Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources began a management program of maintaining relict forest openings in 1968. As this phase of openings management approached completion, plans were formulated to supplement existing relict openings with constructed openings. The latter phase involved higher cost and greater environmental impact. The research covered in this report began concurrent with the beginning of the construction phase in 1974. The research objective was to evaluate costs and impacts and develop guidelines for constructing openings.