely little observ-

ance of the cat license features. People do not want to pay a license on
and public sentiment in most places is preventing the enforcement of these

The Cat-License Ordinance prepared and promulgated by the Interna- 
tional Cat Society of 101 Park Avenue, New York City, is as follows: 
"Section I-Cats to Be Licensed: It shall be unlawful to own, harbor
maintain a cat of more than six months of age unless the owner thereof or

the person harboring or maintaining the same shall have a valid and sub-

sisting license for such cat. 
"Section I1-License Fees: The annual license fees for cats over six

months of age shall be as follows: 1. Each male cat, $1.00; 2. Each female

cat, $2.00; provided, that if, accompanying the application for licensing
spayed female cat, there shall be a certificate from a licensed veterinary

surgeon that said female cat has been properly spayed, the annual license

fee shall be $1.00. Provided, further, that any person keeping or having
his possession cats for breeding purposes, and the selling and exchange of

such cats, may obtain a kennel license for the kennelling of cats of five
more in number, and shall pay for such kennel license the sum of $5.00. 
No license shall be granted for a period exceeding one year, and all licenses

shall expire on the day of          in each year. 
"Section III-Tags to Be Issued: A metal tag or tags marked with a 
number, to correspond with the number of the license, shall be issued with

said license and shall be attached to a collar and shall, at all times, be

worn by the cat so licensed when at large. 
"Section IV-Unlicensed Cats at Large: Any person over the age of 
twenty-one years may, and it shall be the duty of every police officer, to

destroy humanely an unlicensed cat at large, and no action for damages 
shall be maintained for such killing. 
"Section V-Penalties: Any person violating the provisions of this ordi-

nance shall, upon conviction of such violation, be subject to a fine in an

amount not to exceed Ten ($10.00) Dollars: 
"Note: Where objection is made Section V may be omitted. Also, cost
license may be made optional,to suit the requirements of your municipality."

This would seem to be an excellent ordinance if it could be adopted 
generally and enforced. 
Most of the cats disposed of by municipal authorities or Societies 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals are those which people deliver to

them. With this knowledge in mind, the Directors of the National Associa-

tion of Audubon Societies have prepared a suggested ordinance which 
avoids the "tax" or "license" feature that has been found
objectionable to 
so many people, and which many mayors, therefore, hesitate to recommend.

It provides for the town assuming the responsibility of disposing humanely

of cats of which people desire to be relieved. Many individuals, who shrink

from the unpleasant experience of killing a cat, will gladly deliver their

surplus animals to some humane agent for disposition if such an agency is

easily accessible. We believe, therefore, that adoption of the following

ordinance by any community would result in an appreciable reduction of 
the vagrant cat population of the country. The American Game Association

and the Izaak Walton League of America join the Audubon Association in 
recommending the following: 
"An Ordinance to Prevent Vagrant or Unidentified Cats from running at

large in the Streets or Public Places of the Town of         , in 
the County of                , State of               , and for the 
impounding, or disposition of such cats. 
"BE IT ORDAINED by the Town Council of the Town of 
in the County of               , as follows: 
"Section I. No person being the owner or harboring a cat shall permit
to run at large in any of the streets or public places of the Town of 
, in the County of               , at any time, un- 
less identified as hereinafter provided. 

humanely destroy a cat at large found hunting or killing any bird protected

by law or with a dead bird of any species protected by law in its possession;

and no action for damages shall be maintained for such killing." 
The National Association of Audubon Societies has on numerous occa- 
sions called attention to the perfectly natural bird-catching habits of these

animals. It financed the publication and distribution of the most complete

treatise on the subject that has ever been issued, viz., "The Domestic
by Edward Howe Forbush. For many years we have urged the passage of 
state laws and municipal ordinances intended to reduce the surplus cat 
population. The Garden Club of America and many other organizations 
also have sought to have the stray cat evil mitigated. 
The International Cat Society of New York City, formed in 1931, has 
tried to induce municipal authorities to enact cat license ordinances, and
two years has been successful in three instances. The Audubon Association

recently wrote the mayors of four thousand cities and towns on the subject.

One hundred and fifty-six answers have been received, about half of which

ask for further information. We know of only ten towns in the United States

which have adopted cat ordinances. These are: Harrison, Larchmont, and 
the Village of Roslyn Harbor, New York; Milburn, Montclair, and Pomp- 
ton Lakes, New Jersey; Seattle, Washington; Grand Rapids, Michigan; 
Massillon, Ohio; and Maywood, Illinois. Communicating with the authori- 
ties of these towns, we found that there has been extremely little observ-

ance of the cat license features. People do not want to pay a license on
and public sentiment in most places is preventing the enforcement of these

The Cat-License Ordinance prepared and promulgated by the Interna- 
tional Cat Society of 101 Park Avenue, New York City, is as follows: 
"Section I-Cats to Be Licensed: It shall be unlawful to own, harbor
maintain a cat of more than six months of age unless the owner thereof or

the person harboring or maintaining the same shall have a valid and sub-

sisting license for such cat. 
"Section II-License Fees: The annual license fees for cats over six

months of age shall be as follows: 1. Each male cat, $1.00; 2. Each female

cat, $2.00; provided, that if, accompanying the application for licensing
spayed female cat, there shall be a certificate from a licensed veterinary

surgeon that said female cat has been properly spayed, the annual license

fee shall be $1.00. Provided, further, that any person keeping or having
his possession cats for breeding purposes, and the selling and exchange of

such cats, may obtain a kennel license for the kennelling of cats of five
more in number, and shall pay for such kennel license the sum of $5.00. 
No license shall be granted for a period exceeding one year, and all licenses

shall expire on the day of          in each year. 
"Section Ill-Tags to Be Issued: A metal tag or tags marked with a 
number, to correspond with the number of the license, shall be issued with

said license and shall be attached to a collar and shall, at all times, be

worn by the cat so licensed when at large. 
"Section IV-Unlicensed Cats at Large: Any person over the age of 
twenty-one years may, and it shall be the duty of every police officer, to

destroy humanely an unlicensed cat at large, and no action for damages 
shall be maintained for such killing. 
"Section V-Penalties: Any person violating the provisions of this ordi-

nance shall, upon conviction of such violation, be subject to a fine in an

amount not to exceed Ten ($10.00) Dollars: 
"Note: Where objection is made Section V may be omitted. Also, cost
license may be made optional, to suit the requirements of your municipality."

This would seem to be an excellent ordinance if it could be adopted 
generally and enforced. 
Most of the cats disposed of by municipal authorities or Societies 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals are those which people deliver to

them. With this knowledge in mind, the Directors of the National Associa-

tion of Audubon Societies have prepared a suggested ordinance which 
avoids the "tax" or "license" feature that has been found
objectionable to 
so many people, and which many mayors, therefore, hesitate to recommend.

It provides for the town assuming the responsibility of disposing humanely

of cats of which people desire to be relieved. Many individuals, who shrink

from the unpleasant experience of killing a cat, will gladly deliver their

surplus animals to some humane agent for disposition if such an agency is

easily accessible. We believe, therefore, that adoption of the following

ordinance by any community would result in an appreciable reduction of 
the vagrant cat population of the country. The American Game Association

and the Izaak Walton League of America join the Audubon Association in 
recommending the following: 
"An Ordinance to Prevent Vagrant or Unidentified Cats from running at

large in the Streets or Public Places of the Town of         , in 
the County of                , State of               , and for the 
impounding, or disposition of such cats. 
"BE IT ORDAINED by the Town Council of the Town of 
in the County of               , as follows: 
"Section I. No person being the owner or harboring a cat shall permit
to run at large in any of the streets or public places of the Town of 
, in the County of               , at any time, un- 
less identified as hereinafter provided. 

"Section II. Any cat shall be deemed to be a vagrant or unidentified
unless it wears a collar or tag bearing either the owner's name and address,

or a registered identification number. 
"Section III. Numbered identification tags will be furnished by the

Town Clerk at cost.* 
"Section IV. Any vagrant or unidentified cat running at large in any
the streets or public places of the Town of                  , in the 
County of                   , shall be taken and impounded by any dog- 
catcher of said town (or other duly authorized officer), and shall be de-

stroyed or otherwise disposed of humanely at any time not less than forty-

eight hours after it has been impounded, unless the owner shall, before its

destruction or other disposal, satisfy the Town Clerk of his or her owner-

ship, and shall redeem the same by the payment to the Town Clerk for the

use of said town of the sum of one dollar. 
"Section V. Any cat wearing a collar or tag bearing either the owner's

name and address or a registered identification number, that may be cap-

tured by the dog-catcher, or other officer of the town in the discharge of

his duty, shall be released or returned to the owner." 
We favor the trial of various methods of cat control by the different 
states and municipalities, believing that to be the most effective way of

working out a practical solution of this troublesome problem. 
Comments or suggestions on the control of vagrant cats will be welcomed 
by the National Association of Audubon Societies, 1775 Broadway, New 
York City. 
FRANK M. CHAPMAN, Sc. D., Chairman,  FRANK R. OASTLER, M.D., 2nd Vice-Pres.

Board of Directors                WILLIAM P. WHARTON, Secretary 
Ist Vice-Pres.                       Treasurer 
August 1, 1933 
*Montclair, New Jersey, furnishes such tags for 5 cents each. 


ANNUAL TAKE   WEORTHD IN NV JERSEY (Rounded W nearest o00) 
species          19       13 192__1_93                             1929 
  1927    192      1925    19214 
gabbts        553,000 543,O0 55g.000 511,000 1441            9.0    ,46T.000
 63.O     O 364.000 
G raM   Squirrels  115.000   123.000   102.000  104.000  59.000  60.000 
-           ,,,,,,,,,,,I,,,, - .  -   . . . . . 
Banants.        106000 105.000 104,,.000  96000 .  , Q 97.0 92,000 0    
      6,   0    00  .oo  48,o 
Zuail           249,000  67.000  77.000  72.000   59000 5T.00   59.000  77,000
  6g.... 61.000 05, 
Grouse           12,000  10,000    ,00    9,o00    3,600 *1.200   .000  
10.000   12.000  10.000. 11.000 
16oodcock.       11.000  12.000  15.000  20,000   12.000   9,o     9.000
10,000  12,000   9oo     900 
Deqr              2j300   1,N00   1.. 1. 7         .5001 13500 1    1   1,800
   1.700   1200   1.100 
Ducks            3.000   730o0.000   ,000      65.000  T      5iL7.0  64.00
 64.m, 63.000. soo  95,ooo 
Geese & Brant   --5,     1700 0            ..500 ..... .0 .?Q  560001.
 7,000  .    7,000  .  5.00 
PRATORS ((Rounded off to nearest 100) 
iff~ -- -' - 
Red SScrrrel 
ii f~1%P~ 
3. ioo 
h 1ir~r~ 
Ii .~fA 14 C.'J'J 
1. 3oo 
10. 000? 
3 *o00? 
0 GAA 
J~ ~ 
i 900 
7 inn 
7 1 r 
Q - -ann 
0 Innv 
6.9 00 
$0.. . 0o 
*Closed season on brant 
**Closed season on grouse 
Farm Game 
Forest Ga 
r Waterfowl 
FISH (Rounded off to nearest 1000) 
Trout               000 I46.000 40  000  411, 000 269. 000  000 264,  023000
206, O , 00c01   16g,000 
Bass           171.0001177.00011600001147 01100.000104.O0   99.000 ,112000
I1.0001 S6.oo121,000 
Pickerel        1  000 1201o000 201 00  2  00o 1000, 20  0  l001  000   
1 00 1  o0  1  1000 191 00)0 
(R ujuded off to nearest 100) 
             0  139015,$0 
issued       1150,2001137,900 121,001314,4001202,2001202,0001195,200 119
00175,700173,9001159, SO0. 
IIIII  I   IIIII                                                        
 .         I   _ 
I            I  I  I 
vate        .   ......... 

1                            ~~~year --__                       ___ 
Species  I o    i     1     19  2 193F  1939 11929 1   192S 1927  1926  1925
i9   1923  192 
Rabbits      25.000 31.000 22.000  0 go.oo 21,000 15,000 15,000 15,000  1,000
9,000 9,ooo0 2,000 
Pheasants   34.000110     ,000 2,000 31,000 23000 18,000 26.00016,00    ,00
17,00   ,0.00 6,600 
Qail          sooo 6,00   3, 500 2, 100 2 9o  7oo, 10     -  SO01  100  36
 11          __ 
I       -     -     -      14311  326 L-029  16o   151--- 
__---                         -             - . .... .......... 
.... ........... .-.._          _ _ _ _ _ I  --   -....          .      
     I 1 
.                   . . . . .   . . . . . .   8o     .                  
           - 1 
id  ,,  rkeys       -  -  '-.. . . -             80... .   _ _ _  .... ..
Cost Items Per Bird. 
HRns Reported 
--,..  ,    ~  o   ,, o,   I           I 
No.W fbas -- - -   ---    --9001600                                     

Ci~                   ATS AND MORE CATS      C1 
Mr. Walt Jamison, Glenwood, Iowa, has found out how many cats roam 
over his orchard. Early in the winter he put out five box traps to 
catch rabbits that were girdling his fruit trees. He says, "In the last

two months I have caught and killed 36 oats and there is no question 
about them not eating the wild birds, as one of them ate too much fat 
meat (the bait in: the trap) and became sick and threw it up together 
with a cardinal it had just eaten. We had a fine covey of quail that 
were raised on the place and I have been feeding since they were the 
size of a sparrow but they have all disappeared. I believe the coats 
cleaned them up. I know they catch the young squirrels. I never see 
these cats in the daytime, wouldn't know there was one in the country, 
but they work all night and take an awful toll of the wildlife". 
Think of it, 36 cats caught in this orchard, and Mr. Jamison did 
not know until he put out the traps that there were any oats around. le 
recommends a license for cats. 

Pa. Game News 
March, 1935 
A Great Horned Owl with a wingspread of 
four feet fell prey to a plucky house cat at 
the farm home of Zach Lawhead in Law- 
rence Township. Mr. Lawhead heard a com- 
motion outside the house and upon investi- 
gating discovered the owl, mortally wounded, 
the cat having found a vital spot with its 
teeth. It is presumed that the owl, in its 
hunger, attacked the cat. Great Horned 
Owls prey often on skunks and the cat, par- 
ticularly if it was black and white in color, 
might have been mistaken for one. 

PENNSYLVANIA GAME NEWS j4A -4 I? 3                    5" 
Tame cats gone wild have become a prob- 
lem In Death Valley. These animals, once 
pets at the Furnace Creek Ranch, multiplied 
as is the way of cats and spread out into 
the mesquite thickets adjoining the ranch. 
Reverting to the primitive, they have be- 
come quite wild and to some extent have 
replaced the native meat-eating   animals, 
particularly the little desert kit fox. 
The especial prOblem involved In these 
cats gone wild is their liking for native ro- 
dents, which, because of abundance of shel- 
ter, food, and wate'r, live largely in the 
mesquite thicket. Cottontail rabbits, wood 
rats, antelope ground squirrels, and kanga- 
roo rats, as well as Gambel quail, all fall 
prey to these feral house cats. 
"Control of the wild cats" now is being 
planned by the National Park Service of the 
Department of the Interior, which has au- 
thority over the Death  Valley National 

County forects of Wisconsin now total mor e than 1,500,000 
acres with the addition of 302,346.72 acres accepted for 
entry by the conservation cow:ission at its recent meeting. 
New entries are: Ashland 3,753.35; Bayfield, 10,612.02; 
Burnett, 28,007,22; Clark, 9,052.97; Douglas, 25,440; Eau 
Claire, 1,293; Florence, 10,683.17; Iron, 41,052.59; 
Jackson, 57,733.97; Juneau, 3,160; Langlade, 400; Lincoln, 
3,720; Marinettp, 27,552.33; Monroe, 5, 360; Oneida.,. 25,339.57; 
Polk, 2480; Rusk, 7,800.20; Sawyer, 26,783; Vilas, 5,719; 
Washburn, 3,817.83; Wood, 2,704..: 
4BIRD KILLS CAT                              I3 
}Members of the field force often comp ain about cats 
killing birds but Forest Ranger Raymond Pr pps, Boulder 
Junction, has a real comuplaint about a bird killing a cat. 
The station cat was near the front porch when a great 
horned owl swooped down and the cat disappeared over the 
tree tops and has not been heard from since. 
The Mrarch Bulletin carried a story of a deer killed 
by eagles in Vilas county. Dr. E. F. Graves, department 
veterinarian, recalls seeing an attack on a fan by an 
eaole in Alaska. 

librarp ot 
rUbo 3leopob 
beast of the jungle 
cat stalks Its prey. 
HE cat has absolutely no protection in 
Pennsylvania. Many individuals who 
are more or less interested in the 
house cat are somewhat perturbed that an 
animal so apparently harmless and compan- 
ionable should be denied the smallest meas- 
ure of protection. 
The fact is, that practically all of our 
forty-eight states today refuse to recognize 
the cat as personal property; and in Penn- 
sylvania as well as most other states, no 
action by law can be taken to recover the 
value of a cat that may have lost its life 
at the hands of some intentional destroyer. 
It is virtually "an animal without a country" 
-a legal outcast. 
The present domesticated cat apparently 
originated in ancient Egypt, where its exist- 
ence is evident in the very earliest records. 
It must have been much admired by the an- 
cients, as elaborate mummy cases in which 
it was entombed have been found. However, 
there is nothing in the records to indicate 
that it was anything but an habitual killer 
of other forms of animal life-a carnivorous 
animal. In India we find it mentioned in 
manuscripts dated at least 2,000 years Before 
Christ. From Egypt the cat was brought to 
Europe, whence America received its pres- 
ent stock. 
For approximately 4,000 years, then, man- 
kind has endeavored to domesticate and civ- 
ilize the cat; and how have we succeeded? 
Well, as educators of this feline animal, we 
humans are hopeless failures! 
Not long ago the writer watched an ab- 
normally large pet cat sneak noiselessly up- 
on an adult robin, seize the bird in its mouth, 
and proudly carry the limp form to the door 
of its mistress. That this cat was well fed 
was clearly indicated by its excellent phy- 
sical appearance. Many similar cases of gen- 
erously fed cats killing birds and rabbits 
have been reported to the Game Commis- 
Practical experience  and   observation 
have proven that the old theory that a well 
fed cat will not destroy wildlife must be 
discarded. The ancient, irresistible instinct 
to kill is there, even though the need for 
food is lacking, and in the thousands of 
years the cat has associated with civiliza- 
tion, this urge has not been dispelled. He 
is a prowling, predatory animal, of the 
same family (Felidae) as the lion, tiger, 
leopard, puma and other nocturnal feeding 
relatives. Regardless of how well fed he 
may be, this inherent desire to kill is ever 
present, and the cat will constantly seek 
an opportunity to satisfy it. 
Maybe we should not blame the cat itself 
too severely; one cannot be responsible for 
his heritage. But we can face the facts 
and try to control the situation accord- 
Early this summer a friend of ours had 
been watching a pair of song sparrows 
nest in a hedge fence at her home. She saw 
the four mottled eggs, then later observed 
the mother bird feeding the four young 
in the nest. One day she came, practically 
in tears, and reported that a neighborhood 
cat had completely torn down the nest and 
killed all four young birds. 
Now, the diet of the song sparrow in 
the summertime consists of more than fifty 
percent insects, including various beetles, 
ants, caterpillars and grasshoppers. The 
balance of the food is made up of the 
seeds of noxious weeds. 
Any one of these four young song spar- 
rows killed by the cat would have been 
much more valuable economically to man- 
kind than the cat. Insects offer an increas- 
ing menace to human existence, and sci- 
entists admit we are fighting a losing bat- 
tle against their growing hordes. It be- 
hooves us, therefore, to give every possible 
encouragement to birds and other creatures 
that feed on insects, for without birds, in- 
sects would make human life impossible. 
One of the best ways to encourage birds 
is to control the cat. 
It is increasingly apparent that if we 
are to encourage wild creatures of more 
aesthetic and economic value, something 
must be done in the not too distant fu- 
ture to definitely prevent the house cat 
from continuing to enjoy the freedom of 
the entire neighborhood in which he lives. 
He may have some value in destroying ro- 
dents, but if given absolute freedom, this 
value is far offset by the harm done in 
destroying birdlife. No one wants to see any 
species of animal life exterminated, and 
such drastic action is certainly not advocated 
in the case of the cat. But, in all fairness, 
it does seem that something should be done 
to reduce the excessive number of felines 
now in existence. Many of them are home- 
less, thrown out of automobiles and farm- 
houses to shift for themselves. 
Even on the farm, the value of the cat 
in destroying rats and mice is questionable, 
when one considers the countless hundreds 
of insects that might have been killed, had 
not the cat taken its heavy toll of insec- 
tivorous birds. The farmer knows only too 
well the ceaseless battle he must wage 
against insects, and the birds on his farm 
are helping every day in this fight by con- 
stantly feeding upon these pests. It be- 
hooves him, therefore, to give his bird 
friends every encouragement by either abol- 
ishing or controlling their arch-enemy, the 
cat. He cannot have cats and birds; one 
class must be eliminated if the other is to 
progress. Surely he cannot afford to elimi- 
nate the birds, so he must do something 
about the cats. 
Is it not possible to select, by a "weed- 
ing out" process, the more desirable and 
attractive breeds of cats, from the stand- 
point of beauty and charm? And then, with 
equal vigor, discard in some humane man- 
ner the worthless, unattractive, common 
ones remaining? If this were done, those 
selected could be owned with sufficient es- 
teem to keep them under proper control, 
so that the menace to wildlife would be 
The cat will always be a killer; he is 
no more civilized nor better mannered now 
than he was for the ancient Egyptians. And 
if you want more birds-and less insects- 
you must have less cats. But if, after all 
this, you must keep a cat, please keep him 
on your own grounds, under constant con- 
Even   the well-eared-for house pet will 
occasionally resort to the wild. 
1o..0 ftoo y*!, VOT~ooez, 1!1509 P. 1.2 

During the month of December, Frank S. Johnson, living two miles 
northeast of Ida Grove, noticed evidence of the killing of hen pheas- 
ants on three different occasions. The killings had taken place near a 
pheasant feeding station near his farm. In each case the tracks of the 
predator and the trail of the pheasant as it was dragged led to a den, 
supposedly that of a fox, located on the banks of the Maple River. The 
birds were evidently devoured within the den. Johnson set a fox trap 
inside the entrance to the den and on December 27th the killer was 
trapped. It proved to be a very large and fierce white male house cat. 
It appeaxently had gone wild a many cats have been known to do. The 
killer was killed and no more pheasants have been found destroyed in 
that vicinity. 
=SF       IN 

House Cat 
Extract from "The Life History of the Rufescent Woodchuck" by W.
J. Hamilton, Jr. 
Ann. Carnegie Museum, Vol. XXIII, July 5, 1934, p. 132: 
House Cat 
Inside a large woodchuck hole I placed a trap on April 9, 1932. The hole

had been somewhat enlarged, but without a noticeable mound at the entrance.
following morning the trap held a large house cat. The animal was a female,

carrying three embryos of approximately half time development, and stomach

crammed with the reaing of a rabbit. Apparently the cat had made this burrow

her home for some time, as old rabbit far was strewn about. She may even
planned for the arrival of the kittens in this burrow. 
It is not unlikely that mink, muskrats (near water), squirrels, and other

maunals frequently resort to vacated woodchuck burrows. The wirter, however,

has no positivedata concerning these forms. 

Fish Warden Sam Henderson of West- 
moreland County reports that while patrol- 
lng a stream recently he saw a large 
house cat adroitly catch a large trout. 

based on facts carefully gathered and Labrador to study the distribution
of the 
developed.  At this time there is no vertebrate fauna of the region. On his

other organization in  the country in Labrador trips he did notable work
possession of as much information re- bird banding, particularly with Arctic

lating to wild-fowl conditions in North terms, in cooperation with the Biological

America as the Biological Survey. The Survey. Two of the terns that were
opponents of the present regulations and covered, one in France and another
others who are urging still more drastic South  Africa, established  remarkable

restrictions can be in possession of only flight records, the latter flying
the longest 
limited information by comparison. The distance of any banded bird ever re-

Biological Survey, however, must be captured, as far as any known records

acquainted with all phases of the prob- show. 
lem-phases that concern the food re- 
sources of wild fowl their migratory       NEW   LEAFLET TELLS HOW      
habits, and their abundance, and other            MAKE A CAT TRAP 
information that can be developed only     Vagrant, unowned    house   cats
from reports of agents of the bureau and a serious menace to song birds,
other reliable observers widely distributed tiverous birds, and game birds,
to rab- 
throughout North America.                bits, squirrels, and other small
forms of 
"We need sound public sentiment in beneficial wild life, and to poultry,
favor of the observance of the law, and therefore they should be destroyed,
says a 
willingness on the part of sportsmen and leaflet just issued by the U. S.
conservationists to adopt all the restric- ment of Agriculture on how to
make a 
tions that are necessary to the preserva- cat trap. 
tion of the wild fowl," said Mr. Hender-   Stray cats-usually hungry,
son.                                     and diseased-abound in every city,
and rural community, and are the most 
BIOLOGISTS TO STUDY        WILD   LIFE common carnivorous mammals in many

IN FORESTS                 places far removed from human habita- 
Two research specialists have been ap- tion, says the leaflet. Usually they
pointed to positions in the Bureau of been left unfed by their owners and
Biological Survey, U. S. Department of forced to get a precarious living
by hunt- 
Agriculture, effective at the beginning ing and scavenging. As they are abroad

of the year, in accordance with cooper- mainly at night they are seldom seen
ative plans to place qualified biologists at it is not generally realized
that they are 
various experiment stations of the Forest as numerous as they actually are.
Service. These scientists will study the leaflet says that in 18 months more
relation of wild life to the forests, as 50 stray cats were caught in one
authorized by the recently enacted Mc- set in only two locations in a city,
Sweeney-MeNary Forestry Research Act. that in one city a humane society put
Thomas D. Burleigh, for the last nine death nearly a million vagrant cats
years head of the division of forestry of four years. 
the Georgia State College of Agriculture   Stray cats can be caught in any
and one of the appointees, has been ap- constructed and baited trap. The
pointed to the position of associate biol- described in the new leaflet,
devised by 
ogist and will be stationed at the Appala- the Bureau of Biological Survey,
chian Forest Experiment Station, Ashe- proved satisfactory and is easily
ville, N. C. He is a graduate of Pennsyl- It is merely a box with a drop
door that 
vania State College and the University is held up by a projecting wire, one
of Washington. He has devoted consider- of which is attached to a false floor
able time to the study of the bird life of treadle. The weight of the cat
on the 
Georgia.                                treadle beyond the fulcrum   pulls
Oliver L. Austin, Jr., of New York, a the wire and releases the door.   
graduate of Wesleyan University and leaflet shows, by picture and text, how

who has done three years' graduation to make the trap, and it also tells
how to 
work in Harvard University, has been bait the trap and how to dispose of
appointed assistant biologist to carry on captured cats. 
studies of wild-life and forest relation-  The Leaflet, No. 50-L, "How
to Make 
ships at the Lake State Forest Experi- a Cat Trap," can be obtained
free from 
meat Station, St. Paul, Minn. He spent the Office of Information, Department
the summer of 1925 studying jungle Agriculture, Washington, D. C., as long

ecology in British Guiana, South Amer- as copies are available for free dis-

ica, and   has  made   three  trips  to tribution. 
, A 14 

SENTIMENTALISTS and other well-intentioned persons say that kittens and purring
tabbies can do no harm. Farmers, sportsmen and conserv a- 
tionists know better! The cat is a killer by instinct! the roving stray cats
take a tremendous toll of quail, partridge, pheasants and song birds! 

Y                                     Fish and Wildlife Service 
Merchandise Mart 
Chicago 54, Illinois 
Mr. Roberts Mann 
Cook County Forest Preserve District 
536 North Harlem Avenue 
River Forest, Illinois 
Dear Bob: 
Your letter in regard to weights of manmals killed three 
years ago on the Forest Preserve Districts was forwarded to me from 
Urbana. Fortunately I have with me a copy of these weights, as 
#1, 3-2-42 
Cat, domestic - weight, 11.3 lbs; castrated male., very fat, 
7         face broad and heavy; black and white, vth heavy coat. 
#2, 3-2-42 
Dog, mongrel plus cross?? weight 42 lbs. male; fat; brown. 
#3, 3-2-42 
Dog, police; weight 61  lbs; male; sleek and in good condi- 
tion but not fat; darl, typically colored. 
014, 3-2-42 
Uoyote kidentification positive, by Goldman, U.S.Nat.Mus.) 
weight, 30  Ibs; male; good condition. 
#5, 3-2-42 
Dog, police plus ?? weight, 34 lbs. good condition; 
dark, obviously crossed with other dog breed (partly 
decomposed, stomach not saved). 
L hope this will provide the information desired by Prof. 
Iaopold. I have copied it directly from our notes. The cat was huge; 
we talked about it at the time; it seems that free ranging cats reach 
very large size, since I have run into it on one ortwo other occasions. 
Looking forward to seeing you Friday forenoon, I am 
Sincerely yours 

..... A 


in the Pecos country, and so, each riding  animal's soft fur. His first and
some forty miles in deep snow to get to- repeated remark was: "Where
in 'ell did 
gether, we met, and on a Monday morn- you get it?"      So enthused
was he that, 
ing as clear as a bell and cold as-North  in spite of his excess of abdomen
Dakota, started an eventful week after   brought his weight well over 250
the big cats.                            he got out his horse and went with
Sturdy mountain horses, Jake, an Aire- the rest of the day. Naturally a hunter

dale, and three veteran hounds made up   does not expect such luck to repeat
our corps of assistants. By night of the  one day, and so, unless you could
call a 
first day we had one lion skin hung up, lynx cat luck, we were luckless for
after a.quick chase and some fancy shoot-  rest of the day, and the old boy
ing to cut limbs from under him where keenly disappointed. 
he lodged in a tree. 
E MERY ARNOLD, a ranchman who 
had contributed a dozen or more 
colts to the stomachs of these marauders, 
joined  us  Tuesday.  Wednesday    we 
brought in another big fellow, and when, 
two days later, Mr. Lloyd, a fat English 
ranchman, finally persuaded us to come 
down his way and save the rest of his 
colts from the "blarsted brutes," not even 
the stiffness of horses, dogs a  men held 
us back. Lloyd warmed ou hiearts with 
hospitality and Scotch rye, .nd in return 
we brought him in a dead lion not thirty 
minutes after we left his house. 
O F course we spent the night with him, 
and either because we were tired out 
or because our host and Fisher swapped 
stories and drank friendly old Scotch un- 
til midnight, we got a late start the next 
morning. It was Sunday, though, and we 
did nots object to a little rest. 
We rode south to Indian Creek and up 
it to near the head, where we found an 
old deer carcass abandoned by a huge lion 
a week or so before. This track was so 
large that we resolved to get him at all 
costs. The track was dimmed with new 
snow and we could not follow it far. but 
did succeed in getting the general direc- 
tion, which was into an exceedingly rough 
patch of country at the head   of El 
Macho Creek. 
WE made our way into the main canyon 
below where we thought the lion 
would cross it, then followed up the bot- 
tom of the canyon where there was deep 
snow, until between two cliffs we again 
picked up his track. We went up the 
canyon a couple of miles fo be sure he 
had not crossed back and then circled 
southward into the next fork   of the 
canyon and crossed his track still headed 
south, but apparently not more than three 
days old, for it now showed to have been 
made after the light snowfall of Thurs- 
day night. The dogs were able to follow 
the scent very slowly on the north slopes 
but on the southern exposures where the 
snow had melted off they would lose it al- 
together. Progress was slow and at sun- 
down it was evident we would get no lion 
that day, so we gave up the chase. 
In our excitement over this r~ammoth 
track we had paid little attention to how 
far we had traveled and how late it really 
was. When we at last looked around to 
A Mountain Lion Hunt 
in New MVexico, 

A Mountain Lion Hunt in New Mexico 
see where we were and what the chances 
were to get back to Lloyd's that night 
we decided it could never be done. It was 
now dark and there was no other ranch 
in reach. There we were in a rough, trail- 
less country, fifteen miles from the near- 
est ranch house, nothing to eat for either 
Durselves, our dogs or our horses, and 
the air getting biting cold as the night 
came on. Emery Arnold knew of an old 
French miner's cabin a couple of miles 
down the canyon where we might find 
horse-feed and possibly some grub, al- 
though old Fortunat Malluchet, the pros- 
pector, never stayed there in winter. He 
did, however, usually raise a patch of 
potatoes and also some oats for hay for 
his burros in the spring. As there was no 
other choice we went there as quickly as 
possible, finding plenty of oat hay for our 
T HERE were several log cabins and a 
root .cellar which all looked good to us 
from the outside. With considerable dif- 
ficulty we broke into one after another of 
them looking for grub and bedding. All 
we found was salt, pepper, a little lard 
and a cellar half full of small Irish pota- 
toes. So we boiled, fried, baked and 
oasted potatoes for supper, alternately 
ept and lay awake on our saddle blankets, 
d then, for variety's sake, ate four kinds 
potatoes for breakfast. We also took 
ig fried and baked spuds for our noon 
The horses had fared well and were in 
good shape. At daylight we were off 
again after the biggest lion in the hills. 
Arnold had gotten enough lion hunt (also 
potatoes!) so he left us and rode home. 
Bark-wl;t we  had quit the trck the 
frozen snow and ground promised to ruin 
our hunt. The dogs could do nothing at 
all. We gave it up and circled for fresher 
About nine o'clock Fannie told us she 
had it on a barren ridge, but the track 
did not prove to be very fresh. The dogs 
worked well, however, and in half an 
hour brought up at the carcass of a 900- 
pound horse killed by Mr. Lion not more 
than forty-eight hours before. Evidently 
only one meal had been eaten by the lion, 
which had then headed northwest back 
into the roughest part of Macho Creek. 
The scent was fresh enough for the dogs 
to make fair headway, and without los- 
ing any time we were off on what looked 
like a sure thing. 
VER       ridge after ridge and across 
canyon after canyon he led us, always 
choosing the roughest course, under and 
over cliffs where it was impossible for the 
dogs to follow without circling and where 
it was often necessary for us to go half 
a mile around to gain a hundred yards 
headway. Worst of all, as the sun warmed 
up the south slopes the track seemed to 
lose its scent entirely, and the hounds 
could hardly progress at all, and were fast 
becoming discouraged. Then when they 
would get into the snow on the north 
slopes they would give tongue freely and 
their hopes and ours would be revived. 
At last we started up a long, steep and 
rocky slope facing directly to the south 
and well dried out. Here all the dogs quit 
entirely except Fannie, Fisher's veteran, 
whose patience and perseverance, in spite 
of her bleeding feet and the failing scent, 
were almost incredible. We led our horse,, 
and tried to help her, but it was a mat- 
ter for noses only. As she was making 
little progress-perhaps half a mile ar 
hour-we let her go on while we stopped 
and ate our potatoes, which, in spite of 
natural hunger, were not very appetizing. 
It was now two o'clock and we realized 
that our chances as well as our stomachs 
were slim, but as we started to catch up 
with Fannie, now a quarter of a mile 
ahead of us, Fisher remarked: 
"I'll stay as long as ol' Fan works like 
that, if I starve!" 
"So will I," I replied, "but we won't 
starve as long as Malluchet's potatoes 
last. Besides, we'll kill a grouse or two 
before night-or else have lion steak for 
supper !" 
"We haven't seen a grouse all day, and 
ain't likely to in this here Godforsaken 
country," Fisher reminded me. 
"Then it's lion steak I" I said with a 
show of confidence I hardly felt. 
BY the time we caught up with Fan- 
nie she had come to the top of the 
ridge and was bellowing off over the cliff 
into the canyon below, as the lion had 
gone down over some cliffs she could not 
negotiate. We puzzled a while what to 
do, while Fannie found a way around. 
We made a bigger detour and        soon 
dropped down into a sort of cave below 
the cliffs, aboit as discouraged as two 
hunters could be. There we stood lis- 
tening to the half mournful howls and 
barks of Fannie as she laboriously worked 
out the course of the lion, track by track. 
We had waited here for about fifteen 
minutes when Queen and Red sniffed the 
air and trotted off around the hill into 
a patch of timber toward which Fannie 
was working. Jake was not interested 
and curled up under a tree to snooze 
while we waited, -wntng to quit but 
ashamed to while Faithful old Fannie, still 
said she would get him. 
A yelp and bawl from Red, followed 
by a bawl and several yelps from Queen, 
then presently, repeated at a higher tone 
by both, and some "I-a-comin'" howls 
from Fannie, with Jake jumping off like 
a flash, all told us that they had jumped 
Mr. Lion. 
We leaped to our horses, half in doubt, 
but as we made off toward the scene a 
long-drawn out bawl from Fannie at a 
nervously high tone with a note higher 
at the end, told us as surely as anything 
could that our game had been jumped. 
Our pulses quickened and our nerves 
tightened as we rode recklessly and as fast 
as we could after the dogs. They led 
us down hill through better country for 
a while. Then, as they pressed him closer 
the big fellow took to the rougher ridges 
and side draws.   But in his first run, 
which evidently was made while we had 
worked up the dry slope and eaten our 
potatoes, he had left the roughest coun- 
try and could not get back to it, so we 
were able to ride on his trail, following 
in the general direction of the dogs. 
N      we went for an hour, expecting 
every minute to tree him, but no such 
luck. He dodged and doubled and ran 
and jumped from rock to rock, trying, tc 
throw the dogs off. We had over-exerted 
ourselves in the past thirty hours and 
were unduly excited. We galloped over 
rocks and logs and ice and brush that al 
another 'time we would have hesitated ever 
to lead our horses over. Once I rounded 
a point at a gallop, not being able to se( 
far ahead, to find myself on a steep ic3 
slope with a large log lying up and dowt 
the hill right ahead and a twenty-foo, 
cliff below. I could not stop my hors4 
quickly, nor turn him lest he slip on th4 
i frozen ground and fall, slipping help 
I lessly  over  the ledge below.   In "th 
excitement of ,the moment I put spurs to 
him and he leaped the log and luckily 
caught footing, and after scrambling pre- 
cariously along for a few dangerously slip- 
pery rods was on safe footing once more. 
Before I could warn him Fisher had 
fot!owed me, and as his horse leaped the 
log his upper feet slipped and he fell to 
his side. Quick as a flash and as only a 
veteran horseman can, Fisher slipped from 
the saddle as the horse went down, but 
held to the bridle reins, and as his horse 
caught for a second against a bush he 
wrapped the reins around a small fir tree 
and held him from slipping over the cliff. 
I ran back to help him, and with a rope 
as an anchor we soon got the horse to 
his feet and around the hill to safety. 
The pony came out limping and Fisher 
was obliged to take it somewhat slower, 
but called to me to "Stay with the dogs I" 
And I tried to. 
Half a mile more brought me out upon 
a sharp ridge 250 yards above a narrow, 
steep-sided draw, and as I stopped for a 
second to locate the dogs I saw three of 
them on the steep slope opposite me. Poor 
Fannie had fallen a hundred yards behind 
and was striving painfully to keep up, 
yelping pitifully and leaving a red trail 
from her sore and bleeding feet. Before 
I reached the bottom of the draw they 
barked "treed," which was, I think, the 
most welcome report I have ever heard 
from a pack of dogs. 
My horse was all winded and about all 
in otherwise, so I left him in the draw 
while I kicked off my spurs and chaps 
and climbed afoot up the steep, slippery 
slope. Fisher stopped on the ridge back 
of me and cadl  tAthe would wat    h 
from there, as he could see the lion. 
When within a hundred yards of the 
tree and just as I saw the lion for the 
first time and realized how big he was, 
Fisher called to me to shoot, for the lion 
was about to jump. I shot, too quickly as 
usual, but broke a shoulder. The big cat 
fell a few feet, then caught. I shot again 
-through the neck but not breaking it. 
Again he fell and caught on some of the 
lower branches. I shot again, hitting him 
in the flank and ranging forward. He 
quivered ,Z-d screamed, a blood-curdling 
squall it was, and turned loose all holds 
as I shot again-this time straight through 
the shoulders. 
THE dogs pulled and bit him as if tak- 
ing final vengeance for the long and 
gruelling chase he had led them. This 
was by far the largest mountain lion 
either of us had ever killed and was in 
every way a fine specimen. The fur was 
short and thick. Besides being badly shot 
up, the skin showed the scars of many 
battles. We skinned him there in the draw 
and fed the dogs great hunks of the meat, 
which they devoured ravenously. 
T HOUGH it was sundown we set out 
for Arnold's Ranch and, believe me, we 
bad one sweet time getting there out of 
that wilderness. But though the memories 
of, that night's trip are too painful to re- 
late suffice to say that we got in before 
midnight and had something besides po- 
tatoes to eat for our midnight lunch. And 
while admitting that we had had enough 
lion hunting for a while-four big ones 
in one week was not bad-we promised 
each other to go again sometime. 
Now when I look at this fine specimen 
of a mountain lion, made into a rug with 
full head mounted and measuring over 
eleven feet from tip to tip, I would be 
willing to start out tomorrow with only a 
boiled potato in my pocket if I could have 
that experience' over again. 

handle sent in came from one of the old tun-   with    bound,     big cat
went over a bank 
nels. All the relics found are in an excel-                r        into
th brush. 
lent state of preservation, - District 3.                h      man with
whom the boys were 
yi        a 22 rifle and an old hound which 
e time in its career had lost a leg in 
a bear trap, so when the lion disappeared 
AND THE BLIND G   ESS SMILED              they went back for these reinforcements.

There were only two .22 short cartridges for 
the rifle, so the boys out some stout clubs 
"I called on    e         sor of the    and hurrying back, put the hound
on the trail 
Kaibab Nation1l Fore     -    s I recall it    where the lion had left the
road. The dog 
now, I b  t h      o t e draw and stopped fir-  gave tongue and soon treed
the lion.    The 
ing Qnly  0   oth of y guns - or was it all    fi-st of the two precious
bullets glazed on 
four        e e ty. I rolled the body under    the sternum and the lion jumped,
only to be 
a de   i'    lked out."                         treed again after a
short run, when a more 
The a ve is from the pen of a fiction    carefully placed shot found its
write . - District 4.                           Sanford has the skin of the
, '' I  I"The playfullness displayed by this 
fully grown cougar was certainly very un- 
LOOKOUT TOWER                   usual and something I have never seen in
writings about the animal." -W. S. 
Sometime ago, in a review of   ompson 
Seton's "Lives of Game Animals," ment n was 
made of the playfulness of the cougar.   Now                   A CATTLE SLUMP

comes Paul Fair,of D-5, with a good ya    on 
this little-known characteristic of th   big           President Pyeatt of
the D. & R.G W., 
cat:                                            in checking over the cattle
slipments over 
"A very interesting instance of this 
came to my notice not long ago and I thought 
you might use it. 
"Burnett Sanford, now forester for 
the Sugar Pine Lumber Company, and another 
man whose name I have forgotten were working 
several years ago on a timber sale on the 
Shasta and living with an old mountaineer in 
his cabin near the sale area. 
"One morning in going to their work 
they noticed the fresh tracks of a cougar in 
the dust of the road. Coming around a bend 
in the road they met the lion walking leisure- 
ly along. Neither man carried a gun and'as 
the lion stopped, seemingly not alarmed by 
their appearance, they picked up some rocks 
and began to throw them at the beast. Much 
to their surprise this procedure aroused 
neither fear nor anger, but seemed to awaken 
a spirit of play. When a rock whizzed by, the 
lion, instead of dodging, would strike out 
at it with a spread forepaw, just as a domes- 
tic cat will with a ball tossed to it. 
"This happened several times until the 
boys managed to register a direct hit, when 
his lines became very much concerned recently 
in the showing of red-ced business and began 
to ask questions among his organization on 
ways and means of rehabilitating the live industry, especially the cattle industry. 
Representatives of the system have been 
gathering data to show the trends, and a meet- 
ing has been called by the Chairman of the 
Agricultural Livestock Development Committee 
of the Denver Chamber of Commerce to discuss 
the question: Questions that are being asked 
1. Now that the upturn seems to have 
begun, how should it be encouraged and direct- 
ed . 
2.  What steps shall be taken toward 
restocking the range. We have been invited 
to attend the conference and as the subject 
relates to the National Forests, we expect to 
show that the great part of the reduction in 
cattle has been absorbed by increases in sheep. 
There seems to be a general impression that 
large areas of National Forest land are being 
unutilized because of the reduction in cattle 
as shown by railroad shipments. 

4, CP-,L-t.10 / IA-,t,  '. W 

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A' \ 

C/ ,       -    , , -, , - i ,   - , " -  ) , 4,f- 
4)  Htn 

atu C, 
t;- Lq akft                          UA 
LtZZ4 ,z. 
ot-C. & 
V-L  rL 


..  192...... 
Name                .............. ....... 
having paid $1.00 Membership Dues for 192. 
is hereby certified to be a member in good 
..         standing of this A  iation. 
..SE..... . .... 

The Game Protective Association needs you as a member. 
Here are the reasons why you should join: 
1. You want law enforcement. The way to get it is to join us and work for
well paid wardens who mean business. 
2. You want more ducks. The way to get them is to join us and work for well-

policed refuges, planting of duck feeds and improvement of breeding grounds.

3. You want more quail. Help us study the unsolved problem of how to bring
4. You want more deer and turkey. Help us work for better predatory animal
trol. Help us decide whether we need more refuges, better refuge enforcement,
a totally closed season. 
5. You want better fishing. Help us work for more hatcheries and better rearing
6. You want a place to shoot and fish. Help us solve the "posted land"
problem by 
keeping the streams open and establishing public shooting grounds. 
7. You want good game laws. The only way to get them is to join the G. P.
A. and 
increase the strength of our influence. 
8. You want to keep posted as a sportsman. Attend our smokers, give us your
and learn the other fellov's! 

H - JAGU~A. 
I have a very good set of records as to where and when and by 
whom jaguars were seen or killed,   I seem to Le short, however, of 
definite information as to whether or no they ever occurred in any 
part of southeastern New Mexico. I have only one record for t1e. 
desert country of southwestern Arizona and would be interested to 
hear of any additional records there. 
There has lately arisen a further very interesting question of 
whether all the animals commonly reported as "jaguars" may not
part be ocelot.   This species, as I understand it, is smaller, 
Slimmer, and has sclid black spots instead of large clouded black 
spots.   Any information to differentiate ocelot records tvoulO be 
extremely valuable. 
I am alsc particularly interested in the killing hhbits of 
these cats - that is, just what size and kind of animals they tackle 
and just what method they use in killing them. 
It is not known whether the Jaguars of Arizcna and New Mexico 
are all "strays,, from Mexico or whether they breed here.  Does any-

body know? 
4 I 
F       -  I          F       I                      .- 
&4Ax~ (~LL ~x 
U ~ ~> 
v', U' 
~ 1\~ I 

Mather, V. W. Geological Srvey of the State of Ohio. Seond Annual 
Report, Coliubus, 1535. 256 pp. (Copy owned by J. A. Laphas) 
p. 23. WThe rise...wa mentiond in the lat 
Anma  Reort(193tr-Theeffects are disastrous-.fine farms are 
completely inundate4...the coast is washing...neeesa   to make the 
wharres raise the streets of towns. A traitio        ists that

there is a periodical rise an fall of the water through a certain period

of years.  ... the present rise is higher than has  curre for MW    years

before, for extensive tracts of forest are now said to be overflowe".

pp. 5,52. T                       1796-1839. USX. fluotuation 6' below 1535
in 110an   119 
PP. 15 -.200  Report on Zoology of Ohio by J. P. Kirtland, tor.L1839 
p.  6     v   n   *undoubtedly inhabited the northern parts of Ohio in former

tim    ut hs     g been extint 
Pishr2 speimens taken in Ashtabula Co. in 1937, where a few probably 
V"Dr. Earl...has tskoe it in the vieinity of Chillicothe" 
Coga 7N. conclor and. , eeam. The mountain tiger sand the mountain 
eat. The pioneer hunters blended both these speie  uder the commn 
inns of c   m    . They both formerly inhabited this state but haye 
now disappeared. Mr. Dorfeuille has in his usem at Cininnti well 
nene of each species tat were taken in Ohio". 
wa killed La Trumbull County "bOut 10 yrs. since*. 
bhre; sometims seen in 1. 3. parts 
IlAshtabula Ca. r Oct. 1.35 
Lled in Sandy Fork Syme's Or. La 1500. These were last. 
p. 10. hyesa "sometimes spens the winter as far n         as Lake YxIO.
of it as a southern speciest Or misprint? 
p. 184.            se. Reported on shores of Iie. Not authenticated. 
8      1 or *eoopia  crane*   2 killed Coshocton Co. 1 37 
p. 15-.                  e" am informed by Dr. Ward that it is sometimes

seen in the Sioto Valley*. 
p. 205.             "I know of no reason why it might not be a vantageously

p. 177. 

jr-  , 
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,,- ( C,   e -/ 1 '2 1 q 

Ir"'A     I1J  l 
I v 

~24>** 2 
I'                              >4 
t <2 
4 4 
1$25.00 RC 
ft4~dfin4Wderandhere is how. wepro-1 
inntckliat           rncpehers ad government 
S           'ycsnfui qbseryation, give it as their 
6 ea1 "tain lion n the state kills at 
4    h     ahh t   each week, upon which to live 
hb feed almost entirely upon our 
eer, occasionally killing  horse or 
huger and scarcity of their favor- 
3:#mqp wd the deer. 
dasiro  a mountan lion you are 
east fifty mwountailt sheep or fifty 
mountain lion killed in Colorado, of $25 in cash. .... 
We ask of those good hunters and good sport- 
who destroy these animals, that they take the mon 
lion, as soon after they have killed it, as possible, 
nearest postoffice and make an affidavit as tothe: 
cumstances of the killing and swear to it bfeore the 
master or the justice of the peace, and send such, 
davit to us with the cleaned skull of the lion. If thin 
is satisfactory we will immediately send a Post chi 
$25 and we shall regard it as buying more satisf 
than any other $25 we could possibly expend, ' 
with the 4ptruction of the mountain lion we sa 
head qf gaul. either deer or mountain sheep. 
epor dleer are worth to the state $2,500 and if we can 
save fifty head a year, by destroying a mountain lion foa 
$25, this $25paid in bounty by The Post saves the state 
$2,500 worth of mountain sheep or deer, so you see what 
great economy and what sav~ing value this bounty given 
y The Post, has to the state. 
Andnot only that. It saves the lives of fifty of these 
beautiful, harmless, sweet creatures, typical of our be- 
oved Colorado and of our glorious mountains and forests 
and valleys and plains. 
N~ TOw we want this to be spread all over Colorado. 
We want hunters everywhere to seek out and de- 
stroy th3ese pests, these destroyers of our most 
and stealthy tread, they can approach the deer and she 
easily and silently and run them down in the snow, as 
the deer and the mountain sheep, with their tiny hoofs, 
cut 4thru the crust of the snow, while the mountain lion 
runs over the top of it on account of the size and the fur 
on its feet. 
W     HEREVER you find deer and mountain sheep 
you find the mountain lion lurking around and 
preying and feeding upon the herds. With the 
extermination of the mountain lion there will be fifty 
times more mountain sheep and deer in this state, in 
fact almost every hill and mountain would be beautified 
(Continued on Next Page) 
, I 

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io TELtk 
of all the people anA 
c    de of destructi 
Otroyer of game tl 
coast t 
btem so 
hie m'*w 
and to yourlrien& 
,here, that in order to pro- 
life of Colorado The Post 
if dollars in destroying the 
this game. We want the 
and forest rangers And 
iners in Caloin    zi 
the fo, ofoukenM 
t the foe 'fo~oin 
very time .rou   stoi- 
u $25 for it, at i t t 
lue notice will be givemi 
young cub mountain liois, 
125 is for the adlt lie*- 
trappers and twosofethe 
ad the picturesque xInoun- 
lyand ygur doat m4.dur.. 
j*Mary,  hnW W~vada 
esepotowe em dntv.p> 
~t~~te 4shew pi40r 
yvo. *a 
NO hi 
Tho pride that Hupmobile owmrs take in th*ir ca 
a4 t  deep-rooted loyalty they foee for the cars whlre 
t   own a   dwenmtely to that superb quality ,tb 
lHtpcloie teroymaitIty      
wd ijoureo =ya 
RPO   >  ,!+>t IO  : 
Mbtor Sales Co 
t~ca fl..nnlnrnn 
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bet  :,ah"eentiunios buo~ 
t   4 AMined~i b  tla*'woft f 
tvqulbkware  have bsen tsnto4 %'d 
4sehsfl4 lineofldqW1 totake 
T49vPatietsattM     otal zew 
average a0ot I,200. ",1 
Toe staff of the beotpted al sp been 
built up from a 'few sarg~05$ nd 
Thn'6000 acres, near',Aura yUon 
'which the hospt itallf~ins e" e0 
* strucetd pXneenttd a 'scene of dentai 
thins who#p terot was first broken for 
tb ,tiiou of, tbw hospital buil4Lr1 
1Toft, graled divien Ol 4a1nd 
ts~ks Intrlace the renat campnaw 
aon hardbeen planted lning the 
w~hs pd aitches of parded terraces 
vi,  ,           f                he 
theiopital i t en- 
-  -                        h     t   -Alstte 
"In eprciug the young man's fancy lighty turns-." ~wIt "...ght
to ~~l 
But this is winter, so why speak of spring?.,by                    oldbavaempbCTied
It& Mntor, to pafnphrazw the verse of the pot the young of Den#4ILA 
maf's fa " y-ptirti~aly if he iWe Co "d    young ,man-turnjs  
  Iudti4het                    t 
of,                   u!ngv'   a  sports witich arejpiuli~s of donors Of
trade, to 
to *90oflie h te                          n'zatil ofth       tas&   
Denver in the tmarkating 
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 ~trmyt$~tion of the hn4 ttzn Den- 
lt~ist  ghclb, tOaen    tOtn 
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trr. ThoM an sobtho4 We theo *- 
jip'st, uuay st&Wd  ktStea~ahnt 
S9prin,  a&d,   a del ws thse list- 
get uilpur Fi,7   Grhad  a. t 
Reeky Mounth #bNatiotail ark, Dearer 
dain l 'Sw  El~a  Sprfings "d4 
The couse at Odp"&. 106;in tb 
-*eky MoueniX tnaA ejpark,6 
recognized as ones of, tho' beet * the 
world. On it is staged tha premier 
swnival of- the eninathe 1spot t &. 
thutoss  oin  fo hn o *u gthe 
nigsappin r ms anlaondth scee- 
&am, lo  I enbeau#4ti-lWr    k 
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al  7fa G icn&ooa-ai& 
ZhtAyes Have It 
Uyown eXperience covers but one instance in which a mountain lion ut- 
tered some of the most pier'cing, awe-inspiring screams that I have ever
tened to, except from some of our alley cats here in Washington. The moun-

tain lion is, of course, the ptuma, known officially as ,,felis concolor"
He is nothing but a great big cat, and why any man who has 
OVer listened to the screams, howls and wails of the ordinary alloy cat,
loecially of the Thomas variety, should doubt that his older and larger rela-

tive, the puma or mo;Antain lion, does not indulge in the sme sort of vocal

a*-'o-itle , I am urable to state.  In other wor~s, I am thoroughly convinced

-hat the rountain lion does emit screams or cries or howls, or whatever you

1,036  to call "-ebo, eractly as does the alley cat and for probably
the same 
3enOral qwusep. In loclting for authority on this subject, I went at once
*e Dorson whose oooervations as to the habits of wild. animals in America
VobUly tha most w54ely respected of any of our present authorities. This
1. W. ielson, present chief of the Biclogical Survey.   (Nelson, by the 
was once a cowman on the same Arizona ranges with myself and Potter.) 
Iu his wonerfully interesting discussion of "The Larger Nohrth American
r ,,ut" ishl originally in the National Geographic DM6Pgzine Lor NIovember,

i~i6J I fil4 under the head of "mountain lion (:             ,t the
STatementm  "It has a wild screaming cry whioh is thrillingly impressive.-***

In     Ie -ntains of Axioan one sV  er a mxatain lion rpily passed along
Serie of riAgs high above mW cabin at tik, uttbrinE  this loud wierd 3ry
ularly V'oed t  resqmble the screems of a terrified woman." As far as
i am 
'Oncerra, t's is ejnugh for me. U16 mZun.%nlions do howl.       (This ends

4lent ,Kats" of th 'Kai.ab: Mountain lions may scream, agin they may
Ut it would appear that if they -do they would make the Kaibab ring since,

4-                  there are numerous lions on the Kaibab, 
and, so far as is of record, no one who is reliable has ever heard one scream,

although a captured kitten was heard to maie a noise similar to that made
a house cat. This, of course, is not conclusive evidence that mountain lions

do not sorem.a but I have spent most of the past twenty years on the Kaibab

and other areas on which lions occur and have never yet heard one scream.

It might also be remarked that "Uncle Jim" Owens never has heard
a lion 
scream, and he probakly has killed more lions than any other man in the United

States. --Benjamin Swapp. 
The' acream on Ole 1haniksuz Whle I have not had the forty years of foothill

and mountain life experience that our worthy friend Loring of the San Juan

speaks of, yet I have other endowments which may qualify me as an expert
ness, one of which is, I am a' '    "issoRian" by birth ar a Montanan
by natural- 
ization, and with twenty-three years residence therein, I still retain that

Missouri instinct of "Show Me." I have been shown to my entire
that at least one mountain lion did scream. It was the summer of 1907 on
Kanilku Forest in northern Idaho, while following an old and therefore dim

section line through a heavy stand of matured white pine and cedar, with
understory of hemlock, that I was suddenly halted (all ecept my heart an

hair) by the most unearthly scream I had ever heard. This was followed by
dead silence of a few moments duration, in which it seemed that the trees
the forest quivered. This silence was quickly broken by the second scream,

which irdicated it came from a point just ahead. ar on the section line I
following. The underbrush obstructing a clear view ahead, I dropped to my

knees to detect if possible the A11hirring Wimpers," but 10, it was
a she lion 
with two kittens arn a fresh killed deer. D)uring the few seconds I was hesi-

tating to offset two and a half chains to the west, I actually saw the old

mother lion open her mouth ad actually heard a third unearthly scream, and

thus my "Missouri" "Show me" instinct was satisfied.--GlOnASmith,

Apache Inspection   1921 
Cleve Miller illed 30 lions since 
October between Eagle and Blue, Cospers 
to Grey's Peak.   Biological Survey now 
hunting jaguar. 

Prescott Inspection - 1922 
Killing labits.   Van Dickson saw a lion kill 
a big colt. Jumped at him from front, grab- 
bing high on the side of the throat and 
raking the neck and chest with the hind 
claws, tearing the jugular vein.   Dragged 
him 60 yards and later returned to feed, 
eating the heart. 
Oldham says alleged leopard in Matazals 
kills cows by pulling the head down and break- 
ing the neck.   Feeds on lungs and never re- 
turns for second feed, 
Hardy Schell says the one in Matazalq 
invariably tears out a shoulder blade - 
probably to get at the lights, 

Sitgreaves Inspection- 1922 
Hoyt suays no lions on Sevier or Zaibab 
until atbout 1890-95.  Then became abundant. 

Tonto Inspection - 1923 
Wt. of Lions 
One actra large one killed by Murphey 
weighed 140# after entrails removed. 

Prescott Inspection. 1922 
Japaa killed by W. H. Smith near Willow 
Springs, Smith Canyoh, about 1895. 01dham 
got this record. 

Prescott Inspection - 1922 
Jagua.    *Vyatt says one killed 12 miles N. 
of Wickenburg by Leonard White in 1905, on 
the Hassayampa, and another 3j miles A. 
Crown King on head of Bear Cr. by Jno. Dickie 
in about 1900. 

Prescott Inspection -1922 
Jaguar kille& by Haskell in Greenback 
country on Tonto 20 years ago.   Schel. 
saya John 4line told him this. 

Prescott Inspection - 1922 
Jaguar.   2 killed by W. R. Morley near 
Datil P.O. around 25 or 30 years ago* 

Prescott Inspection- 1922 
Jaguar seen by R. Martin, a fire guard, In 
head of Little Dry on Gila in 1912, acoordinS 
to M nro 

0        0 
Prescott Inspection - 192Z 
J       killed on Sycamore Cr. 5 miles west 
of Skull Valley by Pete White about 1900, 
according to Van Dickson and Grant Carter 
of Skull Valley and Kirkland respectively. 
Hide seen by Dickson. 

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Fish & Game                            December 8, 1922 
Additional Records of the Northern Limit of 
Jaguar Occurrence. 
During the past field season I have picked up the 
following records where these bir cats have been killed in 
recent years; 
George Kline and his brothers, who live on Tonto 
Creek above Roosevelt, killed one in 1917 or 1918 in the 
region between Tonto Creek and Four Peaks. Former Thnger 
Sherman is quite sure that they killed more than one although 
I failed to ask them personally about this. 
Earl Bacon told me in October that he and his brother, 
Grant Bacon, killed one in 1907 or 1908 near the box of the 
Salt River. They were trapping for coon along the river an& 
a jaguar was treed by their hounds. 
Ranger Chipman tells me that one was killed in 1918 
in Harrison Canyon in the south end of the Caliuro M:ountains 
by a Mexican. The name of this man he did not know but it 
could probably be dug up since it is thought that he resides 
in the region and several parties saw the pelt which is still 
believed to be in the region. 
Grazinp Examiner. 

108                  CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 
By JAY BRUCE, State Mountain Lion Hunter. 
The importance of the control of the mountain lion (Felis co-ncolor) 
as an aid in game-conservation can be appreciated when it is realized 
that the present lion population of California is scientifically estimated

to be about 600 lions, and their annual kill of deer 30,000 head. This 
is over twice the number known to be killed by human hunters. Since 
does are probably about five times as numerous as bucks, a lion has five

chances to kill a doe for one chance to kill a buck. So, naturally, most

of the deer killed by lions are the breeding stock of females. 
Although deer form their principal food, lions also kill thousands of 
dollars worth of domestic stock every year, even including full grown 
cattle. In fact, no animal in California is entirely exempt from the 
bloodthirsty instincts of these animals. I know definitely of lions hav-

ing killed and eaten foxes, skunks, coons, porcupines and bobcats. 
I also have reliable information of several instances where lions have 
killed and eaten domestic dogs, while two lions now in captivity ipn the

Yosemite Valley killed and ate a cub bear which managed to get into 
the lions' cage from his own adjoining cage. 
The lion problem has been intensified by the establishment of a chain 
of game refuges where no public hunting is allowed. The breeding 
stock of deer and other game is fast increasing in these areas, and nat-

urally the lions accumulate there. Since the lion's instinct is to kill 
at every opportunity, the most damage will be done where deer are most 
In order to meet this condition a high state bounty was advocated. 
It seemed doubtful, however, whether a $100 bounty would attract 
enough hunters to confer a benefit anywhere in proportion to -the addi- 
tional cost, as will be shown later. Another mEthod of control consid- 
ered was the employment of experienced lion hunters on a regular sal- 
ary, plus the present bounty. As an experiment along this line the 
writer was employed by the California Fish and Game Commission, on 
January 1, 1919. This system costs only about $2000 per year, as 
against the $15,000 by the increased bounty, and lions are killed where 
there is the most need of killing them. The main object of the plan 
adopted was to control the lions in game refuges, and then to answer 
any calls where lions were doing unusual damage. During the last 
three years I have accounted for ninety lions, as follows: 1919, twenty-

six lions; 1920, thirty lions; 1921, thirty-four lions. Most of these 
were taken in and around game refuges. Since October, 1908, the 
California Fish and Game Commission has been paying a bounty of 
$20 for each mountain lion killed. Claims for such bounty are made 
on blanks furnished by the commission, and every claimant has been 
requested to furnish the commission with a written statement showing 
where the lion was killed, why it was killed, the damage done by the 
NOTE.-There have been few articles appearing in CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME
more general interest than the one offered here, written by a man who probably
more about the habits of the mountain lion than any other Westerner. In bagging

121 lions, Mr. Bruce has traveled on foot over 10,000 miles, hunting, trailing,
studying their hablts.-EDITOR. 

lion, methods used in taking him, and the sex of the animal. In July, 
1917, the bounty on female lions was raised to $30 per head. 
The information sent in by claimants for bounty indicates that nearly 
all of these lions were killed either accidentally or because they were 
doing damage to stock, and not on account of the bounty. Now if the 
bounty were raised to $100 per lion, the state would be paying $75 more 
on an average for each lion now killed under the present bounty, and 
this would amount to about $15,000 annually. 
From the foregoing it might be argued that the present bounty is 
useless and should be abolished, so let us examine and see what benefit 
FIG. 51. One hundred and fifty pound male lion treed near Lynchburg ranger's

station, Placer County, November 1, 1921, 
is derived from this expenditure. It is evident that no situation can 
be handled intelligently or with efficiency without accurate data as a 
basis for action. Now on account of the bounty of $20 paid since 1908, 
the commission has been furnished with the following data: 
The number of lions killed during the last thirteen years; 
The proportionate number of these killed from year to year under 
q given condition, which should indicate the comparative lion popu- 
The damage known to have been done by each lion; 
The methods used in taking the animal; 
The percentage of each sex killed since 1917. 
These data are of immense value in any effort to control the lion, and 
are, now being used to advantage for that purpose by the commission. 
Forinstance, we find from an examination of these data that the range 
of the lion on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains 
between Siskiyou County and Kern County, is confined to a straight 
belt Ibout fifteen miles wide by section lines, and at an elevation 
between 3000 and 5000 feet above sea level and averaging 4000 feet. 
The same elevation will apply to the range -of the lion in the Coast 

Range Mountains. All the country above or below this belt can be 
eliminated as lion country for all practical hunting purposes. 
The lion does not habitually follow some of the deer to the higher 
mountains in summer and other deer to the foothills in winter, as many 
people suppose. This lion belt is so well defined in the Sierra that we 
can draw a straight line through the center of the belt, from a point 
in Siskiyou County to a point in Kern County, and it would be pos- 
sible for a hunter to camp along this line and kill approximately every 
lion on the western slope of the Sierra. Of course a lion will occa- 
sionally stray out of this belt temporarily, but he soon returns, for his

natural home is there. The lion probably selects this belt because it is

the natural home of the deer. The variety of ceanothus, commonly 
FiG. 52. A large 160-pound male lion which measured 7 feet 3j inches. Killed
Avery, Calaveras County, in March, 1921. Photograph by L. V. Peterson. 
called deer brush, which is the principal food for deer, grows in abun- 
dance in this belt between 3000 and 5000 feet elevation. The deer that 
summer higher winter here, and those that winter below summer hero. 
Most of the deer stay here all the year, so this area is the best all-year

range for them. In other words, the maximum deer population is to 
be found in this area. For this reason the lioness selects some place 
Y in this belt when her young are to be born. She usually has two or 
three kittens, although sometimes only one, and occasionally four, are 
born in a litter. On account of many females not mating every year, 
the yearly increase probably averages one kitten for each adult fewrale.

The lair is usually located around some bluff or pile of rocks, which 
furnishes places for shelter and concealment of the kittens when small. 
In my experience, the kittens are born in either February, April, 
August or November. The mother nurses them for about two months, 
and probably brings them some food in her stomach during that time. 

After they are weaned she makes a kill and moves the kittens to it, 
leaving them to eat it while she goes away hunting. She continues 
moving the kittens from kill to kill until they are about six months old

and weigh about 35 pounds for females and 50 pounds for males, by 
actual scale weight. They now hunt part of the time with their mother 
until they are about a year old and weigh about 65 pounds for females 
and 80 pounds for males. The mother then abandons them. The 
kittens sometimes continue to hunt together for a few months longer, 
when they finally separate, selecting different beats, but still in the 
same belt where conditions are the same as where they were raised. 
When fully matured the male weighs from 140 to 160 pounds and 
measures from 64 feet to 71 feet from tip of nose to tip of tail. The 
female weighs from 90 to 105 pounds and measures from 6 feet to 7 feet 
from tip to tip. These are actual scale weights and tape measurements. 
The adult male accompanies the female only during the mating period 
and does not help to feed and care for the young. Lions do not make 
their kills by lying in wait on the limbs of trees and springing from 
there. In fact, I have never known of a lion climbing a tree except to 
avoid the dogs. They tirelessly hunt and stalk their quarry on the 
ground, taking advantage of every cover, and finally rushing from a 
distance of 40 or 50 feet. This distance is covered in about a second. 
A 100-pound lion moving at a velocity of 40 feet per second will strike 
a blow sufficient to prostrate a yearling steer. The heavy muscles of 
the lion's neck, shoulder and forepaws are tense for the blow, and easily

absorb the shock that prostrates his unsuspecting victim, which is then 
killed by being disemboweled. The liver is eaten first, and then the 
loins and hams. An examination of probably 100 deer killed by lions 
showed no -evidence of the lion having touched the throat of any of 
these kills. 
I have found the lion to be normally a solitary and invariably a silent 
animal. I have never heard that hair-raising scream the lion is sup- 
posed to utter, and I do not believe it makes any loud sounds, but that 
the noises usually attributed to it are made by owls and coyotes. On 
one occasion of which I know, about fifty guests at a mountain resort 
were listening one evening to the braying of a mule colt, and were told 
in good faith that they were hearing a mountain lion scream. Every 
one of these people, including their informant, probably believes to this

day that they were hearing a lion. 
Some writers have condemned the mountain lion as being cowardly 
and unwilling to attack in the open, but they lose sight of the fact that

the eat family is short-winded and unable to capture its prey by running

it down as the dog family does. If the lion should openly approach 
his prey and challenge it to combat, his intended victim would imme- 
diately take to flight, leaving the lion to go hungry. His only means 
of making a living is to surprise his quarry. In a fight to the death, 
the mountain lion is more game than the black bear. le will fight with 
his last breath, when the black bear will quit and cover his head with 
his paws and bawl like a calf. 
The most reliable method of taking lions is trailing with dogs, and 
the best dogs for this purpose are fox hounds.  A hunter, requires at 
least four dogs, which must be highly trained on lions and thoroughly 
proof on deer and other game, as there are probably a thousand head 

of deer and other game combined, for each lion. The dogs are used in 
pairs, allowing each pair to rest every second day, as a dog uses so much

energy in running, baying and wagging his tail during ten or twelve 
hours of trailing that he needs one day's rest for each day of work. 
Furthermore, a dog's feet will not stand continuous hunting. 
To be successful, lion hunting must be done intensively. Since a lion 
does most of his prowling at night, the hunter must leave camp early 
and travel fast, in order to find a fresh trail and have the most hours 
of daylight to trail the lion down, as a person can neither travel to 
advantage in the mountains after dark, nor see tracks when necessary 
to help the dogs. A lion travels a regular beat over about 100 square 
miles, usually making his round about every four or five days, so as 
soon as some part of this beat is learned, the hunter has a clue to 
Fia. 53. Mountain lion scratches. 
work by. Since the dogs can smell only a reasonably fresh track, the 
hunter can not depend entirely upon their sense of smell to find the 
trail, but must always watch the -ground carefully fbr any old signs 
which would indicate the places where a lion had been traveling. 
The signs left by lions are fresh or old kills, dung and tracks, and if 
a male is traveling a beat the plainest sign will be marks about a quar-

ter to a half mile apart along the beat and apparently made by the 
lion digging with his forepaws in the dead leaves near the base of a 
tree or in the rotten wood near an old log (see figure 53). These marks 
are all alike and can not be mistaken for anything else when once 
learned; they are made only by the male and are a sure indication to 

I the hunter of the sex of the animal he is trailing. After some part of

the lion's beat has been learned, that part must be hunted first every 
day, continuing the hunt then from there. If one day is missed and 
the lion passes, the track may be too old for the dogs when it is found 
the next day, and this may mean four or five days before the trail is 
again found fresh enough for the dogs to follow. A dog can not follow 
any but a very fresh trail on hot and dry ground or in dust, so the 
hunter must use his eyes to help the dogs past such places. In the 
cool, damp weather of winter a twenty-four hour trail can usually be 
successfully followed, while in the hot, dry weather of summer a six- 
hour trail is found difficult. When snow is on the ground, trailing is 
FiG. 54. Doe and fawn killed by mountain lion near Bear River on north fork

of Mokelumne River. 
easy and a four or five-day-old track should be followed, as a lion may 
make a kill at any point on his beat and may have returned for a feed, 
allowing the hunter to get a fresh track at the kill. I estimate that 
while killing 120 lions I advanced an average of about fifteen miles 
the day the lion was killed. This distance does not take into account 
many loops made in looking for tracks when it was necessary to help 
the dogs. Many times I have trailed a lion this distance each day for 
three or four days before bagging him. Several times I have advanced 
twenty-five miles, and once thirty miles, the day I got the lion. Gen- 
erally the hunter travels on foot over 100 miles for each lion killed. 
I estimate that on the average trail my dogs will travel about five times

the distance advanced. To me it is very interesting to watch a hound 
on the trail. He rushes along with nose close to the ground, head 
sweeping from side to side and tail wagging furiously, stopping sud- 
denly as he catches the scent, smelling intensely for a moment to make 
sure, then throwing up his head and baying loudly as he rushes ahead 
for a hundred feet or so, then trying again for the scent, and circling 
'until the trail is located. Now another rush ahead, and so on for 
twelve or fourteen hours, or until the constant baying indicates that 

114                 CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 
the lion has been routed out of his bed and is making  wa, with the 
dogs in close pursuit. The hunter knows when the lion iS finally treed, 
by the changed note in the baying of the dogs and by the fact that the 
baying comes continually from one place. On arriving at the tree, he 
can see anywhere from 100 to 160 pounds of cat, standing among the 
branches, usually about 30 feet above the ground. The lion may be 
just watching the dogs with interest, or he may be very angry, which 
is indicated by his constant growling. 
At the crack of the gun, out he goes, and even though shot through 
the heart he may still be able to seriously injure a dog. For this 
reason it is best to tie the dogs before shooting. 
It is quite an exciting experience to see a wounded adult lion on the 
ground, trying to hold at bay from two to four frantic dogs. Every 
moment will be full of action, as the dogs attack from different direc- 
tions and the lion continually turns to meet each attack. All the while 
he is growling and spitting savagely, his ears flat back, mouth wide 
open, claws unsheathed and hair and tail standing up. If the dogs 
crowd him too closely he turns over on his back and fights with his 
mouth and all four feet at the same time. Now is the time for the 
hunter to rush into the fray, shove his gun between the frantic dogs 
and get in a fatal shot. 
By GEOROE NEALE, Executive Officer, California Fish and Game Commission.

In 1909, at the request of the Mexican government, Mr. Chas. A. 
Vogelsang, at that time chief deputy of the California Fish and Game 
Commission, made arrangements for the shipment of black bass to Lake 
Chapala, Mexico. 
The California Fish and Game Commission's distribution car No. 1, 
in charge of the writer, left Fresno early in December, 1909, with 
ninety-two cans containing about 1800 adult black bass. Some weighed 
as much as three pounds. After many delays, Ocotlan, on the shore of 
Lake Chapala in the Mexican state of Jalisco, was reached. Here the 
first planting was made. Seventy-two cans were transferred to lighters, 
which were towed by launches to the south end of the lake, where the 
fish were liberated. Some of them immediately began feeding on the 
We were then taken to the governor's palace on the shore of Lake 
Chapala, and were lavishly entertained by Governor Landa. Accom- 
panied by the governor's quartette of guitarists, we returned to Ocotlan

after midnight in a terrific blow. 
Lake Chapala is a magnificent body of water, larger but not so beau- 
tiful as our own Lake Tahoe. It contains a food fish known as the 
whitefish, which differs from our whitefish in that it is transparent. 
But it furnishes a fine food for the black bass, which food is most neces-

sary to insure increase. Lake Chapala is also said to contain carp, but 
we did not see any. This lake should now (eleven years after the plant- 
ing of these black bass) be an anglers' paradise for those who know 
how to lure the fish, which are, as Dr. Henshall states, "inch for inch,

pound for pound, the gamiest fish that swims." 

Volume 9              SACRAMENTO, APRIL, 1923                 Number 2 
RABIES IN A MOUNTAIN LION ---------------------- Tracy I. Storer. 45 
CALIFORNIA'S LARGE GAME ANIMALS-Continued__M. Hall McAllister 49 
----------------------------------------------------- Elmer Higgins 50 
PENDING FISH AND GAME LEGISLATION --------------------------- 51 
EDITORIALS ------------------------------------------------------- 55 
FACTS OF CURRENT INTEREST ------------------------------------ 72 
CONSERVATION IN OTHER STATES -------------------------------- 75 
REPORTS ---------------------------------------------------------- 77 
Seizures --------------------------------------------------------- 77 
Violations -------------------------------------------------------- 78 
Incom e  and  Expenditures -------------------------------------------- 
Fishery Products -------------------------------------------------- 80 
(Contribution from  the Museum  of Vertebrate Zoology of the University of

It is a general belief among naturalists and well informed laymen 
that the California Mountain Lion (Felis oregonensis) does not ordi- 
narily attack human beings. This belief is strengthened by the experi- 
ence of many thousands of people who have camped and lived in the 
range of the mountain lion in this state without being harmed in any 
way by the species. In fact there is, for California, so far as the 
writer is aware, only one recorded instance in which a mountain lion 
has without obvious provocation attacked a human being. This occurred 
in Quartz Valley, Siskiyou County, on June 19, 1890, when a seven year I

old boy was set upon and killed by two lions while he was playing 
among the foothill oaks at some distance from his home.* Children 
are believed to be slightly more subject to attack by lions than grown 
persons. Captive mountain lions in Yosemite Valley some years ago 
were observed to watch children intently even when the latter were at 
some distance, whereas adult people under similar circumstances 
aroused little or no interest on the part of the lions. The mountain 
*Outdoor Life (Denver, Colorado), vol. xxxvi, no. 2, August, 1915, pp. 162-163.


lion, instead of seeking out people, usually carefully avoids them. Very

few people even so much as catch sight of one of the animals. 
The above general remarks are given to indicate the ordinary relations 
between mountain lions and human beings. There is, however, at least 
one instance in California where a mountain lion, evidently infected 
with rabies, voluntarily attacked and was responsible for the death 
of two persons, including one adult. This occurred near Morgan Hill, 
Santa Clara County, in 1909. So far as known, this case has never 
been made a matter of record save in the local newspaper. It has 
seemed desirable to ascertain and record the facts as fully as possible,

and for that purpose, the writer, acting in the capacity of compiler, 
has gathered the available information and herewith presents it to the 
The first account of this attack appeared in the Morgan Hill Times 
for July 9, 1909 (Vol. XI, No. 8), and the article is reproduced here 
verbatim with the exception of a final paragraph which was only of 
local interest. 
"The people of Morgan Hill were greatly shocked about four o'clock Tuesday

afternoon, [July 5, 1909] when the news reached town that Miss Isola Kennedy
been attacked by a mountain lion on Coyote creek and seriously injured. Dr.
J. T. 
Higgins was summoned and hastened With all speed in his automobile to her
ance. He dressed her wounds as well as was possible with the appliances at
hand, and 
she was brought to her home in town on a cot on a wagon by her father who
had also 
been summoned. It was nearly eight o'clock before they reached home with
as they had to drive very slowly on account of her serious injuries. She
was made 
as comfortable as possible for the night. 
"Early Wednesday morning Dr. Higgins assisted by Dr. F. W. Watt, made
thorough examination of the wounds and dressed them. One ear was completely

eaten off, the other ear badly lacerated, and a three-cornered cut by the
right eye 
laid the bone bare but left the eye ball uninjured. Her left arm was fearfully

mangled from bites and scratches, there being about fifteen deep gashes extending

from the shoulder to the wrist and nearly a hundred lacerations from the
The right arm, leg and back were also badly torn. While she is very weak
loss of blood and has suffered great pain, the doctors think she will recover
blood-poisoning sets in. 
"Miss Kennedy had gone out for a drive and picnic on the creek about
miles east of Morgan Hill with Henry Merkle, a ten-year-old boy from Fruitvale,

who is visiting the family and Curtis Lane, who is about the same age. These

boys with another lad, Earl Willson, were bathing a short distance above
the bridge 
when a lioness attacked the latter boy, striking him with her claws and tearing

an ugly wound in the scalp and ear. Miss Kennedy ran to his assistance, when
animal jumped upon her, knocking her down. It then tried to bite her neck,
Miss Kennedy protected her neck as well as she could with her left arm and
heroically by jabbing the lioness with a hat pin. 
"The boys ran to the tents of the Bay Cities Water Company, which are
a few 
yards below the bridge and called Jack Conlan. He grabbed a shot-gun and
to the relief. He fired two shots into the beast but the shot were too fine
to do 
much injury and the animal clung to Miss Kennedy, gnawing at her arm. Conlan

then ran and secured a rifle and shot the animal through the body near the
but not until he shot it through the head would it let go its hold. It measured

eight feet in length. 
"The attack seemed particularly strange as there were a number of persons
in the 
vicinity and several houses are not far distant. It has long been a favorite
and camping ground and such a danger was undreamed of." 
A request for details in the case sent to Dr. J. T. Higgins, M.D. (now 
residing in Watsonville), brought the following reply under date of 
December 20, 1921: 
"It is a pleasure for me to endeavor to give you an accurate account
of the Isola 
Kennedy case; inasmuch, as I have read a great deal concerning the attacks
mountain lions on human beings and find that in such cases the animal is
not in a normal condition, as was verified by this particular case. In talking

old mountaineers and cattlemen I have learned that dogs and horses bitten
or | 
scratched by mountain lions usually die.                                
"In this particular case Miss Kennedy was walking along the bank of
Coyote Creek, near Morganhill, when she saw the lion leap from the bank and

attack some boys bathing in the water. Two of the boys escaped, but the third
was knocked down into the water by the lion and scratched on the scalp. Owing,

probably, to the boy being knocked into the water the lion abandoned him
jumped to the bank and attacked her, she having come at this time to where
boys were. 
"The lion held one of her arms in its mouth during the entire attack,
the severe 
lacerations of her scalp and face being done by its front claws and those
of her legs 
by the rear feet of the animal. She was knocked to the ground and laid in
position endeavoring to kill the animal by sticking a hatpin into its heart,
she was unable to do on account of the toughness of its skin. After considerable

time help came to her and the animal was killed. 
"Examination showed the lion to be a female, but the report that she
had young 
was probably erroneous as there was no active mammary gland development and

no young were seen in the vicinity.* 
"Miss Kennedy through loss of blood was very much weakened, but made
apparently uneventful recovery, the lacerations being nearly healed.  She
considered convalescent and had been out riding up to about seven weeks from
time of the injury when she developed hydrophobia and died, being sick about
week. The case was seen by three other competent physicians, who pronounced
"An autopsy performed upon Miss Kennedy's remains failed to show pus
in any 
part of the body, even the original wounds being healed and there was at
no time 
during her illness any reason to believe that it was septicemia or tetanus.

"Regarding the boy [Earl Wilson], who was scratched while in the water,
to say that I made only a temporary dressing, when he returned to his home
Santa Cruz. The cause of his death was pronounced by the attending physician
Santa Cruz as tetanus, but judging from the character of the wound and the
ment it received in my office and the period of incubation I do not believe
that it 
was tetanus, but am thorougly convinced that it was also hydrophobia. 
"I believe I am in a better position to have a knowledge of this case
than any 
one else as I was in constant attendance and gave it the closest attention
and will 
be glad to give you any further details you may desire. 
"Yours very truly, 
(Signed) "J. T. HIGGINs, M.D." 
A similar inquiry to Dr. D. A. Beattie brought a letter in which he 
referred to Dr. Higgins as being able to give the fullest account of 
the case. The following paragraph from Dr. Beattie's letter is 
"I will say that as a consultant I saw her more than once, and I also
the postmortem upon her. But, through the very great negligence of the doctor

who took charge of the brain it was not sent to the laboratory until it had
useless. There isn't any question but this was a case of hydrophobia. There
perfectly typical symptoms, and the whole case was a picture of hydrophobia."

It may be said in explanation of Dr. Beattie's closing statement 
that the early symptoms of rabies (hydrophobia) and tetanus (lock- 
jaw) are somewhat alike, and physicians sometimes have difficulty in 
distinguishing between the two. There is, however, one difference 
which marks the courses of the two diseases. A fatal case of tetanus 
usually terminates soon after the infection is acquired. Rabies, on 
the other hand, may be very slow in claiming its victim. The rabies 
infection travels slowly from the point of the bite along the nerves to 
the brain and then (in the absence of preventive treatment during the 
intervening time) terminates fatally. 
According to the descriptions of the attack furnished above, Miss 
Kennedy's scalp and facial wounds were caused by the claws of the 
*Mr. Conlan also states that the lioness had no kittens. 

48                  CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME. 
mountain lion. The lion attempted to bite her neck but she put up 
"  her arm and this the lion seized in its mouth. The infection, in
rabid animal, is carried in the saliva and on the teeth, and Miss 
Kennedy's infection was therefore received in her arm, probably her 
forearm. The head wounds were harmless from the standpoint of 
rabies. Had the lion bitten her anywhere on the head she would in 
all probability have died within a month. As it was, the infection 
was about seven weeks in travelling along the nerves of her arm and 
reaching the brain. With our present knowledge of rabies and our 
facilities for giving the Pasteur anti-rabic treatment, such a case, 
with early treatment, would stand every chance of escaping a fatal 
Rabies was first reported in California in 1898 when there was a 
small outbreak among the dogs of Los Angeles County. Another 
small epidemic is on record as occurring at the Soldiers' Home near 
Los Angeles in 1906. In 1909, the year of the mountain lion attack 
here described, there was a severe outbreak in several of the counties 
of southern California, and in the years immediately following there 
were epidemics in several counties in the San Joaquin Valley, but 
none in the coast counties so far as can be ascertained. The question 
of the source of the infection in the mountain lion remains a mystery. 
According to the records of the California State Board of Health 
rabies has been detected in the following animals in California: 
Horses, mules, cattle, sheep, goats, hogs, domestic cats, dogs, bobcats 
and coyotes, and once each in the ground squirrel and gray fox. No 
skunks have been found positive for rabies in California. 
The account given above indicates that to the species of animals 
now known to carry the rabies infection must be added the mountain 
lion through the occurrence of but one authenticated case would sug- 
gest that in this species the infection is rather uncommon. The point 
to be made here is that any person attacked by a mountain lion in 
any way should take steps to consult a physician who can determine 
whether there is any danger of rabies and whether preventive treat- 
ment should be started. As first aid treatment wounds made by the 
teeth of a lion should be cauterized with nitric acid. If the lion 
is killed its entire head should be packed in ice and sent at once to 
a county or state health officer with a request that an examination 
for rabies be made. 
In conclusion, then, let it be emphasized that there is extremely 
little danger of attack from a mountain lion in California. The case 
here presented is only the second attack, and the first due to rabies, 
that has come to our attention. With the various epidemics of rabies 
in different counties of the state, and with the extensive epidemic 
of this disease among the coyotes of northeastern California, no inti- 
mation of rabies infection in mountain lions was obtained. The 
danger then from mountain lions in California is negligible as com- 
pared, for example, with that from the domestic dogs which roam 
our city streets and country roads. 
Berkeley, California, January 29, 1923. 

Tonto Inspection - 1923 
Jaguar Walter Lazear says was killing calves 
and ye-rlings in Cold Sprgs. coantry, bury- 
ing the kill like a lion and coming back to 
it.   Set 5 traps around ore of these kills 
bat he got the calf oat without disturbing 
one of them.   Calf had been pulled down by 
the jaw, not ridden.  Then took after him 
with dogs but oat would not tree at all and 
mauled the dogs very badly.   Ran him up over 
the rim. Now using on head of Duke Or, on 
Rim - 2 Biol. Survey men and 14 dogs after 
him. lias heard of others W-. of Pleasant 
Valley but doesn't know where this one came 

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Cory se~nt .1r. Jinn 
-iburuer iue, New !4exIotM9 
September 11, 1923, 
Forest Ranger. 
Pines .ito, ew MeO. 
Dear HulJoert: 
Dr. L, s. Peters, utv was formerly a practiing 
physician Ut Fort Bayard, h'  told e the follwinI story 
which I qluote from my notes: 
"Dr. L. S. Peters S&-3 70-yr. old w-aan was 
washinn dishes at her cabin 4 miles from Pinnes 
Altos in 1908,   ler husband was amokiiW nearby, 
A she-lion jumiped int- the cabin and mangled her 
badly.   The husb&4nd dnused the lion with a bucket 
of water, casili  the lion to duck under the bed, 
where the huba   shot it,    Dr. Peters wu  im~ed- 
iately called t- treat the case, and saw the skin 
of the lion, which was an old ouckling feealS. "'is 
thenry is she was starved for fnd brd this impelled 
the  itt ack." 
This is an exoeedinglj exceptionl   and interesting 
oas  and I wou  liA very much to learn more about it. 
I would appreciate it veory iueh if yn  could isoertamn 
bj local i'nuiry the aswers t   the follwiiA additinnal 
(1) What was the name   f the womsn. who was attacked? 
(2) What time -f year was it? 

(3) W~ithe U  nNr or fat wil is bor   n  other 
evid0114# iiB, to eztrefoo hunfir? 
Tha2~ng rv Try miuch --- healpii mae 7et tho "nfnr- 
Very sinoerel1y /-rasru 
I L0[,4 

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fI ,                                        OF~ 6AGRUTR 
May 15, 1924. 
Mr, Aldo Leopold, 
Forest Service, 
Albuquerqu, New Mexico. 
Dear Mr. LeJold: 
Referring to your letter of May 12th regarding 
the jaguar caught by Jack Fu, 
Jack Fund is a private trapper and hunter who 
has orled on the Indian Reservation for the past eight 
or ten years. From the letter he wrote me I take it that 
he caught the Jaguar on Cibecue Creek. However, I m not 
sure whether it was above the station of Cibecue or below. 
Therefore, I am unable to give you the location by town- 
I presame you have the records of tl 
ta     y our en, one in 1918 and one in 194 
In 19 8 was   male am. he was taken on top C 
West of Gr   ervile in the Santa Iita mount 
taken in 194  was a female and was taken wl 
Last year there   re two jaguar    On in the Santa 
Catalina mountains and      spring Mr.j4o    Gary, of Benson, 
killed either a small Ja     or an ocobeit was in the 
Tincon Moutains, or rather in the foot hills of the Pinoone 
at the east end. 
Hoping this information will be satisfactory and 
assuring you that I will be glad to furnish any additional 
information, I am 
Sincerely yQUrs, 
Predatory Animal Inspector* 

May 12, 1924. 
Mr* M. z, Musgrave, 
Box 765, 
hoenix, Arizona. 
Dear Mr. Iusgrave: 
I note a recent article in one of the Arizona news- 
papers announcing the capture of a Jaguar by Jack Punk 
"near Blac4 River on the Apache Indian lieservation", 
I have been collecting Jaguar records for many years 
and would appreciate your giving me the aprroximate locality 
by township and range, I wculd also like to    nw whether 
Funk is a BiLcgical Survey employee. 
Incidentally, if it is not too much trouble, I would 
appreciate hearing of any future records or any uther re- 
cent informatioa which you have stating where, when and by 
whom jaguars were seen or killed, 
ith kindest   ereonaregards, 
Very sincerely yours, 

Z!   L4  ... ' 
ell("- "(-I. 

May 26, 1924. 
r. W. Rt. Morley, 
Datil, New Mexioo. 
Dear ,r. Aorley: 
In ollectng niterial for my book on 
Southwestern game I find I have two records of 
Jaguars killed near Datil but I rather suspect 
that they might both refer to the same animal. 
Fred Winn tells me that a ranohman of 
hiB qquaintanoe killed a Jaguar 10 or 15 miles 
north of Datil in 1904 ur 1905 and he bolieves 
Oseur Reddemann has the skin, 7rom another 
soiarge (whioh I oan not now recall) I havs a 
record of your killing one about 1895 near Datil. 
Can you please indicate on the bottom of 
this letter whether theie are both correct or if 
not, whiuh one is correet and return in the en- 
oloeed addressed entelopee 
Thanking you, 
Very sinoerely yurs, 
4&nol oeure.~ 

Springerville, Arizona 
iV~~lZ~q- 0iL,  77I~ 
Fish & Game-Apache. 
District Forester, 
Albuquerque, N, M. 
Dear Sir: 
Reference is Ime to the item in the Bulletin 
of May 26, 
During the winter of 1904 or 1905 a Mexican 
Jaguar was killed in the Datfl Mountains about ten or 
fifteen miles north of Datil, N. M. by a ranchn of 
my acquaintance. I believe the skin was purchased by 
Mr. Oscar Redeman of iagdalena, N. M. 
Very truly yours, 
Frederic Wiun 
Forest Supervi sor. 
I   Ma   I , I Ie 

March, 1925 
meat to the United States. Five artificial ice plants 
Ied on the Seward Peninsula to take care of reindeer 
,-    ,.,  ,,.,,-,    +. -.',  n  e'il-v rf  7.50  head  a 
Reports show that the deer feding operations saved many animals. 
Warden W. H. Terhune .states that during the feeding 300-deer were seen in

the vicinity of Sitka on one day, February 12; a total of 287 in Tenakee

Inlet on two days, February 13 and 14; and 64 in Gambier Bay, February 27.

*Many other animals were seen scattered along the beaches singly and in 
groups. Mr. Terhune reports the snow about three and one-half feet deep 
in places on. the beach, but that the deer were doing fairly well when the

weather moderated February 27 and rain began. Feeding was discontinued 
February 28, as the snow was rapidly settling and the deer could again get

about and obtain food. 
Dr. W. B. Bell left Washington March 5 to visit field offices 
through the west and will be absent for several months. 
Hunter Dave Crouch killed a female lion on the San Isabel National 
Forest, Colorado, on February 10, and in tracking her mate was led by his

dos to a cave containg the remip Qfo two lion kittens which had prob- 
ably been eaten by the old male. 
Albert L. Jones, employed as a hunter in the Apache Game Preserve 
district, Arizona,,in February captured 9 lions and 12'bobcats, though he

did not have the equipment of most lion hunters, and his dogs were not 
well trained for the work. Hunter Cleve Miller caught four lions just 
south of this range. 
February is usually the most favorable month for lion hunting in 
Arizona, and last year's record of 21 lions was broken this year by a 
catch of 22.. 
At a rat control demonstration in King County, Washington, Leo K. 
Couch, leader in rodent control, showed the method of applying calcium 
dust to rat burrows under poultry plants. On the ranch used for this pur-

pose, 3,500 hens were housed in four buildings - two of them 200 and two

120 feet long - all with concrete foundations and floors. The owner had 
used every precaution to rat-pro'of his'buildings, but the rodents burrowed

under the cement foundations and worked holes in the cement floors and 
through the dust boxes. Traps and poisons had been used with little suc-

cess, as the rats had access to. grain, mash, eggs, and young and sick 
poultry, and were causing a loss of $1,000 per year. After the cyanide 
dust was pumped under the buildings, 163 dead rats were picked up, and 
doubtless many mare were killed. Experimental work will be done with 
small dusters to apply the cyanide to smaller poultry plants. Where con-

ditions are right to confine the gas, and where trapping and poisoning 
fail, the cyanide can be used to good account. A few days after the 
- 3- 

March, 1925 
demonstrations, the  owner made the following report to the cooperating 
County Agent: "By the looks of the rat situation, I hardly think it
rants me in getting an outfit, but I intend to be-prepared for futute 
trouble.  I have seen only two or three rats since the grand execution 
although I've heen snooping around constantly at night with the flash 
light. Formerly I saw hundreds.. You must have exterminated two or three

thousand rats." 
By using the rat trapping. methods recommended last fall by H. R. 
Wells, leader in rodent contr.ol in South Dakota, one large concern in 
Sioux Falls dealing in foodstuffs and unable to use poison took 6,400 rats

in 90 days. At the present tiime, the man employed for this work states 
that rats are very scarce and that very little work is necessary, to keep

them in check. 
-The first attempt at organized pocket-gopher control east of the 
Missouri River. was started in February when Mr. Wells began the organiza-

tion of a cooperative pocket-gopher campaign in Minnehaha County, South 
Dakota. This .project will be started in April.witli one township and oper-

ations will be compulsory on all laAds. 
Hundreds of letters have been received from cooperators telling of 
the benefits derived by killing rodent pests in Arizona;. The following 
excerpts are typical: 
. The value of killing rodent pests means the difference between 
success and failure on our ranch. We would, have lost at least $5,000 
last year if we had not used the poison you.sent us." 
"We !r~bably saved $500 by poisoning pocket gophers on 146 acres. 
It is rather hard to estimate but the truth of the matter is that farming

without some pocket-gopher control is impossible in the Yuma Valley."

"It is estimated *that we saved several thousand dollars worth of 
crops and vines by using the pocket-gopher poison on our 80 acres."

Good results were obtained in Idaho in poisoning jack rabbits dur- 
ing the winter, especially during the month of January. .At the end of 
February, a total of 20,760 pounds of bait. had been used. 
Arrangements haye been made*in Idaho .to conduct. a ground-squirrel 
campaign in '29 counties, and 72,000 pounds .of poisoned bait have been 
provided for. use-o-n privately owned lands.- Provision has also been made

for the purchase-of ll0, .00 additionkl pounds as the season advances, mak-

ing-.available-a 'total of 182,000 pouldis.of poisoned bait for .which funds

have been the variols 'counties. 
*James Silver and- Morris A. Stewart, of the Eastern District, have 
recently returned from a trip thr6ugh New Jersey, New York, western Massa-

chusetts, CQnnecticut, and Verm6rt, where a series of conferences with 
extension officials and others interested in rodent control were held. 
Interesting information also was obtained.relative to the present distri-

bution and economic status of the European hare., 
- 4 - 

Bureau of Biological Survey and 
State of New Mexico through its College of Agriculture 
JUNE, 1924             ALBUQUERQUE, N. M.                NUMBER 77 
The Hunters' News Letter is issued in the interest of efficiency in 
predatory animal control and as a medium for conveying news of interest 
to the field forces and interested co-operators. The News Letter will be

send free to those who are interested in the subject it represents. 
The excellent work that was accomplished by Government and State 
hunters in June is a credit to the Service. The work is all the more 
commendable, considering the fact that the month was extremely hot 
and dry. 
Government and State Hunters are at liberty to conduct their official 
work in State Game Preserves without permits from the State Game 
Department. This is a courtesy much appreciated and must be fully 
respected by all hunters and field men. Such confidence on the part of 
the State Game Department is a credit to our Service; at the same time, 
our hunters must have full freedom of their movements in order to 
accomplish the most efficient work. However, hunters should, so far 
as possible, keep Forest Rangers and Deputy Game Wardens advised 
regarding their movements and unnecessary      disturbances should be 
avoided in the Preserves. 
Hunter 0. E. Royal is to be commended on the efficient way in which 
he is doing his wolf hunting in the northern part of the state. lie trapped

five wolves on the Tierra Amarilla Grant during June. 
Hunter W. C. Echols struck the wolves of Skeleton Canyon, Hidalgo 
county, a hard blow by taking three. This is the last of the wolves in the

Peloncillo mountains for the present at least. One of the wolves trapped


by Hunter Echols was really three-legged. One of its hind legs was torn 
off at the hock joint and the stub stuck straight out sideways. 
Hunter C. C. Wood is making a good run on the lions of the Animas 
mountains, Hidalgo county. This is an important point to l)e guarded on 
account of the drift coming in from southern ranges. 
Hunter J. T. Bowman is still getting better than a coyote a day in 
the sand country of Chaves and Eddy counties. 
Hunter H. L. Leisering of Cliff, N. M., who is a new man in the ser- 
vice, captured one wolf, six coyotes and two cats. 
j     Hunter C. S. Hightower of Mule Creek took a lion this month that 
was carrying four unborn young. 
Early in the month, Hunter Pickens left his old range and moved 
lip to Colfax county, where he has already taken one lion. This is a 
good start on a difficult assignment, to rid the Sangre de Christo Range

of mountain lions. 
The lion taken by Hunter Ritchie was trapped. The fact that dogs 
are sometimes out of condition for the chase does not stop some of our 
wily old hunters from continuing after the varmints. 
Hunters Jim and Sam Young are having their round of difficulties 
hunting wolves. Sam lately learned that there are no more on his 
district and the only one Jim has left at present is ranging among the 
sheep where he can't keep a trap in shape, but we are sure that when 
Jim's wolf leaves the sheep trails it will be "goodbye Mr. Lobo."

The Inspectors are planning to prepare a good supply of foetid scent 
bait for use during the next fall and winter poisoning campaign. A good 
quantity of oil will be needed to mix with the scent. For this purpose 
skunk oil is best, but lion oil can be used. If each hunter will prepare

as much as a quart or half gallon of the oil we will be able to prepare 
all the scent that will be needed. Tin cans with screw tops are best as 
oil containers. The oil may be kept until the Inspectors have an oppor- 
tunity to get it or instructions are given for shipping it to the office.

It is suggested that any hunters who desire to take leave should do 
so in July or August, as these are usually dull months and we want 
to all be groomed and in good shape, with ample funds for conducting 
our big drive on predatory animals next fall and winter. 
Hunters are requested to use the space on itinerary sheets under 

"remarks" for listing livestock damages and the number of predatory

and fur bearing animals taken during each week. In order to simplify 
our office work we are attaching a sample itinerary which illustrates 
the method of reporting the information required. This is intended 
also to simplify the report work of hunters. 
During the summer months no part need be saved of fur bearers, 
such as fox, skunk or fur badger. No part of porcupine is necessary at 
any time. When such animals are taken in summer, mention of the fact 
on your itinerary report is sufficient. 
During the month 17 Federal and State hunters worked a total of 
439 (lays, taking 88 predatory animals, which were 10 wolves, 6 moun- 
tain lions, 12 bobcats and 60 coyotes. In addition to the above, 4 em- 
bryo lions were also destroyed. 
(A) 0. E. Royal, Tusas, 30 days; 5 wolves. 
(B) W. C. Echols, Animas, 30 days; 3 wolves, 3 bobcats. 
(C) C. C. Wood, Animas, 30 days; 2 lions, 3 coyotes. 
(D) J. T. Bowman, Dexter, 30 days; 32 coyotes. 
(E) II. L. Leisering, Cliff, 30 days; 1 wolf, 6 coyotes, 2 bobcats. 
(F) Albert Pickens, Cimarron, 30 days; 1 lion, 1 cat. 
(G) W. W. Glaze, Fierro, 30 days; 1 wolf, 1 coyote. 
(11) J. J. Taylor, Governador, 7 days; 1 lion. 
(I) C. S. Hightower, Mule Creek, 30 days; 1 lion-4 embryo lions. 
(J) I. L. Ritchie, Rosedale, 30 days; 1 lion. 
Very truly yours, 
J. STOKLEY LIGON, Inspector, 
By E. L. PINEAU, Inspector Assisting. 
DR. II. L. KENT, President, 
State College of Agriculture. 

UARY, 1925 
CALIFORNIA  ----------------------- - -  -- - 
- By Jay Bruce 1 
3y Geo. A. Coleman 17 
AND WOLVERINE IN CALIFORNIA-__- -------- By Joseph Dixon 
EDITORIAL ........... .---                 - - 
Violations of Fish and Game Laws -------- 
Seizures of  Fish  and  Game ----------------- 
Statement of  Expenditures ........... --- 
Statement  of  Income ........... 
California Fresh Fishery Products ..............-  - 
- .------------ -- --   38 
- 41 
- - - -  44 
- - -- -  45 
---- --  46 
(With five photographs.) 
By JAY BRUCu, State Lion Hunter. 
The mountain lion, also called puma, panther, and cougar, is the only 
predatory animal in California which is apparently of no economic 
benefit to the human race. Even the wildcat and coyote generally do 
more good than harm by preying principally upon rats, mice, gophers, 
ground squirrels and jackrabbits, thus helping to keep these pests under

control. Although both wildcats and coyotes, especially the latter, 
cause considerable losses among sheep on the ranges and also occa- 
Number 1 

sionally kill deer under favorable conditions, only a comparatively small

number of these animals develop into confirmed killers of stock or deer.

Furthermore, both wildcats and coyotes produce furs which are a source 
of revenue to a considerable number of people who live in the mountains 
and depend upon trapping as a means of income during the winter 
On the other hand, the mountain lion is of practically no value as a 
fur bearer, game animal, or source of food, but is simply a liability 
FIG. 1. A 160-pound lion hanging from a 
digger pine, out of which the lion was shot. 
which probably costs the state a thousand dollars a year in deer meat 
alone to support each member of its lion population, or at the rate of 
$15,000 to maintain each lion during its natural existence. 
Practically nothing was definitely known about the lion situation in 
California prior to October, 1907, when the Fish and Game Commission 
began paying a bounty of $20 each for the killing of lions. Until then 
there was no reliable way of securing information. While the bounties 

paid on 4350 lions during the last sixteen years have cost the state 
approximately $96,000, the information secured through this expendi- 
ture has alone been worth all it has cost, and the only way such informa-

tion could have been secured was by the payment of bounties sufficient 
to encourage persons who killed lions to furnish the information neces- 
sary to secure such bounties. 
Much can be learned about the lion situation in California by an 
examination and study of these claims for bounties. For instance, we 
learn from this source of information that lions do not habitually range

from the lower foothills to the crest of the highest mountain ranges, 
but that  heir normal range is confined to the areas  hich  r o  , the 
varieties of ceanothus commonl n. P,            rush," in which deer

nd stock ceddpriipally. On the western slope of the Sierra Nevada 
from Fresno County north to Mount Shasta, this area can be described 
as that lying between 3000 feet and 5000 feet elevation, as measured on 
the divides between streams. The same elevations will apply to the lion 
country in the northern Coast Range from Mount St. Helena north to 
the Oregon line. In the Mount Hamilton rafge, the Gabilan range, 
Santa Cruz Mountains and San Lucia range, lions are found where the 
ridges are at least 3000 feet above sea level, while in the southern Sierra

Nevada and mountains south of the Tehachapi the higher edge of the 
lion's normal range extends in places up to 7500 feet, at which elevation

we find the same vegetation as at 5000 feet elevation farther north. A 
very small percentage of the 4350 lions taken during the last sixteen 
years have been taken outside of the above described area. 
By the application of this data it is not only possible to determine 
the exact areas inhabited by lions, but it is also possible to make a 
reasonably accurate estimate of the lion population of the state and to 
determine whether lions are increasing or decreasing from year to year. 
Mr. J. S. Hunter, assistant executive officer of the Fish and Game 
Commission, did make such an estimate, based on conditions existing in 
1919, when the writer was employed by the Commission to hunt lions. 
About the same time the writer made an entirely separate and inde- 
pendent estimate, basedc upon density of population, and allowed an 
average of one lion to each township in the actual area of distribution.

This was in accord with observations made while traveling for some 
12,000 miles over the mountains of California hunting and trailing- 
lions, and bagging, up to that time, about 125 lions. According to 
Mr. Hunter's estimate, the lion population in 1919 was 5Z ions, 
while that made by the writer was 600 lions. It is interesting to note 
that these two estimates practically agreed, although determined by 
different methods. 
In the interval between January 1, 1919, and June 30, 1924, the 
writer has taken 165 lions, or an average of 30 lions a year. In addi- 

tion, a considerable number of lions have been taken by stockmen and 
others in the mountains, who started their dogs with the writer's 
trained lion hounds. While hunting for the Commission, it has always 
been my practice to encourage the killing of lions by these men who are 
continually riding the ranges in the lion country, and thus, in the 
course of their regular duties, often have unusual opportunities to take

lions, if provided with a trained dog. 
Because of this increase in kill, the lion population should have been 
reduced by at least 100 lions since the last estimate was made. This 
would bring the population down to about 475 lions at the present time, 
which, according to area of normal range, should be distributed about 
as follows: Sierra Nevada ranges, confined to a comparatively straight 
belt averaging about fifteen miles wide between Tehachapi Mountains 
and Mount Shasta, 160 lions; northern Coast Range from Mount St. 
Helena north to the Oregon line, an area lying between elevations of 3000

and 5000 feet, and most numerous in the pine-timbered area between the 
Sacramento Valley and the Redwood belt, 125 lions; Mount Hamilton 
and Gabilan range from Mount Hamilton south to northern San Luis 
Obispo County highest area, 40 lions; Santa Cruz Mountain highest area, 
10 lions; San Lucia range from Carmel River south to the northern 
San Luis Obispo County line, elevations above 3000 feet, 40 lions; 
southern California from Santa Maria River southerly through San 
Rafael, Tehachapi, Sierra Madre, San Bernardino and San Jacinto 
mountains, elevations between 3000 feet and 7500 feet, 100 lions 
total, 475 lions. 
Eighteen state game refuges and part of three national parks are 
situated within the area inhabited by lions. Since the principal object 
in establishing game refuges is to furnish a harbor of safety during the

open season for a sufficient breeding stock of male deer, no hunting, 
except for predatory animals, is allowed in these areas at any time. 
Most of these refuges are ideally situated for the purpose intended, 
but they will never be entirely effective until the U. S. Forest Service

can be persuaded to prohibit stock grazing. Deer will accumulate to 
the limit of food supply in these refuges where they are not harassed 
at any time of the year, and, as the deer increase, lions are attracted.

Because the lion's instinct is to kill at every opportunity, even though

fully fed, the most damage wil  e one where deer are most numerous. 
Con-equently, lions must be eliminated from these refuges if they are 
to be of any benefit. 
Although in the actual area of distribution we find an average of 
about one lion for each township, and the average game refuge com- 
prises about two or three townships and may harbor only two or three 
lions continuously, still nine or ten lions may be making most of their 
kills within the refuge where deer are most numerous. Although lions 
do not roam at random for great distances while in search of prey, each 
one does travel a definite beat, which is usually in the form of a loop 
,2or 30 miles around and encompasses about 100 square miles. There- 
fore,hions which range part of the time in the areas which adjoin a 
game refuge, may be passing through the refuge on every trip around 

CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME.                       5 
their beat, which is usually every four or five days, and make most of 
their kills within the refuge where deer are most numerous. Conse- 
quently, in order to eliminate the lions from refuges, it is necessary to

hunt these adjoining areas as well as the territory within the boundaries

of the refuge. 
The lion is a persistent hunter, often traveling 25 or 30 miles over 
rough country in 10 or 12 hours. When a deer is discovered by 
the prowling lion, the big cat approaches the quarry by stealthily 
moving from cover to cover, sometimes waiting for several minutes 
behind a tree, bush or rock until the deer moves behind another object. 
The deer is often thus stalked for several hundred feet before the lion 
approaches within striking distance. Usually when within 40 or 50 KJktJ 
feet of his prospective victim, the lion makes a final charge and strikes
it down by sheer force of onslaught, then kills it by disembowelment.( o]
Every action of a hunting lion is recorded by the trac     jaein soft 
snow, consequently an observing person can accurately read the life 
history of these animals by trailing them when snow is on the ground. 
I, myself, have trailed lions for probably a thousand miles under such 
conditions, but I have never found any evidence that lions lie in wait 
on the limbs of trees in order to capture prey. However, a lion, while 
resting after a long trip, will occasionally scent a passing deer and 
sneak from its bedding place in search of the quarry, but they do not 
habitually lie in wait, except for a few minutes while making a stalk. 
Even then, while waiting behind the cover of tree or rock until the 
deer moves behind some other cover, the lion exhibits its impatience by 
continually changing the position of its front paws, as is evidenced by 
the number of tracks made in such-places. There is no evidence that 
it lashes its tail. 
By nature, the'lion is restless rather than patient. It is not uncommon 
for ' male lion to leave a fresh kill after one feed and make a 25- or 
30-mile trip around its beat in search of another victim. Evidence of 
waa~on killing by a lion was discovered when, ih March, 1922, while 
hunting in company with Ed Garrett and Deputy James Poe near the 
junction of Panther Creek and the North Fork of the Mokelumne River, 
we found the carcasses of twelve deer that had been killed in as many 
days by one male lion. Nearly all of these kills were within sight of an

old water ditch which the lion had been following for about two miles. 
This lion's tracks were first discovered by us about eight miles west of

Panther Creek and followed to the place where the twelve kills were 
found. Our camp was then moved to this place and the next day, 
while trailing this lion twelve miles farther east, we discovered another

kill which the lion had also abandoned after taking one feed, as I killed

him that evening five miles farther on. 
Although I have several times heard lions in captivity utter sounds 
which resemble a hoarse whistle, I have never heard this sound uttered 
by wild lions in their natural habitat. The sound uttered by captive 
lions resembles more, nearly that uttered by a -red-tailed hawk and by 

no stretch of the imagination could it be described as a "hair-raising,

blood-curdling scream." This would more accurately describe the 
wails of the coyote. While spending more than thirty years in the lion 
country, hunting lions almost continuously during the last five years in

ilo      nearly every part of California, trailing down and bagging 196 lions.
c,      \  have never heard one scream uttered b      ou. In the nature of
big cat, whose-ver-yexist-encedep-ends upon his ability to surprise the 
wariest animals, silence and stealth are developed to the highest degree.

The adult mountain lion is normally a solitary animal and does not 
1A"fl'~l in bands or even in pairs except during the mating period,
nay occur at any time of the year. Unlike most other wild animals, 
lions-do not all breed at the same season. Therefore, the lioness seeks 
FIG. 2. A 155-pound lion where picked up at the base of a bluff over which
rolled when shot from a tree. 
the mate and when doing so she instinctively follows the prominent 
ridges which are used principally by the male lion, who, in order to dis-

close his beat to the lioness, leaves at intervals along his beat, .ajo 
a       diging with his forepaws in the leaves near the base of a tree 
or in rotten wood near an old log. These marks are all alike and, when 
once learned, can not be mistaken for anything else. When the seeking 
lioness discovers one of these marks she lingers near, leaving only long

enough to make a kill and feed. When the male lion comes by on his 
next trip, which may be from one to three days later, he discovers by 
his sense of smell that a mate is near and in turn seeks her. Several 
times I have trailed a lioness onto a high ridge traveled by the lion and

found a maze of tracks there indicating that both lions had spent con- 
siderable time searching for each other. Tracks were so numerous that 
the dogs were confused and it was necessary to circle at a distance of 
half a mile to find the outgoing trail, which showed that the lion and 
lioness had left the place together. 

Occasionally two adult male lions are using the same beat, in which 
case there may be a battle between the two over a lioness. Conclusive 
evidence that two male lions battled to the death for the favor of a 
lioness was discovered by Joseph Dixon, of the California Museum of 
Vertebrate Zoology, and myself while hunting in Sequoia National 
Park, January 25, 1924. On that date we bagged a 145-pound male 
lion which showed evidence of having engaged in a desperate battle a 
few days previously. (See Fig. 4.)' Twp toes were missing from the 
lion's left forepaw and his head, neck and shoulders had been severely 
bitten and clawed. While we were proceeding along the road from 
Marble Fork bridge to Colony Mill, later the same day, we found the 
three-day-old tracks of the wounded lion which were identified by the 
missing toe marks. We back-tracked this lion for about a mile and a 
half where we discovered the two-day-old tracks of a smaller male lion. 
Fio. 3. Examining tracks of mountain lion in road. Often this proves a useful

way of locating lions. 
After tracking the latter about one-half mile down the mountain side, 
we found his dead carcass. Though the dead lion bore severe wounds 
on his head, neck and one hip, he had apparently died from infection 
of the terrible lacerations in both front legs. The larger lion had prob-

ably intruded after the lioness had accepted the attentions of the 
smaller one and the latter, although mortally wounded, had apparently 
been the victor as the larger lion had left the scene of the combat and 
failed to return, while the lioness had faithfully lingered for two days

near her mate's dead body, deserting it only when she heard the hounds 
The lioness usually gives birth to two or three kittens at a time, 
although sometimes only one and, occasionally, four are born in a litter.

However, because of many females not finding a mate at every period, 

the annual increase probably averages about one kitten to each adult 
Lions have no lair except in the case of the female when the young 
are to be born. Then it is merely a bed usually at the base of some bluff

of rocks or in thick brush which furnishes a hiding place for the kittens

while they are small. But the lioness herself seldom enters a den or 
cave even though such places a e aTailable.    In Tulare County, in 
ebr uary, 1924, I captured *a litter of four kittens not more than ten 
days old. They were in a bed which the lioness had established between 
the base of a leaning rock and a laurel bush. The bed was within 100 
feet of the entrance of Clough's Cave, which extends for several hun- 
dred feet into a limestone dike. There were also a dozen or more 
smaller caves within a hundred feet, but still the lioness refused to 
seek the shelter of these caves. When discovered, she stood over the 
kittens and held three dogs at bay until I approached to within thirty 
feet. Then she deserted the kittens, fled to a tree and was shot. If 
ih'ese kittens had been older they would surely have sought refuge in 
some of the numerous caves as was done by three kittens which I 
captured in Placer County in August, 1923. In the latter instance, the 
three kittens, upon hearing the hounds, fled to a hiding place in a crack

which extended for eight or ten feet back into the face of the bluff of 
rocks. It was necessary to watch this place for three days before they 
left their refuge and were cut off from retreat. 
When lion kittens are about five or six weeks old they weigh from 
six to eight pounds each and are able to follow the mother for short 
distances. When about eight weeks old they begin to eat meat and from 
that time on the mother leads them from one kill to ano er, leaving 
the kittens to devour one kill while she hunts for another victim, for 
the lioness must accept the entire burden of caring for the young. 
Usually, the kittens accompany the mother unniTltey are about one 
year old, at which time the male kitten will be as large as its mother. 
en fully matured, the male lion weighs 'from 120 pounds to 160 
pounds, the average weight being about 140 pounds, and measures from 
c     j  61 feet to 7j feet from tip of nose to tip of tail. The female weighs

from 80 pounds to 105 pounds-and measures from 6 feet to 6 feet 8 
inches from tip to tip. The skin from a 7-foot lion will measure 9 feet 
0    when stretched and that is why we occasionally read of a 9-foot lion.

The largest lion of 196 which I, myself, have taken, measured 7 feet, 3j

inches and weighed 160 pounds, but I will concede a possible 7 feet, 6 
inches as the maximum length for the California lion. 
Although the lion preys upon every other animl in California, so 
far as I can find, there is no authentic record of a normal mountain lion

having voluntarily attacked a human being. I do not believe there is 
any danger of an attack on an adult human. In the case of the lioness 
which attacked the school teacher and child near Morgan Hill several 

years ago, the lioness was undoubtedy infected with rabies as both of 
the victims died from that disease. However, I believe there is a possi-

bility of the lion attacking a small child when it is unprotected. All 
stories of lions having trailed human beings are, in my opinion, mis- 
leading. Some of these stories are probably manufactured by persons 
who wish to give the impression that they have had a narrow escape 
from some dangerous animal. Other such stories are told in good faith 
by timid people who believe that as soon as darkness falls in the moun- 
tains dangerous wild animals are lurking behind every bush. When 
such persons are obliged to travel a mountain trail after dark they 
recall every lion story that they have ever heard; then as some small 
animal or bird moves in a nearby bush they become panic stricken, 
imagine they are being followed by mountain lions and are in great 
danger of being attacked. 
Again, such stories are sometimes told by veteran mountaineers, who 
should know better but are actually ignorant of the habits of the moun-'

tain lion. They usually base these stories on the fact that they have' 
found fresh tracks of lions in the morning on trails that they themselves

had traveled after darkness on the night before. Upon such discovery, 
they immediately assume that the lion was following them, watching 
for an opportunity to attack. In all such instances the lion is merely 
following his beat. 
While there is some danger connected with lion hunting operations, 
there is not much chance of being actually injured by the lion, although

on one occasion a large male lion which had been twice shot with a small

calibre revolver actually did spring out of the tree at me and very 
nearly landed on my head. Also, I have several times had narrow 
escapes from injury while defending my dogs when they were fighting 
a wounded lion. A wounded lion, forced to defend, will fight desper- 
ately to the last. In such cases he usually turns over on his back, seizes

his enemy with his forepaws, and while holding thus, rakes with his hind

feet and bites with his powerful teeth. However, practically all such 
risks to hunter and dogs can usually be avoided by first tying the dogs 
and then making a careful shot. Consequently, so far as the lion itself 
is concerned, there usually need be no danger to the hunter. In fact, 
there is much greater danger of falling and breaking one's leg while 
rushing after the dogs over rough brush-covered country. I have been 
much more impressed with the danger of losing the sight of both eyes 
from having them pierced by sharp limbs while hurriedly making my 
way through dense thickets of brush. This danger has been brought 
home to me by the experience of having injured both eyes in this way 
and being compelled to stop for several minutes before I could see well 
enough to continue the chase. Being alone and blinded in rough, 
unknown country, miles from traveled roads or trails, especially in 
stormy weather, is not a pleasant situation to contemplate. However, 
the hunter learns to anticipate and avoid many of these dangers. The 
danger of accidentally shooting oneself during the chase may be 
eliminated by not loading the gun until actually ready to shoot the 

Although a lion is occasionally seen and shot by deer hunters or 
stockmen, stalking or still hunting is very seldom successful because 
the lion himself is a still hunter, and being endowed by nature with the

keenest senses of sight, smell and hearing, with paws cushioned to allow

him to pass noiselessly over rocks, leaves and earth, the instinct and 
ability to conceal himself behind the slightest possible cover or to remain

motionless to avoid detection and always on the alert to surprise his 
quarry, it is not surprising that he is seldom seen by humans, In fact, 
-a,~f~~ -  -+.,U             li 1,0.- +,UJ.~3 1.U 11~ 4.J~ .4I 
a glimpse of a lion. In all my own hunting experience, I have seen only 
one lion walking around in the woods, and that one was a 30-pound 
kitten 300 yards away, and the 149th lion that I had killed. Further- 
Fro. 4. After the battle. At the left, a 145-pound survivor; a 104-pound
killed by the lion at the left, and the 80-pound lioness over whom the males
Sequoia National Park, January 25, 1924. Photograph by Joseph Dixon. 
more, in every instance that I have investigated when lions were reported

seen, I have found that some other animal was mistaken for a lion. 
Poisoning. Poison is sometimes used by stockmen and ranchers to 
rid the range of a stock-killing lion. The usual method is to place 
strychnine in the flesh of the kills made by the lion. Poisoning is only

occasionally successful, as many stock-killing lions will not take a second

feed from any kill, and, in the meantime, many valuable fur-bearing 
animals are destroyed; also valuable stock dogs or hunting dogs are 
often killed by eating of the poisoned carcass.       In my opinion the 
poisoning method is wholly objectionable from every point of view, 
and is unnecessary, as, in every case where poisoning is effective in 
taking a lion, traps can be used with equal success and with less hazard


to other animals. When the traps are removed, the danger to other 
animals ceases, while it is almost impossible to remove every trace of 
poison, as was demonstrated in one case by Alonzo A. Davis of Sisquoc, 
California, who put poison in the carcass of a calf which had been 
killed by a lion. After securing the lion, Mr. Davis gathered up every 
piece that he could find of the poisoned bait and thoroughly burned it 
all. Nevertheless, more than a year later, near the place where the 
poison was used, he lost two valuable stock dogs which apparently died 
from eating some fragment of the poisoned bait that had been carried 
into the brush by rats or mice. 
While practically every fur-bearing animal in California will feed 
on carcasses of dead animals whenever possible, still most of the carcasses

of stock killed on the mountain ranges by lions and coyotes are devoured

by bear, which fact often causes the bear to be wrongfully accused of 
killing the stock. 
FIG. 5. Loading the dogs preparatory to a trip. Transportation and housing
furnished by a well equipped automobile. 
While I was hunting lions in El Dorado County in\1922, in company 
with Mr. Frank Newbert, we were informed two lions had killed 100 
sheep within twenty-five days, at the head of Alder Creek. Mr. Newbert 
and I arrived at this range about two days after the sheep had been 
moved out, but a cattle man by the name of Johnson took us to where, 
one lion had killed a sheep about three days before. We could plainly 
see by the tracks that the lion had killed the sheep and dragged it-for 
about a half mile and hidden it in a thicket of fir saplings. We found 
the remains of several sheep near this thicket and all of them had been 
devoured by bears, only the hide and bones remaining. We trailed this 
lion, which was a very large male, for about a mile and then found the 
fresh track of a lioness, which we followed until 2 o'clock in the after-

noon, when we found where the carcass of a sheep had been dragged 
across the flat; we then followed the drag for about 200 feet and found 
the kill in a thicket of fir trees. This sheep had apparently been killed


about 9 o'clock the evening before and two bears had already found the 
carcass, devoured part of it and then bedded down near by, leaving only 
when they heard the hound baying on the lion trial. The bears had 
destroyed the lion tracks and scent around the carcass, and it was 
necessary to circle at a distance of a hundred feet to again find the lion

tracks, which we followed unsuccessfully until dark. Early the next 
morning we returned to the kill in order to get her fresh tracks, if the

lioness had returned to the kill. The lioness had not returned, but two 
bears had been there and devoured the remains of the sheep. I called 
Mr. Newbert's attention to the fact that all the evidence around the 
kill had indicated that the bear had killed the sheep. We then back- 
tracked the drag for about three hundred feet to the place where the 
sheep was killed. Then we could plainly see the tracks made by the 
lioness when she rushed over and struck down the sheep, thus proving 
the lioness the slayer. This lioness had apparently killed this strong 
sheep about 9 o'clock in the evening, dragged it to cover, taken a feed,

and then left the place with no intention of returning for another feed,

for I tracked her for three days and killed her twenty-five miles, from 
this place. During the next few days I tracked the male lion around 
his beat, which at one place was twenty-five miles from the sheep range.

When I killed him he had almost reached the sheep range again. 
Trapping. The use of bait or scent to attract lions to traps is usually 
not effective. While such lures will attract most other animals, the lion

usually pays no attention to them but prefers to kill his own food. 
Finding the lion's own kills and setting traps around them is the 
better method and that most often used by trappers. However, the 
most effective method of trapping lions is setting traps on their regular

beat. A narrow place in the trail used by the lion should be selected 
and several traps set at intervals along the trail. A limb or trunk of 
a sapling should be placed across the trail, about two feet above each 
trap, to prevent deer from stepping into them. Deer will spring over 
such an obstruction while lions will pass underneath them. William 
Mayers of Paskenta, California, trapped eleven lions in this way during 
J two winters. Ten of them were females and one was a half-grown female 
that was still following its mother. The fact that these eleven lions 
were all traveling the same beat and were all caught in the same place 
can be understood by anyone who has studied the habits of animals, for 
every animal, whether wild or domestic, will follow a known beat or 
way when traveling over country where they have been before. All 
these lions were evidently descendants of some lioness that had used 
this beat regularly and who probably led two or three litters of kittens

around this beat while they were growing up. The young lions when 
grown probably selected their regular beat twelve or fifteen miles away,

but every few weeks made a trip back to the range where they were 
raised, and in doing so traveled over the route which they already 
knew. Naturally several of these kittens were females, and in turn 
each led several kittens over the same beat when visiting their old range.

Thus in six or seven years three or four generations could be making 
occasional trips over exactly the same beat. These lions were all caught

in the bottom of a canyon, which explains why no adult males were 

taken, for the adult male lion habitually travels the tops of the main 
ridges and well defined spurs. 
Trailing with dogs. By far the most reliable method of 'taking lion. 
is by trailing and treeing them by the aid of trained dogs. Success by 
this method depends upon the ability of the hunter and dogs to follow 
the lion's old tracks for many miles. Therefore, the first-class lion dog

must be a determined trailer and also a natural treeing dog. Not every 
dog has these qualifications, for many hounds, while good trailers, never

learn to locate a treed lion, but will come back to the hunter when the 
scent is missed where the lion springs into the tree. Other dogs will 
locate the treed lion but fail to bark "treed," being content to
sit for 
hours at the base of the tree without making a sound. Consequently 
the hunter is unable to locate the dog or lion unless conditions are such

that he can trail them to the tree. The type of dog required by the 
professional lion hunter is one that will find tracks two days old and 
will never quit any lion trail of his own accord until he is completely 
prostrated. He will work a day-old trail for twenty-five miles over all 
kinds of country in the summer when the temperature is 95 degrees in 
the shade or swim swollen stream in the coldest winter weather; then 
with bruised and bleeding feet run down and tree the lion and hold it 
Areed, or, if the cat jumps out, continue to tree it for twelve or fifteen

hours, if necessary, until the hunter arrives. All of these qualifications

of a first-class lion dog are combined in many foxhounds or a cross of I

foxhound and bloodhound, but in no other breed of dogs in existence. 
As an illustration of the effectiveness of hunting lions with dogs 
compared to use of traps and poison, I will state a few examples. Dur- 
ing January, February, and part of March, 1917, a nhmber of hogs and 
goats were killed by a large male lion on two ranches a few miles east 
of Mariposa. On one occasion, nine hogs were killed during one night 
by this lion, which had consistently avoided traps and poison by refus- 
ing to feed twice on any kill. However, I bagged this lion within two 
hours with the aid of one dog. In August, 1919, near Kinsley, Mari- 
posa County, with four days of hunting, I bagged two stock-killing 
lions that had evaded traps and poison for two months. A third 
example was when, in one hour of hunting with the aid of two dogs, I 
bagged a large male lion which had killed 300 goats for Charles Ralph 
of Tuolumne. This lion, living continuously on the goat range, had 
evaded traps, poison and still hunting for a year, and Ralph had 
appealed for aid. Still another example was in Tulare County where 
Britton and Loverin of Three Rivers had lost a number of calves and 
several larger cattle by the depredations of a large male lion. Most of 
these kills were found but it was noted that the lion had taken only one

feed from each. As valuable stock dogs were being used continually on 
the range, it was deemed inadvisable to use trap or poison. With the 
aid of three dogs, I bagged this lion and three others within two weeks 
of hunting. 

Most dogs will not pay any attention to the odor of a lion or have any 
inclination to trail them until after having been present at the killing

of one or more lions, for lions are not the natural quarry of the dog 
family. Indeed, very few dogs will eat the flesh of lions until after 
they become interested in hunting them. On the other hand, every dog 
is eager to run deer and rabbits, which are their natural prey. 
A dog that will chase deer and other animals is of no use to a lion 
hunter, for the dog's energy must be entirely, conserved for the lion 
chase. Also, a deer-chasing dog causes the hunter loss of time and 
energy. Consequently, the first consideration in training the young 
dog is to prevent him from running deer or other animals than lions. 
This can be best accomplished by leading the pup with a leash until 
the trained dogs tree a lion and then turning him loose at the tree when

the quarry is shot, thus allowing the dog his first hunting experience 
on the game which the hunter desires him to trail. 
After one or two such experiences, the pup can be turned loose with 
the trained dogs when a lion's fresh tracks are found. In the meantime, 
the young dog should be severely punished whenever he pays any 
attention to the tracks of other game. Under no circumstances should 
I a deer ever be killed when the lion dogs are present or 
in camw or fed to the dogs. It is not difficult to inter st a pup or start

a, young dog when the hunter uses trained dogs to trail and tree 
the lions. However, dogs may be trained to bunt lions without the 
aid of experienced dogs by working when there is several inches of 
snow on the ground, thus allowing the hunter to trail the lion until 
it is frightened from its bedding place. Then the young dogs should 
be turned loose on the lion's fresh tracks and urged to chase the lion 
until it is treed. 
The questing hound, while working out the average lion trail, which 
is from 18 to 30 hours old when found, will travel about 75 miles in 
12 or 14 hours in order to advance 15 miles, the distance traveled by 
the lion. The feet of the lion-hunting dog are always subject to severe 
damage from sharp rocks and gravel. Therefore, he requires at least 
one day of complete rest for each day of work. Consequently, a lion 
hunter, in order to keep busy, requires at least four hounds, which 
should be used in pairs, each pair being allowed to rest on alternate 
days. Two hounds work out the average lion trail more efficiently than 
a larger number because there is less chance of them following a back 
trail through crowding or interference with each other. 
In order to maintain hunting dogs in the best physical condition, it 
is necessary to feed and care for them systematically and scientifically.

The only way that this can be accomplished is by having the dogs under 
control at all times by keeping them tied in temporary camp, or in a 
roomy pen when resting at headquarters, for a hound running loose is 
continually on the hunt for food and it is impossible for the hunter 
to properly feed his dog unless he knows just what they have been 

eating. My dogs are fed every evening. Fresh raw meat is by far the 
best food for a working dog and my dogs are fed the lion carcass when- 
ever practicable. But many times lions are killed long distances from 
camp and it is not practicable to carry the carcass for miles over rough,

brushy country. In such cases, the dogs are given one feed from the 
freshly killed carcass. The hunter must always have plenty of scientifi-

cally prepared commercial food for use when meat can not be procured. 
After each hunting trip, which is usually from fifteen to twenty days 
duration, the dogs should be bathed or sprayed with a solution of water 
and sheep dip to eliminate woodticks and fleas. 
In order to carry on the lion hunting operations efficiently and to be 
able to respond quickly to reports from places where lions were doing 
damage, it was necessary to have a means of transportation which would 
be always available at a few minutes notice. This problem was solved 
by mounting a specially built camping body on a durable automobile 
chassis. The body was constructed so as to provide a reasonably com- 
fortable shelter for hunter and dogs when on the road or in camp. A 
gasoline stove is used for cooking and food and utensils are packed in 
two boxes having special compartments which hold rations for one 
person for two weeks. These boxes can be slung on to a pack saddle 
when it is necessary to pack by horse into the lion country. They pro- 
vide closet and table in camp and are always packed for transportation, 
which eliminates work and confusion of hurriedly gathering scattered 
equipment or of transferring articles of food piecemeal from auto to 
horse or vice versa. 
While on the actual hunt, it is advantageous to travel light, so all 
necessary equipment has been reduced to a minimum of weight. In 
place of the usual rifle or carbine to shoot the lion, I use-a 38-40 
revolver with a six-inch barrel, carried in a shoulder holster, whinh 
permits the use of both hands to protect the face from brush and to 
assist in climbing over rocks. Instead of the cumbersome skinning 
knife, I use a medium sized pocketknife with one skinning blade and one 
long, narrow blade- for skinning feet and toes of lion. This knife, a 
small round whetstone, light scale, a five-foot steel tape, a compass, 
and extra cartridges are packed in a waterproof canvas bag. In an 
army bacon tin are packed a vest pocket camera, extra roll of films, a 
small vial of iodine, permanganate of potash, waterproof match box, 
sharp penknife, one yard of adhesive tape, also notebook and pencil for 
recording data. A lunch is always carried and, in some cases, rations 
sufficient for two days are carried in the event that it may be necessary

to spend one night away from camp. All the above equipment, except 
revolver, is carried in a leather knapsack and, exclusive of food, weighs

ten pounds. 
After the first two years of hunting operations, which resulted in the 
taking of fifty-six lions, thereby demonstrating that this work could be

done effectively when properly supported, the United States Forest 

Service, game protective associations, stockmen, and mountain people 
generally began to take an interest in the work. Forest rangers and 
stockmen especially, on account of their riding often over trails in the

lion country, are in a particularly favorable position to render assist-

ance by watching for lion tracks and reporting same, and many lions 
have been taken as a result of following up such reports; also consider-

able time and expense has been saved through the willingness of stock- 
men to furnish accommodations for the hunter in their mountain camps, 
and to furnish, free of charge, their services and the use of their horses

to pack equipment for hunting operations. 
When commencing the actual hunt, I usually establish a base camp 
near some ranger station or mountain ranch which has telephone com- 
munication, then call up every forest ranger and stockman for miles 
around and inquire whether lion tracks have been noticed and, if so, 
at what places. I also request that they watch carefully for lion signs 
and report to me every day. By the use of a map and the information 
thus secured, it is often possible for me to determine a lion's beat while

I am camped miles away and, on the first day of hunting in a country 
unknown to me, to bag the only lion within an area of 100 square miles. 
I start from camp at 4 a.m. in summer and 6 a.m. in winter, and quite 
often I have returned to camp from a twelve- or fifteen-mile hunt 
during the forenoon, found a telephone message awaiting me, packed 
up equipment, driven fifteen or twenty miles to the source of the report

and bagged one or more lions before nightfall. When I hear of lion 
tracks being seen several times at certain places, I assume that that 
particular place is part of the lion's regular beat, and I start the hunt

from there each morning until the lion's fresh tracks are found, which 
is usually within three days-quite often the first day  depending upon 
when the lion last passed, for a lion usually covers its beat every four

orfv  days. 
Because lions usually hunt during the night, it is not desirable for 
the hunter to follow the same route twice in one day, when it is neces- 
sary to return to the home camp each night. Instead, a loop should be 
followed, as this allows the hunter to cross the lion's beat at two or 
more places during one day, thus providing several chances to find the 
lion's fresh tracks. However, the best plan is to hunt across country 
for a distance of twelve to twenty miles, stopping on alternate nights 
at the opposite ends of the trip. Thus the beats of several lions may be

crossed each day and the hunter can return to the camp nearest when 
the lion is bagged. Usually, the hunter can secure accommodations at a 
ranch or stockmen's camp, which eliminates the discomfort of lying out 
by a campfire. When driving through lion country, I always watch the 
road carefully and have several times noticed lion tracks in the dusty 
road, parked the auto, started the dogs on the tracks, and bagged one or

more lions, sometimes trailing ten or twelve miles and not returning to 
the auto until the next day. 
After a lion's tracks are found and the chase is on, the hunter must 
keep as close as possible to the dogs. At all times during the chase he 
should watch the ground carefully for any sign which would explain 
the difficulty if the dogs should become confused, for often the lion 

will scent a deer and turn off his beat for several hundred feet; then, 
if the deer escapes, the lion will double back on his own trail and 
continue his regular route. In such cases, considerable time will be 
saved by calling the dogs back to where the lion's back track was first 
noticed and then following a loop until the forward trail is again found.

On the average trail followed it is necessary for the hunter to assist the

dogs about a dozen times during ten or twelve hours of trailing. Often 
the lion tracks and scent are obliterated by cattle stampeding over 
them. Then the dogs are helpless and, if left to their own resources, 
they will work at such a place for several, hours without making any 
progress. In such cases, the hunter should immediately call off the 
dogs, take them away for a half mile, if necessary, then follow a loop 
with a radius of a half mile or so around the place where the lion's 
tracks were destroyed until the tracks are again found. 
Quite often a wise old cat, when bard pressed by the dogs, will run 
for several hundred feet past the tree he intends to climb, then double 
back over his own track and spring high into the tree and hide among 
the branches. This ruse confuses the dogs, who, following the fresh 
scent on the ground, rush past the treed lion only to come to a bewilder-

ing lapse where the lion doubled back. Then the hunter must find the 
treed lion, and I have twice hunted for three hours before the lion was 
It is usually not difficult to shoot a treed lion, this most often being

done at close range. However, it is advisable to tie the dogs whenever 
practicable, thus preventing them from being struck by the dying lion 
when it falls from the tree, or from attacking a wounded lion and being 
killed or injured in the struggle. However, it is not always practicable

to tie the dogs as in a case where the dogs are tired and footsore and the

lion is treed in a situation such as rough, brushy mountainside or river

rim, which would render it difficult to tree the lion again if it should

jump out of the tree while the hunter is tying the dogs. Then the hunter

should cautiously approach the tree, make a careful shot, and be pre- 
pared to defend the dogs in an emergency. 
Its Purpose, Scope and Significance in Relation to Their Stocking 
With Native or Introduced Species of Trout and Other Game 
(With four photographs by the author.) 
The Department of Fish Culture of the California Fish and Game 
Commission, realizing the importance of accurate information concern- 
ing the conditions of existence of the trout and other game fishes in our

mountain lakes and streams, has inaugurated a survey for the purpose 
of obtaining first-hand information concerning these conditions. While 
the investigations will be conducted in a thoroughly scientific manner, 
the main object is not to make a great collection of the species of aquatic

plants, animals and insects occurring in these lakes and streams, many 
-3 5981 

,                    CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME.                          
and oysters, shrimp, and I                ever hare we read over pages of
'"In Japan, the marine fisheries occupy handbook that seemed to so satisfactorily

a place of importance comparable to that cover the ground expressed by its
of no other large nation."              H. C. Bryant. 
According to a report by Judge Walter 
Fry of Sequoia National Park, the opos- 
sum (Didelphys virginiana) is now invad- 
ing the southern Sierra. Opossums first 
made their appearance in     the Three 
Rivers District along the Kaweah River 
in September, 1924. By the twenty-fifth 
of the month they had extended their 
range, following the south fork, to the 
Alles Brothers' ranch some three miles 
up the south fork, and by the first of Octo- 
ber they had moved up the east fork and 
middle fork of the river to the J. P. God- 
bey ranch, only a mile from the western 
boundary of the park. 
Supposedly, the animals are the product 
of stock  brought from    Missouri and 
liberated in the district east of Visalia. 
The invasion may have been augmented 
by the dry season. One man at Three 
Rivers killed 26 opossums, of which 3 
were adult males, 2 adult females, and 21 
were young.    The two females were 
carrying in their pouches 9 and 12 young 
respectively. The larger male opossum 
weighed over ten pounds. 
The writer has spent most of his time 
in Lassen County since 1890 and has 
closely watched its game.   One of the 
most interesting things observed has been 
the ability of the pronghorn antelope to 
survive under adverse conditions. 
During the nineties several bands, num- 
bering from 20 to 50, were scattered ov 
the Madeline plains and nearby tableland 
in eastern Lassen County. During thj 
period, the last band seen by the writt 
was a group of about 15 head in       e 
spring of 1897. With the coming ofje 
-homesteader and the advance of the s  p 
industry, antelope almost entirely  is- 
appeared.  Although I rode the r     ge 
continuously, no more were seen until late 
in the fall of 1900, when quite a large 
band appeared on the range near my 
ranch.   However, within a few     days 
hunters from Susanville and other places 
were after them and I knew of about ten 
being killed. The band broke and scat- 
tered; three spent the entire winter of 
1901 in sight of my house, but disap- 
peared the following spring. From 191 
to 1909 a lone antelope was sometimes 
seen, then a pair, or sometimes a half 
dozen. By 1916 bands of 10 to 15 were 
not uncommon. In the fall of 1918 a 
herd of 75 appeared and in the fall of 
1921 several bands of from 20 to 75 could 
be found in a day's ride. During the 
winter of 1924 the writer saw one band 
of 125 and believes there were 500 or 
more on this range. During the summer 
of 1924 the animals became more tame 
than ever before, scarcely running from 
an automobile, and could be found in most 
any of the fields of the large stock 
ranches. They travel -over a wide range, 
and with the splendid protection given 
them by Nevada and the interest taken in 
them, the writer anticipates seeing their 
former haunts in northeastern California 
restocked. With a little help the antelope 
should again become common on the west 
side of the San Joaquin Valley.-TVill R. 
Home, Ravendale, California. 
NOTE).-In connection with the above 
we fail to understand how the increase of 
antelope occurred by the splendid protec- 
tion of Nevada without any sort of an 
auequate game waruen service. We are 
inclined to believe that the increase of 
these animals was from the fact that a 
California warden was appointed to prac- 
tically adopt them. When Mr. Newbert 
was appointed in 1911 there were by 
actual count 13 antelope. So well did the 
California warden of these animals do his 
duty that today there are quite a number 
of large bands of them. These animals 
are very migratory at certain seasons of 
the year, hence        e the  rong con- 
struct                           reason 
prtcinand Increase.- 
April, 1923, (Vol. 9 pp. 45-48) a com- 
plete explanation was given of one of the 
only instances where a mountain lion 
has been known to attack a human being 
in California. It was shown that this 
lion was afflicted with the dread disease, 
rabies, as both of his victims apparently 
died with that disease. With this back- 
ground attention is now called to an 
apparently authentic case of the killing 
of a boy by a mountain lion in the state 
of Washington near the Canadian line. 
From two written statements, one by R. 

L. Nash, and another by P. Harris, a 
forest supervisor, sent us by W. L. Finley 
of Jennings Lodge, Oregon, the following 
has been gleaned: 
James Fehlhaber, 13 years old, of small 
stature, an orphan, who was living with 
Mr. R. L. Nash at Okanogan, Washing- 
ton, left Robert Nash's house at 11.30 a.m., 
Wednesday, December 17, 1924. When 
the boy did not return R. L. Nash and a 
Mr. Kelly started out about 10 o'clock 
that evening to search for him.    The 
boy was found about 75 feet from the 
main trail at the base of a cliff. A study 
of tracks in the snow seemed to show that 
a mountain lion had come down a steep 
hillside quartering behind the boy.  A 
leap of about 10 feet from the cover of 
brush appeared to have been made in 
striking the boy down. There was blood 
where he fell. Five feet away more blood 
was found.    Apparently the lion had 
dragged the body from this point to the 
base of the cliff. The body was partially 
eaten and disemboweled. A spot as big 
as one's hand had been eaten from one 
thigh, both hands were gone, apparently 
eaten to the wrists, bones and all. Skin 
and flesh were eaten clean from the skull, 
face and neck so that no trace of hair 
remained. From the position of the boy's 
gloves his hands were probably bare, so 
that except for the thigh the lion had 
eaten only parts not covered by clothing. 
When the boy's body was first found the 
coat, which had been pulled from the 
body, was placed over the head. When 
the body was removed an hour later the 
coat was not seen. The next morning 
it was found in a lair the lion had been 
using, about 200 feet from where the 
body was found. The coat, which was 
covered with blood, had been torn to 
shreds.  This would indicate that the 
lion  returned to his kill during the 
absence of Mr. Nash. This was also 
indicated by the tracks which were super- 
imposed upon those of Mr. Nash. 
At first it was thought that a lion 
killed on January 9th, eight miles east 
of Winthrop and some twenty miles 
northwest of the place where the boy 
was killed, was probably responsible. In 
view of later evidence, this was appar- 
ently another lion. Later in January a 
lion was killed by Mr. Charles Garratt, 
a ranger living 10 miles west of Okano- 
gan, who had set a trap for coyotes. This 
was a young lion in good condition. Mr. 
F. G. Clifford of Brewster, bought the 
animal and examined its stomach. Here 
he found a considerable wad of human 
hair and small bones of the hand and 
wrist. The hair resembled closely that 
of the boy's.   The stomach contained 
other kinds of hair and meat and the 
human remains were wadded up sepa- 
rately  and  easily  distinguished.  Mr. 
Clifford, however, substantiates his state- 
ments with a number of witnesses. For- 
est Supervisor Harris of the Chelan 
National Forests states that there is no 
reason to doubt his account. 
Those seeking dependable information 
have sought authentic instances of the 
killing of human beings by mountain 
lions with largely negative results. This 
is apparently one of the first instances to 
be recorded, of an attack of this kind. 
This report should not lead people to 
believe that the mountain lion is a dan- 
gerous animal. It should be remembered 
that the common domestic dog claims 
many more victims annually than moun- 
tain lions, and one of the safest places 
to live is in mountain districts where 
mountain lions are abundant.-H. C. 
Bryant, Berkeley, California. 
Dr. P. A. Webber of Sacramento, 
killed a cackling goose in Yolo County 
with band No. 303,502. On forwarding 
the band to the Bureau of Biological Sur- 
vey at Washington it was found that this 
goose had been banded by 0. J. Murie of 
Alaska during the summer of 1924. 
Mr. J. Basileu killed a banded canvas- 
back duck at El Verano, on November 20, 
1924. The bird proved to be one banded 
by Mr. 0. H. Jorundson, Stony Hill, 
Manitoba, Canada. The bird was caught 
by Mr. Jorundson in a muskrat trap and 
banded by him about April 25, 1923.- 
H. C. Bryant, Berkeley, California. 
Although it is known that a remnant 
of the vast herds of Roosevelt elk which 
formerly inhabited the northwest coast of 
California remains in Del Norte County, 
yet a report as to their present status 
is seldom seen. Mr. Thomas Kring of 
Orick recently reported that there are 
in the neighborhood of 100 individuals 
in the herd. The country where they 
range is very brushy and heavily timbered 
and it is very difficult to obtain reliable 
information as to the exact numbers. 
Residents of the vicinity believe that the 
herd is slightly on the increase.-Earl P. 
Barnes, Eureka, California. 

Dear Stokely: 
This article of Bruce's furnishes such an ex- 
cellent outline for the kind of life history I have had in 
mind for our book that I would suggest that a very good way 
to frame a beginning for our chapter on lions would be for 
you to take up his points one by one and write out how they 
compare with your own observations in New Mexico, adding such 
information as you may have on points which he does not cover. 
Both you and Pettit know so much more about lions than I do 
that this particular chapter could, it seems to me, be worked 
out without any necessity of conferring with me. 
The bulletin on antelope from the Roosevelt Wild 
Life Experiment Station is almost but not quite in the same 
class and might similarly be made a starting point for our own 
U) a .+ n a, , + a  . 
W tL&p W4. VJA L V.& IUPW 0 
'M 0 AJ 0 

AOA1 ~Aoe 
The three large predatory mammals, coyotes, wolves, and 
±ions, offer considerable resistance to that natural tendency 
of deer and elk to increase rapidly in numbers where given full 
protection from hunters. 
With the violent overthrow of the bAlance of nature on the 
F orth American continent since settlement by the whites first 
began, a new readjustment had been necessar? in both the plant 
and animal kingf.oms._ 
The coyotes adapted themselves rapidly to these new en- 
vironmental conditions by staying in either settleO. or unset- 
tled areas, and IiVing mainly on carrion, rodents, game, and 
stock. WolvesB and mountain lions have a greater ability to 
kill, and have followed the fast diminishing big game into the 
more remote localities. 'V.olves still offer considerable trouble 
to stockmen in the western states; they live mainly in the more 
inacOessible timbered areas, and when demands for food are not 
satisfied locally, they raid near or distant settlements, kill- 
ing stock of most all sizes and with little regard for amount of 
meat required for sustenance. The mountain lion has stayed with 
thei  game in its retreat (it only occasionally bothers stock) 
and now forms one of our biggest negative factors in game 
Observations in the South Fork country of the Flathead 
River by a party killing' eleven lions during the winter 1923-24 
Bhowed that lion were killing both deer an  elk.  They traveled 
consistently, and as opportunity afforde dIT    d far in excess 
of food requirements and leaving from one to several deer or 
elk in the killing areas which were soon visited by coyotes 
that followed the lions to feast on their kills, and by bear 
.which go to lion-kill areas as soon as they come out of their 
dens in the spring. 
The ability of a .medium-sized lion to kill a large, and in 
excellent o.ondition, six-point bull elk was well demonstrated. 
Tracks showed that the lion, when possible, maneuvered to an 
uphill position before jumping the game, vhich it pr9fers to 
chase downhill, in order that he may the more easily secure his 
position on the baclk of the animal.  The animals were killed 
by bites on the back of the neck, which in the case of one elk, 
showed a fullo set of teeth marks piercing the neck bone on both 
sides a few i-nches below the ears. In most cases the lion had 
torn, -ith his claws, large strips of hide and meat on either 
side of the animal, which alone would have meant death to the 
animal. On one small area of about an acre, a lion had killed 
five elk by staying on a rock ledge above an elk trail and 

Reprinted from JOmAL oF MAMMALOGY 
Vol. 6, No. 2, May, 1925, pp. 122-124 
In "Notes on the Synonymy and Nomenclature of the Smaller 
Spotted Cats of Tropical America,"' Dr. J. A. Allen fixed the type 
region of [Felis] pardalis Linnous as the state of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 
To Felis grifflthii Fischer, regarded as a member of the same group, 
he assigned an indefinite range in northern Mexico. This name, how- 
ever, was based on a specimen in the Bullock collection which more 
probably came from southeastern Mexico, and seems therefore to 
belong in the synonymy of F. pardalis pardalis. Brass,2 in 1911, pub- 
lished with color descriptions the names Felis buffoni and Felis mexi- 
cana for spotted Mexican cats, presumably ocelots. The name Felis 
mexicana is preoccupied by Felis mexicana Desmarest (1820) and 
Felis mexicana Saussure (1860). His descriptions are evidently based 
on individual color variations of which there are often many in the same

locality. Felis buffoni Brass and Felis mexicana Brass are therefore 
The general range of Felis pardalis, transcontinental in tropical 
Central America, is split in southern Mexico by the great wedge formed 
by the Mexican highlands. From this point diverging branches extend 
northward along the Gulf slope to southern Texas, and along the 
Pacific coast to Sonora. Examination of accumulated material in- 
dicates that western and northwestern Mexico are inhabited by the 
hitherto unrecognized subspecies described below. 
Felis pardalis nelsoni subsp. nov. 
Nelson's Ocelot. 
Type from Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico. No. 44565 e old, U. S. National 
Museum (Biological Survey collection), collected by E. W. Nelson, February

11, 1892. Original number, 1862. 
General characters.-Similar in general to Felis pardalis pardalis, but smaller;

color averaging much the same, but black bar across underside of neck usually

narrower; skull smaller and differing in details. 
Color (type).--Ground color of upper parts (spaces between stripes and spots

or within circular black markings) varying from near cinnamon buff to light

pinkish buff (Ridgway, 1912), the former tone richest on head and neck, becom-

ing lighter over dorsum and within black circular markings or rosettes on
'Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,Vol. 41, pp. 341-419, October 3, 1919. 
Aus dem Reiche der Pelze, p. 412, April, 1911. 

while the latter tone appears mainly in irregular lines between circular
markings mentioned; upper surface striped and spotted with black as usual
the group; lighter element of upper parts passing gradually through pale
to white, spotted with-black, on fore and hind legs, and feet; under parts
heavily spotted with black mainly across abdomen, the usual broad black bar

across throat, and a narrower bar across neck; ears deep black, except usual

white spots; tail irregularly spotted or ringed with black, the interspaces
buffy above, becoming still lighter toward the tip, and dull whitish below.

Skull.-Compared with that of F. p. pardalis the skull is considerably smaller

throughout; zygomata more squarely spreading, the sides more nearly parallel;

teeth decidedly smaller. 
Measutements (type).-Total length, 1140, tail vertebrw, 362; hind foot, 166.

Average and extremes of 3 adult male topotypes, including type: 1067 (1002-

1140); 341 (310-362); 155 (143-166). Skull (type): Greatest length (median

projection of occiput to front of incisors), 144.1; condylobasal length,
zygomatic breadth, 96; breadth at constriction behind zygomata, 51.4; inter-

orbital breadth, 25.3; length of nasals (median line), 29.7; greatest breadth
nasals, 18.7; alveolar length of upper incisive toothrow, 13.4; alveolar
(outer side) of upper carnassial, 12.1. 
Remarks.-The ocelots of North America diminish progressively in size from

south to north, especially along the Pacific coast; Felis p. mearnsi of Panama

and Costa Rica is strikingly larger than the northern races. Examination
of a 
considerable number of skins from various localities from Panama to northern

Mexico reveals a remarkable range of individual variation in general color
of the lighter elements, and in the size and arrangement of black markings
in the 
pelage. Average geographic differences may be perceptible, but specimens

from the same locality may vary from deep tawny to pale gray. Felis p. nelsoni

includes within its range a long section of the narrow tropical belt between
Sierra Madre and the Pacific coast. 
Specimens examined.-19, from localities as follows: 
Colima: Armeria, 1; Manzanillo (type locality), 4. 
Guerrero: Acapulco, 5 (skins only); Coyuca, 6 (skins only); Omilteme, 1;

Papayo, 1. 
Oaxaca: Puerto Angel, 1. 
Fells pardalis sonoriensis subsp. nov. 
Sonora Ocelot 
Type from Camoa, Rio Mayo, Sonora, Mexico. No. 96216, e" adult, skin

and skull, U. S. National Museum (Biological Survey collection), collected
E. A. Goldman, December 3, 1898. Original number, 13268. 
General characters.-Most closely allied to Felis pardalis nelsoni, but averag-

ing still smaller; general color somewhat paler, the black dorsal markings
widely separated by lighter areas; black cervical stripes usually narrower;
shorter, more rounded. 
Color (type).-General coloration essentially as in the type of F. p. nelsoni,

but tone of lighter areas above slightly paler, the black markings over dorsum

more widely spaced; facial black stripes present in nelsoni broken to form

of spots; black spots on legs and'feet smaller; under side of neck with a
black bar as in nelsoni. 
Skull.-Similar to that of F. p. nelsoni, but still smaller, the braincase
atively shorter, more rounded; nasals noticeably narrower; zygomata squarely

spreading and teeth small, much as in nelsoni. 
Measurements (type).-Total length, 980, tail vertebrm, 320; hind foot, 148.

An adult male topotype: 1040; 351; 149. Skull (type): Greatest length (median

projection of occiput to front of incisors), 125.8; condylobasal length,
zygomatic breadth, 85.8; breadth at constriction behind zygomata, 48.3; inter-

orbital breadth, 24.2; length of nasals (median line), 27.2; greatest breadth
nasals, 17.1; alveolar length of upper incisive toothrow, 13.4; alveolar
(outer side) of upper carnassial, 12.1. 
Remarks.-The range of Felis p. sonoriensis marks the northern limit, on the

west side of the continent, of an apparently intergrading chain of forms
tending from South America. The species as a whole, mainly tropical in distri-

bution, here enters the Lower Sonoran life zone, individuals perhaps still
ing sporadically to extreme southern Arizona (recorded from Arizona). 
Specimens examined.-4, all from the type locality. 
While the North American forms of Felis pardalis are imperfectly 
known those recognizable should apparently stand as follows: 
Felis  pardalis  pardalis  Linnmus    . . . Mexico (type region, 
state of Vera Cruz). 
Felis pardalis mearnsi Allen    ....        Talamanca, Costa Rica. 
Felis pardalis albescens Pucheran       .......           Arkansas. 
Felis pardalis nelsoni Goldman      .... Manzanillo, Colima, 
Felis pardalis   sonoriensis  Goldman     .  .   . Camoa, Sonora, 
Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

U. S. Forest Service   Dccr.b zr 28, 1926 
Sout':,!s t  u District 
In Volume Pro(tuctiot: .Lccordin' to the Gulf Coast LUn- 
bcrran, Douglas fir manufacturers sav par.llcl to the bark, contribufting;

to straig-ht-grain in boards and to the quntity of uppcrs,  ;a]ilrC the V

loss in the cheaper (more ImottyP i=t  .  at the heart. Of all softWood 
lumber produced, 37% grades into T7o 2 cermon, and nearly 20% into the se-

lect 1rrades. 
Recent Personnel Chanre_: Recent chan.,"os in District personnel include,

from the Coconino, the resignati on of F. V. Bustcr, i-r1: gQ* in charge
of the 
Bly District, and of R. F. Howell and ". J. W. iXuppo, assista.nts oi
timber salcs. One of the sales positions is being filled by the transfer

of Ranrer ?'onirlhan from the Apache. 
Jthor resi;nations that have been submittod 
Nii thin the past felw weeks include those of: Rangr H.  . Juiai , in charge

of the :anas District, Apache; Principal Clcron  Albcrs of the Sit:rcavos;'

and U1ss'ret Blank, Lssist'-nt Clcrk on the AL4chc, The resigntion
-Lrs. C. A. 14.orker, Junior 0lcrl: on the Sitgreaves  was incident to her
1ar- to the Assistant Superisor of tb. Stravs. Her position has been 
taeon by ::-s.  rirc t Love laand. 
'While this list of people -:ho have loft the Ser- 
vice for other fields of activity loo:s rather fornidable, the total Dis-

trict turni ver for the past ti.o years remains at a relatively low figure.

' Of Lions Less On ThG Datil:     The Evans Brothers of Beav:orhco3d 
ricu neucntly called on for help in catching, a lion on Elk ,ountain, aCOut

80 miles southwes-ct of -alalc, Thqyfound the trail of the lion aboat a 
mile south of 0 Bar 0 Ranl;or Station just after a fresh fall of snow. The

talc of the hunt is intorosti.n ng?  told in a recent Datil Bulletin. Their

hounds :cre put on the trail ard werc able to follo '; 1t with little difficul-

ty. The lion w:'as ov:crta ]cn at the carcass of a freshly kilo ddr, The

dogs soon put the varnint up a tree and it wxa's shot. About 50 yards distant

was another dcr whjiich the lion had  , illed at lbout thQ tine, Both
deer were  hitTail bucks. The li on  %s a 'TC-.nle Ta5nsl '5  'seon that
had a fam.ily of young ones so th bunt(.rs took the back trail and gollovQd

it to a den in a cliff of rooks,     theiy found thrno lion kittens, about

the size of c ,rown house cats, The.; c-ptered the kittens alive.  The little

follot, quickly learned dormestic h':.bits and they eagerly take milk from
nipple on a bottle just as any othGr balj creature. Lion kittens talken at

that size mao most cunning pots and are playful and gentle up until they

a1proach maturity at about two-thirds fron, then they become rough 'nd arc

easily angered,    It is estimated that each lion kills an average of fifty

deer per year and they arc equally disastrous to cattlc and sheepo They 
like fresh, warm moat and seldom tare  a  meals from a single kill.  It 
seems to be their nature, oven when not huirv to kill for the sake of de-

stroying; and they have bren lmom-m to kill as rany as a dozen sheep from
flock in a single nifht, probably eating- from only one carcass. The Lvans

Brothers arc owners of the vell known 8.1aAi. Ranch at Beaverhead.  In addi-

tion to looking after their extonsive cattlc i-tterosts, they kep a pack
well trained hunting dogs; and speud a peart of their leisure time each year

at the exciting but fascinating sport of lion and bear hunting. 
Leave:   Pooler, "'allen, Lo1eridC, Herrns, Wales (Albuquorquo); Lang
den, S.C.): Hassey (Long' Beach, Calif,); Kerr (U Pasq TeX) 
7,."_r:.: Roberts (Sitgrcaves) DO 
JL,~ R-ndles 

DISTRICT FORESTER_                              POST OFFICE BUILDING 
AND REFER TO                                      PORTLAND, OREGON 
*       G                                   January 3, 1927. 
Supervis ion 
Mr. Aldo !]eopold, 
Forest Products Laboratory,               W 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Leo: 
Reference is made to your letter of October 6: 
On my return from a field trip I wrote to Supervisor Shelley 
on October 18 and he has since that time been endeavoring to get 
in touch with the parties concerned in the cougar attack to which 
you refer.   I am enclosing copy of a letter from Supervisor Shelley, 
under date of December 21, and also a letter to Supervisor Shelley, 
dated December 22, w:hich I trust will give you the information you 
were seeking. 
Personally I have been in the mountains all my life and have 
never had any particular fear of cougar, being under the impression 
always that they were very cowardly animals as a species and I do 
not recall ever hearing of any attacks by cougar in the Rockies on 
adults or even children for that matter.  However I could imagine 
a cougar attacking a small child, more because of its size than be- 
cause it belonged to the genus homo.  Since coming to the Northw~est, 
however, there have been numerous stories of cougar attacks and some 
of them are fully substantiated.  The killing of the small boy in 
the Okanogan country two years ago is an example beyond question. 
We are still milling around with the wilderness area question, 
some work having been accomplished and the situation is slowly but 
surely clarifying itself.  There is a disposition in some parts of 
the Northwest and in some of our most accessible wilderness areas to 
develop winter sports of the European variety.  Particularly is this 
true this past year.  In some places there is a disposition to wel- 
come the wilderness area as such while in others there is a very 
decided opposition to any such areas.  A bad fire season, such as 
1926, when some of our best believed policies went by-the-board, in 
the matter of whether timber would or would not burn and at what time 
of day fires ran the worst, has caused us to revamp to a certain 
degree our ideas as to where trails and roads should be constructed. 

Mr. Leopold. 
We are likewise facing here in the Cascades a continued agita- 
tion for the exclusion of sheep grazing, even though the areas which 
now attract so much attention because of the flora have been so used 
for from 20 to 40 years for grazing purposes.   The agitators do not 
seem to realize that if their contentionwere well founded that sheep 
entirely destroy the flora of the region, that surely the flora on 
these particular areas would have disappeared long ago.   We have 
been restricting use at certain seasons of the year on some areas, 
have been gradually reducing the numbers and otherwise attempting to 
meet the justifiable criticisms mtde by the recreation interests. 
However the extremists are still not satisfied and would apparently 
welcome the day when there was no grazing on any of the Forests in 
the Cascades.   They overlook the fact entirely that the annual re- 
moval of vegetation is a natural aid in the prevention and suppression 
of fire.   This past year was a splendid example in point since due to 
the lack of water many areas were partially or wholly ungrazed and 
it was on such areas that our fires reached the largest volume and were 
most difficult to control. 
Personally I delight in getting far away from the telephone and 
the automobile but am finding it more and more difficult as the years 
go by to either get the equipment or, having the equipment, find such 
an area. 
With kindest personal regards and best wishes for a happy and 
prosperous New Year, 

Copy for Information 
G                                       Eugene, Oregon 
Suoervision - Siuslaw 
December 21, 1926. 
District Forester, 
Portland, Oreg n. 
Dear Sir: 
Reference is made to your letter of October 18. 
Upon receipt of your letter we at once wrote to the 
ranger requesting any information he might be able to give, 
or, if possible, the man's name and address, that we might 
write him direct for firsthand information.  To date we have 
received no information of any kind and I had overlooked the 
fact that your letter had not been answered until it was called 
to my mind by the last page of the Forest Service Bulletin, Vol. 
10, ITo.47. 
So far as I recall, the gossip which goes with such things, 
there was good reason to believe that the attack occurred.  I 
have spent a good many years in the woods and have never been 
attacked by a cougar but the stories regarding such attacks are 
not infrequent and I believe have a real foundation in fact, al- 
though I have never verified any of them.  If I am able to secure 
any more information in regard to this, at a later date, I will 
advise you. 
Very truly yours, 
(s) R.B. Shelley 
Forest Supervisor. 
CC to D-1 

Hebo, Oregon. 
Supervision - Siuslaw 
December 22, 1926. 
Forest Supervisor, 
Eugene, Oregon. 
Dear Sir: 
Reference is made to your requist for imformation regarding 
the story of a cougar attacting a man last summer in Tillamook 
The mans name is Alvin French and was located at Pitner on the 
old Salmon River road in Lincoln County last summer.  I understand 
that he acted as Fire Warden for the Ilami people part of the ti-e. 
This cougar attact occured near Pitner in Tillamook County.  I 
recently learned that his daughter was located at Grande Ronde, 
Oregon and was attending the High School at this place. I met this 
miss Margaret French who by the way, is small and looks anything but 
the part she played, being about 14 years old and the following is 
the story as she told it. 
At about 8 A.M. my father and I left the Pitner ranch for a 
trip through the woods and as we often did in such cases, we took our 
fifles along.   About - of a mile below the ?itner place, along the 
old road, we came upon some milk cows and noticed that they seemed 
to be worried about something and were sort of milling around. This 
was in the dense timber and our trail led us past a bank of dirt, 
some 8 or 10 feet high.   I was walking close behind my father and 
as we came abrest this bank, the top of which was located some 10 
feet to our left, I suddenly saw a large form coming through the air 
from off this bank and down on top of Ala.  I jumped back, and just 
in time, as the cat landed right where I had been standing and so 
close to my father that he couldnot seem to get his gun up to shoot 
but was punching the cat off with the barrel of the gun. T then 
shot the cat, through the heart just back of his shoulder, from a 
distance of about 6 feet and killed him with the one shot.  The cat 
was about 8 feet long from tip to tip. 
The young lady does not seem to care about talking a great 
deal about the affair and the information was gotten mostly from 
short direct answers to my questions.  It seems that this cat had 
been laying in wait on the edge of this bank in hopes of getting a 
chance to jump onto some of the young cattle with the bunch she 
speaks of.   According to her discription of the top of this bank 

Supervisor Shelley. 
and surrounding country, the cat was in no way cornered by these 
people and could have remained undiscovered by simply lying still 
where he was and had he wished to get away could have doneso by 
g6ing any direction but the one he took.   Just what caused him 
to jump down upon these people, whom he seen long before they 
reached his location, I can not say unless he intended to attact 
Very truly yours, 
(s) LT.E. Garwood 
Forest Ranger, 
-2page - 

A Week With a Government Hunter 
5HE        blossoms of dandelions, wild           VV    . 
strawberries and other varieties of  Archery as applie 
flowers were present in the foothills near - in New Mexico, in 
the Palisades of the Cimarron in northern  and feathered shaJ 
New Mexico on the morning of April 27.    those sly yellow 
The next morning they were covered with       numbers of de 
snow, which began to melt away early in 
the day as the sun shone out. The writer 
was camped at the time on South Uracca Creek with J.A.Pickens, 
a professional mountain lion hunter in the service of the United 
States Bureau of Biological Survey. Pickens had been sent here 
to kill some lions, the tracks of which had been seen by a range 
rider during the winter. It was my intention to test out the effec- 
tiveness of a bow on any of the big cats (Felis concolor) that we 
might happen to tree with my companion's dogs. It may be said 
in the beginning that he uses only three dogs, hounds of unknown 
lineage, but of unusual qualifications, perhaps because of their 
owner's unceasing efforts in their training. 
The presence of the snow meant that we had not arrived here 
too late, but the blossoms indicated that the time was near when 
one might search for weeks without finding a lion's track, because 
the deer, which had drifted down into these low foothills to get 
away from the deep snows of the higher ranges in winter, would 
soon be drifting back to the green slopes of the Sangre de Cristo 
Mountains. When the deer migrate the lions do likewise, for they 
,have a fondness for venison equal to. if not rivaling, that of 
,4) Robin Hood's merry outlaws. Horse flesh is their next choice of 
A  lJU CA may *.     flL  4.1,_ LUF H e,, f 
Ltsts$   l-any ran~lgl ers ol       eV~  can 
testify, and veal or mutton is not despised. 
It is preferred fresh, in fact is never eaten 
except while fresh, and to keep it in good 
condition as long as possible a lion nearly 
always drags its victim to a cool, shady 
place and covers it with dirt or leaves. In 
most instances the entire intestinal tract 
is removed from the carcass before it is 
covered. Should a wandering fox, bobcat 
or bear approach a kill thus hidden, it 
does so at its peril, for the lion is apt to 
be watching from some ledge or bluff near 
by and is credited with being able to de- 
fend itself against all comers. More than 
one rancher has awakened and found that 
his saddle horse that had been hobbled or 
staked out for the night had been stalked 
and killed by one of these tawny-colored 
night prowlers. On rare occasions even 
human beings have been attacked and 
slain, but nevertheless a mountain lion. 
fears, above all things, a man. 
BECAUSE the snow began to melt 
away early, and with it would go the 
scent of any trail that had been made 
during the night, we entertained no hopes 
of success on the first day, so decided to 
walk around near camp ard be ready to 
get down to business the next morning. 
Thinking that we might find a bobcat, 
with the three dogs, a kodak, a bow and a 
quiver of arrows we started up the little 
creek that was noisily rushing along its 
burden of melted snow and cold spring 
water. As we strolled along and silently 
admired  the  ever-changing  scene, or 
paused to note the tracks of deer that had 
passed in the night, or to comment on the 
size of a turkey's track that had passed 
within the hour, my companion was in- 
duced to relate some of his lion-hunting 
Judging from what he had to say, this 
kind of sport is second to none, but in 
order to be successful one must at times 
forego some of the modern conveniences, 
such as shelter, for a longer time than 
would be enjoyed by imost men. It is the 
custom of this hunter never to abandon 
the trail of a lion slong as itcan be fol- 
lowed. (His dogh v treed lions by find- 
ing a t acl that had been made for forty 
hours, and one has never escaped after be- 
ing treed by them. When once a trail has 
been found that can be followed, about 
vent the animal from being treed is for a 
to mountain lions    rain to fall on the trail. This kind of pro- 
shich the long bow   gram  often makes it necessary for the 
prove effective on   hunter to camp one or two nights on the 
illers of appaling , trail before the quarry is overtaken. 
and live stock        On one occasion Pickens rode off into 
that little-known wilderness called the Mo- 
gollon Range, which lies along the Mexican 
border, and 'didn't return to camp until the twelfth day, but he 
brought back the lion that he went after! This old horse thief 
was called the Flying-T lion, so named because at times it made 
its home on the Flying-T ranch. Somebody set a trap at a colt 
that it had killed, which pinched off some toes from one foot, 
thus making it easy to distinguish its track at varying intervals 
in widely separated localities. Twice Pickens struck its trail and 
had to give it up because of falling rain, once after having spent 
two nights away from camp. Determined to have this lion's scalp, 
and there being no other way to obtain it, he tied two flour sacks 
full of provisions on his saddle and began systematically to ride 
the unnumbered and unnamed ridges and canyons, sleeping on his 
saddle blankets where night overtook him, until at last a fresh 
trail was found. After that it was easy. 
An old male lion spends a lot of its time cruising about over 
the mountains in search of adventure. As it, travels it leaves a 
certain sign here and there that makes it easy for a professional 
hunter to determine the direction his quarry is traveling. This 
sign is made by raking up small piles of pine or spruce needles 
the only thing that ever happeis to pre'-                      -e 
As the Nion lookedl wheii we reached the second tree 

Outdoor Life, January, 1927 
Fresh track of the lion that Pickens 
ire we reached the top of the ridge, 
so that at first we could not hear 
ated not far away. They were bay- 
cautiously, for Pickens had warned 
ut and lead us another merry chase 
near the tree it seemed as if a 
efore our eyes. The lion had taken 
ew on the edge of a cliff, and was 
extended out over the edge. One 
iad climbed into the tree and was 
the snarling beast. Had the lion 
r struck the, dog, as it might easily 
ve fallen 30 or 40 feet into a pile of 
ifficult to stand on those limbs, the 
tee and we drew near. When within 
string ready for a shot if the animal 
Le some exposures with the kodak. 
e, however, for there were so many 
in could not be distinguished from 
e edge of the bluff at the foot of the 
of his kodak ready to make an ex- 
ur chase expose himself to full view, 
med as if we had treed a jack rab- 
repared to play the part of execu- 
he limbs had been found thru which 
of the lion, and it was decided to 
his body. An extra arrow was stuck 
ness if needed, the one on the string 
drawn nor had a shaft of mine been 
would be untrue to state that I had 
ivings as to whether it was safe to 
but I felt a thrill of pleasure as the 
nd struck, making a sound similar to 
and to fall on a feather pillow. In- 
emotion; a limb broke off and the 
few seconds by his front feet. then 
under the trees thai 
hidrden from the m 
killed. The numbei 
and, unlike most w 
of the year. They ai 
deer are plentiful. 
W    E WERE pic 
steep hillside 
dogs took a noticea 
opening. I looked o 
might indicate, and 
that to me looked 
ning to appear as t 
"This looks like 
the same tone that 
"Come here, Sam.' 
into the spot indict 
fore moving to ano 
time the two other 
terest, but it was 
glance at Pickens r 
for the first time ti 
that left me guessi 
until the others joi 
around the hill. It 
sanow had fallen on 
Would the dogs 
melted? Right the 
to see visions of ca 
to wonder why we 
tions. But the ma 
the prospect of slee 
was contagious. F 
the eager dogs, an( 
to make me wond 
Suddenly a new nol 
up the hill at such 
an incredibly short 
the lion had lain do 
stock of groceries. 
observed in a thicket, from under which protruded the hind feet         
  We swung the lion to a limb and backed the horse under him 

Outdoor Lije, January, 1927 
bluff and had the surprise of my life to see, instead of a dead lion 
lying on the rocks, a very live one speeding away in great bound- 
ing leaps. A sinking sensation came over me and my fingers 
trembled while fitting another arrow on the string. Was a bow, 
then, not an adequate weapon for this kind of game? 
A part of the arrow was seen lodged in the limbs and by the 
time it was retrieved and examined the dogs were baying "treed"

again. The point of the arrow, a steel blade 1 inch wide by 2V2 
inches long, and about 6 inches of the shaft, made of birch % 
of an inch in diameter, were gone. It was found later that the 
lion had carried this with him crosswise thru his shoulders. Most 
animals would have found it difficult to make any progress with 
such an impediment, and few of that size but would have been 
killed in the fall. Nevertheless, it was standing on the first limbs 
of a big pine some 30 feet from the ground when we arrived at 
the second tree. It looked as a rookie is supposed to look while 
doing bayonet practice-not exactly amiable. Its shoulder was 
bleeding badly and it constantly shifted its weight from one front 
foot to the other. 
"k    ORE exposures were quickly made and all was ready Jor 
another shot. This time there were no limbs in the way, 
and every inch of the lion's sleek body was visible. At this dis- 
tance there was no excuse for missing a vital spot. Straight to its 
ribs flew the shaft, and as it struck the cat leaped to the ground 
with a snarling growl. A part of the arrow that protruded from 
its side was broken off as it brushed against a sapling; then a 
few yards farther the animal went up another big pine. Its tor- 
mentors followed closely, but it was useless to shoot again. It 
was dying when we arrived and was unconscious of the fact that 
when it fell out with a loud crash old Sam's teeth were buried 
deep into the throat of his seventy-sixth lion since Pickens has 
been using him in the service of the Government. 
It was found that the second arrow had penetrated both lungs, 
and that the point, being improperly tempered, had turned when 
it struck the tough skin on the far side. We undertook to reach 
camp with our trophy by tying the feet to a pole, which was 
slung on our shoulders, but before going far this kind of trans- 
portation was voted impracticable. A horse was brought and after 
being blindfolded was induced to accept the burden. To satisfy 
our curiosity the animal was taken to the nearest ranch and 
weighed. It was rather disappointing to learn that it weighed 
only 130 pounds. It is marvelous how they shrink after being 
The next day pictures were made of the slain eer, a big doe, 
and on the days that followed search was made for other deer 
slayers. The remains of three more deer were found, all three big 
bucks, before more excitement was had. One morning Pickens 
rode alone to look over some country to the northwest. He re- 
turned late that night with the skin of a lion kitten, the size of a 
large dog, tied on his saddle. The next morning we returned to 
the canyon where it was killed, knowing that there should be a 
lioness and probably some more kittens in the vicinity. 
It was 4 o'clock in the afternoon when we found the track of 
another kitten. As the track was made in mud, and a shower 
had fallen soon after noon the previous day, it must have been 
more than twenty-four hours old when found. The dogs were 
able to follow it, however, altho slowly, and at dark we called 
them off, spread our saddle blankets at the foot of a big spruce 
tree, and spent the night. At dawn the next day the dogs were 
-   ...   .-A mste-appeal for. extermination of the mountainlion 
Lion 1No. Z after being shot thru the body with an arrow, the end of which

may be seen protruding from animal's chest 
again started on the trail where we had stopped them, and they 
seemed to make as good time as on the previous day. About 9 
o'clock, finding where the lioness had crossed the trail they were 
following, the dogs quit the old trail and turned southeast after 
her. After a run of 3 or 4 miles she was treed. 
WE RODE near the tree and tied our horses behind a little 
hill, and with kodak, bow, arrows, and this time a rifle, 
approached on foot. I had been reading some safety-first adver- 
tisements and insisted on the rifle being carried as a precaution 
against getting one of the dogs killed, if the lioness should only 
be wounded with an arrow. It may be said that unless one is 
wounded there is little danger of 
getting a dog killed, for a lion will 
r r as lon s able to do so. It 
wounded too badly to climb a tree 
and a dog once gets within reach4 
of those sharp claws, it would re- 
quire something with more shock 
ing power than an arrow to save 
the unfortunate dog. Their method 
of defense is to grasp an enemy 
with front feet and teeth, draw the 
hind feet up near the fore feet, set 
the sharp claws into the skin, and 
suddenly straighten out. About one 
rake is sufficient to start a casualty 
list, whether the victim be man or- 
The lioness was photographed in 
a spruce tree where she posed 
gracefully, but when all was ready 
to start the barrage she leaped 
down and ran to a taller tree. She 
was about 60 feet from the ground 
when the shooting started, and the: 
first arrow whistled safely over her 
back and buried itself deep into 
the trunk of the tree, where it will 
remain for years to come. The sec- 
on  sotwa at lL +JU +Sg a L4,tF 
(Concluded& on Page 76) 

opment. The foremost and largest of the auxiliary 
fangs often move up in place alongside the old 
fangs before the old fangs are shed, so you fre- 
quently find snakes with three or four fangs. The 
development of new fangs is not dependent upon 
the extraction of the old; it is a change which is 
constantly taking place naturally. Rattlesnakes 
get several new rattles every year. Where the 
summer is long they may get four or more and 
in the north may not get more than two. Some 
snakes will get more new rattles than others in 
the same locality. You seldom find a rattler 
several years old with a tapered rattle terminat- 
ing in the original birth button. Rattles become 
brittle, break up and are lost so the rattle is a 
very poor indication of a snake's age. 
I am constantly hearing or reading of people 
killing rattlers with so many rattles "and a but- 
ton." There is always a "button." The button is 
on the rattler when it is born but it is seldom on 
the snake when it is a few years old and when 
the "button" went several rattles probably went 
with it.-W. A. B. 
A Week With a Government 
(Concluded from Page 15) 
one; then while she was trying to make up 
her mind to leap out, two more arrows 
sailed harmlessly by into the blue. The 
fifth shot was better. It struck behind the 
ribs, ranged thru the body and emerged be- 
hind the opposite shoulder, piercing a lung. 
It was useless to shoot again, for she would 
have fallen out dead in a short time, but 
after we had taken a snapshot, which shows 
her about to fall out of the tree with an 
arrow buried to the feathers in her side, 
another arrow was loosed that narrowly 
missed piercing the heart. At this she 
crashed to the ground, made a few leaps to 
get away, and collapsed. 
The kitten that we had followed was 
killed two days later, and thus in a few 
days four lions were removed from the 
country mentioned. The old ones were 
killed with arrows, the kittens with bullets. 
Piekens says that every lion on the range 
will average killing two deer each week the 
year round, if the deer last. If there are 
not enough deer, then domestic animals 
must take their place. This being true, it 
seems probable that the number of deer 
that will drift down from the highlands 
next fall when the snow flies will be greater 
by far than as if their enemies had been 
allowed to continue their depredations. 
How the Ring-Neck Broods 
(Concluded from Page 30) 
and secrecy. In the gunning season the 
ring-neck cocks flush readily enough, but 
during the nesting time it is next to im- 
possible to put one of them to flight. They 
may be heard in the fields on all sides, 
uttering their odd double crow, but save at 
feeding time in the morning and evening, 
when they stroll out into the open in com- 
pany with the hens, nothing is seen of them 
until the nesting season is finished and the 
chicks ,well developed. 
The latter leave the nest almost as soon 
as they are hatched, the mother leading 
the entire brood away immediately into 
the shelter of the grass, where she is better 
able to hide and protect them than as if 
they remained huddled together in the 
nest. In this way they can accompany her 
while she hunts for food, and within two or 
three days they are faring for themselves. 
A week sees them capable of flight, on tiny 
Once away from the nest they never re- 
turn, the mother hovering them wherever 
night happensto overtake them, after the 
fashion  of domestic hens. The       young 
pheasants develop rapidly, but in spite of 
this the family stays together until just 
before the advent of the gunning season in 
early autumn. By that time the birds are 
full grown, the young cocks even possess- 
ing the gaudy plumage of their elders. 
BREEDING Silver Foxes 
pays big dividends both in 
money returns and in the joy 
of fascinating employment- 
when Borestone is the foun- 
dation strain. Borestone holds 
more national championships 
than any other breed. It is 
healthy and prolific. Its pelts 
bring highest prices. And, 
Borestones are almost as easy 
and inexpensive to raise as 
dogs. Write for interesting 
Robert T. Moore, Pres. & SoleOwner 
621 Pac. S-W Bank Bldg. 
Pasadena, California 
Silver Foxes, Interior Mink 
Ten years breeder. Free booklet and credit plan 
giving purchaser 1 year to pay after delivery. Rep- 
resentatives wanted. I have sold more Bl"e Foxes 
for breeding purposes than anyone in the world. 
The reason: QUALITY at Reasonable Prices. 
1927 Smith Building          Seattle, U. S. A. 
for sale. Pups or adults. Mated pairs or 
lone females. Registered stock only. 
Prices in accordance with pelt values. 
Rene F. Galle  St. Stephen, New Brunswick. Canada 
Alaskan Blues and Silvers; high quality; low 
prcs  ix bank references; over twenty-five-year 
period;many satisfied customers, Booklet free, 
tells all. Breeder-agents wanted. 
CLEARY BROS., Fox Fams, L Empire Bilig. SUEAT  WASH. 
For Sale-Choice, standard-bred, registered Silver 
Foxes at reasonable prices. Can ranch them at $150 
a year per pair, with guarantee of life and increase. 
Terms Arranged to Suit Buyer 
BLUE FOXES from the yards of the tamest foxes in 
America. where breeding and feeding problems have 
been solved, $275 per pair. Silver foxes. $700 per pair. 
Chinchilla rabbits. $25 for a trio from pedigreed stock. 
Blue Diamond Fox Farm. 5072 7th Ave., N. E. Seattle. 
Wash.                                              tf 
TWO    PAIRS SILVER     FOXES, registered. Minnie 
Sirwert. 518 7th St. S. E., Rochester, Minn. 
Tarnedge Foxes 
35 Pairs of Breeders 
31 Pairs of Prize Winners 
Grand Show Champions 
Sweepstakes Winners 
Blue Ribbon Winners 
The Oldest Ranch in the U. S. 
Price and profit are fixed by quality of fur. Start with 
high quaity, Siver Foxes and your profit will be greater. 
warren Raytyer Silvers will bring suceess and a hand- 
some income to you just as they have to others, for they 
are outstanding in color, texture and depth of fuo. They 
are ilse prolific, 
Write for information about the Warren Rayner Qual- 
ity Foxes now. 
2313 Warren Rayner Building            Warren. Pa. 
R-ho at Wrre . Pa , ad Vaou,-r. Wash. 
Big Moa 
for You 
Easy to 
raise and 
mot profit- 
able of all 
nves oca. Write fot tree particuiars and prices. 
Dept. 0. L.                Conover, Wisconsin 
Year Book I Silver Fox Industry 
1926-1927 Edition 
The Year Book will be sent free to those contem- 
plating purchase of foxes. The aim of the American 
National Fox Breeders Association, in presenting 
this book, is to give prospective breeders accurate 
information about the industry and about fox 
American National Fox Breeders Association 
424 McKnight Bldg.                Minneapolia 
Official Registration Organizaton of the Fox Industry 
Now is the time to contract for Spring 
cubs. Don't wait. JOHN HUSSON, Route 
3, Box 777, Portland, Oregon. 
FOR SALE-Silver foxes. Canadian government 'regis- 
tered* none better, some 90 points. Price $600 per 
pair. karakul fur sheep. $100 each; Laurentian moun- 
tain raccoons, $50 per pair; Laurentian mountain 
mink, $150 per pair; registered genuine English blood- 
hound pups, $50 each. Write Charles Reasbeck, Van- 
kleek Hill, Ontario.                            9-5 
FOR SALE--Silver foxes. The progeny of the famous 
Brunswick strain of Canadian silver foxes. Noted 
for their exceptional fur qualities. Write DuBois 
Silver Fox Co., Inc., DuBois, Pa.                tt 
I CATCH from 45 to 60 foxes in from four to five 
weeks' time. Can teach any reader of this magazine 
bow to get them. Write for particulars. W. A. Had- 
ley, Stanstead. Quebec.                          8-6 
Outdoor Lie, January, 1927 
Advertisements under this head are inserted at the rate of TEN CENTS A WORD

for less than ONE DOLLAR, and CASH MUST ACCOMPANY ORDER, as we cannot afford

to keep an endless number of small accounts in this department. Each number
and initial counts 
as a separate word. Copy should be received by the first of each preceding,
month. For the pro- 
tection of both advertisers and readers we require that you submit as references
the names of two 
reputable persons with your advertisement. OUTDOOR LIFE is read monthly by
thousands of 
sportsmen-men in all walks of life, distributed all over America-and you
will find this classified 
advertising the cheapest and most effective you can buy. 

ITO. 27-169                  U. S. Forc.t Service   February 14, 1927 
Sout1hs3tcrn District 
Coronado eeds Brandina Iron: If yon  .vc in stock a branding iron U. S. 
for animals it would bc appreciatcd if it was transferred to the Coronado.

A New Officer: It is interesting to note that the Hon. Carl Hayden, Sn- 
tor elect from Arizona has recently bocn elected a Vico-)resident of the

American Forestry Association.  (Coronado Bullotini) 
Datil Has Antelpe:   The Datil has some antolope too, strtos the Datil 
Bulletin. Vhilo riding near South Vfater, on the V Cross T Range, January

19, 79 antelope wcro counted in one bunch, 10 in another and 6 in another,

all of which could have been counted from one point and I didn't get to 
see the large bunch of about 200 which run around I1orth WJater. The Coco-

nine needn't think they have all of the antolope in District 3. 
$ale BY Estinate: On a sale by tree mowurmnnnts to the Lakeside Sawvill 
Company, on the I&Wkeside District of 231 U foot, the cost of administration,

exclusive of a chock scale on all logs cut,, was 15.1' per M feet. The avor-

age cost of administration on sales to the same company, in uhich the logs

were scaled, vas 25.8  per Me feet, rAch would indicate a saving in cost
adrni t tation of lO.,17 per M feet., The cheock scale on this sale shood
estilrrt by the measurements to be low by 10 MI fet, or a loss in stua  c;

at $ .25 per I1, of $22.50. The saving in cost of administration howcvei,

would amount to ,24.72.  It is assured of course, that the check scale is

correct. With more oxerience in estirnting, sales by tree measurcments 
should reduce the cost of administnation of riangr shles by at least 80 
per M.                                          Sitgreavcs Elkhorn. 
Riddina The RanrM of Lions: There h,.vo bcc% trio government hunters on the

Sierra Ancha district since Christim.s stats the Tonto Iiulletin  Lon 
NUTeaterin as caught throe grown lions in a radius of three miles of 
Hells Hole and is camping on another's trail at the present time.  The 
'wede who has been trapping on the A.-acho Indian Reservation has bagged
grown lion in the Cherry Creek and :inter range country of the Flying H 
Cattle Company since Christmas° Shortly brfore coming to the Flying H
bagged five lions on the Flying V tango of the Pleasant Valley District.

I also know of two more lion catches that only date back to hIovcmbcr. 
These were bagged by Mr. Vfitldy on 1B3ker Mountain, making a total of 
teen grovm lions killed in these parts during the past three months. N1or

sumW   07you l oio r-"tha-i C        out the saving this means to the
men and in game 1nmt for one year, pl.exseo 
jelda    Kerr, Hfussey (Tonto) 
Visitor: Sinmons (Santa Fe) DO 
ActinE;: Jones 

,- C~adI Z72 
taken by some strange di ase,        c  large federal 
rse     c     g famous for 
cause of which has not e    a           I g in it, has g 
The disease, in some in a ces        n in October, 1926 
termed alkali ,poisoning          there tenth the water 
is much eviddice to sho        in some year and was 
large n         of ducks original size. 
plac      ere       nu                  may disappear c 
have  ed some other ca s    was more     There is reaso 
potent     at t       ake   mounted to return of rainy 
te to dry may fill aga, 
thous     of b~s   as evi  t from the tion of this wag 
reports  h   _  ry investi tor so far Goose Lake we 
has mad        real extent of the inroad marked wagon r 
east to west. II 
on the    ck supply and the fact that of the lake Is 
the de h toll appears to be increasing, these ancient ru 
has no      n apparent to most sports- filled with a fine 
tradition and o 
men. T at it is time to act and to lake bed was o 
make sonie effort to save a larger breed- gold seekers ad 
ing stock of ducks has been made ap- it here from 18 
abundant rains 
parent by poor hunting conditions of and maintained 
recent years and has again drawn at- dry period whict 
tention to the problem of the control of be called a fo 
the devastating sickness which causes seventy-five ye 
such great mortality,                   expected to rest 
In the Saturday Evening Post for Feb- completely, for 
ruary 19, 1927, Dr. E. W. Nelson, chief creasingly occu 
of the United States Biological Survey, permanent chan 
taking place, aff 
reviews the whole situation and pictures  The general d 
the devastation around the alkali states the Far West h 
tration of wild f 
of the west. The astonishing statement Ing. At the sar 
is made that losses in the Bear River tion, a concentr 
marshes of Utah have run from 30,000 to in very many of 
the water poise 
more than 100,000 and that in worse ing it. This, p 
years they have amounted to from one undiscovered dim 
million to two million ducks in addition to crowding, has 
numerous birds of other species, and that mortality, not o 
but to a lesser 
the total loss in the west since 1902 addition, It has 
has probably reached 15,000,000 ducks, among all the s 
Relative to western conditions he says: and   other wa 
blackbirds, and 
The most imminent of all dangers now  frequent marsh 
confronting our migratory wild fowl has disease occurs i 
developed in the states west of the Missis- the summer or 
sippi Valley. In this mainly arid region causing heavy 
the water has disappeared from number- every few years 
less lakes, ponds and marshes, covering lent and product 
thousands of square miles, through drain- In t 
age, the diversion of water from streams 
for irrigation and a rapid evaporation,   IENTIFIC D; 
amounting to several feet a year in som           HU 
areas, combined with a period ofNot only is 
rainfall extending over more than t    N    ong g 
years.                                  performing gret 
These vanished water areas vary from  by reducing t] 
small ponds and marshes to such large lions, and thus 
open waters as Goose Lake, lying across 
the border between Northeastern Call- ply, but he is al 
fornia and Oregon. Until within a few   scientific knowl 
years this lake, about fifteen by forty predatory anin 
miles in extent, covered an area of about he has been tal 
60 square miles, with its greatest depth 
about twenty-five feet. In October, 1926, of every anim 
its basin was a bed of alkaline dust, weights, and th 
whirling up with the passing winds into those interested 
stifling clouds. Tulare Lake, in the San 
Joaquin Valley of central California, once the usual stori 
had more than 250 square miles of ideal twelve foot ler 
wild-fowl marshes. Its bed Is now dry It has been fo 
and occupied by ranches. A little farther 
south, Buena   Vista  Lake, somewhat stretched very 
smaller but of similar character, also has of nine or ten 
gone dry.                               ments of recent 
In eastern Oregon a large number of            re 
lakes are known to have disappeared dur- 
ing the past few years. Malheur Lake, feet. Furthern 
bird refuge in this state, 
the superb bird life breed- 
'radually decreased, until 
, it had only about one- 
area existing the previous 
only one twenty-fifth its 
Vith another dry year it 
n to believe that with the 
years many basins now 
in. A remarkable indica- 
 In the discovery, when 
nt dry, of an old well- 
oad crossing its bed from 
is reported that the bed 
of hard clay, which held 
ts firmly until they were 
r siltlike material. Local 
ld records tell that this 
Iry and wagon trains of 
d other emigrants crossed 
149 to 1853. Subsequent 
must have filled the basin 
the lake until the recent 
hhas revealed what might 
ssll wagon road about 
rs old. 
wet seasons 'cannot be 
ore the former conditions 
this region is being in- 
pled by man, and many 
ges have taken and are 
fecting its surface waters. 
ecrease in water areas In 
as forced a great concen- 
fowl In those still remain- 
ne time, through evapora- 
ation of alkaline contents 
these areas has rendered 
nous to the birds drink- 
ossibly aided by some yet 
sease resulting from over- 
brought on an appalling 
nly among all wild ducks 
extent among geese. In 
caused a great death rate 
pecies of sandpiper, snipe 
ders, and  herons, gulls. 
practically all birds that 
es. This so-called duck 
n varying Intensity during 
fall months every year, 
losses each season and 
becoming especially viru- 
Ing af    f-   .   Q   n 
state lion hunter Bruce 
at service to conservation 
he number of mountain 
improving the deer sup- 
t the same time increasing 
edge regarding this large 
nal.  For several years, 
king careful measurements 
al killed making careful 
us making it possible for 
in accuracy to discount 
es regarding the ten and 
ngth of a mountain lion. 
und that a skin can be 
readily to give a length 
feet, but actual measure- 
ly killed animals bring the 
rore,            as ur- 

nished the Museum of Vertebrate Zoologf 
at the University of California with i 
fine a series of skins as is to be found 
anywhere in the world. As a conse- 
quence, the scientists will always have 
useful scientific material on which to base 
judgments as to the characteristics of this 
largest member of the cat family found 
in the West. 
The storms of February not only over- 
flowed levees, inundated farms and caused 
thousands of dolars damage to agricultural 
interests, but it swept away and severely 
damaged various racks used by the De- 
partment of Fish Culture in trapping 
fish for spawning. 
e    4   dreek also withstood the high 
ith no loss of material. 
TI  1ejair of the racks and traps will 
take XAA      he damage will hamper 
spawning oPrjtions and pobably reduce 
tie take o Tg   for the season.--, 
TAJ~"~GG         ISH. 
The accopanying pi     Ap is of a 
dam built by the Pomo I          of Pot- 
ter Valley across the main       River. 
This dam is built entirely of brush across 
a riffle. On the side where thAlsh are 
taken a portion extends up stream some 
few feet forming a sort of pocket, the 
bottom of which is covered with white 
rocks so that a fish swiuning over them 
1Ga. 28. Indian brush dam in Potter Valley. Typical of the old Indian method

of securing winter food supply and also typical of an illegal method at the

present time. Photograph by 5. H. Hellard. 
At Shackleford Creek, Hornbrook, Bo- 
gus Creek, Camp Creek and other places 
contiguous to Mount Shasta Hatchery, 
a great deal of damage was caused by 
the heavy rains. At Hornbrook Station 
the cabin and personal effects of the 
man in charge were washed away. On 
the Klamath the water is said to have 
been higher than at any time since 1889- 
90. While the man at Shackleford Creek 
was reporting conditions over long dis- 
tance phone to Captain G. H. Lambson, 
superintendent at Mount Shasta Hatch- 
cry, the waters carried away all bridges 
and be was forced to take a horse on his 
U11 Creek suffered little, 
although the water ran over the tanks. 
is easily seen. A platform of logs is then 
built over the water to stand on and a 
stake driven into the ground on which is 
fastened a light. Usually this light is a 
pine torch in a wire basket or "torch 
In years past the Indians would take 
their families, go out to the river, build 
a dam, stay by it for several days and 
catch large numbers of steelhead when 
they were running in the spring. This 
particular dam was across the river about 
two weeks before it was discovered. There 
has not been one like it built for several 
years as the practice is becoming obsolete. 
The construction was so good that no fish 
of any kind could get through and the 

have at different times heard stories about 
a certain young man on this district by the 
name of Harold Wyman.   These stories were 
always about mountain lion, were very inter- 
esting, and were exceptional in that they 
varied considerably in the telling. Wyman 
is about 25 years of age, stands about 6 
feet 2 inches in his goat hairs, and is 
built in proper proportion to his height. 
He is quite modest, and it is difficult to 
get him to tell of his lion hunts. 
Last fall, while on range inspection 
in that part of the district, I stayed over- 
night at the Wyman Ranch, and bunked with 
Harold.  On going to his room I noticed a 
very large lion rug and mentioned to him 
that it was an unusually large one. He ad- 
mitted as much. After a careful roundabout 
approach I asked him to tell me the story. 
Here it is. 
Wyman has two fine Rusian wolf- 
and bloodhounds, crossed.   One day, while 
running coyotes on Upper Stony Creek, the 
dogs suddenly stopped and gave several short 
barks or yips which told Wyman that some- 
thing other than the ordinary coyote trail 
had been found.    The scent was evidently 
fresh So it was with difficulty that he kept 
within hearing distance of the hounds. Aft- 
er a strenuous run to the Bitterroot Divide, 
across Little Stony Creek and to an open 
ridge on Williams Gulch. a distance of about 
8 miles, he heard the dogs give the baying 
signal which indicated that the chase was 
over. By tbistimeWymnwas sure that it 
was a lien and that the dogs had it treed. 
After reaching the dogs he found that it was 
a lion, a big fellow, on a large limb about 
40 feet up. 
Instead of shooting the lion at once 
he decided to catch up on his wind, and eat 
his lunch. He sat down a few feet from the' 
tree where he could keep an eye on the lion. 
His rifle was laid on the ground at his 
right hand in a position for a quick grab in 
case the lion decided to leave.    The dogs 
were on opposite sides of the tree, watching 
for the least hostile move.    Mr. Lion was 
switching his tail in the usual manner of 
indicating his disapproval at being placed 
in such a situation. 
Wyman was well along on the second 
course when one dog whined and stood up. 
Wyman, who had taken his eyes from the lion 
for a moment, glanced up just in time to see 
the lion spring toward him. He grabbed his 
rifle, shot from a sitting position, and 
fell backward just as the lion landed at 
his side. Using the end of the rifle barrel 
he pushed the lion away from him as it went 
through its death struggles. Upon examina- 
tion a few minutes later, he found that the 
bullet had gone through the neck in just the 
right place to put an end to the hunt. 

Page Seven 
Game Department and the Bureau of 
Biological Survey, and Raymond Al- 
len, of the U. S. Forest Service, hunt- 
ing in Mineral county in February, 
March and April, shot nine mountain 
lions that had apparently been feeding 
on the game and furbearing animals in 
that locality for some time. 
The fund from which Mr. Vogler's 
salary is paid is known as the bio- 
logical fund of the Fish and Game De- 
partment and is created by the setting 
aside of 25c from each hunting and 
fishing license sold. This fund is 
used for the extermination of preda- 
tory animals and birds that prey on 
game, domestic stock, poultry and 
song and insectivorous birds. While 
the sportsmen are paying Mr. Vogler's 
salary they are not the only ones to 
benefit by his good work, as the big 
cats he has taken were also real ene- 
mies of livestock and annually take 
considerable toll of sheep, calves and 
These men were ably assisted in 
their good work of destroying preda- 
tory animals by the two dogs shown 
in the pictures, which pictures are 
here reproduced by the courtesy of 
Mr. G. S. Childers of Superior. The 
darker dog is Lead, a fullblooded coon 
hound owned by Mr. Vogler.    The 
other dog is an American fox hound 
owned by Harry Byrd of Missoula and 
is named Spot. Both are trained lion 
Ben Vogler, Government Trapper, and Raymond Allen, forestry worker, the skulls
and pelts 
of eight mountain lion killed in Mineral County. Also "Spot" and
The first kill was made February 
17th on Trout creek. The second hunt 
started on March 12th and a lion was 
taken that day on Fish creek; another 
was taken on the 14th, one on the 
16th, one on the 18th and three on the 
19th of March. One of the lions taken 
had been shot a number of times with 
a revolver and dropped from the tree 
in which it had taken refuge. Lead 
throwing caution to the winds, sailed 
in to finish the lion, but was himself 
being badly clawed when Mr. Vogler 
struck the lion a heavy blow on the 
back with a club, rendering it help- 
less except with its front feet and 
jaws. But for the fact that two of 
the lion's tusks had been shot away, 
Lead's chances of escape would have 
been very slim. 
The first three lions killed in March 
were secured within half a mile of the 
first foot-log on Fish creek. Others 
were taken along Fish creek. One, a 
big tom, measured 9 feet 6 inches; 
another of the lions measured 8 feet 
8 inches. Two of the lions killed 
were kittens under a year old. The 
lion taken on Trout creek was shot 
as it was making a breakfast on the 
carcass of a beaver it had captured at 
one of the many beaver dams on the 
creek. It had eaten the head and a 
portion of the shoulders when killed, 
as seen in the picture. 
It has not been generally known 
lyt iened n thave lcalt  in 
that lions fed on beaver excep rare- 
ly, but evidence in the locality in  r|a 
which these were taken indicates that 
many beaver have been destroyed by 
the lions, which undoubtedly accounts 
for the disappearance of colonies of 
beaver in this district, disappearances 
which were explained by the gener- 
ally accepted theory that the beaver 
had migrated. 
The remains of nine 'deer kille  by 
mountain lions were found by these 
hunters along the creeks in Mineral 
county. It has been suggested that 
the  mountain   lions, which   were 
thought to be very scarce in Mineral 
county during the last few years, ow- 
ing to the good work of other coop- 
erative hunters, had taken refuge in 
the Little St. Joe game preserve where 
they have multiplied unmolested. 
Ben Vogler with "Lead" and "Spot" and the 
mountain lion caught on Trout Creek while 
eating a beaver which it had just caught. The 
beaver, which had its head eaten off, is also 
Under date of March 29th, E. L. 
Frang, president of the prize-winning 
Big Timber Rod and Gun club, writes 
as follows, not for publication, but as 
a matter of encouragement to    the 
state secretary; but he won't know 
what we are going to do with his let- 
ter until he discovers we have done it, 
and so we will take a chance on "get- 
ting ours" from this "cocky" president 
of the club that always cops the big 
money in the    state-wide  common 
enemy control contest: 
"Dear Friend Carp: 
"Just a few lines to let you know 
we are still functioning, as far as con- 
servation, propagation and protection 
of fish and game is concerned. 
"Since the organization of the state 
association and the state fish and 
game commission we have bettered 
both hunting and fishing in our coun- 
ty, thanks to cooperation and helping 
each other. While we are blessed 
with more favorable conditions for 
good fishing than many other com- 
munities, having ten separate and dis- 
tinct trout streams emptying into the 
Yellowstone river within ten miles of 
Big Timber, with the Boulder at the 
head of the list, we find that keeping 
them stocked is no simple task. 
"When it comes to bettering bird 
hunting we find that it also takes 
much time and energy. But we feel 
that other communities could, if they 
used a little effort, have much better 
supply of birds than they have. We 
believe that the local rod and gun 
club, with the cooperation of nearly 
every man, woman and child in the 
community, have MADE our chicken 
hunting, by the destruction  of  an 
enormous number of predatory ani- 
mals each year, as your records will 
prove. We are sorry, however, that 
other clubs are not taking stronger 
to this. We can not clean our county 
unless our neighbors clean their coun- 
ty, too, as the pests will overflow 
from the sidelines into our county. 
ooperative hunter 

0 yr 
~ C V 
3. Find a profitable way of utilizing the 
We are not so sure that it is a matter 
of choice of one or the other of these 
projects; rather it is the inclusion of 
all three projects plus several others. All 
three projects are worthwhile. It seems 
more reasonable that we should have a 
few big game animals saved to look at. 
Visitors to national parks usually gain a 
greater thrill from the sight of a wild 
deer or bear than from the scenery that 
surrounds them. At the same time there 
are certain areas that should be employed 
as propagation grounds for animals with 
the direct view to utilizing the surplus. 
In attempting the third project we might 
very well look to the first one, the actual 
restoration in certain areas of former 
numbers.   This might mean restriction 
of grazing, furnishing of better food sup- 
ply  and  other useful means looking 
toward an increase. 
Game management is an inclusive term. 
No one yet has given us a definite outline 
of the main lines of attack to be used by 
anyone who might call himself a game 
manager. The term will continue to be 
rather intangible until something con- 
crete is suggested. Within the next few 
years there will be forthcoming the aims, 
the methods and the means which will 
make this new term, "game management," 
more understandable. 
One of the plans for the coming year 
includes the continual use of a number of 
the state's hatcheries. The importation 
of European trout and others from the 
eastern United States brought to Cali- 
fornia species which deposit their eggs 
in the fall rather than in the spring, as 
do the native trouts. It seems a feasible 
plan, instead of closing some of the 
smaller hatcheries for several months 
each winter, to have shipped to them eggs 
of fall spawning trout.   The resultant 
fish will be of size sufficient to place in 
holding tanks by the time shipments of 
rainbow and other spring spawners are 
obtained. Some of the hatcheries are so 
situated that they can not be operated 
in midwinter, but in other instances this 
plan seems feasible and will be tried out. 
This is the plan projected for the Yo- 
semite Hatchery and, accordingly, winter 
visitors to Yosemite will have an oppor- 
tunity to see the hatchery in full opera- 
State lion hunter, Jay Bruce, has now 
a total of 315 mountain lion scalps to his 
credit. Last year he bettered his average 
by taking 36, the largest number yet 
secured in a single year. By September 
1st of this year he had secured 31. He 
accounts for the better record this year 
as being due to a camp helper who has 
enabled him to spend more time actually 
on the hunt. The past spring was spent 
in San Diego and Ventura counties. In 
San Diego County four were secured, 
whereas six fell to his prowess in Ventura 
County. All of this was accomplished 
in spite of trouble with sick and injured 
dogs. At the present time his dogs are 
in fine working condition and several 
younger animals are being trained. 
Mr. Bruce is considering an enticing 
offer to try his prowess in securing man- 
eating tigers and other large cats in the 
Orient. Such an expedition as is planned 
would take Mr. Bruce from his work 
temporarily, but would increase his knowl- 
edge and ability at trailing and killing 
the most noted among predatory species. 
As in past years the Division of Fish 
and  Game    has  cooperated  with  the 
National Park Service in a nature edu- 
cational program in Yosemite National 
Park.   There   are  three  outstanding 
features of the work: Lectures are given 
nightly  at various resorts, a   school 
designed  to train  nature guides and 
teachers of natural history, holds a seven- 
weeks' session and thousands are led 
afield on field trips to study nature first 
hand. The final reports show a trebl- 
ing in attendance on the field trips, 
which is the more unique and important 
feature of the work, and are as follows: 
Lectures-          Number Attendance 
Camp Curry -------------34       48,200 
Yosemite Lodge ----------- 23    11,050 
Museum Campfire- ------   6         543 
Special lectures ---------  11    2,560 
Geology at Museum- -- 254       11,300 
Glacier Point -----------  88      8,258 
Yosemite Hatchery ---- 128     18,000 
Totals  --------------  544    99,911 
Field Trips- 
Camp Curry (adults)...- 149 
Camp Curry (children)-- 55 
Yosemite Lodge ------- 104 
All day.        -- -     23 
Glacier Point            48 
Special ----------------45 
High country -------------7 
Totals ---------------431 
SA staff of eight men was employed by 
the National Park Service to give aid 
along the lines indicated. A special fea- 

No. 28-145 
U. S. Forest Service 
Southwostorn District 
December 20, 1927 
Mountain Lion In Sandins: Road Superintendent Kisstun's roaed crew ran onto

Sfresh lion tracks nea atulin Spring~s and on following them they found a

fiv  point buck freshly killed, reports the Mazaho Ranger. We haven't 
so mrny door in this refuge that w  can afford to feed them to the lions,

Now, if the Gila Forest craves this beast to hold their deer herd in check,

please submit a requisition and well try to do our best.  In the mentime,

he Biological Zurvey is going to put a trapper on the rofige. 
0hristmas Tree Business Brisk: The demand for Christmas trees is very 
active, states the Thsayan News Letter. Rsrir:or Rice will spent today and

tomorrow, as well as the day before Christmas, on the Williass Christmas

tree area so the local people may secure the necessary trees to mike the

children happy on Christmas day. Two trucks came up from Phoenix a few 
days ago and secured fifty trees from the Sitgreaves commercial area for

sale in Phoenix. 9now conditions are making the securing of trees except-

ionally difficult this. year. 
Cost Of Trasportation: The total charge for primary and secondary haul of

all domestic and imported lumber by all carriers is $408,500,000 or 012.00

per M ft. The length of the average primnry rail hal is 700 miles accord-

ing to Statistical Bulletin #21. .rizona and New Mexico pay 04.77 per M 
ft. transportation charge for lumber produced within their boundaries and

$15.78 and $14.26 per IA ft. respectivcly for lumber imported. The total

transportation costs of the two states for the year 1924 was $1,078,569.00.

(Ed: The nuch greater transportation charge for lumber shipped into the 
ep        froother states as compared to that for the home grown product

.-  +-   -  ,"VI A 1%  ",-e A P.  '6,   It-niPr  vn-u)4  ownt.)


Mountain Lion folder 
From    "California Fish         and. Game" 
Bounties have been paid On mount 
ions by the state since 1907. The yearly 
average during these 21 years has been 
1246 claims paid each year. R   rds from 
the Thirtieth Biennial Report disclose 
that during the past biennium the number 
of lions killed bordered on this yearly 
average. The claims of lion killers over 
the entire state for 1926 amounted to 249 
lions and for 1927, 241 lions. 
It is believed that the total lion popu- 
lation in California is not greater than 
500. This population is probably able to 
reproduce yearly not more than the num- 
ber slain every year by hunters. In other 
words, control measures have been effect- 
ive in that they have kept these large 
predators from increasing. The lion popu- 
lation has remained stationary. Further. 
aggressiveness, making possible a greater 
yearly toll, would soon find the death rate; 
in excess of the birth rate. 

Mountain Lion Puts up  Fight.--M. E. Musgrave, leader of predatory- 
animal control in the Arizona district, states that Hunte r A. L. Jones re-

ports his first instance of a mountain lion actually putting up a fight.

Jones had been after this lion during the entire winter, but the animal was

apparently trap-wise and would get into the bluffs and keep away from the

kogs. 'Finally, however', Jones forced the lion out into the open, and in
letter he says briefly: "I just got him before he got me." 

July 6, 1928 
Walnut Canyon Popular:   Ranger Hackleman says, in the Coconino Bulletin,
te Walnut Uayon visitors are swarming again, sometimes a hundred a day. 
Ranch Tool Boxes: The Coronado has installed six ranch tool boxes containing

five man fire fighting outfits. It is understood that these are located at

ranches of per diem guards from which fire fighters would naturally start

for fires. Details of the ranch box design have been supplied forests. 
Gives Them A Target: Senior Forest Ranger Oldham has solved the "sign
problem, according to the Coconino Bulletin. To accommodate the boys who
the killer instinct, and who like to test their skill with fire-arms on our
and attractive signs, Oldham places a pasteboard target below the sign, so
they may have their fun and still leave the sign, with its O's and D's intact.

Perhaps an enlargement of this idea, in the way of a more durable target
be worth consideration. 
New Measure of a Man's Greatness: The district has orders placed for about

eight new Fords. Probably a number of individuals on the force likewise are

waiting.   Read this and cvwmb your impatience: "J. R. Nealon (a contractor's

superintendent on a big N. Y. Central job) is one of the busiest men in the

State of Ohio. He has 180 men scattered over four miles and keeps every 
detail moving smoothly. His greatest achievement, however,.was when he 
obtained a new Ford car when he wanted it, a thing few men have been able
approach, let alone equal". 
(The Earth Mover) 
This Lion Earned His Salt: On the morning of June 7, Maurice Jones, Biological

Survey hunter, found the tracks of a lion at a salt log on the Peavine Grazing

Unit of the -'ldorado National Forest, states the California News Letter.
followed these tracks with the aid hf his canine friend and after an hour
so, the tracks led to a coyote den where he found the evidence of an early

morning tragedy. The evidence showed that two nearly one-third grown coyote

pups had been killed and eaten by the lion. 
Jones dug into th"e aen f'rom wnhThe extracted and killed three more
the same species. 
a        S(ot Ruined:  During the present 10-day period only two fires have
reported, one in each State, says the Apache Bulletin.   We can only thank

our lucky stars for this fact since it has been the most serious period of
season, if they just get started.   The fire at Elderberry Spring on the

Greer District last Sunday was in one of the beauty spots of the White Mountains,

and had it not been jumped on immediately would have resulted disastrously.

As it was, 3 acres of as pretty a picnic ground in the little pines as you

want to see, was charred and blackened, leaving a nmonument to some careless

smoker, whom all efforts to run down proved futile. 
Vi sitor: 
Peeler (Coconino); Jones (Gila); Hussey (Tusayan), 
Shipp (Gila). 
U. S. Forest Service 
Southwestern District 

Making Collection of Utah Rodents.--For .one time R :, S. Zimmerman, 
leader of rodent control in the Utah district,  nd his assistant, A.  7.

Moore, have been making a collection of Utah rodents, and IlMr. Zimmerman

reports that at the present time they have a fine assortment. Their cata-

logue indicates that 170 specimens complete with skalls and data have been

prepared, The collection comprises 18 genera of rodents and one of insecti-

vores. One genus of Zapus constitutes a new record for Utah. The entire 
collectiqn of nine specimens of Zapus comes from localities on the Manti

National Forest in Sanpete Countyat an elevation of more than 5,500 feet.

The extent of the range within the :State has not been definitely determined,

A newly recorded species for Utah is to be found in the series of pocket

gophers that have been collected. This collecting has been done mainly by

Mr. Moore in about eight monthst time in connection with his regular field

work in the district, Identifications wore made by tho Division of Biolog-

ical Investigations. 
Breaks Le .--Hunter Bradshaw, of ohe California district, met with 
a serious accident the last of January that resulted in the breaking of his

leg near the hi-o 
f  rt 
H;         VEY                                            Februar 
Follows Lion Track Four Days, --G.   Holman, luader of 
animal control in the Utah district, reoort' that Hunter Taft 
lion track on January 23 and followed it for four days, The d 
treed the animal near the place ,'here they first struck its ti 
after it had killed and eaten a bobcat caught in one of Lir. Ta 

LOOK, ine immense pulp-wooa ricKs, 
That is for "Six Twenty-Six". 
And the balm on yonder knoll 
That's the "Santiam Patrol". 
On all that drainage put the ban- 
That is for our Working Plan! 
Last fall a party of cow men with two 
dogs killed three lions a few miles above 
California Hot Springs on the Sequoia Forest. 
Two were adults, a male and a female, and one 
was about a year old. In rounding up and 
bringing these lions to tree they covered an 
area of about five square miles and found the 
carcasses of 15 deer which had been killed 
by lions during the late summer and fall. 
The hunters probably covered 60 per cent of 
the area; therefore probably 25 carcasses 
would have been found if the entire area of 
five square miles had been covered in hunting 
for the lions. These lions ranged over an 
area of approximately 60 square miles, all 
fairly good deer country, and if the five 
/     square miles represent their average kill it 
may be safe to assume that the summer and 
fall kill on the entire range covered by these 
lions would be 300 deer. The cow men who 
killed the lions are close observers of 
Stracks and signs of the woods and are fairly 
certain that the lions covered the 60 square 
Smiles of territory in making their regular 
rounds and were the only lions in that area 
during the past season. 
On the other hand, some hunters fol- 
lowed a lion for eight days along the Kern 
River, finally caught up and killed him, and 
during that time they did not find where he 
had killed a single deer, although he was in 
a good deer country. He did, however, ac- 
cording to signs, make a run at a door which 
he apparently missed. He killed some smaller 
animals such as rabbits, squirrels, etc. 
Another cow man reports a case where 
an old lion, apparently too old to catch 
deer, started killing calves and in two weeks 
killed three calves. 
Possibly a discussion of occurrences 
of this nature may give us a better under- 
standing of this question. -T.W., D.5 News 
Letter.                      I 
On Sunday, April 15, death removed 
Jack Cammann from his labors as a Forest of- 
ficer and left a vacancy in the organization 
and in the hearts of his fellow Forest of- 
ficers that probably never can be filled. 
Jack lacked just eighteen days of hav- 
ing been in the Forest Service for a period 
of twenty years. He began his career on the 
Gunnison National Forest on May 5, 1908, as 
a Guard and served there for a little over 
six years as Guard, Ranger, and Deputy Super- 
visor. On June 16, 1914, he was transferred 
to the District Office where he has been em- 
ployed ever since, largely in the capacity of 
a mineral examiner, but working on many other 
activities. His loss will not only be felt 
in the Forest Service, but he had established 
confidence on the part of Land Office offi- 
cials in his integrity and ability to an ex- 
tent that Jack Cammann's word in mineral 
claim hearings was accepted without question. 
Most of all will Jack be missed by 
those of us who were intimately associated 
with him and had come to appreciate his very 
human traits, his humor, generosity, and 
willingness to accept any job assigned to him 
without question. He will be long remembered 
as the highest type of Forest Officer.- 
District 2. 
Cleveland, Ohio, April 26, 1928. 
Forest Week films showing in our sub- 
urban theatres this week. Downtown theatres 
could not arrange programs. If we can have 
films another week, Loews downtown theatres 
will show all week. Museum of Education can 
use May 7th, 8th, and 9th in high schools. 
Advise immediately. 
Cleveland Film Board of Trade. 

Rodent Control Sujervision-Popular in New Mexico.--A. E. Gray, leader 
of rodent and predatory-animal control in the New Mexico district, reports

that the demands for assistance in rodent control are heavier than ever 
before, and that in nearly every instance the people are asking for super-

vision of the work, remarking that "there must be something in the way
stuff is put out." More than two-tons of poisoned grain were sold cooperative-

Iy diroct fromh the New Mexico headquarters to 82 farmers and stockmen throughout

the State during May. 
Mountain Lion Caught in Texas.--C. R. Landon, leader of predatory- 
animal control in the'Te~aa clitvit r -'t  - 1 wnl   , LW  T~rn 
caught a mopntain lion in Uvalde County under rather unusual circumstances:

while riding his trap line on May 22 he found that a trapped coyote had been

dragged away into a clump of bushes and hidden, after being partly eaten

by a mountain lion; iiaking several sets around the carcass, he found the

mountain lion in the trap the following morning. 
June, 1928 

~.LLAA~,( ~vv~-x~t~J t4? ('1 / '$d(r~ 
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q '~Ltt) ,~ 
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,4L ,r   1  ) 

VAAT SY? .- Ye   ro     i     '    . 
Yes, the mountain lion does scream, or to mo" ihiiss eam has always

sounded more like the clear qleancut 'cai, of a           $oman.  With the
exception of 
the months December to February inousie, , ihve heard hei call in every 
month of the year, usualiy~in the een      nd, early night. Ihis call can
heard for a distance of sever4lmiles who'n'a'osphorioCOnd"Itions are
able, and is particularly Clear and penetrating when heatd d    close range.

One who has ever heard this calI and-know   its source will never tell you
a mountain lion does '6f               it Au tomatically quickens your pulse
advances the spark of alertyou$..-tephernsn. WhitepuRivers' 
Mountain lions do not scream. For j orty years: I haveled an out-of- 
doors life in the foothills and mountains of . olorado;" always in localities

where lions were more or less plentlf~l. IId hlaveahunatd;:   .   od lions,
seen them captured alive and'. packed, on horses,. bu t  halveiocvpr hoard
a lion 
scream. I have talked with' famous huntors, r mo whohav , hunted, captured,
killed lions throughout the mountains bf theb w, estr  Stat s; d none of
men claim that they ever heard *.. 1ion. scr   .  Lhe high-pitcho 'Pz nrliag

squall, sometimes heard in the woods, or in wil eut,.of, thejwy places, is

made by the red fox. It is  his :hrsh piercing 'squall" of the fox,
nature-fakers and tenderfeet hear and believe to be the scream of a lion.--

Loring- San Juan, 

If                                                    fij 3  " 
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M4 t hm     e~e 
(a, 0-0 4AAo. ot, t j/ ro 

ARIZONA WILD LIFE         t7 A   ? 1 
Game Warden I. V. Lee and a yellow killer of the Chiracahuas 
Some Habits of Arizona Mountain Lion 
M. E. Musgrave 
Leader of Predatory Animal Control 
Although from childhood I have been more 
or less familiar with the mountain lion, or cougar, 
as it is known in the northwest, I did not become 
intimately acquainted with this animal until I took 
up predatory-animal work in the southwest, which 
afforded me an excellent opportunity for a close 
study of its habits on the range. Since 1918 our 
force of men has killed more than 600 mountain 
lions in Arizona, and from all the data we have 
gathered concerning this large number, I believe 
that some questions which have long puzzled us 
may at last be solved. 
Let us consider, for instance, the time of 
breeding. It has been the firm belief of some that 
the young of this tribe are born only in the spring, 
but evidence now proves conclusively that this is 
not necessarily the case, for we have found kittens 
during every month of the calendar, and at alti- 
tudes ranging from three thousand to seven thous- 
and feet. A favorable temperature, therefore, is 
not a factor in the birth of the lion's young. 
These cubs, ranging in number from one to 
four, are usually born in a sort of nest under a 
projecting cliff shrouded in front by dense brush. 
Sometimes they are born in a cave, not in deep re- 
cesses nor in caves with small openings, but in a 
shallow, wide-mouthed cavity from   which the 
mother can easily scent danger and make her es- 
cape. Twice we have found them under the thick, 
low-hanging branches of a tree and partly covered 
with leaves. With their leopar(I-like spots of very 
dark brown which they wear for the first four 
months or more, they Weje baJy *-4nttnth 
casual eye. 
Young lions remain with the mother long 
after they are weaned, in fact they usually stay 
until run off by a male who wishes to mate with 
the female. Before the coming of the male the 
family usually confines itself to a given locality 
unless disturbed by hunters. 
Except in a few cases we have known, the 
mother lion deserts her young when the dogs draw 
near, though she rarely travels any great distance 
from them. After her first dash for safety she 
takes to a nearby tree and if chased out of that, 
circles about in the vicinity but does not approach 
the lair where the kittens are hidden. 
It is upon its wits rather than its legs that 
the mountain lion must largely depend for escape, 
for despite its amazing speed for the first hundred 
yards, it is no runner. Within that distance it can 
outrun any dog I have ever seen, especially on a 
downward slope; but after the first exertion its 
wind fails and it runs a losing race. 
As an artful dodger, however, it is unsur- 
passed. Leaping from rock to rock across deep 
crevices, climbing to a treetop from which it can 
jump to an overhanging ledge, or springing from a 
ledge into a tree below, it is a most difficult crea- 
ture for dogs to follow. I have seen the lion spring 
from the earth and land twelve or fifteen feet above 
in a tree; I have also seen it jump from a branch 
to the earth fifty or sixty feet below and light on 
its feet apparently unhurt. 
Contrary to the habits of the female and the 

young ones, the old males travel great distances. 
On several occasions I have known an old "tom" 
to cover more than twenty miles in a single night, 
traveling along the top of a high ridge and crossing 
over the peaks or highest spots as it reached them. 
Though the distance traversed may be sixty or 
seventy miles the animal will invariably return by 
the same route. In their wandering from one range 
of mountains to another, these lions often cross the 
desert in forty or fifty mile stretches, traveling 
usually by night and lying by day in the shade of a 
low mesquite or a palo verde. It is very easy to dis- 
cover the runway of a male lion, for it makes 
scratches under practically every large tree along 
the route, although the habit of scratching up piles 
of leaves is not restricted to the males, for the 
female too does this. 
We have learned much about the lion's 
method of securing its prey: Although it is often 
accused of hiding on a rocky ledge or in a tree and 
springing upon some unsuspecting animal below, 
we find from careful observation of many of its 
kills that it rarely does this. The usual method 
is to stalk silently its prey until it is within a few 
feet of it, when the lion bounds upon its back, 
gripping the shoulders with the front claws and 
often fastening the hind claws in the flanks. It 
then kills by hiting the animal through the back of 
the neck. So swift and sure are its movements that 
more than one leap is rarely necessary, althotnh 
we have found traces of two or three leaps and 
even of its pursuing its prey for some distance; and 
we have found a few iistances where cattle, horses, 
and large deer have succeeded in shaking the ani- 
mal off their backs. This, however, is unusual. 
Having captured its prey, the lion usually 
drags it under a bush or tree before eating any 
part, displaying amazing power in handling an 
animal. I have seen a horse weighing eight or nine 
hundred pounds which a mountain lion has dragged 
twenty-five or thirty feet, as proved by tracks in 
the snow. Even more surprising is the fact that 
it sometimes carries off what is has killed. I have 
seen both deer and big calves some distance from 
where the kill had been made, with no evidence of 
dragging. To do this the lion first turns the ani- 
mal on its back, picks it up by the -brisket, all 
four feet sticking up in the air, and Walks off with 
its own head held high. 
After the lion has gorged itself on the meat, 
it covers the carcass with leaves, sticks, and rocks, 
and retires to some nearby spot to "sleep it off." 
We have found places where rocks weighing as 
much as fifteen pounds have been piled up against 
the carcass of a lion kill, and often sticks as large 
as a man's arm are placed crisscross on top of it. 
The lion may never return to eat a second time; on 
the other hand, the animal may come back for a 
second meal within a few (lays, or may eat from this 
carcass at various times during several weeks, some- 
times returning to the scene of its crime long after 
the meat fails to appeal to him. While the lion 
prefers untainted meat, we have, in a few instances, 
found it eating carrion. 
The lion's liking for the meat of the porcu- 
pine sometimes leads it into painful experiences, as 
quills found in the paws testify. No one knows 
just how it kills porcupines, but signs in the snow 
seem to show that it hooks them under the chin 
with its strong claws, turns them over, bites them 
in the breast, and proceeds to eat all the meat, 
leaving the skin of the back, quills down, and the 
intestines rolled aside. 
Though exceedingly fond of burro meat, the 
lion is rarely able to indulge this appetite, for al- 
though the Supply is plentiful, numbering about 
fifty thousand of the wild species in Arizona, and 
although found on the same range as the lion, the 
sturdy little jackass roams scot-free. From bitter 
experience the lion knows what a fiend the little 
creature can be in combat, fighting with terrible 
teeth, damaging hoofs, and mighty kicks. 
Perhaps the least courageous of the larger 
wild animals, the mountain lion rarely shows fight 
unless wounded.. When captured on the ground, 
if unhurt, its first impulse is to escape from the 
dogs. It makes for a tree where it stays until a 
hunter approaches; then it jumps to the ground 
and runs for another. After being run out of two 
or three trees, it is reluctant to leave, for it can 
not do much running on account of being short- 
winded. Hanging on with all claws set in the bark 
of the tree, it refuses to jump even though punched 
at with a long  stick. I have climbed out on a big 
branch of a tree and sat within six feet of a lion 
while I took a snapshot of it, yet apart from hissing 
and growling it showed no signs of fight. 
Although the reactions of mountain lions are 
generally those I have         down sometimes 
they do exactly the opposite thing. Byar the 
greater number will run for their lives, yet once 
they know the dogs are after them, there have been 
a few that showed no such inclination, but fought to 
their death, and in one case an old male lion deli- 
berately lay in wait for the dogs and killed one 
This little dog is credited with 50 lions 
and badly wounded another. 
It must be conceded, therefore, that there is 
marked individuality among mountain lions. For 
instance, note our observations of the young ones. 
We have taken several litters of them and raised 
them by hand. There was perhaps one in a litter 
(Continued on page 25) 

The author looking over 
some typical blacktail coun- 
try in Sonora, Mexico. 
(Continued from page 4) 
in the season the sun is warm and the bucks will lie  New Mexico; New York;
North Carolina; Oregon 
in the shade of these cacti and rub the v.elvet off their (protected in three
counties) ; Pennsylvania; Tennes- 
antlers. Antonio and I had just dismounted and were  see; Texas; Utah; Virginia;
Washington (subject to 
going to eat a bite of lunch, when I noticed the tracks  regulation by county
game commissions). 
of three bucks leading toward a group of pithayas,      There is a long list
of states, however, that give 
just a few yards away. Motioning to the Indian, we  no protection to bear
whatever; although some of 
slipped off our boots and, walking up behind one of them have at certain
times in the past. These states 
the cacti, saw a buck stretched out in the shade. I include: Arizona, part
of California, Colorado, Idaho, 
went back and picked up the rib of a sahuaro about 6  Kentucky, Maine, Minnesota,
Montana, New Hamp- 
feet long and, crawling up behind the cacti again, shire, Oklahoma, parts
of Oregon, South Carolina, 
laid the rifle down and jabbed the buck on the rump. Vermont, West Virginia,
Wisconsin and Wyoming. 
He leaped straight up, and whistled shrilly as he  It may be that some of
these states do not contain any 
plunged thru the chapparral. His inqusitiveness, bear but they all should
if the animal had the proper 
however, overcame his fear, and he suddenly wheeled  sort of recognition
and protection. 
around and stood facing us. I had the rifle ready       During the next legislative
session in the com- 
and rolled him over. The Papago was very much     ing winter, efforts will
be made ina number of states 
amused at the incident, and as he and Francisco sat now affording bear no
protection to secure for them 
around the fire that night, he rehearsed the whole  suitable recognition.
The bear is not a dangerous 
performance.                                      animal to human life; it
is not a predatory animal 
The sportsman that has hunted these deer    except as to certain individuals
and these should be 
among the tree-lined barrancas and over the lava- dealt with as outlaws.
The species generally is harm- 
strewn cerros will count these golden days as they  less and affords good
sport in hunting as well as hand- 
pass over his head, and while his luck might not bring  some tro 
him the coveted record head, after many miles of    -*                  
 , , 
toilsome tracking, it will broaden his thoughts and 
bring him closer to the true hidden spirit of the      SOME HABITS OF ARIZONA

wilderness.                                                  MOUNTAIN LIONS

* * *                                     (Continued from page 3) 
LIST BLACK BEAR AS GAME ANIMA                     that was quite amenable
and even affectionate.- I 
Should No Longer be Classed as Predatory Species  recall one that was as
gentle and docile as any 
Sixteen States Should Give Bear More       house cat, even after he was grown,
yet the others 
Legal Protection                  of the same litter were cross, vicious,
and never 
Colonel J. A. McQuire, publisher of "Outdoo  trustworthy. One can never
say, therefore, that a 
Life" began years ago to advocate recognition of the mountain lionwill
do a certain thing; it is a vari- 
bear as a game animal rather than a predatory one. able creature. 
He succeeded in securing such recognition in some       I have yet to see
a lion that will measure 
states, although there was more or less backsliding  more than 9 feet from
tip of tail to tip of nose. The 
from time to time. It has taken a long time to secure  largest one taken
in this state actually measured 
this recognition of a fine species of game, a trophy 8 feet 7 2 inches. The
average adult male lion, I 
worth any sportsman's effort and there is yet much  should say, would measure
7 feet, 8,inches, and the 
to be done before the bear is everywhere on a     average adult female 7
feet. The heaviest lion 
proper footing as a recognized game animal.       taken in this state weighed
276 pounds. The aver- 
The following states now recognize that the  age weight'of adult male lions
would be about 176 
bear is entitled to some protection: Arkansas (entirely  pounds, while the
average weight of female lions 
closed) ; California (closed in certain districts) ; would be about 125 pounds.

Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Michigan, -Mississippi;  . -U. S. Biological
Survey, Phoenix, Arizona. 

LQ-- tq Ct~L 
Dear AeiA 
I am preparing a book on "Game Management," and also a 
report on the "Game Survey of the North Oentral States." 
I am lacking the information specified below and would 
appreciate your filling in the reply blank in so far as you are able. 
Please return to me in the enclosed envelope. Thanks for your cooper- 
at ion. 
Yours sincerely, 
In Charge, Game Survey 
Subject?                              r           -t , 
t-  of. I~ A~  I~~ CAA, 1AA  . 
Reply:                                    Lay 29, 1930 
I am taking the liberty of replying to your inquiry 
concerning the breeding age of the cougar.   The first 
voung may be born the second year, bu t it would more 
probbly be the third year before thir would take -piece- 
Curator of Msmmals & Reptiles 
New York Zoological Park, New York 
kAI- IiC-A 

Mother Mountain Lion Deserts Youi.-Hunter Ed. Steele, of the New Mexico District,

reports an unusual recent experience during a mountain-lion chase. He had
located a female 
lion and her two kittens under a rook ledge. One of the dogs rushed in and
killed a kitten, 
and the mother, instead of attempting to defend her young, merely trotted
up the mountain- 
side. She was killed, however, by Hunter Steele. 
- 20 - 

WLbratv ot 
30  Ebo     leopolb 
Outdoor Life I    Outdoor Recreation 
ougar Characteristics 
By M. E. Hatcher 
HE cougar when full grown has strength estimated 
at fifty times that of a man. If this is true, a half- 
grown cougar could kill a man with the greatest 
ease. Physically, the lion is man's superior in 
strength, endurance, activity, sight, smell and hearing, yet, 
a man such as Boyd Hildebrand, of the state of Washington, 
famous throughout the Northwest as a big game killer and 
noted dead shot with revolver or rifle, makes playthings of 
them. Hildebrand is a made hunter. 
Time takes us back to a cold, dull and dreary day in 
December, 1924, with the thermometer hovering around 
zero in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains of Okanogan 
County, when a cougar killed and devoured Jimmy Fehlhaber, 
thirteen years of age. The boy had been sent on an errand 
by his foster parent, R. B. Nash, to a neighbor's ranch a 
mile away on a well-traveled road. A 
gerous canyon cut off a quarter of a 
mile. But Jimmy had been warned 
not to take this cut-off, owing to the 
perpendicular wall of the west side 
which, when wet or snow covered, 
would loosen the earth, allowing great 
boulders to come crashing down with- 
out warning. Yet, Jimmy chose to take 
this cut-off, whistling, as was his usual 
happy-go-lucky way, as he passed 
along the great shadowy walls, and 
through the thickets. He stopped now 
and then under some stunted pines to 
listen, but nothing could be heard, not 
even the chatter of a pine squirrel. 
With cap well pulled down and little 
gloved hands inside his mackinaw, he 
continued to push on through the 
deepening shadows of the canyon. 
T RACKS in the snow afterward 
disclosed the fact that the lad had 
suddenly stopped. Ahead some 200 
feet on the edge of a ledge stood a 
cougar. He had been enjoying a little 
warmth on the south side of a large 
boulder. Jimmy, being used to the 
habits of cougars, at first (the little 
tracks in the snow indicated this) had 
swung a little to the right and then 
continued on his course. The cougar 
at the same time left his place of rest. 
Jimmy, on coming out at the mouth 
or bottom of the canyon, met the cougar unexpectedly 
in a thicket, face to face. The big cat perhaps intended 
to head the lad off. Be that as it may, here the lad became 
frightened and did exactly the wrong thing-turned his back 
and started to run. The animal immediately started after 
him, bounding along the left side and a short way behind. 
Thus the tracks in the snow showed that they raced along 
for 50 yards when the cougar sprang fully 15 feet, landing 
on the boy's back, with its cruel claws ripping and tearing 
through the heavy mackinaw and into the tender flesh from 
shoulder to waist. The boy, somehow, regained his feet and 
again ran on. His brown jersey gloves found pressed close 
together showed they had been removed, without a doubt 
in order that he could get out his pocket knife, which was 
found unopened a few feet farther on. The big cat spring- 
ing the second time crumpled its victim to the ground with 
a blow from its paw; a quick bite at the base of the skull 
and the unequal fight was ended. 
A spray of bright blood on the right, a larger one on the 
left in the pure white snow, gave ample proof of what oc- 
curred, yet no pen can describe the thoughts and anguish, 
or the heart-rending screams for help by little Jimmy in that 
lonely canyon, as the great brute, with blood-shot eyes, 
deep-sounding growls, ripping claws, cruel fangs, and foam- 
ing mouth, bore him to the ground. The brute dragged the 
body back into the shelter and tore off the entire scalp and 
devoured it. From here it carried the body over to the 
mountain side into a darker and more secluded thicket where 
the prized portions were eaten at leisure. 
Suddenly the air grew colder. Down through the canyon 
came the biting storm king. The branches of the forest 
stirred and bent their backs to the wintry blast. The sky 
grew black and closed in on the mountain summit and the 
sleet and snow swept down the slopes. Now and then the 
wind, whistling through the uppermost branches of the tree 
tops, swelled almost into shrieks. A 
northwest blizzard was on, and in a 
short time the thermometer dropped 
to 20 below zero. Hours later, by 
lantern light, searchers over the back 
trail found what was left of little 
orphan Jimmy, 150 feet off the orig- 
inal trail. 
THAT stormy night of Dec. 17, 
1924, on receiving the report that 
his little friend, Jimmy Fehlhaber, 
had been killed by a cougar, Boyd 
Hildebrand solemnly swore he would 
kill every cougar in Okanogan County. 
That night, he, with other hunters and 
a faithful young bloodhound, started 
out to be gone for weeks in the wil- 
derness, over solid crusted snow. The 
bitter cold twice froze the nose of the 
dog, rendering him helpless. 
Four weeks later a farmer living 
within 8 miles of the scene killed a 
cougar. On examination by the Smith- 
sonian Institute, at Washington, a 
tight mass of human hair and a piece 
of overalls were found within the 
stomach, thereby proclaiming it the 
cougar that had killed the lad. Today 
this animal is mounted as a permanent 
historical exhibit in the Washington 
State Historical Society building at 
Tacoma, Wash. 
I   I.  -A  si.  had,  as4 
continued to hunt on. His fame is 
growing continually throughout the Northwest. He is tall 
and muscular, and his movements are as graceful as 
those of a tiger. His dogs are trained to the minute and 
know just what is expected of them. The big cats, says 
Hildebrand, don't give you much fight; they are so big they 
seem to feel they don't need to be afraid. Consequently 
they make no effort to get out of the way. The smaller ones, 
however, are fierce and full of fight and their capture isn't 
always an easy matter. 
At night the lion steals forth toward deer or other game, 
located during the watching hours of the day. Keeping well 
to the lower ravines and thickets, he slowly creeps upon his 
prey. His cunning and ferocity are keener and more savage 
in proportion to the length of time he has been without food. 
As he grows thinner, his skill and strategy will increase. A 
well-fed cougar has shown that at times he may only secure 
one deer in about seven that he creeps upon. A starving 
cougar is another animal. He creeps like a snake, and, 
noiseless as a shadow, he springs with terrific force, seldom 
failing to reach his victim. Once let those cruel claws of 
( .  1, _ 

~- ~ 
~- ~.- 
Outdoor Life G Outdoor 4Recreation 
a hungry cougar come in contact wi 
food, and they never let loose. Bu 
misjudge his leap, he seldom contin 
sue his quarry. 
Elk is his easiest prey. The dee 
fortunate, as he gets about one out o1 
at. Once the cougar sinks his cla 
victim, the struggles of his prey help 
claws deeper and deeper. The cou 
fastens his teeth in the throat with 
never is released until the death st 
over. After he has become gorged, 
is dragged into a ravine or thicket, t( 
with leaves, dirt, sticks, etc. If fre 
not to be had easily, he will return 
second night, and after that the visit 
on the supply of fresh meat he n 
He is known to guard his cache aga 
during a storm. 
IN SEX among matured lions tha 
forest, there is an average of five 
one male. This is explained throul 
ousy of the older males. The old 
delight in slaying the young of both 
members of the whole litter suffer 
the weaning time; then only the m 
a litter is destroyed, mating time 
around regardless of the season of 
cunning of the old lioness is 
She is wise and faithful, seldom lea, 
tens. At the age of six weeks, the ti 
ing for life's existence begins. Sh 
them out to engage in the battles of 
struggles must continue for them uni 
may here be said that a cougar 
seldom dies a natural death. On 
approach of night the mother and 
cubs stealthily stalk forth into 
the night, regardless of the 
weather. Because of the babies, 
the mother takes short steps. 
When she crouches for fear or 
game, each little lion crouches 
also, and like little statues, they 
remain until the mother makes 
her spring-then   she signals 
them to come. Again the mother 
displays her shrewdness of why 
those short steps were taken, by 
slowly and carefully stepping in 
the tracks she made coming 
down the mountain side, and 
each little cub carefully follow- 
ing suit. This habit is practiced 
to keep deadly enemies ignorant. 
The hunter that knows the habits 
of the coyotes may easily tell 
when a cougar is near by the 
alarm yelps given by the coyotes 
close by. The story of the do- 
ing of a cougar as told in the 
snow is tasclnating and as easy     A wounded lion turnblin 
to read for the experienced as             mountain side 
if told in print-how they stalk 
their prey, crouch flat to spring, and how the kill is made. 
Does and fawns run more in bunches. The cougars that 
hunt'in groups have very little difficulty in getting their prey. 
Bucks run singly to a greater extent and are not killed or 
stalked so often. 
Hildebiand, a year ago, spent two months in the wilds of 
the Adams Lake country, 100 miles northwest of Kamloops, 
B. C., ; here he found evidence of over 100 deer killed by 
the big cats. Here he bagged twelve cougars, but with better 
snow conditions he felt his kill would have totaled twenty 
or more. British Columbia game enthusiasts were greatly 
interested and started an agitation to raise the bounty from 
$50 to $100. "Each year since I attempted to follow the 
trail-of the cougar that killed little Jimmy Fehlhaber, I have 
spent a large part of each winter hunting cougars," says 
Hildebrand. "Often I am asked what sort of a sound they 
When he is stretched out like this the size of a 
mountain lion becomes impressive 
down a                    -   - 
not come from the throat of a common house 
cat or a human voice. However, this story 
starts further back. A few days before this I had come 
upon the tracks of four cougars that gave me reason to 
believe they were hunting together. The trail led across 
a mountain, far from headquarters. After stalking the 
beasts for two days, without food, I returned to camp. I 
tarried only a short time, then returned on the trail and 
found a deer had been killed. Then they had crossed another 
mountain range, probably 5,000 feet high, and descended to 
a low valley some 20 miles distant, where deer were winter- 
ing. Just before dark I came onto a spot where a cougar 
had been bedded down. Later I found three deer had been 
killed. I made camp in a thick clump of timber and built a 
bed of fir boughs. A noise awakened me. I sat up and 
listened. An unmistakably clear 'meow' came to me. It was 
a quick, sharp and loud cry. I at once realized it was one 
of those big cats I had been trailing. (Continued on page 58) 

Outdoor Life A     Outdoor Recreation 
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The author's daughter seems proud t'UIi       ISC U45ea15ce oS  at sCaoI,
of Cliff's fontinalis. Photo by Clif-  last season as well, Cliff and I have
ford White, Banff            many visits to that trout-filled little water,

sometimes spending a leisurely day on its 
delay. Twice in rapid succession he struck  surface, but more often, just
slipping out 
flashing rises too forcibly and left flies  for an hour or so of sport in
the evening, 
firmly implanted in the jaws of two hungry  and occasionally in the early
morning. As 
d  brookies who were probably as surprised   yet we have not been disappointed.
as he was-but I doubt it-and when a       always have we got fish, but never
miserable little 6-inch Rocky Mountain   we failed to find enjoyment, and
on every 
whitefish, locally  misnamed  "grayling,"  expedition we have learned
something more 
- stole his fly from the very jaws of a mighty  of these transplanted easterners
and their 
brook trout, even as he turned to strike, ways, something that some day will
be of 
honestly, I thought Cliff would blow up! help in this or other waters. 
But nevertheless, tenderly and carefully,  So far there does not seem to
be any 
I he turned   the silvery, sucker-mouthed   noticeable decrease in the numbers
of trout 
creature loose with the good-natured ad-  the lake holds, and there is no
reason why 
monition not to do anything like that again  the numbers should lessen or
the average 
or he might get knocked on the head, size decrease for many years to come.
despite the Park's 8-inch minimum regu- that is required is a fair measure
of pro- 
lation. Probably it was justice, call it what tection during the spawning
season, and 
you will, but on his next cast he rose, good sportsmanship on the part of
hooked, and subsequently landed another  who angle for them. With this, the
trout as large, or larger, than the one the  trout of the Vermilion should
provide good 
grayling had caused him to miss.        fishing for the wielders of the fly-rod
most indefinitely. 
AS FOR myself? Well, I was having the      At any rat f and I 
1 1 time of my life ! Admittedly, the mor-  Sol 
tality rate on flies and leader points was 
high, for with my long and powerful rod 
it was all too easy to strike too severely    Cougar Charact 
for the strength of fine drawn gut, and * 
my excitement it was difficult to cont ol        (Continued from page 31)

myself well enough to hit easily; but stll, Then for the first time in all
of my ex- 
despite my awkwardness, luck was with   perience of hunting and wholesale
me, and before the rise was over I man- of the cougar family, could I now
aged to basket three beauties, all within  with authority on the cougar language.

an ounce or so of the 2-pound mark. Later I heard the sound more often. The

With these I was mighty well content, as  'meow' would carry for a half mile
in the 
who in this day and age wouldn't be?    forest. As I became accustomed to
Incidentally, at one time I even had a  tracks of the cats in bunches, I
double on, both big fellows; but as is that they hunt in that manner where
invariably the case, with two big trout are plentiful, and are real cronies
in time 
fighting against each other, as well as of need. They may start a hunt alone
against the naturally over-anxious wielder as individuals and then locate
each other 
of the fly-rod, the old, old story repeated  by their call. 
itself and "they both got away," taking   "My largest kill
in one winter of coyotes, 
with them a badly-used leader in two sec- with a rifle, is 111. My total
kill during 
tions. And again, just as the number of 
chance cast directly against the reedy 
shore, and hooked the largest cutthroat 
trout I have ever seen, before or since. She 
was a big hen fish, of at least 5 pounds 
weight, but for some reason or other had 
never spawned during the spring, and as a 
consequence was so logy and so- full of 
long-overripe eggs which deluged the boat 
as Cliff lifted her in the net, that we re- 
leased her, as being unfit for eating or for 
any other purpose. 
With the frantic stimulation of the 
height of the rise over, at last Cliff and 
I started breathing normally again and 
took stock of what Vermilion's bounty had 
brought us. One by one, Cliff lifted his         Papa and mamma cougar, little
own trout from the creel and we checked          and two sisters, bagged
by Hildebrand. 
Kittens usually come in pairs, male and 
their weights on the spring balance. Cliff      female. If triplets, one
male and two 
had landed five in all, but his first was still        females. Never two
the biggest brook trout of the day, none 
of his others exceeding 22 pounds, but 
one of his smaller ones was the most beau- 
tifully conditioned trout we had ever seen. 
Only a scant 14 inches in length, it was 
as fat as any butterball and weighed 2 
ounces over 2 pounds-proving still further 
that the little water of the Vermilion is 
capable of providing almost unlimited food 
resources for its finny denizens. 
W HILE the afternon was still young, 
Cliff and I agreed that it was right 
to pack up and call it a day. True, we 
might have managed to pick up a few more 
trout had we so wished, but we had ample 
for our needs, and to keep on fishing after 
such a phenomenal rise would probably 
have been a disappointing anticlimax at 
best. We preferred to leave the Vermilion 
with the memory of the fishing as it had 
been during that hectic but enjoyable hour. 

Outdoor Life *     Outdoor P1ecreation 
the years of coyote hunting, is 1,700, be- 
sides my annual toll of cats. The forest 
census of the Chelan National Forest lists 
over 4,000 deer within its boundary. Deer 
are now on the increase, 650 being listed 
as killed by hunters during the three days 
open season in Okanogan County in 1930." 
Hildebrand has helped the game commis- 
Hildebrand and   his famous DAu- 
hound, kneeling behind two recently 
killed cougars in the hills of Okanogan 
County, Wash. 
sioners to build up the game until it is 
known as the wonder country of the 
Northwest. To Hildebrand goes the credit 
for his untiring efforts and vigilance over 
the great Chelan and Okanogan forests, 
because slaying the cougar means increase 
in the deer. 
Editorial Note.-Our correspondent's version 
of a cougar attack (which was described in 
Outdoor Life at the time it happened) brings 
uv the subject of one trait that isaimest pro- 
verbial in the habits of the cougar-its abject 
cowardice. There are some rare instances on 
record to show that the cougar might attack 
man unprovoked-the incident of the attack 
on Jimmy Fehlhaber being one of the only two 
authentic cases we know of, and both attacks 
having been made on boys. (We never knew of 
an unprovoked attack by a cougar on a man.) 
The other case of the attack on a boy occurred 
in California many years ago, probably ten or 
twelve. A boy was playing on a stream not far 
from his school when a cougar attacked. While 
the beast was mauling the lad the school- 
teacher (a woman) ran to his assistance, broom- 
stick in hand. The animal turned on her and 
killed her. 
Scott Teague the old Colorado big game 
hunter and guide, with whom we have been on 
many bear and lion hunts, once came upon a 
cougar that was eating the remains of a deer. 
Scott noticed that the cat showed an extra- 
ordinary menacing attitude as he came up, and, 
being armed with only a small .22 rifle, he stood 
for #while, undecided as to what was best to do. 
In relating the incident, Scott said this was the 
first time he was ever held at bay by a couglar 
The attitude of the animal was so bold that 
Teague decided to retreat, which he did-re- 
turning iater with hs dogs and treeing t tF 
proved to be an exceptionally old animal, witt 
teeth either badly broken or worn down to the 
Battles of the African Jungle 
(Continued from page 27) 
of the brutes watching him. He made fo 
the camp, with the native's help, but hi 
was confident that, but for the scare th 
boy gave them, they would have attacked 
and probably finished the lion's work. H, 
said that since then he has every sympathy 
with the native's terror of the hyena. 
Coming   to   the  crocodile, I  doub 
whether the reptile has any more redeeming 
traits than the other member of the broth 
erhood. Yet I once saw an example o 
what may have been maternal affectior 
cannibalistic as the species undoubtedly is 
On the banks of the Quando, one after 
noon, I found under a clump of trees 
crocodile's nest. My boy assured me tha 
under the flattened and scale-marked san 
were many eggs. I asked him whethe 
the sun hatched them. He pointed to th 
shade above, and the marks of belly scales, 
and said: "They are deep down. How 
can the sun hatch them?" 
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STATE GAME COMMISSION                                                   
SANTA Fi, N. M. 
STATE GAME WARDEN         ple-atrinemt ofl 105ant atnb 'Y154 
April 1~4, 19,32            C~ 
11r. Aldo Leopold 
905 University Avenue 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
It is very difficult indeed to keep all news articles written for 
the Nev! Mexico magazine confined to exact or technical facts. In the 
case of the mountain lion rangingsreferred to by you I will state 
that Mr. Shuart secured his information from me and quite a number of 
other persons, but I believe that the statement he makes is somewhat 
misleading. Probably this statement was based on information given 
out several yrears ago by Mr. B. V. Lily about trailing a lion over an 
excessively large area. I would not, hoever, want to go on record 
Fas stating that a lion actually uses an area with a 100 mile radius. 
However, I personally know that a lion will travel over a route ;00 
miles or more in length, often making wide circles, sometimes- 
miles in diameter. I have followed such trails for days without coming 
up with the lion. While it is iy belief that these animals do travel 
over a auuch wider area I have no actual proof of it. I have on several 
occasions hunted out rather large areas to -h-ere for months no sign 
of lion would be seen end then sulldenly there would appear one or 
several lions within the area, indicating clearly a migration of these 
animals. I followed one male lion from Tusas Moutain thru the Jarita 
Mesa, across to Comache Canyon and across the Black Mesa to just 
below Embudo, where he crossed the Rio Grande. This was a distance of 
about    m miles and he was L-oing strong when I left the track. 
Also, I have followed a track from 10 miles north of the Colorado 
line at the head of Vermejo Creek southward thru the mountains to 
Cimarron Baldy, and he was still headed straight south and had -ade 
the trip without making or visiting a kill of any sort. It is my 
opinion that we get numbers of lions from Mexico which irigrate far into

the northern part of the state. The occasional finding of the thorns 
of desert cactus in the feet of lions killed in our northern mountains, 
both in New Mexico and Arizona, is indichtive of extensive traveling. 
Mr. Musgrave, of the Forest Service, at Albuquerque, I believe has 
considerable data as to lion migration and distances that they travel, 
which probably would be of some interest or value to you in connection 
'with your game mn,-agement book. 

11r. A2Ao Leopold 
If I can be of further service to you in anVo way I shall be more than 
Eoad to serve you. 
With idndest personal regards to yourself and family, I am 
State Game 'Warden 

AprIl 5, 1932 
Mr. Elliott S. Barker 
State Gae WSarden 
Santa Fe, New 77exieo 
Dear v.1iotti 
In th  last Iss" of *New7Uexio" on 
states:   A mountain lion has been Inown to 
within a radius of at least 100 miles." 
page 9, Mr. Sn art 
travel over an area 
If he 7ot this information from you Aid he state your 
meaning correctly? If so, it would be rather an extreme case of 
mobility in a non-migratory animals 
I am shortly7 goirv- to presq with my book on gtme mn 9 
mant and wold lMe to cite this if it comes from you. 
Yours sincerely* 

Pursuit of the Elusive 
and Wily Predatory 
Animals is Trouble 
With a Big "T99 
for Hunters and 
Trappers of State 
and Federal Game 
Protection Forces 
Coyote, Lion,Bobcat 
and Other Killers of 
Livestock, Animals, 
Birds not Decreasing 
in Numbers-Turn 
to Rough Country 
as New Habitat. 
ByHarry E. Shuart 
(Photos by Author and Game Dept. Staff Members) 
O PTIMISM expressed by the young Chinese servant 
in San Francisco who, after being advised each day 
for a week that ten thousand Chinese soldiers and only 
one hundred Japanese had been killed in the conflict raging 
around Shanghai, remarked, "Pletty soon be no more Japa- 
nese," cannot be felt by game conservationists in New 
Mexico, when the war that is being waged between man- 
kind and predatory animals is being considered. 
Despite the ever-increasing kill of predators, even the 
most optimistic game conservationist cannot foresee the 
time when these enemies of game birds and animals will 
be under control. It is the conservative opinion of the 
majority of those who may be classed as experts in game 
affairs that the predatory animal is holding his own inso- 
far as total population is concerned. 
Each year, it seems, the successful destruction of the 
predators, of which the coyote, the bobcat or wildcat and 
the mountain lion are the most formidable, becomes in- 
creasingly more difficult. Each year, according to the 
most authentic reports that can be obtained, the kill of 
game birds and animals and of livestock by the predatory 
beasts holds to about the same figure. True, there is a 
slight increase shown in the number of predators killed 
by hunters and trappers of the U. S. Bureau of Biologi- 
cal Survey and of the State Department of Game and 
Fish, but this increase is taken by some to indicate that 
there is a greater number to be killed. Others feel that 
the constantly increased effort on the part of those two 
official agencies is responsible for the increasing bag of 
But none there is who is willing to assert that the 
predatory population is on the wane. 
The report of the Biological Survey for New Mexico 
shows that the total number of predatory animals killed 
in the fiscal year of 1928 was 2151. In 1929 the total bag 
was 2250; in 1930 it dropped back to 2029, and in 1931 
reached the top figure of 2810. In the latter year the 
predators killed were as follows: Bobcats, 364; coyotes, 
Page 6 
March, 1932 

2336; lions, 70; wolves, 4; wild dogs, 6; hybrids-a cross 
between a wolf and a dog,-2, and stock-killing bears, 2. 
During the four last fiscal years the total bag of predatory 
animals, according to the Biological Survey report for the 
Now Mt'yr,- di.trh't  hnws 
1290 bobcats, 7701 coyotes, 
164 lions, 13 wolves, 33 wild 
dogs, 3 hybrids, and 2 
bears, making the kill for 
the four-year period of all 
types of predators 9240. 
Until recently, the State 
Department o f Game and 
Fish has not engaged active- 
ly in hunting predatory ani- 
mals. At present, however, 
7 men are partially engaged 
in that work, five of whom 
are trapping and two who 
are hunting lions with dogs. 
Among the predators the 
coyote offers the greatest 
problem for game conserva- 
tionists. This cunning cous- 
in of Fido or Towser-our        DEPUTY WARDEN BERT B 
faithful canine friends-is 
the most prolific and versatile of all of the game killers. 
Coyotes rear large families yearly, eat anything whether 
fresh or carrion, whether meat or vegetable or fruit, breed 
under almost every condition and adapt themselves to any 
0     -4 1.UL~ ,  4, .-"' 
type  o  co tUU y, w e eI 
plains or mountains, wheth- 
er wilderness or inhabited 
by man. 
Trappers and hunters are 
agreed that the coyote is the 
most difficult of all of the 
predators to catch or kill. 
His cunning has increased 
in the same ratio that the 
pursuit of him   has in- 
creased, until today human 
ingenuity is taxed to the ut- 
most to trap Don Coyote. 
In the plain s country 
which has been his natural 
habitat for years, the coy- 
ote is a killer of sheep, small 
calves, rabbits and birds. So 
long as he confines his 
dietetic choice to jackrab- 
bits and other rodents, no 
objection is voiced by the 
sportsmen or the conserva- 
tionist, b u t Senor Coyote 
apparently seeks a diversi-    THE "TRAIL SET" COMPLE 
fled menu and plays havoc 
with the sheep flocks during lambing season. 
He has been hunted with more success in the plains 
country than elsewhere. Poison baits have accounted for 
many thousands. It is on the plains that the only type of 
coyote hunting that can be considered sport is found. With 
greyhounds and wolfhounds, those slender high-speed 
members of the canine species, hunters on horseback or in 
motor cars if the country is level, often engage in the 
sport of coyote coursing but it is an extremely fast-mov- 
ing and fast-thinking dog that can master the coyote. It 
is a hard-fighting dog, too, which can whip a coyote after 
the chase is ended. 
The coyote, adaptable rascal that he is, has added the 
rough country in the hills to his original plains habitat. 
Apparently he has followed civilization into the mountains 
and has found the change to 
his canine liking. Don Coy- 
ote, because of his appetite 
for mutton has followed the 
sheep bands from the plains 
into the mountains and there 
has added venison to his 
diet. Especially in the win- 
ter has the mountain coyote 
become a pronounced deer 
killer. Undoubtedly the con- 
tinuous pursuit and trap- 
ping of the coyote on the 
plains has caused many of 
the wiser ones to desert that 
original habitat and to adopt 
the mountains as their 
These mountain prowlers 
have become what may be 
CA MAKES A "TRAIL SET"     termea    super - animals . 
They seemingly have found 
the venison diet not only to their liking but to their benefit 
for the mountain coyote has become a larger, stronger and 
more vicious animal than his cousin who remained on the 
plains. In the rough country the confirmed deer-killing 
coyote, according' t n esti- 
mates of game experts, will 
account for twenty deer a 
year. Of course, the great- 
er bulk of his kill consists 
of fawns and does, although 
many instances are known 
where bucks have been the 
victims of an attack where 
two or three coyotes have 
banded together for the kill. 
And this slaughter of deer 
would be even greater were 
it not for the fact that the 
coyote is a carrion eater and 
does not demand fresh meat 
but is willing to return to 
his kill until it has been 
completely devoured. 
The only successful meth- 
ods of keeping down the 
mountain coyote population 
is through trapping or pois- 
oning, which latter method 
is undesirable because it en- 
ED--WHERE IS THE TRAP?       dangers game animals and 
hunting dogs. It is no mean 
accomplishment on the part of man to be able to outwit 
and trap this wily killer. Trappers for the Biological 
Survey and the game department are constantly on the 
hunt for new "baits," "scents" or "lures" that
will attract 
Senor Coyote into their traps. The trapper who possesses 
a "scent" which is successful guards the formula as jeal- 
ously as does Uncle Sam his military secrets. The aver- 
age scent with which we have come in contact, however, 
may remain a secret as far as we are concerned. It ap- 
pears to be a combination of all the known malodorous 
substances in the world and certainly, if it is attractive 
March, 1932 
Page 7 

tors, and real- 
ly catches 
them - car- 
ries a s little 
equipment a s 
possible. The 
game depart- 
ment trapper, 
f o r instance, 
carries in his 
kit in addition 
to the traps, a 
piece of can- 
vas about 
three feet 
square, a 
stout little 
shovel six or 
e i g h t inches 
long and four 
to a coyote, it does not convince us that the coyote is the 
possessor of any of the finer sensibilities. In addition to 
the constant companionship of this olfactory disturbance, 
the successful trapper of a coyote must remember that 
he is a human being and that the slightest trace of a mis- 
placed human scent will send his quarry scurrying and 
skulking from the vicinity of any trap no matter how well 
it maiv  ern- 
As the coyote 
has become in- 
creasingly cun- 
ning the careless 
trapper has been 
eliminated from 
the picture, so 
far as successful 
catches are con- 
cerned. His op- 
erations s e r v e 
only to educate 
t he animals to 
beware of traps. 
T he amateur 
trapper who hies 
himself forth in 
the quest of 
predatory a n i- 
mals with an as- 
sortment of 
equipment t h a t 
would make the 
average ear, eye, 
nose and throat 
ashamed of his 
lack of tools, 
finds no place in 
the present order 
of things. 
The successful 
trapper - t h e 
chap who makes 
-   11         4 
WILDCAT TOOK TO THE THEE      catching preda- 
small  bottle 
of the aforementioned "scent", and some trap canvasses. 
Having selected a proper place for a set-and this 
selection must be right or there will be no catch, regard- 
less of how well the set is made-the trapper spreads the 
canvas to the edge of the location of the trap. On this 
he stands or kneels so that no "man scent" will be left 
on the ground. Then he proceeds to dig a hole just big 
enough to contain the trap and the "clog" or "drag".
drag usually consists of a double steel hook to which the 
trap chain is attached and which will catch in brush or( 
trees as the trapped animal attempts to escape. The cog 
is usually a small wooden block to which the trap chain 
has been securely fastened. 
As the trapper excavates he places all dirt removed 
on his working canvas and disturbs the earth as little as 
possible outide of the actual excavation. After the trap 
has been spread and the trigger set so that the trap will 
spring when the animal steps on the little metal pan in 
the center, it is placed in the excavation so that it is about 
one-half inch below the natural surface of the dirt. The 
Page 8 
March, 1932 

trap chain is placed in the hole as smoothly as possible 
"efore the trap is set in place. The clog to which the 
nain is fastened has been laid-flat in the bottom of a 
deeper aperture and has been worked firmly down into 
miles in length. A portion of these he visits each day and 
usually visits the entire line within a two-day period or 
within three days at the most. In the plains country 
where travel by automobile is possible the trapper's line 
~will extend from 
even the most f ran- 
tic efforts of a trap- 
ped animal are un- 
likely to pull it 
When t he trap 
has been put into 
the proper position 
and dirt has been 
carefully placed 
about it - always 
with the shovel and 
never with the hu- 
man hands so as to 
leave a scent trace 
-it is covered with 
a small piece o f 
canvas just the size 
of the trap jaws 
when they are open. 
A     11o  l   h  o 
been cut in one side 
of the canvas to permit the trigger to function properly. 
After the canvas has been spread over the trap, dirt is 
carefully placed in the excavation to bring it up to the 
original ground level. The entire set is then covered with 
thin layer of dry dirt, twigs, or leaves so that it will 
conform as nearly as possible to the original appearance 
of the spot before the trap was set. There should not 
be and usually is not the slightest evidence that man has 
been in the vicinity. 
After this reproduction of Nature which would stir 
envy in the heart of any artist, the trapper proceeds to 
100 to 150 miles. 
T h e mountain 
lion, the largest and 
most vicious of the 
predators in New 
Mexico, now   that 
the wolf has been 
virtually eliminated 
from the state, of- 
f e r s a different 
problem  for the 
hunter. Lions are, 
as a rule, not trap- 
p e d successfully. 
True, some h a v e 
been trapped b u t 
the great majority 
of those bagged by 
the predatory hunt- 
ers are taken by the 
.  r'f -lno which 
]H{ IAJUN IN A BAUK UUUJNTkUX UADIr       -b '- -'-' . 
trail the lions and 
tree them. In New Mexico there are several packs of 
dogs which have been trained for this work and which 
will disregard any other trail than that of a lion, except 
perhaps the trail of a bobcat. 
The lion population is much smaller than that of the 
coyote. Estimates of the number of lions in New Mexico 
vary but it is the consensus of game experts that there 
probably are not in excess of 300 lions in the state. This 
giant member of the cat family maintains a habitat almost 
exclusively in the rough country. A mountain lion has 
been known to travel over an area within a radius of at 
near his set or on 
nearby   shrubbery 
that weird clash of 
odors that we have 
characterized here- 
tofore as "scent". 
Yet with all of 
these precautions, it 
is an even bet that 
Don Coyo.e will 
not step into t h e 
trap. Time and 
again t h e trapper 
returns to find 
where h i s quarry 
has circled the set 
cautiously,  p o s - 
sibly two or three 
times and then has 
The lion differs 
from the coyote in 
the fact that he 
usually i s a lone 
traveler. T h i s is 
especially true o f 
the male lion. Fol- 
lowing the mating 
season the m a I e 
strikes out to patrol 
h i s range which 
may carry him over 
long distances 
daily. The female 
remains in one gen- 
eral locality until 
her young are born, 
and reared t o the 
self-supporting age. 
departed, seeming-       DEPUTY 13ACA (LEFT) AND "PO 
,  in a hurry.                           RECONNAI 
mething wa s 
'ong. It may have been just the slightest trace of mis- 
placed odor or an unnatural bait, but it was a warning as 
loud as a fire siren so far as Senor Coyote was concerned. 
In the trapping of coyotes and bobcats, which are also 
known as wildcats and big lynx, the trapper who works 
on horseback maintains a line of traps from ten to twenty 
" FISHER, LION HUNTER, ON A       The you n g will 
ANCE TRIP                         travel with the fe- 
male lion until they 
are eight to twelve months old when she leaves them to 
shift for themselves and goes again in quest of her mate. 
She may find him many miles away but that is her job. 
He does not return to her, but he has made it easy to be 
The egotistical confidence of the male of the species 
March, 1932 
Page 9 

_r  W-4)v 
is shown by the fact that he has left dur- 
ing all of his travels certain signs and 
marks that the female recognizes. Here 
and there along his trail will be found 
claw marks, known as a "scrape", left in 
such a way that they cannot escape his 
mate's notice, and which in lion language 
tells her not only which way he has gone 
but that he will be back. And unless 
either he or she has run afoul of a hunter 
she will find him or wait for him on his 
regular patrol route no matter how far 
he has traveled or how rough the travel- 
ing may be. 
The average adult lion, according to 
estimates by game experts will account 
for one deer a week where the lion is 
ranging in a fairly well populated deer 
country. The lion, contrary to popular 
hele   .i nt  h".p  p ,'-,n:,  h   ,-h ;-: 
A cow, a steer or a calf is perhaps 
one of the last victims which the 
lion seeks. Preferred delicacies on 
the lion's menu are venison and 
mutton, or horseflesh-with deer 
meat preferred. The mountain lion 
is one of the few animals that suc- 
cessfully kills and eats the porcu- 
In certain areas of the state lion 
hunters are virtually certain to strike 
a fresh trail eventually. There are 
other portions where a lion has not 
been seen for many years, but the 
lion hunter is reasonably certain to 
find his quarry if he confines his 
activities to the rough country where 
the deer population is comparatively 
heavy. Lion hunting, although it is 
a business with the predatory ani- 
mal control men enters into the cat- 
agory of sport with others. There 
are, in the state, several packs of 
lion dogs which are maintained for 
lish the dual purpose of hunting one 
type of big game and protecting 
another by killing lions. 
Dogs trained to hunt lions are able 
to pick up a trail many hours old 
and under favorable weather condi- 
tions they may be able to follow a 
scent that has been left as much as 
three or four days before. If they 
strike the trail of a male lion the 
hunters may travel many miles be- 
fore the chase is ended with the an * 
mal treed. In the case of a femaL 
lion the hunt probably will not cover 
as much territory especially if she 
still is caring for her young. 
The lion is capable of traveling at 
a fairly high rate of speed for short 
distances but eventually dogs will 
close in on the animal until it is 
forced to seek refuge in a tree. Even 
then the chase may not be ended. A 
lone dog, or even two, often fail to 
hold their quarry which may decide 
4-     +4  . . . J" l+.I. T  .. .  . ..r_ 
TY"          LO PUL up a lg. rI. in1 sucn cases the 
odds are against the dog or dogs 
but it is seldom that a lion has the temerity to 
leap from its treetop shelter into a battle with 
three or more pursuers. 
If the lion hunter is a good shot the story is 
ended, but if his shot fails to kill and the wounded 
lion comes toppling out of the tree he may account 
for one or two dogs before he finally is killed. 
There probably is no more vicious animal than 
a wounded lion brought to bay. One sweep of 
the claws may mean the death of a good hunting 
dog. The wounded lion has an attack that the 
average dog cannot fathom. It catches the dog 
with its claws, pulls the animal in closely and 
breaks its neck with one bite of its powerful jaws. 
It is seldom that a dog survives in such a battt, 
During the recent winter months the lion ko 
in New Mexico has been unusually heavy. Sev- 
eral reports of kills of four or five animals within 
a period of two days having been made. In all 
cases these have been female lions accompanied 
by their young. 
Page 10 
March, 1982 
the+  use  o :,, - ..,.  vvs en u 1,  .l~ 
(Continued on page 32) 

7ile: California 
Mountain Lbn __ 
See "Factors Influencing Wild Life in California, Past and Present,*

by Tracy I. Storer. Ecology, Vol. XIII, No. 4., October 1932, Pp. 315-327.


Vol. 14, No. 3, August, 1933, pp. 221-240 
The jaguars, the largest of American cats, are leopard-like in general 
appearance, but the larger size, more massive head and generally more 
robust form are distinguishing features. They inhabit the warmer 
parts of North and South America. There are records from California, 
northern New Mexico and well north in Texas, but the present range is 
from Arizona, southern New Mexico, and the Rio Grande Valley south 
to about 400 south in south-central Argentina. The common name, 
jaguar, now very generally applied to the animal, is derived from the 
South American Indian name "jaguara." The meaning of the name,

according to Liais (Chm. G6ol., Faune du Br6sil, 1872, p. 450), is "car-

nivore that overcomes its prey at a single bound." In Brazil the 
jaguar was distinguished by the Portuguese as "onga verdadeira"
ounce) or "onga pintada" (spotted ounce), from the puma, known
"onga parda" or "onga vermelha" (red ounce). In much
of Latin 
America, however, these animals are now referred to, respectively, as 
the "tigre" and the "leon." 
While the larger jaguars exceed the larger leopards in size and physi- 
cal power and are very destructive to large animal life they are completely

lacking in the ferocious aggressiveness sometimes shown by leopards in 
their encounters with man. In fact, the jaguars, although feared by 
natives in their tropical habitat, so rarely attack man that reports of 
such occurrences are very difficult to verify. In both North and South 
America they appear to have much the same shyness and dread of man 
as is shown by the puma or mountain lion, although they are claimed 
to be more dangerous in parts of South America. 
It is doubtful whether any wild or domestic animal is safe from their 
onslaughts. Cattle, horses, and hogs are included in known jaguar 
depredations and many accounts indicate their special fondness for the 
flesh of peccaries. The large herds of white-lipped peccaries that roam 
tropical American forests are systematically followed and preyed upon 
by them. The great power and ferocity of their attacks are indicated 
by the fact that in 6 out of 92 skulls examined one or more of the canine

teeth had been broken. In one instance all of the canines had been 
broken off short, and yet the animal, an adult male, had been able to 
subsist in spite of this handicap, as shown by the smoothly worn stubs. 
The broken canines suggest that these teeth, while fairly large, may be 
relatively weak for an animal with such powerful masseter muscles. In 

the puma, on the other hand, the canines are rarely broken, but nasal 
and frontal contusions exhibited by a considerable number are evidently 
the result of mishaps in bringing down their prey. 
Since the time of Azara (Apunt. Hist. Nat. Quad. del Paragiay, vol. 
1, pp. 89-91, 1802) the question of the number of species of jaguars has

been discussed. Azara referred to a belief of some of the people that 
two normally colored kinds of jaguar occur in the region. One of these 
was called the "yagilaret6" and the other, the "yagiiaret&popd,"
thought to be of heavier proportions, and to differ in general color and

arrangement of spots. The latter was also regarded by same as a fiercer 
animal and more dangerous to man. Azara, however, with his usual 
accurate appraisal of evidence discredited this belief and recognized only

one kind, aside from the black phase of the jaguar, or "yagdaret6 negro,"

and his conclusions have been supported by more recent information. 
The concept of two kinds, based apparently upon individual variation, 
led to the naming of Feli8 onca major and Felis onca minor by Fischer. 
The present brief outline of the relationships of the jaguars is the result

of a study of material available in the principal North American mu- 
seums, including the types of most of the described forms. Probably 
for the first time specimens of the jaguar have been assembled in suffi-

cient series to give a clear concept of the ranges of individual, sexual,

age and geographic variations. A total of 101 specimens have been ex- 
amined, as follows: 35 skins and skulls, 57 skulls without skins and 9 
skins without skulls. This is, however, far too small a number for an 
exhaustive revision, and some of the forms remain very imperfectly 
known. The geographic ranges of the forms are given as definitely as 
possible, but are of course very incomplete. A remarkable uniformity 
in the more essential characters of jaguars, regardless of locality, forces

the conclusion that all are assignable to a single species. The ground 
color, and the size and arrangement of spots are so variable that little

dependence can be placed upon them as characters, although slight 
average differences of subspecific value are presented in some cases. 
Changes in size and minor cranial details from region to region are 
fairly constant, however, and serve to differentiate the various closely

allied and obviously intergrading geographic races. Regional modi- 
fications, especially in size, are more irregular than in the puma, in 
which they are quite uniformly progressive from the largest subspecies 
in the northern Rocky Mountains through small tropical representatives 
to another large subspecies in southern Argentina. In the jaguars small 
subspecies may occur in close proximity to larger ones. An example is 

Felis onca goldmani of Campeche, Mexico, the smallest of jaguars, which 
is replaced in the neighboring states of Tabasco and Vera Cruz by a 
much larger animal. 
For the loan of specimens we are greatly indebted to Mr. H. E. 
Anthony, American Museum of Natural History, New York City; 
Dr. W. H. Osgood, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois; 
Mr. F. W. Miller, Colorado Museum of Natural History, Denver, Colo- 
rado; Dr. G. M. Allen, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass.; Mr. J. Kenneth Doutt, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania; Mr. John M. Phillips of Pittsburgh, and to Mr. Charles M. B. 
Cadwalader and Mr. James A. G. Rehn, Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, for especially valuable material obtained by the Matto 
Grosso Expedition in Southern Brazil. 
Specimens examined, unless otherwise indicated, are in the United 
States National Museum. 
Felis onca Linn6 
[References under subspecies] 
Distribution.-Nearly transcontinental; found at the lower altitudes from
Grand Canyon, Arizona, southern New Mexico, and central Texas south at least

to the Parana Valley, central Argentina. Mainly tropical in dispersal; not

usually ascending into the colder belts at high altitudes. 
General characters.-Size large-the largest of American cats. Form robust.

Tail relatively short and tapering. Ears small, short and rounded, without

elongated terminal tufts. Pelage short and rather bristly. Upper parts pro-

fusely spotted at all ages. Similar in general appearance to Felis pardus
of the 
Old World, but differing notably as follows: Form more robust; skull presenting

differential details, especially the relatively shorter canines; lower canines

scarcely reaching plane of lower border of anterior nares (in pardus reaching
above this plane); canine longitudinal grooves absent or obsolescent; tail
and tapering; large pads, especially on soles of front feet, more evenly
black rings outlining spots or rosettes similar to those of F. pardus, those
on sides 
tending to enclose one or more small black spots (usually absent in pardus).

Color.-Ground color of upper parts varying from light ochraceous buff or

pale straw color to light golden tawny or tan color, nearly uniform over
dorsal area from top of head to base of tail, becoming gradually paler to
cinnamon buff or light buff on checks, sides of neck, lower part of flanks
and outer 
surfaces of legs; body in general heavily spotted with black; dorsum, except

median line on posterior part of back and sides, marked by irregularly circular
crescentic or broken spots that tend to form rosettes or enclose smaller
spots in 
a darker field than the general ground color; median line on posterior part
of back 
bearing elongated, solid black spots that tend to present an irregular lateral

paired arrangement or to become confluent; top and sides of head, neck, and
marked by smaller black spots; under parts and inner surfaces of legs white,


heavily spotted with black; throat, under side of neck and inner sides of
marked with more or less confluent black spots that tend to form transverse
upper surface of muzzle varying from pinkish buff to clay color, unspotted;

cheeks, forehead, and feet with small, rounded black spots; upper and lower

lips white near middle, becoming abruptly black toward angles of mouth; outer

sides of ears deep black, with small buffy median spots; inner sides of ears
clothed with whitish hairs; tail with crowded, irregular black markings,
on basal half above by narrow pinkish huffy or cinnamon buffy interspaces,
coming white below and toward tip, which is usually black. Some of the sub-

species average darker than others; in some individuals the ground color
is darker 
and richer than in others from the same locality. Average differences in
the size 
and form of rosettes may be of subspecific value, but individual variation
is ex- 
traordinary. No two animals are exactly alike and the spots may differ even

on the right and left sides of the same individual. 
Remarks.-Felis onca is subdivisible into very closely allied subspecies or

geographic races. The males are larger than the females but males of a small

form may be exceeded in size by females of a large form. In addition to larger

sizes, as compared with females, the skulls of males are usually recognizable
their angularity, especially the greater development of the sagittal and
crests. Individual variation covers a wide range and adds to the difficulty
making accurate identifications. The most reliable distinguishing characters

for the various subspecies are the differing combinations of size and cranial
tails as presented by average individuals. The following features are subject
important modifications: Form of the skull in upper outline; height and inflation

of frontal region; width of rostrum; form of nasals; development of lambdoid

crest; width and depth of interpterygoid fossa; form of audital bullae (with

allowance for great individual variation); and size of teeth, especially
the canines. 
Felis onca onca Linn6 
East Brazilian Jaguar 
[Felis] onca Linn6, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, vol. 1, 1758, p. 42. 
Type locality.-Pernambuco (now Rlcife), Brazil (fixed by Thomas, Proc. Zool.

Soc. London, 1910, p. 136, Mar., 1911). 
Di8tribution.-Extreme eastern Brazil west and north to the lower Amazon.

General characters.-A large subspecies approaching paraguensis, but skull

smaller; frontal region less elevated behind postorbital processes; temporal
tending to unite to form the sagittal crest farther anteriorly; sagittal
and lamb- 
doid crests strongly developed, much as in paraguensis; audital bullae more
inflated; dentition heavy. Compared with major of Surinam the skull is de-

cidedly larger, with relatively much more prominent sagittal and lambdoid

crests. The original description of mexianae indicates that the skull of
onca differs from it in larger size and probably in other details. For cranial

measurements see table, p. 232. 
Remarks.-F. oncea was based by Linn6 upon early accounts of the jaguar in

Brazil. Of the species he merely says, "Habitat in America Meridionali."

Unfortunately no specimens from near the type locality of onca, as fixed
Thomas, are available for our study. In the absence of such material we have


regarded skulls from the valley of the Rio Tocantins as the most likely,
those at hand, to represent this form, and have used them as a basis for

Measurements.-No external measurements available. Skull (see table, p. 232).

Specimens examined.-Three, from Brazil, as follows: 
PARA: Lower Amazon, 1 (skull only'); Tocantins River Valley, 2 (skulls only).

Felis onca coxi, subsp. nov. 
Espiritu Santo Jaguar 
Type.-From north of Rio Doce, Espiritu Santo, Brazil. No. 256388 [9 ad.],

skull only, U. S. National Museum, collected by W. T. Cox, 1931. 
Distribution.-Eastern Minas Geraes and Espiritu Santo, Brazil; limits of

range unknown. 
General characters.-A small, light buffy or straw-colored subspecies. Much

smaller than its geographic neighbors, typical onca or the Matto Grosso animal,

described beyond, resembling the latter in color but differing from both
in cranial 
Color.-Skin from upper Rio Doce, Minas Geraes: Ground color of upper parts

in general light ochraceous buff or yellowish straw color, slightly darker
the rosettes than in the interspaces, becoming still paler, less yellowish,
and near 
light buff on sides of neck, flanks, and outer surfaces of legs; black spots
rosettes rather large and heavy, some enclosing smaller spots as in the other
black spots large, irregular, and partly confluent along median line on posterior

part of back; under parts and inner surfaces of legs white, heavily spotted
black; tail with irregular heavy black markings throughout its length, separated

by narrow interspaces, light buffy near base above, becoming white thinly
with black toward tip and white below. 
Skull.--Cranium small, with a low sagittal crest and well-developed lambdoid

crest. Compared with that of subspecies onca the skull is much smaller; frontal

region more constricted immediately behind postorbital processes; bullae
tively broader, somewhat flatter posteriorly near line of contact with exoccipitals.

Very much smaller, less angular than that of F. o. milleri, the Matto Grosso

jaguar; frontal region much less highly arched, the sides most deeply constricted

immediately behind postorbital processes (sides of frontals inflated behind

postorbital processes in Matto Grosso form); fronto-parietal suture more
transverse instead of forming a narrow V pointing forward on the median line.

Measurements.-Flat tanned skin from upper Rio Doce, Minas Geraes: Total 
length, 2190 mm.; tail, 565. Skull (see table, p. 232). 
Remarks.-F. o. coxi contrasts strongly in size with its much larger geo-

graphic neighbors in the Parana and Paraguay river valleys. Two skulls re-

ceived many years ago from Herman von Ihering, and probably taken in the

general vicinity of S~o Paulo, were at first assigned here but seem referable
the form described on p. 228. This new subspecies is named for the collector

of the type, Mr. W. T. Cox, in recognition of his extensive studies of wild
Specimens examined.-Total number, 4, as follows: 
I Collection Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

MINAs GERAES: Near Rio Doce, near eastern part of state, 1 (skull only);

upper Rio Doce, 1 (skin only). 
EsPIRITU SANTO: North of Rio Doce (type locality), 2. 
Fells onca milleri, subsp. nov. 
Matto Grosso Jaguar 
Type.-From Descalvados, Matto Grosso, Brazil. No. 26552, 9 adult, skin 
and skull, Field Museum of Natural History, collected by Mrs. Marshall Field,

August 4, 1926. 
Distribution.-Upper part of Paraguay River Valley, in southwestern Brazil

and southeastern Bolivia. 
General characters.-One of the largest of the jaguars-about equalling para-

guensis. Ground color of upper parts pale-near light ochraceous buff. Skull

larger than in onca, and differing in detail. Much larger than coxi of southeastern

Color.-Type: Ground color of upper parts in general, including outer surfaces

of forelegs and thighs, light ochraceous buff, slightly darker in tone within
rosettes than in the interspaces, paling to near light buff on sides of neck,
and feet; black rings of rosettes large and most of them broken, enclosing
one to 
four or five small black spots; black spots narrow and elongated along median

line of back posteriorly; black spots on head and outer sides of legs large;
parts and inner surfaces of legs white, interrupted by large irregular black
tail with irregular heavy black markings, separated by narrow interspaces,

ground color light oehraceous buff near base above, becoming white thinly
with black toward tip, and white below. In a very young individual from Co-

rumbA, Brazil, the spots on the upper parts are angular and closely crowded

leaving uniformly narrow interspaces and forming a well defined, reticulated

Skull.-Closely resembling that of paraguensi3 in large size, massiveness
angularity, but upper outline more arched, rising higher behind postorbital

processes; frontal region broader and higher, the sides more expanded below

temporal ridges; posterior nares and interpterygoid fossa narrower and deeper,

the interpterygoid space more deeply concave as viewed from below; nasals

broader, the anterior ends usually more divergent, narrowing more abruptly

posteriorly; parietals developed forward and encroaching farther on frontals

along sagittal crest than in most subspecies; dentition similar to paraguensis
molariform teeth rather light. Compared with onca the skull is larger; frontal

region more elevated behind postorbital processes, the sides 'distended and

bulging more prominently below temporal ridges; temporal ridges tending to

unite to form the sagittal crest farther posteriorly; sagittal and lambdoid
strongly developed, as in onca; audital bullae less fully inflated; dentition
Compared with that of coxi, the skull is much larger; frontal region more
arched, the sides constricted farther posteriorly near fronto-parietal suture.

Measurements.-Type (tanned skin): Total length, 1880 mm.; tail, 475. Skull

(see table, p. 232). An adult male topotype (in flesh): Total length, 2419
tail vertebrae, 665; hind foot, 302. Another adult male topotype: Weight
platform scale), 290 lbs. An adult female topotype (in flesh): Total length,

2116 mm.; tail vertebrae, 604; hind foot, 255. 

Remarks.-As the geographic range of the present form closely adjoins that
paraguensis the cranial peculiarities noted are remarkable. This case is
lelled, however, by similarly abrupt modification of characters along geographic

lines elsewhere. The new subspecies is named for Mr. F. W. Miller who, in
nection with his work for the Colorado Museum of Natural History, has made
important contribution to knowledge of the mammals of southern Matto Grosso.

Mr. Miller referred specimens from Descalvados to F. ramsayi, which he proposed

as a substitute name for F. paraguensis as indicated in our remarks under
Specimens examined.-Total number, 19, all from Matto Grosso, Brazil as 
Corumbb, 5 (2, skulls only); sDescalvados, 13; $Lake Uberaba (on boundary

between Brazil and Bolivia), 1 (skull only). 
Felis onca paraguensis Hollister 
Paraguay Jaguar 
Felis paraguensis Hollister, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 48, p. 169, Dec.
16, 1914 
(1915). Type No. 4128, [0] adult, U. S. National Museum, collected by Capt.

T. J. Page, about 1860. 
Felis notialis Hollister, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 48, p. 170, Dec. 16,
1914 (1915). 
Type from San Jos6, Entre Rios, Argentina, No. 4361, J 9 ] adult, U. S. National

Museum, collected by Capt. T. J. Page, August, 1860. 
Felis ramsayi F. W. Miller, Journ. Mamm., vol. 11, no. 1, p. 14, Feb. 11,
Substitute name for F. paraguensis. 
Felis o[nca] paraguen.sis Barbour, Records North Amer. Big Game, Dec., 1932,
Type locality.-Paraguay. 
Distribution.-Paraguay, adjoining part of Parana River Valley, Brazil, and

northeastern Argentina. 
General characters.-One of the largest of the jaguars. Color undetermined

but probably similar to milleri. Skull about like that of milleri in size
angularity, but frontals less elevated behind postorbital processes, the
sides less 
expanded below temporal ridges; posterior nares and interpterygoid fossa
and shallower, the interpterygoid space less deeply concave; nasals narrower,

tapering more gradually to posterior ends; dentition similar but molariform
rather heavy. 
Measurements.-No external measurements'available. Skull (see table, p. 232).

Remarks.-No skins of paraguesis have been examined by us and the color, 
therefore, has not been determined. F. notialis was based upon a skull regarded

by the describer as that of a male, but which, with the advantage of more
for comparison appears to us to be that of a female. It agrees closely in
characters with the type of paraguensis. Feli8 ramsayi, was proposed by F.
Miller as a substitute name for Felis paraguensis on the ground that the
Collection Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
3 One in Field Mus. Nat. Hist.; 3 in Colorado Mus. Nat. Hist.; 9 in Acad.
Sci. Phila. 

was preoccupied by Panthera paragayensis. This name, however, was applied

to an ocelot by Oken in 1816. A substitute name takes the same type specimen

as that of the name replaced and therefore F. ramsayi has the same type as
paraguensi8. Oken consistently wrote "Paragay" for Paraguay and
the differ- 
ently-formed derivatives from such different names are not regarded by us
synonymous. F. ramsayi is therefore a synonym of F. paraguensi8. 
Specimens ezamined.-Total number, 4, as follows: 
ARGENTINA: San Jos6, Entre Rios, 1 (skull only-type of notialis). 
BRAZIL: Campo Grande, Matto Grosso, 1 (skull only). 
PARAGUAY: Puerto Pinasco, 170 kilometers west of Riacho Salado (in dis- 
puted territory), 1 (skull only); without definite locality, 1 (skull only-

Fells onca paulensis, subsp. nov. 
Southeast Brazilian Jaguar 
Type.-SAo Paulo region, southeastern Brazil (exact locality undetermined).

No. 100123, [ 91 adult, skull only, U. S. National Museum (Biological Survey

collection), received from Herman von Ihering, June, 1900. 
Distribution.-So Paulo region; probably widely distributed in southeastern

General characters.-Size very large-about as in milleri and paraguerwis,

but differing in cranial details from both. Differing from cozi most notably
much larger size. 
Skull.--Closely approaching that of coxi in general form, but much larger,

more massive and angular; sagittal crest much more strongly developed; tem-

poral ridges more abruptly curved inward, uniting to form the sagittal crest

farther forward. Similar in size and angularity to milleri and paraguensis,
cluding the prominent sagittal and lambdoid crests, and dentition about the
Distinguished from milleri by much narrower, less distended frontal region
diately behind postorbital processes; temporal ridges more abruptly curved
ward, uniting to form the sagittal crest farther forward; interpterygoid
similarly narrow, but shallower. Differing from paraguensis in broader frontal

region behind postorbital processes; bony palate decidedly narrower in front
interpterygoid fossa, interpterygoid fossa narrower, but deeper. 
Measurement,.-No external measurements available. Skull (type): Greatest

length, 266.2; condylobasal length, 235.5; zygomatic breadth, 175.4; width
rostrum (behind canines), 70.5; interorbital constriction, 47.7; width across

mastoid processes, 111.5; width of interpterygoid fossa, 23.8; upper canine-pre-

molar series (alveoli), 76.3; crown length upper carnassial, 26.6; diameter
canine (antero-posterior), 20.8. 
Remarks.-Felis onca paulensis is based upon three skulls-one of an adult

male in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, labelled S~o Paulo,

and received from E. D. Cope many years ago, and two adult females in the
U. S. 
National Museum, from the general region, received in June, 1900, from Herman

von Ihering. This material is unsatisfactory, owing to the lack of more exact

locality data, but the three skulls agree so closely among themselves, and

collectively so uniformly in important details from the neighboring forms
subspecific recognition seems warranted. Unfortunately no skins are available

and the color must be left for later determination. 
Felis onca boliviensis, subsp. nov. 
Bolivian Jaguar 
Type.-From Buena Vista, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. No. 34344, [d1 adult, skin 
and skull, Field Museum of Natural History, collected by J. Steinbach in
Original number 1462. 
Dt8tribution.-Lower eastern slopes of Andes in central Bolivia, limits of
General characters.-Similar in general to milleri but smaller and ground
of upper parts darker and richer in tone; cranial characters distinctive.
ently differing from the little known form peruviana, of the coast region
of Peru, 
in cranial details, especially the more oblique position of the paroccipital
mastoid processes. 
Color.-Type: Ground color of upper parts in general, including outer surfaces

of forelegs and thighs, near cinnamon buff, slightly darker in tone within
rosettes than in the interspaces, becoming paler buff on sides of neck, flanks,
on feet, the ground color along sides of body fading gradually into white
of under 
parts; rosettes large and forming numerous complete circles or rings, but
outlined, most of them enclosing one to four or five smaller spots; black
spots on 
head and outer sides of legs of medium size; under parts and inner surfaces
of legs 
white, with the large black spots or irregular blotches usual in the group;
tail with 
irregular black markings, separated by narrow interspaces, light cinnamon
near base above, becoming white thinly mixed with black toward tip, and white

below. In a topotype the ground color above is of a brighter, richer cinnamon

buff than in the type. 
Skull.-Similar in general to that of millen, but smaller, with upper outline

more evenly arched; frontal region narrower, higher, more convex in front
postorbital processes, less elevated and less bulging laterally as well as
behind postorbital processes; postorbital constriction near postorbital processes

instead of farther posteriorly near fronto-parietal suture as in milleri;
crown of 
carnassials, above and below, actually longer, therefore relatively decidedly

longer, measured antero-posteriorly; canines about the same. Apparently differ-

ing from peruviana in the flatter, less highly arched upper outline; postorbital

constriction nearer postorbital processes; paroccipital and mastoid processes

more oblique in relation to axis of skull (paroccipital and mastoid processes
more nearly the same transverse plane in peruviana as shown in Blainville's
illustration of the type); nasals broader. 
Measurements.-Type (tanned skin): Total length, 2055 mm.; tail, 610. Skull

(see table, p. 232). 
Remarks.-In view of geographical contiguity boliviensis exhibits a surprising

departure from milleri in cranial details and the more vivid color of the
parts seems to be distinctive. No specimens of peruviana are available, and

the exact relationship of boliviensis to that form remains to be determined.
boliviensis differs, however, from Blainville's figures of the skull of the
type of 

peruviana, and the great range of geographic variation in the species would

argue against the occurrence of the same forms east and west of the great
wall of 
the Andes. 
Specimens examined.-Three' (3 skins and 2 skulls), from the type locality.

Fells onca peruviana Blainville 
Peruvian Jaguar 
Felis onca peruviana Blainville, Ost6og. Icon. Mamm. R6c. et Foss., vol.
2, fasc. 
12, genre Felis, p. 186; ibid., atlas, pl. 8, 1843. 
Type locality.-Peru (probably from the coast region). 
Distribution.-Believed to be the coastal region of Peru; limits of range

General characters.-Apparently a rather large subspecies with paroccipital

and mastoid processes in more nearly the same transverse plane in relation
longitudinal axis of skull than in the other forms; frontal region broad,
posteriorly; nasals narrow, evenly tapering to an acute point posteriorly.

Remark.-Blainville (L.c.) in explanation of the plate illustrations of the
of the jaguar accompanying his work used the name F. onca, without description,

for several figures, including the profile and upper and lower views of the
of a female from Peru. Under the Peruvian figures on the plate, however,
is the 
legend "F. onca peruviana 9," which seems to provide a valid name
for a Peruvian 
subspecies. The animal was given alive to the menagerie by Rear Admiral 
d'Urville and, therefore, probably came from the coast region. In view of
general principles that govern geographic distribution of species it is unlikely

that the same subspecies occurs to the east and west of the Andes, which,
like a great wall, probably bars the easy passage of these great cats from
one side 
to the other. Blainville's figures indicate cranial peculiarities, but were
from a menagerie animal and may not be entirely trustworthy. As no specimens

of peruviana are available its exact relationship to the other subspecies
to be determined. 
Fels onca ucayalae, subsp. nov. 
Upper Amazon Valley Jaguar 
Type.-From Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, Peru. No. 76451, cI adult, skin and 
skull, American Museum of Natural History; collected by the Olalla brothers,

May 1, 1927. 
Distribution.-Ucayali and Marafion river valleys, northeastern Peru, and

probably beyond in neighboring parts of the upper Amazon drainage. 
General characters.-Similar to boliviensis, but larger; rosettes heavily
and black spots on head, limbs, and under parts larger than usual in the
skull differing from those of onca and bolivienais in detail, especially
the narrowly 
spreading zygomata. Apparently differing from peruviana in cranial features.

Color.-Type: Ground color of upper parts in general near cinnamon buff; 
rosettes large and heavy, several of those in the mid-dorsal region with
' Collection Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 

outlines, enclosing one or two small black spots; black spots on head, legs
under parts very large. 
SkuU.-Similar to that of boliviensis, but larger, more elongated; zygomata

relatively less widely spreading; squamosal arm of zygoma more strongly de-

veloped; rostrum broader; temporal ridges more abruptly curved inward, and

uniting to form a sagittal crest farther anteriorly; dentition similar. Apparently

differing from peruviana in broader nasals, more abruptly narrowing near
terior ends, and in more oblique mastoid and paroccipital processes in relation
axis of skull. Compared wfth that of major the skull is larger; zygomata
tively less widely spreading; frontal region narrower; lambdoid crest much

broader, more strongly developed; dentition heavier. 
Measurements.-Type (tanned skin): Total length, 1982 mm.; tail, 523. Skull

(see table, p. 232). 
Remarks.-F. o. ucayalae is based mainly on a fine male specimen which we

have been unable to refer to any other form. The skull differs from Blainville's

plate illustration of peruviana which presumably came from west of the great
of the Andes, but the exact relationship of ucayalae to that subspecies must
left for later determination. A skull from Moyobamba is very doubtfully in-

cluded here, as it exhibits a departure especially in the shallow depth of
interpterygoid fossa, a character similar to that of the geographically distant

form paraguensis. In a skin from Rio Napo the rosettes are more broken and
small enclosed black spots are more numerous than in the type. 
Specimens ezamined.-Three, all from Peru,5 as follows: 
Rio Napo (near Iquitos), 1 (skin only); Moyobamba, 1 (skull only); Sarayacu,

Rio Ucayali, 1 (type). 
Felis onca major Fischer 
Surinam Jaguar 
[Felis onca] major Fischer, Syn. Mamm., Addenda, 1830, p. 366 (= 566). 
Type locality.-Surinam. 
Distribution.-Northern South America from Surinam west through British 
Guiana and extreme northern Brazil to western Venezuela. 
General characters.-A medium sized cinnamon buffy subspecies, with outer

rings of rosettes usually broken, but irregularly encircling one to four
or five small 
black spots; skull with a narrow, weakly developed lambdoid crest combined
rather heavy dentition. Skull smaller than that of onca, with much less promi-

nent sagittal and lambdoid crests. Ground color of upper parts about as in
lae, but rosettes more broken than in the type of the latter; skull smaller,
relatively reduced lambdoid crest and more widely spreading zygomata. Similar

in color to centralis; skull larger with decidedly heavier dentition and
less strongly 
developed lambdoid crest. 
Measurements.-An adult male from Serra da Lua, Amazonas, Brazil: Total 
length, 1775 mm.; tail vertebrae, 583; hind foot, 240, Skull (see table,
p. 232). 
Remarks.-The name major was based by Fischer on the "Jaguar, great var."

of Hamilton Smith (Griffith, in Cuvier's Anim. King., vol. 2, p. 455, and
Coll. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 

Cranial measurements of jaguars (all measurements in millimeters) 
P4                  0 
Z         04                  E. Z~~~ 
SUBSPECIES                       LOCALITY                   NUMBER     .
  4     B    0         C z. 
.4                             0, t4 Z4 
ki    <                  M0     w       ,  4r 
Adult males 
Felis onca onca        Brazil: Tocantins Valley, Para            256385 
  296.3253.5 204.8 76.6 57.5125.8 28.1 81.828.5 22 
Felis onca milleri     Brazil: CorumbA, Matto Grosso              37503,
  302  277  207    80.5 57       22    86.428.2 22.8 
Felis onca paraguensis Paraguay                                    4128b
  295.5264   195   77.5 55.5 122.229.2 83.529   21 
Felis onca boliviensis  Bolivia: Buena Vista, Santa Cruz          34344b,c
266  236.5 175.5 68.2 47  112.5 21.1 81.528.5 21 
Felis onca ucayalae    Peru: Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali                76451,,b
274.9245.5 173.8 73.9 49.4112.222.1 78   29.2 20.8 
Felis onca major       Surinam                                     9505d
  264  241.9 182.3 73.9 54.4111  24.2 82   28.7 20.7 
Felis onca mexianae    Brazil: Mexiana Island                           
             180                           28 
Felis onca centralis   Costa Rica: Talamanca                      14177b
  250.5219.5 169.5 63.8 41.5 101  22.3 72.525.5 20 
Felis onca goldmani    Guatemala: Laguna El Sotz, Peten          249823 
  237.5217.8 166.5 64.9 44  100.5 21.3 72  23.5 19 
Felis onca hernandesii  Mexico: Agua Brava, Sinaloa               25008 
            177.5 72    53.5 107.5 21.6 74.226.8 18.4 
Felis onca veraecrucis  Mexico: San Andres Tuxtla, Vera Cruz      67403b
  279  247.4 180   72.3 50  111.723    77.528   21.3 
Felis onca arizonensis  Arizona: Cibecue                         244507b
  273  237.5 187   74.5 51  111.520    81  28   20.4 
Adult females 
Felis onca coxi        Brazil: North of Rio Doce, Espiritu Santo  256388b
 219.5 198.4 149.4 58.5 43  91  20    67.3 24.1 16.1 
Felis onca milleri     Brazil: Descalvados, Matto Grosso          26552b.'
267.8 238  175.4 70.3 51.5 110.9 23.9 77.527.8 20 
Felis onca paraguensis Argentina: San Jos6, Entre Rios             4361 
  261  232.3 175.5 72.3 43.8 107.8 27.8 79  30.8 20.8 
Felis onca boliviensis  Bolivia: Buena Vista Santa Cruz           21378,
  242.4 212  160  65.8 47    97.3 24.6 74.5 28.5 18.8 
Felis onca major       Venezuela: Caura Vailey                   137039 
  239  214.3 163.3 65.5 47  101.4 24.1 71  27.7 18.1 
Felis onca mexianae    Brazil: Mexiana Island                           
            160                            25.8 
Felis onca madeirae    Brazil: Auari Igarap6, Rio Madeira         91702,,b
224  203  150.5 62    44.7 95.719.5 70.325.7 17.4 
Felis onca centralis   Salvador: Conchagua Volcano                 8003 
  231.5207.7156.2 63.5 43.8 99  21.9 71.3125.9 17 
Felis onca goldmani    Campeche La Tuxpefla, Champoton          179171  
 204  187.8 143.8 55   38.8 85.5 20  64.924.4 16.7 
Felis onca hernandesii  Mexico: Near Colima, Colima                6480 
  218.8199.5154.8 62.6 44.8 93.1120.8 70125.8 18 
Felis onca arizonensis  Arizona: Greaterville                    231961 
  217.5 192.4 155.3 64.6 44.3 96  21.3 68.825.1 16.4 
Coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
b Type. 
Col . Field Mus. Nat. Nist. 
d Coll. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

text fig., 1827). While in America Hamilton Smith, according to Griffith,
fied himself there were two distinct varieties of the Jaguar, differing principally

in dimensions." One of his two figures, drawn from an animal from Surinam,

bears the legend "The Jaguar, Great var? F. onca L." The other
(L.c., colored 
text fig. opposite p. 456) representing a smaller, paler animal from America,
without definite locality, is inscribed "The Jaguar. Small or common
var. F. 
onca L." On the latter Fischer founded [Felis oncal minor. As the name
was clearly applied to Smith's figure of an animal from Surinam it may be
cepted as valid for the form inhabiting that country. The name minor of Fischer,

however, without locality is unidentifiable. 
Specimens examined.-Total number, 12, as follows: 
BRAZIL: Frechal, Rio Surumu, 1;6 Serra da Lua (near B6a Vista), 3 (skulls

only). 7 
BRITISH GUIANA: Georgetown, 1 (skull only);7 Kartabo, 1.6 
SURINAM: Without definite locality, 1 (skull only).S 
VENEZUELA: Caura Valley, 1; Maracaibo (market), 2 (1 skin only; 1 skull 
only) ;7 Maripa, 1 ;1 Rio Orinoco (mouth of Rio Ocamo), 1 (skull only).8

Felis onca mexianae Hagmann 
Mexiana Island Jaguar 
Felis onca var. mexianae Hagmann, Archiv. Rassen- und Gesellsch.-Biologie,
5, p. 10, Jan.-Mar., 1908. Type in Strassburg Museum. 
Type locality.-Mexiana Island, estuary of Amazon River, Brazil. 
Distribution.-Known only from Mexiana Island. 
General characters.-Described as smaller than mainland animals from the 
vicinity of the Rio Tapajoz and southern Brazil. Skull measurements of largest

adult male and female, respectively (from original description): Basilar
210 and 186 mm.; zygomatic breadth, 180 and 160; width across maxillae over
nines, 70 and 64; length of upper carnassial, 28 and 25.8. 
Remarks.-F. o. mexianae was based upon seven skulls from Mexiana Island.

The measurements indicate a smaller animal than that of the adjacent mainland,

but no specimens have been examined by us and the exact relationship to the
forms remains to be determined. As Mexiana is one of the outer islands in
estuary of the Amazon the occurrence of a small jaguar there suggests that
same or a similar form may inhabit other islands in the delta of the river.

Felis onca madeirae, subsp. nov. 
Rio Madeira Jaguar 
Type.-From Auard Igarap6 (above Borba), Rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brazil, 
No. 91702, 9 adult, skin and skull, American Museum of Natural History; col-

lected by Olalla brothers, March 15, 1930. Original number 1991. 
Distribution.-Valley of the Rio Madeira; limits of range unknown. 
6 Coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
I Coll. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 
8 Coll. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

General characters.-A small, rather rich cinnamon buff subspecies; black
of rosettes heavily outlined in the type, and enclosing a few small black
Similar in general to onca, but decidedly smaller. Not very unlike coxi but

larger, darker, and richer in general color, and cranial characters distinctive.

Differing from major in smaller size and cranial details, especially in the
tively greater development of the lambdoid crest. 
Color.-Type: Ground color of upper parts in general near cinnamon buff, very

slightly darker within the rosettes than in the interspaces; rosettes of
size, heavily outlined, a few near mid-dorsal area irregular in form, completely

closed, others consisting of nearly closed rings; three or four only containing

each a single small black central spot; black spots on head, legs, and under
of medium size. 
Skull.-Similar to that of onca but decidedly smaller, less arched in upper

outline; frontal region flatter; interpterygoid fossa very narrow; dentition
Much smaller than that of major, with relatively broader, more strongly pro-

jecting lambdoid crest; interpterygoid fossa relatively narrower; dentition

relatively lighter. Similar in general to that of coxi, but larger; interpterygoid

fossa actually as well as relatively narrower; dentition much heavier. 
Measurements.-Type (tanned skin): Total length, 1610 mm.; tail, 465. Skull

(see table, p. 232). 
Remarks.-The present form is based on a single specimen from near the center

of the great valley of the Amazon. While close relationship to neighboring
is indicated the characters pointed out seem to warrant subspecific recognition.

Felis onca centralis Mearns 
Central American Jaguar 
Felis centralis Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 14, p. 139, Aug.
9, 1901. 
Type No. 14177, [e] adult, skull only, U. S. National Museum, collected by

W. M. Gabb. 
Felis onca centralis Goldman, Smiths., Misc. Coll., vol. 69, no. 5, p. 166,
Type locality.-Talamanca, Costa Rica (probably near Sipurio, in the valley

of the Rio Sicsola). 
Distribution.-Central America north to Salvador and along the Pacific coast

probably to near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; south to Guaduas, Cundinamarca,

General characters.-A rather small form. closely resembling hernandesii but

apparently averaging slightly darker; ground color of upper parts cinnamon
instead of light ochraceous buff, the prevailing tone in the latter; black
rings considerably broken; skull very similar to that of hernandesii, but
less depressed anteriorly, more highly arched as viewed from the front. Similar

in color to major, but skull smaller with decidedly lighter dentition and
strongly developed lambdoid crest. Differing from goldmani mainly in decidedly

larger size. 
Measurements.-No external measurements in the flesh available. Skull (see

table, p. 232). 
Remarks.-The close agreement of centralis and hernandesii in general charac-

ters is rather remarkable, in view of their geographically widely separated

Some specimens of both forms are practically indistinguishable but the combina-

tion of slight characters pointed out is usually distinctive. 
Specimens examined.-Total number, 10, as follows: 
COLOMBIA: Guaduas, Cundinamarca, 1 (skull only). 
COSTA RICA: Pozo Azul, 1 (skull only); without definite locality, 1 (skull

NICARAGUA: Province of Zelaya, 1 (skull only); San Rafael del Norte, 1.,

PANAMA: Atlantic side, 1 (skull only);" Boca de Cupe, 1;1 Rio Peluca,
1 (skull 
only);10 Tapalisa, 1.' 
SALVADOR: Conchagua Volcano, La Union, 1 (skull only). 
Felis onca goldmani Mearns 
Yucatan Peninsula Jaguar 
Felis hernandesii goldmani Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 14,
p. 142, 
Aug. 9, 1901. Type No. 105930, skin only, U. S. National Museum, collected

by E. A. Goldman, Jan. 5, 1901. 
Felis onca goldmani Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 45, p. 144,
Type locality.-Yohaltun, Campeche, Mexico. 
Distribution.-The peninsula of Yucatan, south to northern Guatemala and 
probably British Honduras. 
General characters.-Size smallest of the jaguars. Black markings small, in

keeping with diminutive body dimensions. Most closely resembling centralis,

but smaller; ground color of upper parts about the same in cinnamon buffy
and rosettes similarly broken; skull smaller, less angular, the sagittal
and lamb- 
doid crests less developed. 
Measurements.-No external measurements in the flesh available. Skull (see

table, p. 232). 
Remarks.-The diminutive size of this jaguar at once distinguishes it from
of the other subspecies. It presents a remarkable contrast with the large
of Vera Cruz, described beyond, although there is only a short distance between

the ranges of the two, and intergradation may confidently be assumed. 
Specimens examined.-Total number, 10, as follows: 
CAMPECHE: La Tuxpefia, Champoton, 3 (2 skulls only, 1 skin only); Yohaltun,

1 (type-skin only). 
GUATEMALA: Laguna El Sotz, Peten, 2 (skulls only); Lake Peten, 2 (skulls

only); La Libertad, 1; Remote, Peten, 1 (skull only). 
Felis onca hemandesii (Gray) 
West Mexican Jaguar 
Leopardus hernandesii Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, p. 278, pl. 58.
scribed from an individual in the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London.

Felis hernandesii Mearns, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 14, p. 141, Aug.
9 Coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
10 Coll. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Felis onca hernandesii Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 45, p.
Sept. 9, 1932. 
Type locality.-Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico. 
Distribution.-Western Mexico from Sinaloa south to the Isthmus of Tehuan-

General characters.-A rather small subspecies, closely resembling centralis,

but apparently averaging slightly paler, the ground color of upper parts
but near light ochraceous buff, instead of cinnamon buff; black rings of
usually rather small and considerably broken, the number of small enclosed

spots varying to as many as nine; skull very similar to that of centralis,
but nasals 
more depressed anteriorly, less highly arched as viewed from the front. Ap-

proaching arizonensis in color and depressed condition of nasals, but smaller

and the nasal character less extreme in development; interpterygoid fossa
more widely, the lateral margins usually less strongly turned inward. Differing

from goldmani in decidedly larger size, and in about the same cranial details
from centralis. 
Remarks.-The range of hernandesii is separated from that of the jaguar of

eastern Mexico, described later, by the southward thrust of the central highlands

that form an effective, wedge-shaped barrier broadly separating the two northern

forms of the species. The extensively broken rings of the rosettes, described
depicted by Gray and varying widely in all forms, seem to be fairly constant
as an 
average character. 
Specimens examined.-Total number, 16, as follows: 
COLIMA: Coast Range (below Colima City), 1 (skull only);11 Colima, 1 (skull

GUERRERO: Acapulco, 1 (skull only), 3 (skins only); Papayo, 1. 
NAYARIT: San Blas, 1 (skull only). 
OAXACA: Chivela, 1 (skull only); Tehuantepec, 2 (skulls only). 
SINALOA: Agua Brava, 1;11 Escuinapa (about 40 miles south of type locality

and regarded as typical), 4.11 
Felis onca veraecrucis, subsp. nov. 
Northeastern Jaguar 
Type.-From San Andres Tuxtla, Vera Cruz, Mexico. No. 67403, d' adult, 
skull only, U. S. National Museum (Biological Survey collection), collected
Nelson and Goldman, April 24, 1894. Original number 6090. 
Distribution.-Gulf slope of eastern and southeastern Mexico from the coast

region of Tabasco north through Vera Cruz and Tamaulipas to central Texas.

General characters.-Size largest of the North American subspecies. Color

about as in the other North American forms but rosettes rather large; skull
ing in size and combination of details. 
Color.-Female from Perez, Vera Cruz: Ground color of upper parts in general

pale cinnamon buff, slightly darker within the black rings of the rosettes
as usual 
in the species, and paling gradually to light ochraceous buff on cheeks,
sides of 
neck, flanks, and outer surfaces of legs; black spots and crescentic black
rings of 
1 Coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

rosettes enclosing small black spots rather large and heavy; black spots
confluent along median line on posterior part of back; under parts and inner
face of legs white, heavily spotted with black; outer sides of ears black
cinnamon buff central spots; tail with large irregular black markings, separated

by narrow, light interspaces buffy on basal half above, becoming white toward

ip and below. A specimen from between Aldama and Soto la Marina, Tamauli-

pas, is similarly marked, but the ground color is slightly lighter in tone.
from Goldthwaite, Texas, is somewhat paler, the rosettes are larger, the
rings are more broken, and the posterior median dorsal spots are irregularly

paired instead of confluent. 
Skull.-Somewhat larger and more elongated than that of F. o. arizonensis,
terior nares much higher, the nasals more highly arched, less depressed anteriorly;

interpterygoid fossa wider, the lateral margins less strongly turned inward;

audital bullae usually larger; dentition similar but canines usually larger.
lar to that of hernandesii but decidedly larger, more massive; anterior nares

higher, the nasals more highly arched anteriorly; canines larger. Differing
those of goldmani and centralis mainly in much larger size, the contrast
with goldmani. 
Measurements.-An adult male and female, respectively, from between Aldama

and Soto la Marina, Tamaulipas: Total length, 1,993, 1,574 mm.; tail vertebrae,

533, 432. Skull (see table, p. 232). 
Remarks.-The northeastern jaguar is probably more closely allied to centralis

than to any of the other subspecies. In view of the geographic nearness of
small form, goldmani, which inhabits the Yucatan Peninsula, the disparity
in size 
is remarkable; but intergradation of the two may safely be assumed. 
Specimens examined.-Total number, 8, as follows: 
CHIAPAS: Palenque, 1 (skull only). 
TABASCO: Frontera, 1 (skull only)." 
TAMAULIPAS: Between Aldama and Soto la Marina, 2 (1 skull only).13 
VERA CRUZ: Orizaba, 1 (skull only);4 Perez, 1; San Andres Tuxtla (type 
locality), 1 (skull only). 
TEXAS: Goldthwaite, Mills County, 1. 
Felis onca arizonensis Goldman 
Arizona Jaguar 
Felis onca arizonensis Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 45, p.
Sept. 9, 1932. Type No. 244507, d adult, skin and skull, U. S. National 
Museum (Biological Survey collection), collected by Jack Funk, April 12,

Distribution.-Mountainous parts of eastern Arizona north to the Grand 
Canyon, southern half of western New Mexico, and northeastern Sonora. 
General characters.-A large northern subspecies, distinguished from all the

other races by the flatter, more depressed nasals. Most closely allied to
12 Collection Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
13 Collection Carnegie Mus. 
14 Collection Mus. Comp. Zool. 

desii, general colors and markings much the same, but size larger and cranial

characters distinctive; skull more massive; rostrum broader; nasals much
more depressed anteriorly; anterior nares wider but not as high; interpterygoid

fossa opening narrower. 
Measurements.-Type (tanned skin): Total length, 2145; tail, 660; hind foot,

230. Skull (see table, p. 232). 
Remarks.-F. o. arizonensis reaches the extreme northern limit of the range

of the species at the present time. Formerly it reached, according to the
to southeastern California. While not very abundant it appears to be a regular

resident of southeastern Arizona. 
Specimens examined.-Total number, 5, as follows: 
ARIZONA: Cibecue (type locality), 1; Greaterville, 2; Nogales (20 miles west),

1 (skull only). 
SONORA: West foothills of Sierra Madre, due west of Casas Grandes, Chi- 
huaha, 1 (skull only). 
The nomenclature of the cats is much involved, many names being so vaguely

used, or the accompanying descriptions being so inadequate that correct applica-

tion is very uncertain if not impossible. The following list is believed
to include 
the more important names requiring consideration in relation to the jaguar,
which for various reasons are not regarded as assignable to any particular
No attempt is made to complete the synonymy which would be voluminous. 
1756. Tigris americana Brisson, R~gne Anim., 1756, p. 270. 
Pre-Linnaean use of this name for the jaguar, based on the accounts of 
earlier authors. Habitat in America. 
1756. Tigris nigra Brisson, R~gne Anim., 1756, p. 271. 
Applied to the black phase of the jaguar in Guiana and Brazil. 
1762. Tigris americana Brisson, Regnum Anim., 1762, p. 196. 
Name repeated from his R~gne Animal, 1756, p. 270, for the jaguar. 
Habitat in America. 
1762. Tigris nigra Brisson, Regnum Anim., 1762, p. 196. 
Name repeated from his R~gne Animal, 1756, p. 271 for the black phase of

the jaguar in Guiana and Brazil. 
1769. Tigris americana Fermin, Descrip. Grn., Hist., G6og. et Phys. Colon.

de Surinam, vol. 2, p. 97, 1769. 
Vaguely used in referring to several kinds of spotted cats said to be 
widely distributed in America and found in Surinam. The jaguar probably 
was included in the general discussion, but binomial names are not consist-

ently used by the author, and the name is regarded as unidentifiable. 
Fermin gives no references, but the name had been used by pre-Linnaean 
authors (Brisson, R~gue Anim., 1756, p. 270, and others) for the jaguar 
of Brazil and the general range of the animal. 
1775. Felis panthera Schreber, Die Sdug., pl. 99, 1775; text, theil 3, p.
384, 1777. 
The name F. panthera, is somewhat involved. In Schreber's work the 
name appears only on the plate as "Felis Panthera Buff" which is
a repro- 

duction of the "La Panth~re Femelle" of Buffon (Hist. Nat., vol.
9, pl. 12, 
1761). Buffon's plate is of an individual that had been kept a long time
the menagerie of Versailles. Buffon, p. 151 (op. cit.) assigns the animal
the Old World, but the drawing, showing enclosed spots in a number of the

rosettes, suggests a jaguar. The tail, however, is too long and like that
a leopard. In describing the markings on the sides of the body Buffon 
says there is a small black spot in the center of the "pluspart de ces
neaux." While enclosed spots are much more characteristic in the jaguar

they are sometimes present in a few of the rosettes on the leopard. The 
measurements of Buffon's "panth~re femelle" indicate a proportional

length of tail about as in the jaguar. Buffon evidently was not familiar

with the jaguar and his illustration of the animal (plate 18, op. cit.) almost

certainly represents an ocelot, as shown by the nuchal stripes, body mark-

ings and general proportions, including length of tail. His "Jaguar
de la 
Nouvelle Espagne," described 15 years later (Hist. Nat., Suppl., vol.
p. 218, pl. 39, 1776), appears also to have been an ocelot. Felis panthera

Schreber was, therefore, based upon a confused concept. The bulk of the 
somewhat conflicting evidence seems to favor reference of the name to the

general synonymy of Felis onca rather than to that of F. pardus of the Old

1777. Felis nigra Erxleben, Syst. Regni Anim., 1777, p. 512. 
Based upon Tigris nigra Brisson (R~gne Anim., 1756, p. 271) and the 
black jaguar of other authors. Habitat given as Brazil and Guiana. Evi- 
dently refers to the black or melanistic phase of the jaguar, although 
Erxleben remarked that he was inclined to believe it represented a dark 
variety of Felis concolor. 
1777. Felis discolor Schreber, Die Sdug., theil 3, p. 393, pl. 104 B, 1777.

The name appears only on the plate. The text refers to the "black 
Tiger" of Pennant (Syn. Quad., 1771, p. 180, pl. 18, fig. 2). Comparison
Schreber's plate with that of Pennant shows that the former was redrawn 
from the latter. Pennant assigned the animal to a habitat in Brazil and 
Guiana. This is one of the names used for the black phase of the jaguar,

without definite locality. 
1795. Felis jaguar Link, Beytriige Zur Naturgesch., Zweytes stuck, p. 90,
A renaming of Felis onca. Felis jaguar was used by Temminck (Monog. 
Mamm., vol. 1, 1827, pp. 136, 256) as a common appellation in French for

Felis onca, and was listed by Elliot (Monog. Felidae, 1883, p. unnumbered)

in the synonymy of the species. 
1816. P[anthera] americana Oken, Lehrb. der Naturgesch., theil 3, abt. 2,
pp. 1054, 1061. 
The jaguar is here involved in the use of the name but the description and

references are very loosely drawn. The name is antedated by Tigris 
americana Brisson, 1762, and preoccupied by Tigris americana Fermin, 
1816. P[anthera] mexicana Oken, Lehrb. der Naturgesch., theil 3, abt. 2,
1816, p. 
Under this name Oken listed the "Tlaco-Ozelotl, Tlal-Ocelotl, Catus-

Pardus mexicanus, Panthera americana" and "F. pardalis." Apparently

associated with the last mentioned he says "Die alten Konige von Mexico


240                     JOURNAL OF MAMMALOGY 
hatten dieses Thier um den Thron liegen." The next paragraph under the

same heading, however, begins with     "Jaguar (ist Tlaco-Ocelotl)."

Aside from this confused application the name is preoccupied by Felis 
mexicana Desmarest (Nouv. Dict., vol. 6, p. 112, 1816 edition [original date

of publication about Feb. 4, 1803-see Osgood, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,

vol. 27, p. 3, Feb. 2, 1914]) which was based upon the "Chat Sauvage
de la 
Nouvelle Espagne" of Buffon (Hist. Nat., Suppl., vol. 3, p. 227, pl.
1776). Buffon himself (I.c. p. 228) regarded this as the same as the Serval,

described and figured in his earlier work (Hist. Nat., vol. 13, p. 236, pl.

34, 1765). 
1830. [Felis onca] minor Fischer, Syn. Mamm., Addenda, 1830, p. 366 (= p.
Based on "The Jaguar. Small or common var. F. onca, L." of Hamilton

Smith (Griffith, in Cuvier's Anim. King., vol. 2, p. 456 and colored text

fig., 1827). No locality was given and the name is unidentifiable (See 
remarks under Felis onca major, p. 233). 
1841. Felis onca nigra Wagner, in Schreber's S~iug., Suppl., band 2, abth.,
2, 1841, 
p. 475. 
Reference under Felis onca to Felis nigra Erxleben. 
1869. Panthera onca minor Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. Math.-Naturwissensch. Cl.

Kais. Akad. Wissensch., band 59, abth. 2, p. 216, 1869. 
Obviously equal to Felis onca minor Fischer (1830) to which reference is

made by Fitzinger. The name is here ascribed to the animal of Mexico 
and the southern part of the United States, but is inapplicable as it was

based upon an unidentifiable form. 
1869. Panthera onca alba Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. Math.-Naturwissensch. Cl.
Akad. Wissensch., band 59, abth. 2, p. 218, 1869. 
Applied to an apparently albinistic color phase of the jaguar in Paraguay

and in "Peru oder in Venezuela." Preoccupied by Felis alba Fischer
Mamm., Addenda, 1830, p. 366 [= 566]), based on the "white Tiger"
Griffith (Cuvier's Anim. King., vol. 2, p. 444 and text fig., 1827). 
1869. Felis onca poliopardus Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. Math.-Naturwissensch,

Cl. Kais. Akad. Wissensch., band 59, abth. 2, p. 220, 1869. 
Name first proposed as Felis poliopardus Fitzinger (op. cit. band 17, pp.

295-297, 1 pl., 1855). Regarded by Fitzinger as a hybrid between Felis 
onca of Brazil and Felis pardus of west Africa. 
1872. Felis jaguarete Liais and Felis jaguapara Liais, Clim. G6ol., Faune
Br6sil, 1872, p. 451. 
In protest against the use of the name onga, introduced in Brazil by the

Portuguese colonists, for an American animal, Liais proposed that Felis 
onca be transferred to the Asiatic species bearing the name Felis uncia 
which he ridiculed. Accepting the belief of some authors in the existence

of two distinct species and having thus disposed of F. onca he proceeded
name the "grand jaguar" Felis jaguaret6 and the "petit"
Felis jaguapara. 
By inference both of these are from Brazil, but without definite localities

and are therefore unidentifiable. 
1872. Felis jaguatyrica Liais, Clim. Gbol. Faune du Brbsil, 1872, p. 459.

Name proposed for a form of the black jaguar of Brazil. 
U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

DoartJLd Atclope On The JornadA Rlht'  RoserVe:  Director Campbell esti-

mates th(a thb "c- 'are, apprroximatleil .7O  de- -and 150 antelope
on, the Re- 
serve. The total acreage of the Reserve&,s l92;,)O0 'acres. 
'Pooer For, Chiribahuas: Bids arib being," ot.. n ..utlb' tVi. CorQneda_,Fdoiest

for trepLig tUelve beavers 6td traebiplainting them in some of the streams

on tho Chiri~ahuaso  ThIs0 ifn thee ,F'sh tram Improvement program under

Nira' sorn to be underotxtkn.*'          -           . 
Pl&fht; Three Million Trout I'Year:- By tha end of the currenf fisal
the state game d, partment will have planted about 3,000,00,'fish iA the
rious'streams and lakes of the state, State Gee Warden Elliott Barker re-

,ports. DuY'to the WarM wi'tter, plantilig has bbniijg n:almoatgontinu- 
ously  The sttte has bout 400,000 native trout in the Pbrkview hatchery 
rody for*n-Dlenting, They ra'ngo,from Ithree to five inches long. * 
Large Xaguao Cunuht: Rmnger'Wingo of the Coronado reports thot oh'March 31,
-the govermont~hunbr  Frank Colcord,"in the Tumaeacori Rogib succeeded
't&ipping a large malejaguar nearthe head of Pcna';Blanca Canyon. Colcord

t6ok the animal about fifteen miles'west of Nogealb on the Mexidcn 5order

after a nine hour ride. This ia the largest of the' American cat family and

sometimes weighs as much as 300 pounds. In coloring he is the most gorgeous

of "the 'Am 5ricnm catS,        ...ts.        " ..'"- 
Throe Wildcats Get Deer For Needy: Thli 'wildcats went witlout their'din-

n   r i ecently, but Prescott's needy fo Sted on venison.  The ,cats,,stdlking

the-forest in the Walnut Creek 6txntry, :surpised a generl' lnd,'cf fide

-sMirV'y party at lunch by pouncing ujon a yearling deer withi.n sight' of
damp,; The surveyorsI 14st no itime. Before the cats had tfstd th6ir ieal

,hdlmn resNi6d the  rize ahd turned ove' a ,dressed animal t' Ranger loss

'T, Feears who' n turi turned over a week s su.Jply of venisconW tdthe Salva-

A .Ar flefuge: 'AA- mnoting of th 6 Flc.gsteff Game Protective Association,

Forest Suervisor E. G. Miller of the Coconino, recorniended to the associa-

t'en, the astablisment of a bea r efuge t.,b6 located at tho head of:eFos-

silCreek, 60 miles south of Flas4 taff', the refuges to be for a five year

peri6d.  The ,roposed refuge 3 -in rough country where very' fw livestock

graze.  It .s estimtted th'at not over one beac, in ten becomes a stock,
ler ' If the bear refuge i's es.tablishad'by the krizona State Gome .Commission

it would be the fiirst in the statx =nd als6 in the southwest. - 
Hoe-To Cap.ture Bighorn He3rd-Fc  This.Lrea Shortly; State, gamev'department

_hiinters have nct yet tra-    y !exiCa bighurn sheep for tranoplanting 
to:'the Sandia 1ountains, but hope to before8 long, State Warden Elliott

Barker said recently.   The sheep ate frequenting the area where a trap has

been, eiYstruc'ted in the- Big Hatchet Mountains of Hi'dalgo County and some

,   al- likely to.bto 'eaught4 bdfcre many weks, Mr. Barker believes. The
probably will be released on -the northwestern slope of the .Sadias above

the   te of the Juan, Tabb-CCCCamp, he said. This is' in the area where a

new winter playground is being developed by the CCC. 

From mimeographed news letter put out from Regional Forester's office, 
Albuquerque, New Mexico. f/34 
Mountain Lion Goes in for Bear Diet: It may be the depression, but 
mountain lions have started eating bear meat. So reports Fred Winn, 
Su pervisor of the Coronado Forest. Yesterday, upon returning from a trip

in the Chiricahua Mountains, Winn reported that an eight foot mountain 
lion, killed by the Lee Brothers of Paradise, government hunters, had yielded

a foot from a bear cub. The contents of the big cat's stomach were examined,

Winn said, and there mas the foot. The hanters and others in the connunity

reported that it was an unheard-of thing for a lion to attack a bear or a

bear cub. 

File: Coyote 
Mt. Lionv' 
From General Notes, Jour. ualogy, Vol. 16, No. 3, JAtust, 1935, P. 229 
.oMM and Con'j 
My friend. 1yeart Rues, hose ranch is on Canyon Creek, Middle Fork 
of the Gila River, New Mexico, writes me about an experience of his father

in December while on his trap line. I will tell the story in Pyeart'3 
words: "My Dad had a strange experience with a lion last month. He was

out on Canyon Creek Mountain setting some traps when he came right on to
lion and a kitten. and was within a few feet of them before either saw the

other. The lion made awas at once and Jumped into the thick brmsh, pre- 
venting a shot. The lion had killed a deer and on looking it over Dad 
found a dea coyote a few feet from the kill. The ground was soft from a 
rain of the previous dav awl the tracks eaq to trae. On looking closely 
he saw where the coyote had come up to the kill, and there it was that the

lion made for the coyote and caxght it in a couple of bounds. 7h. coyote's

head was badly crashed and showed where the tuaks had gone through the 
skull into the brain, killing the beast at once. Dad sot some traps at the

deer carcass but the lion did not return. He skinned the coyote." 
Evidently these predators were not on such friendly terms as it is 
supposed they sometimes are.-Charles A. Gianini, Poland, Now York. 

Gestation Period - 3 and one-third months 
(C. Emerson Brown, Jour. Mammal., 1936) 

Geetation period - 3 and one-third months 
(C. Emerson Brown, Jour. Mammalogy, 1936) 

Nature Magazine 
By W. B. CONGE] 
NE REASON, among 
I      several, that the 
cougar is feared by 
the uninformed is that it is 
misnamed a lion. The real 
lion is a cat. The cougar is 
a cat, but the cougar is not 
a lion. Another reason is 
its size. A third cause is the 
effect of the yarns of those 
who desire to give the im- 
pression that this creature 
is a four-footed fury, and 
thereby enhance their own 
reputations as hunters. 
Finally, there is the mis- 
representation of this ani- 
mal to the public by organ- 
izations that profit by its 
Of the large animals of 
this country, the cougar is 
undoubtedly the most ma- 
ligned. Those who have 
,studied it tell us it is natur- 
ally of a mild and playful 
disposition when not goad- 
ed by hunger, fear or dan- 
ger to its young. They tell us, too, that the cougar is al- 
ways at heart a kitten, and that, with the exception of 
some monkeys, it is one of the most playful animals in 
the world. Grown cougars placed in captivity pine and 
die, but the young make affectionate and playful pets, 
purring with pleasure at the approach of a human be- 
ing, stranger or friend, and begging to be caressed. Those 
who have raised them as pets testify to this mildness of 
disposition, affection, and lack of temper. 
In the early history of this country, when cougars were 
plentiful, children went to school through fields and 
forests unharmed and unalarmed. Those who have come 
in contact with this animal in its natural home, minus 
the desire to shed its blood, have found it not ferocious 
but friendly. Through all the centuries the cougar was 
untroubled by the North American Indian. It had no fear 
of squaw or brave; it harmed no papoose, nor did the 
I r         r.(.,AAL  _M& 
isinformation and 
manyj false tales 
Indian, in turn, have any 
dread of it. The Gauchos 
of the Pampas called it 
"Amigo del cristiano" 
man's friend. It has always 
lived in peace. It does not 
naturally run from mem- 
bers of the human race, but 
learns to do so when con- 
tinuously  persecuted. It 
has learned it has no chance 
against the man   armed 
with a high-powered gun, 
who can shoot from a safe 
distance. It hates and 
dreads the yap of the small 
dog, or the uncanny wail 
of the hound, the fore- 
runner of its doom, the 
heralds of a band of armed 
men. No protection has 
ever been given the cougar, 
although its young remain 
more or less helpless for 
from six months to a year. 
It is not a prolific animal, 
and the years of none of 
the members of the feline 
tribe are many, so its survival is none too certain. 
A hunter, thrown from his horse early in a hunt, had 
his leg broken. As he lay helpless he saw a cougar mov- 
ing about, in fact, the animal sat down near him, yet 
showed signs of restlessness, going and returning as if 
he feared the approach of an enemy. This man appears 
to have been unafraid of the cougar, although he felt 
some concern when he heard the roar of a jaguar, and 
became aware that the two great cats were fighting. The 
fight was renewed from time to time during the night; 
in the morning both animals had disappeared. On occa- 
sion another hunter who had a cherished reputation be- 
came, through a misadventure during a hunt, the butt 
of his friends' jests. Chagrined, he went in search of 
something to kill. He tried to knife a cougar sitting quiet- 
ly by the wayside. The animal avoided him by a quick 
movement, gave his assailant one tap with his paw, then 
ca's great wild cat 
been the victim of 

looking for a few sec- 
onds at his discomfited 
enemy, trotted   quietly 
away. It appears that the 
cougar does not attack 
a fallen man, a chivalry 
never shown him in his 
No form of life was 
placed here to be snuff- 
ed out through indiffer- 
ence, or because of any 
whim or form of vanity, 
whether masculine    or 
feminine, or from greed. 
The cougar's natural 
and legitimate food is 
the flesh of the large and 
wild mammals, but it 
cats also  many small 
creatures, even down to 
frogs and grasshoppers. 
As a pet it will eat any- 
thing offered it. Its fav- 
orite prey is some form 
of the deer tribe, in fact 
the original continental  A COUGAR SURVEYS THE SCENE 
ranges of cougar and                  Because of its size n 
deer  were   practically 
the same. But the beauty so apparent to the conserva- 
tionist-to-kill in the closed season becomes dull to his eyes 
during the open, and the cougar's natural food is be- 
grudged him. When the animal's natural food supply 
has been thinned out by that unlovely trilogy-gunners, 
trappers and poisoners-it may attack unprotected cattle, 
sheep and colts, and thereby come into collision with the 
bank account. The cougar is a good sportsman, killing 
only what he needs, usually hunting alone or with his 
mate, returning to his cache for a second, sometimes for 
a third visit. What remains falls to the smaller carnivores 
of the woods. Of course, there are rogue cougars, just as 
there are rogue coyotes, rogue elephants, rogue sports- 
men and rogue politicians. The rogue of any species en- 
joys only slaughter and persecution of the weaker, wast- 
ing large numbers by unbridled callousness and deliber- 
ately destroying what he cannot replace. 
There are less than a dozen authentic accounts of at- 
tacks on human beings by our great cat, and of these sev- 
eral cannot be truthfully termed attacks. These few in- 
stances occurred in the West, from British Columbia to 
In one instance, termed an "attack," two young cougars 
asleep near a log in Idaho were seized by a cubnapper. 
Abruptly awakened, they cried aloud. Both parents 
came hurrying to the rescue. In the ensuing fight, the 
thief, although assisted by a companion, was badly hurt, 
and both parents of the kittens were killed. The pair of 
cougar youngsters thus captured probably spent the re- 
mainder of their unfortunate lives in captivity in a zoo. 
The   following  in- 
stance, which occurred 
in 1933, illustrates the 
friendly instinct of this 
"Lydia Ann Atkins, 
then about eight years 
old, had been sent to 
drive up the cows. Lydia 
was accompanied and 
assisted by a big yellow 
dog. The cattle were not 
unduly frightened, and 
if a cow loitered, the 
'big dog' trotted out 
toward her and she join- 
ed the herd in a hurry. 
'Panther,'   shouted 
Father Atkins. 'Run.' 
The panther stopped 
and sat down on his 
haunches, looking at 
them benevolently. He 
turned and walked slow- 
ly away." 
According to Lydia 
BELOW                         Ann this was not the 
any regard the cougar as a most first time the "big dog" 
animal, which" its record disproves  had assisted her in driv- 
ing up the stock, always stopping when he came to the 
In January, 1936, a cougar, somewhat out of his home 
boundaries, had full opportunity to kill a policeman on 
his beat in the suburb of a western city, but true to his 
friendly nature, the wild animal did not harm the guard- 
ian of the peace. 
The last known instance occurred in September of the 
same year. A California deer hunter in camp states that 
his slumbers were disturbed throughout the night, the 
first time by something blowing in his face. "I br~ished 
that off. Then something nudged me as if trying to share 
my blankets. I cuffed that off." In the morning he saw 
his tent floor decorated with paw prints "as big as hams." 
This man resigned his new position in the Forest Service 
as he said he could find gentler playmates than moun- 
tain lions. We wonder if he could. 
It would be interesting to know the percentage of 
domestic stock killed each year by the cougar; from 
freezing; from starvation. It would be interesting to know 
why American ingenuity, which has heretofore not ac- 
knowledged defeat, has fallen flat in the protection of 
domestic animals. 
It seems proper to suggest that the stock owner be not 
allowed to overbuy; that he should pay for the protec- 
tion and provision of his own livestock and not expect 
the United States Government to do it for him; that he 
should not be allowed the "privilege" of using poison 
or traps; that no animal should be killed unless it is ac- 
tually attacking livestock, and, thus, a known offender. 

May, 1940                   AMERICAN FORESTS 
Cougar vs. Elk 
THAT cougars sometimes prey on elk is 
a matter of common knowledge. Accord- 
ing to popular conception, the killing of 
herbivorous animals by carnivores occurs 
without retaliation. Nature did not entire- 
ly overlook the herbivores, however, in 
regard to matters of defense against their 
natural enemies. The flailing front hoofs 
of elk and other members of the deer fam- 
ily are dangerous weapons of defense. I 
have made two observations on the range 
of the Roosevelt elk on the Olympic Na- 
tional Forest, in Washington, during the 
past ten years, which indicate that under 
some conditions the elk can effectively pro- 
tect itself and its young against the cou- 
The first observation was made on a 
ridge between Tunnel Creek and the Dose- 
wallips River in July, 1929. I was then 
en route to a nearby fire camp. While 
passing through a small opening in the 
timber, I was attracted by the torn-up 
condition of the ground which appeared to 
be the result of a brief elk fight. This did 
not seem reasonable, however, as it was 
not the elk rutting season. Then, enter- 
ing a thicket at the far edge of the open- 
ing, I came upon the carcass of a cougar. 
A cursory examination disclosed that it 
was a young animal, perhaps two years 
old, and that apparently it had been in 
good health up to the time of its death. 
Its carcass and teeth were in good condi- 
tion, and the pelt was perfect. The cougar 
looked as if it had been dead about three 
days. I first thought that someone must 
have wounded the animal and it had trav- 
eled to that point, crawled into the thick- 
et, and died. However, I abandoned that 
idea when I failed to find a bullet wound. 
Time did not permit further examina- 
tion of the carcass, but two days later I 
returned to the scene to satisfy my curios- 
ity. On this occasion I dragged the car- 
cass out into a small opening and in the 
bright sunlight made a very careful ex- 
amination. No evidence of violence was 
found other than what had the outward 
appearance of being a slight bruise on 
the head just over the eye, and slightly 
towards the center of the forehead. I 
scalped the cougar and found he had suf- 
fered a fractured skull. The wound had 
the appearance of having been made with 
a sharp semi-hard instrument. 
The area adjacent to the point where I 
found the dead cougar was at that season 
frequented by elk cows and calves. Their 
tracks were numerous. 
The second observation was made in 
August, 1931, at a point just south of the 
forks of the Bogachiel River. At the time 
I was cruising timber with Jim Carson, 
now a Union Oil Company salesman of 
Portland, Oregon. Carson was running 
compass for me and was the first to see 
the carcass of a cougar lying twenty feet 
from the heavily used elk trail which fol- 
lows the south bank of the river at this 
point. This cougar had the appearance 
of having been beaten to death with a club. 
The area surrounding the cougar's car- 
cass was well cut up with tracks of adult 
elk and calves. We figured the cougar 
had been dead about three weeks and that 
the elk tracks were about that old. We 
were unable to find definite evidence of a 
struggle of any kind. 
I passed the point wltere the cougar's 
carcass was lying on several consecutive 
days and on each day made further search 
for the scene of a struggle, but could find 
nothing which gave conclusive proof of 
the cause of the cougar's death. Finally 
my curiosity overcame my dislike for han- 
dling such an odiferous subject, and I 
dragged the cougar's carcass out on the 
gravel bar and made a quick examination. 
Apparently no bones were broken, and I 
could see no evidence of any injury seri- 
ous enough to have caused death. I no- 
ticed what appeared to be a head injury 
so I removed the cougar's scalp and found 
a badly fractured skull. The fracture was 
just above the cougar's eye and had the 
appearance of having been made with an 
instrument similar to that which caused 
the death of the first cougar observed. 
The finding of two cougar carcasses, 
both of which had received fractured 
skulls in an area frequented by cow elk 
and calves, leads me to believe the cou- 
gars' deaths resulted from an encounter 
with the elk. I have seen cow elk go after 
dogs in defense of their calves. They are 
lightning fast with their front feet and 
strike a terrific blow. I do not know that 
elk ever kill cougars, but after watching 
them use their front feet in battle I be- 
lieve such an incident entirely probable. 
It is reasonable to assume that a well 
directed blow would cause a skull fracture 
in the relatively fragile skull of a cougar. 
Increased relative humidity after sunset re- 
tards fire spread and favors control opera- 
tions. Employ these advantages by equipping 
each man with a FORESTER Headlamp and 
mop up fires at night. 
Western Fire Equipment Co. 
Motnufacturers and Distrbutorsr 
69 Main St.       San Francisco, Calif. 
Wildlife Stamps 
BEAUTIFUL, NEW, 1%        x 2 inch four-color 
Wildlife Stamps, each picturing a wild American 
animal, 25c per 100, POSTPAID. Regular price, 
$1.00 per 100. Approval. NATA, Charleston, 
W. Va. 
Please Mention AMERICAN FORESTS               When Writing Advertisers 
Electric Headlamp 
Complies with U. S. 
Forest Service Spec. 
Price--$3.00 each 
Forged Steel 
Single and Double-Bit Axes-all patterns and weights. 
Buy from your dealer, but if he cannot supply you, write us. 
r * wIlr1'qT  A U7W  A  t31jsIw    ISA1    ~T? 
Cant Hooks  WAKII AAI         G   I&JUL   LU., Warren, renna. 
May, 1940 

File Cougar folder 
(January A 1942) 
Roy Komarek tells me that the cougars in southern Florida prey heavily 
on feral hogs and on raccoons. This may enable them to persist despite 
the elimination of deer for tick control. 

201 New Post Office Bldg. 
Phoenix, Arizona 
August 8, 1942 
Dr. Charles T. Vorhies,                          Library 
University of Arizona,                          Department of Wild"'f,
Tucson  Aizona.                                 University of Wisconsin 
Dear Dr. Vorhies: 
About two years ago we purchased a few scales to be used by 
some of our personnel engaged in predatory animal control so that 
acocrate weights on mountain lions could be secured. Prior to that 
time some of our fieldmen who had been engaged in mountain lion control 
for as long as 20 or 25 years felt sure that the average big torn 
mountain lion weighed from 150 to as much as 200 or 220 lbs. 
Frank Colcord, formerly employed by this Service, was of 
this impression, and was instructed several years ago to weigh some 
of the lions he was taking. He caught a very large tom lion near 
Lakeside, Arizona, weighed the animal and found it weighed 120 lbs. 
instead of 175 lbs. he had estimated that it would weigh. A few months 
later he took an unusually large ton lion in the Rimoon mountains, out 
of Tucson, Arizona. Since this specimen was to be sent to the National 
Museum in Washington, he skinned the lion, out away the flank meat, and 
took out everything except the bare carcass. The carcass was placed in 
cold storage in Tucson, but was brought to Phoenix ten days later. We 
expressed ourselves to Frank, believing this was the largest mountain 
lion we had ever seen, and we weighed the carcass without the skin or 
without the Clank meat or viscera, and it weighed 136 lbs. 
You will find enclosed herewith weights and measurements on 
23 mountain lions. A few of the weights are estimated, and where this 
is the case, we have so indicated. On occasions where the lions were 
actually weighed, following the weight, we have inserted the word 
"actual". Of the 23 mountain lions weighed of both sexes it   
noted that the hind foot measument is fairly uniform for the sexes. It 
appears that-the average measurement of the hind foot for adult females 
is lOins, and no female lion taken to date has weighed more than 78 lbs.

The average weight is around 72 to 74 lbs. for females. The largest adult

male lion taken and actually weighed, weighed 143 lbs. It is readily 
determined that this was an unusually large lion as the hind foot measured

111 ins, while measurements for all the adult male lions taken probably 
average 11 ins. for the hind foot. There is considerable variation in 
the measurements of lions tails. We do not know whether this variation 
actually occurs or whether errors were made in taking the tail measurement.


Pa ge--& 
George Carpenter indicated that the tail measurement of a 
female mountain lion taken in the Baboquivari Mountains was 4,s.,- 
while Giles Goswick indicates that on one occasion the tail of a fully 
adult male lion measured 35 ins. The hind foot measurements of the 
sexes are fairly uniform, and we thought that perhaps that you would be 
interested in such information as we have been able to obtain to date. 
Very truly yours, 
E. M. Mercer, 
District Agent, Division of 
Predator and Rodent Control 

Speie XMutains Limn 
Date Takeas Au-eut 10, 1940 
Norh o et he ;rand 
ext Male 
dibab Hati.e.. Forest 
W~i~t;  0 lb., (aeta4) 
Lenet*t 76 inches 
Tails 28 inche 
Fstimte Ages 2 years 
Col1~tor     -w. I- Blanchard 
Spcis   Montain Lion 
Date Tak~a Agut 13, 1941 
Lottn    Ktib~b Nationl Foret, LEAst Rim, Snt of V. Tf. Park. Ariz. 
Length% 67 iuek.# 
Tail   27 inces 
Shouldort 27 Inche (Helgkt) 
3e1tiated Ages Less tha   2 year, 
Co1lectori CM.a S. Blanchard 
Speces Hint~in Lion 
Date Taken. Auut 28,, 1941 
Locationt Oak Canyon Wst side af' Kaibab Natima1 Forest,, near Ryan, 

Szuht 78 b1Atul 
Eindfoot 10 inch** 
Shoulders 27 Inchon (Height) 
BEstmt. Ages    two or thre  year# 
0.leootws Chas, So Blaoh.ar4 
Dte Takms Wove So 1941 
Looattamt 3 miles North of uge XUe&, We~st side of Bl~oody Bas1x 
Y.awspai Couny, Mxixwi. 
Sext ?emle 
Wights 70 lbs. (Actu~al) 
Longths 73 inchesR 
maila 25 ina*.. 
Shoulders 24 inche (Height) 
tZtimatod Ages 3 ye 
fc'l2*aorws Giles Goswiok 
Dates P.bruary 17, 1942 
Looa.ttus Granite Bain, Jwrthw.t of Skull Valley in Ya~apai County, 
Sex Mle 

JA~tht 59 inchs 
T~al 24 Inches 
Shouldert 22 inaho    (Hel1,ht) 
IEtimated tr-e 6 months 
Collectrs   Gis Guwt*k (Wight and mrareauts by Buehler) 
Date 'Uken February 20, 142 
Sex, Fwmi 
weithtl 'T0 lbs. (Motisl) 
Shouldersa 25 inches 
Natimit.4 Ages  Very old, 10 yers 
Co.11.twu: Giles Gosvek, weight mad measrmesu      take  by MitmJH 
Buehler Jr, 
SpooIss Mounta ~iamn 
Date ?akms   Febray 24, 1942. 
Loatiom   1-rmte Basin, Northwt of Skull Valiey, Yavapai County, Arisa. 
SeS ?ela0 
boights 76 lb.. (Akiuaa1) 
1ArW~b   72 Inches 
Tails 27T inches 

Shoulders 23 Inohes (Heigh) 
Fs1timt4 As% 2 to 3 yoare. Had neve rai sed young* 
Collectors 011,, Dswtak, (Woigbt and asuoub      by Buehle.r*) 
Looatien Granite Basin, Northwst of~ Skull Valley, Yavapal ounty. 
'Wghti 103 ibe. (Aetual) 
Lengths 78 tehos 
Shoulers 27 iuehb    (Hight~) 
Etimatd Age    5 $ sr 
Cllectors Giles 3ewik     Vtel-h  and ra~e eto by Bueler, 
Sp..*., Mouat$a Lion 
Date Takew Uarch 5, 1941 
Locations Bloody Basi, Ywapai County Arisona, 
Weightt 81 lbso (Ratimated) 
Lowgth 60 iuneo 
Tail   12 inob* 
HinkMto 8 Inch#* 
Shouers   21 hee  (11ght) 
Estimted K-e;  I year 

Q.U.@otorts vwrtt 40 West 
Species  Moutai  Lio 
Lengths 74 Indhes 
Ta.ils 29 inches 
Shoiuers 30 inches fB.1rht) 
Estimted Ages 4 yoqrs 
Spoeel. Moutain Lion 
Date ?akeui Whae 21, 194* 
Location S   mt Cree, Pete Bartw. Xwii,, 25 miles Norheat of 
Wieki.up, Arisa, H)havv Gowty, Arizona* 
Sox 711610 
Tals 29 nce 
shoulder 27 inches 
Istimto Ages 3 or 4 yews 
Coloaet   Niton H, euhlr Jr# 

Date, Tan  March 26, 1942 
Lcations. Blooy Basin Yaapai Guty, Aloio~ 
Legh      80e Inhs 
Toll,s 27 noet 0  W 
Hip.a4. 11jat i14em 
Estimted 136s l. years 
Collsotrs Eveet 0.~ Weth) 
Species. Honage Lion~ 
"to Takens Marih 26, 1942 
Locations.Rid Mounai . near hpWoo, *5 maile Cout,t eioa 
Wieemp           ia.%Kw        .*mo 

Lencta   78 inhe 
?Tal1.  29 inches 
' stlma A-et 4 to 5 years 
Coleatws Richard Brook in trap set by Milton H1. Buhler Jr. 
Spcies Minmtia Lion 
Date Taess April 20, 1942 
Locations Hore Muntain In Bradslaw Mountains, Yaiapai C~outy, Aria* 
bight; 115 The. (ietimatod) 
Lengths 74 inake 
Tailt 27 inohee 
Leiao Age: 4 ye 
5j-.i*e Mutain Lion 
Date !akent Nay4, 1942 
Locations  Pin  Uoti, Southeast of Mayor, krizona, Yawapai County, 
ArI oa 
Wigbhtu 61 lbe. (Actual) 
LWnght 73 Inces 

Tals 28 ce 
Shozulde 28 inchies (Height) 
7Rstte  Ag ,e  Syears 
Spcioi Mountain Lion 
Date Takont WAy 20, 1942 
Tals 28 inch** 
&stimate4 Ages 2 years (Toi lion) 
Collecors   Gila* GwIok 
Sp.ees Mountai Lion 
Dlate fbm~i Nay Z2, 1942 
Aeixht   69 .    (ctal 
Lthse 72 Inces. 
Tals 27 inche~s 
HiInf..*, 8 inche 
Shulder: 26 inches (Height) 

3stimato Area 2 years (Young Lion) 
Co.U..tgrs Giles a3oxviok 
spoies Muntain Lim 
Dte Taken May 10, 1942 
L~tn       Cabin Draw, 30 mie S.out~hwst of ffinslow, Arizona, Cooonino 
Wights 140 lbs. (Est4vat.4) Very large 
Lengths 84 Ice 
Ta~i 30 i1xhos 
Shouldert 27j lices 
Estimate Area 4 year 
Colletors Evertt C. Net 
p*le: Mut1i    Lion 
Dae Tan June 14, 1942 
L~ations   East Clear Gr*o, 10 mitles Northwst t v'h.wlo Butte in 
$.XI ?azle 
Weights 73 lbs. (Aoual) 
Lenigths 78 $.aob*e 
Tails 29 ia.hos 
Wido.4.    1* inahe 
Shoulder   24j s**.e (Height) 
Estated Ages 2 year* 
011.*wior   Sverott C, Wet 

Spcd.. ounbti Lion 
Date Mak Jtuly 9, 1942 
Loations* gabin Draw, S0 miles. Southwt oft Wnslow* Arzona in 
C;oostno County. 
BSx   FOM*l 
Aott     7S lbso (Actual) 
Tai 1Inh* 
Estimated Ages 2 years 
Collector% Evertt Us Wst 
Speeies Munain Lion 
Date Takent July 10, 1942 
Loain      Fast Gloer Crook, 10 miles Northwes t  Ghv.a   Butte, iz* 
Box$ Vale, 
Weights 143 lbs, (Actual) 
Tails 34 inch** 
11indfts   111 inces 
W3timat.4 Ages 5 ycars 
Spies patain Lon 
Date Takes Jue 19, 1942 

W~*iws 74 lb   . (Actua ) 
3Letiate4 Ag.s  4 yor 
Co.loetars fGerg, Gapentw 

Wisconsin Conser-v itio- Department 
Madison 2, Wisconsin 
All Papers 
Madison, Wis.---Somewhere in northwestern Wisconsin near the 
junction of St. Croix, Dunn, Polk and Barron counties there may 
be one or more cougar or "mountain lions" feeging on deer and the

remains of butchered animals, the conservation department said 
At least six people from the towns of Clear Lake, Bowning 
and Prairie Farm have reported seeing such animals recently. 
Norman H. Johnson, Clear Lake, says that he observed such an 
animal cross a road 100 feet aead )f him in the town of New 
Haven, Dunn county, on June 4. More recently, a farmer, William 
Krug, Downing, reoorted he saw two such animals feeding on the 
remains of butchered cattle 'n his pasture. The animal is de- 
scribed as being about five feet long, not counting a long tail, 
and weighing from 125 to 150 pounds. 
There are no authentic records of the cougar or mountain 
lion in Wisconsin since before 1880, but there have been reports 
from 1909 and eve-i more recently which never have been proved. 

April 17, 1947 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
Department of Wildlife Management 
424 University Farm Place 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
U. So A. 
Dear Froressor:                                  / 
Thank you for your letter of April   h, and 
your confirmation of my identification of the t racks.  I 
have not yet heard from Gus Swanson or Stanley Young, but 
I consider their concurranoe a foregone conclusion now. 
However it will be interesting to see what they have to 
say, as they do not know the background of this study as 
you do and will probably think I have just found this by 
The thesis illustrations are about ready to 
go on to you, and you should have them next week. 
With best wishes, 
Bruce S. Wright 

,alter J. Perry 
The accompanying illustrations are from photographs 
taken on the Carson National Forest in northern New Mexico. 
This animal is quite common in the forests of New Mexico 
from the Pinon stands of the lower country up through the Yellow 
Pine belt and into the Alpine type at 10,000 feet elevation and 
above, and the damage to growing timber from this source is, in 
the aggregate, very great. None of our conifers are safe from 
his attacks for he is a gross feeder and has little if any choice 
of species, and though the pines and firs suffer probably the 
heaviest damage he will, on occasion, even strip the bark from 
oak saplings. 
The chief damage by the porcupine consists in his eating 
the bark from the branches and upper stem of the tree, though 
some defoliation is also to be charged to him. When this gnawing 
occurs on large trees which have already attained their height 
growth the damage is not usually great, the work being usually 
confined to the branches, but when, as is more frequently the 
case, he chooses saplings on account of 1heir more tender bark, 
he is very destructive. In this case he frequently removes enough 
bark to effectually girdle the young tree somewhere on the upper 
stem, following which the tree dies in from two to four years from 
that point upward. 
Were it not for a strange provision of nature whereby 
when a thrifty young pine is so girdled and loses its leader one 
of the next lower branches may turn from it's horizontal position 
and grow perpendicularly, assuming all the functions of the true 
tree stem, the damage would be immensely greater than it is. 
(Illustration y1). However, this does not always occur, and many 
young trees are ruined outright, never making further upward growth. 
(Illustration 42). Even with this power of recovery from injury 
there is no inconsiderable damage from the fact that even if the 
tree does produce a second leader the bayonet, as the dead spike 
is called, remains for a great many years, constituting a menace 
to the tree as being a lodging place for spores of heart-rotting 
fungi, and is at last in part enveloped by the new growth which 
causes a faulty place in the tree. Also, of course, there must 
be more or less crook in the bole at that point. Again, such trees 
frequently put up not one but several such leaders, nature appear- 
ing to overdo the matter of trying to repair the damage. In this 
case the tree is frequently rendered of little or no value for 
lumber owing to the shortness of the undivided trunk, while the 
separate leaders may not attain individually to merchantable size 
and form. (Illustration #3). It is then known as a "wolf tree",

taking up a great deal of room in the forest with it's abnormally 
large crown and producing no lumber. 

Fortunately for the forest, while the porcupines have but 
few enemies capable of doing them serious injury, when men and 
mountain lions are excepted, neither are they very prolific. Mrs. 
Porcupine brings forth but once a year and but one at a birth. 
In taking these pictures great difficulty was had in per- 
suading Porky to face the camera and look pleasant (Illustration 
-f4). Though it was easy enough to obtain a rear view. (Illustra- 
tion #5). This was because Porky's tail is his "business end" which

he always presents to his enemies. When cornered he will if pos- 
sible stick his head into a bunch of brush, or against a log or 
rock, with his nose well down between his front feet. Then, with 
his formidable armament of barbed quills all erected and his equal- 
ly armed and powerful tail free for action, he can defy anything 
but an armed man. 
Though possessed of enormous gnawing teeth capable of in- 
flicting a serious bite, he is so very slow in all his movements, 
except indeed his tail, that he does not depend upon them at all 
as a weapon, and only when thrown upon his back, and held there, 
will he even attempt to use them. These great teeth are four in 
number, two above and two below, and the latter may be as much 
as three inches long when removed from the jawbone. Also, these 
great gouge chisels are salf-sharpening, so that the older the 
animal the sharper his teeth. He has an excellent set of 16 
deeply corrugated grinders, eight below and eight above. These 
grinders are so constructed that, while they have no roots proper, 
they cannot be removed without fracturing the bone, as that part 
of the tooth imbedded in the bone, and to which it appears to 
actually trow, rather than to merely occupy a socket as in most 
other animals, is larger than the portion that protrudes. 
There is no foundation whatever for the once popular 
notion that a porcupine can "shoot" his quills, or that they are

poisonous, though the quickness and range of action of his tail 
enables him to plant quills in an enemy so as to almost make it 
appear to the victim that they were "shot" there' When well im-

bedded in the flesh it is both difficult and painful to remove 
the quills from the fact that they are minutely barbed and lacerate 
the flesh as they are withdrawn. If broken off and left in the 
flesh, as usually happens with animals, the point works rapidly 
forward and may show up shortly at the opposite side of the leg or 
jaw, but I have never known of a case of "poisoning" or infection

to follow. 
The illustrations show Porky in his proverbial fretful 
mood, which, in his wild state, is the only mood he is ever in 
when a man is close enough to photograph him! ahen not on the 
war-path, and with his "bristles" laid down, he presents quite

a different appearance. 4ith all his apparent "fretfulness" 
however, if taken when young he tames very easily and makes an 
extremely affectionate and interesting pet, never raising his 
terrible quills except perhaps in the presence of a strange dog. 

At first glance the porcupine would appear not adapted to 
climbing large trees. Although not furnished with sharp climbing 
claws like a squirrel, he has four powerful hooks on his thumb- 
less hand, and aided by the stiff bristles on the lower side of 
his strong tail he has not much difficulty in ascending even a 
smooth-boled pine. However, this is too slow and serious a matter 
with him to be practiced for mere pastime, and having climbed such 
a tree he may remain in it for a week or even several weeks if in 
winter, and the snow is deep. His short legs and slow and-clumsy 
waddling gait make it very difficult for him to get about in the 
Of almost exclusively nocturnal habits, this animal is but 
seldom seen traveling on the ground, although he will sometimes 
venture to descend in late afternoon and vary his menu of bark with 
a feed of various herbs and grasses in season. He is also fond of 
oak acorns and will hunt for them even under the snow in early 
It is remarkable the facility with which this anl-al that 
may occasionally reach a we-ight of 35 to 40 pounds can conceal 
himself in the crown of a tree, especially a pine. In this matter 
nature aids him greatly both in his conformation and color. Humped: 
up on a pine branch and with his long back hair erected, both his 
color and shape blend so perfectly with the tufts of pine needles 
as to be not at aIT conspicuous. 
In designing the porcupine nature sacrificed speed to power 
and while slow he is tremendously strong.    lso, his skeleton is 
most rerkable from the strength and thickness of the bones which 
appear to be entirely out of proportion to the size of the animal. 
with the exception of some reptiles, I know of no animal 
so tenacious of life as the porcupine.  ,,hen shot from a tree he 
may tumble 30 to 50 feet and, provided the spinal cord or the brain 
is not 'hattered by the bullet, get up and walk away. I have noted 
the heart pulsating strongly full fifteen minutes after the animal 
had been killed and drawn. 
Although the porcupine was formerly, and may still be in 
some States, protected by law on the ground that he would furnish 
an easily obtainable food for an unarmed person lost in the woods, 
undoubtedly his value in this respect, and at this tive, does not 
outweigh the actual damage he does in the forest. From the 
Forester's point of view there should rather be a bounty on him. 

Mane anv 
IPorcupixe fem~ale, ,Ict Ov 
ing, a 36"~ whi~te fir wit 
sign of reeent suckli~ng. 
lim ~b - 

Foret        .           nir     e    ta F* 19 applicaut fora 
bloc1~ OfService timber, It 18 understood IV Members of tbge 
Santa Pe force tht Scaler Tat tri  fteH~            oadsl 
opeasn. w   'ois  bas~j  Aut I is to' be a pe.trer in the lumbering 
t~      the lpeast two  orig s   beer-  ezploynd  by  thL-  Falac   &
 Howard   C m a   o 
th e la s   tw   or tb re e  y e a rs .,,   The  n ew    o p a t .   i l
u e a ~ O   5 A e i 
Samill driven by a 25 horse niirj. mo4     -Ars    g  an  e1bngine.  C 
r  Sitgreaveg). I n ,   on   C   ok ; M hl 
Tusayn).  Pe~ach (Oorouado) 
Sitgreave) J; Preston, Washington (Carson). 
of t~~ V'  tt Bi 2 9 c 2  Bux- in   P~1'   Ynvest~gatio.,a   by  Dr*  i e
  .  a vo 
of  t e  ~~ l~ ica   ~   th   ~ O thW6ter   Forest  IDperlmatt  Station 
ae ~ody producing somne interest,f  ~       4.snl    salpogp~ 
('7v t Sht 8 Pounds) In a cage          tigwuTORf  A~ 5sn.4e io s ma barcuapine

n4.Another porcupinie (wetg  Ib3pu~)f~c~it        
9U feet square, disposed of 196 SqiArs     fbr     nsxdya 
v er     f a o t 3  square Inchr.s  por  6 y.  TU  tj  ,i  tlime  the  porcupine

Son two large trees and 17 s=11t~ mie 9, 6 c- Whit~b     irld 
third porcup±nb (%~eigh~t 12 Pc~r-,)  'eiicid Into a o,!:b~t  larger
was responsible for the removal 0:1 300) C~r  tnh-U     br na         as

an averg  of 50 qqaetn;e                   're ttzy.  of bark In thez ei
a r 
on2 five blackjacks and 71 soeedal    of thhe anie    3    rmal Worked 
half, were gialle and klll.1,19,O Wihdate            9   r   oat 
V qar-/ 

U. S. Forest Serv  ce   December 29, 1924. 
South estern D:strict 
ng Fee Report Due January 1- S>-pe'vi'or- are :eqvc5~e 
Bjrnes to Speak at Livestock Convention:  Lie program for the 28th Annual

Cogvention of the American National Livestoc*k Association which will be

held in Albuquerque, January 74. 16 P-3e 16, 79'2 cnrr5es the name of 
Assistant Forester W. C. Barn( , The  ;ub, 'e    hs address is "Problems

of the Range Cattleman- How 7hall He 'fet :.i'' 
No Annual Propert-y Return Duet District   , mit. ;Pe mnuitas No. 12 for
ember 20 mentioned the approval of the Fo.'e6e: far erinm.nat ion of annual

property returns by Forests due January 1 under thn now scheme of office

check devised by this District. This note is t, repeat the good news 
since one unit vas about to prepare a return when halted. Another job 
eliminated at a season of heavy office work helps. 
Announcing the Arrival of,         : The newest 'arrival among the inereas-

iTg family of manuals, among mhich clan there seens to be as yet no signs

of race suicide, is a ponderous volume just ushered into the district, 
Christmas week. The last page of this husky necomer is numbered 1230 so 
he's born full grown. Actually It is merely the rebirth in a single volume

of three old well known manuals- the Department Fiscal, Property and Admin-

istrative Regulations. %e new form will be vastly easier to amend and de-

cidedly more usable than the little paper covered books that served so many

years. A full supply vas not received but all units will receive at least

tuo complete copies in the first distribution. 
[   Dann   -y       i       Apparently the most serious damage by porcupines,

under natural conditions, is done to two sioe and age classes, I. a., trees

from 3 feet high to 4 inches diameter breast high and those from 4 inches

to 10 inches diameter breast high., Each. one of these large growing trees

represents the survivor of from one to ten thousand small seedlings, ac-.

cordiUg to G. A. Pearson, Silviculturist, and damage to these trees is 
doubtless more serious, from the standpoint of forest maintenance, than 
damage to smaller seedlings, where the mortality is expected to be heavy,

or larger trees, viich have more nearly made their growth. Th investiga-

tiow show that porcupine work on the western yellow pine is of relatively

little importance in virgin timber, but tends to increase in cut-over areas.

While this result does not appear in the figures for the smaller seedlings,

it seems to hold for all tks. other classes, ard is most marked in trees
3 feet high to 10 inches diameter breast high.  In virgin timber trees above

10 inches in diameter are little damaged, in cut-over sections trees of this

size are very few in number, but those present are likely to be hard hit.

(F xirgs by Dr. Taylor). 
A   n     Cheney. 

Decerber 18, ?X&' 
The cooperation o0  ie jest Service on the lTIe' cn- 
,c h  ort ft~i    f rm w~ll be used& for  eIa 
the data for 1924* Requests will b _1e-     out as sooii as rccelv 7  f 
Washington. The usual clean-uc uwri will 1e done by the special agents 
on the several Forests. 
Swedish Forestr : Cutting has been going on in the forests of Sweden 
for at least 1,000 years. The forests of Sween ixvhich consist principal-

ly Of spruce and pine, now cover 5E2 of ti? t, -'i land area.  In 1923 the

exports of forest products fran Sv:eden amo-nt  to a value of about 
183,000,000 and in the 12 months eni-ei last Jim- upwii.ds of $19,000,000

of wood pulp was shipped to paper mills in the Uxlkted States. (T!he Lumber-

Comtv 2wIMIR Into Lie: A short time ago, states the Oorcrnado Balletin, 
there was a fire near the new Patagoia-Nog.lis vood which slarted in the

grass adjacent to the forest boundary and wouild hvie been scme blaze had

not the state road crew put it out. The fire ha& all th ear'marks of
Incendiary but nothing turned up after an Investga ;i n. About a week la-

ter Ranger Mrndall noticed smoke outside the fores  ii the same vicinity

and went over and found a Mexican riding away from the area where the fire

started. The Mexican was take back to help on thn fire and it developed 
that he had probably started it and possibly started the other fire which

teached the forest. Tb* Deputy Sheriff happened along, and took the Iexi-

CaO to towm where he received 30 days In the calaboose and at the end of

(    the sentence is to be deported as an undesirable alien. The action was
or less On the Initiative of the county authorities and speaks volumes for

the sentiment in that vicinity. 
Zr=21n Meut As s result of the experiments conducted last summer by Dr4 
Taylor in northern Arizdna it has been ascertained that a single porcupine,

which was maintained In a yard 51 days removed 1419.91 square inches of 
bark (9.86 square feet) from western yellow pine in the yard. The average

ng   t spi re In      f art                  ' 2     Fi ub n     eJ,%,.edl

C;b% e dlinX 
~ ~         per cenfy    pms rorrnc      a   ranches or ±ar  ee at-

tacked, 31. A single porcupine maintained in another yard for 67 days re-

moved 3575.72 square inches of bark (24.83 square feet) from western yellow

pines. Average number of square Inches of bark being 53.36 per day. The 
nmlmber of seedlings and other trees worked on, 131-(practically all in 
yard). , Vmber of seedlings seriously injured, 115 (87 per cent). Number

of seedlings missing altogether, 20 (15 per cent). Number of branches of

six large trees worked on, 120. Frcm the economic standpoint It   Is of in-

terest that the principal danage In the porcupine yard was done to two 
classes of trees, namely seedlings from 6 inches to 3 feet high and from

3 feet blb1 to 4 inches diameter breast high. The bark peeling and dam- 
age recorded is not altogether adequate as indicating porcupine work on 
seedlings, for, especially toward the end of the summer, many of the small-

er seedlings were practically cut to pieces and consumed. 
7rezh (Apache); Scott (Qerson). 
Wins       ircher. 
U. S.   i eet >e:x'~ce 
Southwz 1 ern ist ri c t 

No. 25-190             U. S. Forest Service    February 17, 1925 
Southwestern District 
Captain Ancona and Captain Jopns: The Denver Post states that 
Edward P. Ancona and John D. Jones, ,7hose addresses are given as 
U& S. Forest Service, Albuquerque, N. Mex., have been commissioned 
Captains of Engineers in the Officers' Reserve Corps.  The announce- 
ment is made by Major David P. Wood of the 103d Division of the 
United States Aty. 
Former Governor Lowden ill Be Chairman: A conference of organ- 
izations that propose to boost American Forest Week, April 27-- 
May 3, has been held in ;ashington and a committee of five people 
chosen for handling the affair. Fx-governor Lowden of ll1.nol s 
has been selected as chairman with a strong corps of vice-cha-nren 
and committeemen behind him.  The committee has established head- 
quarters and is already at work. 
Sudden Service- The Forest Service has chafed, in some instances, 
under delays in getting service of papers by United States Mar- 
shals. Here is a case, however, that so far as D-3 knows, is a 
record beater.  It shows a burst of speed that offers a challenge 
to be equaled.  Late one afternoon the United States Marshal at 
Santa Fe was given Complaint and Summons to serve involving a suit 
which was being filed for the recovery of grazing fees. Service 
was duly made upon defendant fifty miles northeast of Espanola, 
seventy five or eighty miles from Santa Fe, as shown by the Mar- 
shal's return, the following day9 
Winter Not The Season for Porcupine Control: Although it is dasy 
to locate porcupines in the winter by the damage they do, they re- 
main continuously in tr6es., according to 21r. E. E. Horn of  T- 
-ologic-a twvey antherefnxe, do not take poison. Mr. Horn, 
whose headquarters are in Denver has sient about three weeks this 
winter in company with Dr. Taylor in a porcupine control study 
at the Southwestern Forest Experiment Station near Flagstaff.  He 
stopped for a day or two in Albuquerque on his way back to Denver. 
Tt uno~ -Pntvmnrl f.ha n±icin ' nv'1- Tj~111~~v~ 
deep because the porcupines do not often come down to the ground. 
They sometimes remain "up a tree" from two to three weeks    The

Biological Survey men, as a result of their observations, rcco- 
mend fall or spring for control work by poisoning because in those 
seasons the animals move about much more freely than in winter, 
It is not difficult, Yr. Horn states, to discover where the porcu- 
pines are in winter. Looking with field glasses from any high point 
or eminence, one can readily pick out porcupine trees by the peeled 
places 4ich show up prominently in the light. Nor is it hard to 
shoot them when once a hunter reaches a porcupine tree but shooting 
is expensive control. About thirty animals were shot and examined 
during the study and some valuable things learned. All but one of 
the !naales contained young but in no case was more than one found 
in a body. The stomachs were also examined and found to contain quan- 
tities of pine needles and mistletoe in addition to bark., Winter 
conditions were extremely severe for study. Travel was difficult 
abbount of deep snow am  work very uncomfortable. Horm had both 
ears frosted and also suffered from snow blindness. 
Field: Kerr (Crook) Scott (Prescott) Jones, Randles (Santa Fe) 
Actiwz :Kirchler. 

Some very interesting facts refarding porcupines were brought 
out at a meeting of the Central Rocky Mountain Section of the Society 
of American Foresters, held in the District Forester's office on 
December I.   Since very little has been published on porcupines and 
the field men have displayed considerable interest in the subject, a 
brief summary Is given. 
A report prepared by Supervisor G. M. Hunter in 1918, while 
stationed on the Routt Forest, was read.   Mr. Hunter's article empha- 
sized the damage to timber by porcupines.   A twenty acre plantation 
of Engelmann spruce on Soda Creek was partially destroyed by porcupines.

Tallies made in the lodgepole pine - spruce - fir type on Elk River and 
Mill creek show that 27% of the trees above 10" D.B.d. and 42% of the

trees below 10" were injured by porcupines, or an average of 36% of
total number in the stand.   The injury to the trees was classified as 
follows: slight damage 35%; bad damage, 31%; serious damage (some trees 
may die), 21%; trees dead 14%.   It was also brought out that 94% of 
the injured trees were lodgepole pine, 5% spruce, and 1% fir. 
Hunter figured the loss due to porcupine injury on the basis 
of the difference in stumpage value between live and dead timber.   For 
the Mill Creek area, where timber was appraised at $2.00 per M ft. B.M. 
in 1918, and dead timber at $.75, the damage due to porcupines amounted 
to $1.10 an acre.   Since green swvtimber is now appraised at a consid- 
erably higher rate than in 1918, the present damage would be much greater.

All of. the trees above 4- feet in height were tallied on six 
acres in the yellow pine type near Pagosa Springs by Bates and Johnson 
in 1924.   Out of 624 trees tallied, 119 or 19% were damaged.   Most of 
those were saplings and young poles. 
Hunter's article also showed the damage to livestock due to 
porcupines.   In one herd of forty head on Snake River, an average of 
five head contracted quills each year.   Only timely discovery prevent- 
ed losses. J. H. Dickens of Walden reported that quills are removed 
from 1% of his cattle each season and that two 2-year old steers died 
from this cause last fall.   Undoubtedly porcupine quills in the mouths 
and tongues of many cattle and sheep are responsible for their failure 
to put on weight. 
Mr. E. E. Horn of the Biological Survey then gave a summary of 
the studies that he and Dr. Taylor have made at the Southwestern Experi-

ment Station near Flagstaff, Arizona.   The breeding season occurs during

the fall.   The young are born in May or June and there is seldom more 
than one to a litter.   The young a    u   arge when born and have a 
set orqqillo that become hard and ready for action as soon as dry. 
Mr. Horn's studies lead him to believe that the porcupine is 
a fairly intelligent animal.   There are indications that he has definite

migrations instead of wandering aimlessly around.   For instance, in the

- Page Twelve - 

fall, the gezieral movements of the animals are from the higher altitudes
to the pinon-juniper type, while in the spring the reverse is true. 
When there is much snow on the ground, they move very little 
and have been observed on the same tree from one to two months.   This 
is the reason for the almost complete girdling of the upper branches and

trunks of large pine trees. 
The control of the porcupine is difficult for he seldom pays 
any attention to poison baits.   Moreover strychnine has  f             
on him.   This, Mr. Horn believes, is due to the fact that the tannin 
in pine bark counteracts the strychnine.   The tannin reacts with the 
strychnine to form a non-soluble that is passed off.   However, strychnine

salt has poisoned numerous porcupines where used adjacent to vegetable 
gardens.   In the case cited the porcupines were undoubtedly living on 
a vegetable diet exclusively and the strychnine was effective. 
One effective chemical is still in the experimental stage and 
the results are not available. 
Mr. Horn found the best method of control to be a rifle. 
During the winter in the yellow pine type from a high point, one can 
detect the girdled trees with a pair of field glasses.   These are then 
located and the porcupine are shot.   Also, it is fairly easy during the

winter to locate the animals by their seent. 
Considerable discussion followed regarding the reason for the 
destruction of ax and other implement handles, saddles and other leather-

goods, porch and kitchen floors.  Theories were advanced that the 
"porkies" gnswed such things on account of the salt or oil present,
one member argued that this was done merely by reason of "pure cussedness,.

Mr. Horn stated that the Biological Survey had received some 
help from the field men in District 3 in the way of observations given 
in response to a questionairre sent out to the field.   This would make 
a good subject for a bulletin article for anyone who has some first 
hand knowledge of porcupines and their habits, the damage they do, the 
number on any definite area, method of control, etc.   Anything on this 
subject that is sent in for the bulletin will be transmitted to the 
Biological Survey.   It is hoped that the Biological Survey will extend 
its study to the l&dgopole pine type in Colorado or Wyoming. 
## # ### 
Abe Martin says, "We used to call a feller a durned crank that 
devoted all his time an' attention t' one thing, but t'day he's a 
- Page Thirten - 

U. S. Forest Service 
-Southwesern District                        Doc Embo-9  1  927 
Bears On Ramnae: Mr. Lee Rice sf Cliff reoorts that several head of cat-

tle have been killed on his range by bears in the last few days, accord-

ing to the Gila Bulletin. He i, requesting permission of the State Game 
Warden to trap for the killers. 
Joe CGamnbell Passes Away Suddonj: Old timers in the Service will be 
grieved to learn of the death of Joseph K. Campbell, brother rf former 
GovL-rnor Thomas B, Campbell of Arizona, on Noverber 20 at his ranch 
house north of Iroscott.' Mr, Campbell was Assistant District Forester 
in charge of the of Range M Lnag-mont from the time thl District

was organized in Dodombnr, 1903 to July, 19119 being succeoded by Mr. 
Kerr. He resigned and wont intc the livestock business, later becoming 
a livestock inspector for Arizona. During the war he was Chief of Gov- 
ernment Stockyards. Death came suddnnly from heart trouble. 
Clearing The Hirhwayt January first has boon sot for the final reimoval 
of all advertising and other privato signs now in 3xistonce en state 
highway rights of way. General instructirns were issued by the Yighway 
Cormission early in thn year for the banishing of all such signs. No- 
ti ,e was given all sign owners in ths connection. In general the order 
has been carried but; however there are still some signs etisting con- 
trary to the Commission's action. Additional notice will be given, if 
necessary, and if all such signs are not taken down or removed to priv- 
ate property by January first, the State Fighwar Engineer has issued in-

stractions for their completd removal at that time. 
Exterminating ?orcunines: The most interesting achievement in Forest 
Research in D-3 during the past three years has been the successful cul-

minat ion of experiments in exterminating porcupines by Mr. B. E. Torn 
of the Biological Survey, according to the Monthly Reeort of the Brnch 
of Research. Daring the past three years the Biological Survey has had 
from one to three men working intermittently on this problem at the 
Experiment Station. Two years ago poisoning appeared hopeless. Horn, 
however, has been working persistently on baits and methods of placing 
them, based on observations of the ani al's habits. Salt and strych- 
nine were found to be an effective bait, but for a long time difficulty 
ias experienced in placing it where porcupines would be likely to find 
it. An important step in solving this problem was the disccery that 
)I thenimals-mxbak    nd fortbeen the lowlands and nmminont moun- 
tain poaks along fairl definite routes of trav1.  Th    routes are me 
conspiuous by-the fact that nearly every tree is damagod, Generous 
baiting in the path of migration, which is usally about a mile wide, will

get nearly all the porcupines in the vicinity. Last spring Horn estab- 
lisbad a series of tree stations in one of these strips, placing an im- 
poverished wooden cup containing salt '_nd strychnine in each marked 
tree. A recent examination revealed a dead ,,porky" under more than
of the baited trees and in one instance throe carcasses were found un- 
der a single tree. The present outlook is very favorablo for effective 
control of this nest at a reasonable cost. 
Field:   Kerr, ITussey (Tonto); Horms (Phoenix, Ariz.) 
Leave:   Chenoy (Georgetowrn, Ill) 
Act n- Calkins 

Py Ranger L. W. Rogers, Santa Fe. 
1.  The porcupines found in the foothills and at lower elevations 
seem to prefer young alfalfa. to the exclusion of most other, plants during

thespring., In the late summer and fall they do not bother alfalfa but 
want corn in the milk; they will keep on eating corn: but most of, the 
damage is-done before the corn becomes hard. The porcupines I have found

in the, higher elevations or around 10,000 f eQt seem to prefer strawberry

.. plant, Spnecio, Sego Lily, June Grass and some Blue, Grass# 
Data on porcupines found in the lower elevations was secured from 
theresidents of Cundiyo.  This community was given poison salt and 
b]hocks for tree stations. They claim they got no results from tree sta-

-.tios, as they did not find any dead but claim they found two carcasses

in a den where they had poison. They claim that the porcupinos. v! 1 eat

alf alfa in the spring! when it is young, most damage done during the month

of May, They then seem to disappear, but just as soon as the. cormbegins

to silk out they return and stick around the fields. They claim to have 
killed eight porcupines during the heavy snow storm last March but that 
the usual number was on hand again in the latter part of September and 
One porcupine in the high country, at an elevation of 11,500 feet, 
vas found grazing along Ln an open park at the head of Puerto Nambe. 
This porcupine was watched for a period of ten minutes, t1P exact spot 
noted. and thp area. wao gone over carefully., I found that the straw- 
berry plant was taken omost but Senecio, June Grass &nd a few leaves
*lue Grass and one plf- of, Sego Lily was, also eaten, This wLs during 
-the first part of Juiy-  Porcupino  will not feed when they knov' they 
are -being watched.:. Trie latter part of July ,another porcupine was seen
an elevation of 7,300 feet feeding  along on yellow pea andosome 2un-. Grass

and one plant of Sonecio was taken, bu1t! the pprcupine wap going, up grade

and very steer and. it was hard to, distinguish just how. much was taken,

They no doubt eat most of the more succulent weed ard grasses,. but I do

know they eat The above species, and as the above spoc .es. ,:ra, be found
most all eleiat'ons it is thought that the area is too cK WUe-ivo to try

ground po'.sonlng of ay sort on these, areas, but we should stay:.ith the

tree method and in dens where they occur in that locclity. 
2. Poison Stations: It is thought that October 15 to November,15 
is the best time to establish tree stations, due to the fact that after 
November 15th we usually get a fairly heavy snow ad it iis believed 
that the porcupines will stay in trees at least during the first storm. 
If the stations are filled with poison just prior to this time the poison

will renin most  of  the vinter due to the mbisture which will harden the

salt and prevent same from being blown away. In the lower foothill coun-

try where the areas are accessible in :the, early spring, say Mal3ch 1 to

March',5. stations should be refilled to take care of porcupines during 
s tbrit. hich we usually have in or during the latter part of March and 
Apil,' Dens should have plenty. of poison at all timQs of the year,, at 
least every fall and spring, as the females inhabit dens while the 
young arc being born. 

3. Migrations: It is a known fact that the porcupines are in the 
foothills on January 1, at elevations ranging from 7000 to 8000 feet. 
This ,is provqn by the statement from -the people of Cundiyo that ;they see

them, at the Ritos and around their- fields at Gundiyo, and% the fact- that

they want a bounty, on them, as they say they can kill any number of  them

during, the winter if they could get enough mo aey, to buy the,, azmviti
During the spring the porcupines work on alfalfa f rsm the latter part, of

April'nd during May, then it. is. thought that they feed back into the high-

er.fQothills three to fOur miles d-ring:June, July and-August, and during

the month of September return to original locality for the: fall and winter,

The porcupines. at the -higher doubt !stay. in trees long-

er in'the fall and then den up for the winter and do not .iigrate to the

lower country. The reason for this conclusior is this: The fact that 
while. the porcupines are in the alfalfa in the lower,-country du ing May

one will see more porcupines at the higher.elevations than at any other time.

It was during.the early part of May,; 1931, that'Mr. -Appleton of the Aspen

Ranch School, elevation 9,000 feety killed f Ive  porcupines and at that
there were plenty of snowbanks to keep them in either the high country or

the low; country. 
I can give one more reason for believing that the porcupines do not 
migrate from low to high elevations. I have seen porcupines at -an eleva-

tign of 7,300 feet and the same day killed iwo porcupines at an elev'ation

of 10,50G feet - and gone through two feet of snow on thq way..  Then again

it eems as though the porcupines of' the higher elevati ons are somewhat

larger and have a light brown color with a tinge of red, where the porcu-

pines, of, the lower elevations are a dark brown and do not seem as large.

** There ia a possibility that we have two species in this motftainous"
try,! an!d this will be checked for verification at the first oppor~nnitT.

My pbservations lead me to believe that porcupines on my district 
do noqt have any definite lines of travel,or migrations but lange. summer

and winter more or less promiscuously depending on the supply of feed and

... 4. Rest Trees: During the past year I have found only one tree 
that answers the description of. the rest- trees given in Leaflet- No. 60,

(:Porcupine Control In The Western States) and this tree has not bem used

in the past two years. Approximately two miles south of this rest tree 
there is a series of so-called, winter trees, but this does not indicate

any definite line of travel. There docs not seem to be any. definite width

to travel lines. 
5, 5 Winter Trees:  I have on the Tesuque District an infested area 
in Sec. 10, Twp. 16 N. R. 10 E. within the Arroyo Hondo watershed. This 
area has possibly 15.trees in a direct north and south line for one-half

mile which show heavy damage by porcupines, the upper branches have bem 
barke&d  the main stem on most trees barked or girdled for two to ten
The tree most heavily damaged is a white fir, the. rest beingblackjack and

scrubby ponderosa pine. From this area in any direction the damage is hard-

ly-noticeable. This leads me to believe that they stopped in this series

of.,trees 'for a period of one storm, then spread out and went to a lower

elevation, or on to a higher one, lower I believe as this is only about 
mile from the foothills, 

I have checked very carefully'trees showing mistletoe and groups 
of tries within  ri  i letoe area "nd have  found that: tho: 'do not
iistletbe -r if they -do I have failed, Vo find- it. -I h v ''seen 'trees
with mistl6toe in. the 1dwer branches and have porcupine signs on th 
main st6m 'at thc top,'bu'* no :sig. o 'any brahches hating imfstletoe. '
" have taled tO natives in ~#gard-otpdrcupinos eatIng 'is~Ietoe 'or
ing* a' pre erencc t& treen Pith mistldtoe but' they are of th  same
as myself that- thdydo' not  eat mistlotoe. . 
Note: Ranger Johnson reports noticing a preference for bark fivm mistle-

toed tre -:; proVably becaUse the cambium layer is thicker, *and perhaps

more  pa. " 
*     6, Dens. Diring- the past ,year I have* found only.t o places Where

porcupines den u  fob'i certain,: one with a.southwest-exposure on the boun-

d, ry of the Aspen MoucitaihnPlantation, elevation 9,500 feet. 'This   is
blhff' of' quartz, and grahite, with A granite sl.ide, directly beneath,-
d6' :shoWs porcupine' sign and poison put 'in. den always diseppears in.n:-

short time. The other den is along the Ritos just south. of Cundiyo and 
is of granite and limestone formation, elevation 7,300 feet. These are 
tho &nlY ,two dens on the Dilstrict. I have found that show sign of use.

-Hve excamined sli dos and clif fa at most signs. of porcupine' damage i
could notsay' they vere used, ; The' cover on theLapon Mountain is composed

"mostly of 4spen, white fir and, some Douglas fir,,. -The cover at the
dh'e s i composed: of ponderosa pine, pinon, 'juniper, ahd some Douglas fir,.

: It 'is claimed by. the nati es that the young arei born the 'latter,, 
part' of April and in  Mayo*. I havel not, seen a real young porcupine,,
-I' have kil1ed Tour femaes frcm May 18th on,  Upon opening up for co.tents

of stomachs, I have found no young and no young wero following, which would

gbt6o show that. the young umst be born much earlier than Hay, possibly in

the early part of March, : This will be ascertained this '.ceding spring

through'thO cooperation of the residents-,of Cundiyo,,' 
7. PoisoninG.    During the summer season of 1929 fourteen poison 
trge stationfB w!roe put up in Ageu Sarca Canyon.* These sttions 'were re-

f4ilod both sprinlg and fall for two years. No dead por .cupines were iever

'founl', bdt -no new sign of porcuiirs 'have been noticed in the pas.. eae,.

Sixteen stations rwerq established on the.Aspen Mountain Plantation 
the same year,' fourteen .tree stations' and two dens. Three dead 'were 
found the first year after putting out poison. Poison ln dens was.-always

gone, but no carcasses found. Stations were refilled three times each 
year'for'tvo ydars.   The second year the block. were nearly eaten up in

'the  sring.l 'During the yeak of 1931 no new sign r.iW' 'f6und exceptin

dens, and"'in these the poison continued to'disappear. The damage had..

'ceased'  oI did during the yoe1r 1931., - These. stations -will be -refilled.

St*ice "during' the year 1032 with poison being put out Xn dens at oh,in-

"i~spoctiontrip ovet-:area.  ,. 
' ll)  acasses were found about one hundred feet',from poison  ta- 
tions, None at stations and none of. the dead were,,headed toward water.


The following are some of the things  i would like to verify or 
have definite opinions- 6n:.. 
1, Possibility of two Spil'es. 
Definit e knowledge as to when young are born. 
3. A known fact 4s to whother or not porcupines really mi- 
grate .from1he low foothills to the high country in 
spring and retiurn in the fall, 
**     Ouoted from letter'fro6m Dr. Waltor P. Taylor concerning two spe-

cies of porcupine. 
"The Coues' porcupine (Erethizon epixinthum couesi) is assumed by 
the Biological Survey to be th6 form'preseilt In Arizona and southern 
New Mexico. The porcupine of southern Col6r'do and northern New Mexico 
is similarly assumed to be the yellow-haired porcupine (Erethizon epix- 
anthum epixanthum . 
"It is quite possiblethat the porcupines in the high mountains 
of the Santa Fe Forest are the yellow-haired species and those lower 
down are the coues' porcupine. In order to bo sure of this, however, 
a number of specimens would have to be collected and studied at the Wash-

ington office of the Biological Survey where material- for comparison 
is available. 
"Unfortunately, there has been no. world-wide monograph of this 
group. The systematic status is uncertain in areas half between te reg- 
ular regions of distribution* I hope you will encour g  Ranger Rogers 
to secure all the information he can on the subject." 
Porcuipine Control On The Tusayan  "Approximately 300 poison blocks
put out in fanuary, 1931, by Rngors Morse and Hulbort," states Super-

visor Kimball in his ,nnual silvicultural report. "Exainations in the

spring phowed that many of the blocks had been chewed on, end a number 
of porcupine skeletons were found. The Biological Survey started con- 
trol work in November, 1931, in charge of N. F. Gillhnm on the Tusaym 
and Coconino Forests. 700 blocks were put out between Kendrick and 
Wing Mountains. Mr. Gillham is ncw working east of the San Franciaco 
Peaks, but expects to return to the Tusayan in the spring. If money is 
.available, he plans on working a crew of three men and covering the heav-

ily ,infested areas on the Tusaycn and Coconino before the spring migration.

Beaver Colonies: On my recent trip to the Carson I noted good colonies 
qf beaver on the Cimarron below the Eagle Rest Dam. Evidences of new 
work was noticed at several points along the stream. Betaver colonies 
are at work also on Red River betwoen Questa and the mines. Several new 
tree cuttings were noted. A Mexican had a load of narrow leaf cotton- 
wood poles taken from a nearby homstead nearly all of which had be 
felled by beaver. Beaver sorstimos have a poor "eye" for "lean"
the t;re fails, to land whore Wanted. A number of trees had fallen par- 
allel or away from, the stream. These were of no use for dam construc- 
tion.                                                 J. D. Jones 

Pennsylvania Game News 
Vol. IV, No. 7, Oct. 1933, P. 10 
Edward Pond, of Mehoopany R. F. D., shot 
a porcupine in his corn field that weighed 
sixty-eight pounds. The animal was weighed 
on sealed  scales in th          of wit- 

But there is a value in this tiny remnant of 
original growth, this one out of a thousand acres, 
which we believe transcends all the other values 
combined-its value of scientific study. 
European foresters long ago discovered what 
Americans are only now beginning to realize: 
that a virgin wood is a treasure house of infor- 
mation as to Nature's ways, a priceless record of 
the slow but inexorable processes by which she 
moulds every forest and its teeming fauna to fit 
soil and climate. No system of silviculture, no 
manipulation of the 
forest to yield abund- 
antly some product or 
service useful to man- 
kind, can   long  run 
counter to natural ten- 
dencies or processes. 
For a few years- 
fifty perhaps, or a 
hundred-we may or- 
der the forest accord- 
ing to our own ideas, 
but eventually Nature 
will have   her  own 
way. In our manage- 
ment of the forests of 
the future we must 
understand, and in the 
essentials follow, Na- 
ture's way. 
I know no better 
example of the per- 
sistence  of  natural 
forces in the face of 
h u m a n interference 
than recent develop- 
ments in the old-field 
stands of white pine in 
central Massachusetts. 
Two hundred and fifty 
y ears ago tne early    Fifty-one inches in diameter, thi 
settlers in the Swift   slain, victim of the lowly porcup 
cougar and bob-cat, exterminat 
River valley  cleared                       fa 
away the virgin stands 
of hardwoods, with here and there a white pine, 
to make pastures or "mowing" for their sheep and 
cattle. Doggedly they grubbed out of narrow val- 
leys every vestige of the original tree growth, and 
year after year joined stubborn battle with the 
pine and grey birch seedlings that, sprung from 
wind-borne seed, skirmished from the adjacent 
woodlots. Then came sterner warfare, and when 
Father Abraham called, men marched away to 
bloodier fields. The autumn winds of the '60's 
showered their pastures with pine seed, and by 
the time they returned-some never did-pine 
s tu 
ed o 
seedlings formed  unbroken   thickets between 
crumbling fences. There for fifty or sixty years 
pine reigned supreme. 
Then a strange thing happened. Encouraged 
by the thinning of the pine crowns that takes 
place in most white pine stands at about this age, 
not pine, but hardwood, seedlings began to appear 
here and there beneath the pines. They were not 
only ashes and maples, light seeded species, but 
also oaks and hickories, the heavy seed of which 
were carried into the pine woods from adjacent 
forests in the jaws of 
squirrel, chipmunk, or 
mouse, or in the beaks 
of jays and other large 
birds. Neither birds 
nor animals, we may 
be sure, had anything 
in mind but their own 
winter  food  supply 
when they transported 
these nuts, and they 
allowed only a small 
percentage to germi- 
nate. But a few seed- 
lings developing year 
after year for the past 
decade or two now 
form an understiry of 
young hardwoods be- 
neath the pines, and 
will some day surely 
dominate the forest. 
Then will the cycle be 
complete. Centuries 
before men, red or 
white, claimed   this 
ground, hardwoods 
and pines had strug- 
gled to dominate it. 
And the hardwoods, 
somehow better able 
lip poplar is a monarch meanly 
With their natural enemies, the  to take advantage of 
.r fast disappearing, porcupines 
man.                      the comparatively 
heavy soils of the val- 
leys, won the long battle with the pines. Then 
came the Puritans. They banished both contest- 
ants from the field for two hundred years. Seven- 
ty-five years ago the losers returned. Eventually, 
after three hundred years of exile, the oaks, hick- 
ories, ashes, and maples will once more be victors 
over the pines. 
Forces that may not be denied, equally per- 
sistent with those which brought even heavy- 
seeded hardwoods back to the old fields in cen- 
tral Massachusetts, are operative in every forest 
in the world. They produced the virgin forest. 
October, 1934 

RFRTO                            R~oom. 306 Agriculture 3uilding 
University of Arizona 
Tucson, Arizona 
July 15, 1935 
Er. Aldo Leopold 
New Soils Building 
College of Agridulture 
University of wisconsin 
Ladison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
Herewith are enclosed the copies of our Jack Rabbit- 
Grazing Paper which you requested. I think there is a lot in 
the ide   although a good deal more work ought to be done be- 
fore     e     dogtic. 
I have just been working; over the manuscript on "The 
Life History of the Porcupine" and find that this animial is 
another example, seemingly, of increase in nubers as a result 
of disturbance of original conditions. All of us who have 
worked on the porcupine are agreed, I think, that the animals 
are more abundant in cut-over areas than they are in well 
stocked stands of for example ponderosa pine. The key to this 
situation is that the porcupine is fond of the herbaceous vege- 
tation growing on the forest floor. In closed stands or very 
well stocked stands of forest trees there is much less vegeta- 
tion on the ground. In cut-over, on the other hand, there is 
usually an abundance of herbaceous growth. It seems clear that 
the numbers of porcdpines increase rather than decrease under 
these conditions. That is why in some places they become an 
important problem in relation to reforestation. 
A few days ago you wrote that you were having a copy 
of the XWildlife Handbook, compiled by Region 9, sent to the 
members of your committee. I have not received mine yet but 
want to get it. 
With cordial regards, 
Sincerely yours, 
Senior Biologist. 
P. S.   2r. P. B. Lister helped me out in digging out the reprints. tI-4


Ltbraoo of 
Rlb leopolb 
Reprinted jroin JOURNAL OF FORESTRY 
Vol. XXXIV, No. 6, June, 1936 
Ecology and Life History of the Por- 
cupine (Erethizon epixanthum) 
as Related   to  the  Forests of 
Arizona and    the  Southwestern 
United States. By Walter P. Taylor. 
Univ. of Arizona Bull. VI-5 (Biologi- 
cal Science Bull. 3) 177 pp. Illus. 
Those who still hope for blanket yes 
or no answers to questions of pest-control 
will be disappointed in Walter Taylor's 
bulletin. It is, in my view, an extraordi- 
narily complete demonstration of the fact 
that such answers are usually, by their 
very simplicity, spurious. Even to one 
whose daily business deals with the un- 
ravelling of complex ecological relation- 
ships, the reading of this work leaves a 
feeling of astonishment that so simnle an 
animal as the porcupine should be in. 
volved in such a multitude of interactions 
with his environment. 
The bulletin is more than a competent 
life-history study; it is an elaboration of 
the new concept of "animal weeds." Just 
as destructive land use seems to give a 
competitive  advantage  to  "worthless" 
plants, so also does it seem to encourage 
abnormal abundance of troublesome ani- 
mals. Both seem to be associated with 
a retrogression in the plant succession and 
a decline in that stored-up ecological 
energy which, in agriculture, we call fer. 
tility, in forestry site-quality, and in wild- 
life productivity. 
The animal weed theory had its origin 
on the Santa Rita Range Reserve in Ari- 
zona, as a possible explanation of the 
dominance of jackrabbits and other ro- 
Weed associations, however complex in 
their environmental adjustments, seem to 
be simpler in their composition as to 
species than the associations which they 
replace. The weed is often a member of 
the preexisting association, but in it oc- 
cupies a circumscribed niche. It is the 
process of resource-exploitation  which 
presents weeds with the opportunity for 
dominance. It may reflect some profound 
intuitive understanding when we auto- 
matically resent the dominance of weeds. 
(These speculations are not the author's, 
but my own.) 
In the Southwest overgrazing is sus- 
pected to be the underlying "cause" of 
too many porcupines. 
Like all good jobs, Taylor's work raises 
more questions than it answers. Just how 
effective is the mountain lion as a por- 
cupine-control? What is the role of the 
porcupine as a consumer of and at the 
same time a vector for mistletoe?   To 
what extent does the porcupine delimit 
the lower edge of the timber type? Are 
porcupine gnawings a cause, or an effect, 
of bark beetle attacks?  To these and 
many other queries, Taylor adds new data 
and fresh interest, but not final answers. 
No life history, however well rounded, 
is devoid of weak spots. One of the weak 
spots in this one is, I think, the treatment 
of population cycles. A cyclic rise in por- 
cupines is postulated as a possible alter- 
native for the weed theory, but the dis- 
cussion does not dig very deeu. Historical 
data on past fluctuations in abundance 
are naturally scarce, but it seems at least 
thinkable that ring-counts of calluses on 
old gnawings might have yielded evidence 
of fluctuation. However, such counts would 
admittedly be very laborious. There is 
no discussion of the inherent probability 

of cycles in porcupine. In my opinion 
the animal's coarse vegetable dietary and 
freedom from starvation losses would in- 
dicate a probability of cyclic behavior. 
It is in such animals that the cycle is 
usually prominent. 
One wishes that the study might have 
included some banding to check against 
the interesting circumstantial evidence on 
seasonal migration. 
The author seems to have tripped up 
on one minor question of fact: he asserts 
that "the porcupine has a slower breeding 
rate than any other mammal in North 
America, so far as known." The breeding 
age is two years; the number of young 
per year is one. The breeding index is 
thus 2:1. The black bear, however, is 
slower. The breeding age, according to 
Seton, is three or four years and the litter 
one to four, average two, but litters are 
born only in alternate years. The breed- 
ing index on this basis is, at fastest: 
3:--, or 3:1, 
a slower rate than porcupine.   Grizzly 
bears likewise have a 3:1 index, and pos- 
sibly elk and buffalo. It is, I suppose, 
none too certain that the alternate-year 
postulate in bears is correct. 
In discussing the recent reduction in 
mountain lions as a possible reason for 
porcupine increase, the author consistently 
ascribes it to "hunting for sport . . . and 
as a protection to the stock industry." 
If this implies an order of importance, I 
would take issue.  Excessive reductions 
in lions have more commonly followed 
Biological Survey predator-control than 
sport-hunting. Elliott Barker, State Game 
Warden of New Mexico, has recently sug- 
gested that the way to put lions on mod- 
erate-density sustained-yield basis is to 
withdraw government control entirely, and 
put the whole job on a sport basis. Bar- 
ker points out that motorized dog-packs 
now give the sport-hunter sufficient mobil- 
ity to cover the lion range, and that the 
"law  of diminishing returns" operates 
more promptly on sportsmen than on paid 
By and large, we may confidently add 
Taylor's Porcupine to that growing list 
of first-rate ecological life-histories which 
constitute the foundations for wildlife 
University of Wisconsin. 

PORCUINDS                                          k0 
Whether porcupines cause more damage in the forest than bark beetlesi 
or fire is difficult to determine. But that they constitute a source of 
loss that is in the same general class - at least in some localities - is

generally agreed.                                                       
Advantage was taken of increased labor supplies made available a        
few years ago by emergency work to provide some increased degree of control.

As A result A marked decrease in damage has become evident.  It is surpris-
ing, hovever, that the number reported to be killed does not decrease cor-

re spondingly. 
In 1933 the total kill by all agencies in Region 2 was reported as 
12,616. In 1934, it was 16,238; in 1935, 22,077; in 1936, 14,572; in 1937,

9,987; and for 1938 the number was 9,521. Perhaps we have reached a bal-
ance where the ability of the porcupine to perpetuate itself just about 
equals the skill of man to hunt him down and kill him.                  
In the 1938 report of porcupines kill6d it is interesting to note       
that the Harney Forest leads the list with 1,845 "pincushions"
to its cred-        D 
it. The -hite Rivet Forest stands second, with 1,194 porcupines killed. 
The Arapaho is next, with 673, followed by the Yedicine Bow with 575"and

the Holy Cross with 537. CCC camps are credited with 289 p6rcupines, the

Biological Survey exterminated 2,746, fotest officers, 1665, while the larg-

est number was credited to local hunters, temporary laborers and probably

stockmen, totaling 4,795. 

Hones*  IL F.ii .  Frs . "A Wym n o $hp Stdy . 
W.Yo  Ga14an  fis   9"t-, ALa ItJl  914mP 11Nh  acse 
ottw  igonswrefun  n  hchte aeswrefllo prupn 

?arm.,rs and M, roh a-nts 3tate iank 
D~ar Mtr. Miller$ 
Your )*tt er of ?e1bruary 18 addresed4 to t'he W~niverstty --f 1-4s~onailn

rega~~~~~~din~~~~~  rLblnt  2~o                  ,,he ojtxoL  oepii wngn
booin rfrsi~ti         ~.,aoy~         'p 
I.U hvo                      : iat#  mu of *titdy withi dat:eizto jrA ,.Or-

supneoandTh ~os  ~as hve oun  ~h&ioda  uobi La oopjor curb)Onat.. 
dry lime *ulfur# p to~r~,i1         Ri   eOO.t bet )f v~ilu       i itil

4~~~~aa~~~~~~e.~~  LhJee  Vhmol                  fv  b   t.diva htyodhsea
work   a dat iLabe  ,ly*      riena    an(L *.hreiore vie can ot' Ot You

little in  --he Waj of  fa-.    pr,.duuot. Joth oop ,r aro:,nate and limo

Sulfur 1,-ParL  L oolow  ,o the 4 wurfuao. onl v .L. -16 Ls aP~I-.d. I uaume

iyour, as a unpalnt~td building so this way be obletiunable ifor i.hie reason.

?ar unapainted woo.d I would suggest that you try ar ajplIiatidn of hot 
*M*ot@.  T'his a p be apl 1ied with a paiint brus.. 
I am u0Wh tha   we oan no t be of more assistance to yo)u. At tno 
osont we are *ontemp'lating& a ~t3aolutiQn1 )f 'h-eskan ope to) iaVe

ti,4r* desirable a r~~nt      otf 1w 'A  lwt  ;0ysio    f~h    ~k 
fery truly your 
*e Aldo LeopoldUi                            sat A1rIS 
University of Weosn 

4~~4       t~4        f a 

3L4brary of 
Mortality Due to Porcupin  Wl 
A Mr. Fisher of the park trmsportation com      had fou a oyto 
"uith more quill* in his mouth thaa the ordinary poapin has in 
his body." He approshed within 5 feet of the anim., and col 
have etl killed it with a club, for the eyto r.s mre Intersted 
in ex(ra t    the tin barbs than lie wns in th  presene of the man 
0. J. Marts tell* of the experience of Raner Jack Tevebaugh: 
In the later part of Wroh he shot a coyote that was extremely 
esmaated. It was found to be full of pocupine quills, in the skin, 
in the tissues uner the sin, on the head, and evn inside the mouth. 
On the head were two festering sores." 
Pag 24 of Adolph Mrae     Mology of the Coote In the Tellom tone'. 
Fi14 oyote bo. 

W ILD animals constitute a great asset in any 
well-managed forest. Occasionally some ani- 
mals become a liability also. The charm of 
the forest is greatly enhanced by the presence of deer and 
other game and by the presence of beaver, squirrel, chip- 
munks, birds, and a long list of useful, harmless or 
nearly harmless creatures. Probably among the 
Minnesota he seems to give some preference to white 
pine, though he also girdles many thrifty Norway pines, 
jack pines, highland or white spruce, and sugar maples. 
The most thrifty, medium-sized trees usually are pre- 
ferred. A ring of bark will be girdled at 20 or 30 feet 
above the ground, and then at various points higher up 
Porky has "taken to the tall timber" in 
search of a particularly succulent morsel of 
bark for his evening meal. 
"PORKY" IN TWO CHARACTERISTIC POSES                           
  Tracts of virgin timber remaining 
All abristle, he waddles down the woodland path, on devastation bent, incidentally
delighting  in any region after destructive log- 
visitors to the park who may happen to catch a glimpse of him as he ambles
ging has wrecked the forest in all 
porcupine can throw   its quills is, of course, erroneous,  the surrounding
territory are particularly liable to dam- 
A  RAVE NOUS APPE TITE FOR BARK                   age by insects, rodents,
and other destructive agencies. 
This is easily accounted for from the fact that the com- 
As is well known, the porcupine feeds upon the bark       paratively small
area' of remaining timber attracts the 
of a variety of trees. He is not particular, but in northern  animal life
which formerly found its home in the sur- 
Pine or Porcupine? 
By W. T. Cox 

rounding forest, now cut away. Itasca Park and Forest, 
at the headwaters of the Mississippi River, is a good 
illustration of this fact. This tract of one hundred and 
thirty million feet, in a district which once contained 
billions of feet of timber, seems to be the mecca for a 
disproportionately large wild-life population, some useful 
and attractive, some harmful. 
The porcupine, which ordinarily is not very abundant 
and whose work is rather inconspicuous, has become so 
abundant at Itasca that it commands the attention of the 
park superintendent and other foresters engaged upon 
work in the forest. Recently, in marking trees for an 
improvement cutting, twenty-six forties were carefully 
gone over. Snow lay on the ground and it was easier 
to see porcupines than it would be in the summer-time, 
and the men were able to obtain a fairly accurate count 
of these animals and to determine what damage they were 
doing. On the twenty-six forties, seventy-six porcupines 
were seen, or an average of three to the forty. Since 
there are five hundred and sixty forty-acre tracts in this. 
particular State Forest, it would seem that there must be 
in the neighborhood of sixteen hundred porcupines busily 
engaged in girdling trees on the reserve. 
Careful note made as to the work of these animals 
showed that each one had recently girdled and killed on, 
an average 4.9 white pine trees. The trees were of an 
average diameter of fifteen inches, representing the equiva- 
lent of 95o board feet of timber killed by each animal,. 
or a total of 69,5oo board feet on the twenty-six forties.. 
This timber has a stumpage value of $8 per thousand 
feet. It will be seen, therefore, that the porcupines of 
Itasca Park and Forest are killing each year approxi- 
mately a million and a half feet of timber, worth on the- 
stump $16,264, or approximately 1.2 per cent of the pres- 
ent annual growth. They constitute a source of damage 
which must be reckoned with in the management of the- 
But it would not be advisable to exterminate the por- 
cupine in a forest such as Itasca, which is visited by tens 
of thousands of people who are interested not alone in, 
the trees, but in the wild creatures also. To wage re- 
lentless warfare upon such an inoffensive animal as the 
porcupine would seem cruel, and in fact a reasonable. 
number of them should be in evidence, so that visitors 
may get an occasional glimpse of them shuffling across 
the trails or perched up in some lofty pine; but to allow 
this "highland beaver" to increase beyond his present 
numbers would be exceedingly unwise and even danger- 
ous for the welfare of the forest. 

Charles E. Walker, State Trapper, Crandon, Wisconsin, writes: - 
"Thanks for the Trap Line and the info rmatio  in regards 
to scalps and skins. My luck is getting better. Last Fr day, I took 
my first timber wolf in trap, blind set. I got to him    t at sundown, 
and took him out without skinning. Some load - weigh   84 pounds. 
Skinned him Sunday morning. Had a Milwaukee Sentinel re   er over, 
who took picture of him. I took pictures of him alive. Have not got 
them developed yet. 
Then Monday I took a coyote. Caught at deer carcass in 
State Game Refuge. Tuesday, I got my second timber wolf - a big 
fellow. Here is where I got the best of Roy Gratias. I got this 
wolf in a snare and he broke the snare and got away. While I was 
standing there feeling just too bad, I noticed some drops of blood and 
then quite a pool of blood and I doped it out that he had ruptured a 
blood vessel and was bleeding frow the nose. Wall, that gave ile some 
hope, and I took up the trail. The brush was very thick and I lost t 
the trail many times and gave up once, and then decided to have one 
more look, and I found him dead with just enough of the snare left 
to reach around his neck. He was a dandy - 7 ft, 8 inches from tip 
to tip and stood 35 inches high. After I had him skinned, I held a 
post mortem and found left jugular vein ruptured. Opened stomach- and 
found it empty except a tuft of deer hair - nothing in the intestines. 
Wi    -+-3  -i-,res 8oon. I am sending in the broken snare 

.Voo    t Lee) .L 0 eas i ,oc ".   is going out tnae Ifover.ese.
12ne soft- 
wood index for the ,,,eek w," 37,,00 v.-hilc. last yea-rs indez for
the same weehk was 
28603 showing the increase that has telhen piace. 
Determined to Keer Hs Bon~e- Coyote refused to dryp his load even at the
of his life. Ranger Beii ab-urz of the Gila tells m   interesting sbry of
a coyote 
he came upon while it was a huge thigh bo-Ae of a horse. Instead of

slunking away as is tho c'         oyotes, -.'-his oaz  gathercd up the tI
igh bone 
and took it along. Nabours rode, "os9 but the coyote kept the bone even
though it 
was so heavy he could scarcely Yu'   Kabours decided to try to rope him and
right alongside then concluded he would better shoot him. By this time coyote

and horse were covering Ground pretty fast. Nabours shot twice with his 
shooter but missed both times, 1r. Coyote concluded, however, that the Ranger

had an unfair advantage. He reluctantly let go his bone and took to the brush.

He got away but surely did hate to give up that thigh bone. 
Field.  Pooler, Long (Coconino); Jones (Crook); Myers, Cook (Gila); MoNaught

(Crook); Hughes (Apache). 
Visitors:" E. %. Kelley, W'ashington (Coconino) 
L       Marsh. 
Agt ng   Cheney. 

Coyote folder 
Note from H. B. Marshall, 1178 University Farm, St. Paul 
Coon killed by coyotes in spring after they begin to come out of 
hibernation. Killed by single coyotes and eaten. Abundance of 
coons determined by c uotes and corn. Cons increased in his loality 
after coyotes killed out. 

Here is the "sequel" to that picture of pelts from preda- 
tory animals (LIFE, Jan. 31). This shows the carcass pile of 
another predatory animal hunter, containing hundreds of skel- 
etons of coyotes. Let no one grieve for the departed, as the 
slinking "prairie wolf" is the livestock man's worst enemy. 
This picture was snapped early one morning recently on the 
high sagebrush plains of central Oregon by R. G. Johnson, pro. 
fessor of range livestock management at Oregon State college. 
Corvallis. Ore. 

(W'aITS OLD EIrEMY - THE COYOTE                          4 : / /c. 
While tending his trap line on French Creek in Johnson County, Wyo., 
last December, Predatory Animal Hunter Charles Vest, employed by the Fish
Wildlife Service, United States Department of Interior, stopped on the ridge

to look around and suddenlk found himself in a ringsidc seat viewing an un-

usual fight. 
Just as Vest spotted two coyotes leaving the bottom of the draw, his 
attention was attracted to a noise from another direction. This proved to
a big dog coyote running at top speed with a buck deer in hot nursuit. When

the door caught up with his ancient enemy, he knocked the coyote down with
front feet, then jumped on him with all four feet. 
After taking a hard pounding, the coyote managed to crawl into a brush 
patch. Although the deer did not attempt to follow the coyote, he circled
patch until he spied Hunter Vest end took to his heels, followed by three
that had been waiting at a distance. The coyote, Vest discovered, was trampled

so badly he could hardly crawl, so it was an easy matter for the Government

hunter to finish the job the deer started. 

as. A dozeh oame up and fought for tossed out 
soraps of meat while butoheri!g an antelope ner 
Costilla. Says "From the fact that the antelope con- 
gregating in large bands, they were unable to prey on 
these animals, which are their favorite food." 
" Turkeys in La Trinchera, 2 days No. of Costilla. 
* A wol which came to eat the offal of the b*chered 
antelope on the Costilla followed Ruxton for 
1 day Costillo - Oulebra 
1 day Culebra - Trinchera 
I day Trinohera - Sangre de Christo Or. (Valledt) 
(Here they passed a dead mule which evidently detain- 
ed the wolf, as he is not afterward mentioned. The 
incident illustrates, however, how the coyotes may 
have followed the gold-rush to Alaska over the 
koenzie trail. ) 
P. 211 
2. 211 

P.266*G.            warming himself and dozing by a large camp- 
fire as Ruxton awoke during night. Says "these ani- 
Rmals gnaw the straps of a saddle on which your head 
is reposing for a pillowo" 

5. W      svery hn     y during the spring season. Chewed 
the sddle strings of unguared saddles and duing 
the nigh~t ate the rawhide lariat to within a yar'd of 
the  uW      hroats. 

P. 2             - 6 entirely cleaned up an old buck (shot b'ut 
too poor to dress) in 10 minutes   Bones clean. 

Office of the Secretary 
Press Service 
Release . Immediate. 
A'ril 14, 1922. 
Super-Coyote of Caddo County, Okla., 
Trapped by Governrmeat Tlunter. 
Old Three Toes and his co-1:illers were a hard-boiled lot, whelped 
in a region where the length of a coyote's life depended a good deal 
upon the length of his legs and on the same dimension in his head. 
They belonged to a superior breed, developed by the very methods that 
had been designed for their undoing, and Old Three Toes was the strong- 
est, fleetest, and wisest of the clan. For six years he spread destruc- 
tion among the herds and flocks in an 13-mile area in Caddo County,Okla.,

outwitting packs of expensive dogs that killed off his slower and 
weaker relatives. Only the fittest survived. The weaklings and 
dullards were culled before they hcad the opportunity to reproduce their

But if these super-coyotes could survive in the face of ordinary 
methods of extermination, life vas a different matte- when they were 
called upon to face the skill and persistence of Government hunters. If 
you would know what happened to this band of destroyers and to the 
greatest of them all, read a few paragraphs from two reports sent in to 
the Biological Survey of the United States Department of-Agriculture by 
E. F. Pope, predatory animal inspector for the Oklahoma-Arkansas district.

In December the inspector wrote: 
"Inasmuch as the people of the Lookaba community have sustained 
losses from coyotes amounting to many thousands of dollars, and, after 
spending  l,000 for a pack of steg hounds, have failed to bring the 
animals under control, this promises to be an excellent opportunity for 
demonstrating the proper methods. However, on account of a super- 
abundance of dogs in the locality, many of which are still referred to 
as 'valuable dogs,' *e must confine ourselves to the use of traps. 
.."After looking over the largest pasture in the neighborhood, 
where coyotes were said to have committed depredations for the last 

six years or more, I concluded that coyotes were lot unusually abundant 
but their tracks were unusually large and indicated that most of them 
were large, heavy animals. In fact, the people there state that all 
the slower, weaker specimens have been cmught with dogs an(! that the 
survivors are all Iarge, rangy animals and that a race of super-coyotes 
is being produced in Caddo County. We heard much of Old Three Toes, 
an extra large coyote or wolf, that has been chased with dogs for the 
past six years. We were not looking especially for his tracks, but 
the first tracts ie found were rather large, even for a Very large 
coyote, measuring 3-3/4 inches long and 2-1/4 inches wide, with one 
toe missing from the right fore foot. In shape they were typical 
coyote tracks. We found the same tracks in three different parts of 
the pasture, two or three miles apart. As there are some very rough, 
heavily timbered canyons there, Old Three Toes may prove to be a wolf 
or a coyote-dog hybrid. 
"At this writing there are probably 50 traps awaiting the re- 
turn of the super-coyote, or whatever ho is, and we expect to hear of 
his capture any day." 
What the coyote hunters accomplished was detailed in the January 
report, which says in part: 
"Twenty-nine days of strenuous activity were devoted to the 
Caddo County project, which resulted in a total bag of 19 coyotes, 
practically all of them large, rangy old sinners that had outrun the 
dogs, refused to be enticed with bait, and committed depredations 
against live stock to the extent of at least $10,000. 
"In our narrative for December reference was made to Old Three 
Toes, notorious over the whole county. The following letter from 
Mr. Mullins, his captor, fully justifies the prediction of his speedy 
"'It is too bad that you could not have stayed another day and 
had a good look at Old Three Toes, who hit the two traps with the short 
stakes we set together. The very last night he roamed the woods was 
the night you left. He was not a wolf or coyote-dog hybrid as had been 
rumored, but an estra large coyote, as was indicated by his tracks. 
We did not weigh him until Saturday evening, when we took him to town 
to give the people a chance to see him; that is, the few who had not 
heard of his capture and come to our camp. There has been a crowd 
here ever since he was caught, one person coming 17 miles. Five days 
after his capture Old Three Toes weighed exactly 39 pounds, which means 
that he must have weighed at least 45 pounds then caught. There is no 
doubt in the minds of the people here that he is the offender they 
have been chasing all over the county for the past six years.'" 
//                      *777-22 

29. The ?roblem of Sales Personnel. 
3 0. New ideas in stumpage appraisals 
-  h~E~nmant Ii thA wnn 1AndI tvnn 
Watershed .rotoction onStalt River (Goddard) 
Oty Tree lanting - an opportunity for publio 
service (Randles) 
Visit to Dr. Long's Laboratory and informal 
explanation of his recent work. 
TM-IA       JN 9th 
Are we ap-plying res-Its of our reconnaiessance 
and studies? (Kerr) 
What we are doing on the Jornado Rnge (?orsling) 
Grazing     reproduotiqn (Westfeld) 
a      4                      range 'mprovements 
i        to ar   fencing 
sI ttock assoelat ions 
Qettin the Natu1ral Icrease Iemoved 
47. Predatory tnimal news ,AeLie on ( ep 4tK) 
48. Tew Deir-elopuiente in Came work (Shepqrd) 


-4W  -     -   - i 
Lineoln Inspection - 1921 
Coyote Work. Project organized by Allman 
of Biol. Survey on east side Sacramentos and 
said to have cost only $90 (1 moo. wages) + 
48 poison, and to have killd bhetwen 30 
(seen) and 100 (est.) coyotes. Weor working 
on ;alves, tukey and deer. Money put up by 
permittees on assessment based on permit 
number. Same project organize& at Ruidoso 

Scoyote: "The following story is furnished by Rager McDuffie and can
vouched for by the five other people present End canceraec.3. 
'I heard a dog bark, and upon lookin out of a wiidom,. saw a, coyote coming

down the trail toward the open yard space between the San-a Rita "Re.gc
headquarters house and Wn. NlichoIsonvs house. The dog., a laga mo-agrel,
was afraid 
of the coyote and retreated as it advr-ced, I grabbed a       nifde  d !urried
out, By 
the time I reached the gate on the trail', the other dogs ha . come to the
of the first one, and Tip, a big white shopherd of Nzl.ol-o-'s, had the coyote
the throat and had been bitten by it on the nose jvst belcv tho eye. I put
Springfield bullet through the coyotels head and stopped furth1,r combat.
By this 
time everybody on the place was present. Nicholson told me that as the family
at breakfast they heard a noise at one of the windows, which swing inward
and are 
practically even with the ground. At the noise they all looked up and saw
a coyote 
bump the window twice with its head. The window opened, the coyote stood
into the room for a moment and then backed away. There were five dogs about
house and part of them chased the coyote. It ran but a short distance from
house and then turned back toward it,. The fight and finish took place less
than 50 
yards from the house. We are all at a loss to explain such behavior. The
carcass was burned, and as a matter of precaution, the dog that was bitten
is being 
closely watched for symptoms of rabies., i      (Coronado Bulletin.) 
Fieldi Kerr (Sitgreaves); Long (Camp Grant); Hussey (Tonto); Myers (Mauzano);

Cooperrider (Gila); Cassidy (Santa Fe). 
Visitors: Loveridge (Carson) - DO. 
FRAMK 0. W. I00LER, District Forester, 
By:      J. C. Kircher,       ActinR. 

Gila Inspection - 1922 
Lobos attack cows on hind end - generally 
flain8s.  Fall to sating before animal 
d e ad. 

Presott Inspection - 1922 
P       eating manzanita berries in large 
quantities, as per sign seen on road S.W. 
ser.     These are the brown ripe berries, 
easily gathered as they pile up on the 

Santa Fe Inspection - 1923 
Wil& Plums eaten by coyotes, seeds and all, 
Barker says. 

Santa Fe Inspection - 1923 
Killing by Coyotes 
Barker has seen 3 cases.   &ll were 
individual cases rather than pack. Not 
always in deep snow. 

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...  ..................................... i 
Wolves-Timber and Prairie 
According to one writer there are many 
varieties which vary much in size and color, 
yet there are perhaps only two distinct spe- 
cies, the timber wolf and prairie wolf. Thru- 
out much of the West the "prairie wolf" is 
called a coyote. 
In North America of the timber wolf there 
are the following varieties: the small, dark 
grey or black of Florida and southeastern 
states; the red of southern Texas; the brindle 
of Mexico; the light grey of the central 
plains; dark grey of eastern Canada; white 
of northern Canada and Alaska; large black 
of northwest coast region. 
There are also several varieties of the 
smaller or prairie wolf found' thruout the 
prairie regions of the United States and Can- 
ada. During the past few years the govern- 
ment has been killing off this animal so that 
"coyotes" are not as plentiful as they were. 
The common grey wolf, of the stock region, 
is still fairly plentiful. It is one of the most 
destructive of animals to stock and game. 
Grey wolves vary considerable in size, and, 
full grown specimens weigh 100 pounds or 
more, their fur being long and -heavy.    4 
The breeding season of the grey wolf varies 
more or less. Some litters are born in the 
summer, alhho the majority are usually born 
in March and April. The mating season is 
mainly in January and February. The litters 
usually number five to eleven. The young 
are born in the foothills and bad lands, in 
holes in the buttes and under rim-rock and 
even in enlarged badger dens. The breeding 
season of the coyote (prairie wolf) is gen- 
erally later than that of the grey wolf. 
Nearly all states where wolves are found, 
and some of the Canadian provinces, pay 
bounty on these animals. Besides the state 
bounty, ranchmen generally pay an additional 
bounty. Experienced wolf hunters and trap- 
pprs, in more than one of the Rocky Mount- 
ain states, have been able to make fair wages 
during past years. The inexperienced trap- 
per will find these animals very cunning and 
wary, and until they are able to take mink 
and fox, they are not apt to make a success 
at bounty trapping. 
For the large grey wolf the No. 4 trap is 
a very good size; for the coyote the No. 2 
double spring or other sizes of about similar 
strength should be used. Some trappers, as 
a means to fasten, in localities where there 
are stones, use these, by wiring securely 
around and to the end of the chain. - In 
other localities good hard-wood stakes are 
used which are about 15 inches long, unless 
the ground is very soft, when longer ones 
are needed.   Thruout much of the wolf 
country hard-wood is scarce, in which case 
iron pins or stakes are much used. 
Many different kinds of scents are used 
by trappers after wolf and fur bounty. The 
urine of the wolf, bottled and kept until it 
has become rancid, is a very good scent. 
The sexual organs of the female, taken when 
in heat, added to the urine, makes it far 
more attractive to the male. This scent is 
most successful during the mating season- 
January and February. 
There are more or less wolf trappers who 
do not use scent in connection with sets. 
Some of their methods are: 
Find a well' defined rock trail, somewhere 
on the wolf's route of travel. Set two traps 
close together on the trail, then go 50 yards, 
more or less, and set two more in the same 
manner. A large bait should be placed near 
the trail and about midway between the two 
settings. When wolves get to feeding on the 
bait they will travel in the trail and will not 
be expecting danger so far from the bait. If 
desired only one trap need be set in each 
place, but two are better. It is a good idea 
to set the traps several days before placing 
the bait so as to allow time for the human 
scent to leave. This set should not be made 
in localities where stock will be using the 
Another method which requires three or 
four traps is made by fastening all traps to 
one stake, Find a smooth spot and scoop 
out a lttle hollow, drive the stake down until 
the top is below the level of the ground. 
Fasten the bait securely to the top of the 
stake so as to hide the stake and also to pre- 
vent the animal from taking the bait away. 
If three traps are used, spread them out in 
the form of a triangle; if four are used ar- 
range them in the form of a square. Set the 
traps carefully so that when they are cov- 
ered everything will be smooth and looking 
just as it did before. As the bait is fastened, 
the animal cannot take it away, and in trying 
to pull it up, will step in one of the traps 
sooner or later. In its endeavor to get out of 
one trap it is pretty apt to step into another, 
and then there is little danger of its getting 
The practiced eye of the old timer will 
* know at a glance where to set. For the be- 
ginner it might be well to add if a place can 
be found where the traps may be set between 
bunches of weeds, cactus, etc, so much the 
Aitho wolves are persistently trapped, poi- 
soned and shot, they will not be exterminated 
for years-perhaps never. Increased wolf fur 
value during recent years has added to the 
revenue of the fur trade hundreds of thous- 
ands of dollars. At the October auction 
sales 36,400 wolf pelts were sold. No doubt 
the total sold for the year, at winter and 
spring sales, would be 100,000 or more. This 
does not represent the yearly catch by any 
means, for large quantities are sold direct 
from  dealer to manufacturer. Perhaps as 
many are sold direct to the manufacturers as 
are sold thru the various auctions, so that 
total for the year is well up to 200,000. Some 
of those sold last year were no doubt taken 
the previous year, but the day or night, 
rather, when the howl of the wolf will not 
be heard thruout much of the West, is far 
in the distance. 
In states or provinces where the topo- 
graphy varies from plains to high mountains, 
such as much of the Rocky and Cascade 
Mountain country, the quality of this article 
varies from good to poor, even when caught 
or killed during winter months. Take the 
state of Colorado for example: The high 
mountain-caught will average with a level 
country farther north; foothills with north- 
ern Kansas and Missouri; plains with Okla- 
oma and similar. 
It will pay you to look thru the 
advertising pages of this issue. 

Daily Bulle tin 
1o. 24-86                  U   3. £orSt 2 ct'vce     October 15, 1923.

Southwos tcrn  Dis, ict 
Bor on October 9 to Deputy Suporvl.sor and Mrs. J. Wo Girdner at Clifton,

Arizona (Apache Forest) a son. Bc'h mother and son are reported as doing

n icely. 
Taking IWood Withut Pa.Mit .o __eg:_ To the Datil belongs the honor for 
the fir-t c  iviction under thc State Law for stealing wood from the Forest.

On Saturday D. J, Jones of 21agdlena was fined $25.00 and costs for sjaal-

ing one load of wood fzom ths Dt .il National Forest.  The fine was suspend-

ed since this was the first case in Magdalena. 
Bulletin ll05:- Since only 100 copies of U.S.D.A. Bulletin 1105 "Natural

Reproduction of Western Yc lo.w Pine." have been received in the District

ftloe, only one half' the :     . 'I.... quota for each Forest is being sent.

When our full supply is recaived t'e Forests will be supplied with the ad-

ditional number necessary to complete their quota. 
What Turkevs Feed On:  Supervisor Sizer has submitted the following very

interesting list of the crop contents of a wild turkey killed by Mrs. Sizer

on COtober 4: 258 pinch nuts, 26 grasshoppers, 25 large black beetles, 6

small black beetles, 2 black wasps, 1/4 cup og grass seed. Other Forest 
officers who can ccntribute any data to the question of turkey feeds will

be gladly heard from. 
D.__()X_0otsG _Wi_!d?! "Last Saturday, October 6, when I passed the
old Bullock 
Ranch, hich is deserted, I noticed a coyote who waf snapping at his sides

and acting queer-, I tied up my pack-horse and tried to rope him, as I had

no gun, but he got into a rocky canyon where my horse could not follow. I

camped at the Bellota RInch that night which is also deserted, and just as

the moon rose in the morni ng, about three A. M., I heard a noise in my pack

sacks, near my bed. I s~t up and saw a coyote's head above one of the sacks,

vWbere I had scme bells and other noisy things. He seemed to be strangling

and chewing on the handles of the sack.  Picking up a handful of gravel,
threw it in his direction and shouted, but instead of stampeding in the direc-

tion I expected, he came for me and the more I bucked and elbowed him the

more determined he becane to ride my bed. I had covered my head before he

arrived, so I finally lay still, and after choking and chewing my tarp awhile

he charged my pack-horse, who vias pickeaed near. A comotim ensued, in 
which I took part with an ala-Mo li.mb, which broke the first time I landed
the coyote, and I was making t,:coks for the bed again, when Mr. Coyote changed

his mind and ambled to the old 3-fjch house, some 30 yards away, where he
untered a hog, and they went of. azross the flat, whoofing and choking. 
Now I am watching the poo oawXc-horse for sigs of hydrophobia, as he had
badly lacerated eye which hac ti-izod white, and the first time he refuses

his drink, I will have to play executer," (Ranger Fr~eborn in Coronado

ielc: Pooler, Kerr (Coconino); Lang (Tusayanj; Cook (Rswell),- Talbot 
(Tonto); Hughes !Sitgreaves); Long fSan Aintonio, Texas). 
Visitor: Rachford, Washington (Coconino). 
Act ing: Leopold. 

Wild Horses - Supervisor Mirktr- Plan: Supervisor Mink of.the Lemhi For-

est is laying plans fr Lo0  aQ!_. o ,ps this fall. In ordtzr to get 
around some of the usual difficultieb incicent to horse roundups, he 
is taking a number of interesting precautions. On account of the dif- 
ficulty of finding purchasers for the horses after they have been taken 
and impounded, he has made arrangements with the Lemhi Woolgrowers 
Association to purchase 100 head of the horses to be used as coyote bait.

He has also made arrangements with a commission buyer who will ship all 
horses weighing over 1050 pounds to market at his own expense,. guar- 
anteeing the accrued charges on the horses, as well as the freight, 
charging for his service only his regular commission. Supervisor Mink 
has also had conferences with county officials in two of the three 
counties touched by the Lcmhi Forest and these men have promised to coop-

,,orate With him in disposing of the horses under the Idaho law. 
Gray Wolf:  An old male gray wolf was recently taken in eastern Lasse 
JvU~   Uy a Uovernment trapper working under the direction of Chas, a. 
Poole, Predatory Animal Inspector of.tho Biological Survey. This is 
the second scien g record of this s eci es from California, the first 
ie from San Ber'nardino County near the Colorado River. The present 
specimen was 5 feet 6 inches long and 32 inches high at shoulder. It 
weighed Tt '56pounds,. approximately .half of the weight of a wolf of 
t  ize.n good. condition. One hind foot had been severed just below 
Zhe hoek , Mr Poole states that there have been stories of a big old 
Wo1f :0 . southern Idaho which has done a great deal of damage to stock.

He -Iink it_ is quite within the realm of possibility that this may be 
the individual- which, harassed by Biological Survey trappers, the dry- 
ing up Of water holes, or a combination of the two, drifted across to 
Oaifornia. there to meet hi~ f t W~,.--.7  _ 
Caiona        hr to me-'himfate-----         --    ---    -- 
Big Things on the S.-asta: On the Trinity District of the Shasta the follow-

ing peasurements of big trees have recently been made. 
An Incense Cedar, circumference 26 ft. 4 in. 
A Foxtail Pine,                 20 '" 5, " 
A Douglas Fir,         I        22  " 8   f, 
A Western Yellow Pine, '       23  "  1  " 
A Sugar Pine which measures 112 ft, to the first limb.--A.E.N, 

-    /P'" 6m, -6, 
J,4  f, " 
71 k ". 

SU. S. * rest Service                           July 16, 192F 
Southwestern Ustrict 
AInials in Ar zona Reduced: Predatory Animal Control Lead~er 
Musgrave, reports in the Arizona Hunters News Letter: "This is the end

of our tiscal year and the lion work especially has been very satis- 
factory. Vie had set our average at ten lions per month for the fiscal 
year sad the end of June finds us with two I ions over. This means a 
great saving in lives-ock and game to the State of Arizona end I feel 
that the State of Arizona has gwtten Value received for the money ex- 
pended* I had hoped to see the last vwolf *kken frm the interior of 
the State before the end o f the fiscl year but it seems that there 
are two itlves left., 
Iducatiomnal loZies" S'uccess In Ar  sas; SBix hundred people and a

Congressma contributed to a successful showing of Forest Service films 
in the opening meeting of the Arkansas-Ozark lre Prevention Campaign in 
D-7 recently, according to the District Seven Digest.  District Three 
has gone deeply into intensive educational Work during the last three 
sears and is greatly interested in the outcome of the efforts being made

by D-7 WIch are presunably along similar lines of approach. It is be,- 
lieved there is no better opportunity in the whole Fbrest Service ter- 
ritory for deteiminixg what education can accomplish than that presented

in Arkansas where, apparently inherited prejudice linked with lack of 
general information has made the problem of forest protection one of 
extreme difficulty to the forest officer. At the meetirg mentioned ftch 
was held at a ranger statton the Agest states, there were present more 
than 350 mebers of the Pope County Boys and Girls Club. The remainder 
of the Crowd of about 600 was made u  of residents of the vicinity. 
Congressman RagOn was the speake,. He discussed in a creditable mauner. 
the report says, fire prevention, the game situation and the phases of 
Forest Service Vork from every angle. 
lbrestry and _Ag    : Many Louisiaiwbankers are making fire protection 
and reforestation compulsory on mortgaged lands. lbr the Purpose of in- 
suring the resale possibilities of such property they bind the mortgagor

to make every effort to prevent forest fires on his land and to plant 
trees on waste gnd cut-over areas. This practice is being energetically 
surported by the Louaisiana Department of Conservation, and has been taken

UP by ba0nkrs in all pOt of the State. It has spread all the more Wa-. 
pidly since the failure of efforts to boOm certain cut-over lands fio"

farmig as opposed to timber-growing ptwposes. The Louisiana Bankersf 
Association in Aj)zil 1925, adopted the ftllowTag as the standard fores 
try claUse for insertion in nortgages  "The mortgagor does here1b ft-a

thwe bind hIM6e1f to put his waste or Idle lands not suitable to agrial-

ture to trees, and to protect an forest trees and tree seedlings growing

on any of the above-described lands, and he further pledges that fires oar

other destruetive agencies will be prevented wherever possible.- 
Forest Vorker.. 
Note: The bankers of the southwest might well draft a similar measure 
and provide in mortgages on fii  stockrequirenents for the observ- 
ance Of proper stocking, range distribution and salting. 
D. 0i   Kerr (Prescott); Cslkins,Scott (1A1che); lXwsey (Coonino); 
Lang (Santa Fel; Cheney (Crook); Marsh (Tusay=)n} Loveridge (Datil) 
Others: Rachford (Washingto) Prescott. 
Act3g: Jones 

S26-34                 Uo S. Forest Service              August 10, 1925.

Southos torn Di strict 
o.arlv 400 F.or Broeti41s: In a recent horse rouadup on the Canjilon Dis-,

trict of the Carson, 380 zximbors of the "savago, unna oablo tribe of
t.ails" ,;oro nI~pouxtd.od. 
_., I: July 30, according to the Linciln 
Bullotin, one of the hoavlost rains in years foil on the Ruidoso District.

It 1:30 p. m. a culvert on the TRuidoso Hijhmay s ashoed out.  It loft a.

,Ip in the road seven feet ..Uio and five foot deep. A group of neighbors

itoludi a the District Rang:er =ndortook to restoro the road and at 3:30
.. m. 
travel as rostmod. In the t o horc that elapsed betjieon the going uit cf

the culvert and the coplotion of tomporary repairs, 27 wiost bound and 24

4cast bound automobilos, avoragin; throe passongers each, arrived at the
and ,7uro cmaitim  to pass. 
Binrzo Boat Both Ua.ys: It's a fast ccnino that can outrun coyotes both in

,usuit nd .hon pursuod. The Gila Bulletin tells a talo about BinGo, the 
falithful dog coopanion of Supervisor Winn. Recently while or. Winn, Assist-

" ,nt -Supervisor Putsch and Bingo -ero afield, Bingo cam toarJng out
of the 
'Orush in the load of twio coyotes. BiGo'ls h'uman friends shouted amd 
-,,,cour,13od like Sheridan did %:hen he yelled: "Turn, boys, tum, ae're
baclc," and Bingo, taking no-;pirit, -.irlod anud chased the coyotes.
orobably nearly caught them but ahen 1e coyotes -;oro out of siht of the

;Loutors and out of hoaring of the s&outs, thq, too, took heart and tuned

In pursuit of Bingo. Bingo, ho °xver, was entirely too rapid for anWr
such as 
ioy ,nd reached a position of shelter and safety, behind Winn and Putsch

&ully towentyj yards ioad of the 1ranting coyotos.  Bingo is all right;
boats them going and oomino. 
"ChLco Versus Chamiso :p  A shooypr  in the Zuni Youitains of No lroxioo,

according to the Manzano TRanor, recently :=do the statement that a plant

callod Chico is a imuch better sheep food than Chamiio. TAon the shoopm-

deacrlbod Chico, nbmbor of the M1anzano foroo concluded that Chico and 
Chatniso are the wxio plant, although the shoeoran clais that Chico has a

more tender foliago a d never produces bloating. Ranger Sherman has been

requestod bV Supervisor KIartchnor to obtain specimens, including twgs and

fruit, of .hat is said to be Chico as .ll as %;hat ho  nmrs to be Chanlso

for idontification to 6otcrrino the difference, if there is any. Lkilo the

1fanzano Supervisor has not requested outside help on the subject, it is

believed any idos and information ;:ill be ,;lcomed. The discussion of for-

ago plants is !onorslly profitable in any event and the Daily Bulletin has

space for contributions on thc Chic o-Chmiso subject. 
F oLd  i Husco, (Coconino) ; :;Zallon, Ranlos (Lincoln); Lang (Santa Fe)
; Kerr 
(r±azayan) ; Tlkarsh (cE.. anzoy, No. H.) 
NAiljtaM  Leave: ;cona, Jones, Long (Ft. Blis,, Texas) 
Atg: Ca21tins 

June, 1926 
ry-animal control in California, 
tave been receive4 from the old foot- 
and-mouth disease territory in Tuolumne Cohnty and the Stanislaus Forest

and that the danger of a recurrence of the disease among deer is practically

G. M. Trickel, senior administrative assistant in Colorado, spent 
practically the entire month assisting new hunters in predatory-animal work,

and in the course of his operations in May he reports practically no loss
the lambing ranges from coyotes or bobcats. 
Hunter W. J. Nearin, in carrying out his work on a ranch near Fruita, 
Colo., was successful in taking a 650-pound bear that had been making a series

of raids on the rancher's herds. Its stomach contained three small lambs,

which the bear had evidently gulped a short time before capture. 
The manager of a large livestock company of Dubois. Idaho, reports that 
coyotes are scarce on the north end of the Targhee project and that losses

from these animals have been very light. Not long ago this company employed

night shooters against coyotes. 
Sympathy is extended to Hunter W. E. Gozzens, of Cokeville, Wyo., whose 
2-year-old son died on May 31. 
cattlemen of the Xaibab c untrv on the Arizona snt-in adjacent to TTth 
have complained for several months of damage by a p ar of timber wolves,
many unsuccessful efforts have been made to catch them. Recently, however,

Geo. E. Holman, leader of predatory-anal control in Ut&,a, detailed Hunters

Willis and Rasmussen to that section, and after several days the old she-wolf

was trapped, and "B"lackie," Mr Holman's thoro hbid foxhound,
backtrailed and 
led the hunters to her den. Near it were the carcasses of eitclts       a

of   e     four dee   and p    of fon-;so      horse.   nre    ,The     pUPS

were killed and one was capt-aed alive, an   yatmbile, train, and parcel

,,C +  'in ,nr, ,.,AA  nr, +. 'Znnf  I  + ua  'L7- Ia ,a                
0. E. Stephl, leader 
the eradication laboratory, 
Areatus ground squirrels in 
of rodent control in Montana, and S. B. Piper, of 
have been experimenting on both the Richardson and 
the vicinity of Monda, Mont, 
Albert M. Day, leader of rodent control in Wyoming, writes that an idea 
of the damage done by ground squirrels in Cokeville may be gained by noting
loss of water through their burrows along irrigation ditches. On one ranch

were 15 holes, 25 feet below a small ditch, within a radius of 15 feet, and
water was bubbling up a foot or more high as it drained and broke out through

the holes.  Two ranch hands had been working for more than a week trying
stop the breaks and had throw  approximaty 400 sacks of dirt in to plug the

leaks.  In me instance, the water had washed'A hole 3 feet wide, 4 feet long,

and 5 feet deep in the bottom of the ditch. It was necessary to flume the
and the superintendent of the ranch stated that the whole hillside would
have to 
O     V    J. .         "t 

June, 1926. 
be flumed unless the ground squirrels were checked.  He also stated that
three years ground squirrels have caused at least $5,000 damage in loss of

water dmxrp- to   n-   and ht'pl, in ditche.. -Mr. i Pi6er is exderimenting
this district on various poison mixtures to be used against the ground squirrels

Galen C. 0erkirk, of the eastern rodent-control district, has spent two 
demonstration rat holes in a poultry house were dusted with crude calcium

cyanide and twelve rats driven- out., Burrows were then excavated ahd 110
rats removed. An area of :approximately 1G by 20 feet was treated in this
C. C. Sperry went to Austin" Tex., in the middle of June to make a sur-

vey of a body of water used as 4 city reservoir and to determine in what
it could be made more attractive to waterfowl. 
Mr. Ashbrook visited during the month a large fox-breeding estate at 
North East, Pa., and also attended a meeting of the Wisconsin Fox Breeders'

Association at Milwaukee and Wausau, Wisc. 
D. Monroe Green spent several days early in the mpnth at Saratoga 
Springs, N. Y,, inspecting animals at the Experimental Fur Farm and conferring

with Dr. Karl B. Hanson regarding the construction of'a new building for

rabbits and also plans for a number of hutches 6f an improved type. An experi-

ment is to be started at the fatrm to ascertain the feasibility of raising

rabbits in yards instead of hutches.  !wo large runways, to accommodate be-

tween 25 and 50 animals, are being constructed, and the stock will be kept
these yards for a full year. Mr. Green stopped in New York on his return
confer with a veterinarian of the Rockefeller Foundation who is conducting

extensive experiments i:n rabbit diseases. zPart' ciaar attention is being
to a disease called snuffles, with 'view to discovering some remedy that
be used as a preventive and cure. 
Four mimeographed circulars, 'Bi-880, "Breeders of Fancy Rabbits,"
"Breeders of Utility Rabbits, "1i-887, "Breeders and Purchasers
of Guinea Pigs," 
an'& Bi-889, "Publications on Trapping," have been issued recently
and copies 
may be had, on request.' 
Mr. Goldman left on June 12 for Hot springs, Ark.,.where he represented 
the Bureau at the Sixth National Conference on State Parks, Jute 14 to 16.

While in Arb~msas he visited Big Lake and Walker Lake Bird Reservations and

inspected various other areas within the State to determine their suitability

for bird refuges. 

Night prowler and savage music maker. 
ROM        time to time one comes upon nature stories 
in some of our most popular publications not in- 
frequently signed by writers of wide reputation 
and even perhaps with a section of the alphabet tacked 
to their names. These stories, while often true to life 
and of the greatest interest to people-especially young 
people-who like to broaden their horizon in that great- 
est and most fascinating of studies, are all too frequent- 
ly little less than criminal in their tendency to mislead. 
In fact, some of them, while carrying the ear-marks of 
scientific articles, and with the added prestige lent by 
their authors' names, are little more worthy of credence 
than Kipling's "Jungle Books." 
A favorite subject of these highly imaginative "natu- 
ralists" seems to be wolves.  Perhaps this is because 
peoples of all times have seemed to be particularly credu- 
lous when the subject was wolves, from the classic story 
of the foster mother of Rome's founder, on down to date. 
Having had some little first-hand experience with 
wolves I have read these stories with the greatest inter- 
,est-I was interested to know how the authors got that 
For example, a few years ago I met, and entertained 
for the night at my house, a gentleman who claimed to 
be a naturalist and who I am assured has written much 
-on varied subjects along that line. He is in fact con- 
sidered an authority. He discoursed largely of wolves, 
-and was imbued with the rather popular idea that they 
were possessed of an almost supernatural cunning. In 
-fact I gathered that he gave them credit for almost 
Sherlock Holmes-like powers of deduction, and he 
capped the climax by assuring me in dead earnest that 
quite a number of timber wolves had lately been dis- 
covered right in the heart of one of our larger cities. 
It seems that they were enabled by their cunning to 
make their living undetected, prowling at night and 
hiding during the day! He said he thought it a pity 
to exterminate "such splendid animals." 
Some time since there appeared an article on the 
coyote, in one of our oldest and best periodicals. The 
author had undoubtedly drawn heavily upon hearsay 
information and had been led into some ridiculous errors. 
Any range man would at once see he had accumulated 
a vast stock of misinformation. Some' examples were 
the statements: Coyotes never prowl at night. Coyotes 
never howl except in the neighborhood of their dens. 
Coyotes never go into the timber, being much too smart 
to allow their vision to be obstructed, etc., etc. Such 
stuff as that is all tommyrot. Most persons, if they 
happened to know anything at all of coyotes, would 
simply smile and forget the article. But many people, 
it may be, are reading of this very interesting animal 
for the first time and have no personal knowledge of 
him. These are the ones who record this misinformation 
in their minds as facts. 
As to the first statement that coyotes never prowl at 
night: They do habitually prowl at night though not 
exclusively of nocturnal habits. To say they howl only 
about their dens is absolutely foolish on the face of it. 
After crediting Mrs. Coyote with a cunning far in 
1 -L 7 

excess of anything she really possesses, the writer would 
apparently have us believe that she proudly sits up over 
her den and howls a notice to the wide world and all 
her enemies that she has an extra fine litter of pups 
there! Very likely indeed! I would lose all the great 
respect I have for her tribe if I could really believe she 
was so foolish. They do not howl in the immediate 
vicinity of their dens.  On the other hand, they do 
howl at night or in late afternoon whenever they may 
be on their wide rambles. They howl alone their mating 
call or gathering call; they howl in packs when hunting 
at night, and this is the wildest, most utterly savage 
music-yes, music-a man may hear. 
As to their never going into the timber: it is to laugh! 
The only place where they do not take advantage of the 
cover of tim- 
her is on the 
Staked Plains 
where n o n e 
grows. There 
they take ad- 
vantage of 
every buffalo 
wallow, or 
tuft of grass, 
or bunch of 
yucca to keep 
out of view. 
They can and 
do hide behind 
a remarkably 
small object, 
aided by their 
rather nonde- 
script coloring 
which blends 
w i t h almost 
Anyone who 
hasi hunted in 
or been in                                     THE K 
o u r western         Lightning swift in his attack upon his enee 
forests in win- 
ter must have noted the criss-cross trails of coyotes in 
the snow. The only time they desert the woods is when 
the snow is too deep and too soft for them to travel. 
When the snow crusts in late winter they return again. 
With all their shyness they are at times-especially at 
night-quite bold. I have had a dog coyote come with- 
in forty yards of my camp at night, and taking advan- 
tage of the darkness, spend a happy half-hour telling 
me his poor opinion of me and all my kind, even to 
the seventh generation! I have lain quietly in the dark 
and listened to him voice his undying hate, scorn and 
utter defiance of me, my dogs, my guns and all my in- 
ventions. I allowed him the privilege of free speech, 
and while next day, when our eyes were more equal, 
I might shoot him, it was not because I despised him, 
for getting right down close to the ground and looking 
at the matter, he has it all over me in a dozen different 
ways. The only thing I can best him in is head work- 
and then itotakes years to learn to think in coyote and 
do that! 
In the New Mexico mountains coyotes mate about 
March 1 or even a little earlier, and the two to five 
or six pups are born about 60 days later, usually in a 
den excavated far into soft ground on some sunny point 
or hillside. The same den may be used year after year 
if undisturbed. 
Coyotes, though not less fierce and bioodthirsty than 
their big cousins the gray wolves, are not nearly so 
bold. They frequently follow bands of the big killers 
and fatten on the leavings of slain cattle and horses. 
For while the big fellows insist upon absolutely fresh 
meat, and 
generally get 
it, the coyote 
is not so 
choice and 
will return 
again and 
again until 
the bones are 
picked clean. 
One should 
really c h a l k 
up to coyotes 
the 1 o s s of 
many    new- 
born   calves 
now charged 
to  "lobos"- 
that, by t h e 
way, is a prop- 
er name for 
wolves b o r - 
rowed from 
t h e Spanish. 
Courtesy Biological Survey           .yjLeS W 1 1 I 
LLER                                            kill, carry off 
y, the wolf asks-and extends-no quarter,        and eat young 
lambs       or 
kids, as well as all kinds of poultry. A possible 
exception may be ducks. I once knew a bunch of 
tame ducks about 15 in number killed in the course of 
a few days by some animal which did not either eat or 
carry them  awav   A very enrefi,1 ox ~m-;,- 
vinced me this was the work of a coyote. Coyotes will 
sometimes attack a band of sheep and slash their throats, 
apparently for the pure love of slaughter. I once saw 
68 head of sheep that had been so killed in one night 
after having been scattered by a bear. Only a small 
part of one or two had been eaten. A lobo may do 
the same thing for the same reason. 
The coyote feeds upon any animal he is able to kill, 
as well as upon grasshoppers and other insects when 
food is scarce. I have watched them on the Dakota 
prairies industriously catching grasshoppers, and have 
, A w2w, W"U" "A= 

676          "2Iwwv"~2W~ 
known them to feed heavily upon a variety of small red 
plums along the creeks there. Also I am informed by 
an eye witness, and have myself seen unmistakable evi- 
dence, that they feed upon juniper berries. Truly the 
coyote race seems to be in no danger of extermination 
from famine! I have also been an interested spectator 
of their method of killing prairie dogs, upon which they 
depend largely for their fresh meat during the summer. 
I have seen a coyote creep up on his belly to the edge 
of a prairie-dog town, and when any of the population 
became suspicious and sat up to look around he would 
flatten out and blend with the ground and grass until 
feeding was resumed. When he judged the time had 
arrived the coyote would make a lightning charge with 
head close to ground not at the luckless dog but so 
directed as to cut him off from his hole. Some few dogs 
learn this trick. I once watched for some ten minutes 
a coyote stalking a cottontail rabbit near some creviced 
rock where with a leap or two the rabbit could be safe 
in a hole. He obviously realized this and was very 
patiently waiting for bunny to get a sufficient distance 
from his hole and make a run on him worth while. I 
shot this fellow-he was poaching on my preserve. 
Coyotes-lobos, too-kill sheep and such small ani- 
mals by an attack at the throat, by a slashing cut, and 
not by seizing as a dog might. He seldom or never 
seizes. Fighting in the open his tactics consist in mak- 
ing a lightning swift leap past the enemy er prey and a 
side snap as he goes. If his snap is successful, ,the 
momentum   of his body causes his long and slightly- 
hooked teeth to tear out and thereby inflict a terrible 
ripping wound instead of a mere puncture. Cornered, 
he does not merely bite his enemy, but with the quick- 
ness of a rattle-snake his head is extended and brought 
back in the same motion, and the weight of his head 
and neck is thrown into a whip-cracker snap. The result 
is a cut rather than a mere bite. Very few ordinary 
dogs can kill a coyote at close quarters, though heavy 
and swift hounds make kills by overtaking and over- 
throwing him while he is still in full flight. 
The lobo kills larger game than the coyote and usually 
hunts in couples or in packs. If there is more than one 
wolf one keeps at the animal's head and the other will 
make a flying leap and slash at the lower part of the 
ham, severing the ham string. The stricken animal sinks 
down helpless and is at their mercy-and a wolf knows 
none. But as the wolf or coyote extends no quarter 
neither does he ask any.  I feel quite sure that no 
amount of torture would serve to bring a whimper 
from a captive coyote, and that with his dying effort 
he would endeavor to kill his captor. 
Once in order to supplement my observations on 
coyotes, either at large or trapped, I dug out a den and 
raised two of the young to maturity from small pups. 
They were kept in semi-captivity in a good sized poultry 
wire pen and were never chained up. While they were 
extremely interesting they could hardly be called pets, 
and although I have been quite successful in raising and 
gentling various naturally wild animals, I was never 
able to gain their confidence and bring them to a 
stage of gentleness where they would willingly allow 
me to place a hand on them, though when caught they 
would not bite me, and I habitually fed them raw meat 
from  my hands without danger.     Handling these I 
learned that a serious bite may be avoided by closely ob- 
serving the eyes and mouth. Once a coyote strikes no 
man is quick enough to avoid his fangs, but before he 
strikes the pupils of his eyes invariably dilate, and an- 
other and equally sure sign is an opening of the jaws 
and retraction of the tongue. 
As a result of my experiments to test the keenness of 
their senses and their intelligence my conclusion was 
that their senses of sight, hearing, smell and touch were 
extremely acute. It was interesting to note that when 
soundly sleeping the slightest unfamiliar noise would 
cause them to prick up their ears, or an odor as of food 
would cause their nostrils to work and they would pres- 
ently awake. Noises to which they were accustomed, even 
the shriek of a locomotive, would fail to rouse them. 
Rather than credit the coyote with any particular in- 
telligence, above that of the dog, such as many writers 
have ascribed to them, I would say that the key- 
note of their whole nature and the explanation of their 
escape from extermination-with the whole world against 
them-is an abnormally developed bump of caution. 
They fear anything they do not entirely understand, 
and were it not for a certain sense of curiosity they 
exhibit, especially when their sense of smell is appealed 
. to, it would be almost impossible to trap them. 
Wolves are not easily trapped, though any skillful 
trapper can place a trap so no man or animal could 
detect it by the sense of sight, and after the man scent 
has left the locality it only remains to induce the wolf 
to visit the spot and tread on the trap.  There are 
various scents used to lure wolves. Some of food, oth- 
ers containing the sex lure, and still others which are 
merely a "stink bait" designed to work upon their curi- 
osity.  Any of these may be deadly under favorable 
Approaching the lure the wolf will circle and sniff 
from all sides, gradually drawing nearer but all his 
senses on the alert. The slightest scent or other sign 
of the trapper, or an unnatural softness of the ground 
under a foot, and he is off not to return. So the ex- 
perienced trapper makes his set in perfectly open ground 
where it is likely to be sprung during this reconnoitering. 
On the whole, wolves are absolute savages, they are 
wild, wild a thousand generations before they are born, 
and this wildness, which is excess caution, has enabled 
them to hold their own or at least escape total extinction, 
but they do not reason-not quite-only man does that. 
And, withal, I am forced to admire the coyote because 
"stacked up against hell and damnation he has managed 
to stay in the game." If I kill him it is because he is 
my enemy, and the enemy of civilization in general, and 
makes no claims to the contrary, and not because I 
despise him. And by the same token, if I kill him it 
will be in open warfare-cleanly, with rifle or pistol. 

(Coyote Folder) 
(Letter from the Secretary of Agriculture, House Dociument No. 496. 
Published by U.S. Govt. Printin, Office, 102. 
The indivi ual work of wolves can scarcely be comoared iith the persistent

attachs of rovin. bands of coyotes. In mor- 'a Count-7, Utah, three coyotes

attacked and killedd $500 worth of sheep in an hour. Iear Antonito, Coo.,
ewes became separated from the rest of the herd and two days later were found

killed by coyotes. In Oregon four coyotes in two ni 'hts killed 15 purebred
and rams. In California, near Middletown, on one ranch runnin, 2,000 sheep,

coyotes killed 200 in one year, althouh the sheep were close herded.  In
flock of .36,000 sheep oraed by 10 men near Marysville, Calif., the loss
by coyotes was 1,950 in one year; rand o0at of 1,175 tur.e7s owned by three
the loss in one ni ht was 137. hear Wilbur, Wasa., a woolgrower reports the

loss of 33 sheep by coyotes, 17 bein.- killed in one wee; and hear Olympia
poultry :roducer reports the loss of 90 chickens in one month's time from
same source. In Montana, in one's raid co yotes killed 26 l-mbs orned
two nei hboring tvooljrowers, and near Sula 200 laabs were killed by coyotes

between June and Seotember 1. 
'Nor do ravishes on livestock form the only real menace from coyotes, for
has been found that in California these predactors have done considerable
to melon a-nd grape crops. Coyotes have fre-uently been known to take practically

every bunch of grapes in small vineyards. Wild Came also suffers from the
of coyotes, as may be instanced by statistics compiled in the Yew Mexico
office at Albuquerque, where it was found that the stomachs of 4S coyotes
durin , Au.ust, 1927, contained deer flesh; also in April of that year consider-

able depredations by coyotes on yo u. calves were noted in hew Mexico--rmuch
this hei< ,-done in feed pasturez, particularly :n nerly born calves.

In Arizona, durii, the fiscal year 1920, 445 stockiien and farmers reported

livestock losses from predatory species of $373,151 in one year; a nuber
others re orted a loss of 2 to 10 per cent of their calf, colt, and la~o
each year from wolves crossinc- into that State from Mexico, and from other

predators such as mountain lions, bears, coyotes, bobcats, and foxes. Since
brinCin-, of the  ray wolf unuder control in 12 of the western ran:e States,
hold control it "-s been necess, ry constantly to maintnin expert wolf
hunters in 
coown wolf crossing, s on the international boundary alon  the Arizon -Ne.
border, to destroy the volves co...- sorsldicplly from the Province of Sonora,


U. S. Forest Service 
Southwe stern District 
Jenuary 28, 1929 
The Forester Passes Thrus 1:ajor R. Y. Stuart, Chief Forester and Assistant

Forester C. F. Raohford pssed thru Albuquerque on the limited today enroute

PYoenix to attend the National 1 .oolgrovers, Associption convention. They

wre joined here by Assistant District Forester Kerr and Inspector Sboema-

ker. District Forester Pooler vill oleo "eet them at Phoenix enroute
the Arizona Highway Meetirg at Los Angeles.  The convention will last three

days, the 29, 30 and 31. 
Stepping Out: Tucson is rapidly assuming metropolitan airs. The big 
steam shovel hasompleted excavation for the new 10-story Consolidated Bank

Building end is now at work excavating for the foundation of a new 10- 
story hotel, Both are on Stone Avenue.   The new court house is under con-

struction and the now Federal Building plane are about completed which will

provide ample quarters for ell the Federal departments now scattered pro-

miscuously over the city. 
Coyoes V'U-Ymeros:0. C. Luna was in the office recently and stated 
ta t  hTfukr' os,, had caught 90 coyotes and 16 bobcats so far this sea-

son on that part of Ed* Otero's rex:noe in the vicinity of Sullivants Hole,.

reports the Datil Bulletin. Practically everybody in the country is trapp-

ing coyotes for their fur and w14 le they are mostly *n.teur trappers they

are catching them everywrhero. I wr s told this evening that every coyote

onught up in ths mountains had a stomch full of deer hair and meat. Tvo 
boys here at Chloride, who are attending school rcaught our coy- 
otes in trnps in sight of tomn last month.   Another school boy over at 
Inman's ranch, missed no school but caught 10 coyotes in 12 deys. Gus WIelty

caught 8 coyotes last month alone the canyon ebove Fairview. John James of

the James Bros., saw four coyotes chasing a big Black til buck Just south

of Chloride last week.  C.  .  eple saw a largo .7a6er woar on Mineral Crook

last week. 
Public Contract Measure: A bill krnom as the Public Contract Act introduced

by Gongressman Crampton promises, if it passos, to enshrine this man's 
name for a long time in the grateful memory of long harassed department 
heads, fiscal agents and purchase P-ents of the Governent. The bill has a

number of sections aimed to simplify- the purchase, contract and specifica-

tion business largely throwing the last word in these matters to the depart-

ment heads rather than the Comptroller General. The awkward fiscal year 
limitations on leases and purchase of seasonal commodities is to be elimi-

nated, bids will not be required for work, materials, supplies or services

other than personnl when the amount is $500 or less- the present limit being

the well kInn $50; final decision on acceptance of other than low bid rests

with the hend of the department; informil contract bond requirement is raised

from '1000 to $20001 liquidated dmc.ges for delay in contract vwork are to

be determined and remitted by the head of the department and not the Comp-

troller; only forraal contracts (more than $2000) will be filed in the Gen-

eral AJccounting office obviating the large cmount of record work now necess-

ary in connection with the vast number of small contracts; bonds requirement

in construction work raised from $500 to $2000. 
- orst 
Peeler, Kerr, Shoemaker (Phoenix, Ari:.) 
Pear son 
Y'o. 29-23 

ft  me plin and int    tmutains of tbs wster *uty thi *l most 
times bras 
Amog hemmal tkat the gol4.n sagle kill for foot am      ~    4 
*mesalle  rodents, -'& the zo    of door, satelop, wild shep ia  bt 
ga*. In theal oj    of !   antloesiman., plaisan frequetly told of 
atacs 'by *ag1. on~ well gro antelop. I m~oof ont       m   an*ol stoop sj

t !"ar11g antlope that w" runn       sis by sie. Whe b.    sasA
;Zsiopsu reared anlher  in 1 , stuck wth their fot at th#  ee   and, 
drv   it off.  I tuwtod, ye~  so     similar obsrvtion by mW frie, 1. 1.

A biar ege1       wellZ fu   atak an living thing it thinks itca 
kill   It rogires fles usE. is Rot critia an to vbat this is. Two ow 1ko

observations on this point, "ported fro Motao soft worthy of record,
firt coesfm .     Monroe, so o. ;. . Monroe of Blackoot.  In tbe spring d

1926 youn Monroe     was ~ riigrm his fathow* ho uso the St. 1bfs Las, 
Monana, %~dr tU ho      of 11111. tirE, ** live trthxw 4o     the It. bqrys

'io.Whon he btpased Just below the month of -aso Crek, ho s      a full..

g    m  t. trottin  ln on an ope killsi but fou bunds ywad from 
qi4  ppretly kuting grou4 9qmrle. Toi Sor* bad no Can with kin        E 
rod on. As be vatobeA theoe he her a ra~ throv       the air andAo   a 
larg eal deset anstrike Us, ooote over the kidneys with its tbss and 
so"~ to try to rise with 14. A* all event, it vgewly fanned the ai v0

its wip     The eagl sentimx* to holdA~    rey Which presetly oseto 
strms, Te yon      ore o9a        tbe plc and. droe tbo eagl   w   from the

do" oote usnd lter be && air. exmie Cho aimal.     Its throat
Oan oceaion when the wife of J.),. Mono m   rturnin fri. Tw Modi 
aine River sh  -m anege atalin a 1aro badge. Apparently the 084 
would. soon he  killo  it, but tk woandrv off the bird *a the baderw got

into a bole. 
A coytt an     & agew  r f Igtin animls and. migh    be .tod to try to

defend t4is4ls, bu no                  usitsc  toan*ol could be mad by a
ywi  or 
a   ~Moai laid, or the kid of a u  o &vt*,     Gerg Bir Grnel      3

hot 15t St., lowok, 1. T. 

0*000 own    (31 sq. Mi.) I O"U   1) C.,bMas 
ft    7%   ia    M i Ia    j%3      14   as   $2au.wg 
atin, of 
752 IM* IT6     M 312    31 12,r463 216   1 7ul 
Sq  100   172  32h   335   31257     2-    67 t4 I14,5 
2"A 7" "soaio~4iI 
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nio  ~ 
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.32 .M Aix .4" -M 
?Z4 ?2W   WT 6" 1 34,150 

W - Mature Wolves & 
C - Cub Wolves & Cub 
F - Foxes 
B - Wildcats (bobcats & 
Game Survey 
Aldo Leopold Sept.l,1929 
This map compiled by W. B. Grange for the information of the 
Game Research Committee of the Wisconsin Conservation Commission. 

July 3 to 15, prior to taking up his duties in Alaska. 
Crouch Returns from West --W. E. Crouch returned to Washington on July 2
after com- 
pleting a successful tour through the majority of the Western States, where
was afforded him to confer with leaders, assistants, and many individual
cooperators of the 
Day.Transf Q1... .to_1Whinton, Hamm Becomes New Leader in Wyomn.--Albert
M. Day, 
leader of predatory-animal and rodent control in the Wyoming district, was
to Washington, effective July 1, to fill a new position in this division
made possible 
by a slightly increased appropriation for 1931. He will be succeeded in Wyoming
by Adolph 
S. Hamm. For some time the need for additional help in the division has been
felt, in view 
of the extension of control operations throughout the country, which in turn
has brought 
about increased work in the administration of and closer contact with field
Mr. Day entered the service of the Biological Survey under a six-months'
as field assistant on April 1, 1919, and was assigned to rodent-control work
in Wyoming. 
Following this he entered college and later took the civil-service examination.
As a re- 
sult, on March 16, 1920, he received a permanent appointment as Biological
Assistant. On 
July 1, 1920, he was put in charge of the rodent control work in Wyoming.
Between August 
28, 1920, and March 7, 1921, Mr. Day was on part-time employment with the
Bureau, during 
which time he continued his studies at the University of Wyoming and received
his degree. 
He resumed full-time duties on March 16, 1921, and led the rodent-control
project in a satis- 
factory manner during the following years. On July 1, 1928, he was placed
in charge of both 
the predatory-animal and the rodent control work in Wyoming, and led these
two projects up 
to the close of the past fiscal year. Before this later promotion, Mr. Day
had advanced 
from the position of temporary field assistant, through biological assistant,
junior biol- 
ogist, and assistant biologist to associate biologist. He has succeeded in
extending con. 
- -1hp  e-' 

A /ur-Oearig oum 
t 4i93k> 
Don Coyote- 
the Adaptable 
The deer's most dreaded enemy is on the increase in spite 
of control measures 
ILE driving a bunch of year- 
*/A ] lings up a New Mexico moun- 
tain road one day last spring I 
observed a most amusing sight. 
From the southward, over the red cliff- 
head of Hermit's Peak, came a passenger 
plane, its motors roaring like the echo of 
doom over the timbered hills. 
Suddenly, from a piny slope to the left 
of the road, there emerged a coyote. If 
he had been equipped with motors, they 
too would have been roaring, for he was 
most assuredly on his way. He flashed 
across the road not twenty feet ahead of 
the yearlings nor forty steps from us, but 
he never gave us a look. Under a fence he 
ducked and sped like a torpedo across a 
snowy field. Far above, but still behind 
him, came the roaring plane. 
Don Coyote, the devil-may-care, had at 
last seen something that panicked him. 
With an eagle like that swooping over his 
tail, he had no time for the impudent, half 
cautious, sidelong look he usually bestows 
upon humans during flight. Nor was this 
the usual crafty spurt to the shelter of 
timber. It was the wild, abandoned flight 
of terror. 
But Don Coyote will get used to air- 
planes. Adaptability is his middle name. 
ie is One c L    zn 
the wild whom the en- 
croachments of civili- 
zation seem to leave 
Time was when he 
fled thus wildly at the 
sight of a car. Now he 
trots along half side- 
wise   and    watches 
them pass. He has 
learned that they are 
harmless when mov- 
ing. If they stop, look 
out for fireworks. But 
even then his noncha- 
lance does not become 
terror - merely cau- 
tion. He spurts for 
cover. Once he has 
gained it, he stops'to 
look back, then trots 
on about his business. 
His business, too, 
has changed to suit 
the times. Once an indolent, well-fed 
scavenger, Don Coyote nowadays makes 
quite active shift for himself. Properly a 
prairie wolf, he has nevertheless become 
in the Southwest a killer of the mountains, 
the deer's most deadly enemy. In the old 
days of teeming game, there were wolves 
and panthers in plenty to do his killing for 
him. He was content with their leavings. 
Today game is scarcer and his meat 
killers are practically gone. So he has 
turned killer. 
While out walking a few weeks ago I 
heard the pitiful bleat of a young deer in 
distress. It seemed to come from the wil- 
lows along the creek. I ran toward it. 
Suddenly, not ten steps ahead of me, an 
enormous coyote leaped from the water 
and scurried off up the hill. So intent had 
he been on his kill that he had not sensed 
my coming. Unfortunately I carried no 
Outstretched in the shallow   water, 
which instinct had made her seek as a 
refuge, lay a six months' fawn. Though 
she was alive, her flank was badly torn. 
Plainly Don Coyote had already begun 
his meal. 
I should have left the deer as she was, 
returned home for my rifle and come back 
to watch for the killer. His death would 
have saved the lives of a dozen fawns 
during the winter. But I hadn't the heart 
to sacrifice this poor little wounded deer. 
I took time to get her home to a warm 
shed. Then I went back with my gun. It 
was too late. Don Coyote had returned. 
He had even followed my own tracks for 
a hundred yards, unwilling to sacrifice his 
dinner, but now he was gone. 
Nor is he only a killer of fawns. I have 
found more than one full-grown buck 
The fawn I rescued from Don Coyote 
pulled down by a pair of coyotes. His 
method is to run them down. The old- 
time scavenger, his killers gone, has 
adapted himself handily by learning the 
trade himself. 
Ranchmen, government and free-lance 
trappers all trap for him and shoot him 
on sight. But he survives. He is trap-wise, 
and getting wiser every year. 
Settlements do not disconcert him. He 
takes a keen, clownish delight in the 
nocturnal taunting of dogs with his in- 
describable yi-yap-yurr-rr-rr-rr-ing. He 
learns readily how to steal chickens in 
broad daylight, using tall grass, hay fields, 
ditches or shrubbery for his ambush. Fail- 
ing at the chicken yard, he makes a 
ripping raid on the sweet-corn field when 
night comes, grabbing a bite or two from 
two or three dozen ears. 
He is often in hopeful attendance at 
the birth of a calf. He helps himself to 
sheep anywhere, anytime. He has been 
known to kill and eat domestic cats. In i 
the grain field he plays-atte exciting 
game of jumping on top of the shocks to 
scare out chipmunks and field-mice. He 
dotes on tame turkeys. All kinds of fruit 
rank high on his diet card. 
My father buries his winter apples in 
dirt pits out in the orchard, and never a 
winter passes but that the coyotes find 
them. And they come, sagaciously, early 
in the night, before the ground has frozen 
too hard for digging. 
It is some such weakness as this appe- 
tite for apples that finally 5etrays even 
the wisest old Don in the woods and sends 
his pelt to the furrier-'s. Yet it is no un- 
common thing to see tracks where coyotes 
have circled a trap-ringed carcass at a 
safe distance night after night, too wise to 
close in for a meal. 
They can be trapped, 
but it takes plenty of 
skill and patience. 
T O Don Coyote's 
diet  card  add 
watermelons,   canta- 
loupes, turnips, honey, 
pifion nuts, grasshop- 
pers, beetles, horned 
toads,  young   pigs, 
green peas, strawber- 
ries-the list is too 
long. Easier to list 
what he will not eat. 
The Biological Sur- 
vey hunters tell me he 
is becoming increas- 
ingly wary about in- 
dulging  in  poisoned 
meat baits. They also 
say that of all the 
predators he alone is 
holding his own-or 
better. Others report that he is even in- 
creasing and spreading eastward again 
through the farm lands where long ago 
he followed in the wake of killer wolves 
and buffalo hunters. 
He is a jokester, a clown, a buffoon of 
the outdoors, a prowler, a howler from 
the hilltops, a taunter of dogs, a dodger, 
a killer, a vagabond, a fur-bearing bum. 
But he has one most precious and ever 
present knack that brings him through 
-he is Don Coyote, the adaptable. 

Large Wolf Taken in Arizona.--The buffalo wolf of Plains fame, which proved
so de- 
structive to "white-faced buffalo' after the bison had been exterminated
on the western 
&   grasslands, still continues to take heavy toll of Hereford cattle
in Arizona, the rugged con- 
tour of Arizona's highlands furnishing the lobo with safe retreats. The common
practice of 
Vv .taking these marauders in the early days was with packs of fleet wolfhounds.
In the rougher 
v;vsections of the West such packs of dogs were of little value, as they
ran only by sight. 
Canyons, washes, bowlder piles, and heavy vegetation so obstructed their
view that the-wolf 
easily made its get-away. Government Hunter Carl Larsen, recently captured,
near Rice, Ariz., 
the first wolf ever taken in Arizona with dogs as far as the Bureau has record.
While fol- 
lowing a cold mountain-lion track with his nine hounds, Larsen crossed the
wolf's trail made 
in 12 inches of snow and followed it with his pack about half a mile, when
he jumped the wolf, 
This animal, having recently gorged itself with veal, led the pack about
4 miles, when, 
becoming winded, it turned to fight. While the dogs harassed it, Hunter Larsen
close enough for a shot. The wolf proved to be an old male, W*Aghing more
than 150 pounds 
and measuring 6 1/2 feet from the end of its nose to the tip of its very
short tail.    l-t- 
is a far cry from running wolves on the plains of Texas in the early '60's
to taking a record 
animal in the mountains of Arizona in 1931, but such a thing has happened.
     The nearly 
white skin of this wolf is now a Bureau specimen. 
- 38 - 

March, 1931 
Hun1er Bitten by Rabid Coyote.-Hunter Ray Williams, of the Idaho District,
had an unpleasant experience with a rabid coyote that he had run down in
deep snow. The 
coyote gripped his horse's leg and held on. In attempting to dislodge the
animal, Williams 
was bitten.  The coyote's head was sent to Boise for bacteriologiol examination
and the 
case was diagnosed as rabies. Williams has taken the Pasteur Treatment. No
further cases 
have been reported. 
!Banded" Coyote Captured,--Early this year there came to the attention
of Luther J. 
Goldman, leader of predatory-animal control in Idaho, a newspaper clipping
regarding the 
capture, in the vicinity of Kooskia, of a coyote wearing a dog collar that
bore 1921 Jeffer- 
son County dog license No. 231. The collar was vary tight on the coyote's
neck, and beneath 
it the skin was completely bare. Inquiry disclosed the following facts: About
0 years 
ago this coyote, then a pup, was captured by a former resident of Rigby,
who brought it 
home and made a pet of it.   It followed members of the family about and
was curbed only 
C       when its appetite for wandering chickens became too keen. When-it
grew older it was chained, 
but shortly broke loose and since then has apparently been wandering about.
  The animal 
was retaken in December, 1930, near Kooskia, which is at least 300 miles
by air from Rigby, 
200 miles of which is over extremely steep mountain country. When taken,
the coyote was 
in good condition, and residents in that vicinity believe it to be the animal
that was seen 
there last winter and summer This furnishes an interesting instance of the
extensive wan- 
derings of coyotes under certain conditions and indicates the difficulty
of their control. 

"A furred invasion which has been creeping steadily northward 
across Alaska, killing and scattering herds of reindeer, caribou and 
wild sheep, and plundering the catch of trappers, is expected to 
reach and overrun the great migratory waterfowl breeding grounds on 
the Bering Sea coast this summer. 
Coyotes, pursued as pests in the United States and Canada, 
spread into Alaska a comparatively few years ago in spite of a war 
declared against them in 1927 are still widening their frontiers of 
destruction, according to H. W. Terhune, executive officer at Wash- 
ington of the Alaska Game Commission. 
First entering the Territory from Canada through the White 
River section, the animals, last year were reported to be almost 
within striking distance of the northern breeding range of ducks 
and geese, where officials fear they can do enormous damage." - 
American Game Association. 

, e4 ]  sf  .   CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME,            K /   1  283 
HE         COYOTE, despised by some, loved by others, has both 
virtues and faults. He is really a wild dog. Inasmuch as the 
old adage "Give a dog a bad name and he will not live it down"

has -a measure of truth, let us mention first a few of his virtues. 
He is a health officer among game and other animals, including 
man himself. For one thing, he is a scavenger and on watersheds, 
which supply water for domestic use, he retrieves many a carcass for 
food that otherwise would decay and contaminate the water supply, or 
serve as a lure to filth-loving insects which carry the organisms of 
decay to man's food. The services rendered in this direction are much 
greater than the casual observer would suspect. One reason for this is 
that when the service is done the evidence is largely removed. Several 
times I have noted the carcass of a deer, or one of man's domestic 
animals, which in a few nights time was all but obliterated by coyotes. 
Only the larger bones remained. 
More important still, as a health officer, are his services in eliminat-

ing the diseased and unfit. By taking relatively more of the weaklings 
than of the vigorous over vast periods of time, say among deer, the race

of deer has doubtless been improved. The outstanding service, how- 
ever, is in taking the diseased. By reason of the ease with which sick 
animals can be caught-and, probably by long experience, the flesh- 
eaters seem almost instantly to recognize in their prey such actions as 
are due to illness-they tend to be eliminated before they can act for 
long as carriers and spreaders of disease. A case in point illustrating 
the value of the flesh-eaters is furnished by the willow grouse.1 
The grouse were subject to semiperiodic outbreaks of endemic 
coccidial disease.. Although the grouse were present in fair numbers, 
each year there was appreciable fluctuation. This influenced shooting. 
Thinking to increase the grouse supply, well meaning sportsmen had the 
predatory birds and animals removed. True to prediction, the grouse 
increased for a time. Then the endemic disease broke out again. This 
time it spread so far and wide that the grouse were all but exterminated

and have not recovered over a long period of years since, where before, 
a fair number of healthy birds were always to be found when the 
flesh-eaters were on guard to snap up the diseased before they could 
spread the lethal malady to so many of their fellows. 
Coming nearer home, we have some reason to suspect that when the 
flesh-eaters are removed the California quail may react like the grouse.

Dr. Clarence O'Roke's valuable studies of the quai2 for the Fish and 
Game Commission showed the existence of a protozoan disease in that 
species. This disease, possibly brought by introduced species of game 
1Nature (London), pp. 567-568, 1927. 
'Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 14, pp. 193-198, 1928; Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool.,
vol. 86, 
I p. 1-50, 1930. 

284                    CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 
birds, or possibly endemic, takes toll of the quail and when the flesh- 
eaters (carnivores and birds of prey) are not on guard to snap up the 
sick individuals the latter linger on to provide disease organisms for 
the ever present blood-sucking flies to transmit to healthy birds. Also 
in some places where the carnivores have been eliminated, the quail 
decreased.' There is good reason, therefore, in the interest of game 
propagation alone to use the greatest caution in reducing the carnivores.

Among the carnivores acting, at least in part, as game protectors, the 
coyote, of course, is only one, but he is an important one; important in

ways other than the one just cited. 
One of the other ways in which he operates to man's advantage is by 
acting as a check (not necessarily as a control) on harmful rodents. 
Here we should digress to avoid the common misconception that all 
rodents are harmful. The grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster 
and 0. torridus), for example, feed almost entirely on insects.4 "A
number of these insects are of kinds which damage forage and crops, and 
prevent us from regarding the grasshopper mice as harmful. However, 
a great many kinds of rodents, among others the California ground 
squirrel, are regarded as "harmful" because they take heavy toll
forage for game and stock; they destroy cultivated crops, the eggs of 
ground-nesting birds, like quail, and act as carriers of disease. These 
rodents are subject to fluctuation in number. The fluctuation is greater

in the polar than in the temperate latitudes and least in the tropical 
zones; but some fluctuation occurs everywhere. Here in our temperate 
latitude these fluctuations seem generally to be determined largely by 
weather conditions and abundance of food and shelter. When an 
increase goes unchecked, due to absence of the carnivorous animals, or 
for any other reason, nature often takes care of it eventually by a 
plague 5 which sweeps away all but a few individuals. As is well known, 
the damage done before the plague comes to the rescue usually is large, 
not to mention the sums spent in attempted artificial control. Now 
right before this happens is when the carnivores play their most impor- 
tant part as checks. When any one rodent species begins to increase in 
numbers, the flesh-eaters, naturally, by reason of the ease with which this

kind of food can be obtained, concentrate on it and the.numbers they eat

often account for a slowing down of the increase until climatic condi- 
tions again bring the species back to the average. In this way outbreaks

are prevented. It is readily seen, therefore, that the action of the car-

nivores as natural checks is of deciding effect when the increase begins,

not after an outbreak is accomplished.6 
In checking an outbreak at its beginning, the coyote alone may 
have deciding effect, especially with ground squirrels and rabbits, which

form his staple article of food. Furthermore, in these two species the 
plagues which often eventually act in the coyote's absence are of kinds 
transmissible to man. These are tularemia in the rabbits and the 
dreaded bubonic plague in the California ground squirrel. In these 
cases the flesh-eater, the coyote, not only forestalls an expensive out-

'Seton, E. T., Uves of Game Animals, vol. 1, p. 391, Doubleday Page and Co.,
* Sperry, Chas. C., Technical Bull., No. 145, U. S. Dept. Agric., pp. 15-19,
Bacillus murisepticus in the Kern County mouse outbreak of 1927; B. tukaren~e

in the Berkeley Hills mouse outbreak of 1927; B. pestus carried by ground
in the San Francisco Bay region of California. 
aAmong the scores of cases to be cited, see, Calif. Fish and Game, vol. 9,
p. 111, 
1923; and Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., vol. 30, pp. 189-203, 1928. 

CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME                      285 
break of rodents or rabbits, but at the same time prevents an outbreak 
of disease dreaded by man himself! Suggestively enough, the two 
outbreaks mentioned above (footnote No. 5) in which plagues broke 
out, followed ill advised extermination campaigns against the carniv- 
orous animals. In wild life administration it must be recognized, as 
trained biologists long have done, that there are complex relationships 
which make it impossible in most cases to produce, say, more game, 
simply by killing the animals other than man which prey upon it. 
Similarily, neither is it usually possible to adjust things exactly to 
man's satisfaction by eliminating some entire group. Indeed, among 
the smaller animals, like insects and rodents, it seldom is possible, 
except theoretically, to exterminate the species. If it is exterminated 
or even reduced to very low ebb, it sometimes is replaced by a still more

objectionable species; or it turns out that in other ways the attempted 
cure is more expensive than the illness. Thus, if the California ground 
squirrel were exterminated-and it will not be with our present 
density of population-the more objectionable brown rat might very 
well take its place. Some well-informed persons think this probable. 
Then, too, it not infrequently happens that the exterminated species 
acted as a check in some unsuspected direction, and a new problem 
Lately, investigators have expressed the belief that coyote control 
should not have been carried on in certain areas where deer damage to 
crops is increasing. The damage seems traceable largely to does. 
Unlike the sportsmen who take the big vigorous bucks, the coyote takes 
the diseased weaklings and decrepit does. With a fair number of 
coyotes might we not have avoided much of the present difficulty which 
is of growing seriousness ? The case of the Kaibab deer lends support 
to this belief. 
Quite a different way in which the coyote constitutes an asset is 
through providing a considerable income in fur. In California alone 
the annual return certainly averages around $100,000 and perhaps two 
or three times that. The coyote might, under wise management, con- 
stitute an important part of our valuable, but neglected, natural 
resource, the wild fur supply. 
Now to the coyote's faults. He takes sheep and is especially 
troublesome at lambing time. He may make inroads on poultry, 
Although the figures on such losses are much exaggerated, the losses are

real. The fact that it is the individual coyote, one out of a great 
number, which turns "killer," makes the losses no less in amount.

Coyotes have been known to carry rabies, too. Again, although the 
damage done by rabid coyotes is greatly exaggerated and over- 
emphasized by many, and although the coyotes do not act as reservoirs 
for the disease, but get it from dogs, which, if properly muzzled all over

the land for a given period of time, would result in elimination of the 
disease, it is a fact that coyotes have transmitted rabies to domestic 
animals and to man himself. When this state of affairs is found, it 
has to be met with appropriate control measures. 
Coyote control has been attempted by the following methods: 
(1) By use of dogs; (2) by trapping when furs are prime; (3) by 
offering bounties; (4) by hired government trappers working in the 

286                  CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 
fur season and out; (5) by organized drives; (6) by den hunting; and 
(7) by use of poison. 
To take up these methods in reverse order it may be said that the 
use of poison, although widely practiced, is highly objectionable. It is

to be hoped that the growing volume of protest against it will soon 
result in its discontinuance. Its use is justified only in a case of 
absolute necessity, such as might arise in a serious outbreak of rabies.

One objection to it is that the "killer coyote," the individual
is no more apt to be taken than any other one. Indeed, because of his 
canny nature developed through experience with man, he is less apt 
to take the poison than others of his kind. The main objection, how- 
ever, is that even when most carefully distributed, either in suet pellets

or in meat baits, poison destroys a far greater number of unquestion- 
ably beneficial animals7 than it does of coyotes. When used in a 
region for the first time, poison often has really denuded that area of 
the smaller beneficial animals. Although its subsequent use there 
against the wary coyote, some of which persist in spite of the use of 
poison, does not destroy so many smaller, beneficial animals, this is 
due to the latters having been so thoroughly killed off when poison 
first was used. Also, the wiser, adult coyotes refuse the poison baits, 
which are apt to be buried by mice, carried afar and dropped by birds, 
or otherwise distributed so that they may be picked up later by any 
animal less wary than the coyote. Many times, too, valuable dogs are 
killed by the poison. The animals killed by poison have no fur 
value unless found soon after death. A large majority so killed are 
never found. The use of poison is the most objectionable8 of all the 
methods of control. 
Den hunting, practiced in the spring and summer, enables the 
coyote hunter to run up an imposing list of animals destroyed. Almost 
all the animals accounted for are young which have done no damage 
and in the vast majority of cases never would. The larger number 
would furnish valuable pelts to private trappers the following autumn 
or winter before they were old enough to develop renegades. This 
method, then, is wasteful as regards the fur and, like poison, seldom gets

the individual causing the damage. 
The next method of control, much practiced in the Middle West is 
the "Wolf Drive." It is employed under the guise of a protective

measure, but actually is carried out more for the sport it furnishes. 
Having in times past, as a rather irresponsible sportsman, participated 
in many of these, may I proceed to a true account of a "wolf drive's"

initiation and operation. The conversation of those grouped about the 
friendly warmth of the stove in the general store having reached an 
impasse on national politics and exhausted the weather possibilities, 
present, past, and future, someone suggests a wolf (coyote) drive. 
Then and there an area is chosen; a Saturday is set; and eight captains 
are selected. On the morning of the appointed day a few men with 
shotguns have posted themselves along the roads on the four sides of 
the twelve mile square. At 9 o'clock sharp those at the corners start 
toward the center of the square and by 9.20 those at the middle of each 
side are marching too. Now we have a circle, twelve miles in diameter, 
7Jour. Mammalogy, vol. 11, pp. 362-375, 1930. 
a$Rearing before the House Commitee on Agriculture S  *  on I. P. 9599, 
Serial 0, p. 59. 1930. 

of widely spaced men converging on a central point. As one farm 
house after another is passed the male occupants, from five years of 
age up, fall into the line while the mounted captains by much furious 
riding along the roads, try to keep the line of hunters in circular form.

The constant additions to the ranks together with the resultant crowd- 
ing of the men as the circle grows smaller, form a progressively more 
solid line which at the finish may be several men deep. 
Here is the thrill we have walked six miles or more to get. Luck 
being with us, one or two coyotes are in the ring, and they act for all 
FIG. 89. Don Coyote, Sr., looking wistful. Close up view of male moun- 
tain coyote captured at foot of Yosemite Falls trail, Yosemite Valley, 
December 31, 1914. Photo by C. A. Hollinger. 
the world like my dog Jake did the time he followed the buggy to town 
and got lost on Center street. Shotguns boom; boys yell; Jim Smith's 
tightly stretched trousers' seat, as he stoops to retrieve a dropped shell,

proves poor armor for misdirected No. fours from the other side of the 
ring; Sam Smith gets a stray shot in the knee; but the "wolves"
killed, or else get away, to be chased out of sight by Joe Green's grey-

hounds trained for jackrabbits. Anyhow, a good time is had by all 
and the ladies' aid, at the nearby schoolhouse, serves dinner. Dinner 

288                   CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 
over, we boys, in plain sight of the city sports, waste innumerable shells

on empty tin cans tossed in the air for targets until one of the sophisti-

cated urban sportsmen derisively casts doubts that we could hit the 
side of a house. With a proper rural hesitancy and injured air we 
offer wagers on our ability to hit his hat tossed in the air. The wager 
accepted, a surprising reversal of form results in the destruction of the

hat, and another carefully laid plan of the rustic farm boy has demon- 
strated the gullibility of his object of contempt. 
But hark! The stentorian voiced county auctioneer has mounted 
the schoolhouse steps and is offering the "wolves" to the highest
The proceeds, plus that from the dinner, are placed in the hands of the 
treasurer of the ladies' aid, to apply on the pastor's overdue salary. 
And so the drive is over. Homeward we go, the more fortunate in grain 
wagons (now replaced by cars) the women folks drove over, but many 
trudging across the snow covered fields, little realizing that the none 
too scrupulous class of gunners who participated have tested their 
marksmanship on else than coyotes and, in fact, have played havoc with 
the quail and other small game of the area. 
The method of employing paid government hunters to trap the 
year through is objectionable in that more small fur bearers than 
coyotes get in the traps; not to mention valuable dogs. The fur taken 
out of season is wasted. The rodents may increase due to removal of 
their principal natural enemies, Since the work is paid for out of the 
tax money, the farmer argues, with some justice, that if the sheepman 
is to have this "free work," certainly he, too, as a taxpayer,
have some "free work," say a government cutworm catcher in his

cornfield. It is pointed out, too, that it costs around $25 for each 
coyote taken, which is outrageously expensive. All those who trap 
for fur in winter are more than annoyed at this waste of a valuable 
natural resource. The wise, experienced "killer" coyote is not
first to get in the trap and very often watches his less canny relatives

and other species of harmless and beneficial animals precede himself 
in taking the fatal misstep. For these and a host of other reasons, the 
system of employing government trappers to work the year around 
is neither economical nor efficient. 
Less expensive, slightly less objectionable but no more effective, 
is the bounty system. This seems really to work only with a large 
mammal, like, say, the mountain lion, where it pays to go after the 
individual. When the species is reduced to the point where it no 
longer pays to go after the individual, no control is accomplished and 
the net result is to redistribute some of the tax money. Once estab- 
lished, such a system is difficult to discontinue and too often the bounty

system is extended to cover "new" kinds of "pests." Then,
as has 
happened in many counties, the treasury is depleted; the county goes 
in debt to carry through the year and the bounty has to be discontinued 
or the tax rate raised enough to take care of the burden. There is the 
matter of fraud, too. Foxes, dog skins and what-not are "made 
into coyotes"; innumerable substitutes are palmed off as the original.

Without a uniform bounty on coyotes those from all adjoining districts 
tend to be presented in the one paying the highest bounty. More often 
than not, bounties, established by well meaning citizens, are paid in 
areas where the animal in question is more beneficial than harmful. 

CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME                     289 
Nevertheless, we probably shall continue to have bounties so long as 
sheepmen, farmers, and hunters act as biologists; just as we shall 
continue to have untimely deaths so long as people insist on plying 
their ills with the wares of the patent medicine man, rather than 
seeking the advice of a physican. 
Private trapping for fur as a general control undoubtedly is better 
than any of the methods already mentioned. Furthermore, where 
the others have not been employed, it has given just as good results. 
Of course this was not always true, but has been over the past few 
years on account of the high prices of fur which, in effect, place a 
high bounty on the animal. The animal is used. Taxpayers' money 
is not spent in getting him. Instead, a productive means of livelihood 
is afforded to many. 
This alone, however, is sometimes not enough. The "killer coyote"

has the knack of keeping out of the sets of private and government 
trappers alike. Here is where the dogs come into their own, especially 
in the open country-hounds that run by sight. Before the advent of 
the poisoners, which spelled the doom of certain types of good dogs 
as well as that of foolish coyotes, this method was much practiced in 
the west. No better sport is to be had either. Away after the quarry, 
and some can run. Although the average coyote can do only about 
twenty-six miles per hour, some are much faster and give the wolf 
hounds a good run and now and then a tolerable fight. Here the 
wise old killer coyote has but little better chance than any other. 
Indeed, by using one good trailing dog to start the wolf hounds-and 
a pair of wolf hounds do the work-the killer can be singled out at 
the scene of one of his misdeeds, followed, jumped,, and quickly dis- 
patched. With good dogs, one man can, and has, equalled the achieve- 
ment of the full time control man using poison and traps. Also this 
method is economical of the harmless and beneficial kinds of animals. 
In the more thickly timbered sections, like the redwood belt where the 
coyote has followed man, hounds that hunt by sight are, of course, 
not so successful, but over the majority of the range of the coyote 
they are far and away the best method of "control" and get the

renegade individual. 
In review: The coyote, by reason of its high rate of reproduction, 
adaptability and cunning, will persist in spite of efforts to exterminate

it. A few will persist after other valuable species are exterminated 
by efforts directed at the coyote. Therefore, any' method of control 
used should not be destructive of valuable fur bearers, game, and other 
beneficial wild life. The coyote has virtues which make it worth 
encouraging in certain areas. Outstanding of these are its services as 
a disease eliminator among game, as a preventive of bubonic and 
other plagues dreaded by man, as a check on harmful rodents, as an 
eliminator of decrepit game which may damage crops, and as a valuable 
fur bearer. The coyote has faults of which the following are note- 
worthy: It contracts and sometimes spreads rabies. Renegade indi- 
viduals destroy sheep and sometimes poultry. Where this occurs con- 
trol must be resorted to. Any effective method of control must permit 
singling out the individual which does the damage. The poorest 
methods of control are. first, poisoning, and second, trapping out of* 
season. The best methods of control are winter trapping, supplemented, 

290                CALIFORNIA FISH AND GAME 
where necessary, by the year round use of hounds against individual 
culprits.-Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, 
December 19, 1930. 
[The following data and ancedote on the Governor was divulged by his son,
Rolph, III.) 
OVERNOR JAMES ROLPH, Jr., is a conservationist and 
sportsman of the first order. A large landowner and rancher in 
the State, he has spent years in study and development of fish 
and game resources. It is the first time in many years that California 
has had a Governor who is so keenly interested in this phase of the 
On his ranch in San Mateo County, he maintains an excellent ken- 
nel of trained dogs. Much experimental work on various breeds has 
been done here and some astonishing results are noted. 
FiG. 90. Governor James Rolph, Jr., starting on the trail of the wary buck.

Photograph submitted by James Rolph, III, May 1, 1931. 
In his quest for superior hunting stock, he has even imported the 
wild dog from Australia. 'This breed was crossed with the American 
shepherd dog and an excellent jumping dog for brushy country was the 
The Governor spends as much time as possible riding over his prop- 
erty and making -personal investigation of the game life. Game 
nuisances are abated to a reasonable degree. One day during the deer 

Wolf Folder 
From Journal of Mammalogy, General Notes, Vol. 15, No. 2, May, 1934, p. 158

Mother Wolf Carries Food Twelve Miles to Her You 
"The following observation of Ranger Lee Swisher in the Toklet region

of Mount McKinley National Park affords valuable data on the range and 
home life of the Mount McKinley timber wolf (Canis pambasileus Elliot) 
and is here given in essentially his own language in letter of October 16

and November 21, 1933. 
"Last spring (1933) I found several mountain sheep killed in 
Polychrome Pass and with W , binoculars saw an old wolf carrying meat from

there, going north down the Toklat River. I spent over a week trying to 
follow her trail and at last found her den and pups on a small island in

the Toklat River, about three miles below the last hills of the north 
range. I judged the distance that she carried the meat to her pups 
was more than twelve miles. 
"In locating their dens I find that a pair of wolves cover from 
100 to 150 square miles of territory while foraging for their young 
The largest pack that I have seen here was eleven, but their usual 
number is from five to eight during the winter . . . It seems that they 
take their intended kill by surprise. Last winter I compared the 
distance, in feet, of bounds made by an old ram and the wolf that caught

him. For a short distance their leaps were approximately the same 
(about sixteen feet). When the old ram struck a patch of ice he lost 
out in a few jumps . . . I have not yet seen where wolves chased their 
victims more than two hundred yards."--Joseph S. Dixon, Wild Life 
Division, U. S. Office of National Parks, Buildings and Reservations, 
Berkeley, California. 

Aeer Drou~nt lown and halt eaten by wolves near Lake Traverse 
FULL moon shone brightly on the steel-white, snow- 
covered lake. It was forty below, and a heavy silence 
hung over the lake and over the low hills behind its 
shores. Suddenly a chorus of wild shrieks and yells 
and long-drawn howls broke into the night. The clamor came 
from far up a little valley that opened on the shore. A dark 
form plunged from the thicket and rushed madly out on the 
frozen surface. A hundred feet behind, four long gray 
shadows broke from cover on its trail and streaked after it. 
The yelps grew louder and more excited. 
The light of the moon showed the hunters to be the great 
gray timber wolves of northern Canada, 
and their quarry a fine big buck. In the 
forest, and across the deep snows in the  Is It Instir 
clearings, the deer was faster than any of  ligence  T 
the pack; but through careful generalship 
the leader of the wolves had forced the  Them the I 
chase to the shallow snow on the lake. 
Here the pack formed a moon-shaped 
crescent and herded the deer toward a point 
of land half a mile down the lake. Although the wolves 
were excited and were raising a terrific din, they seemed to 
lag and gained no ground on their prey. The buck had al- 
most reached the point, and apparent safety, when from the 
tip of the woods a fresh wolf hurled himself into the path 
of the doomed animal. There was a quick flash of snapping, 
tearing jaws and the buck was down to be fought over and 
torn to pieces while still alive. 
With glasses I had watched the whole drama, powerless 
to help. I had been awakened from a sound sleep and 
crawled out of my sleeping bag in time to watch the whole 
show. The chase had passed right in front of me and at one 
time was only several hundred yards away. I rekindled my 
fire, quieted my dogs and crawled back in the eiderdown. 
A number of times previous to this night I had read the 
same story in the snow and have seen it repeated once since. 
Just as the guide places his huntsmen on the deer trail and 
then with his dogs drives the deer to the slaughter, so does 
the wolf leader place one of his pack on this point of the 
lake, one on the next and usually one on the third point and 
then with the remaining he ranges the back country, starts 
his quarry and carefully drives it to its hidden doom. Does 
this plan come from instinct or is it a carefully thought out 
plan of action, executed by an animal that knows how to 
think clearly? As in man, so in wolves, or in fact any kind 
of animals, the degree of intelligence varies widely accord- 
ing to the individual. Some wolf leaders are startlingly 
astute and others quite dumb. All are cowardly treacherous. 
Now let us explode a bubble. Everyone has read and 
heard stories of humans being attacked by wolves. There 
is no authentic record of the American brush or timber wolf 
attacking a human being either singly or 
n packs. The "Sault Ste. Marie (Ontario) 
ct or Intel-     Star" has had for years a standing offer of 
at   Makes       $100 to anyone who could prove a single 
story of that kind. So far the money has 
earful Men-      not been claimed. 
y Are?            The Canadian government had a com- 
mission that for several years investigated 
all such stories and could not find one in- 
stance where anyone had actually been attacked. That 
wolves will follow a human being, dog team or team of 
horses, is a well-known fact. For the past fifteen years the 
writer has lived in wolf country. During most of those falls 
and winters he has amused himself in the pursuit of these 
animals, both in northwestern Ontario and in Algonquin 
Park (in north Ontario). A great many times he has been 
followed by wolves, both day and night, but at no time was 
in any danger of attack. In fact, except on the trap line or 
during fall hunting season, he never carried a gun while 
in the bush. 
THERE is a story of a young mail carrier, out of Sudbury 
A I believe, who was traced when several days overdue at 
the end of his 300 mile run. The searching party found his 
sled, the bones of his dogs, and bones of the young man. The 
snow around the sled was packed down by wolf tracks show- 
ing that there had been a good-sized pack. When the party 
back-tracked his trail they found where his moccasined feet 
had dragged in the snow for several miles. The man was 
r)TT,'rnnnlv  T.Trv M   AS'^   101A. 
.J lkJ J* %,l'k*" 
--IL .s . .  - 

either unconscious or dead before 
the wolves had come. 
Most animals are cruel but few 
can touch the fiendishness of the 
wolf. He kills a great part of the 
time for the sport of killing. When 
on the chase under those circum- 
stances the pack range along beside 
a spent deer that would be easy to 
pull down, keep him running and 
tear great pieces out of his flanks 
and hams, slowly destroying him on 
his feet. On the ice at the foot of 
a high cliff on the Petewawa River 
I saw thirteen deer that had taken 
the 500-foot leap rather than fall 
prey to the pack. Not one of them 
had been touched after it had landed - 
on the river ice, but many of them 
were ripped, slashed and had great 
chunks of skin and muscle torn out] 
during the chase. 
ONE big wolf sure put a fast one 
over on me. Every four days 
he traveled a certain deer trail. He 
would make the trip east one day 
and four days later he would pass 
heading west. Just what the idea 
was I never found out but I wanted 
his hide. Let one place a rotten 
log across the trail. Here he al- 
ways placed his front foot on the 
same spot while stepping over it. 
The author with a is 
Left- Ti to. 
one of the 
huskies of the 
author's dog 
Below l The 
author with 
his team  of 
huskies an d 
-~ad al Igotwas disappointment. 
He had come along at a fast trot 
right up to the log and stopped, 
stood for several minutes without 
moving and then gingerly walked 
around the end of the log to the 
side the set was on and up to with- 
in about three feet of the trap. 
There he had stopped and looked 
things over for a minute, then de- 
liberately  turned  his  back  and 
scratched gravel at the trap until it 
sprung, left his scent on it as an 
added insult and trotted off. He 
never used that trail again. 
I have talked to a great many 
rangers and wolf trappers about 
this instance. Some of them have 
had similar experiences. All agree 
that these wolves have been pre- 
viously trapped and are wise. Cer- 
tainly instinct warned him of danger 
but pure cussed brain work made 
him .spring the trap and insult the 
/ ~      THE    most generally used method 
§   'of trapping wolves today is by 
/             snaring them. Poison is prohibited 
'  by taw* and a good law it is, sav- 
ing the lives of thousands of small 
animals and birds. The snare is 
usually a -i  steel cable set either 
spring pole or snub. The set is 
/7placed               on  a  deer trail or   old 
/   abandoned   road. The   spring-pole 
set is as follows. First a pole six- 
~             teen or eighteen feet long is cut and 
lashed  about five  feet from  the 
ground to a tree close to the path. 
The small end of the pole extends 
'oif on his shoulder,  a little better than half way cross 
the path. A long forked pole raises 
the butt end of the spring pole high enough so that the small 
end will be about thirty inches from the ground. To this 
small end the wire loop is fastened with hay wire. The loop 
is then set cross-wise of the trail. Old branches are used to 
block both sides of the snare leaving a small gateway where 
the snare is. Mr. Wolf comes along the path, his head goes 
through the loop, it tightens, he plunges-throwing the forked 
pole over, the heavy butt end drops, hoisting him by the neck 
so that his hind feet just touch the ground where he hangs 
until dead. Rather brutal, but very (Continued on page 68) 
*Editor's Note :-Some qualification is needed. In Manitoba, for instance,

an authorized officer may poison wolves in any provincial game reserve, 
and in Ontario expert trappers may be so authorized anywhere. 
After carefully  preparing 
my outfit by smoking my 
trap, gloves and   ground 
sheet and weathering them 
well, using extreme caution 
to keep all human scent 
away from the trap set and 
vicinity by wearing green 
deer skin moccasins with 
the hair on the outside, I 
set the trap, using every 
trick and artifice to cover 
the setting. To the human 
eye it was perfect. That 
night a half inch of snow 
fell on the bare ground and 
three days later about an 
inch more. The set could 
not have been better con- 
cealed. The fifth morning 
I journeyed to get my wolf 
MAY. 1934 

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ialatria-wnich develops into the gencrally 
fatal black water fever-are both caused 
by the apparently trivial bite of mosquitoes. 
Happily, no sportsman would go into the 
carefully explained that the fawn was mine 
and that he, Jerry, was to protect it. In a 
few minutes he understood and shortly the 
wolf dog and the deer... - .-*  ,i t.[ OI 
eaO UCSL 0J1 
tropics witnout a generous supply of qui- friends. Many a grand romp they
had to- 
nine, which is both a preventive and cura- gether when the fawn became tame
tive of malaria,                         to be allowed the freedom of the
Modern firearms are the best the world  Jerry killed two of my dogs that
has ever known. A well placed shot from  to molest his pet. 
the right gun will stop anything on earth. 
No   sportsman  would  consider hunting  THE same big fellow would just tolerate

dangerous game without a satisfactory     Jgrown-ups but was passionately
fond of 
rifle and adequate sporting equipment-   children. In front of my main lodge
but mosquito nets, simple drugs, ordinary  a sand cliff about thirty-five
feet high above 
caution and common sense are just as im- a beautiful sand beach. One of Jerry's
portant to his safety                    ;_   -A 
. -tKS in summer was to lie on the 
edge of the cliff overlooking the lake and 
beach. Playing in the sand at the water's 
edge would be from fifteen to twenty-five 
The Truth About Wolves              little tots ranging in age from two to
(Continued from page 15)        or eight years old. From the dreamy, far

away expression in the dog's eyes one 
efficient and those in the know have very  would never think that his senses
little sympathy with him.                fully alert but let one of those
The snub set is somewhat similar except get out in the water past his little
that no spring-pole is used. The snare is line and in three leaps the big
fellow would 
lashed to the butt end of a, heavy sapling  be in the water between the lake
and the 
or small tree. The snare is set in the    child. In an instant he would be
same  manner   as  the  spring-pole  set. formed into a hideous, snarling,
Wolves caught in the spring-pole set have  demon, but never touching the
child. The 
practically no chance to show individuality  youngster, frightened, would
rush scream- 
but such is not the case of the ones caught ing for shore. As soon as he
was safe the 
in the snub. After the first plunge which  demon became a dog again. Without
shows them they are caught some lie down  noticing the child he would trot
up the 
and go to work on the cable. A fair per-  steps to his place on the cliff
and there go 
centage of these actually cut the cable in to dreaming again as if nothing
had ever 
two with their teeth and so escape. Others, happened. He acted as my beach
after a short struggle which continually  for two summers, saved two lives
and was 
tightens the noose, lie down quietly and  worth four men or a dozen nurse
wait for the end. Then there are some    Was that instinct? I bring this
chap into 
that really go down fighting. They twist the argument as he was mostly wolf
and jerk, plunge and turn, snarling and lone that surely knew how  ,  .-1-

chewing  everything within  reach. The '   I saw a wolf at BuckOntario, that

mess these fellows make is really astound-  weighed 270 pounds. He was enormous,

ing. They finally die by strangulation and  o of course. The gray timber
wolf generally 
a cut throat. In the winter of 1929, I    weighs from ninety to 110 or 120
lost five wolves because they    chewed  To tell how high a wolf stands from
through 94-strand steel airplane cable. One  footprint, measure the print
from front to 
old fellow  cut his noose as though he   back and multiply by eight and one-half.

had used a fairly sharp chisel. The chief  One of the largest tracks I ever
saw was 
ranger of our district shot him some thirty- at Lake Traverse, Algonquin
Park, On- 
five miles from the set with the wire still tario. The track on hard sand
around his neck.                         four and three-quarters inches.
The wolf, 
by that reckoning, was forty and three- 
rDUE to the splendid, tireless work of the  eighths inches tall. I saw his
trail first 
rangers, wolves are getting mighty        in October and that wine, T  .....
W, -1 
Pzark. In 1927 there were many packs in  low and a blizzard blowing. I was
the park. Almost any winter night the     snowshoes near the middle of the
hunting cries of one or two packs could be  Jerry, the dog, was following
me. My 
heard anywhere in the northern end. To-   parka hood was pulled far out over
day there are very few and what are left face, leaving a small opening to
see through. 
have been so broken up that they do not   Suddenly Jerry crouched beside
me snarl- 
do an awful lot of damage in comparison. ing, whining and showing a brave
front to 
In 1930 there were over a hundred wolves  real fear.  I threw  back my hood
snared in the park. In 1931 only eighty, found that in the storm I had walked
while in the winter of 1932 I doubt if there  the middle of a large pack
of wolves. The 
were fifty. The happy result is that where  closest was not over twenty-five
there was one deer in the park in 1927    away. I did not have a weapon of
there are ten today and the ratio among   sort and except that those wolves
smaller animals is much greater,          worth  $25  bounty   apiece  plus
Many dog mushers will tell of the won-  I did not need one. They had evidently

derful intelligence of the wolf dog in   seen Jerry and I at the same time
we saw 
harness. My own leader, Jerry, was three- them. They sure were in a hurry
to put 
quarters wolf and one-quarter huskie. He  distance between us. The wolf leading
was a one-man dog and a strange mixture   rout was, from his great size,
the owner 
of love and   viciousness, tameness and  of the footprint I had measured.

savagery. His mastery over his half wild   There seems to be a lot of controversy

team  mates was a perfect example of as to whether animals are guided entirely

brawn, cunning and brain work. If one    by instinct or whether they think.
slackened in his traces Jerry sensed it and  ally I would like to get into
the argument. 
whipped him. He was a trained deer dog   I don't know much about your animals

and loved the chase,                      of civilization but I sure do know
that the 
One day while canoeing on the lake I    little brothers of the wild dope
things out 
saw  three wolves chase a little, spotted  for themselves. Of course instinct
fawn into the water. Speeding the canoe   a very large part in their lives
but, as in 
to the spot I picked the little fellow up  humans, so in the wild to a lesser
ann took it Dadc to camp with me. My      clear-headed thinking has its share
in main- 
guides built a large, chicken wire com- taining their respective places in
every day 
pound for it. As soon as he was placed    existence. I doubt if they would
last very 
in it I took Jerry up to the netting and long on sheer instinct. 
scarce within the boundaries-o-f-Algonquin  twainauryaotthirt -five b 

Vol. 15, No. 4, November, 1934, pp. 286-290 
This progress report on food habits of coyotes is based on the examination

of 2,584 stomachs collected in 10 western States during December, January,

and February, 1931 to 1934. Analyses were made in the Denver Laboratory 
of the Division of Food Habits Research of the U. S. Biological Survey. 
Acknowledgment is made of the assistance of Shaler E. Aldous, Franklin H.

May, and Cecil S. Williams, of the Denver Laboratory staff, who made many

of the stomach analyses and prepared the preliminary tabulations. Of the

2,584 stomachs, 668 were empty, and 219 contained d6bris only. This leaves

1,697 on which to make an appraisal of the coyote's diet during the winter

Examination of stomachs continues to play a most important part in our 
study of the food habits of the coyote. Since experience has shown the short-

comings of field analyses of stomachs, all of our examinations are made in
laboratory. Some field work has been done and more is contemplated, as a

knowledge of field conditions is necessary to a correct interpretation of
tory findings. 
From the 1,697 recordable stomachs that enter into the present study, 
taken during December (656), January (651), and February (390), the follow-

ing summary has been prepared on the basis of frequency of occurrence of
various items. The accompanying illustration, however, gives percentages

by bulk. The latter method of appraisal has long been standard in recording

data on the food of numerous birds and mammals, and, since the percentages

of all items aggregate 100, this method permits easy preparation of charts
graphs. It is often of greater importance, however, to determine the fre-


quency with which the coyote indulges in certain feeding activities than
know the bulk of the food it consumes on such occasions. This is particularly

true when considering the coyote's relation to livestock, poultry, and game.

For this reason, the following discourse will deal in terms of the frequency
which items have been found, while the figure presents volumetric estimates.

Win ter Food of the Coyote 
based on the examination of 16?2. 
well- filled stomachs 
FIG. 1 
CAIRRION-It is not surprising to learn that carrion heads the list of the
winter foods 
of the coyote, for with the advent of cold weather the coyote can find few
of the small 
forms of life that constitute part of its regular warm-weather diet. Consequently
an old 
dried carcass, even an empty hide, is likely to prove acceptable as food,
with the result- 
ing marked increase in the amount of carrion recorded. The greater part of
this carrion 
food is derived from the remains of horses, burros, cows, coyotes, and sheep.
In addi- 
tion all known station material is placed under this heading. By the term
"station" is 
meant the carcass of an animal used as a decoy, to attract coyotes to the
spot where traps 
or poison have been placed. The kinds of carcasses used for station material
greatly, in accordance with field conditions and the trapping technic of

hunters. In general, however, horses, cows, coyotes, and sheep provide the
bulk of 
station material, although some trappers get excellent results by using rabbits,
dogs, marmots, or other smaller animals as a lure. Carrion was found in nearly
(49 per cent) of the winter coyote stomachs and made up 36 per cent of the
bulk of the 
total food. The fact that very many of the winter stomachs were from coyotes
through the use of a lure, in the form of a carcass, tends to accentuate
the carrion item in 
those stomachs. Were it not for this contingency there is every reason to
believe that 
"rabbit" would constitute the dominant food item of the winter-collected
RABBIT.-Rabbits closely compete with carrion for first place in the winter
Lepus is identified in stomach contents more often that Sylvilagus but nearly
half the 
time material adequate for generic identification is lacking, so that the
entry must be 
made merely as "rabbit." The percentage of occurrence of rabbit
varies from a low of 
26 in California to a high of 64 in New Mexico. In 4 States, namely, Arizona,
New Mexico, and Oregon, the average is over 60 per cent, and for the 10 States
sented it is 47 per cent. 
RoDENTs.-Rodents, occurring in 32 per cent of the stomachs, occupy third
place in 
the winter food of the coyote. In this group have been recognized representatives
of 6 
families, namely, Cricetidae, Heteromyidae, Geomyidae, Sciuridae, Erethizontidae,
Muridae-the relative importance in the food being in the order named. It
is here that 
the mammal student finds especially interesting work, since readily diagnostic
such as feet and teeth, are seldom present. Consequently the microscopic
characters of 
hairs must be depended upon in making determinations. It may be added that
lies the greatest difference in the results obtainable through field and
laboratory stomach 
analyses. At best, field determinations in this group have been limited,
and devoid of 
fine distinctions. In the laboratory, 9 genera of sciurids have been determined,
under "mouse or rat," 14 genera, representing 5 families, have
been distinguished. 
Leading inthe squirrel and "mouse or rat" groups are the prairie
dog and meadow mouse, 
with 15 and 189 records, respectively. 
DOMESTIC STOCK.-Remains of sheep or goats occur in 16 per cent of the coyote
achs. The presence of wool in the stomach of a coyote, however, is not prima
evidence that the animal had killed a sheep. Often the original killer coyote
may have 
satisfied its hunger and left enough sheep remains to furnish acceptable
food for one or 
several other coyotes. Such could be and probably often is the case with
any carcass 
too large for one coyote to devour at a single meal. On the other hand, killer
have been known to destroy a number of individuals in a flock in a single
night. Often 
fragments of an old left-over "kill" in a coyote's stomach are
recognizable as carrion by 
the laboratory workers and are so recorded. In the present work more than
40 per cent 
of the sheep records were listed as carrion--either because a sheep was used
as a station 
or because the fragments under consideration were definitely from an old
dried or 
maggot-infested carcass. It may be added, however, that field observations
that an old, dried-up sheep carcass is unattractive to a coyote and seems
to be eaten only 
when all other sources of food fail. 
Calf, colt, or hog remains are rarely found in winter-collected stomach of
having been recorded but 16 times in a total of 1,697 stomachs (less than
1 per cent). 
DEER.-The remains of deer were found in 5 per cent of the stomachs. This
is a slight 
increase over the 4 per cent recorded for coyote stomachs collected during
October, and November. A similar difference is noted in the volumetric percentage
the deer item, which is 3 per cent for winter stomach and 2 per cent for
those taken in 
fall. Each of the 10 States contributed deer to the food of the coyote, although
in 6 
cases the percentage was small. The percentage of occurrence of deer in the
coyote stomachs from the other 4 States was: Colorado 14, California 11,
Oregon 9, and 
Washington 5. 

McLean (California Fish and Game, vol. 20 no. 1, pp. 30-36, 1934) found deer
meat a 
major food item of California coyotes, but concluded (p. 34) that most of
it should be 
considered carrion. In our study we have not yet sufficient information to
fairly how much of the deer item of the coyote's food should be classed as
One Colorado coyote stomach and another collected in New Mexico contained
of antelope. 
MISCELLANous ANIMAL FooD.-Infrequent mammal items in the coyote's winter

food are remains of badgers, moles, shrews, and skunks. Together, however,
they make 
up but a trace of the total food and only 1 per cent by occurrence. 
Lizards and snakes occurred in 1 per cent of the winter coyote stomachs.
The domi- 
nant item in this class is the bull snake, with 6 records; rattlesnake takes
second place, 
with 4 records; and the spiny swift (Sceloporus) third, with 3. Other reptiles
less fre- 
quently captured by coyotes include spotted lizards (Holbrookia), sand swifts
whip snakes, racers, and pilot snakes. 
Insects, as would be expected, are an uncommon food of coyotes in winter.
Of the 
Texas coyote stomachs, 5 per cent contained insects, but the average for
the 10 States 
is only 1 per cent. Final results showed twice as many records for grasshoppers
as for 
all other insects combined. 
Other unusual items of coyote animal food include a fish, eaten by a Washington

coyote, and centipedes, 9 of which were found in a coyote stomach collected
in Texas. 
BiRDs.-Birds eaten by coyotes may be grouped in three categories, namely,
game birds, and all other birds. Each of the three contributes 1 per cent
to the volume 
of the winter food. 
Poultry is infrequent, being recorded but once in an average of 40 coyote
Game birds were found in 4 per cent of the stomachs collected in winter;
they com- 
prised 27 grouse, 13 quail, 4 Hungarian partridges, 2 pheasants, 1 sage hen,
6 ducks, 
3 coots, and 1 goose. 
A variety of other birds are eaten by coyotes. Our laboratory analyses show
nongame birds enter the diet of the coyote once in each 16 meals. Most of
these are 
magpies, robins, meadowlarks, blackbirds, and sparrows. Other species occurring
or more times in the 1,697 stomachs include: Road-runner, hairy woodpecker,
lark, chickadee, nuthatch, thrasher, and bluebird. Some magpies may be picked
up dead 
about poison stations, while an occasional ground-feeding bird may easily
become a 
coyote victim. 
More complicated, however, are some of the problems of interpretation that
arise in 
connection with the avian food of the coyote. For instance, there was the
coyote that devoured a meadowlark, a wren, and a sparrow along with a meadow
and 3 deer mice, although half the contents of the well-filled stomach consisted
of carrion 
(horse), and an additional 30 per cent was made up of rabbit. The most successful
eating coyote was a December animal taken in New Mexico. Examination of its
ach disclosed a robin, a bluebird, a meadowlark, and a blackbird as well
as 2 deer mice 
and 55 juniper berries; carrion (horse) comprised 60 per cent of the total
VEGETABLE FooD.-Wild fruits, berries, and seeds contribute 1 per cent, both
occurrence and by volume, to the coyote's winter food and occasionally they
the total meal of an individual. Important items among wild fruits are mesquite,
9 records; and cactus and juniper, with 5 each. The last meals of two Arizona
and two 
New Mexico coyotes were composed entirely of mesquite beans and juniper berries,

respectively. A Washington coyote made nine-tenths of its last meal on chokecherries.

I It is altogether probable that much of the bird food of the coyote consists
of individ- 
uals killed by automobiles on the highways. See article on page 320 of this

Cultivated fruit was present in about 1 per cent of the stomachs, the 17
records being 
made by California and Washington coyotes. Apples were eaten by 10 coyotes
pears by 5. One California coyote made a full meal on figs, and another from
the same 
State was responsible for the lone grape record. 
Grass is a rare food item of the coyote. 
The Denver Food Habits Research Laboratory continues to receive regular shipments

of stomachs of predatory mammals from members of the Biological Survey's
animal control force in practically all the Western States, and the examination
of con- 
tents is progressing at the rate of approximately 500 a month. The next progress
will cover the food habits of the coyote during the spring and summer months.
In the 
meantime, stomachs, not only of coyotes, but of other predatory mammals as
collected at any time and obtained in any part of the country, including
Alaska, will be 
gratefully received. 
Denver Laboratory, Division of Food Habits Research, U. S. Bureau of 
Biological Survey. 

ltbratv ot 
bo leopolb                            o 
X    hy X     e're      frad of       oves 
* There is no recent record of a wolf attacking a man, yet unproved 
reports keep alive a legend which had its origin in the dark ages 0 
E VERY winter there arrive in news- 
paper offices, by wire and by mail, 
the stories of wolves attacking hu- 
man beings. Often these accounts are 
thoroughly circumstantial, giving the 
place, time, and names of the victim or 
As nearly as it is possible to form a 
conclusion from investigation of a stead- 
ily growing series of reports, none of 
these stories is true. 
That is, the intent to attack is not 
present, even if wolves do follow human 
beings-which may happen. 
Move slowly through the woods, still- 
hunting. deer, and you will sometimes 
have a bluejay or a red squirrel follow 
you, cussing you out as a dangerous in- 
Through inquisitiveness, it is possible 
that wolves may tag along in human 
tracks. (Although much more frequent- 
ly they will cross an old snowshoe trail 
only after careful scouting.) 
For many years the United States Bu- 
reau of Biological Survey made inquiry 
into every report of a wild animal at- 
tacking man in the United States. It 
was demonstrated that men were at- 
tacked, without seeming provocation, by 
various kinds of animals, but never by 
wolves. Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Arctic 
explorer, who lived for a decade in a 
region where wolves are found in their 
wildest state, took pains to investigate 
and to inquire, and became convinced 
that wolves never have, in modern times, 
attacked man. In addition to his actual 
field experience, he has for twenty years 
or more followed reported instances of 
attacks by wolves on human beings, and 
each story has proved to be pure inven- 
tion. Stefansson for some years con- 
tinued to wonder about the tales of 
Wolves devouring human beings in Rus- 
sia-there was so much of art and legend 
relating to enormous and bloodthirsty 
packs, roving the Steppes. Correspond- 
ence with scientists and fur traders has 
served only to drive the Russian wolf 
menace further toward the region of 
pure mythology. 
Prohibition had a certain effect on the 
dissemination of wolf yarns. When open, 
public saloons flourished in the logging 
towns of the northern parts of Minne- 
sota, Michigan, and Wisconsin, it was 
from bartenders that travelers derived 
their information as to the ferocious 
fauna of the woods. Almost every bar- 
tender had a wolf story, and most of 
them believed their own tales. In fact, 
a great many lumberjacks can give, with 
the utmost sincerity, plausible accounts 
of wolves preying on mankind. 
In the bartender version, the most re- 
cent attack had occurred the winter be- 
fore at no great distance from the place 
where the story was being told. One 
standard form related to two brothers, 
Scandinavians, who worked in lumber 
camps separated by a few miles of woods. 
On a Thanksgiving-or Christmas-one 
brother set out to visit the other, and 
did not return. It was supposed that he 
had taken a job in the camp with his 
brother, and his acquaintances were 
astonished when the brother appeared, 
inquiring for him. A search was then 
made, and the bones of the young man 
were found scattered about the base of 
a tree against which he had made his 
futile stand before the onslaught of a 
pack of wolves. In some versions he had 
killed a wolf with a knife or club. 
Similar stories appear regularly in 
Northern newspapers, and are generally 
believed by their readers. Chase S. Os- 
born, former governor of Michigan, has 
been for a half century a newspaper pub- 
lisher in northern Wisconsin and Mich- 
igan, and has personally investigated 
scores of such wolf tales, all of which 
were fakes. There may have been the 
death of a wayfarer in the woods from 
cold, alcoholism, or accident, as a foun- 
In 1927, many papers carried the story 
of a wolf charging into the home of a 
settler in Mackinac County, Michigan. 
The animal was attacking a child when 
the mother seized a gun and dispatched 
it. A few days later I visited the scene 
of this thrilling adventure, and viewed 
the body of the "wolf"-a scrawny collie 
dog, with a white blaze on its chest. 
J. W. Curran, editor of the Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ontario, Daily Star, has for many 
years offered one hundred dollars for any 
authenticated case of wolf attacking man, 
in the Algoma district of Canada, a re- 
gion where timber wolves are fairly 
*plentiful. Many claims to the reward 
have been made, invariably backed by 
second-hand reports, but it has never 
been collected, and Editor Curran now 
expresses his willingness to extend his 
offer to the whole North American con- 
tinent. This he has hitherto hesitated to 
do only because of the difficulty of mak- 
ing personal and accurate investigation 
of all wolf stories, although usually noth- 
ing more than a letter to the nearest 
postmaster or Hudson Bay post is re- 
quired to spoil even the most detailed 
and impressive of these yarns. 
Harry P. Williams, assigned by the 
United States Bureau of Biological Sur- 
vey to supervise state trappers of preda- 
tors in Michigan, has hunted wolves in 
the United States and Alaska for many 
years. He captured the notorious Custer 
wolf of the Black Hills, the bane of cat- 
tlemen, and is acknowledged to be as 
wolf-wise as any man living. It is his 
belief that the wolf legend itself is re- 
sponsible for the stories of wolf attacks 
which are given circulation by well- 
meaning witnesses. 
One day a deputy United States mar- 
shal in Alaska returned from a deer 
hunting trip to report that he had been 
treed by wolves at the edge of a small 
muskeg. Williams listened attentively to 
the story, took down the location of the 
muskeg and, journeying to the spot, sur- 
prised a pack-or family-of wolves; an 
adult pair and their half-grown offspring, 
no doubt. Before they could get out of 
range, Williams' rifle had brought down 
half a dozen of the animals. 
What happened to the marshal, Wil- 
liams is convinced, was that he startled 
the sleeping wolves, who, not having 
caught the scent of man, ran at the 
sound of his footsteps, and made the mis- 
take of running toward him. When a 
frightened deer runs directly toward the 
hunter, it is never assumed that it has 
bloodthirsty intentions. An animal with 
as highly organized a nervous system as 
a wolf's may blunder in a time of ex- 
citement much as a man may blunder in 
parallel circumstances. A  cool-headed 
Canadian trapper, in the Algoma district, 
once annihilated a pack of eight or nine 
wolves with his rifle. He sighted them 
eating a deer on a frozen lake. The day 
was very still, and after he began shoot- 
ing, the wolves were utterly confused by 
the echoes bounding from the steep, 
rocky shores, and raced to and fro in 
confusion while he picked them off. Each 
time they neared the shore, a resounding 
echo turned them back. 
Did wolves attack human beings in 
America prior to white civilization? In- 
dian lore does not list the wolf as" a man- 
killer. The Jesuit Relations contain ac- 
counts of bold depredations on livestock 
by wolves, but do not refer to them as 
dangerous to human life. One Jesuit 
chronicle describes a half-breed hauling 
moose-meat into a fort on a sleigh and 
fighting off, with his whip, a pair of 
wolves that ran after the sleigh, snatch- 
ing at the meat. 
The Lewis and Clark expedition en- 
countered vast numbers of wolves prey- 
ing on the buffalo herds of the Missouri 
valley. These wolves were unacquainted 
with man, in many places, and were ex- 
ceedingly bold. One soldier of the ex- 
pedition rushed a wolf, gorged and 
sleeping apparently, and killed it with a 
sword. On another occasion a soldier 
asleep at night, with his arm extended 
outside the wall of the tent, was bitten 

by a wolf. As the man started up, the 
wolf dashed off. It may have innocently 
assumed that the arm was all there was 
of the man. It is said that great horned 
owls have been led into 'similar mis- 
takes by woodsmen wearing fur caps on 
cloudy nights. 
Lewis and Clark were thoroughly de- 
pendable reporters, and they do not men- 
tion feeling the slightest fear of wolves. 
Grizzly, or "white" bears, as they called 
them, were a real menace to hunters of 
the expedition. 
It is recorded, and is entirely believ- 
able, that in October, 1831, Louis Pasteur, 
then nine years old, witnessed the death 
of a man from rabies caused by the bite 
of wolf in the mountains of eastern 
France. A rabid animal is insane and a 
rabid kitten would tackle a Great Dane. 
Similar to these accidents are the re- 
ports received by Editor Curran, of the 
Canadian Sault, of wolves in captivity 
that have bitten persons. Such reports, 
of course, have no bearing on the dictum 
that wolves, in the wild state, do not at- 
tack human beings. 
H OW, then, did the wolf legend arise? 
Were wild wolves ever a peril to 
It is well known that the predators 
readily alter their feeding habits under 
changed conditions. Buffalo wolves 
learned to kill stock. An occasional lion 
or tiger develops into a systematic man- 
killer. That wolves never attacked hu- 
man beings in America, before the com- 
ing of the white man, might be explained 
on the grounds that Indians tried to keep 
in regions well-supplied with game, and 
wolves had no reason to linger where 
their own food resources were exhausted, 
so the inducement for wolves to eat In- 
dians may never have existed. 
Throughout the wildest portions of 
Canada, where wolves may sometimes go 
hungry, and where men are sometimes 
present, wolves have never displayed any 
inclination to resort to human flesh as 
an emergency ration. Many perfectly 
honest Canadians believe that wolves, if 
hungry enough, will gobble a trapper, 
but old trappers and fur post factors- 
if they have any reputation at all for 
truthfulness-say that they never knew 
of wolf attacking man. 
The largest North American wolves at- 
tain a weight of 125 pounds. They are 
exceedingly powerful and sagacious, and 
exhibit excellent team  work in their 
hunting. It would be perfectly easy for 
one wolf to drag down and kill an un- 
armed man. Yet wolves in the woods of 
North America are so man-shy that they 
will not approach a deer carcass that has 
been dressed. 
But, in Europe, before the use of fire- 
arms, when settlement had interfered 
seriously with the natural food supply of 
wolves, is it not possible that they did 
prey on humanity? Medieval chronicles 
indicate that this is the case. An eleventh 
century document says of famine condi- 
tions in Central Europe, "Wolves, find- 
ing so many bodies on the road, began 
to grow bold and to attack living men." 
A few such attacks would be sufficient 
to start the legend of man-killing. 
Wolves, with their great cunning, their 
terrifying howls, and their ferocious 
aspect, have always played an important 
r6le in folk tales. It is highly logical to 
believe that the stories of wolves attack- 
ing persons, appearing every winter in 
our newspapers, have their remote origin 
in the tales, truthful at first, told around 
the fireside in the dark ages. A -some- 
what parallel legend is that concerning 
snakes in regions where there are no 
poisonous species. Where dangerous ser- 
pents are most numerous, snakes in gen- 
eral are much less feared than at the 
edge of. the northern limit of serpent dis- 
tribution in North America. Dangers 
chronicled are more blood-chilling than 
dangers experienced. 
Wolves are extremely intelligent and 
adaptable. Williams reports instances of 
wolves adopting and rearing litters of 
unweaned cubs, orphaned by a trapper. 
In the buffalo days the poisoning and 
trapping of wolves was a simple matter. 
Now even immature specimens are crafty, 
whereas an old one, like the Custer wolf, 
displays a degree of sagacity that is posi- 
tively uncanny. 
Indirectly, wolves--or rather wolf 
stories-actually are a factor in bringing 
about a considerable number of deaths 
annually in this country. No hunting 
season passes without lost men perishing. 
They die, not from cold or hunger, in 
the great majority of instances, but from 
panic and exhaustion. Once he realizes 
that he is lost, the man who has all his 
life heard of wolves devouring persons- 
and Little Red Riding Hood made an im- 
pression on most of us in infancy-be- 
gins to quake. When darkness comes, he 
sees wolves in every shadow, he hears 
them in every rustle of the leaves. All 
too often the tenderfoot's last shred of 
common sense vanishes, and he begins a 
frenzied scramble ending in death unless 
rescue arrives. 
Minnesota's Largest Recent Timber Wolf 

File: Coyotev"' 
Mt. Lion 
From General Notes, Jiiur. Mammalogy, Vol. 16, No. 3, August, 1935, P. 229:

Cougar and Coyo te 
My friend, Pyeart Hulse, whose ranch is on Canyon Creek, Middle Fork 
of the Gila River, New Mexico, writes me about an experience of his father

in December while on his trap line. I will tell the story in Pyeart's 
words:  :y Dad had a strange experience with a lion last month. He was 
oilt on Canyon Creek Mountain setting some traps when he came right on to
lion and a kitten, and was within a few feet of them before either saw the

other. The lion made away at once and jiuxped into the thick brash, pre-

venting a shot. The lion had killed a deer and on looling it over Dad 
found a dead coyote a few feet from the kill. The ground was soft from a

rain of the nrevious day and the tracks easy to trace. On looking closely

he saw where the coyote had come up to the k4ll, and there it was that the

lion made for the coyote and caught it in a couple of bounds. 7he coyote's

head was badly crushed and show ed where the tusks had gone through the 
skull into the brain, killing the beast at once. Dad set some traps at the

deer carcass but the lion did not return. He skinned the coyote." 
Evidently these predators were not on mch friendly terms as it is 
sugosed they sometimes are.--Charles A. Gianini, Poland, New York. 

G ray 
Gestation period,/Wolf - 9 weeks 
'    Coyote - 6)4 days 
(C. Emerson Brown, Jour. Mammal., 1936) 

IA.NSING, July 12. - Frank J. 'Jators of' 
the State Administrative Board hcas found in the files 
of his office an original duplicate of a wolf bounty 
certificate issued in Clinton county, south central 
N'Tichigan, nearly 100 years ago. 
The certificate is dated Dec. 14, 1841, and 
was mado out in long-hand in the office of the Clinton 
county clerk.  It roads as follows: 
"Coo Cosh, an Indian inhabitant of 
said county being duly sworn by an interpreter 
deposoth and saith that on the 6th day of 
Novombor, 1841, i did take and kill in the 
township of Bengalo in said Clinton county a 
full-gron wolf..." 
The cortificate vwas signed by the county clerk 
and the justice of the peace. The bounty allowed for 
the wolf was ('4. 
Several other original bounty certificates, 
some of' wbich are from VanBuron county, havo boon found 
by Waters. 

---- - 
LANSING, July 15 P. IT. -- Four male wolves were 
among the 149 predatory animals killed by bounty hunters in 
Michigan during June, the heaviest take of wolves since     o 
January when bounty hunters reported killing four 
The June kill of predators by boun  'i~unters cost 
the Department of Conservation $1,280. The catch consisted      . 
of the following: Coyotes, 118; bobcats, 27,and wolves, 
_ budget allotment of q40,000 has boon set aside 
by the State Conservation commission for the fiscal year 
which began July 1 to operate the bounty system and pay 

Release May 15, 1937 
"Montana Fish and Game Notes" publishes the report of eye witnesses
of a 
hold-up and murder on a Montana ranch recently. The victim was a coyote -
assailants, three black crows, according to a recent bulletin of the American

Wildlife Institute. 
The ranchers who 'witnessed the affair declared that the coyote didn't have

a chance - the odds were too great. Swooping in turn, the crows picked and
viciously as the animal ran in circles for about half an hour. Finally, completely

exhausted, the coyote dropped and the crows tore him to pieces. 
And from Sylvia, Kansas, Grace T. Bigelow, Deputy State Game Warden, sends

word that crows killed a litter of nine young pigs belonging to Reno County
sioner, Charles Hornbaker. "What's to be done?" asks Warden Bigelow.
A suggestion 
might be that we develop a taste for crow meat. Properly prepared itts really
bad eating as to our surprise we learned recently. "Bish" Crawford,
president of 
the Missouri Crow Shooters Association, slipped up on our blind side and
before we 
knew it, 'we had literally "eaten crow". 
Release May 15, 1937 

Department of Conservation 
Lanslng, Miohi gn 
'arch 17th, 1941 
Professor W. J. Hamilton Jr.                                   A 
Cornell University 
thca,  e  -York 
Dar 1ill: 
I have the copy of your letter of earch 13th to Mr. Feeney 
of the W!isonsin Conservation Department in regard to wolf 
adini strat ion, 
As you no doubt know, the official policy of all public 
acencies in North America seem  to be against any kind of       - 
t    of this species. This holds true at least for all po itical 
uits In which this species occurs, So far as the middle west 
and east are ooncerne4 ichig   is one of the few states which 
still boasts of the occurrence of the timber wolf, 
So far as officlal policy is c neerned, wolf control is still 
practiced* As you know a bounty system prevails in this state 
hieh provides for the destruction of coyotes, wolves and recently 
bobcats in the 'Tpper Peninsula only, Actually, so far as wild 
dogs are concerned# the bounty is really aimed at coyotes and Is 
supported by both sportsmen and farrers with vigor, The number of 
wolves destroyed as the result of the operation of this system 
amounts to about thirty Individuals per year, which Is small, eom- 
paratively speakinZ, id it also Is probably about a* much sup- 
preasion pressure as the species will tolerate, Very few of these 
tirtyaniual. possibly are trapped Intentionally by the trappers, 
Th-ey set thei.or traps out for coyotes and when working in wolf coun- 
try occasionally they will cat   a wolf* Most trappers consider 
the wolf too scares to Justify the expenditure of any considerable 
amount of time and effort on their part, So far as our state is 
concerned, I believe that we are going ahead on this matter of 
predator control just as about as quickly as we dare and with very 
ew ez.eptions we are constantly fae-d with rather determined 
opposition toward our ideas, Judging frm our own experiences 
its3 going to be some time before the piblio at large really 
u   itands predators and their role in the scheme of things. 
There are many more points whrich ]I could bring up here, butper- 
haps could be discussed better at the Mamal P.etings at Chicago 
this spring which I note you are planning to attend, and wich I 
also plan to attend, For once the meetings are golng to be near 
If there Is any further information whic you may desire for 
your report at the meetin , please don't hesitate to call, We 
shall do our beat t.rd ha      g the problems satisfactorily, 
Sincerely yours 
(Signed) A, Y, Stebler 
Cusino Wildlife Ezperiment Station 
AYgrmb                          Shingleton, Michi ;Ian 

21, 194 
Mo~i A*~    if goea Stte 
I zvelf           Ua   ohe*lu lte           the 
wolf ~q coto   !f* a mall   a eopytoPne 
and ldoLoopldoWe do not wnt to Le anta0)1latl 
on this. uattswj on the ooary     ol like tbe 
@ttliel policy of the statesI WhlAa wlvoe occu 
eoutlirtd at the Usma Zeett ,a in ChloagoWof 
you pla to to in atA  noad&i*arp,;to           h 
wolf situation in Michigan?  I knwIt will contribute 
much to the woetin, "d that yoki unblase4 oboevvtions 
will do ma   orafraltnapoper oliy for the 
ma-a society* With every goo   wih# 

March 5, 1942 
File     ramtto Go. folder 
ram folder 
Wolves foler 
olves, Foxes, Coyotes $a 
Martne~te Count 
Brrl Sotmon of Athelsta21e, Wis., moed to a farm in Silver Cliff Tvp. 
In 1921. He wus the   3 yars o. 
He    mberh hearin w lves hwl.       hey had dep voies aa were probably 
timber w ves. 
He thins wves d apeaed about 1,D. 
About 1926 his brother taped rod f      e i         . About 1931 
foe-haters from Mariatte am   ut with dogs. Th~      they got some. Du 
omO dons. 
Has the iress1x no foxes &mriag wolt "sI will try to verfy from

About 133~ bops to hear coyotes# which were worvin a nighbor's sheep. 
Thinks there are still so   foxes, but not owurous. Coyotes munewus. Gbas

oae with oar in 1941. 
Colusion    This looks as it foxes co    I when wives remve , 
possibly beamse they were removed. Also. looks as if at present coyotes might

be holding the foxes dwn. 

this way the sweetest tasting that you ever 
ate."-C. P. F. 
Coyote Doings 
The following interesting sidelight on the 
family affiliations of coyotes was taken from 
a report published by the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, Bureau of ,Bio- 
logical Survey, Colorado-Kansas District, 
which works in co-operation with the Colo- 
rado State Board of Stock Inspection Con- 
missioners for the extermination of preda- 
tory animals: 
Assistant George M. Trickel, working in the 
Montrose section, accomplished a very commend- 
able piece of work on May 3rd.     Near the 
William Moore ranch, about seven miles north- 
west of Montrose, Colo., he discovered a coyote 
den on the east side of Spring Creek Mesa in a 
hillside covered with thick greasewood. Approxi- 
mately thirty feet from this den he discovered 
another den. A short distance from den No. 1 
he shot and killed the adult female. In digging 
out the second den he killed the second adult 
female.  Then, in digging out both the dens 
with a shovel, he got two litters of pups, ten 
in number. In the first den there were four 
large pups and three very small pups. In the 
other den he succeeded in getting three large 
pups. Evidence thus showed that the pups m 
these two dens had intermingled, and that neither 
female adult coyote was particular whether or 
not she nursed her own puppies. After killing 
the two females and getting the sum total of ten 
pups, he took scent from one of the females, 
and the following day trapped an old male coy- 
ote near these dens. As far as has been ascer- 
tained, this male coyote is the "daddy" of the 
two litters, which is rather unusual, as is also 
the fact that coyote pups of two females will 
intermingle from one den to another. 
"Are they unhappily married?" 
"Oh, I hardly think they're rich enough for 


Nadisson, Wiseonsin 
April 7, 144 
Wi     in Conservation Dept. 
,aisn Wisconsin 
Dear Ernie: 
The followin  Is a report of my activities for the past few 
days on the wolf cek up. 
The first part of the week I was In the Flambeau Forest area, 
andI n the northern end I contaeted Louis Joenson, trapr and 
resort owner and he in ern as that there has ben 3tibers In 
there most all winter. Sam was with ae and he also informs me that 
there has boen 3 and probably 5 timbers in there most of the winter, 
but we found no sign on this new snow. Saw several coyote and fox 
tracks thr  out this territory. Medium deer eoncentration In 
the lo      operations around Lakeof the Pines and Eergen Lake. 
Deer a     cares in the rest of the ground over     Rabbit very 
scarce, no grouse seen (rufted). Saw several o    te  and fox tracks 
on way from Radisson to this territory. 
Chocked volf sign In my old territory In sections 4B6 & 7 
T38R M. Fount large mture buck deer in Boo. 7 that had been shot 
wItA a .22 rifle 10 lays to two weeks ago ant was In a very weakeneL 
conitin. Was too weak t  run so killed.It. There were several 
coyote traks ar     this doer tut they had n   ot attacked it.  There 
were m     coyote ant fox tracks in this vicinity and also 2 bob- 
eat. Aso  ogsrunning dser, but fount no4cdr killed by either. 
.dn                 w that they are feeding     leer. Deer population 
very ligt        t very sarce, this in a    very good snoshoe rabbit 
country. also a good partridge counry but foun    n  sign at all. 
Fla    i  to 20 birds hero last year on his same trip. 
Geore Edberg aecompanied me on a trip up In the East Fork ant 
Moose Lake territory.    ontacted. R , 
advised me to go to Moose Lake fur tam and across to CapSawyer 
ant across to Black Lake and retur   to Winter. He informedm that 
he had seen the tracks of one bunck of timers, five in nuinber and 
one bunch of two In this vicnit off ant on all winter. We were 
able to see traeks up until aot1:00 P.M1. when It started to 
thaw. We fould 1      eo tks, 10 fox ant one timber wolf trek 
crossin the fire l      .      ts very soaree. Deer searce exoept 
In     vicinity of Venison crok  where there was a medium heavy 
concentration wo      out of the spruce ant cedar swamps alon 
the coek. F    undn  sign of coyotes or wolves killing deer* 

Mr. Dn Kolsem of Ojibwa    ol  ae that he ha  seen tmer 
wolves north of Ojibw   on the od Hines  rade in the vicint 
of the head waters of Crazy Hree       k  chasing dloer. Hni 
Pearson   mIn thi s ter                  iry to see wbat we 
could find. 
ou    no timber wolf sign, but saw several ooyote and fox 
traoks. We actually sawavery large bob cat eat       on a fresh 
killed do. be er was ll warm ad we were ii              150 feet 
of the eat before he saw us. It was plain to see how the oat 
killed the deer.   The oat must have jupe to the doe's shoulder#, 
bi     the    e  In the neck aM throat, riding it until It went 
A    ith holes In the win  pipe an  from loss of blood. The deer 
was kille l  n section 174--. In a new slash area. This I      the first

and only deer that I bavo ever seen killed by cats. Also found 
where one more had been killed about two weeks ago. There were 
severa eat tracks In this viinity. No coyote had been to this 
or the other oareass. I opened the fresh killed doe and she had 
two doe fawns. There is about a meium conentration of doer In 
the logging operations, 71 to 100 leer in this vicinit. R    bbite 
none and ruffed grouse none. Covered about 4 or 5 sections In 
this vicinity. 
De to the spring break up I will have to give up this work, 
unless otherwise inf  e. It Is my honest opinion that there are 
more coyotes anA fox in the northern countles than I san remember. 
During the past few years the have been slowly Increasing, last 
winter you oould fint a couple or three tracks of coyotes and fox 
almost anywhere an with the Increase last year from them one or 
two females in each vicinity there are now a lot of coyotes al 
fox. I believe that the increase this year Isgoing to be very 
large an  you no doubt will get lots of olai s for daageto shep. 
I do not believe that the damage to leer by eoyotes anything to 
worry about. We fount several leer killed by eoyotes In Iron 
county but do not believe it to be the practice of coyotes in 
general. The timber wolf Is also on the increase ant spreading 
out to territory that has not had timbers In for some time. Bob 
oats are quite oon again. Snow-shoe rabbit Is ging down hill 
fast an so are the ruffed grouse. I believe .0% le than last 
Trusting that this report Is to your satisfaction, I remain 
Sincerely yours, 
/s/ Geo., Ruegger 
George Ruegger. 

UNITED STATES                                  wA 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Department of Wildlife Management, 
University of Wisconsin, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
We have received your two letters of August 24 and 30 and greatly 
appreciate your comments and advice concerning the possible introduc- 
tion of wolves to Isle Royal. National Park. 
One of the cardinal points of national park wildlife policy is the 
protection and perpetuation of vanishing species. Also, as you have 
pointed out, there can be no question about the value of the national 
parks for research on wildlife species and problems and the obligation 
of the National Park Service to preserve those areas so that their 
value as outdoor research laboratories will continue unimpaired. 
Frankly, a question uppermost in our minds in connection with 
returning wolves to Isle Royale is the possibility of an adverse 
public reaction that might do harm to the conservation of an adequate 
stock of wolves in the lake states region. Apparently the Wisconsin 
Conservation Commission is subject to considerable pressure even now 
to reduce the numbers of wolves. Thus far, Michigan has been able to 
carry on a mere token control with full knowledge that more, not less, 
wolves would be desirable in order to keep down the over-population 
of deer in the Upper Peninsula. In addition to preserving our own 
good relations, we should like to avoid doing anything that would bring 
the present protection policies of Wisconsin and Michigan into a possible

line of fire. 
We have seen almost countless instances of opposition to steps 
designed to correct intrusions on the wilderness parks. Once a condition

is established, a management measure undertaken, or a road or building 
constructed, it is very difficult to get rid of it. Opposition to its 
elimination is often out of all proportion to the demand for establish- 
ment of the artificiality. The corrective step of bringing back wolves 
to Isle Royale might be another such instance. 
We shall consider this matter further and let you know when a 
decision has been reached. In the meanwhile, please be assured 
that we appreciate your advice and information regarding possible 
sources for securing suitable animals. 
Sincer4ly yours, 
Newton B. Drury,,. J  I 
Director.    I/ 

Clipping from the Louisville Times, August 14, 1944. 
Wisconsints Department of Conservation publishes a pamphlet which leaves

the impression that without wolves, cougars, and wildcats, maintaining deer

herds in health, for hunting, will prove impractical. 
The Wisconsin report based upon painstaking investigation brings out 
the fact  or apparent faot, that not elsewhere than where predators have

been on~rolle d severely, or exterminated, have problems of health of deer

arisen; that where such control or extermiation has been accomplished star-

vation and malnutrition occur, and artificial feeding is a failure. 
At the same time the Federal Government goes aheid pro oting deer con- 
servation and trying to exterminate cougars aid wolves, and tue American

Wildlife Istitute publishes a book, TmL:E WOLVES OF 1IORTH ELICA, which says

their total conquest has been neoess~ry to final settlement of any country

they inhabit; a book which, the advertising indicates, advocates extermination.

It is not, apparently, trae--although it is unimportant in this dis- 
cussion--that knolves are untameable and it is not true that their total
uest has been necessary to final settlement of any country. If deer hunting

is to be stabilized maybe we shall need wolves, cougars and bobcats in appro-

priate situations. isconsin is rich in experience.                      

is such help aN 
involve poisoni 
wessional Wolfe 
2. BecauSE 
Michigan there 
a method for at 
3. If youi 
men who could k 
bringing the pi 
4. What 4 
to trap and shc 
can. be directec 
be initiated wi 
of the wolf ma3 
ed deer herds. 

f      V.-V 

ADDRE-SS ON4LY                                                Decmo     
  2 4~ 
Dr, W, H. Burt* 
Curatr of Miamls 
Dear But s 
Thank yo   for your letter of Doomber 26a      the statemnt by Co&r regarding

the wlf on Isle Royalo, The bare statement is er~tainly open to qusin   
mvr, I certa1iy agreo with your opinion that the wtl shuld have bn Abl. to

coas to the iand* 
I appreolate very uh the trouble you have ta In thin regard* 
Sincreliy yours, 
cc: Pro. Ado Mood       with copies of Mr. B           t   c   1    OanDr

Burtts letteV Of December 26.                 itrH     Nhln, 

December 20, 1944. 
Mr. Victor Gahalane 
U. S. Dept. of the Interior 
Mational Park Service 
Chicago 5   Illinois 
Dear Mr. Cahalane, 
Your letter of December 12, regarding the presence of wolves on 
Isle Royale is at hand. 
We can find no evidence that wolves were ever on the island. As 
you know, Paul Hickie did a lot of investigating on and about Isle Ryale,

and a search through his notes reveals no evidence of wolves. Hickie 
seems to have oonoluded that while wolves may once have inhabited the 
island, there is no actual record available. 
Hiokie states that coyotes are frequently called "brush wolves"

in Isle Royale, which may account for some of the confusion in trapper's

and hunterts conversation. 
After looking over Hickiets notes we doubt very much that wolves 
were found on Isle Royale since the coming of the white man, if, indeed 
they were ever there. 
Very truly yours, 
H. D. Ruhl 
In Charge, Game Division 
(sGR)   G. W. Bradt 
By   G. W. Bradt 
Game Management 

IL, Victor Ho Cahalma 
Nationl Park Service, 
Chiazo 54, Illinois- 
Dear Cahalawi 
The only published record of the wolf on .sle Royale, of 
which I am amre,, Is that by Coner (A Key to IEohl~au Vertebrates 
exaept Bires, b  Allen C. Conger, Z*hiean Agrulture Collee, 190). 
On page 60 he states "The Timbr Wolf is not            o  Isle Royal*

and in may parts of the Upper Peninsula." I don't know where he 
got his information. but I am inclined to take it a bit cautiously~, 
So   of hie statemts are obviously based on .othint other than 
facts. Hwer, I see no reason why the wolf should not have erossed 
the ie to the island* My guess would be that they wre there, but 
w he no definite reoord 
Sincerely yours.0 
(SD)      . Burt 
Curator of Maznls 

I    Q   I              ~7l. 
Tts reotsaizes the solleattv. opinion of a poial 
comtt of staff embers of the University of Wiscensin, 
appointed by Dea F. B. PTwa, at the reust of Mr. Frak Qaaes, 
seerpta7 to Acting Goernor Godad       The emnttee h4d at its 
dLspoel, durin   the progss of the sty:     (1) the tostten 
of farmers In  orther Wiseonsin who have sauestia   lossee rom 
predatory an     s animals Incluin    eoetes, wove ead bear; 
(0) the historial and statistical data *n bounties for the past 
75 years In Wiseonsin as eepiled by the Wiscosin Conevtion 
Deprtusat; (3) the ad'vice of Dr. Stanley Young of the tU. 5. Fish 
end Wildlift erices, who has reently pablished a very couple%* 
treatise, Te Wolves of North Amera;' (4) the advice and testi- 
m. f a highly skile      twep.w, Mr. Ba Jueggew, of Sawer County, 
Te commttee wiksh*   to eubae at the Ouset tht etetn- 
nation of preatore in the region ts neither weeosnde    nor 
souht. rh ~Wonstment of rual toning arn5 by **untie# to 
regulate the usse of lAnd for forestry, rereetion and agriculturo 

the estabihaet ot narlz1y five million of acres ofpuli 
forests, the active promtion of roraea         uses of S land by 
buaters and te~rlts thog       tate and privately fianed. adver- 
tising  the removal ot Isolted settlers    fter the  uamoo 
their properties at ptbUOc expese, all boar testimony toa 
pattern of land use In northern Wisconsin that doe not admit ot 
the comlt# oxetinatin of any astive spooi** tf Animal. 
?hey A"e esential$ in limited numers# to a prope balene. .t 
wild life within the region, *nM to affor maxin use of theo 
foresat &Md reereatiss area by sT rtsmeni and naturalists, 
On the other hand the general adopt ion of a system of live- 
stoat farming (dairy cattle *an sheep produotion) en.couraged w4 
promnoted by the University in suitable sec ti one In n~rthr 
Wisconsin~, bring with it a more Imed~iate task, the protectihn 
of domestle *tok from predatory animals.    Hoever, even te ez- 
tension of sveh livestock operations does not reqire total extermi- 
nation of prdtory animals that maintain bulane whisk reflects 
to advanasge In agricuturo1 as well as recrational wpheres, 
The pobie, therefore, Is one of establishig amd min- 
taing reasonable controls on numbers of wild sanals permitted, 
to remain In the area, and of 9seleting the measures t* be followed 
In exercising these sontrole nest efteetively. Such pro.4ur 
must keep In mind the mot *"npatent use of rublic funs, as 
well as taot-eu .4 4d ata on~ wild animal population and con-~ 
ditionse that are now In the possession of the. Consevation 
Department or tht may be obtained by that Department inathe 
eourse )f Its work. 
402 - 

(0ad NUI   MLM1AlA 4, PE2AA19 
I% is %At optino  of t  cui~tt mtt tii wespuslblitr 
mutbe diided for damage by wild animls to apioultural *opes 
and livestok. When any taimal is placed# uner pratl.n by 
the State, and rartieullyw        suah an an1ial is declared to be 
Set, tne          of whiah will be 1te   t  spotfla seasoRes an 
platess It slearly baoemos the dut of the State to pay,, ot ot 
it& gm   huting license Ime, sun* to .inpensat* private Indil- 
vMls fo loese# usta~nod to o          or ivte    k by w_14 
aral*.    bars, deer amn  toess, patitularly where toets a" 
proteted by a closed season, reprtsent this class of animal. 
On the ether had, eoytoes wolves AM     wildats ae   not so p- 
t"tM, hence tey are not the obligation of w      public agony 
eher.4 with the dufty f  pzet     the propation Ad, proect ioe 
ot gat far tb. benefit of spotmen wh     tim el o the work tewo 
huntin  license.    Thy becoe$t if an obligation at all, an obli- 
gatis a tae generl oublic    hieh 'benefits as Its eltisis 
P~serin the puarsit of cerce and .gwioultvvre.   The slt% 
that blaeks a harbor io in a sento, a  rat      hm   akswe- 
borne ee     e at least hardous if not impsible# am      tbe 
pule, has tar a **st     or me rswosis4 Its obligatien b 
rethe axa          at       ect.    khe mai  n is   ithe a 
of eoyotes aMd wlyts is whether the hazard in oontrolled by 
full-tiso 'Paid employees# or by oscsioals 4labwtrs* who get 
paid for their labor strictly on the basis at their aecomlisla, 
seats. where ta be so valid t   mataant         h   hssta 
the cost 1.s   p*rUbe on* ehaeabl     to the 1general fund at the 
State, not the eserratios tunA. 

140 ~ ~ ZMW  oiie  mp oa~omdOho 
C-d   Stil 0inma In. UpT     c. 6 
Gle  nor 
0    0 
so fI-ov 
So6Aqu 4 
ismt of wles AA 
iS~~~af "tWboomm ~I 
Usiew 20 1w o,3v 
2-of1ba-  &Gg  SQR  bef-  lat$ 
______ A.  0aho   lnM 
ja  . sem  "Ater  _so" 
Vult- SAVW~Swo 
Iri  ~rao  *o! o  to 
L 20W  poe  or" 1  m 
go* TOC,4  ly4h Ufo 
Lalst2       04 
- 1M   floo P0fA 
'4        'apI  epofe 
U.".-  o 
1Wmabs -~no) 
Ladr iw  a opwaio *v  is. 04Orn. ftt  adm 
*do,&                               Q11, 1                  vW 
sim nma 
n GmWp 
4 as" 

Tht hre Is ne* for fast noyn     contol msres, tb* 
commtte   offers as wil~ine the wnrt a livestock lpsose 
sgastained In Rusk Cmuy.   This reot based on partial returns 
trom a qustionaire submitted by Comty Agant E1e Orber,, indi- 
cates tho .ztat of livestock damagoo sm&Ined as a result of 
prdtoy aa1ima  depredton. 
H~.Mtaations Far Legslative 
Th  *omt to. feels that w eomstonn for .ffeetiv* 
regulation aW restrat In both Came and noan      aimals wlfl 
Invove tw procedures% (1) li1slative &Won that will permt 
immdiate wlubursstat for lsses Incurred through prdeou 
creaure* with ceRO-r@t Inooatives for the revuatin of such 
*reatur5 which hay   rfreheM deetwuive nubws; (2f) logis- 
lative action that will prit loagew time stMles and     esaM 
investigations for the parpooe of establieM~n pomaent balase 
betwesn 1W1s*oon1 agr1itura and rter~atlouaI re se Ina the 
nrthWRn area. 
TL~M~gf.(#aai. lups lyas)     It le reeonede that sine* 
testimony presentd by wilftrppers and Consevatloa Doparft 
rewso.uei tndiaR-te eui.rl that timber wilves, unlike .Waotes or 
brush wilves, shu    0iliationo and e-a little 4anae to dowestle 
*nms, no Immeia-te steps be taken to reis now exterminate 
40W 4   W 

this spotie.   The ti1    volt la an 1Mporat agent In tb* 
4WO~legioM oyel an  sa the verg of extintion I iA #sonsin 
thre orI th* beot Itret         fvl     ieenaalnatri 
zmtion of this sp~oelxsm     be rvetd 
11agl(yn   nd~)    It to~ room~~dta       ic    e losses 
from wtle~ a    ysv bee oust  e by farmer   I nothr     Wiwua1 
IMbit th     vn are &ad fee on rabbits *ad do only Oacaonal 
tsag  'to tinetUo fm4 ad livostook no roUsal measres betae 
at tw a t1,. 
bwat7 b* Imeitely r~te on the soot* to b~rn        it wA~w 
snstro   -  thmrftm* meu     the losses duo to these predators. 
41h#  estowstl*R of the bouty system will permit man  Iividuals 
to participte in the sntrol of Whe predtor and wtUl distrbu 
the benefits (Pqwts for kills) Over awvid     are. 
Aycootos of the bount   system otr to Its feva  smoag tW5o 
and sheep           iiiuer  wo have sustsAaed loses  It Is sipifia~t 
'to note that in an i * e   themo s" Rot tho sa who would oslliot 
bouty paymet* 
Pamets of bent an *oot..ahod        be m~do out of the 
Ceta    fun  of the Stoto and the amuts paid tor Iividual 
sRizls killed or trpe     shoulcl be kept it line withsila 
payments ade by the at**  ,f Mtinesota and X14RU .  This Ism 
an important pro    O  Is oe  to ptovet* wossiw py~t 
Wagmae y heUpoof'Wsoenitfo soyot~e trpp        or kille 
ini these adjotiig stabs, 

rx(vjjjes r~'v  uroew,)n        by thi  ~~shs       U1tfle 
dir'ect *ffoot on -,irlu turw in ncrt)# rn '1e'soi ,nsldm.. 
has  g~  f !7ro-,jn ntagq bi,  o-,-~e nd to 
rabbit*, bit Vkila pre , ,tlon while exte-nsive, Is a~~~i~novn 
the ncn1q ereti@R p raj.DL of the Statse rpther thaui an~ Im- 
;Sear          4m~o *erlinu) The *I-easin Qcrasorwtl-n Gomission 
has this year (1944) Itkttte t "ree sop4ratie mmaa'ares tcrr the 
*@atr@1 of bear in W41sessin. These were: (1) tbe o,ab1iisftent 
of a special beir seamen In r'laotmbe; (2) the annou&rent bear *nd 
4e* seso In * etnber; (3) the provision ZhFt any l.An   vnr bo 
permitto4 %o 'kill or trzi boiut on his Premies at any time. 
The oo=1tte# rnoo,qends that th~erm be a mleslic iappropri- 
ation out of the onservaticn fund of the Itate to pay all bear 
damage clims. The amount of this aPpropriation wiild rhe baset 
on the exnperionee of the pact several In admlnista~rlng sech 
damuge claims. 
The committe fools that the p1r-tsent arwoo.4we for payment 
of these losses xwt   tie Circuit Judge kac.ting vie a-rlltotr betvoeen 
the %4onserystlo 'Department awl the fawiner, In case of dsue 
Is etrl      aifooy 
The sommittee does not wish  t"'eown      an rfoedurp that 
Vould In any vay limit the pow-vers tW, Vhe MsCe-nsin C-.serva4tion 
eomstssion In either exteaiding the ove seasun (partioulfArly In the 
spri'ngiun!b of  11 ah--Aoril or Xay), ar closing seFaons on bear. 

Boar shoud be t"re a as # gn   animal an  Its nubers kept in 
harwoay --Ith Its environment, %his can best be Aoan by reesoable 
and Oartully time repgul*.tbR. rho qnmission sho fld, be In a 
position at al tines to det, rinoe bear p* l-tin tr#nds and to 
Institute Immedlate action when nraeosxswy. The Com:ilsaon sho"Id 
be perItted to use its disareition in daV6etrninlry ihen tbe nu  r 
of b"ar have 'ean suffileiently reded so that no a      oi open 
season is nee4. 
Under no condItins do we f avow bounty on bear. Tha State 
has the means at hand to get rie of Its killer ber threug   its 
Speoinal trapper system, and %has to renovo the cause for a larges 
damsg fund. 
I, Long Term iVasvres 
The following long term weu e8? ar. propsed: 
(1) That these two agenoes, the 'W8nsossin Conservation 
Depaurtent and the University of Wtiseonsin, establish a speclal 
study of a mini i  of   years duratien t oatermine essential 
factors having an Influence upon th  sudden Increases ow door*e&#* 
In population, migration aovonents, food habits and any other 
*haraetersties that in the opinion of the ceperating agencies 
make these animals a hoaad to agriculture. 
(2) If the present bounty la on eoyotei and. foxes isle 
be enntinuedt, we reseuen that oaraass s or oresoeinoe parts of 
bountied animals be mate available upon request to the Conservation 
flpartment or the University if Wiseonsin for examination and study. 

we # fatvot ooperative control on1 a county unZit bas 
Involig the use Of vol1Vhy maR poVw under direction of 4 
qualified lede   So rouats rjubers of predats when th~y be- 
*am* 5U44.#517 detu    y ad a 40"04 to farm livestock 
many authorltls are sk*ptleal aS to ShO *ttftlvohse Of the 
boutyt sys tem. Therfore# ,*   W9R4mn   that experimens should 
be intiadted to tet the su2itablitY of other control s~us~a 
toWisconsin$* predator proble 
UAIversity Commttee 
/a/ Axthar D. H~asler, Zoologist 
/s/ Fred B. Tm~k, Extension Forester 
/a/ Jan* J. La.7, Sztonsion Animal HubasAl 
/s/ Chairm   #altW A. rkowlands, Kxtenslon Spervisor 
of 00UAtY 46gents 
Matisoa, 'iRoni 
Doeembe 1*, 1944 

Aldo Leopold 
(A discussion following the film "Wildlife of 1nalWi by Adolphi brie.)

Adolph Nurie was sent to Denali (Mt. McKnley) to aser the question: 
Are wolves destroying the mountain sheep herd?" He foud that tn 1 
wolves were getting only a few lambs and old brokn-toothed sheep, where s

a decade preius, when sheep had overgrazd their range and overflowed 
tto smooth topogpy, mh heavier mortality from wolves had prevailed. 
In short, he found wolf predation on sheep to be automattally adjusted to

the shee herd: when sheop becam    too     rousA wolves trimaed them down;

when sheep became soarce they Itabited only the roughs' and hence were 
Similar compensatory mechanioms are being discovered in m     other 
predator-prey relationships. Failure to sppreciate this fact may lead to

serious errors In conservation polioy. 
For example: Wisconsin has now re-aaoted a wolf bounty, despite the 
faot that there are probably lees than 5wolve left in the state. A 
reaent increase in oyotes, with heavy losS in sheep a4 other livestock, 
p1actioally forced this action. Yet the continae of the bounty might 
extirpate             his, in trnf might injure the ultimate welfare of the

deer herd, which In 1942 had outstripped its supply of winter food. and 
had to be reduoed by an open seon on females. 
In the wolf-deer relatlonship, the wolf tonds not only to trim down 
exoess nubers, but also to Improve distribtioa by breaking up oongestions.

Deer herds subjeted to norml predation never overtaxed their food supply,

and deer 'irruptions' are still uzkuown in Mexico an  Canada.  Irruptive


behavior began with federal extirpation of wolves and cuars in 1915. 
In %       deer troubles likewise followed the removal of predators. 
Artificial feeding is no remedy for excess deer, because deer do not 
stop eating natural browse when fed on hay and g&*. On the cotnar   
the drain on natural foods is increased by artificial feeding. The end 
result of prolonged artificial feeding of deer is to pauperize the herd and

to eliminate those wody plants which yield ntritius browse. These good 
food plants are then replaced by worthless ones. Mea  1.i the deer 
deteriorate through  al  trition  it has been proved by experimental toots

that doer do not maintain their weight on any'rion devoid of good browse.

These prey-predatofood relationships are not understood by the oublic. 
Viny conscientious sitisens are indignmt over the reduction of the Wisconsin

deer herd, and now claim that "the remnant is being fed to the wolves".
do not realize that wolves occur in only 8 Of34eeoountie5, and that there

is only one wolf for ach 2,000 deer hunters. They assume that good doer 
hunting annet exist on the same terrain with wolves, whereas h!story shows

the contary: in fact, Seton estimtes that in Pennsylvania a wolf per 
2 s uare miles existed at the time of the best deer hunting. 
For these rAasons, the publication of authoritative prey-predator studies,

like that now given us by Mrie, is of great importance to sound conservation.

ec Dean Bssell 
Mr. Swift 
Mr. Feeney 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR                          \J 
September 23, 1946. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Department of Wildlife Management, 
University of Wisconsin, 
Madison 5, Wisconsin. 
Dear Aldot 
You will be interested to know that on July 13 a temporary 
employee found fresh wolf tracks in the mud near Slough Creek in 
Yellowstone National Park. A good plaster east was made and filed 
in the Mammoth Museum. 
This is the third substantial record of a wolf in Yellowstone 
in recent years. During the winter of 1940-41 an animal was seen 
near the hotel at Canyon, and a cast was made of a track. I have 
seen this cast in the park museum at Mammoth, and without doubt the 
track was made by a wolf and not a coyote. About two years ago last 
summer, a park ranger who is an exceptionally good observer and ac- 
curate reporter saw a wolf near Dunraven Pass. 
I believe that the best interests of the species will be served 
if no publicity is given to these observations. 
Sincerely yours, 
Victor H. Cahalane, 

October 5, 1946 
Mr . Victor H, 0hln 
National Park Service 
Dear Viet 
I a  rmwo -oleased to hear about the Telwstone wof, 
and I appreolate yor         tb  pains to let m  kv about 
it. Thre should of course be n   mblicit    let's Jst hope 
for a seonid one, I assume this iit be doft from O.nad, 
I am letting A11 Feeney and D    TIwpeon see your letter, 
but they will unerstand tat the information io oonfide1l 
oth of them sr, our views about wole. 
Yours siacowolys 
Aldo Dool 
cc Yeany and Thompon~ 

(on1 RVATlOn 
November 30# 194             FILE REFERENCEt 
Mr. Victor arkiula 
Dear Mr. Markkula: 
We wish to thank you for the wolf skin which arrived 
today In good shape. You did a fine job of skinning it 
out. It will be a good addition to our study of skins for 
eduational use. 
Our preliminary investigation Indioat-s that it is a 
timber wokf and not a brush wolf or coyote according to the 
bounty claim. Our dclsion Is based largely on the total 
length of the animal which is considerably more than the 
maximum for coyote. Also, omeo e evidently weighed the 
animal, for the bounty olaim listed a weight of 70 pounds 
and that Is why we believed it was not a coyote and arranged 
to purchase the skin. We understand you did not weigh it. 
For our records to go with this specimen, would you 
please answer the following quesitonsI 
1. Where was the animal taken? Can you give us section, 
township and range or else a definite distance from a 
speified village? 
2. Was animal trapped? 
3. Were other wolves running with It In a pack? 
4. Was it a male? We believe it ws but wigh to be 
8. Whrt date did you take the animal? 
Thank you for this Information. An envelope is enclosed 
for your convenience in replying. 
Very truly yours 
W. L. 9oott, Supervisor 
Cooperative Game Management 
WE8  tI 
DC. Jo;n omm  Leo old 
.1  r. Yohn  me, Jr., TJ.W. 

December 19, 1946. 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Department of Wildlife Management, 
University of -isconsin, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Aldo: 
The two copies of Swift's publication arrived. I should have 
informed you previously. I appreciate very much the trouble you 
took to have the bulletins sent to me and hope it was not too much 
Undoubtedly, there will be an opportunity for you to get in 
on the Mount McKinley wolf preservation scrap. The Camp Fire Club 
people do not change their minds easily. (I could almost drop the 
word "easily".) I hope it will be possible for you to get to 
Mount McKinley sometime, and that before the wolves are all gone. 
The opportunity which I enjoyed on several occasions in August 1940 
for watching a number of those fine animals may not occur again. 
The principal sparkplugs of the Camp Fire Club's campaign 
tried to persuade the Boone and Crockett Club to go on the record 
in favor of a wolf extermination bill. From someone who was present 
at the annual meeting two weeks ago, I ha*heard that Gabrielson 
really spoke his mind (in our favor) and practically called the 
Camp Fire Club boys a bunch of ignoramuses. 
Sincerely yours, 
Victor H. Cahalane, 

ADDRESS ONLY                       fI 
.        Auust 11, 1947* 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Departmsit of Wildlife Management, 
University of Wisconsin, 
h24 University Farm Place, 
Madison 5, Wisconsin. 
Dear Alde, 
Because you have been interested in the subject of a predatorfbr 
the beavers of Isle Royal,, you should know of a mimeographed "Report

of Wildlife Studies in the Rocky Mountain National Parks in 195" by

Ian MTaggart Cowan. A copy of the report was sent to us by the 
National Parks Bureau of Canada. As you may not have seen it, the 
following information is quoted from a section dealing with the food 
habits of the wolves of Jasper and Banff National Parks. 
*In certain areas beavers are an important dietary item. 
For instance (25 out of 60) of the pup scats at the Buffalo 
Prairie den consisted entirely of beaver remains. Here beaver 
exceeded in importance deer and elk combined. 
"As stated above Buffalo Prairie has for a long time been, 
noted for the size of its beaver population. The many streams 
that wind between the rugged hills and ridges are a succession 
of old beaver meadows and dams in various stages of disrepair. 
There are still several active colonies but the aspenst the 
favorite beaver food, have been killed to an extent that certain 
beaver colonies are subsisting on Jack pine. Others are wandering 
many yards from the ponds in search of food. These circumstances 
render the beavers easy prey to wolves, coyotes and bears. There 
is little doubt that wolves and other predators are effective 
in reducing a beaver population that has eaten itself out* In 
this area the beavers have worked progressively further and further 
up small streams so that when the last food is eaten they cannot 
find sae passage to a large river or lake s The streams here are 
many of them so small that they offer little protection to migrating 
"T Itw.masa -nr wa w4AAn. -&n.  4-4  ~AJ------------  W   V.   U
 iSU.LjJ  U[  . 
beaver population from increasing until it is so large that safely 
available food becomes inadequate. 

At first reading, paragraphs two and three seemed a little 
contradictory to me. After studying them over, I infer that Cowan 
believes wolves do not catch up with the beaver population until the 
rodents must travel "too far" for food. Then the wolves find easy

pickings and really out down the beaver population. 
I expect that this would happen on Isle Royale if wolves were 
Coyotes are present on the island, but are comparatively few in 
number. Small prey, such as hares, are scarce, and beavers are in- 
accessible in winter. Moose would be available but rarely, except 
as carrion, Perhaps because of this limitation which winter imposes 
on the coyotes, they have never become sufficiently numerous to show 
up as a major enemy of the beavers. 
On the other hand, wolves would be able to subsist on moose 
during the winter. 
Sincerely yours, 
Victor H. Cahalane, 
Chief, Biology Division. 

D--. Vicor~ H. O ,.alan 
Tbn quotati~on frOT. the Cownn ror in extremely 
Itoroing. Do youknwhi- personally? IZe 
hin V4s year and vW mtlng of him4s Wh. 
It spen very plausible to -no tmt the length of 
tetrip fo* food shm,.l  etrmn    the abilit 
of alasto cate-i baavrr, 
Al1do Leopold 
Aumst 13, 1947 

Xxtrmt from *The Goo* Bid      f California* 
Grinnel  -3ryn - Store 
(Pli~d b U*~iwsity' of ol. Pre".) 
Ofts grnnfagia Roarune       habesn a    mo  of detroyin tk   q 
and yoa of Valley qail. An attmt to obtain II~t on this point brogb 
little psttvo evdec.    !kw U2wstition mad      a rview of qvi 
Vli*.d referenc to tte food of the Ro12me      inalifomais, as wUl s 
tb aalst of .1gttytrs stmacks of bodrrs       ta  in soutm Celt- 
foui (X.C.ralt, 1916). The . netgto         kwd bt      auv      bsa 
-we    s occasionall atac smal birds its blrd4441ia aad eg-atn 
kebitat hare bee  =Weatd and that the k1ilin of Mei bird s an injurious 
.pecils is Wholl  =-stifie4, It is only in v*    rainea~    that young qpil


 ()A                o     e    dg      r 
P.265o    Wolverine (Caroagie-u) "Althouigh exceedingly rare, 
was occasionally met with in the mountains". 
(DOTE: Unless he means Colorado only he must mean 
New Mexico since he covered no other States. A 
Canadian with with him, which indicates Colorado). 
Ruxton heard "most wonderful stories" about them 
buffalo", Ruxton saw one while hunting sheep, but 
doesn't saY where. 

PT  500                        UJ L'. Forust  crvicu    Fbbruary.7, 1923.

oouthweostcrn  District 
Rcc -ived  in  the  Librory;  Ilw  io:ico  Colleg  o f  .L~ iculture,  Bulletin
 To,  56. 
The duty of well water and the cost ,no -nroftt on irrigated crops in the
Grardo Valley by Vernon, Lovett and Scott, 
T ~';riterdosks:~ There is a c-,ll for c stcnocra-phors' typewriter desk
we "ro unable at present to fMill   If ny sunrvisor has one that can
spred, please advise. 
Di  E ,.ork  According to the Lincoln Bulletin, the Salazar Cnnyon Road 
which is being constructed under the direction of Forest Examiner H. D, Barrall

is neal'ing completion,  This road is both a Forest and Comaiunity development

project. Its major industrial use will come from wood deliveries to the towM

of Lincoln and to the U, S. Marinc Hospital at Fort Stanton.   It will also

facilitate the delivery of form produce to those points and to C.pitan 
l2kSiTrii      po d   ion: Investigations conducted by the Cloquet Experiment

Station, on thu method of reproduction of Black Spruce, reveal the fact that

this tree reproduces almost entirely from layering. The process in as iollows:

A lov er branch of an old tree becomes covered with sphagnum moss, which
on the forest floor, and soon adventitious buds are formed. One of the buds

sends a shoot abovoe the ground and this becomes a new tree while the remaining

buds develop into roots. These roots supply the new troo with food and 
ultimately the branch from which they sprang will decay and the new tree
then depend solely on its ovn roots for o:istonco. As now trees send out

branches the cycles will be repeated and thus the Black Spruce will continue

to possess the swamp,  Black Spruce occurs in dense stands in the swamps
the Lake States and Canada. 
Jild DoPs:   Last smmor one of the boys on the Blaek Range Crest trail crew

had his female Airdale in, which uated with a Police dog. Her owner
called on to augment th protective force at Dianond Peak and when work was

over he returned home with the Airdalo for only a short time before going

to Hurley to sock work. The Aird'le evidently throught he had returned to

Diamond ecak and she went there to find him. ,;hile there she gave birth
nine puppies, according to Hugh Hedge of the Diamond Bar ranch, although
died shortly after birth as it uses foumd in the don  The result was as usual.

A mother with eight pu,)pies to feed must nJvcU something to cat. She natural-

ly did whnt she knew to be wrong - calf killing..- and thus evaded man at
turn.  Since her pup-ies have become larger their rango of territory is widen-

ing. Their tracks hve boon seen seven miles down on either side of the Black

Range and, unless already captured, hunter In-in, of the Biological Survey
having his hands full,  At last reports, 1r. Hedge said it was nearly aim-

possible to trap or to approach close cnough to shoot these dogs,(Gila :1cnster)

Field   Peeler (Phoonix); Kerr, Cooperrider (Gila) 
joaovo - Cheney. 
.Actjn Marsh. 

-   w 
Tonto Inspection - 1923 
Ring-tailed oats Foun& at Roosevelt, Vsi], 
Station, &agle Creek, Springerville, Blue 

(Game files) 
January !I, 1924. 
Methods of  ttaek: 
Muegrave al the Flagstaff meeting gave the following gen- 
eral description of the methods used by predatory animals i 
attacking gie. 
Dog Tribe:  ttacks from behind an& eats from behind after 
killing.   .ttack often takes the form of ham- 
Cat Itribe:  Attacks fr:m the front and usually starts eating 
on the neck. 
Bear: Mauls or crushes the heatd. Usually do not eat 
--"freshly killed meat. 

col*      '-witchell" 
a Mexico 
Dear     li vdtchell. 
-B iuu IMUW,      c('11f,  aa      f -r  bc ok 
Oil  (Aitin ,(CAorn                 tu  P(t  Y ,,Ur  &d. 
vioe ,;r1 the two 
( 1 ) In c c, u -5  1 u uc kq "   :: arvalicius 
ho    umos that Z' Cucu e; Lb f, sync"Ym 'or            c an 
v                                       L 
YL't  '911 Me            lie i8 uurrect.     a vt,rv imj;crtaut 
bu-,f "falo refererice iiin, as uri the jue,3tjon, 
-2-) Whitein jj,1j 1-fJCefit HiStLry Of  :;l -:iaco, s&,ye 
buf- Llo,   I had 
su-,-15woed this w ,s       a form     the 
T I cebuilt," .-"(,r QiiiLn. 
theso tw(               'f a vary 
Ver , si.qcereli "L7UrS 

4      C                                     _ 
RENC                                         DUCKS 
With the compliments of J. N. Darling of Des Moines, Iowa, to the 5,500,000
of the United States who annually take the field against our remnant of game.


HIS is a warning to all men who hunt in the 
United States with shotgun or rifle, and kill 
game. If you are going to exterminate your 
own sport by killing off the game "according to 
law," I want you to do it knowingly, and with your 
eyes open. 
As a conspicuous illustration, note what the men of 
Colorado have done to the once marvelously abundant 
big game of that one time hunters' paradise. Even as 
early as 1912 they had so far wasted their heritage of 
bison, mountain sheep, elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, 
antelope and grizzly bear, that all hunting of these 
species had to be stopped! You had grouse and quail 
and rabbits left. Now the shooting of quail has been 
stopped! Am I right or not? 
Throughout the whole United States, with but few 
exceptions, the free hunting-grounds have been swept 
so clean of good game that only paltry remnants are 
left. The exceptions, wherein ducks, geese, quail, deer, 
moose, sheep and bear may yet be found, are so few and 
so far between that they are like little islands around 
the border of a great barren sea! 
Is this what you want your sons to inherit from you? 
Look on the map shown herewith, at the shaded 
states, and see the 21 states in which your automatic 
and pump shotguns, and your wicked bag "limits" and 
open seasons, have enabled the confirmed quail-killers 
to EXTERMINATE quail shooting. You can't hunt 
quail in any of these states, save in Kansas every 
alternate year, where a 5-year close season has brought 
back the quail. Last winter 4 other states tried to stop 
all quail hunting. 
Now look on the other map, see where grouse hunting 
has been exterminated in 14 states, and tell me whether 
or not I am improperly a "calamity-howler." 
I could make for you maps showing the extermination 
of grizzly-bear hunting, deer hunting, sheep hunting, 
antelope hunting, turkey hunting, and so on; but what is 
the use? You know the facts well enough without them. 
In California five organizations (two of them east- 
ern) have clubbed together to save the tattered rem- 
nants of California antelope, sheep and elk. In California 
a live wild deer is almost a curiosity. 
"But," I hear you ask, "can anything be done to stop 
further game extermination, bring back some of the 
lost game, and preserve some sport?" 
I answer, yes. Something can be done,-provided the 
nature-loving sportsmen of America, few though they 
are,-have the vision, the horse sense and the nerve to 
see their duty and resolutely perform it! But the initia- 
tive and the labor must be furnished by the men who 
kill the game! 
For thirteen years I have been telling you that "the 
game of the United States is being exterminated ac- 
cording to law." Now I also tell you that the only way 
to save your hunting sport on a continuing basis is to 
Prepared by Dr. W. Reid Blair, July 1, 1923, for the Permanent 
Wild Life Protection Fund 
Prepared by Dr. W. Reid Blair. July 1, 1928, for the Permanent 
Wild Life Protection Fund 
make sweeping and permanent reductions in the annual 
volume of slaughtered game! 
I claim that killing should be reduced by approxi- 
mately 50 per cent! I say that this should be done 
by radical reductions in all bag limits, and in all open 
seasons, save in Pennsylvania, which is in a class by 
itself. But do the job thoroughly, or not at all. Don't 
make any more empty bluffs at "preserving" killable 
game while it is being steadily exterminated. 
It is a crime to permit 5,500,000 armed men to go out 
every year to kill all the game the foolish "law allows." 
It is a crime to maintain the present bag limits per 
day, and extend them throughout "the season." The 
lengths of the killing seasons are everywhere twice too 
long. No man should be allowed to hunt deer every year. 
Make it every alternate year! No man should be allowed 
to kill birds with a 5-shot or 6-shot gun. The game 
can not stand the automatic and the pump machines. 
No man should be allowed to bring his automobile 
any nearer than within three miles of his hunting 
ground. "Free-hunting" dogs, and all wandering cats 
should be exterminated. 
It is illogical, wasteful and therefore wrong for any 
American to maintain that because wild ducks and 
geese now seem to be "abundant" (in a very few places, 
where they specially congregate), it is therefore right 
to maintain a daily bag limit of 20 or 25, even for 
one week. No gentleman's family can possibly eat 20 
or 25 ducks or 8 geese per day without bursting; and 
no man should be permitted to slaughter so much 
game per day that he must give away two-thirds or 
three-fourths of it to keep it from spoiling. 
In thinking of the "increased" ducks and geese, 
remember the passenger pigeon, the quail, the great 
flocks of prairie chickens, the thousands of antelope and 
deer, and the millions of buffalo,-all seemingly "in- 
exhaustible," but now all dead and gone! 
How shall this reform be brought about? I will 
tell you. 
For all local or "state" game reforms in game- 
killing, your state legislatures must act. Call upon 
your State Game Commissions to take the initiative, 
then tell your own legislature you want it to get busy. 
Your own legislature must limit the machine shot-guns 
to two shots, and stop all other abuses in your state. 
For all migratory game, also ask the Secretary of 
Agriculture to so frame his annual "Regulations" as to 
reduce killing fifty per cent, all along the line. That is 
all you need to say to him! 
Sportsmen, remember that it is not too late to save 
hunting sport from extermination,-provided you have 
the nerve to do it! Have you got it! "Yes?" Then 
come on, and make good! 
Campaigning Trustee, Permanent 
Wild Life Protection Fund. 
New York Zoological Park, August 1, 1923. 

West Farms, New York City. 
Dr. E. W. Nelson,                                     June 24, 1924. 
Chief of the Biological Survey, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Dr. Nelson: 
I regret to see from your letter of the 19th that your attitude is 
unchanged.  This is of enormous importance, because you are now the last
ing obstacle that blocks the road to a great reform. I call you "the
because, when all other opposition faded out on May 22, 23 and 24, I became
sure that the National Conference on Outdoor Recreation did not mean to hand
me a 
Dead Sea apple. 
But you, Edward W. NelSon, the official and the chief game protector of 
the United States, for 100,000,000 people who don't shoot, and not counting
who do shoot, refuse to concede that there is such a thing as wickedly wasteful
limits, or that anything can justify reductions from present limits, -- wasteful

or not, -- save progressive decreases in the supply of game, and actual danger
extinction. And at the end of your letter you have recorded this amazing

"Even if a million birds should be killed next fall more than if the

reduction in bag limits were made now, that additional killing would in nowise
the slightest influence in endangering tLe future existence of any species
wildfowl, so far as the best knowledge we possess indicates." 
Ye gods, Dr. Nelson, what an assumption! Do you wish it to go down in 
history as a parallel to the action of the Ohio State Senate in 1857, denying

protection to the passenger pigeon because of its "millions?" 
You declare that you have started "an investigation" to obtain
by which to determine the necessity, or the lack thereof, to reduce bag limits

because wildfowl are "decreasing." The open inference is that if
the evidence 
points to no "decrease," then no reductions in bag limits are necessary.
you and I know very well that at least 100,000 of the bag-limit duck shooters
California, Texas, and the Carolinas are ready and willing to send you their

written testimony that ducks and geese are not "decreasing," that
they are "in- 
creasing" enormously, and that it is a public service to kill them under
bag limits to keep them from becoming too numerous. I am quite willing to
to you in advance the possession of 10,000 such pieces of evidence. You know
well that they are available in the wildfowl shambles, so why waste time
in actually 
procuring them? 
You remind me of the fireman who refused to save a rich man's house, 
saying, "He's got plenty more houses. The loss of this one won't ruin
him. Let 
her burn!" Refusing to change the bag limits until wildfowl are threatened
extinction is like permitting hide-hunters to kill 500,000 bison because
500,000 remained, and there would be no danger of species extinction from
that act. 
In view of your position, and your obligation to the people of this nation,

I think you are very remiss, -- first in not having taken the initiative
in this reform, and secondly in standing out in opposition to it after it
has been 
put before you by some one else. Noblesse oblige! You are not merely the
of the shooting rights of the 5 per cent of sportsmen. You have a duty to
the 95 
per cent of people who have vested rights in every migratory bird until it
is law- 
fully killed, and who do not shoot at all. 
There is yet time for you to act in this matter. I warn you not to wait 
for any meeting of that Advisory Board, -- at a cost of 1,000,000 wildfowl
fully slaughtered, because that Board refused to act last December. I want
to say 
to you that the footing of that Board is now mighty insecure; and I hope
a word to the wise will be sufficient. 
On July 15 you can notify the people of this nation that sound conserva-

tion policy and the rights of the whole people in the migratory game demand
that on 
August 1 the wasteful and unjustifiable bag-limits on migratory wildfowl
shall be 
corrected; and by August 1 the minds of the duckhunters will be adjusted
to the 
idea. As for the "conservationists," where is there one man worthy
of the name 
who could object? 
Yours very truly, 

FOUNDED BY THE MEN AND WOMEN OF 191fl-15                                
                                             W. T. EORN&OAY 
West Farms, New York City, June 30, 1924. 
To Our Leaders and Allies:- 
"Our Vanishing Game" No. 3, now sent to you, will give you full
information of our 
formal request to the Secretary of Agriculture, Hon. Henry C. Wallace, to
take immediate 
action to reduce the present excessive bag limits on ducks and geese in 29
states. My efforts 
have thus far produced no results. Be sure to read my correspondence with
Wallace and Dr. Nelson. 
They have started an investigation, to determine whether ducks and geese
are "de- 
creasing" or increasing. From the storm centres of wasteful slaughter
will come back 
an abundance of testimony declaring that waterfowl are "increasing,"
very rapidly, and 
that no further protection is necessary. As to the increase in hunters and
why bother about it? 
I now place the issue in YOUR hands! 
Perhaps you and your friends can persuade Secretary Wallace that by the logic
of a 
bad situation it is now his duty to act as we request. If you believe that
our request is 
right, and that 1,000,000 waterfowl ought to be saved next season by action
now, it will be 
entirely proper, and in order, for you to exercise your sovereign "right
of petition" and say 
so, in your own way, by letter. 
I am sure that the Secretary of Agriculture maintains an open mind (and a
sound heart), 
and that the moment he becomes convinced that it is right and desirable that
he should act, 
he will put a stop order on the slaughter of 25 ducks and 8 geese per day,
and reduce the 
number, everywhere in the United States and its dependencies to 15 and 4.

But the taking of the action that we recommend and request would be no child's
In the putting over of any worth-while reform, "the hit bird always
flutters." But soreness 
over the loss of riotous killing privileges never is permanent! If you are
interested, encour- 
age Secretary Wallace to act; and assure him that if he acts to stop the
wasteful slaughter 
of our migratory game, at least twenty millions of Americans will back him
The time for action is short! 
Yours very truly, 

I Z-1/2 Z/2-q 
Will C. Barnes says that while he had a ranch 
on the Sitgreaves Forest there were otter at the mouth 
of Chevalon Canyon, that is the junction of Chevalon 
Creek with the Little Colorado.  These otter were trapped 
out, however, in 1888. 

2  - 02 ;- -1 a n  o 
c on Orn 10 :,a 1,qm a  8 
mi    01 " 
noti ce                                               0 
c" e d -r, 17  r  J 0  e rn i  e 0 0 0 1 r  0 p of wol, FOTi.oef 
-Jicl       i i 
-,n wri-ti7 o- a 'book' on ":IiA (,5-ge of ' rizonv -ni 
e cico     I-Pvra  io rec ord of i.inly of t' esp srectea ocenri-nr, 
in tho                migh iandic5fion (,-f 
Cilifami,,  - oiild T)P o- ' intere ,,t  '(,r cowy-.r ;tive 7-irT-ccps. 
yol, tell e -I)riefl-v their origrin and preseiil range iri Cali-fornia?

I do not       iinythin: - detiAled . IAMT,1 - the  ,Ititidps  ,nd a,-e-ner-

al  raoF-rarliic rap-iOTIS.  j -riythin,, yoi epn   me will be ver,,.- 

April 24, 1925 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
2222 Van Hise Avenue, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
I have your letter of April 16 relative to distribu- 
tion of wolverine, marten and fisher in California. Briefly 
all three species are found along the main Sierra Nevada 
from the Yosemite region south to the vicinity of Mount 
Whitney, which marks their approximate southern distirbu- 
tion in California. 
The fisher is found chiefly in the boreal zone and 
has been observed in summer in the Yosemite region at an 
elevation of 11,000 feet. However, in winter time they are 
found lower down, being taken by trappers chiefly in the 
sugar pine belt, sometimes occurring as low as 4000 feet. 
The marten is resident in the Hudsonian zone at 
elevations of from 8000 to 11000 feet, occasionally being 
taken in winter as low as 6000 feet. 
The wolverine is restricted to the higher peaks; 
specimens have been taken at from 6500 feet in winter up 
to 11,600 feet in summer, and the animals probably range 
clear over the summits of the highest mountains, that 
is up to and over 14,000 feet. 
I am returning your clipping, also a separate of 
qui              the article referred to. 
Yours truly, 
Joseph Scattergood Dixon 
Economic Mammlogist. 

2222 Yan Hise Ave. 
adlison, is. 
Aril 2, 1925. 
C/o Biological  Yrvey, 
ashington, D. C, 
De~r qol!n: 
! notice by the A       h   Srvey that yo  -vte 
described "Tw ew Ocelot fo     Meic," ly itense interest 
in findings of this 1dn   needs no expolanati  t  you. Can 
you let e see - -opy of your manuscript or tell me where 
it will appear 8 tlmt I will not miss it?   Jso, oen yoi 
tell me briefly whether you have ever suspecoted the cocurrene 
of ocelots in -trzona or New !exico?  I have ollected a great 
many Jaguar records and have sometimes apeted that they were 
not all jaguars. 
With kindest personal regards, 
'ery sincerely youre, 

Vol. 6             Wlshington, D. C., March 31, 1925               No. 3

Papers by members of this bureau have been presented at recent meet- 
ings of the Biological Society of WVashington as follows: "Ilhite Sheep
the Alaska Range," by 0. J. 14urie, on February 28; "The European
Hare in 
North America--Is It a Yenace?" by James Silver, on March 14; and "The

Future of the Potomac Valley Below Great Falls," by Dr. H. C. Oberholser,

on March 28. 
The following publication of the bureau was issued in March: 
"Spread of the European Starling in North America," by May Thacher
Department Circular 336. Received March 12. 
Manuscripts have been submitted for outside publication as follows: 
Goldman, E. A. "Two New Ocelots fr   exico."1 
Howell, A. Brazier. "Asyretry in the Skulls of Mamals." 
Jackson, Hartley H. T. "Review of 'Bird Islands of Peru, "' by
Cushman Miurphy. 
Nalloch, J. R. "The American Species of the Genus Griphoneura Schiner

(Diptera, Sapromyzidae)" ; and "Systematic Notes on and Descriptions
North American Wasps of the Subfamily Brachycistinae." 
McAtee, W. L. "The Place of the Bird in the Modern World"; "The
Ef Birds to 4oodlots"i and 'The Birds at Dinner." 
Pregle, E. A. 'The Arctic Lemming" ; "Bird of Paradise Flower";
Cassowary": ,'A Fieherraan of the Depths"; "Grasshopper Gray";
Insistent Katydili; "The 1 inkajour'; ;The Lover of Nature"; "The

Mud-skipper" ; "Muassels of the Shore" ;  the Sea Horse"
; "A Whip- 
tailed Lizard"; and 'The hite Cobra." 
Scheffer, Theo. H. "Fur Farming, A Survey." 
Dr. H. C. Oberholser and 7. C. Lincoln, accompanied by photographers 
from the Office of Motion Pictures and the Division of Illustrations, have

made several trips down the Potomac River recently to observe the thousands

of canvasbacks, scaups, black ducks, and other species of waterfowl that

have congregated below Washington. Among the more unusual ducks observed

were greater scaups, ring-necked ducks, goldeneyes, bald7pates, gadwalls,

and old sqaws. Three Canada geese afforded excellent olportunities for 
observation on March 9. and 21 of these birds were seen on the 12th. Ac-

cording to reports, larger rafts of ducks have been seen this season than

for many years. 

'ITh? BOUITTY SYTSBU                /- 
For more than 50 years previous to 1920 the State of 
Lna paid bounties on predatory animals. It is reported 
during this period more than a million. dollars was ex- 
d by the State on boanto.ies. In addition-to this huge 
toolk associations, ro-und-u  associatins, and individual 
I can well remenber alcng abo-t 1900, when the Shonkin 
Round-up Association, 'hich .covered a large territory on both 
sides of the iissouri ::vr below Fort lenton, hung up a 
bounty of  ?5o on grey wolves, End later this bounty was 
raised to Q100, Lnd again in 1909, when I was Supervisor on 
the Custer Forest, the Otter Livestock Association offered a 
bountzy of ,$50 on groval wolves and O110 or wolf pups.  .any 
Other associations did likewise. Of course, there is no way 
of knowing just how much has been paid from State and private 
funds, but I think it is safe to say that one and one-half 
million dollars would not cover the bill. 
Ihile some progress may have been made under the bounty 
system, it seemed slow indeed, ad stockmen began to cast 
alo0 t for other methods. The fact that fraud in collecting 
bounty money was .being perpetrated quite generally and there 
seemed to be no definite way to prevent it, helped mold 
sentiment against the buuntyl system. Praud in '.ana .y forms was 
practiced but the most common seemed to be for some local 
trapper to get in touch with trappers outside the state and 
exchang.e hides with them. That is to say that outside hides 
were brouhfit in the state by local trappers for bounty pur- 
poses only -- the local trappers getting bounty on local 
hides and trading them for out-of-state hides. 
1,ost of the 7estern States have adopted the hunter 
system in lieu of the bounty system, and all. seem to be 
satisfied that a step in the right direction has been made. 
Iontane adopted the hunter system in 1920, but allowed the 
"turkey raiser" to write into law a bounty system in 1925. 
The preso't bounty provides the follbowir< hounties for 
"animals killed between the first day of April and the first 
day of July, both dat'es inclusive of each. year. For each 
drow. wolf Il5; for each grown coyote or coyote pup, or 
wolf pup,  '2; for each mouitain lion  520."  Jast why a bounty 
between April firstsnd July first only seems a moot question. 
Can it be that the predatory animalo like their turkey and 
lamb chops better during these months? 
Darirg the coming State legislature there is going to 
be an effort to repaal the prest. .bounty system, which, from 
a careful study of the attached map, seems to justify a 
Change. Eote, for instance -- thirteen Porder counties paid 
- bounty in 1925 on 5,166 coyote pups and 235 adult coyotes, 

while the remaining  45 counties iii the st,5e paid bouInties on 
only 2,938 pups erd 174 adults. Or, in other vords, 25 per 
cent of the coun..ies paid 651er cent oi the bounty, which 
would. seem tb iidi'cte -that co*otes prefer to live in  norder 
counties, especially along the C.anadian Porder, where. it is 
suggestbd, that they furnish, company for the bootlegger. 
The ratio o-f adults to pups shown by the bounty records 
is about one to twenty, respectively. Bounty hunters don't 
-wan t-to destroy-the brdedin> 'stock, so instead of getting the 
mothers, they left -teri to bring forthaa crop next year. It 
is estimated that 'the averajo litter is about six pups, which, 
if correct, m6an-j that about 1,'2150 female o, oY.Btes were ft 
for  Se'd by these bouhty hn1 . t.ers'. 
nder the present bounay Thw, the ,ffnds of the. Fish   nd 
.ame Dep attmeht aye assesse  7,500 an.nual y, qad it is inter- 
esting .to not-e that loss than 100 predatory aimals,. were killed 
for *Lounty in the twelve b.g gameP cpunti~es ofthe. %tate. 
Another interesting, view of the matter is found in the 
-oll.owng example. Assume the a.ount of- noney,p.aid- for preda- 
tory animal bouhties in the past.:has be6n one and one-half 
million" dollars, - ar'd hs ume that all' agree, that it would be 
good business.tb- spehd, an equal'amount. in the future to reduce 
01 e.iminate pre.datoryailS.' The question is: How is the 
best way? "Bounties," you may say. },ut no; we tried that and 
it doesn't work; 17hat th    "' ..... .  amillion and a half dol- 
lars, alon,< With't.ihe-fur-values of predatory animals, would 
keep a trai.ed  ad ebx ert  iunter in eac. -ounty for the next 
25 :years. . "But-"  '-Y, "tt would L e o, E l tQ, a pension."

Wwell, then, hw not  unt three or 'ur experienced men in each 
county for the -ne-ttWo ,or'ithreo 'yea'rs and clean up the job, 
and then a very few experts alon. the JBorder. would keep the 
State fr ee 
G ". A.                   Smith. 
J . - Seef!1bing map of ,oMontana. 
A Iog-Di-st' ance'Record (So Ft We r e1owa)- 
Duriiig'this smmer's heavy fires in the West, large 
quantities of ashes,:charcoal, jnd other -fire m-.terir.l were 
carried great cistances.  In the Bureadioi  Besearch at 
Harrisburg is a small quantity of ashes arid charcoal which was 
carried a distance of thirty 2iles, from ;-et . cDox.a2d in the 
Glacier I.ational Park to Sit. .rs, A.    Rupp, -Chief of the 
Bureau of Forest., reports that-in i1920., .when h-e was 
District Forester at% Fort I1oudon$, fire material was carried 
from- a fire burning on Sideling Pill in Filton Co-uty to Fort Fmanklinh County, a distance o'T nine miles.  Can 
you beat it? 
From Bulletin of Penna. Dept. of Forests and Waters. 
-2 - 

Non        78You l.Adult  206Yo IAdults  -.Yug  ItI58  idllts  3 I8Auts'-.

Flathead -oti _ ^.,|               Young         11I1  |I Adults  Roosevelt

[-J  Yo ng   5h-d~raAc ~t [ I   r-----1     _   ,   ....  613  Your-j. 
". !'- 7"  Youn ._.t .r_ .  4'    -2-         Young  ,-53.,5  .ou
" --.--- L%   - Ch out eau-   I1 I               'a. 
_ eton  __ _          I      ,r"              c one  5  Adults 
Sander        6'  Adlt .....                                  21      5 Ad
lt  Y f 5A u t 
1anders;  ak N429 Young    14 3-Yo'ug   l               /  I  2    I-  in

,-"Y°mgu4n 10   ei'-  Cas(ae'    ,   ru            Garfield  so
80  o ~?n. 
--~      ~     Ad-u/ .  luts .--  5 Adults  lo n,        8 l"s- 
Mi ssoula -'L /   tCla-?a : lZ .  r- \o n  ulth'_, ai  Youn 6  eum._ 87 ltoung
 TPrairl' 9 on/,. 
1.:                        -°!YA                 - --, Adult _ 1 ~Adult
 49  71  -L 14, du lt 
Dun t M'.. ghe     10 9d, .Lan  s, dts  90 28 Adultlt 
1         VI~tatr- ell w-              ter3Idl 
r  a-  '  " -w  '  3.o + - / - -- -   - ° + -   A d l  s  To   
 i 0 , 
12_W -l                           0             1Y 
--Il        Mad so  ter                                     Adult 112  yYo.
0   ue  on 
Be   r~rha  n.e     Y-13.k                           2 dlt  4 Young 
du  Adults 3 ong        Swet Y.llow---      20 Young        Carter 
B-e                 Mapha  Madisng _ube  of 4Adults  102 Lduoy ts  23lso.

! other predatory animals, tu,-rned in for bounty in 
Montana during ALpril, MZay, and June, 1925. 

&         BOUNTIES 
.+  I4E    Conservation Congress held at 
Saginaw, Michigan, recently went on 
record as favoring a return to the bounty 
system of controllinz wolves. cnvn1t-. 1iu1A_ 
.Al L~j L iL ILU ; 1 l 'Lll IIUVIUtld1  L)II U   4.LlU 
animals taken under the bounty system 
was 268,564 as against 8,842 by the paid 
trappers, but much of this difference is 
accounted for in the figures on weasels. 
The average cost of. each    wolf killed 
under bounties was $30, and by trappers, 
The payment of bounties on crows and 
woodchucks was not approved, the cost 
being out of proportion to the importance 
of their relation to the preservation of game 
and to agriculture,  In four- years that 
Michigan paid bounties on these two species, 
it cost the state $737,590. being twice the 
amount paid for all other species in the same 

'What's What and How-                                             By 
in Conservation 
When to Release Pheasants          usually has light spots on a dark back-

ground, while the common musky (Esox 
i. We hatched forty-five young ring- masquinongy) usually has dark spots
on a 
neck pheasants from fifty eggs, and because  light background. Others disagree
of wet weather and other conditions beyond  this theory and say it is not
a safe rule to 
our control we lost twelve of them to date. follow, even claiming that in
some waters 
They are now four weeks old and growing  just the reverse seems to be true.

fine. When should these birds be released  The United States Bureau of Fisheries

to get the best results?  W. J. S., Indiana. says that a surer way of separating
the pike 
from the muskellunge is by the scaling on 
S O far you have made an excellent show- the cheeks. In the pike the cheek
is nearly 
ing. The largest losses among young  entirely covered with scales, while
in the 
pheasants usually occur during the first muskellunge the lower half of the
three weeks after hatching.              is devoid t i s-Tes ite great tjty
The best time to release the birds is an indivi &s.N 
open question. It depends upon what your                                
    . X, 
aims are, the usual winter conditions, the         Turtle Trap Dope 
amount of natural food and cover where 
they are to be released, the extent to which  3. I noticed yonr advice to
"R. K., 
you are prepared to supply feed during the  Ohio" in the August OUTDOOR
winter months, whether you have a close o  concerning snakes and turtles.
I want some 
an open season this fall, whether both sex  kind of a trap for use at a pond
where there 
may be killed, etc.  p                   is no attendant in charge all the
time, say 
Many who know pheasants thoroughly     one that will work while I sleep.
What can 
prefer to turn the young birds loose when  you recommend? E. B. J., Michigan.

they are nine or ten weeks old, because in- 
sect life is then still plentiful and the birds  V ES, we can recommend two
traps that 
quickly learn to rustle for themselves. A"work while you sleep."
       Both of 
Others prefer to hold them   until from  them  were recently illustrated
in the 
twelve to fourteen weeks old; still others monthly bulletin issued to all
Kansas Wal- 
recommend holding the birds over the     ton League chapters by the Kansas
winter and releasing them in the springtime. sion of the League. Both are
here illus- 
Usually young pheasants run about 55%  trated by rough sketches. The first
to 6o%  cocks, and in states where only  shown was designed by Prof. L. L.
cocks may be killed it will not retard the  The size recommended is 4 feet
long, 2 feet 
future increase of your birds if fully half  high and 2 feet wide. It is
built by cover- 
the cocks are killed by hunters, because  ing a framework of lumber with
wire net- 
pheasants are polygamous and one male will ting, counterbalanced treadle
boards on 
mate with from three to six hens.        hinges or rods at each end, and
a 6 inch 
My own judgment is that under reason-  strip of tin tacked on the inside
and bent 
ably favorable conditions best results will down to prevent Mr. Turtle from
be obtained by releasing the birds before  out. Runway boards from the top
of the 
winter sets in, then arrange to place feed  water to the trap should be firm
so the 
for them when the ground is covered with  turtles don't get "cold feet"
and go right on 
snow and ice. Few individuals or clubs   over the top. 
have ideal enliditinnq lndep" .which tn hnld 
game birds over the winter. If you want 
to try it I will gladly advise you concerning 
pens, feed, etc. 
Distinguishing Musky and Pike 
2. How can I tell the difference between 
muskellunge and the northern pike? My 
friends don't seem to agree concerning posi- 
tive identification marks or characteristics. 
A. L. S., Wisconsin. 
M Y dear fellow, you are in no worse 
trouble than most anglers and many 
of the fish experts themselves. You cer- 
tainly can't go by the size, because many 
great northern pike weigh as much as the 
average muskellunge. 
The most generally 'known form    of 
musky is the spotted musky. It is native to 
all the Great Lakes and lakes and streams 
tributary thereto, a few lakes in the Upper 
Mississippi Valley, also in Canada north of 
the Great Lakes. The barred musky is best 
known in Chautauqua Lake, New York, 
and adjacent waters. In some waters the 
musky runs solid dark on the back and does 
not have either spots or bars. 
The great northern pike is still more 
widely distributed, being found all the way 
across the continent from Labrador to 
Alaska and south to the Great Lakes Basin, 
northern New York, the Upper Mississippi 
and its tributaries. 
The musky seems to vary greatly in dif- 
ferent waters. Some well-known fish ex- 
perts distinguish the musky from the pike 
by his spots and the background, claiming 
that great northern pike (Esox lucius) 
The other is a barrel trap recommended 
by Claude J. Meredith, Superintendent of 
Wardens of Kentucky, the details of which 
are easily obtained from this rough sketch. 
This is easily constructed and should do the 
work while you sleep.  All you need to do 
is remove the turtles. How's that? 
The World's Largest 
Spawn Taking 
(Continued from page 22) 
dred pounds of feed a week. These ponds 
are screened off at the overflow and the 
screen must be cleaned two or three times 
daily, to keep proper drainage. The bottom 
and sides of the pond must be thoroughly 
scrubbed once a day to remove all traces of 
fungus growth. If the advocated policy 
of holding fry over a year before planting 
were put into practice, these fry would grow 
to need ten ponds for each one hundred 
thousand fry, and require i,ooo pounds of 
food a week, with the resulting increase of 
labor. Further, the fish would be trained 
to expect feeding twice or three times a day 
and would not grow into the rustlers the 
e4rly planted fish are. 
The ideal conditions would be for larger 
reaking ponds, fed by spring creeks, to be 
built near the larger creeks, and so con- 
struqted that they could be entirely drained 
to remove all fish before restocking. This 
would enable the holding of the fry for a 
year in natural conditions. Proper choos- 
ing of places to plant comes next. Small 
tributary streams with plenty. of feed and 
screened off so that large trout cannot get 
at the fry would be best. 
In planting, the maximum temperatures 
of the creek water and the water in the 
fish cans should be slowly equalized to avoid 
sudden chill to the fingerlings. 
The Fish and Game Commission of Mon- 
tana have had two large tank trucks con- 
structed to hold about a barrel and a half 
of water each. These automatically cool 
and aerate the water and will safely carry 
8o,ooo fish at one load. The air is brought 
through a box of ice and forced into dis- 
tributing rods at the bottom, keeping the 
water in proper condition for any length 
of time. These tank cars are loaded at the 
hatcheries and the fry are not handled again 
until they reach the place of planting. 
These cars soon rui out to the head waters 
of any stream and unless the distances are 
great, they can make several trips a day, 
taking practically an express carload ship- 
ment at one load instead of the ten or 
twelve automobiles usually used in distribu- 
ting. Best of all, the fry reach the planting 
grounds without long delays, without any 
intermediate handling and in water of con- 
stant temperature and well aerated. There 
is very little loss. 
The area of the state is so large and the 
conditions of the streams vary so greatly 
in east and west Montana that nearly all 
varieties of game fish can be successfully 
raised and matured. In the western and 
southeastern mountain streams abound Na- 
tive, Rainbow, Dolly Varden and Eastern 
Brook Trout and Grayling. Whitefish are 
in the lower streams bordering the warmer 
waters. Salmon and Lake Superior White- 
fish in several lakes and in the eastern riv- 
ers where the water is too warm for trout 
come the Pike, Channel Cat and Carp. In 
some streams Bass have been planted, but 
these are not as plentiful as others. 
And now, with 35,000,000 little trout 
placed in her mountain streams annually, 
and soon a like number of warm water fish 
supplied the eastern rivers from a recently 
established hatchery at Miles City, Montana 
is making for her people and offers to the 
visitor some of the choicest fishing streams 
in the Northwest. With her ever-increas- 
ing resources of wild life to bring interest 
in the beauties of her mountains, she invites 
the visitor, tourist and traveler to share 
her outdoor glories. 
Seth Gordon, Conservation 
Director of the Izaak Walton 
League, will gladly answer que- 
ries on all conservation subjects. 
Consult him about your con- 
servation problems. 

'%brr 19, 12. 
Xr. Aldo -~pA 
Ow Sr. Isaold 
lou Zott otry  I" 5tbl ad&O to or. ft"e fflo 
UpsImea "fr to no.~s~*    ~   Ib  , 
fiwma to mr t<$#r ym in af* mmfo W~w  G. kav lw 
ever, Mat -nPrVv~  n  e&Vxlt  o*csa  o1  aAI 
Ofp o.m  Inwltus ofrswfamvnv rOOPN wUa 
So~~ to,, lao ust  eoeta ~ rgI ital vt  m of  - 
I     mI  not W1" Isd3 Awr  is* m a  MO* as 
Is ymr thr aeao ee t oi *1  a ~4 *4 eaw it m sres 
ua bt  e4 kIttm1 fr  ba  ImW  I is, - o 4 k,  i ats  pta.  *am14t 
mAth   thsor vasm mt  wlo  swr ma  tsapae..I okw 
Ovarg~ tb  ttetmm  r   .NVO  eo  e  etsrf 
A~mwCouty. fta. awas" t~t a M&Ma hmm a itef.a lo 

No. 29-60                 U. S. Forest Service         March 13, 1929 
Scuthliestern histrict 
"oronado Veterans: Here is the boronedu list of 'Old Ti-erst according
the  oronadoBulletin: Bob Thornson fro Jul. 13, 1 a!6, 23 years; Fred 
11inn from Yarch 7, 1.07, 22 years; 'arl Shcleiel3 fromr June 15, 1208, 
about 21 years; L. ,.. Hess, Septerber 1, l'02, abcut 20 years; Filliam 
John Anderson, May 7, 1209, about 20 years. A fairly good record as any-

one will admit. !W e doubt if any other fcrest in the South-' e tern District

can show a better one. 
Attendance Record: In the U. S. Civil Service Cor.issicn, one appointee 
took no annual or sick leave in 1328, and perfonrocd 250 hours of overtime

work. A totl of 1C4 took no sick leave; 66 worked raore than 100 hours 
each overtime; and a nember of the disbursing office rendered 850 hours 
of overtime service. If he took uo annual or sick leave, he put in an 
average of 2 hours, 48 minutes, 52 and forty-five one hundredths seconds

of overtime on every one of the 302 vmcrking days, after deducting the 53

Sundays and 11 holidays. 
Kansas Has Brcomies: A Kansas City, do., 'ispatch February 24 says: 
Viiorses in western iKansas have become so mu3h o< a nui! sance the leg-

islature has been asked to come to the aid of the wheat farmers. !Tartin

F. Trued of Greeley C unty has a bill which will giye the farmers who take

up stray horses the right to claim possession of the animals at the end of

two months. According to Trued, Greeie7   mnt farmers have corralled 
wild horses for more than a year to protect their wheat. The *nir'als 
are strays from eastern ]olorado." 
Xink In Arizona and No. Mexico: 11otinr the nention of iink on the Pecocs

by Ranger Johnson of the Santa Fe in the Daily Bulletin of Feruary 25, 
Dr. Taylor wrote  Tr. M4usgrave concorning Arizona and received the following

reply: "Yy first observation of mir in ]irizona was back in 1918 or
when I was catching fish out on Flakes Lke near Snowflake, Arizona, a mini

came up and deliberately walked off with one of my fish. I sat there and

waited for perhaps ton rTirutes and he returned and did the same t ing. La-

ter I saw. one on Silver "reek south and east of Colorado. I have also
sign of mink along the little Colorado near Springerville. M,. E. usgrrave,

Biological Survey." 
Gasoline Purchases In New Mlexico: Contract No. X8AO-3, dated 12/27/28, 
with the Magnolia Petroleum Companyj under which gasoline purchases are 
to be made up to Juno 30, 129, provides for a deduction of 5/ per gallon

under the existing service station pump cr tank wagen ,rice, but does *ot

allcv for an additional l/ per gallon deduction as did the contract for 
the period ended December 31, 1928. The present contract provides for a 
2% discount on gasoline purchases for payment within ten deys, and on bulk

oil purchases a 10% discount from the regular retail urice is allowed. 
Purchasing officers should see that purchases from the [a!-rolia Comrpany
made and vouchered in accordance with the existing contract. 
Field:   Calkins  Crook); Burnnl sSanta Fe); Theney "Tonto); Mullen
Acting: Jones 

Proves Most effective for Catching Common Turtles, So Menacing 
to Fish Life of Our Ponds 
T HERE are in Louisiana today turtle traps 
and more turtle traps. In fact, there are 
all kinds of turtle traps. First there is the 
drop trap, for catching logger heads and 
snapping turtles; then there is the game 
trap made by placing fish hooks on logs 
where the turtles sun themselves. There is 
the net trap, the most effective type of 
which is made by attaching a net, under a 
slanting log, so that when the turtles drop 
overboard, they fall into the net. 
But none of these have proved as effec- 
tive for catching the common pond turtles 
as the new trap recently invented by Percy 
Viosca, Jr., head of the fisheries division 
of the Department of Conservation. With 
this trap more common turtles are caught 
than ever before. 
No matter how common a turtle may be, 
however, if properly prepared as a turtle 
soup or stew, it can be made into one of 
the most delectable dishes in the state's 
menu of aquatic foods. 
But that's not the only reason for catching 
pond turtles. Even more important than 
the soup, is the fact that if they are al- 
lowed to become too numerous, they be- 
come a menace to the fish life of the pond. 
"But", you may ask "How can a few tur- 
tles more or less in a pond make any dif- 
Since turtles are largely vegetarian in 
their habits, a few will not prove particu- 
larly destructive. But once they become 
sufficiently numerous to destroy all of the 
vegetation found in the pond, the real trou- 
ble begins. Having consumed all the avail- 
able food of one type, they must of neces- 
sity turn to another source of supply. And 
so they begin feasting on the eggs and young 
of the fish. And if they are still hungry, 
the crayfish and other forms of fish food are 
They therefore constitute a real menace, 
so that the trap invented by Mr. Viosca, 
not only increases the plates of turtle soup, 
but it helps protect the fish, by preventing 
an over-supply of turtles. 
And the nicest thing about this trap that 
never misses our plebian "shellbacks," is 
that anybody can make one. Just take a 
look at the drawings, read the directions, 
then drag out the tool chest and get to 
A floating wire cage is attached to a frame 
supporting a slanting board. The lower end 
of the board extends below the surface of 
-lN .6Ibn O~tP 4 - 
OA                   C 
E {l Vif w 
..HEET  qP- 2" 

the water, and the upper end over tile cen- 
ter of the cage. The cage is usually made 
of poultry netting which covers the bottom 
and sides completely, and there is an over- 
hang made of the same wire which extends 
inward about six inches all around the top. 
It is best to slant this overhang slightly 
downward.    The  whole   arrangement is 
floated by means of logs or beams and is 
placed out in the center of a pond or bayou 
where turtles are plentiful. The turtles will 
soon find the slanting board and climb upon 
it to sun themselves. When the sun sets 
they will drop into the open top of the cage, 
and may be collected at dusk, Or if some- 
one approaches the trap during the day 
time, those turtles which are on the end of 
the board will drop into the cage. As many 
as two dozen and sometimes more are taken 
in a single trap during the day. And they 
can't get out. The wire overhang prevents 
their escape. 
In communities where the pond turtle is 
becoming an increasing menace to the fish 
life, it might prove profitable for all of the 
neighboring families to "get together," and 
somewhat in the manner of the quilting 
"bee," of old, work towards the construction 
of a sufficient number of turtle traps. With 
such cooperation, the traps could be con- 
structed in a very short while, and by com- 
mon agreement could be placed at the most. 
strategic points. 
": ]7/ IT ,VORKS 
The Minerals Division of the Department 
of Conservation with the cooperation of the 
Louisiana State University Experiment Sta- 
tion, is conducting a survey of the clay re- 
sources in the State of Louisiana. The first 
report on this project covered the Shreve- 
port area, including Caddo, Bossier, Webs- 
ter, DeSoto and Red River parishes. The 
second report covered the Monroe-Ruston 
area, including Claiborne, Union, Morehouse, 
Bienville, Lincoln, Jackson, Ouachita and 
Richland parishes. This bulletin, the third 
of the series on Louisiana clays, deals with 
the central portion of the State, including 
Sabine, Vernon, Beauregard, Natchitoches, 
Rapides, Winn, Grant, Caldwell and LaSalle 
Samples were taken from   carefully se- 
lected locations with due consideration of 
relative distances from fuel, labor and mar- 
ket, as these factors have a decided bearing 
on the value of the clay apart from its ce- 
ramic properties. In estimating the value of 
clay deposits, only exceptional quality .coun- 
terbalances cheap fuel and labor and ready 
market. Samples were taken where feasible 
in cuts on highways and railroads and from 
ravines. In cases where these topographi- 
cal features were missing, sampling was 
done by boring with a two-inch auger. Pros- 
pecting was carried on by W. G. Cole, R. W. 
Harris and J. W. Whittemore. Tests of the 
samples were made in the ceramic engineer- 
ing laboratory at L. S. U., Baton Rouge, by 
Mr. Whittemore and his assistants, C. A. 
Hitzman, J. I-I. Roberson and C. E. Patter- 
The bulletin describes the field work and 
laboratory testing of clay samples. The 
economic use of each deposit is indicated 
with the results *of the tests. The tests of 
only those samples which have some value 
for the manufacture of ceramic products are, 

r   r    QPUi A  rV'r ' i  UkXT 1 "117  f" r' N, T 
commUssionU            L .i:IJ    JL .. L 1 
FOND DU LAC                  CONSERVATI 
MILWAUKEE                                    L. B. 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN DAY                       CONSERVA 
ON                           4 
A~  Y  ~    45 ,'7A 
J a 
p4   d 

September 10, 1929 
Professor K. W. Wight 
School of Forestry & Conservation 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 
Dear Wight: 
Last spring Stoll of the Detroit News asked 
us to loan him Sabin to break in the keeper of a private 
estate ne-r fltroit. We d1i t"his and Stoll br-ht in to 
me a list of "venain' which he stated had been taklen from 
less than 25) acres daring the  two months ending August 15th. 
I know very little as to the locetin or character of these 
lands but Stoll thought the It,t w-s authentic and, if so, 
it would ,ert Aly seem that some  anner of venin control 
was in order o, these premises. 
1 fox (red) 
40 cats 
30 red sq. 
22 weaoel 
11 house rat 
10 dck 
2 badgers 
6 mink 
75 cr:s) 
62       sparrow 
id ct~rling 
2 gre-.t horned owl 
1 sharp shinned hawk 
2 ycllow hely woodpecrer 
6r1 ,npi3  turtea 
3 9ar pilt 
56 wood chiuck hole s  r ssed 
Your* very truly, 
P. S. LoveJoy 
Game Division 
I '-   ) 
I ~ 

Muskrat s 
Vr.~b 12,a 1929o 
Mw4214 vle- ryRiili 
Univ Oerty af isconi 
Wadisof Wisconsin 
mty 6%&vr Leepldi 
?tes  1e6  of the laiv.i f rOrt-bw1, 929 
1 qiwte the fa11oiW far yo, a tifoqwti~a 
and me. my njSo Af-ect eate, uskImts, p1&eoai, rin-neck-ed 
the Arican k~4aia iielth k sociation by 'Dr R. G. Green in 
3. M. Waft, of the UWaivrt of Miieta- enC t-he Zt te ',*Part- 
matof Realth. This now 4tsepa* whtih has eCU~ed muhCoev 
in public health circles, Is ncquie bg  ae -,ho    I~.nfected The fa ct th t vu&  moe aluno- of ,   h,-Vf the 
4*.eeee gm-,tly 1ncm,-ocs the dan~e to buha beia8. by Inceas 
ing the rosile PAorce. of infetion." 
I.4 T4. ULU-   JR. 

File: Wolverine 
New Mexico 
Extract from Journ. of Mammalogy,_ May. 1931, p. 166. 
"On the evening of the same day, an Acoma Indian named Flaming Arrow
visiting me. He told me his people had a hunting song in which they extolld

the three great hunters--first, the Mountain Lion; second, the Eagle; and

third, the Ho-Ho-an or Ko-Ko-an. He did not know the white man's name for

the last; but said it was as big as a dog, somewhat like a small bear, but
had a bushy tail. Its coat was rough, its feet black, and its back nearly

white. It was terribly fierce. 
"Then from his medicine bag, he produced a carving, a small effigy of
creature's head. It was an excellent likeness, and  there can be no doubt

that the KO-Ko-a is the Wolverine. The Indian said it was formerly found

in all these mountains, but had disappeared. None of the present generation

had seen one. 
"This extends the Primitive range of the species considerably to the

Ernest Thompson Seton, Santa Fe, N. N. 

Muskrat folder 1/ 
Par Farming Box 
Cross Reference 
See 'Annual Report of Muskrat Investigation Laboratory, Church Creek, Md.,

p. 96 of 11th Annual Report of the Conservation Department of the State of

Maryland, 1933. (Piled Maryland Box) 

Fie Sex Ratio folder 
Weasel folder t- 
Extract from 'h Weasels of New York" by W. J. Hamilton, Jr. Te American

Midland Naturalist, Vol. XIV. No. 4, JUly, 1933, P. 300. 
In large numbes of M.                as raw pelts and carcasses, the males

outnumber the females approximately 3 to 1 . In the maller clotheanii, te

males outnumber the females 2 to 1. It mst be remembered, hcwver, tlat about

95 per cent of the weasels taken by trappers are caght in steel traps set
skunk, and the diminutive female of the Bonaparte seldom brings enough pressure

on the pan of the trap to spring it. Me small animals, when caught, are 
usually taken about the middle, and not by the foot, indicating it was the

weight of the entire body that sprung the trap. If the animals are caught
box traps, the sexes are more nearly equalized. Indeed, Mr. C. J. Rlison,
Clay, N. Y. caught six weasels in two weeks trapping with box traps. One
a male noveboraces, while five were the little females of cio     ni. 

File Grit folder 
Weasel folder 
Extract from "Me Weasels of New York" by W. J. Hamilton, Jr. The
Midland Naturalist, Vol. XIV, No. 4, July, 1933, pp. 329-330. 
"In a number of weasels, the hind gat was found to be crammed with hard-

packed sand. This was not found only in trapped animals, so cannot be 
explained as having been ingested in the animals' frantic efforts to escape.

A large male noveboracensis that was shot by a hunter late in November 
and presented to me in an unrkinned condition, had the rectum and part of
intestine distended with much sand. I am unable to account for this inorganic

matter in a nmmber of weasels." 

File Opossum 
An opossm was killed at Mt. Vernon,   G........ Co., by Judd Kempton, 
Nov. 15, 1933. 

From Iowa News Release 
March 29, 1934 
File Muskrat 
A muskrat bocar"r g-rvictor in a battle with a 10 inch catfish ac- 
cording to C.C. Lille and L.F. Kiner, deputy game wardens, who witnessed

the beattle while patrolling the Iowa River. The muskrat swam to the 
bank with the fish in its mouth. The unusual thing in this story is 
that the muskrat is called a vegetarian. 

Mink folder 
See "Nutritional Anaemia in Mink" by Ronald G. Law and Arnold H.

Kennedy. Can. Pield-Nat. Vol. XLVIII, March, 1934, pp. 47-49. 

Shipping Point, Express and Telegraph Station, IHfkah, Minn.     Reference,
Ilokah State Bank  .. 
Hill Crest Fur Farming Company 
Not Incorporated 
B. Tippman, Operator 
Breeders of Purebred Poultry, Holstein Cattle, Fur-Bearing Animals, 
Game Birds and Ferrets, Purebred Seed Grains, and Ginseng 
A Square Deal 
Our Motto 
rL~fZ  , _   (( 
.7Z          Z(    ; 
""A z       ' 
Foreign Office 
Leipzig, Germany 

Otter V 
Extract from "Te Primitive Persists in Bird Life of Yellowstone Parke"

by George              7n Wright.  Te Condor, Vol. XXXVI, To. , July-Agast
 19$I, p. 151. - 
"We walked up the crest of the hill on the west side of Tern L!e 
where we could et a good, thouh somewhat distat, view of the Tr.mpeter Swan

nest that we had been studying. Both p2arent birds were out of sight, so
started on. At the last o1oenin in the trees we hesitated for the fatefl
"A black object loomed by the swa nest.    With field glsses glued 
to our Fes, we saw thaft it was an otter stretching its full lenth upward
peer down into the next. From one side it reached out toward the center n

pu shed asid  the he mterial covering the eggs.  Then the commotion started.
rapt interest, the otter rooted around in the dry nest material, heaving
here and diggi    in there, until it was more haystack than nest. Then the
started to roll, aroud and around, over and over. This went on for a nrumber
minutes. At frequent intervals its lo n neck was craned ulward, and the serpent-

like hea  rotated around to discover (we su-pposed) if the Swans were tetuaning.

At last the otter seemed to weary of this ply.    It climbed from the nest
the outer edge, then slid off into the water. Swiming off along the edge
of the 
marsh grass, it was the undlating silver demon of the water world. Once it
and several times detoured into channels tarough the grass, only to come
out aain and continue on. It never turned back, and ras finally lost to sigt.

"Where were the Swans all the   hile we had been prying for their 
return?  We well remembered that time two years g    when they cLae flying
from a far corner of the lake to drive off a Raven whic   ha already broken
egg.  Careful search with the glasses reveaed the    arents, al tht we could

see being the water-stained heads and black bills protruding from the m rs,
One was about six hundred feet from the nest, the other not more than two
and forty feet. Yet both birds gave no evidence of concern. Seeing that the

damage was already done,   nd another year's potentia Swan crop for the Mirror

Plateau lost irrevocably, we saw no further reason for cpution. So we stripped

off our clothes and waded out across the s    lows,  We -ere amazed to find
five eggs intact. There they were, all together, rolled to one side but perfectly

whole.  So much for cir     tantial evidence. Had we gone on, Mr. Otter would

have had one order of scrambled Trumpeter Swan eggs charged on his bill."


Muakrat folder 
See "Swiming of the Mnskrat' by John D. Mizelle. Journal of Mamzaialogy,

Vol. 16, No. 1, february 1935, pp. 22-25. 

L~k.S puat & Mink ?am            (Clare     Palm, Sperior, Wsonsin) 
operate a fa  farmi Superor.     Ne rats within a enclsur. Use carrts 
ad grees. Re told J. F. Widr, 221T Ogden Avnu, Superr   tat in lato 
wixter uhon he is fooing ox the ice he has to chop out mayrats wli tails

frozen to the ice, after thy have omouet to foo. 
Theo rats liy* in both banks and houses. The rats maintainteir ow 
opeuings in to ic. 
M inJks they *zy 75 paLr on 90 ares, but this q be off. 
Douglas Go 

4/15/34                                         File: Fisher 
Jacobek caught 2 cab(?) fisher in Price Co. in winter of 1907. 
This was in Town of Bnory 3 miles W. of Oneida Co. line. 

4/15/34                                             File Fisher 
Paul B. liis figures that it takes 16,000 acres to support a 
fisher in the Superior X. F.. This was the actual population 
where undisturbed except by illegal trapping. 

From I ew Worlds, by                                      Murat 
Jack Van Coevering 
'$umer, 1935 
A/  usmz vrs, considered  aluale  fur bearers  iin  America, 
M   are equally valuable fur bearers in Europe, but their 
nuisance-value exceeds their fur-value. Five muskrats 
brought from Alaska in 1905 and released in Bohemia by 
1K. Waschatke, Forest and Domain Director, were estimated 
in 191-1 to have icreased to 2,000,000. Today, all central 
tLurope is fighting the muskrats. Reason: the rats under- 
mille dykes andt roads. 

Nr. 27 
famen  abicbt wieber auffebt. get einmal nac  aaffnerart mit einem 
abicbt ldngere aabre bufammen febte, wirb i4n ebenjowenig ber- 
geffen wie feinen beften Oebrau(obunb. 
Zat Naubb6get in bet 91dbe ibrO  brftO rauben, fonnte and) 
id) jabretang beobad)ten. .1batte i) bod) W Offict, in einem Rebier 
jagen p f6mien, in bem bet Banberfaffe an fteiter greWwanb feitten 
Soo-ift batte. Tiefe 100 Reter bobe aMwanb ftief  mit ibrem au5 
an einen Streifen 'StangenbolA, ba iteW von (gicbeft)dbern befebt war. 
Zod webe bem  Ddber, bet bic fcbfi enben Stronen bet Stangen bertic5l 
'Unfebtbat jaufte ibm bon einer'ber a-efdtippen eina-qlfe in benaden, 
unb webe bet Zaube, bie, fremb in bet (Begenb, bem greffen bu nabe 
tam. V6ge un  biefer borft nod) red)t tange erbatten bleiben, benn 
affbu biefe jiub jd)on bier am Vittelrbein berwaift. 
Oroebel, Mettevnicb. 
Vue erlibfitter"be %amu4p. 9fm 10. a-ebruar b. a. fcbo  id 
,in ement medlenburgilcben Rebier nadmittao ein etfid Rotwilb. 
jc  batte mid) enticb1offen, biefem S  hict bie Ruget anbutragen, weit 
0 unter ben adt Stfiden Oilb, bei benen'6 ftanb, baburd) auffief, 
baf  0 bell nub ftruppig im  aar roar. %ad) tangent beobacbten, 
bejonbeO jpio bon binten, gtaubte id) 0 aW Scbmattier aniptecben 
ju Onnen. .3d) mu5te redt weit jcbief en, ba miT jabireid) bajwijd)en-- 
ftebenbe  Rebwilb ein ftberptiricben unm6g[id macbte. Uttgfftdtid)er- 
weife mad)te W Etfid im Scbu5 eine &wegung, fo baf; 0 bie Ruget 
etwO TPio bon binten befam. %ad) Beicbnen unb 91bfommen ja5 
bie Auget Su tief unb batte einen Zorberfauf in  bbbe bO oberen 
QiefenN gefa t. & tag etwO Scbnee, ic  fonnte bie Uunbfd rte W 
Sur naben 'Zidung batten. Gcbweif  tag in bet Vitte bet adbrte, bO 
Stfid fcbonte ben recbten Zorberlauf. zZie %ad)fude fette id) fftr ben 
ndd)ften Vorgen an, nadbem id) beint Unticbtagen bO aagen  feft, 
geftefft batte, bat W frante GMd in biefem geblieben roar. 
an bet %ad)t Icbneite 0, am Vorgen wurbe bann W aagen 
bon einigen Scbftoen umitelft unb ein ficber auf Scbweit art eitenber 
Zedef 5ur Nunbfdbrte gelegt. Vit bieten gibergiingen filbrte bie 
%acbJud)e burd) ba aagen in W ndd)fte unb Aberndcbfte. Zer Sd)vuei5 
batteboUtommen aufgebOrt. W14 bie adbtte burd) ficbte Riefern ftanb, 
fcbien bet Jtunb, bet W babin felt, am Niemen gelegen batte, 5u fafeln. 
Mit bob'er Tale jud)te er im Sinb unb war unjd)hifjig. Zann bel:Wia 
ex eini etwO e#64te Steffe im Gdmee nub id)arrte. Za tag ein frijc 
gefettO NotwitRalb. Zbne 8weifel batte W'bebauern werte franfe 
etfid infolge Scbmerh nub Wufregung bier bor3eitig gejeot. Icb 
macbte mir bittere F8orwfirfe, beint GAu5 nid)t nocb borfid)tiger 3u 
- ------         Tvrt  G:' atT pn-jtLfchi- Taa SWD wax f4i --uia wc-it"
4 ittwitrdt' 
al  id) 0 je bei int   ebruat 6ur Strode qefomrnenon Tfttiercii feftyftofft

I)abe. Wo roar fibet 60 cm favig. (qv Zeit bct 0aud)bcdc wor bitrd) 
bie 91abefid)nut auggeriffem- Col jd)wci igwdjferige  Iiifjigteit, 
bie bO SMd beim Se aft berloren batte, roar p fiuben. Wm %acb- 
mittag fam bag Stfid bann nac  Tanger! e e bor bem  ?unb jur Gtrede. 
ZO erfte Oeicbot batte ben, Oetefiffnoc en berfett nub puci Rippen 
gefireift, bem Stfid affo fid)er gro5e Scbmerjen bereitet. '& ivar 
Sum erfienmal belcb1agen, =5 abet, nacb bet Gtdrfe bo ftaffie 
Su fcbfie5en, febr Seitig gebrunflet baben. Zie borgefcbrittene (Yrtt,, 
widlung bO ftalbO bftrfte mit einQ5runb Su bent traurigen greiBnio 
bO borAdligen SeDen  geweJen fein.                8altborn. 
'3ur %barotteiraftnt ba             am bergangenen Vinter 
VA           batte id) reidtid) Oetegenbeit, raid) bon bet bieffeitigen 2eiftung
fdbigfeit bO ftefmarbeO an fibeqeugen. Zorau jd)iden mu5 id), 
bat id in einem etwa 100 m loom nddften Valb abliegenben 91eben, 
geb6ft OeflfigelSucbt betreibe.  ?ier oeticbwanben junddft Wnfang 
Zejember auf unerfIddicbe Beife au4 ben in einem offenen Scbuppen 
befinblicben %eftern bie ftampfevefteier.  eino  VorgeO  febIte 
bann eine bon brei Oronjeputen, bie auf emem am (Bebbft ftebenben 
Cbftbaum an n4d)tigen Pflegten. 9tffi nd)ften Vorgen febtte wieber 
eine $ute, unb bie aul bet anitofienben Viele umbertiegenben grebern 
fl ef;en erfennen, ba5 bie $uten bort geriffen waren. In eitter unter 
ement Zorbacb angebradten Zaubettbbble reiften ein $aar aung, 
tauben al  fettene winte-clicbe Zefifateffe il)rer $eftimmung ent, 
gegen, abet aW id),'Tie biefer juffibren woffte, waren fie ipurlo ber, 
id)wunben.   Wufffdrung folfte jebod) - balb erfolgen, benn berciO 
am anberen Zag mu5te i) jeftfieffen, ba  ein Varber in ben im 
!Dau4iebet angebrad)ten Zaubenid)fag eingebrocben roar unb bier 
bO fiblicbe 58tutbab angericbtet 4atte. an bet ndd)ften %acbt roar er 
Dom Zacbe au  in einem jur Beit feeritebenben Staff eingebrungen, 
bet abet nod) bon 'einigen tennen al  Sd)(afraum' benuot wurbe. 
Bwei 91bobeldnber   ennen tagm obne Ropf am  3vben! 
I I Za id) mit bet Vieberfor bO Vatber  recbnete, tegte id) nun 
emen ScbwanenbW unb war jebr erftaunt' am anbern Vorgen 
ftatt bO. bermuteten SteinmarbeO einen ftefmarber barin bor6ufinben. 
CP war eine nut mittelitarfe ardbe, beren Zrad)t lid) cO uubefrud)te 
erwie, joweit id biO feftfleffeu ' fonute. W  furb batauf Scbneefaff 
.einttat,, fpfitte id), bat jebe %ad)t ein ? uc]O bie ndd)fte itntgebung,

'be4 (MebbftO befucbte, jo bat icb mir nun, ein filb bom Verfauf 
bO $uten-Zram0 mqcben founte. Zie $uten waren bo %ad)W, 
bom Marber fiberfaffen unb mit biefent auf bie anfto eube Viefe 
geffattert, unt bier boffenN cLbgerofltgt unb mo4t and) teitweife an, 
geid)nitten in werben. Zet t ucb  batte fie bann aW gute %leute 
in Sicberteit gebracbt. Interegant ift, baf; bet Marbet bie flarl 
riectenben -Ran-wferAgier berftleppt bat, bean ba5 er lid) biefe ein. 
berfeibt, bdtte, ift wobt faum, anjunebmen. 91us, bera 11mftanb, ba5 
e  lid unt red)t Irdftige $uten unb einen berbdItni md5ig ftwad)en 
Varber banbefte, fann man ermeffen, ba5 bet (9belmarber unferem 
Wuerwifb recbt gefdbrti) werben fann.               2ubloff. 
Zom apudp Im (Odpoarpoalb. an ben umflegeiiben %ebieren 
(Wmt   reiburg, 2iffingen) 46rt manoon feiten bet jagbibe4kben, ball 
lid) bie a-ftcbje beuer ftdrfer M fonft bermebrt baben.  ebauerlid,)ev 
weije mutten einige ftuetn auf einfamen Qie bften bar4ber Mage 
ffibren, ba  bie a-dben wdI)renb bet 3eit bet jungenaujjucbt bon ben 
Wel)6ften 10 bi  20 I fibner, einige fttenunb fogar Mule weqI)v1teu. 
Seitbem 'Deumabb unb. Stornernte vorbei finb, b6tt man weniget 
bon jotd)en Mdubereien. an bielen biefer Rebiere war in anberen 
aabren bagegen leine a-udpipur in finben.    Deinricb fiebrIe. 
-3ft Ocutptage jo etivad nv) mOglid)?l 'Zie,,torgduer Beitung" 
(ftrei btatt) bringt unter bem 7. auni 1935 in 94. 131 folgenbe %otij: 
,,g.ifcb&ug auf'einen 58od. , (Yine jcbwierige t3offfrage ergab ficl)

unfdngft in bet 91dbe bon Zalet an bet beutjcbfcbwei3erifden Oren3c. 
gijcber, bie am Mbein angetten, bemerften ptbofic  -einen Ref)bod, 
ber ftbbfid) in ben grUnen afuten jcbwamm, fein majeftWicbeg Oerucif) 
bod) in bie 2flfte itredeub. Zer Ood fc ien in fibettegen, wefcbem Riot 
er fic  butuenbenjoffte. (9nbfid,entfd)Io5 er lid) ffir bO fcbweijeri *,

nid)Sabnenb, baf; bier bet Zub auf ibn lauerte. Zenn bie ! ijcf)ey 
benuoten jojott bie gute @$etegen eit, um'ben faftigen Zraten p 
erlegen. Tod) nie batten fie jo einen berrliden ,! iid)6ug" au4 bent

90eingetan. Scbon war bet Re4bod &etfegt, f)on war bet faftilc 
91fiden gebraten unb bereitg 3um Zeit in. ben jaiicbermagon I)ct- 
idwunben, aW ficb pl6bficb bie Boffbebbrbe einmifdte, bie irgenbluic 
bon bem jeftenen a-ang Ginb bet.ommen batte. 'Ziefer $ocf, jagte bic 
Boffbebbrbe ber'Scbwei3, war gan3 gewi5 ein beutfd)er F8vcf, beffinuat 
ift er nad) bet Gdwei5 4infibergewecbJelt unb bemnad,) bollpffid)tig. 
Zie aifder bdtten gern ba Wegenteit beiviefen, abet afte4 Strditben 
baff nicbM Sie mu ten nod) uacbtrdgfic  ben Boff erlegen fftr beit 
Re4bod, ben fie fojujagen ao bem Rbein,,geangeft" batteu., .'. ."
I tuq(dfttmq duct WVve. an liebiiq Zaacil bon bev Ruriicficit 
ao bor 0eqC116 ooll (soquiff awiffe i" &fqijcI)'AORqL) cillen  Briof

juit ber &itteiluii j, bal; alit 17. ), ftobcr 1934 am goago eine ROwe

mit einem gutriag ,Zogetwarte Toffitten 60829" erlegt wurbe. 
ft  ben ftcberu ber  3ogelwarte Noijitten ergab lid), ba5 0 lid) um 
eine junge   exinombwe, Dieffeicbt bon einer Zrutfofonie, g-innlanW 
ober bo Clri meex   ftammenb, banbeft, bie am 8. ftguft 1934 an bet 
ftfifte bet Sturiften 91ebrung Don Seefifcbetn gefangen, unb inber 
Bogeftuarte beringt unb freigetaffenworben war. Siewarnad)70Zagen 
tief im:  eqen WfrifO angetroffen wotben. 
Vie man aO Rfidmetbungen anberer beringter  oeting mbwen 
ficber ittief;en barf, ift biefe Mwe quer burcb ba europdifc e a-eftfanb

bon bet Rurifcben %eOtung au  an# Mittetmeer unb bon ba ben %it.' 
auftudrW geffogen, um bann im Queffengebiet W 91iW 6um grtu5- 
f0ftem bO Rougo iibequvoecbJeln. j8ei einent alug , in bet 2uftfinie 
bdtte biefer &get Aida 6200 Ritometer in 70 Zagen, am Zage atio 
burd)fdnittlid 89 Ritometer, geteiftet. Oan3 gewi  bat er abet mebt 
abet weniger gro5e Umwege beidrieben unb 'eine burcbjd)nift[id)e 
Zagoteiftung bon biettei)t 110 IM 120 kilometer entwideft. $. 9t. 
(tin fre)ev 3igeuner. Zer adger eineg 9ZAbarbe3irla traf, 
eino Vorgen  einen Bigeuner, bet im Balb freu6 unb quer tierum- 
ftroIcbte unb Judte. Wuf 91nruf Web bet Biqeuner, ein baumlanger, 
fiarter ftert, fteben unb erffdtte bann, er gete lpa6ieren. Zet'adger 
gab ibm abet Su berfteben, ba5 er ibn ffir be4 VilberO I)erbdd)tig 
bafte unb befabl i4m, bie Wrme bod) p nebmen, bamit er it n nad) 
Gallen burcbJucben f6nne. ZerBigeuner bagegen meinte, ba faffe 
ibm, gar nicbt ein. . Wf  ibm ver9dublid gemad)t wurbe, bat et bann 
abgeffibrt werben mRfie, unb aW ba ftommanbo bum Zorau jcbreiten 
erfofgte, blieb bet Bigeuner getaffen fte4en unb etfldrte, ex werbe 
and) nicbt einen Scbritt mitgeben. 91ad) einer balben efunbe ftanben 
beibe and) nod) auf bemielben afed,' nub nad) einer weiteren balben 
etunbe uerfie5 bet adger ben Ort feiner Jao ofipigewalt a14 Unter- 
tegener. %un wirb bet adger biet bowegen gebdnieft, bod) wenn er 
un  im Areife bie lt rage borlegt, wag benn jeber ein5etne in feinem 
aaffe getan bdtte, bann, jiub bie Wnficbten red)t berjc ieben. Zenn 
beim Vilbern war bet 3igeuner nicbt unmittetbar betroffen worben, 
bagegen wiberfette er lid) bet' $ofijeigewaft.  Seine f6rperticbe 
JAberlegenbeit fief; eine ptMfif(be @5eftenbmacbung bet $o1i3eigewaft 
ni'cf)t an, unb ben Red fiber ben I aufen 6u, icbieben, I)dtte bo(b wobt

jeber angeii)t? bet burcbao nid)t gefd rficben Sacb1age 58ebenten 
fietragen.                                            .( Ombe. 
Z) e u t j c  e 3 a  b 

Sk-u-n gestation period - 63 day 
(C. Emerson Brown, Jcar. Uawmalogy, 1936) 

24. *rif 1936                         Z) e u t j c  e   a g b           
W    reid)ffioen  Ztanqefd)mad  oatte. -   Zie &er bet Sailer, 
oflouet jinb fe t woolicomedenb unb ben Ubweneiern qlei)3uftellen, 
wean fie fie nicot fogar fibertreffen. Sir oaben un  bie (fier fteO oart

fo*n fallen. Za  Sei e jiebt wie beim *iionerei aui , ba 05elbe 
bat eine inox 6iegeltote ! drbung. Tie  ild)er oaben bie Vaiierbulm, 
ciet immer gern mitqenommen, too fie fie fanben, ebenio bie Zau*r-- 
cier, Vir jinb bie &er immer eine willfommene $ereicoerung meiner 
ftfid)e geweien. Za  Tflorei bon biejen &etn ift bervortagenb. - 
Sebt intereifant, toenn and) nicot gan4 ungefdorlid), fit bie 2ie$en, 
jagb bom   $abbelboot au .   I co oabe biefe  aaqbart al  2eutnant 
auf bem Sotbenberger See Wet auNeiibt.  A oatte baSu ein au,4 brei 
5brette-rin 3ulammengeicofagene4 &ot, Me 0 bie Uattoeffb er lid) 
anfettigen unb am Gd)lu  bet %eije mit bem  olj Nurfidlafien, 64 
foitete bamaO I Vf. &n Jotd0 $oot lie5 id) an bet epio unb am 
(inbe mit Raften oetleocn, in bie W n6tige 'Danbroerf%eug lam. 
Zor bem Siopla  war ein (Yijenqeftelt at?, Oewebrauflage. Za Wevvebr 
ruar an bieiO 03efteff jo feitqebunben, ba5 bei Ilmicotagen bO $ootO 
bo  Oevveor nid)t im  Sailer verforenging.   $abbelboote beutiger 
Oauart faunte man bamal  nod) nicot. Vit bielem &ote fubt id) 
auf ben See oinau  nub, feile pabbetub, an ben Nobrrdnbern entlang. 
Zie Valietbfibiler famen faft immet bicot IDor bem Zvot au , bem 
C-coilf oerau  unb murben bann mit meor ober roeniger &Jolg be-- 
icooijen. Wllerbinq  muf;te man barauf ad)te-n, ba5 man nicot jeit- 
rodrO jcoo , benn bet Tftdjto5 bo Oeroebro warf W leicote, 3oot 
um, wenn man nicot feor gut balanbierte. Rix ift W $oot ja me 
umgcfippt, 'bod) mamomal tuar 0    nooe baran.   eelbitoerlidnblid) 
mu  man fcowimmen f6unen unb jo frei im $oot liten, bat man 
nicot baran odngenbleibt. 91n, ben Steffen, wo Saijerl)floner aO bem 
ffloor famen, fanb id) bann and meift ba %eft unb fonnte bie (Yier 
mitneomen. Wud) ben  baubentaud)er babe id mit bem $oote gejagt. 
Sao id) auf bem freien Sailer einen Zaud)er, jo ging eg in voller 
aort an ion oeran. ZO Oeroebr tag griffbereit. Sowie bet Zaucoer 
taucote, fuor id) mit F8ollbampf in bet Ticotung vveiter, in bet er 
getaucf)t war, unb war bann meift aul ed)ubwe& beran, wenn bet 
Zaucoer vvieber aultaucote. Zann vourbe bO ebenlaW feitgebunbene 
$abbetruber id)nelf jortgetuorfen unb bie latinte erqrtffen. $evor 
bet Zaucoer bann bon neuem taud)te, tvar bet Gd)ut berau . Bar 
bet Zaud)er abet fdmelfer, jo ging ebea bet &rfolgung4ampf Vveiter. 
Zieje .3agbart fit ipannenb unb auiregeub.    i3on 30cofhOfi., 
ftlebuO mit affld)otteru.  err ,91imrob" eridoft       37 bet 
,,Teutjcoen   agb" ,,3roei &Ie(mijje mit aij*tteru". 9tud)
ico fann 
ein ftebnO fcoilbern, wonad) bet fouft jo J*ue Turicoe and) freco 
jein faun. Tat er au er aijc oen aud) ftten greift, fit mir befannt. 
Wbex ba5 er jico an ben webroaften aifcoreiocr oeranwagt, war mir 
neu. (-B war auf bet I)on mir gepad)teten Saijerjagb auf bet 
einer gxo eu (Yinbuditung in uniere id)6ne'.3nfel %iigen. 9W icf) mid) 
mit meinem !Boot etwa Ritte September 1935 am Moor entlang Jcliob, 
fiel mir ein gro er! Ied id)wimmenber gebern, etwa einen Veter uom 
9ioorgiirtel entferut, auj. C-ie ruaten weif;gxau, unb ba fie nicot, 
brilten fonute. Tamal  gab e  faum. iteigemdote, unaOqebriltete W, 
lege, auco nic t abgemdote 2duicoen ober oon laulnoirticoaftlicoen 
Valcoinen !oertette   unqvoifb.  %a?, Witb oatte Rube but gort- 
pilanAung unb bO junge &lf eine uttgeftbrte kinbetifabe mit guter 
Zedung. Nurben im Sp4tiommer bie Gcoafe fiber biefe unbearbeiteten 
Ader geliibrt, Jo fonute ba  nicot mebt itbren unb id)aben, weil bie 
, ugenb bereiO oerangewad)fen war. Unb war bet Wbicout im  aoie 
boroer and noco lo grof;, im neuen  yagbjaot gab 0 bod) ivieber 
qenfigenb neue4 Sifb, wit ba?, wenig fibicig,, gebtiebene eben bie 
Vbglicofeit, %ul)e unb Oelegenoeit batte, lid) reicoli) fortjupflan5en. 
Unb b" oat e4 ja and) griinblid) beJorgt. Unb wenn bet 93avex reico-

lid) etallbfinger untergepadt oatte, vuenn unter ben groben Scoolfen 
jo oiel etroo lag, ba  bie biden Sttol)bfilten I)erau ragten, bann 
flab bW ein pxdcotigO, vuarmO Vintertaqcr ffir ben   ajen unb ffir 
ba %ebouon gute Tedung in 056aor. Zie 3eiten linb and) iftr ba 
Vilb anber  geworben.    Tem   2anbwi-ct iteot ffinittid)er Vinger 
but  SeOfigung, ben er lid) in beliebigen Vengen anicoaffen faun. 
(Yr l4tt baber and) nicot bO fleinite etiidden %der ungemi t liegen. 
Za  Silb oat bum Se en, bum ftfiten, but Wufaucot feine Tuoe mebr, 
ein gro er Zeil be ,13ungwilbe? fommt um. %0gemdbte 05elege werben 
ooricitig 'oertaijen, jungivilb wirb butd) lanbmirticoaltlid)e Vaicoinen

qetbtet obet Jo id)wer berfe0t, ba  0 leid)t eine Zeute be  Raub, 
wilba wirb. So oat lid) bet ffinftlide Unger in bi oer nod) nid)t 
erbrterter Veiie ungeoeuer udcoteilig ffir ben fiilbbeja  duAgeivirft. 
Zer Silbbalm wirb ja in ben leoten 3abrpbuten biet mebr Vi(b 
entiogen al  irliber. Tie oollfommeneren Saijen macoen, bie (Yr- 
beutu ng W   SOO immer leid)ter. Wud burd) bie weit " , grb ere 
ftbaljl bet !3dger tvirb bet flilbbelao mebr qeAebntet. Witt An- 
te t tragen and) bie b6beren $cuotpreije An bem ltdrfexeWblcou 
bei, rveit loiefe 3dger burco gr6tere .3agbbeitte ben 5bettag roenigilen

einigermaten tuieber bereinbefommen wollen, um ben fie -lid bei 
bet   aqbDcrjteigerung iWer iore Zerbdltnijfe oinaO 'oerftiegen oaben. 
Scolief;fid) bewirfen and) bie fortgeicorittenen, immer jaf)lreid)a 
werbenben %erfeor mittel wie &ienbaon, %uto, 'Notorrab, wetcoe 
intmer meor bi4 in bie entlegetiften 03egenben i3orbringen unb lid) 
mit fteU gefteigerter (Meicovvinbigfeit beroegen, eine immer grb ere 
Wilboernicotunq. 3u bicler Zernicotung tommt mut nod) bie $e- 
oinberung Pe?, Silbe  in bet j8ermeorunq burd) bie borfteoenb ge- 
Jcoilberte ounbertpro6entige bobenbewitti; aftunq, fenter buid) bic 
icoon oft loe-rutteitte Wukottuug bet  eden, Zrodenlegung Don ftuco- 
Idnbern nub vietem anberen. (B tann jonad) nicot vermunberlid) lein, 
wenn bet 58efa  an %iebervvitb, oor atlem an Tebofibnern, bauernb 
ifarf buriidgebt.  Zie forticoreitenbe %u belmunq   bev etdbte, 
eieblungen unb  5nbuitrieftdtten barf and) nicot vergeiien werben. 
Veine Udnbe fcomfiden b-iaDe Oeoftne, bie icb in frii0er  augenb 
bort erbeutete, wo bereiO Jeit :jaotAebnten un6dotige %dber lurren, 
b mmet itampfen unb oicle tauienb Venld)en emjig aTbeiten, bort, 
wo oeute Siemen jtabt fteot.                 (Earl Rabenalt. 
*eljt ben Wilbentei! 3um sXrtifel be terrn i3on Cex en in 
91r, 45, btejO Vatje  ertallue tu) In t 
folgeubO An ja en' 9tuf iniferen 
Fagben im VarOebrud) wurben tiele 
Waijerofioner, oict 2jeten genannt, 
qeic oljen, bie entroeber mit 20 Wq- 
betfauft ober an ben giid)er Derlcoenft 
murben, bet un  jeine Adlme but &v 
ftigung geftelft batte. Zie grrau be 
gijcber  oat un  bO 6fteren auco 
Salierofioner gebratenunb fie icomed, 
ten recot gut, vvenn and) nicoi wie 
Silbenten.   Tie Zorbereitung    bet 
fiajjer fitner bum !Braten beftaub 
nicot im Wb3ieoen bet ( aut, vuie *err 
oon Cetoen 'poricoldgt, foubern nut im 
9lbbtftoen mit focoenbem Sailer, wa 
abet qriinblid) geid)eoen mu . 'tie 
gjjd)er frau itanb auf bem Stanb, 
punft, baf; bet tranige Weicomad nicot 
in bet I aut liegt, jonbern auf bet-- 
jelben, ba ba  Zx i4enf ett in bie grebern 
gerieben wirb unb bon ba au  and) 
auj bie  Daut fomntt- IN tuirb ja auco 
!oon bet Sitbqan  bebauptet, man 
16nne fie nut nad) abge5ogetter   aut 
ellen.  A oabe abet i(oon mand)e 
Silbgan  mit 03enu  Deripeift, obie 
bie I aut ab5u6ieoeu- Tie abet babe 
id) o unterlagen, bie 05an , vor bem 
$taten abbrfioen bu talieu., 91ur eine 
ein5ige ojan  ift mir al  ungeniet, 
bat in &intterung, bie im Pdra 
geidpifen  roar.  JIDier banbelte 0 
lid) vuo4l um ein uralte#  C-tfid,- 
(pbot. ecjocaftiider,  3c ffn) 
(Fr ift witber b4l 

82                     Z)eutjc e  3dgb 
Nr. 4 
bon unferen enien ftammen Yonnten, bie (Wenten in biefer 13eit abet 
nvc  nicf)t bier finb, fo ftanb id borlduJig bor einem 91dtfel. Wber bie

26jung jolite i) balb  aben. ac  idob mid) W 91ol)r unb beffte mid) 
leiblid. 91id)t lange banad, bet fioc  jef)r gutem %iic jenlid% I)brte i)

ein 6ftereg knaden bon afie'm Nof;r, jo baf; ic  anna m, a pflrfc t fic 
ein Venid) langJam  burc g Nol r.  $fboli)  6rte id) ein fldgli)eg 
Gd)reien, bann ein aufgexegteg afilgeli)Iagen, unb barauf ftieg ein 
9-ifd)tei4er aW ben Oinfen unb fief etwa 15 Meter bor meinem ftot 
auf bag of fene Oaf f er ein. 2(ug f einem Oebaren tonnte id) jeot jc lief;en'

bat er etroag beobad)tete, benn er dugfe aufgeregt in bie finN bon Mir 
ffel)enben Zinfen. Vid) bemertteer fiber aupt nid)t, obtuol)l er gerabe 
bor bet !oon mir freigelaifenen S)uf;6ffnung itanb. Wfg and) id) biefe 
Wegenb beobac tete, famen au  ben Nnfen, ettua'10 Meter neben 
meinem . &ot, gwei aifdotter  erau4ejc ojfen unb ftrebten . bireft 
auf ben 9ifc rei er an. Zer aij)rei er ftieg wieber auf, fhid) nur etroa

30 Meter lintg ab unb ftellte lid) tviebet in bag 25 cra f)o e 9affer. Zie

aifd)otter rannen nun unter me rmaligem Spielen wieber in bag 91ol)r 
6urfid.  Raum: waren abet ivieber einiqe Vinuten bergangen, aIg 
ettvag abjeitg beim aifd)rei4er bie 
.beiben 2 ijc otter Vvieber etfd)ie, 
nen unb auf ben aijc reiber 3u. 
iatmen. Za er im offenen Uaffer 
loar, fonnte er ficl) and) jett 
wieber erbeben unb " wieber 
bireft bor mein $oot. 'Zie aijdy 
otter, benen eg abermal  nid)t 
gelungen roar, feiner  ab aft Su 
Iverben, rannen tvieber langfam 
ing i)fitenbe 91o t jurad, Vel)v 
maIg bbrte id) nod) bag knaden 
bom %obr, bann Wurbe eg itiff 
Unt mic . Zer aifd)teiber ftieg 
langJam gut Geite unb tuar bann 
binter  einent   %o rborjpxung 
nieinen  Viden    entid)wunben. 
aett geba)te id) bet id)tvimmen, 
ben aebern unb 1vu5te nun auc , 
baf; eg '91eifierfebern tvaren. 
Sal)rjdeinlic   atten bie beiben 
9ijd)otter ben %eiber jd)vn ein, 
mal gegriffen.  Zieg mat and 
anjunebmen, benn afg gefunber 
%ei4er tudre er jebenfallg fofort 
nad bem erften Wngriff ab, 
geffrid)en. So flog er abet nur 
Etreden bon ettva 30 Meter. 
(finen lierenbeten %ei er  abe id) 
fPdter tor bem %obr nid)t gefun, 
ben. Za id) in meinem NeDier bie 
luenigen Weiler fd)one, entjdfo5 
icb mid) nid)t aum Wbjd)u . Wfler, 
bingg tudre eg ffir mid) intereffant 
gemefen, bie ettvaige $erfebung 
feftSufteffen. Martin Vintfer, 
jbaabe, anjef 91figen. 
(Yg ift nid)t gefegt, Mit bem Ofafe abet beutfid in erfennen. Zie &v

erbung bet 91idenift olme 8tveifelrec t gut. Ziegiftleidt5uerfennen, 
wenn fie mit i4ren laoridbrigen Ooditen sujammenfte en. 81vitter, 
bilbung  abe ic  nie feftfleffen t6nnen; ic  I)alte bie Qle ftno 
bitbung be3figli) bet Zeterbung unbebingt fitr gut nub 
erfldre mir baraug bie fiber bem Zurd)f)nitt gute ge- 
bbrnbilbung bet  Bbde in meinem        Rei)ier.       lbolbt. 
Sic part jinb bit Gcoedc unjere# WaOlvilbcb? 2aut Wu tveW 
meineg I agbbud)eg ja  id) am 30. Mai 1896 im: Staatgtualbe bon 
ftatten ofen (2otbringen) bei bet $flrf  eine (gbefmarberfdbe mit 
bier  ungen. Morgeng gegen 5 Ubr traf id) bie Oefellfd)aft auf einer 
Heinen Walbbf6te an. WIg bie ad4e mid) erdugte, baumte fie an einer 
ftdrferen ftc e auf, gefolgt bon ben Dier jungen, tuorauf alle in einem 
%aumlod) berid)rvanben. 3d) fette mid) gebedt an, wartete einige 
Beit unb qudfte bann auf bet bloten  Danb. 91e gierig fte(fte bie ? 
ben Ropf aug bem 2od), baumte ab unb fam auf mid) Su. W14 fie mic ' 
erdugte, faud)te unb federte fie, unb i) mutte fie jc lie5fid) mit bent 
NgonUip avroe renf ba fie Mi. 
tenb an mir lio) ivollte. Zie 
9W ftuttexlie e I)atte fie jebenfalig 
bu biefem  utauOrud) getrieben.' 
ftel) fdgt itber bie Oel)ecte 
bet Varber: ,Zie 3ungen, beren 
Saf l ex eblid, fo bielman tvei5, 
Atuifd)en gvei unb se4n jc rvanft, 
tommen blinb gut Beftunb mfiffen 
lange geldugt nub gepflegt iver, 
ben." Riefentf)al i)reibt in fei- 
nem !3agbIqifon: ,Zer (9bel- 
marber ranSt ld)on im  3anuar, 
tvobei eg in biffigen $a1gereien 
jvvifc en ben Tfiben tommt. %ad) 
neun God)en bringt bie ItN4e 
bfei big bier ettva awei Goden 
I)inburd) bfinbe .3ungen, welde 
fie mit groger 2iebe unb Surge 
I)egt: unb jdugt." - Bag bie 
91angeit beg (9belmarberg be. 
trifft, jo lefen roir ja in bet 
%r. 41/1936 loom 10. aanuar, 
ba5 bet  ejfenjdger am 17-3uni 
1935 ein ebelmarberpaar fter. 
rajcljte, afg bet 9Wbe bie adl)e 
bedte.          3agbbijc of. 
,%ved)e SeVellen. 9fn einem 
trfiben, nebefigen Sonutagmittag, 
furA !oor Gei nad)ten I)origen 
3a*g- befanb ic  mid) brau ett, 
too eine aic tettbidung an etn 
$udenaItI)vfa beg Tadbarrebierg 
grenAt.  A ftanb neben einer 
$p)e, ben j unb angel eint neben 
mir   afg in ber "Didun   -   - 
f                   U "  . 
ard)iv Soolog(fd)er Oarten Zerffn)  ,gel)edJelt fam  unb ein audo 
feine brei Sc ritt neben mir er, 
jd)ien. Mein fedg Ponate after 
RUTAaat fuf)r 2aut gebenb nac  bem audo, abet anflatt ba  biefer 
f)leunigft bie afud)t eroff, fette er jic  unb Seigte bem i)unb 
federub bag Oebi . eft ofg id) mit bem Stod nac  il)m jc lug, aoq 
fic  bet !aud5g, nod) immer fecfetnb in bie 'Zidung 6urfid unb 13ev 
id)roanb bor bem geiclmallten iunb in einem ftu. 
,13n einem 9?ad)barre!oier jd)vt bet  orftbeamte im September 
auf einem fta fjcl)lag einen lbod, bet nad) ruenigen afuc ten t)or 
bet Zidung 3ujammenbrac . Reine jel)n'Sdritt!oon bem Ood erjc ien 
barauf ein   ucbg  'auf bem Edlage unb dugte Wereffiert nacl) bem 
nod) idtegelnbett Ood. Zer ecf)fl e, wefd)er ungebedt ettua 1)unbert 
Sdnitt an bem Gd)fage ftanb, jdob eine neue Rugelpatrone in ben 
2auf feiner ftc je unb J*  ben aud)g loorbei. Ziefer ergriff abet 
nidt etrva bie       jonbern jc lid lid immer nd4er an ben $od 
beran, big ibn bie ndd)fte Rugel neben bem F8od #erenben lief . Sie 
li)  eraugjtellte, war eg nid)t ettva ein  ungfuc g, Jonbern ein aftet 
91fibe I                                      W. OleiUmanv. 
3u: ,Sic (auge bauett bic ffic4brunft, unb ivc(A)c Wde be- 
Vd)tagen bic mciften Widen?" Jr. 43 bet ,'Zeutfc en aagb"). In

memem, agbbu)e finbe ic  folgenbe 91otig: ,14. Utober 1890. I eute 
nadmittag 3 11 r beobac tete id auf ben Giefen einen 0abelbod, bet 
in bem 8eitraum I)on 12 Vinuten eine jef)x ftarfe 91ide breimat beftfuq.

91ad) jebem 911t 5og bet $ocf, obne lid) inguifd)en nieber3utun, m1t: 
bem Winbfanq am aeuclitbfatt bet 91ide f)inter biefer  er, big eg jum 
nacVten $efd)fag fam. erft nad bent brittm &JdIag taten lid beibe 
C-tiide nieber."  2anbrat a. Z. b u n V e p e r, ct ranffurt (Cber).'

Gcobrotte 911den. ftber biefeg   6wenfffiberzOeftdt  (Zifbe 
Vema tann i(  auofiljrlic  be, 
rid)ten, benn Wit I)aben immer einige im 91euier gegam, 10 lange C 
benten lann, unb id I)abe aud) I)eute nod) einige., 0 ejc ojjen babe id)

felber im gangen bier. Veine  ierbei gemad)ten (Frfal)rungen will id) 
gern Sur FSerifigung ftellen, obgteid) fie 5um Zeil ffir mid) jd)m erili)

unb peintid) gewefen jiub, abet gerabe begbalb roiff ic  fie befannt-- 
geben, benn baburc  bftrften biele 8weifef Sum Wuten beg 91e ftanbO 
beboben iverben. Zie erfte gel)brnte 91ide fcf)o5 id) afg folde im SOW 
erbft 1912, nub bwarmit 13offer Uberfegung, benn fie ftanb affein, 
unb in ber, agbliteratur wurbe'bamalg allgemein bie 9fnlid)t oertreten 
ba  biefe 91iden meift geft feien unb baf)er abgej)vjfen vuerben mfi5ten'

&im 9fujbreden roar id) fel)r erftaunt, baf; bie Ride Mild batte, affo

aud)'Oefiibrt baben muf;te. Im Mat 1913 fd)of; ic  meiner Veinung 
nac  auf einen bet jo loerpbnten ftnopfipie5er unb fteffte beim Wuj' 
brec en tief befddmt eine bod)bejdlagene geb6rnte Tide mit 3tuei 
gefunben ftbt o feft. Sie itanb auf einer Viefe in jo  obem Orafe, 
bafi,'id i ren 3uftaub nic t erfennen fonnte unb mid) nur auf bag 
Oebbrn berlie5. Zon nun an war i) febr boxjic tig, unb fonnte'jabr 
ffir'.3abr ge4brute Riden mit Rio fefftelfen. (Yelegentlid) eineg aelb- 
urfaub  fc ot id) bann im Woloember beg 3abre4 1916 eine ftart ab, 
getommene, gebbrnte 91ide aug einem Sprung gefbrebe. Sie war 
fonft anjc einenb 6efunb, abet jic er fiber Atubtf : a4re aft. Zie fe te

qe brnte 91ide jd)v5 ic  ebenjaffg in ftart abgetommenem 3uftanb 
im Ze5ember 1935. Sie vuar gfeid)fafIg fel)r aft unbbatte aufierbem 
einen jcf)fec t ber eiften, boppeften kieferbru), bet meinego. &- 
ad)teng nur burc  einen Bufammenpraff mit einem Wuto entitanben 
fein founte. 'Zie 91iden  aben affe faft genau bag gfeid)e Oebbrn. 

0 - 
IeWAA-W            C/ /tailtw -4AIL q 

C9 /.a&  ao-t-4-~*/ti 
__   _  6 

Gestation period - 21 days (T. H. Patton, 
St. Louis) 
(C. kerson Brown, Jour. Ma     ., 1936) 

November 3, 1936 
Professor Aldo Leopold, 
1532 University Avenue 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
There is no manner of determining the number of fisher 
taken in New York annually, but rest assured they are far 
from extinct. The Annual Report of the New York Conserva- 
tion Department for 1930 list 66 fisher taken in the Adiron- 
dack region in 1928. In the 1935 report there were recorded 
31 fisher taken in the 1933-34 season. As I have pointed 
out elsewhere (Scientific Monthly, Feb. 1935, pp. 182-187) 
such returns are notoriously inaccurate, and alwals too Jowl 
At present I am working on a manuscript of the fur re- 
sources of the state. Many of my Adirondack trapper friends 
whom I know personally, have given me no end of valuable 
data on t~ie fisher and marten and their present status in 
the big woods. One writes that during the past 2 years 
fisher and marten have been driven out of certain sections 
by the use of dynamite in the hands of CCC gangs cutting 
fiffe roads into the remote sections. That may be one reason 
they were caught more frequently last season in comparative- 
ly settled sections. 
Fisher are not difficult to take, and are frequently 
caught in fox sets. Others chase them into hollow trees, 
smoke them out and thus capture a few. One of my advanced 
students, while returning to his home at Axton, New York, 
during the Thanksgiving recessI,1"imade a cubby set for fox 
or marten. He used a deer paunch for bait. The trap was 
left set, and when he returned to it a month later, held a 
fine, well furred female fisher, for which he received $40. 
It's skeleton is now in our collection. 
Current low prices of the past 5 years have taken some 
of the pressure from marten and fisher trapping, but with 
rising prices, in spite of a now closed season on marten and 
fisher in New York, a number will be taken and bootlegged 
into Quebec. 

It is difficult to essay how many fisher are annually 
taken. It probably runs between 100 and 200. As a matter 
of fact, I really think marten are now scarcer than fisher, 
contrary to reports of the Conservation Department's Annual 

So p                                                                    Cycle
'                                                 Weasel  folder ,,,"

Conservation Department 
Laysmith, Wisconsin 
March 16, 1937 
To the Director 
Wis. Conservation Dept. 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Attention P. G. Wilson 
Dear Sir: 
Frequent observations during the winter show that field mice 
have hit a new low. Iast winter there were thousands of field mice 
that did damage to field and forest crops on a large scale. This 
year there are very few mice and no damae noticeable. The cause 
of this rapid decline (not figuring possible disease ravage) is due 
to the extreme nmbers of weasel this year that were not present 
last year. 
On a sample plot of young maple where there was much girdling 
damage last winter, I saw tracks of two mice and six weasel this 
Trappers in Ruask and adjoining counties have caught hundreds 
of weasel this winter. The mice were done away with but I think 
too many weasel were taken to insure future control of the mice. 
Rabbits seem to be on the increase so maybe it is their turn 
to gnaw. 
Very truly yours, 
Kenneth Beechel 
Area Forester 

Iowa's Muskrats Are Travelers 
Some idea of the distance a muskrat 
will travel is given in a report of Dr. 
Paul L. Errington, Research Assistant 
Professor of the Iowa State College. A 
tag was placed on a muskrat when 8 
days old on July 5, 1935, and was 
releatsed on the northwest shore of 
Round Lake in Clay County. The same 
animal was killed in a hog house owned 
by J. W. Zerfoss of near Superior in 
Dickinson County and near Swan Lake 
in the early part of the winter of 1936- 
1937. The distance between these points 
is about 21 miles. Dr. Errington has 
one other report of a tagged muskrat 
which was taken 4 miles from the place 
it was tagged. 

r K    "~    (A           ~AA 
Ix m 
A?' ~\ 

Copies for Buss 
Skunk foldert.- 
Extract from note, "Feeding Behavior of a Skunk," by A. M. Stebler,
Jour. Mamalogy, Vol. 19, No. 3, August, 1938, p. 374: 
"Probably the most interesting mannerism observed concerned the 
way in which he obtained the contents of hens' eggs. First he tried to open

an egg by biting it vogorously, but his mouth was too small to permit him
secure an effective purchase upon it. He then walked around the egg several

times, cuffing it with a front foot as he encircled it. This method was 
likewise of no avail. Eventually he straddled the egg, grasping it with his

front feet in a manner not unlike that assumed by the center of a football

team while waiting for the signal to snap back the ball. Now he forcibly

passed the egg between his hind legs, apparently in an attempt to strike
object with it. Immediately upon snapping the egg, he would look or turn

around as if to locate the egg or to see if it was broken. After a few 
trials he broke it against a stone window sill. Then he lapped up the con-


The fisher, one of the largest members of the weasel tribe, and the   
N ote in Journalof Ms  !ma , Vol. 20, Jo. 3, August 13,p             7 
wae n 0 etfrom the shore 
LaeSperio, to fin, anoter (i 
hooks  Th  t a isigfo 
hae be agto     okw~l 
hooks, and the ott 
~e bait or a larger 
to release itself. 
Thnis fishing s done throghhoes in the ice which covers 
of th ttrae well kon hsdfnt eodo et n 
4.stance taeeuneieisunusul.-.~ot      icni 
servation Dep artment, Madso..isonin 

AUTUMN, 19*9 
U A typical trappers' village on Harvey Canal No. 2 in Jefferson Parish.

Louisiana Furs to the Fore 
The season of fur coats is upon us! 
A royal pageant of glorious womankind 
clothed in lustrous, luxurient furs will 
soon  be charming   the eyes of - the 
nation; new and vastly becoming styles, 
fashioned by experts, are now displayed 
in the shops, and sad, indeed, is the fate 
of her who cannot afford one of these 
beautiful coats or jackets. 
What a wealth of gorgeous furs to 
choose from! Chinese and Persian lamb, 
Jap and Chinese mink, Russian squirrel, 
muskrat, kid, caracul, silver fox, Hudson 
seal, pointed skunk-all are shown in 
attractive modes, chic and new. 
History tells us there was a time when 
animal pelts were used for utilitarian 
purposes only, but now milady bedecks 
herself in furs both in summer and win- 
ter, to add to her beauty and allurement. 
Some student of feminine psychology 
has said that there should be a clause in 
the Constitution of the United States de- 
claring that once in her life, at least, 
every woman should own a fur coat. 
We are quite sure that most women 
would vote for this amendment! 
In the shops there seems to be a fur 
garment suited to every purse and per- 
son.  There are several distinctly new 
features that characterize  the  latest 
styles, but the most outstanding one is 
the "built up" shoulder.  Collars are 
not large this season; in fact, many coats 
are collarless. Even fur collars on cloth 
coats are small. Sleeves offer many new 
ideas such as the spiral treatment, the 
comfortable width at the wrist and the 
overtrim above the elbow. 
Louisiana furs are among the most 
popular.  Natural and dyed mink are 
featured in some of the most beautiful 
coats. Muskrats are shown in dark sil- 
vertone, natural ombre and in silver, the 
last with the pelts interlocking in wonder- 
ful designs.  Short coats in pointed 
skunk, dark with an occasional white 
hair showing, are very attractive. The 
shops are also showing handsome neck- 
pieces in silver and red fox. 
So common is the wearing of furs to- 
day that we are apt to forget the im- 
portance that early trapping and fur 
barter had in the history of our country. 
We forget that trading in pelts was the 
beginning of commercial enterprise in 
Estelle Verjie Cottman 
America.  While the countries of the 
Old World were jockeying for territory 
in the New, huge fur trading companies 
were formed, trading posts established, 
and trappers and explorers were pene- 
trating  deeper and  deeper into the 
wilderness for pelts. 
The Old World had nothing to com- 
pare with the abundance of wildlife in 
North America.   Such a supply was 
almost unbelievable, and trappers could 
not conceive of any decline in the mil- 
lions of fur animals. 
That such a decline was possible be- 
came evident with the building of the 
railroads that made these wildlife havens 
easily accessible.  Newly settled towns 
and cities encroached upon the natural 
habitat of these wild creatures, driving 
them back, depleting their numbers and 
limiting their breeding areas. 
The invention of the steel trap was a 
boon to the trapper, enabling him to in- 
crease his take, and, automatically his 
income, but it was a tragedy for the 
furbearers.  Before this invention the 
trapper depended upon the uncertain 
results of nets, snares and deadfalls, but 
now his catch was almost a certainty. 
03 --W-                    - - ------------- I .. . ...... . ... , .... ......

We5p"" X 
4 7 
, 1A.0 

0 Home at the end 
of the day. The 
day's catch may be 
seen in the bow of 
the boat. 
With such easy trapping methods, wise 
men soon realized that there would come 
a time when fur animals would be very 
scarce or even extinct, so steps were 
taken to provide legal protection for 
them during their unprime season and 
to regulate and supervise methods of 
trapping. Today Federal and state laws 
insure a permanent breeding supply of 
furbearers, guarantying a continued oc- 
cupation for trappers and an additional 
source of revenue for state and nation. 
Louisiana occupies an important posi- 
tion in the fur industry and holds 
it chiefly because of the millions of 
muskrats produced each year.  During 
the season of 1929-30 the total catch 
of rats reported in the United States was 
8,435,583, of which   Louisiana was 
credited with 6,296,556. 
This catch is remarkable. The musk- 
rat area in North America spreads from 
Newfoundland to Alaska and from Louisi- 
ana to California, while in Louisiana their 
producing area is limited to lower Louisi- 
ana; yet in a single year this State con- 
tributed 75%  of the entire catch of 
North America. 
It appears that the best fur pelts come 
from animals that weather severe winters 
and grow a heavy pelage for protection. 
M A trapper's cabin on the edge of the marsh. On the rack to the 
right may be seen muskrat pelts, hanging out to dry. 

AUTUMN, 1939 
Naturally, the mild climate of Louisiana 
does not necessitate such a thick hair 
growth yet our furs are steadily gaining 
a reputation for duribility and strength. 
A typical rat skin is "silver" on the 
belly, "gold" on the sides and brown on 
the back. Silver skins make the most 
beautiful coats, with gold ranking next 
in value.  In making a coat, several 
thousand pelts may be examined for color 
and quality before some seventy-five are 
finally matched. 
The natural pelts have long guard 
hairs  that  protrude  from  the  soft 
under fur. When these hairs are plucked 
out, the pelt is sold under the name of 
"moleskin". When this plucked fur is 
dyed seal or black its trade name is 
"Hudson seal". The wearing quality of 
this fur is excellent and garments made 
from it are beautiful and satisfactory. 
The undyed muskrat pelts make hand- 
some and durable coats and wear much 
better than some more expensive furs. 
Often the skins are blended, dyed a rich 
brown and sold as mink.     The true 
Louisiana mink is skillfully blended into 
a dark brown and compares favorably 
with northern pelts. 
Modern   methods  have   lifted  the 
cheaper furs into the higher priced class. 
By ingenious methods of plucking, dying 
E The trappers' 
children some- 
times catch and 
raise  y o u n g 
muskrats as 
pets. "'Jacko", 
on the arm of 
Carl Zar, is two 
months old. 
0 Fur buyers grading hides. The hides are bought at trapping 
posts and sorted out according to species and grades. 

0 The regal lines and lustrous sheen of this 
muskrat coat worn by Callista Clancy, daughter 
of Sheriff and Mrs. Frank J. Clancy, of Kenner, 
would make it a fashion favorite for well- 
dressed women anywhere. 
5 This silver muskrat coat worn by Rita Mae 
Gegenheimer, of Gretna, (Miss New Orleans 
1937), is only one of the many styles possible 
in muskrat fur, a fur that is not only smart, 
but remarkably serviceable. 
and trimming, cheap skins are made to 
resemble more costly furs. The clever 
manufacturer produces what is known as 
black fox by dying the gray fox pelt. 
Even the beautiful silver fox fur is some- 
times imitated by dying the common 
gray pelt black, gluing on white tips 
from the skin of a badger and adding the 
white tail-tip from a skunk. The pelts 
of Louisiana's bay lynx and opossum are 
cleverly manipulated and sold under at- 
tractive trade names. However, there is 
a growing demand for these skins in their 
natural pelage. 
Under proper treatment the despised 
skunk enters polite society. The natural 
skin is black and white and to make the 
attractive black fur so much admired, 
the white hairs are cut out and the skin 
carefully sewed together again. The re- 
sult is a fur of unusual beauty and 
luster, which gives a more beautiful 
effect than by simply dying the white 
hairs black as is sometimes done. 
The finest furbearer in Louisiana is 
the otter, whose pelt in the palmy days 
of the last decade brought the trapper 
the top price of thirty-five dollars. Our 
largest pelt is that of the raccoon and 
the manufacturers do marvelous things 
to add to its beauty; but even i'as is" it 
is a handsome, sturdy fur and very popu- 
lar, especially for collars, cuffs and 
Fur coats should be given good care, 
no matter what the pelage. If accidently 
wet, they should be brushed, hung care- 
fully and dried-but not by artificial 
heat. They should be kept in good re- 
pair by experts-this is not an expensive 
service-and should be sent to the clean- 
ers often enough to keep them soft and 
glossy. Of course they should be kept 
in cold storage in summer. The wearer 
should loosen them seated and avoid 
carrying her purse in such a manner as 
to rub them shiney or wear off the hair. 
Last but certainly not least, women 
should remember that if they MUST 
purchase a cheap fur coat their best 
bargain will be one fashioned from Louisi- 
ana muskrat pelts, either the natural or 
the moleskin! 
Timber wolves still occur in various 
parts of Louisiana, being of the black 
timber wolf variety. Apparently they do 
no appreciable damage to domestic stock 
in this State, since they keep to wild 
and remote areas, but undoubtedly they 
destroy deer. 
"Pressure maintenance" is defined as 
the practice of returning gas from flush 
production to the oil formation for the 
purpose of keeping oil reservoir pressure 
and energy as near initial conditions as 
possible for the purpose of increasing the 
ultimate oil recovery of the field. 

April 12, 1940 
Mr, L, Butler, Biologist 
Fur Trade -ommiesionorts Office 
HUdsonfa Bay Company 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 
Dear Mr. Butlert 
I have your letter of April 4 and will be glad to 
pass on to you the thoughts that come to my mind upon readin 
your recent paper on muskrat foods, The Inclosure Is my file 
copy of a manuscript that I had gone over for the last time the 
before I reeived my opy of the Canadian Field-Naturalist in    ih 
your paper appearedj you will observe that I have made some late 
hanges to include references to your findings., Your discovery of 
m be             s  importnt as a food plant surprised me, especially 
wFf the following original(nov amended) passage on page 8 
of my MS|Norsetal1..,... sems to be the only waterside growth 
of which utilization for food has not been recorded in the Iowa 
field notes...." Insofar as I have known cottontails simply to 
mow down Z   setum about as your muskrats did, my guess is that 
there is           very attverative about the plant that causes ani- 
lt started, to onsume it selectively,                     t that 
its 0   da     e,            ittinesi,     serve as a strong initial 
barrier to utilization, One might pos     ate regional differences 
In silica andHON content - which may very well exist - but the 
faot that animels of not dissimilar feeding tendencies may relish 
Eand eat it without ararent detriment (it may, however, 
e a source of stoo, poisoni g    In both regions seems to point mere 
to the establishment of local habits. 
Frua the published acoounts of your experiments, I would say 
that your approach has potentialities far in excess of prosent re- 
sult, Iwould like to see you try some Inferior - perhaps slowly 
lethpaldiets on captive muskrats$ under conditions designed to 
*imlate winter food shortages, for it is certainly true that mus- 
krats En stay alive for varying lengthe of time on foods Uhat are 
by no *-na in the category of bulrush and cat-tail underpats. In 
other     s, there may be tremendous differences In optimum and mere- 
ly sub7sitence diets, and apprisals of the Immediate food resources 

Mr. L. Butler, Biologist 
of marshes must take into consideration the supply of a much larger 
part of the available organic matter than the most palatable or nu- 
tritious plnts. With your facilities, could you carry on a series 
of experiments - using, of mrse, adequate controls, etc. - to dete-? 
mine just about what a muskrat needs to squeeze through a winter? 
When we try to consider the role of psychic factors in rela- 
tion to food utilization and population our interpretations of data 
become still more hazardous, and I can better refer you to the latter 
part; of the Inclosed MS than to attempt elaboration of this subject 
by letter. It is especially baffling t try to explain how mus- 
krats react strongly to differences in food during summer, when their 
regular foods may not only be generally abundant beyond visible needs 
but also constantly replenished by new growths; -thout Imputing too 
much in the way of Intelligence or foresight to the muskrat, one may 
suspect that gradations in ease of living may thus be reflected 
In the behavior of local populations. 
In the event that you plan further experiments, I would be pleased 
to help you in ai y way that I can. Would there be any chance of 
your spending a few days with me here in Iowa? 
I expect to submit my paper, "Versatility in feeding and popu- 
lation maintenance of the muskrat, to the Journal of Wildlife Manage. 
ment, but It has a number of bands to go through, and I cannot say 
when It will be published, Ydu may return my file copy at your con- 
venience   no hurry. 
Sincerely yours, 
Paul L. Errington 
Research Associate Professor 
CC: Prof. Leopold 
Page 2 

File: Badger 
Anton Novy of Manitowoc tells me that he has found evidence that 
a badger may dig aut and kill a fox in an underground den. He found a 
dug-out den with the remains of a fox and evidence that a badger had 
done the work. 

December 9. 1941 
Frederic Leopold tells me that on a 3-acre pond Just west of the 
Chrysta. Lake Club House in Henderson County, Illinois, 40 muskrats 
were trapped this fall bringing $2.00 each, or $80 for the year's 
crop. There were 7 houses in this pond, but a large number of 
additional rats inhabited bank burrows. The pond is bordered on 
one side by the road and on the other side by the railroad bank, 
hence opportunities for bank burrows are especially good. 
cc Zrrington 

to~~~  e  t ren U 4    w 
dpets wer  d.veveo4 in a CrT1pit. wh*h ws Woa K *arlY &S 191a 
paovols, *In*  that tiee hae. left a pit about two weeo in &ea and partly

suronddby a 10fo     bek. At the not-onrft oe4        of the pit, mdow 
the rooets of 24-inc Wv  olde  stunr  three *'Tts" of shell were exopo4

by -okw rmviar gravel, The upnor voi w abu         IA Inaba "Nwth tba

.1oy surfae of th* ground, the s.oon  alot tw   fet fsepew, Pni the third

ebeeut 14IS~o baeineea the siooinE. %w*t v   we from two to for nc* 
vid SM4 from 1/2 ta*e to two inoe*   I l  oiniss   At not loe tha two 
plates al    the -value, lUrger *abee t she wr disew    d,  All #hal 
frgtet   obeorm* wT pmao     by smal tree ro~se 
trvier to the time ofthRio imetigati~m ceiidable rfotwbeoo had 
Oewvrre4 at the site .mE likely rmn~    awge ablieovidonso ubikh miott h-
boonused to olsrlf4 the picture    Am entire e*ioom eg  *n   an   ram4 
wo r-Ao   during oarly Soeebr       mn   h    r   nom 4wt utwhamo wa.t 
found whii* poolu4os an iatm depoit or a depost over five y*raide4 
4.thou# the up.r voin of shells we only ah ut 10 Iaes bwath the 
ground   tarfee *ad the bm older .,o there. "oreno larg root. g"4W
the volnoo  F-sa voi had ,M~ em.     rotet.ronUhoq         it showig t 
the Iooat ",* -reint durln the troe'o loot yoar of grw.       Rmroeho
tRrv  no #Ow@t the stum  shovd that the two. hed bo  out three yetrs ago*
the khol.s wee nt doos, .54 sinmes at least mwo          ob    ewas still

isat,*A  ioofnal  tod*fslmvor Aftodonyvth on-errolt 
Prom theo box elder tree, it tow  loi...1 to emoud thet Re dopcsite art from

three to fou  years 4, 
now 4  -* hell glot w     *a   rwn    box olde tro. m *mto tbur 
yeoars eo 

The fomer on th* N*kv ftrau told C,. B v that s eg   aholl we 
ove deposted in this pZ*" ka forme orcharp by his f~1y.        hw. ies
oviene o  tho sod efa refue pit bevin  boon 4% no   the atwV,   rutoroo 
v.fis rite ou     rto sho s~ tratao eposts in nre   md sh11em vina. evit

s~wthat P.wwa o t r       hq~nIbe tor their .oowurenes, v~e tho stwV, 
Thors are no reptiles in this s tato that woul **rr hmrodsof oh ick 
*W~0 throe block*sand thon dwvoit them i Ia rrwi that to  n   t   . f tear@0

b1.wo the surfac of th. gon.    if'-m thre to tou years or the only nearb

snuw.. of chian one wne. bhatery thre oo e    rtn  the de, or  on the 
rpoito .14.t of a Tmv4 street)* If reptiles had boon Interested In eshi 
*lockem ogg ftoi this hatchery, It Is very Likely that thsW wul he*. toikes

them to the oppoeite  iroation Uard vwter -ma woas s Moo the itehory as th*

gravel. pit, 
lainistl  a" and retloe, tbar remin onlys a      twmrals that could

howe made this **ohs   tripid o hers, ?ronlia', p~oun  squrre, rats# or 
*1pmk OM" toosalsl to ..rry      chicken o   wihu breakin    or petering

the, ohl1,  Of the remanin  momlo who isat W~ #n4 buw, In the grouns. oly

the skun, m)nk, wodouink, and oem    Inabite this vii', 
A atat woul not o&M   the *W   awa from *&tor, nor would he store
this 4*4P, 
A wooee a   to a diunl*-ae that wwmld "st ea"*s the pav*4 stree
dayligh to got the egs   It Is uniely that it aUd emrr a hundwed to five

hudred es this dietme without being seon by sa      one, 
Opoae    wid nt earr the o    this diotae nor would they burrw into 
fQi~ly the ku  rewins, an It soeeo there is no evt*.ee vokiat 4litine 
this speolee,  - tho otorhad the *un ti--a inte th pictur very voU ma 
all evident poits towar the skw. Ieing of netinlheat, unafrad of 
seaeses.o sa boing tond of egs# all label the .km  on guly   k4&ofsei

Invostigtlao within and a..wr th pit itioen4 that suk  still Inhabt the 

im5  I 
more ~ *$otonter tas *III hl4 it Io no ln~oibl to bell~m t 
theyvmud 6"sitha  for oa 4wria wnter 
zow/1   i-3-g 

2      - 
~424 University Farm Place 
December 23, I9i 
Mr. eorge C. Moore, Leader 
inventory of Wildlife Ba"res 
Deprmt of Cosation 
Dear Mr. Moorei 
Tor decline in Mobile By rte to Intensely Interesting. 
I certainly had no Impesio   that recessions occu  within 
three years. I know the re ession of pheasants in 
low bMaand took twenty years. I m&Wt remmber how long 
the recession of pheasants in the Williasett* Val.r to, 
but you could find ct from Art!= Einaraen, Wildlie 
bsesarh Unit, Corvallis, Or.gon. 
I know of no oas in which sctual etinction followe the 
recession. In all the cases I knov, a low level of 
poplation persisted. 
It will, of course, be imossible to disti !ush a recession 
from an ordinary cycle until time enough has elapsed to show 
whether the* rste stae a reeover. It would be interesting 
to find a violent cyle so far mouth. 
The best thinker in this particular regionaon the problem 
of emskts Is PaulX Erriton at the State College# Ames, 
Iowa. Rs might contribute something to you~r problem. 
Tore ztive ma     ts abeent from Mobile By when these 
Ioumsianr ats were   utreodued   I amnot quit@ clear on thi 
With best regard  , 
Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife M~aagment 

December 18, 1941 
kr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Game Management 
University of Pisconsin 
Ladison, 'isconsisn 
Dear .:jr. Leopold: 
h:e have a peculiar situation in the obile Bay Delta that 
has us "stumped." About 1928, a few pair of muskrats probably 
the Louisiana type were planted in the Diobile Bay Delta. Up un- 
til this time there had never been any renort of the Louisiana 
'rat being found east of the mobile Bay or the 7 obile ?iver. 
From all available reports, there were about fifteen pair put in 
about this time. These 'rats ultiplied to a point that by 1934, 
there were tvienty or thirty thousand 'rats being removed. By 
1936, the peak, reports show that there was at least one-hundred 
thousand 'rats removed from this area. During the 1937 trappin! 
season, these 'rats had fallen off to a noint where it was found 
unprofitable to trap. The trapping season in this area was 
closed in 1938, and has been closed ever since. 'hen the trapping 
season was closed, there were at least several hundred 'rats left 
on the area for breeding stock. In each successive year since 
then the 'rats have tended to decrease. 
-aecently the State Department of Conserv.ation with the assis- 
tance of the Federal Aid Project has undertaken to determiine the 
reason for this decline. After having  iade several preliminary 
surveys in coapany 'ith several authorities on rauskrats., we are 
still unable to definitely put our finger on any 1 4itini   factor. 
One factor that I have had in mind is t-e so-called "recessive 
establishm entu .hich usuaLly appears to beco e distinct x ithin 
three fears. Do you have any records or know of any instances vhere 
a species increased vwiorously for a period of :ore than three years 
before the decline started, . d finally extincti n )  e into effect? 
, efore I rite   finQ re ort, I wish to check all factors and try 
to eliminate those that see most likely to have little or no effect 

Decenber 14, 1941 
on a sudden decrease. Then we will try to determine what effect 
other factors might have on the 'rat population in the Mobile Bay 
Delta. I would appreciate your opinion on the possibility of this, 
that is "recessive establishment", being a factor in the sudden

decline in the muskrat population. 
You will notice that from the time these 'rats were released 
until the peak was reached, it was a period of approximately nine 
years. During the last four years, the 'rat population has de- 
creased at least eighty per cent more. However, there are more 
'rats there now than was suppose to have been planted in the 
I understand from Dr. Herbert L. Dozier, of the Fish and 
7ildlife Service, and other interested persons that there has 
been a sharp decrease in 'rats in general over much of the east 
coast and the Louisiana marshes. I do not know whether this is 
the downward trend of a cycle or some other factor that has 
caused a decrease in the 'rat population. Dr. Dozier is under 
the impression that there is a possibility of a disease being the 
major factor in this decrease. It seems to me that since the 
'rat population is so low in the Mobile Bay area, the disease 
factor should have a minor influence on any continuous decrease. 
hny suggestions that you ni.'ht be able to pive me will be 
Sincerely yours, 
George C. Moore, Leader 
Inventory of Wildlife Resources 
In ;labama 
GC :al 
1,1r. Uido Leopold 

Morocco, Indiana 
March 10, 1942 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
1532-Univer s ity Afenue 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
It has been over four years since I left southwesteri Wisconsin to 
take a position of project bilogist with the Soil Conservation Service. 
Much has happened in that time but I always look forward to returning to

the Badger state. I am writing to you in re!ard to an idea I have been 
working on for the past two years. I would like to have your opinion on 
the plan. 
At college we were taught that a diversified farm is the best pay- 
iq one. With that thought in mind, I have planned for what I term a 
dfversified "biological farm" with honey, furs, and woodland products
the main products. If the bee pasture were owned by me, legume seeds 
could be a by-product. Professor H. F. Wilson has told me that a good 
beekeeper with 500 colonies of bees could expect a gross annual return of

$5000. During the past year (without a fall honey flaw-due to the surmer

drought and excessive fall rains) I experimented with 25 colonies of bees

which returned an average gross receipt of $10.00 per colony. This was 
in territory where the honey flora is notnearly as cood as in most parts

of Wiscons in. 
As to the income from furs, I have been following ir. Erringtons/ 
work and believe that a surplus of at least two muskrats per acre could 
be taken from a well managed marsh. During the winter of 1938-39, while 
I was working in southeastern Ohio I started a trapping project on a 
small pasture marsh.  I had hopes stayinp at that work unit for five 
years, but was transfered before I could run a second years study of the

marsh. Enclosed is an extra copy of the report which you may keep if 
you like. It was interestin7 to note that the owner of the marsh knew 
very little about trapp in  marsh rats(he preferred trapping bank-rats 
which he said was much easier work). 
Specialized woodland products suchA as Christmas trees, wreath mat- 
erial, fire lo  s, fence posts, pulp wood would bring in the rreatest re-

turnwith timbr as a lo1n  time objective. I believe that these special- 
ized products would bring in as large a net return per acre as some of the

crops I have seen grvwing on farms of southeastern Ohio and northwestern

Indiana. That list of forest products looks larvae, however with my seven

years experience in proper land use and woodland management I am sure that

I would still have a fine looking woodlot after following a proper manage-

ment system. What's !iore it would give me an opportunity to manage wild-

life on my own land, particularly deer and ruffed grouse. 
The location of such an enterprise, I've set up temporarily as some- 
where in northeastern Wisconsin, near my home. The main factors deter- 
mining the location would be a good honey flora(naturally sweeet soils) 
near a marshf about 500 acres. About 200 acres of spruce,balsam, aspen, 
and white cedar would make up the woodland. 
- . I- 

Seasonal work on a farm of this type would be as follows: 
January to March or April- Taking fur surplus and sore forest products. 
April to November -   Beekeeping 
November to January- Woods work, Christmas trees, wreath material, etc. 
About a A5,000 to ,10,000 investment would be necessary which I think 
I could be able to raise somewhere. 
My experience in SCS has given ,ie an insite on so called "land wslues".

Particularly here in northwestern Indiana, I have seen land sold for from

l60 to $125. per acre, which will take the buyer(if he is lucky) a life-

time to pay for it. Much of it is farmed in such a way that the owner might

have some top soil left to farm after twenty or thirty years of farmin-,

just when he needs to have the land workin - more for him. If low-priced

woodland and mrshland such we have in parts of hisconsin could be put to

some honest to goodnesssustained yield ,manacement, I believe that our wood-

land and wildlife products would show as Sreat a net return per acre as 
sono of the land now being farmed, and at the sa-m ti-e preserve the natural

beauty of the land. 
About two years a-o mzany of the sl ecialized technicians in our sorvi~e

were made over into diversified farm planners. In T'hc past two years I have

been workin7 up farm plans for a complete soil and moisture conservation

program and have been doin as good a job of it as men who havo been doing

the work for seven years. You may wonder whj, with my present status of P-2

Ass't. Soil Conservationist, I would even think of the possibility of be-

comin - what I term a bi&oogical farmer. It is not that I am dissatisfied

with my job- on the contrary I like extension mork and enjoy reetin- and

talking< over problems of proper land use with the farmers. However, I
enjoy the gypsy life ,hat we are leading, three different states and seven

different work units in seven years. M,1ost of my friends in the service
moved more often than that. Ve Fet nicely quainted in a neighborhood and

then we are on the move again. For a sin'le man this mi'ht be all ri it,

but I don't think a family should be on the move continually with no place

they can really call home. 
Do you think that such a farm as I have described is feasible? Invest- 
ment in the land (200 acres woodland and 500 acres rarshland) would be snall;

the bi-gest investment would be in bees and supplies. Some hired help 
would be neea during harvest time of honey and Christnas trees and possibly

for some of the other woodland products. 
Sincerely yours, 
George Stanek 

vhere~ ~ ~ this rMA Jossae iv  n   of Section 33,W 
At the Inte     of this F~o"  Vef Awho ow   o 
t~e. bowmr, tim wbd mppaw alow        17 -aK   of th seat 
maskles"by Jame ~Wyrw. Thug both mase we owwd by th. 
-tkaa Consevny Distic, Usn -w wa      " 1 4"by.a tr.W 
?bo -yeo arsh ha been at41 by that fouly *we tha 
ffty yop. 4pproxztely, forty-five rar a, or about 1M&. this 
tmony *or mars had bow tilo drain" an outvd    Evidently the 
tiling w"no   greaOt e. so the gon  vwted bk topstr 
t a" or tW *or~ of own3 so    *  Mw 4l-Imer, said a *rp at 
85 buhel of "m to the &o*vgo    from this grm     end aloago 
-on of aprxtel  tty- *rs - m eab. The preent fmr .sad 
tha th mrh has been cou44m4e a mas  o the pot te yers 
Ditchee ha b w du thoghte podwdt Yokw *rook but ths 
prove inffeotiv for drinp 
A deais  waeav suve      w not take, du to se hd*M 
u bor  owvr, a suve will be tae during te sprin of 1M* A 
sa1ioa of~ p      @4p spooodnity idt the meisty of imka houee 
v~11 be n"ia 

sa1.o), Oner we (Pwaioeria op.), Spk na (Sosoi s,), 
3040 (Cavm op,), uWo grs (karp  oprns . *t~   (!Tuka 
*wd          brho grosoo 
thaore maws by@ two 1. b~twk~ ftt-~   sr   p  3a to 
lived In tbo xU7~  s  y ow bec borderedM  am abu  -m hurt. 
fetb  tho wat lm Siths -boo me sips of bowUdvouin 
uIo  $tt Cols, h    a bern delf a grea daof wef 13 mtb 
ft mosarh, a too~qu for estimating uwFa poplatim with LV 
asws  ha  o boomdevised*  1rW be states th wt mprrwat 
rat mase baw* y~ld  aaa~l 4 to6ws       per sr over oxom 
siv grss*zp in bad ys, ai -s a roethe mallor mrebas y1o* 
ocoabPt mo po  nif &roe* Wit tha in =. ow estiae ot. 
viha   -pef th brodn stck ftr the Mysre mas for th 
Igo*  rapig oem  t be 4 mshe t   , ora, total of IM 
Di to loo of t~and maeias house peu1st&o .mwt*a 
40 a #0 

00*~ Us  4 eas -as Or9~ LY&  OPry  sh vill be inludd in th 
of the zwnt hose, .ah i lw bein a hue 
M* hoses wl bU    h wber   Duin F brwuey 1939, duo torts 
umw v4.te, eovering nor to half of the mws lad". 
at efftot this ba an the mukrt populaion walayn to b 
SaW  urin the toal of 1939, With the floodin of Sonm at$ thns 
0 oes of peaeba1a mskat mwt* vin be ertod  Mukat hw  buid.- 
in  -ov frm praa pad to inw. shallowsaer 
Bot   -    mase  we" pobo vi4sgn   bofer. th trapin 
-W~  by Wr  yoavr we    ouse is 1. e moo - that mash  rh. 
C~vridg an tb   a  prt      t  aol Cutlos patrolle the  go .vione of pahngo    repsine noe in tho 
Wyearvr mas but atpt ow    mad to trap the -sma mars by outw 
.1m." Tho m      wesqul stope by sprin the tmp * diawwas 
qp4 ~~ th  Wdb*tap 
vo 3 w 

"'rt Not I rte    traps wer  set on Nvmbe 17, 1939 byth 
projeot biologist i the flzae mash      An trap wer got at 1&s 
-~a of thes. trps pr    y set, wer oftt iv1 , killer trap will b# 
usdi the futre 
Whr rmV    we of atuh dept to allow mmskrc    to swim fvge- 
ly owo th* tr~s stoe an       ri    weus     to elvte th* trap# 
Most of th rt we sauht       wea fodn bd    wd in ru    s  lost of 
the -akrt wa      ot*fr ws oAt whe the pon           ~   from.n 
Sm   e~ drae qm1ok1y in sets une the iov.      Only fiv vw nuats 
me   by shvv off a log. Tv we eauht by' thi~r tall*, 
fehow  daily ms pet on the tra linq bogimang lawmer 
%so 193A8~mhJm: 14. 1939# on"?~ inzDeeer 25, -,* 1938 am 
jovr    I wid Jwar 13, I939* The .omayn ohw           shows the 4a11y 
%=h of It    itrto .muist.d of roots of ths swet flog 
-rp-ain of th          . hies r m~I w  me by the pr.Jeat 
biologist, v*0 the tmro   th   et   ove to th farw for makt% 
Flobfta skl too fro a hal to t4ro-uarmr of anhw 
*we abou   flssn    is write under fr valus      ?we esrtN 
onbwmt wire stoow            -o froi be 9 tomoo wivo    Xw. atstim 
40 4 Alk 

S. fter drn rr no&fo rapi sale of fwe If roosay 
N*Its mir turned ovrt the fame ftw mre          ii eight 
lets botin       sw    r 6, 193n to Jamu  16, l939 .a shor n a     rt 
too I* There vee       ume of places tht he could gell the furs,, 
rw hose, mal orde hoses, loea delr and local byr,               oa 
-vw    ax*lie Ima4 fur dole2~ut in ad Miti          tromwl from fsm to 
ta   buin    apo  furs  For th  enire seson. local buer     meepy 
in  fite    0,15) cnts, or mo, Is     tha local delers, sothat 100#1 
buwes weo dhooked fr     the list. Th  first thre   s e m  gol,W 
to a local dealer, an to a mail order hmsse and one to a fu h~w*, 
Th  fort sale wen to a local 4.m3.w, All of the first fou    saes *amw 
tained pelts poely skined    thmughly fleshed. &M prpewly strqt*WA. 
Althogh N~ houes paid me for am particular pelt in a shipmn     of 
furs# their ww4     pric per furwa no t as high as tht p.U 'by a lool 
Aosar*Ina 4iftono th   leei dele    stated that fur pteotloa M4 
z 1t tkninUoni.rto        of fu ta    he bouht    Tb  reIii   four 
lots of fur we sold toa lewd dele witf fleshing or stthin 
-V- pelts, RIU*t (4*90) asmts va the top pria paid by th      ot 
Aoa~r howo, b~s gaing dam s~~l asa fur hm               or mai orde 
hose fur gads va nt sodataada a reslt, he pal4 the bt 
avrg    few prioso Thm~   mail aro houses and fur homs advrtise 
-roim    hr well prpae furs, theirverg fu prie pai did no 
sho  It* For that r*=     th  las  fou  lots of furs we" sold to a 
loaldaler ver  soratly aftr skm      th       'katwith so labor 1st 
in flashin    *~ streohn~ 

104 O 
You hour wre spn ca Noede 17, 1939 In setting the 
fifty four daily isits v  mad* spndnga  hour per visit to the 
trap  . lie   Th  ajority of th mo*.t oaught we  skiwe only* (n 
strn the tra--".v4                              4~t 
six ($.76) orntsor &w tota valu of 5@. 
Or* o  m fo 66 Itukrto     54 
Sous -of lkkfo te 2MMUS 
Seting the trw        4j Uwe 
?eb. hewn      64 haws 
?b rturn per ho  *P tiore   - $5.2     $0.78 
T~ rtunper how of var of seetyep      lot istw 
*a, also, th tim va oxoso in a s.1k seso of the reguar tam 
(Six~ix umaras wa              msgt ontet moe, a catsbof 3.3 
muskrt per ace    Th Vw. 1nm     fr   fr of 45*     ntw    mre 
ah ida  xwu  f 2  per ero. 

16 m-f egA W! UA or     atbytet.,Ou 
£~kTe fir t 14R1et =.lrs maugt were litd unra**. e 
RaulyJ hi secton of Ohio,  th trawq.n bya~ or uUSrat5 
opened memonth befor furs wwo ptwt utiThs sas 
?ivv peltsh of t the failst to mokscthsoe o&*b 
te~N. U ali duw     i*4e te ihitam a.Tog ~ams fthse flf e 
Sim   be otutfodas o  kt. by lt the trMo Ol  awf 
Tw a skatis erdme I the %* by o9the mukas a* 
bigsashed  alhi w all  not wotretn. lbo*yAs 
wwra h ho& to t    tl vw.a thll beask*n b e 
to tbe deeine byt fmut isit toth arh 
- 7 - 

tru.i wSrt   an*a       a asxs 

Cambidge ObS. 
Dat  wee  Sol  Av  aa   o   O  e  10wew.10  0IFO 
sa   et  *U l NNl   r- $1  Y2N2tyAS                    oaOAAOO 
22/LO,,'"  6      1                     - -        Del 
- - -Ord" 
a50  -63 0                             Dalr 
--L  --                      - -         -  -   Deal" 

Obat I I 
S~~kQmt taoa  !R!  *  as 

As mined i i    field wok of this prj    s a&eint 
ha nt b"  devsed    Uowt* a mas vit      maymsrt hus"       Walk

-a this sas bo, shoul    -i    a harest of six to si~ re    pew sov 
th-at nohing owm           ba  ap~d or          the 
suka poeulstio    Wee  -rnngo tho habtbility of the uuh fj 
-t th field  -* " em    -wahb.ros twe taw      Is the, 
or&hae  -se hei they soul handle #m   of thi    w    3.and flow the 
purpos of rasin msrt* Wo        os £eak* flood to normal pool 
stag. hundreds of other farme. mill be intereted inanaging worh. 
Janis for ama wildlife Oerp of furs 
A throg   eooet*     s   y of the tw marshes will be ta~a 
duig the "vi     at 19w.* With *learvatinl stuion of unkat foding 
habits. it so be dewle vht pat a" taen iarest quantities 
andibe are -  of littl use. To enoua     pro-o lea use an~        tin frm

A std   of th  ~itn mase. vth       ti preset population 
of mukrts, *so the ~we leve .&age -ih the flodn of Sea L~ 
wMl thro  -oo  ligh an muskrt makp     u of th  are. 

*mftat Xoem Pe 
uit  Are anT  ml)asbo 
ja"W 15 I,94 
tw *as -Qitf Aft hIt TOW41 hrOMA SO44 
 wo W&t etho J:"twf estoA      O pi.  .  es 
loo rer  t t P" *a or adwl f ts*inw t"NOy 
I~q twg, t -~ 41y qpe durif   hr =o adfUom th 
on teste ti it OW  hlq 
stes  h - aae a e to keep al  rcts a~ uu   t   uw*, 
reur -rQ the s twb iy-40re mt. 
Ah sean  mask   ift  y fiehS4  n 
of~ th  ?Ms v M 1ar * ba be -rpe rmtewu7det h 
0 xv " L%04 attepwao 

The o*nd  suve o t  & fam in f  the yee i93.  It 
byrfwaOs liesoo Me 2be inl& la the omwwle mawa 
The ~ ~   __    m.ta  ?~ wMmsIr *13  am 
Imm b 64po '"- ab I Ows th ond ure sap 
totmammI   rpadotwIa   e  al   w  h 

Uoncd Suvo anU V"P 
oft a 19m  ,ta 
Nobo Cwk, Mio o 
Aw~p ins perso froin am (fur) a 
Th- v~usSV  oow  "tknfo 
.-e  -wro   *ra  -ro  fo  er 
TWA           Value   Taluo 
?or    Total per Duo psr     ToW    Cask    lialawo 
j grSM   Amg    TUU    or Too  Awo-    t1me  2jffigK  Not 
com               is     50     9w      Ife   31 -W  WoOD    4T*38   510oft

25     150     *34    8*50  5LOO    32-0e    19-98 
2S    2 tm     50    9,0    M.56 466oo     66,oo   yA,,oo 
Womm(posturO4     ge     *W             G"w     050  11000         
Pasture          220                    low    1,50 19"00          
Rl"OlUnlod"s       5 
24*414           3.96                               12Q-    14"    
le 12 1 

an a 19-Ae Pam. 
Avep    1wm   pa  -ws of farm frm fus 
ftresewoer mgu)*? farm inom. by 
exim  fur Wo - - - - - -   -    -w -w -O 5w4*w8  p grm4. 
so           7      2*   160*30 

4 rea 
OWNER- 0415KIA16LIM Coyvseqv4Nc1y Dls7-Alc-r 
4oopEs5- New PY144DELPHIA, OA11O. 
4DDR4755-  5A-fE5VILL5, CHIO 
4fqAl. DeSC,91,07-ION- A 0915 C.OUIV7-Y 
WA 11,le rOWA15HIP 5. W44 -5ec7loN 33 
DA7-E- Fe,6PUAAIY 1959 
,4cAF5 IN        017 
.5r qeo - 57-,jVe1<- 

IAnc' Area 
drP.,1cP7 es 
iBur-reed Sparaganium sp. 
Sedge Carex op. 
Smartweed Polygonum sp. 
Sedge Carax sp. 
Sedge Carex ep. 
Wool grass Scirpus cynerinus 
Cat-tail Typha. laitfolia 
,400PE55 V,/7L PHwuL -PHIA, CA/la. 
(QP-AT0,Y_ -AME5  /C.~E 
A4DD Pt55_ - 5A755VILLE, OH/0 
LtcqAL D5SC/,F1P7roN_  Mc5g5 C OUNT17Y 
WA rN, /' TWiNSUP 5 W.~ 5c~w3 
DA4r. EMe-  /R   /939 
4AcAPE 5N /C'A  /1 - /. 7 
.5r4y,    57ga.5T ,tg- 

excerpt from the 7lamebeaun-- 
Plambeau wildlife is of a character to pleae both tyro and ex 
We saw 52 deer in the river during a day an    a half afot.     Th  stz 
deer-line on all white cedar, and the heavy nipping o      striped apI 
&ogwood, and pine seedlings suggests that there are too man deer fc 
own good, and that an increase in the remnat of wolves would be sal 
to all concerned.  Ma   mergansers an   some blackducks and woodduck. 
along the river. There are still ospreys and bald eagles. The most 
Wisconsin outpost of ravens ip foun    here.  Aspen is scarce, hence 
scarce, but m ias ts thrive on the river's abundat mossels, and mi 
thrive on the mskrats. 
The F&ambeaiu's real thrill for the more experienced wildlifer 
possible existence of a remnant of martens in one of the blocks of u 
tibe.  The last known marten skin came out of the Plabeau in 190 
and the species has been considered exterminated, not only from thus 
but from the state.   In 19 0, however, a deer hutrwo is also a t 
de st d naturalist reports seeing a live mart n, and a meliable 
taprswtracks in the same locality during th  same winter.           He 
saw I trak in another ~locality  $ix years ago. If  rtens still liva 
the  lambeau, the creation \f a wild area with lar     blocks of uct 
my eregarded as 'velvet"., 

Cue ~ '~ ~ 
iII  IT1l 'TATF5q 
Columbus, Ohio 
July 26, 19I4 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
College of Agriculture 
424 University Farm Place 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison 5, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
Glad to hear of your interest in our Ohio 
wolverine record. Anl this time I have been trying 
to get more information. Haven't seen the animal as 
yet, but as nearly as I can learn it is a wolverine. 
Undoubtedly, it is an escapted animal - but from where 
no one knows. It is unfortunate that it was published 
without more data, as such reports are misleading. 
We've also has a number of badger turn up 
outside their range - ortgin puszling. The numerous 
coyote records we've been able to trace as to their 
Best of luck. We surely enjoy the Wisconsin 
News Letter. 
Lawrence 3. H1 s, Leader 
Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit 
Ohio State University 
LJIH: gb 

"A,,ul  A -4 e:!  k t   L; 
,OtAA   k-,         v                                                   
"'A                                                                PL4
     tt 47 
4"                                                    e4 

(C 0 P Y) 
Feb. 5 - 45 
Mr. W. Grimmer 
Madison, Wis. 
Dear Mr. Grimmer: 
For many years 1 have been watching birds and animals and 
feeding them in winter and trying to find out just what they 
like to eat, but last week I found out what muskrats like 
the best, and maybe you found this out long before I did. 
But anyhow I thought I would pass it on to you. I always 
knew that muskratslike vegetables, but you just can't ehase 
5them away from brs Aels-.souts. It happened that last year 
one of my next door neighbo F-lanted more brussels sprouts 
than he could use, and a lot of them are still standing in 
the garden and in spite of the cold and snow they are pretty 
green. All last week our dogs that we have in a wire fence 
in the back yard were doing a lot of extra barking, and the 
other morning they almost tore the fence down so I went out 
to see what it was all about and there were three big muskrats 
eating the brussel sprouts as fast as they could. I started 
over to them and they soon disappeared in the snow. When I 
looked I found they had a regular network of tunnels under 
the snow which run all the way down to the creek which runs 
past the back end of our lots, and is about 100 feet from 
the garden. Now I find that they come up even in broad 
daylight with all the dogs in the neighborhood howling at 
I just thought this might interest some of the fellows 
that might want to feed muskrats sometime. 
(s) W. J. Femal 
1585 Franz Ave. 
Green Bay, Wis. 


Jun.19. 19 15 
Badger reported at Menominee Indian Reservation, Jun 13, by 
T. P. Kouba. 

Wisconsin Conservation Department 
INTRA-0FFICE                         - 
Date__t_    ber 01_   5 
TO;       Aldo Leopold 
FROM:     S. Paul Jones 
SUBJECT: Data on Muskrat House building. 
Records on muskrat house building are rather scarce here at 
Horicon marsh but the information below may be of some use to you. 
William H. Field, warden at Beaver Dam: Mr. Field states that he 
noticed definite building in 1945 about a week before the 
opening of the waterfowl hunting season on September 20. 
He also points out that the muskrats drag food up on to the 
houses all the year except when they are frozen in. 
Barney Wanie, fish division at Horicon: Mr. Wanie states that he 
observed building for a week previous to September 25 and 
that some building is done up to the freeze-up. He belives that 
the heaviest building is about October 15. 
Franklin W. Burrow,HMWA: Some building done all year except when the 
muskrats are frozen in. Most of the building is done Oct. 1-15 
and continues to the freeze-up. 
Harold A. Mathiak, HMWA; States there was definite house building about 
August 20, 1943. On September 6 1945, some houses were completed 
S. Paul Jones, HMWA;On September 16, 1943, many houses were observed 
well along in construction and fresh material was observed on most 
of them. On September 1, 1945, definite evidence of building 
was noted.            V 
Definite dates are a little difficult to establish since there 
is activity in house building over a considerable period of time. This 
is agreed to by all the observers consulted. 
S. Paul Jo s 
cc: Ralph C. Conway 

PhenQ logy for 
Species, Station, Item 
H "&-t~ t CVL'& 
AC~ ~P- 
l{t~w~ ~ 
~       c2~ v~c-~ A ~ 
t~ ~ 
C U 
40r  41 
Z2 j- 
L~~O -~ 
~tI~ Oi 
~42    4~3 
~44     4.5   Aver.! 
11 4t 
7L         t 
~A 9.~ 
- -:~~ ~ 

SINCE 1908 
October 30, 1945                    Ooncerning: Muskrat cycles 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University-Farm Place 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, 5, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
At our camp on Terrell's Island we keep a journal, or 
log book, in which anyone going there can record any informa- 
tion or comments that they desire. It is of interest to note 
in this log book a quotation of November 17, 1939, recorded 
by Jack Spanbauer and Alex Gorr, who trapped the muskrats 
there that fall: 
"Muskrats are plentiful this year at Terrell's 
Island-1,S1 caught this season to date--- 
best record of any fall trapping on Terrell's 
Island marsh." 
I believe that the fall of 1939 represented the high point in 
the muskrat cycle and that the fall of 194 represented the 
low point in the muskrat cycle and that the cycle has now 
definitely taken an upturn,. 
In 1944, the first fourxdayys October 2b, 27,28, and 29, 19441, 
a total of 196 muskrats were taken on our muskrat farm. 
This year, 1945, on the same four dates, the first four 
days that we trapped, a total of 430 muskrats and 1 coon 
were taken. The same marsh and the same number of men, 
namely, 2, trapped the property in the fpll of 1944, and 
the fall of 1945. The coon was*caughtffathe first caught in 
several years. 
We have two tracts of marsh in this area, the Spring Brook 
Marsh, of 120 acres, and the Terrell Island Marsh, of 
200 acres. It used to be that the Spring Brook Marsh would 
produce the most muskrats during early fall trapping. 
During the fall of 1943, we dredged 6,100 feet of ditch on 
the west half of the Terrell Island Marsh.  This ditch runs 
from 4 to 6 feet deep, 16 to 18 feet wide, and a bank was 
PHONE 3347 

Mr. Aldo Leopold--Page 2--October 31, 1945 
thrown up on one side of the ditch. This ditch and bank 
have many things to recommend it, two of the chief things 
being that it is deep enough to proVide water, when the 
water is lowered at the Neenah-Menasha dam effe9ting 
this marsh, so that the muskrats can live through freeze- 
outs. Secondly, the banks that are thrown up make 
excellent places for dens and sites for the muskrats to 
raise their young and to keep them above water during 
flood periods in the spring breeding season. 
It used to be that the Spring Brook Marsh produced more 
muskrats in the early fall trapping,'as heretofore stated, than 
the Terrell Island Marsh. This year, of the 430 muskrats 
taken on the first four days of the open season, 1279 muskrats 
were taken from the Terrell Island Marsh, the majority of 
which came from the area improved by the ditches and banks, 
while 151 were taken from the Spring Brook Marsh. 
We observed that the muskrats from the area where they 
live largely in dens in the banks that have been thrown 
up, run larger and are better furred.) 
I am passing this on as a matter of informat1on and record. 
With best wishes. 
C      B. TERRELL 
CBT: jgw 

Mr. 017   S. fero1 
the hMso44a da and oat figurs vhio 
yo  soM sohv  ra  alea  nMn 
I  "go  heuit o f a~ 4c  andI .tin 
MR1 t. "k4V   &bti qetos uptoat& ageq~. 

900  iay Bullding 
dlison, SISoonsin 
fWn Wl na.  k-1 I,  W. 
Mr. Oiyde 0. ?Terrell 
240 Winnebago *treet 
'shkosh, Aleonsaln 
Dear Clyde; 
I have & opy of the letter you *rote to bill 
"rimter on otober loth, oono-rning perilssion for muskrat 
farmers to harvest mnaer rate. I agree with you thorroghtly 
that we should utilize this resouroe. It is another Instance 
where 4dherence to old established regulations produaes an 
illo~ioal result. 
Another sugestlon In your letter is one whioh 
Aldo Leopold and I have talked about a good deal, and whioh 
we Intend to put through, and thnt is employment of a capable 
fur man in the      4e Department. To date, It Aas tbeen 
impossibie because of lac1 of jersonnel, but aany of the 
good boys are ooming bao f    rome servioe, and we should be 
able to g t a man in the near future. In Ue t  -ast, there 4as 
been too muob of tis wort done by tue nforoeaent Department, 
and unfortunately they tre rit trarned in tile needs of same 
Vanae ement. Not only that, but their entire approaob Is ac In- 
elastic one as.4 upon a riid poAoe type enforcement of tte 
law. These thlns   ll oo~ae lth ti.s 
ith kind riatrds, I am 
ilnoerely yours, 
m. J. ?. Aberg 

October 27, 1945 
Mr. -w-n J. k-. Aberg, Ofmirmasn 
Wtsoonsin Conservation Ooituassion 
900 Gay £$ulding 
Aadison, Wisoonsin 
Dear  fr. Aberg: 
SINCE 1908 
Thank you for your good letter of Occ ber 23, 19*1). I a 
glad to know that you feel that the runner rts, ghioh -re 
frozen and starved out as the water is  oere    y the mills, 
should be utilised. I am ?utting 1n an application to 
take iuch runner rats on top of the ice a  they freeze out, 
between December 15, and           the usual limits. We 
never knoe juit ahen thi          to ha-pen because much 
depends upon how fast the lowering of the water 13, how 
cold the weather is and how much snow there is in the  rrh. 
I have tried to save our muskrats on our EUsprmt fa 
by diedt4ri  6100 feet of ditch so the water will stay deep 
ewugh so the rats can live hen these freeze-out periods 
occur. I have another ditch about 500 feet long that was 
drA,,,,ed  et>ui   3-  ¥e-el afo.  As  finanaes  1 t  i tnel  to 
d - more of such work to partly off-et the freeze-out and 
try to put our marsh in suln shape that the rats can live th, 
over winter, or at least a great percenta.e of them. 
I am much interested to read that you and Aldo Leopold 
faivor e-ployent of a capable fur man. It se s to me 
that -uch a zwn should hve notul experience a a trapper 
and fur taan, and if he al'o was some eduation in gae 
'\V    naweent, such as being tawht today by our friend, 
I feel that it ould make a most excellent combina- 
Lion. lie needs both types of education  nd ezerience justai 
much a  he needs to le,  to stand on. 
I am hopi'   to 'ee you at the annual metn    of the lza!k 
dton League in  tiwu~ee, on 4ovemb  3. 1 notice      t 
you are on the prokran. 
In observi nf different m!ukrat ane-s, recently I have 
observed that there  re certain apots  here there a-Le a 
great many houses and many spots hbre there -re no aicns 
of them. It leems to me th t    state fur man should try to 
PHONE 3347 
11 e 

deteroine tha reaisonis why there isa a good crop jin so1me 
plcswhen they FrO screa in othlers. Oni my own lioen- _d 
mus krat panoh, where wehaVe been   aoIR,,,tiqing _ mu: Krqt 
(nanaemcnt, i have,. 3everal tipeoi a;_, -n,,ny mukr t  er , sorp 
Is On adHoinin,, msr~h, ow.ned by tlhe Butte de.- Aort,,Zn;, 
;mnpany and tra.pped by the Benediot'e of Hiutte, do aowtt1 
The prope rty touctiee our land. on the aortho eeast, ,,nd onec 
tract join-3 us on the southaest.  iart of tite abiund-Ance of 
m x- rr,, t o  -,r itarsh may be Jue to good fiuntinp  oflditlonis 
aind part due to cur ditche-t anid management. 6vtther 
at t eitle vill g *of. !trka, vtlong. th* I'ox River,(3uit 
&6'eI:in" full of        i~~oue  ore than anothier ,.,ot 
that I viiited on a trip ye.-terday. 'ANAIs ma nrs3h 1is 1oet ed 0t 
the wesit edge of thAe 'Fureka imi At North pond du Lao,0 
ailong Lake   innebR)ro, the niprih owned by tie supple rhes 
w~hich you hpve pr-o7-bIy see;n on the  ibybtwnFnduta 
-nd Osksh ult -I yo'U get out of Fond,-I Av  Lac, is flill of 
mukr-4t ho~uss.  P-erhiips youi havei noticed anothe: little like 
and las   ~ong thef [hhwa-y, abrut a, -nile northi of Sun Pare 
Ih-,ve nlt beeni ny that pliae this, yeanr, but there sesto 
be ,t-ni nousual umber of muskrats,- there- eve-ry fall1 since I 
can Uenme.Iow is it now? 
I thinkt that a proi-pectivp -,tlte fur mn,or posibl soe o~f 
Lepod'a  tndent,- -hoild try to teemies ewit makp,  toa usraS 
abunelant in tlie  - -pots vha they ae~eeal       cre 
C)ur ;stpte 'u:skrA 1 I'eaver Fatrmerlq As-iociation 1s 3uat a s 
miuch inte.res4ted in these thimn-s -as good fmrsin the 3t-te 
are interestedI in better methodsi of iroduciing better live- 
I ami ta~kingr the libe--rty to enclose a  copy of this-, le-tter 
in a letter to kido Leooold, for his3 informa,-tion.  I hon, e to 
,3ee you both in Mi~ueon ioverber 3 
C,~l 13. T: ~ J 
00   Alfio -ol   nd Ha, rry 'F, 

11oer~or34 94 
ur. 01f hTl 
QO'hmbhf,  to a 
D*r Clyd IAa  u       xwa 
'"Lehistricl Ul an OAWfl&-mm hic 
you$ou ma hqx geat~ value and  a&~ filing 

-~ ~      I 
4: Qe~(Lu4k#, 

y..rtin iht ng ito orqutgial hriae Te coitions 
Oo t#imere ofM.*~n  rpVmi~t  e  ~ 
fite   of ~ o  r whertl  r 
ofV th   In1t$o  wsyr# Aarh hte.n* 
04r. '1Vphramo   11 ~   J&  h  ~br ~;h 
aot fifty'4v yeary  h~  ~&tnra. 
near~ he ltn~re In 193~r  #sti~n 
otherth Northon L 
mavh tim  I have not hear  of any bein 
'~~~~~h           rilds'  lie  the fla1OQQ  orminq mth sI*V 
~f4 ~ gteat the time wh~en they w, ;r# y~o About 

Ne one knuw  th  rea        ts surprise 
visit.   e~ are trying to find the ara e  for theas rasons: 
First, because the pesum is one of the most interecting 
animals; Second, begause it is an exceptional phenomnon 
of naturj and Third, beause       * Is a very real 
Probably  o better gnrl short des iptlon 
Is qiven tian in the referncm I)hve used ,,hich quote 
Purchas (eoie say it vas Captain John Omi h) in 161: 
"The op&ra hth a, head like a swine, a tayle like a Rat, 
as biga an. Cat, and hath under belly a b, -herein 
she carriath Aer youn.. 
Slils slow, thick, short legged possum has a 
white pointed fae -tIth large bare cars, and: a scnly 
pr.Mnsilc tail.  -'any  all it a "silly, artnnin1 idiot." 
-Cin    ye-:,  a i.alfis. rveryone knotw about h1'48 'lplay- 
Ing poss~ue trick w7hicli is actually a faintincl pell. 
'does not consciousely play possum.  As bed  qoes Limp, 
the hcart tt.. iot ceases to~ bat and thc. body; temptsrat-are 
goea don. The disgusted offender gives a final shake, 
,,nd leaves 4flilly Ilosm  to brush himself off. an(I go 
in march of a supper of fish worms beetles, and apples, 
or anythtnq else that ha~ippens to be in the w, ay. The 
p),gsuma Is ounlvorouvp beinq fond of fruit, insects$ l1ive 
met or carrion.    ry(qu ted by eton) even ilvea strong 
evidence that the p csew   is cwnibalietic. It is hard to 
believe that such a mild   nered is so vicious. 

devloj, i vry fsr as a aiatott but hequta 
TonenM n  Bhal- az saying that it !:aslies islf, 
qatliket ater a mcl and that It takes rjn batha. 
Thi ad  tlae  videnoe Inicate that -,-hen un4ioturb.4, 
th  p-ysew ntot ekl      1eyA a4nigt prwlor, J'al 
on! awftron In Febru~ary., 1'23 , u     rT oaurht 
in a W94#od nea~r hee  At the sam  tMaG of the diy In 
D caber, 196    nte va     soc~an a chort 41 .tanee from 
a far )ous#. deiourin   bees at a hive. 
Themajrity of posswmm    "Is rayO  ells saye 
tha -"--on  the asual gray,- n. small po-otjo  o)f olawt 
spectmnh (up to 10Q   ar  to be oud    w41.l in other 
regonsa aml percntafte of cirsrdn-oord animls 
Seton says that tl POnSUn is al'wIya Solitary; 
but he quoe a ntory rtten, to hisn -hicht is contra- 
4#tVr. A pet posaix o-wnc  by a neqr, tuiil diaa pearecJ] 
hiin  ver col~ weather aA reune      few dasltr 
f olo-4el  f llgromn possmi. Cons14ering the> brain 
capacity of the poeesum (as ms seta by &4Zly, i~eon 
which hol40 aout Vt~ny4fiv beww.g a. zotnpate. ith 
15J hold~ by -a oqir.ilar @674 con  It is highly Improbable 
that anwosua7ould leav. a --armnUn to  !o out Into 
the cold to brino bAip fta    back to shrc it wi4th him. 
Despite the fact that the possit- is an able 
climbr, he is too lazy to climb exopTt for a hmeal of 

fruits or to eacape frow 
rI.jht U,, u-i hims, in whiah 
hardly ever ncatv htvh jr, 
t1he ground or a 710110,,-.,, 10 
lOftVQ8 -and T'ass, trlanapo 
the tail. After 
thirtee" ja-o, the voun. , 
is that all wvxaupiala in 
and the           warsup 
size at birth. They 
at)ln to place, elqllteen jo 
teaepoon, 'Naturallys If 
must be vtIll very embryo 
are Y,,iell 
into the POUCA, 7-here it 
a  4,-at.     are  woria j 
in the pouch. !he rest, 
to el#htean  oun3j, The y 
heres qro-viw and "'evelop 
Then for the firet time i 
the sixth      Vacy rGall 
ridinct 011 Vic motherlt ba, 
nvoimd hars. After Vio, m 
althou.1-h th-cy ire nnt ent 
femnle produces younil It 
Mr4 ~ ~ ~   ~~r tre.t  ~g  .n& e, Preer.-iliq e hole in 
~au, t~#rtel to the .ngi site by 
t~4ren  aysdth  nole kanao        I th  peu 
~~xla4                 areoe#1k  ~~  a1-pr,.xijw-,tely --th  s 
aia  ath~r, Tey  e so      tha~t Lttringr neas 
wi rO~euin nori-r 
the. ); 7pa#           atetee  thssie  V1 gu 
mu~~~~~~t  t~wilvr  m~~    he frr*t leRs and 
~w  ~e  .Z  .~1   inablinp It to. 01,Ilb wV,*itu 
aeI iti~# Trrd    r. up OQ4r the. abdooinl1 
~#4  ~h poah, *rIt in4e an4l attachea ite4l to 
raue thnat4 Ther                   be re  4od, 
~Qt~~# ot h ng opoeau rean attahed 
Ing, for~aIv*         fouar Y,-ees 
firth ~t*. t relaxes its hol-4 it~e the 
* nd~m~      on--   Ir- th7 (,itb  ee>  In 
th  .~4  wekt~y     veny~oture u.  n  travel abu 
r14ia~  the ~w~herlw * their ti    a~4~~~ 
onths the 3 Ow Ir*1e the qAilt 
is not knprih00  it Icrjt potr~ 

The nspe ai on rLia e         notn ble amn-A~ 
enwei    1.t4n sf. (in contaictn te, Anthony) of 
the~ -lst two  ,etoe         re olsc no instInc;@ C., its 
hiavin~ 1-en  U,4 f by til ridv     rth-f,.      rr ingqt o 
oatote dafkiitel, ta te red fox eats possu. 
.,t    all its #n~fAz4.: thcB IQ813ic=flftS 
1,0 kee  i*oeon        oal the four zuost iwpertaxit 
reavo*pa re t~iu  it la n.- iaujy proVlie.c it is elenerally 
Amet-laU al  olmr muaropil are found in '3ouati America 
anO A-fitr4nW.  "Ter   arq      is      t1~      ~o~ie 
adant eatrerU1ik .arsuptI,  ecw   them1 - oven ha 
paoraaW.a of zkin eolnneetlnq the,or   ~.Ind hini limbs 
toIthr  o VThat It Carl plmci thrmrh th6 Pi~r like 
r.Mbby thekiaersa~an posswa lo the virirtlor )f an -naient 
aw;d iveraiflel jroup w, ioh   Y)81l s preaci ae far 
Fast as Asia. This 7ava rise t, t6 ,Awerimin wrsupial 
*o4i fstalia   oarn1 vfru  maEptr tral. 
The  n   is kn,)m to nv    U-ited homue 

rango atiioufh it eoclimes moVe as mucloh -,, t O iles 
a rliqht. 
hyis this "rat of~ the woodeilltc.adily i.c i vn a 
n r t",.-   x It 4oes not, and ann  ot -.-o~ve as birdI-s dot 
but m4ust take years t,,, ever lot anywherco, even if' it 
moed, ateadily, hg      it doesn't- 
In Debr, 11935. one of the Lion vorlkInq on 
th1s farm came upon tvo 4e.-I posawaap in tw.,o fields 
ad~acent to the wooda her  . Ona l   In thei  shallow 
snow- in) a hay! field, and the oth~er he fndin a corn 
filel . The tiau thought th.-1y were either dAleaze4 or hiad 
frozen to dai.Tebod~eo w ere at lewat one hundred 
yad.apA a there e(.iethin?, about the citnt wh,"ich 
tiie~poes~te iiv  iAcVuoabat2i Prha os~ fcQQd wa arope. 
-Io we think of tie conolnic mora       of 
anythingr ,, ;e Ajowilly Conaider thie foond aind clothin! angle 
(XL  ,~us      i~al      a~ho~  i t Xeeie~epci a 1ly 
In Clie 3o-Ut,  sothglprz 
I)Ssua; fur is the. foart-h ifoat vvlua ble in the 
United 'Aates. ktis nsot partioul-arly hsoeor dIurable, 
00god many   nen although1 tkipy don't know it, are int- 
de btc:d t~o thepisAc ~   '  their fur oots   tior furs 
w,,ould be aut ,>14 their rcachi financially,: 'n decr ':., 
Soundino,  zs ucd     Lis A-Zsral in Ghoil, ,uvcA:-n 
iiirten, and stofle uirethle good kl   u   fur cc  ,t 
makes thousandle hay      eoa se the )Iossui!4 is just as 
ezpunsi ve to ra-ioe ao themoeiiubl 7inas it 13 

improfitable to; have poemn~ ftxms; so the aniiwis musT, 
,rw ,n  L,, trap ed in the w1Z4,d 
found deiil      susceptible to tular.*4*n ina  fta 
f      orm,   The .. 4Q*ae  o  nt fluihi  the  o-t 
f b-,nintg its or atlst  frprevet4ing Its be#oAn 
toonui-ros.Ti1'L best w." can do Is to --acswls 
and see. 

(l.t Revision) 
"isconsiln needs management procedures necessary for producing 
maximum yields of iuskrats. However, it is futile to -roduce such 
m ximum yields unless they are adequately hravested. High muskrat 
"orulations not adequately harvested result in wholesale die-offs. 
It is not important whether these die-offs eare the result of diseases, 
severe winters, intra-snecific strife, or other known causes. It is 
important, financially speaking, if such a die-off occurs! Unless 
man reduces a dense popalation which he has helped create, nature will 
reduce it to the carrying capacity of the range and at man's expense. 
It is necessary, therefore, to know something about carrying 
oapacity of Wisconsin marshes. An intensive st dy of carrying 
opaoity of any marsh involves detailed study of reproduction, limit- 
ing factors, food requirements, territorial requirements, movements 
and wanderings, census methods, time of harvest, and competition with 
other interests. It is impossible to set down an outline that can be 
closely followed that will result in conclusive findings for all 
these intrictely-involved problems, especially when one resenrcher 
with a shaved budget is faced with all of them. It is possible, 
however, to begin intensive study of at least the most important 
rroblems and work toward conclusions of the others. 
(A) DIetails of progray for first and only year under this rroject 
(1) The leader will headquarter at Horicon unless a more 
favorable station is known. He will cooperate and work together 
with the i-eader of the waterfowl project and other personnel of the 
state department. 

(2) Literature pertLirii  to mskrat studies, eaoecially 
those that nave been conducted in neighboring states, will be reviewed 
and studied. 
(3) A study of reproduction will be started. Vuskrats will 
be traovred, taged, and retrapped to determine: potential number of 
young per year per female, average number of young produced nor fenale 
under various conditions and ropulation densities, survival of young 
ner fe ale under different ecological conditions and poulatlon 
densities, and tne population density of breeding stock at which 
the greatest number of harvestable young are obtained. 
(4) A census method will be developed that can be used to 
determine the harvestable "surplusw on the area before traping starts

and that can redict at an ezrly date the approx.mate crop that will be 
available for harvesting. This census method will be based on the 
number of muskrats per house per acre. To develop such a method 
trarping and tagging will be necessary. 
(5) Winter and predation losses will be studied to give 
information on the proper time of harvest under specific and various 
conditions. In such studies weather, water stability, topograp-hy, 
soil type, pelt primness, and rarket conditions will be carefully 
(6) Limiting factors will be studied. This term is intended 
to include: (1) effects of a given population on plant succession and 
the survival of the better foods (recent evidence from Canada not only 
shows the importance of muskrats in affecting plant succession, but 
it shows the i~ivrortnce of openings created by muskrats for the benefit

of wildlowl), (2) which plants are required to carry a colony of 
maskrats through the winter, (3) the problems of weather that affect 
the environment rather than having a direct effect on the animal, and 
-a - 

how many more rat- ,hould be et~ected on an acre of -iarsh in 
southeastern Wisconsin as oomared to northern 4isconsin. 
(7) Physiological studies will be a definite part of the 
program.  During the trappin: seasons, and at certain other seasons, 
muskrat carcasees will be salva,"ed for study. The most important 
endocrine glands, especially the gon.ds, will be fixed ad preserved 
in F.A.A. (10 parts formaldehyde, 0 parts glAcial acetic, 20 rarts 
95  alcohol, ;nd 60 parts water). These glands will be carefully 
examined in th-e laboratory when field stuiiesi permit to determine 
p- sible influences of various endocrines on reproduction and other 
population problems. In adition to the glands preservedt, the leader 
will crefuly examine the genital traot of all females recording 
observations on placental sites, periodic pigmentation, -md muscular 
collapse of the ovidacts. In some caqes these oviduotm will be 
preserved for further stxiy. 
(8) Throughout the year the leader will study may rout ine 
but pertinent problems relating to proper rmuskrat management, 
especially where such problems are recliar to isconsin conditions. 
It will be necessary for the mn working on this rroject to have 
pood physiological traiinin.  l3ich training seldom goes with under 
graduate training.  Tvysiolorical training shoild not be confused 
with -zthological training or ability. It is not conceivable that 
a uman studyin, reproduction could go far without introducing 
physiological work into his studies. 
- 3- 

ETI ATXD   X  DI U e Per iod 1 July 1946 to 30 June 1947 
(A) Salaries and wages: 
1,an-,e               Dthies      : Period :    MIte      :   Tota= 
P-roject leIder    iSu-ervise project : I year :             o.: 2      .00

Total: (salariee a)d wages) 
(B) Travel expenses: 
N ame                 !ut e            riod      Rate          Tota 
Project leader    : upervise -project   I 1  ear           ; 0Q  o.  60F).
Total: (travel expenses) 
(a) Materil    and supplies: 
I tem .. ..       .h..r                         Un no xit cost :  Total 
U1j'sc. eauipmrent Conaier ~        ae,., unknown: unknown      :     8.0

sta.tionary, filra, printing, ae.)::: 
Contingency fund                                                      5 
Total: (materials and supplies)                            7  140 
frand total: (salaries, travel, supolies) 
3,500. 00 
Respeotfully submitted, 
Irven 0. Buss 
- 4-a 

1 1%U/ rc,,'7/            tA -e- 

AMES, IOWA                              V, 
DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY                January 8, 1947 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison 5, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
I am sending under separate cover a half-dozen reprints of the 
fox-muskrat paper. Vie could spare a few more if you happen to need them.

Concerning imprisonment of muskrats in frozen lodges, I have no 
evidence that such things occur very often at the latitude of Iowa and 
southern Wisconsin, and probably then largely during the occasional very

severe winter when northern conditions do, in effect, prevail. I am mindful

of Seton's (Lives of Game Animals,