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REVIEWS that I can find is that it gives only a few skimpy biographies of the notorious individual wolves of the western ranges, of which we have a dra- matic sample in Seton's Lobo, the King of the Currumpaw. I suspect that the publisher, rather than the authors, may be responsible for this, for no living man knows more about the famous kill- ers than Stanley P. Young. It is a pity that these biographies should be lost to history. They will be when the present generation of range-raised biologists discards its ropes and saddles. Viewed as conservation, The Wolves of North America is, to me, intensely disappointing. The next to the last sentence in the book asserts: "There still remain, even in the United States, some areas of considerabte size in which we feel that both the red and gray [wolves] may be al- lowed to continue their existence with little mo- lestation." Yes, so also thinks every right-minded ecologist, but has the United States Fish and Wildlife Service no responsibility for implement- ing this thought before it completes its job of extirpation? Where are these areas? Probably every reasonable ecologist will agree that some of them should lie in the larger national parks and wilderness areas; for instance, the Yellow- stone and its adjacent national forests. The Yel- lowstone wolves were extirpated in 1916, and the area has been wolfless ever since. Why, in the necessary process of extirpating wolves from the livestock ranges of Wyoming and Montana, were not some of the uninjured animals used to re- stock the Yellowstone? How can it be done now, when the only available stocks are the desert wolf of Arizona, and the subarctic form of the Canad- ian Rockies? Entirely unmentioned in this book is the mod- em curse of excess deer and elk, which certainly stems, at least in part, from the excessive decima- tion of wolves and cougars under the aegis of the present authors and of the Fish and Wildlife Service. None of us foresaw this penalty. I per- sonally believed, at least in 1914 when predator control began, that there could not be too much horned game, and that the extirpation of preda- tors was a reasonable price to pay for better big game hunting. Some of us have learned since the tragic error of such a view, and acknowl- edged our mistake. One must judge from the present volume that the Fish and Wildlife Serv- ice does not see any mistake. Its philosophy seems to be that the rifles can do the necessary trimming of the big-game herds. Yes-so they can-but they seldom do, at least not until the range is ruined and the herds are pauperized. The publisher of this book is the American Wildlife Institute, a conservation organization which has done invaluable pioneer work in fos- tering wildlife research. It is disappointing that thp Institute should not have encouraged, in this volume, some implementation of the idea that "the wolf may be allowed to continue his existence." The wolf will certainly disappear from the United States unless the official wildlife agencies exempt certain definite areas of wolf range from official extirpation. ALDO LEOPOLD, University of Wisconsin.