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FRANKLIN J. W. SCHMIDT 
BY ALDO LEOPOLD 
WINTER FOOD OF THE SHARP-TAILED GROUSE AND 
PINNATED GROUSE IN WISCONSIN 
BY F. J. W. SCHMIDT 
[Reprinted from the WILSON BULLETIN, XLVIII, September, 1936, 
pp. 181-2031 
 
 

					
				
				
				
				
Franklin J. W. Schmidt                  181 
FRANKLIN J. W. SCHMIDT 
BY ALDO LEOPOLD 
It is by now a truism that the American frontier did not cease to 
exist when the covered wagons halted on the shores of the Pacific. In 
its wake followed a scientific frontier, which opened up the resources 
of the new-found lands to human understanding in quite the same 
sense, and in no less degree, than the geographic frontier opened them 
to human occupancy. 
It was quite a surprise to the gold-seeking Spaniards when James 
Ohio Pattie arrived in their midst, seeking not gold, but beavers. Just 
so is it now a surprise to biological scientists to discover as a fellow-

explorer the conservation ecologist, seeking not new ways to squeeze 
wealth out of the soil, but ways to prevent the extraction of its wealth

from destroying its wild life. 
Society has not withheld its gratitude from the geographical ad- 
venturer who failed to come back, nor from the scientific explorer who 
dies in the course of an unfinished quest. It should, I think, at least 
know about important fatalities in that new argosy of the intellect 
which seeks not the conquest, but the preservation, of nature. Hence 
this biographical sketch of Franklin J. W. Schmidt, who, after five 
years' work in charge of the Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Investigation, 
died at Stanley, Wisconsin, August 7, 1935, in a midnight fire which 
also destroyed his accumulated notes, photographs, and manuscripts. 
The philosophical questions involved in the death of a young ex- 
plorer on the outbound trail are always of tragic interest. That 
Schmidt had seen virgin lands was well known to the more discerning 
of his research associates. That circumstances had unduly delayed 
publication of his findings is patent from the scarcity of his titles in

the literature. (He spent his last evening on one of eight manuscripts 
to which, at the insistence of his friends, he had devoted the last 
months of his life). Whether he himself realized the full value of his 
findings, or whether their publication would have gained him wide- 
spread recognition, must remain forever among those questions which 
destiny thrusts unanswered into the stove. As his biographer I can 
only affirm the personal opinion, unsupported by those burned docu- 
ments, and admittedly biased by the pain of a lost friendship, that 
Franklin Schmidt knew more about the life history and ecology of 
the prairie grouse than any living man, and as much as any living 
ecologist knows about any American game bird. Likewise that he had 
developed a deep understanding of the interactions of ecological forces.

and the mechanisms of their integrated expression in the life and land- 
 
 

					
				
				
182            The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
scape of Wisconsin. It is no uncommon thing for a specialist to 
sound a record depth of knowledge in a single limited field, but it is 
a rare and inspiring thing to see one putting together a mental clock 
made of parts from the whole gamut of earth-sciences, and then listen- 
ing for it to tick. 
Schmidt's particular hobby was the marsh region of central Wis- 
consin-that waif of the slums of exploitation, long since cast out as 
an economic ne'er-do-well, but now the object of uplift by many con- 
servation bureaus. If and when the intrinsic loveliness of those vast 
wastes is duly appreciated and restored, the mechanism of restoration 
will be set upon foundations of ecological understanding built in large 
part by Schmidt. 
I vividly recall my first visit to the camp which each summer 
served as a base for his field studies in the central marsh region. In 
town or office Schmidt was ordinarily laconic, even taciturn. But as 
we roamed his beloved marsh, each bird and flower drew out of him 
new rivers of speech-the pent-up accumulation of years of lonely 
observation, speculation, and study. The sandhill cranes, their habits, 
personality, and probable history since the retreating glacier first left

behind it the moss-meadows which are their habitat. His discovery 
that "red" cranes, like rusty snow geese, can be washed to their
normal 
color, and hence represent no particular sex, age, or genetic strain. 
The burr oaks-how, why, and where they are an indicator of prairie, 
and the history revealed in their rings. The prairie chickens, how he 
had spied upon their mating dance, how his bandings reestablished 
Cook's assertion that only the hens migrate-how squeamish chickens 
are about roosts, and how by improving roosts we might help raise 
population levels. The dried-up hay marsh which once in the 1880's 
and again in 1913-16, was a lake from which the settlers trapped musk- 
rats, how the existence of the former lake is indicated by the ice-ridge

outlining its shore, and dated by the age of the trees growing out of 
that ridge. How in the intervening drouths this lake had been a hay- 
meadow, the present drouth representing simply the dry phase of a 
recurrent cycle. In short, no observed phenomenon was interpreted by 
Schmidt in terms of a short time or of a single scientific field. Its 
historical origin and its ramifications into a wide variety of fields were

habitually followed out. In this difficult task Schmidt's woodsman- 
ship, i. e., his ability to detect and interpret evidence invisible to ordi-

nary men, played an outstanding part. He knew more than his fellow- 
workers because he saw more keenly and thought more deeply. I 
have seen few field naturalists of comparable skill and acumen. 
 
 

					
				
				
Franklin J. W. Schmidt                     183 
FRANKLIN J. W. SCHMIDT, 1901-1935 
 
 

					
				
				
184            The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
We who teach how to use science for the ends of conservation 
are interested in the origins and education of such men, for there is 
always the remote hope of finding a clue to the puzzle of how to build 
them to order. 
Franklin James White Schmidt was born at Lake Forest, Illinois, 
July 25, 1901. His parents were George W. Schmidt, Professor of 
German at Lake Forest College, and Margaret Patterson Schmidt. In 
1907, when he was six years old, the family established a farm in 
Worden Township, Clark County, Wisconsin. There he grew up in 
an environment of forest and meadow well populated with wild things. 
His mother had a good knowledge of botany. His older brother, Karl 
P. Schmidt, had been imbued with an active interest in biology in the 
course of his studies under Dr. James G. Needham at Lake Forest 
College. His father had a deep and abiding interest in all wild things. 
With this guidance the boy developed an ever-widening proficiency in 
natural history. He trapped muskrats and mink. He raised ferrets, 
and his first published "research" was a letter on their habits
embodied 
in Mrs. Anna Botsford Comstock's "Pet Book", in 1914. 
Schmidt entered the University of Wisconsin in 1927. By this 
time he had decided on a career as field naturalist. He had been em- 
ployed by the Field Museum in 1924, 1925, and 1926, and found 
congenial friends in Dr. W. H. Osgood and Mr. Colin Campbell San- 
born, and through them focused his interest on mammalogy. During 
his university years he spent the summers in collecting mammals, rep- 
tiles, and amphibians in his home county, publishing his notes on the 
mammals in the Journal of Mammalogy in 1931. Upon graduation 
from the University of Wisconsin in 1930, he was recommended by 
Prof. George Wagner as field assistant to Dr. Alfred 0. Gross, who 
during that year initiated a study of the prairie chicken and the sharp-

tailed grouse in Wisconsin. This field study now became his primary 
interest. After Dr. Gross returned to his duties in the East, the Con- 
servation Commission placed Schmidt in charge. 
In 1933 the project was discontinued for lack of funds. The 
newly established Chair of Game Management at the University of 
Wisconsin immediately offered Schmidt a fellowship for its continu- 
ation under university auspices. Schmidt had, however, already en- 
gaged to accompany the Mandel Expedition of the Field Museum to 
Guatemala. The fellowship was held open for him until his return. 
Schmidt's field work in Guatemala was unusually successful. He 
collected and studied several new species of bats and rodents, and took 
 
 

					
				
				
Franklin J. W. Schmidt                185 
specimens of such rarieties as the bat Centurio senex and the Guate- 
malan flying squirrel. 
Upon his return in 1934, he resumed work on the Prairie Chicken 
Investigation, focusing his efforts not only on the prospective com- 
pletion of his doctorate thesis in about 1936, but also on the ultimate 
production of a monograph covering the life history and management 
of the prairie grouse in a manner similar to Stoddard's "Bobwhite".

The plan was to center the work on Wisconsin until Schmidt's doc- 
torate was completed, and then to set up a consulting service through 
which he would aid other states to get started in prairie grouse man- 
agement, and at the same time have the opportunity to collect life 
history information from the whole continental range of the species. 
The first move to these ends was-the completion of a series of eight 
papers summarizing the Wisconsin work to date. One of these papers 
had been completed at the time of Schmidt's death in 1935, and ac- 
companies this biography. The other seven, in various stages of com- 
pletion, together with most of the field notes on which they were based,

were destroyed by the fire in which Schmidt met his death on August 
7, 1935. 
Other valuable unpublished material met the same fate. Schmidt 
had, for example, conducted annually for four or five years a rodent 
census on several sample areas. The population of rodents was ac- 
curately determined each year by trapping, marking, and releasing 
the animals until no unmarked individuals appeared at the traps. 
Schmidt hoped by this means to get accurate 'data on population cycles. 
The data from all areas save one were burned. The census on this 
one area has been continued by my students. 
Few Wisconsin conservationists are aware that the first actual 
work in reflooding the drained marshes of central counties-a project 
on which the Resettlement Administration has since spent $150,000- 
was initiated by Schmidt. It came about in this manner: Schmidt 
was attending a somewhat convivial meeting of Milwaukee sportsmen. 
He asked the group to subscribe $100 to build one dam as a test or 
demonstration of the potential waterfowl breeding capacity of the 
drained marshes. They banteringly replied that they would give the 
money if Schmidt would drink a glass of whiskey. Knowing his ab- 
stemious habits, they thought this a safe reply. But Schmidt promptly 
gulped the whiskey, and within a few weeks the dam was built and 
had ducks in it. 
Schmidt's death is the first fatality in that young profession known 
as wildlife management. He has set for that profession a high stand- 
 
 

					
				
				
186             The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
ard of devotion, modesty, skill, and thoroughness. It will be no small 
task for those who survive him to live even partially up to his mark. 
PUBLISHED PAPERS OF F. J. W. SCHMIDT 
1926. Reptiles and amphibians of Worden Township, Clark County, Wisconsin.

Copeia, 154, pp. 131-132. 
1927. Pitymys pinetorum scalopsoides in Wisconsin. Jour. Mammal., 8, p. 248.

1931. The mammals of western Clark County, Wisconsin. Idem, 12, pp. 99-117,

1 map. 
1936. The winter food of Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated Grouse in Wisconsin.

WILSON BULLETIN, XLVIII, Sept., 1936, pp. 186-203. 
BISHOP, SHERMAN C., AND F. J. W. SCHMIDT 
1931. The painted turtles of the genus Chrysemys. Publ. Field Mus., Zool.
Ser., 
18, pp. 121-139, figs. 1-27. 
SCHMIDT, KARL P., AND F. J. W. SCHMIDT 
1925. New coral snakes from South America. Idem, 12, pp. 127-134, pl. 11-12.

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 
MADISON, WIS. 
WINTER FOOD OF THE SHARP-TAILED GROUSE AND 
PINNATED GROUSE IN WISCONSIN 
BY F. J. W. SCHMIDT 
INTRODUCTION 
The present paper is the first of a series summarizing the findings 
of the Wisconsin Grouse Investigation since 1930. 
A research bureau of the Wisconsin Conservation Department 
was organized in 1928 by Wallace B. Grange and Dr. Merritt L. Jones 
to begin a study of the Prairie Chicken and the Sharp-tailed Grouse. 
Its findings up to 1930 were published in the "Progress Report of the

Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Investigation" by Dr. Alfred 0. Gross. 
I took over the study during the winter of 1930-1931, which was 
spent observing the feeding habits of grouse at grain food patches 
and feeding stations. In March 131 sharptails were banded. Since 
then 550 Sharp-tailed Grouse and 275 Prairie Chickens have been 
banded. Studies of nests were made during the springs of 1931, 1932, 
1933, and 1934. Moving pictures were made of Sharp-tailed Grouse 
and Prairie Chickens on their dance grounds. Dance ground flocks 
were counted through a series of successive years. During the summer 
of 1932 Prairie Chickens were raised at the state game farm. During 
the summer of 1934 the food habits of Marsh Hawks and Cooper's 
Hawks were studied in their relation to grouse. During open seasons 
grouse crops and stomachs were collected and sex counts were made 
from hunters' bags. The investigation was discontinued in January, 
1933, and resumed in May, 1934, as a game management project at 
the University of Wisconsin under the direction of Aldo Leopold. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated Grouse       187 
The term "grouse" is here used for Prairie Chickens, Sharp-tailed

Grouse, and Ruffed Grouse collectively, unless otherwise stated. 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
Grateful acknowledgment of assistance is expressed to Aldo Leo- 
pold, Professor of Game Management at the University of Wisconsin; 
to George Wagner, Professor of Zoology at the University of Wiscon- 
sin; to H. W. MacKenzie, Director, Wisconsin Conservation Depart- 
ment; to William F. Grimmer, Wisconsin Conservation Department; 
to Dr. Merritt L. Jones of Wausau, Wisconsin; to W. L. McAtee 
and Charles C. Sperry of the U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey; and 
to E. R. Van Wormer, Babcock, Wisconsin. 
SCOPE 
The present paper deals with winter food only. It is based on 
observations at winter feeding stations and grain food patches; on 
observations of migrant Prairie Chickens on their wintering grounds; 
on observations of grouse budding in trees; on observations made by 
back-tracking flushed grouse; on artificial feeding of grouse in pens; 
and on the crop contents of nineteen grouse collected during the win- 
ter. A larger series of winter crops and gizzards is being collected 
for a report on the percentage of the various foods eaten. In addi- 
tion, a large series of summer and fall crops have been collected, but 
are not here reported. 
The dietaries of the Sharp-tailed Grouse and the Prairie Chicken 
overlap, but are nevertheless essentially different, the sharptail being

a northern bird extending into Wisconsin from the northwest, while 
the Prairie Chicken is a more southern bird extending into Wisconsin 
from the south. Originally the chicken was probably mainly a mi- 
grant. It became a permanent resident when a new food supply was 
introduced by agriculture. The winter food habits of the two species 
are here discussed separately, from the standpoint of grouse manage- 
ment, with special reference to the question of how much if any grain 
and cultivated weed seed is necessary, and at what seasons. 
THE PRAIRIE SHARP-TAILED GROUSE (Pedioecetes phasianellus 
cam pestris) 
The following winter foods are grouped according to the length 
of time during which they are usually available. 
Browse is available throughout the winter, and is the most important 
class of winter food. Wisconsin sharptails browse on the buds, cat- 
kins, and twigs of white birch, aspen, balsam, poplar, willow, bog 
birch, and leather-leaf. All these may be regarded as staple winter 
 
 

					
				
				
188            The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
foods. The kind of browse eaten depends somewhat, of course, on 
the kinds available in any given area. 
Climbing Plants. The seeds of climbing false buckwheat (Polygonum 
dumetorum) are, while they last, always held above the snow. It has 
been determined by observation and by tracking that sharptails feed on 
the seed of this plant. 
Grain. To understand the r6le of grain in the grouse dietary, it is 
necessary to hark back to the day when all grouse lived without it. 
At the present time there are still sharptails inhabiting grainless range,

whereas all Prairie Chickens now know and use grain to some extent. 
Few Ruffed Grouse as yet know or use grain. 
Grain is available in fall, but tends to become exhausted or cov- 
ered during winter. The only exception is shocked corn. In Novem- 
ber and December, when the ground is bare, sharptails gather in packs 
of from twenty to several hundred to feed on harvested fields of oats, 
buckwheat, soy beans, and corn. Buckwheat seems to be preferred, 
yet the biggest pack I have ever seen was one of more than 400 birds 
on an oat field at Hawkins in Rusk County. The cultivated grains 
mentioned above may be classified as preferred fall foods for those 
sharptails which know and have access to them. 
All sharptails, in winter, tend to revert to a diet of browse. The 
details of this change are discussed later. 
At the time Leopold (1933, p. 261) was preparing a table of the 
palatability sequence of winter foods, I classified corn as an emer- 
gency food for sharptails. At that time the existence of grainless 
sharptails, and the general winter preference for buds, was not under- 
stood. Corn should now be classified with the other grains as a pre- 
ferred fall food. 
The peculiarities of sharptails in relation to artificial feeding of 
grain are covered in detail later. 
Seeds, Berries, and Leaves. These foods are available when not cov- 
ered by snow. Sharptails do not feed on weed seeds as extensively 
as Prairie Chickens do. When snow does not cover the ground, sharp- 
tails eat the seeds of smartweed (Polygonum pennsylvanicum and 
Polygonum hydropiper), the berries of wintergreen (Gaultheria pro- 
cumbens), snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), and cranberry, and the 
leaves of white, red, and alsike lovers, sweet clover, alfalfa, golden- 
rod, strawberries, and sheep sorrel. These greens and fruits may be 
classified as "tonic, mineral, or vitamin foods" (Leopold, 1933,
p. 
268). The available variety of these foods is of course much smaller 
in winter than in summer. With the exception of sheep sorrel they 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated Grouse        189 
are eaten in small quantity. Sheep sorrel, until snowed under, is taken 
in large amounts when sufficiently abundant. 
RED GROUSE AND SHARPTAIL COMPARED 
It is interesting to note that the Red Grouse of England and Scot- 
land and the Sharp-tailed Grouse have eight foods in common. The 
following Red Grouse foods taken from "The Grouse in Health and 
Disease" (pp. 76, 83, 85) are also eaten by Wisconsin sharptails: 
1. Vaccinium sp. blaeberry, blue whortleberry, blueberry. The 
stem, leaves, flowers, and berries are eaten. 
2. Vaccinium oxycoccos, bog cranberry. The leaves and berries 
are eaten. 
3. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, red bearberry. 
4. Salix sp., willow. The leaves and shoots are eaten. In the 
summer the willow furnishes food in the form of galls. 
5. Myrica gale and Myrica asplenifolium, sweet gale, sweet fern. 
The buds and catkins are eaten. 
6. Rumex acetosella, sheep sorrel. The seeds are eaten by Red 
Grouse and the leaves by sharptails. 
7. Betula sp., birch. Chapman, p. 25, states that Red Grouse 
feed on birch, but he does not state what kind of birch. 
8. Polygonum aviculare and Polygonum persicaria, smartweed. 
The seeds are eaten by both species. 
SHARPTAIL FOOD IN OTHER REGIONS 
Below are a few references to the winter food of sharptails in 
regions north and west of Wisconsin. 
Judd (1905, p. 22) lists the leaves of cottonwood, alder, blue- 
berry, juniper, and larch (tamarack) as foods of the sharptail. It is 
probable that they also feed on the buds of these plants during the 
winter. Judd also quotes Hearne as saying that sharptails in winter 
feed on the tops of dwarf birch, and on poplar buds. Otherwise he 
does not distinguish between winter foods and foods eaten at other 
seasons. 
Coues (1874, p. 418) refers to the winter food of the sharptail 
along the Missouri River as follows: "Killed under these circum- 
stances, the food of the Grouse is readily ascertained; in the dead of 
winter it consists chiefly of the berries of the cedar, and buds of the 
poplar or cottonwood and willow, still closely sealed awaiting the 
coming of spring." 
Bendire (1892, pp. 102-103) quotes a letter from George Bird 
Grinnell as follows: 
 
 

					
				
				
190            The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
"The Sharp-tailed Grouse, which in certain sections is called 
'Speckled Belly' and 'Willow' Grouse, I have found in various 
years almost everywhere west of the Mississippi River, east of 
the Sierra Nevadas, and north of the Platte River. In the old 
days it used to be very common all along the Platte and the 
Loup Rivers in Nebraska, and in the country which lies between 
these two streams. I have also found it nearly as abundant in 
the mountains, sometimes even late in the autumn, coming upon 
single birds or a considerable brood, far up toward the edge of 
timber in the most narrow wooded ravines. This species is partly 
migratory, and there is the very greatest difference in the habits 
of the bird in summer and winter. As soon as the first hard frosts 
come in the autumn the birds seem to take to the timber, and be- 
gin to feed on the buds of the willow and the quaking aspen. 
At this time they spend a large portion of their time in the trees 
and are very wild. In the Shirley Basin, in western Wyoming, 
a locality where I have never seen any of these birds in summer, 
they are abundant in winter. At this season they live in quaking 
aspen thickets along the mountains, and there I have seen hun- 
dreds of them roosting on top of a big barn which stands just at 
the edge of a grove of quaking aspen timber." 
Dery (1933, p. 4-7) found ironwood (Ostrya virginiana) and 
mountain ash to be the most important foods of the migrating northern 
sharptails in Quebec. The buds and catkins of ironwood were found 
in nineteen stomachs and varied from 8 per cent to 98 per cent, aver- 
aging 61 per cent of the total food. Mountain ash berries and buds 
varied from a trace to 71 per cent, averaging 26 per cent. Other win- 
ter foods were birch buds and catkins, aspen buds, cherry buds, alder 
catkins, willow buds, rose hips, seeds of Viburnum opulus and Cornus 
canadensis, Rubus sp., hazel buds, Aralia hispida, Cornus paniculata, 
tamarack buds and twigs, and Unifolium canadense. 
As the foods in Dery's list were determined from the northern 
sharptails which appeared in Quebec in 1932, it is possible that they 
may be different from those eaten by this subspecies on regular win- 
ter range. 
Bent (1932, p. 286) lists the buds and sprouts of Betula glandu- 
losa, willow, aspen, and larch, and the buds of juniper as food of the 
northern sharptail. Presumably he means winter food. 
Bendire (p. 104) thinks that in Manitoba rose hips are eaten as 
grit. He quotes Ernest E. Thompson (Ernest Thompson Seton) as fol- 
lows: "To illustrate the importance of this shrub (prairie rose) . .
. I 
append a table of . . . the contents of crops and gizzards of Grouse 
killed during various months: 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated Grouse         191 
January-Rose-hips, browse, and Equisetum tops. 
February-Rose-hips and browse. 
March-Rose-hips and browse. 
April-Rose-hips and browse of birch and willow. 
November-Rose-hips, birch and willow browse, and berries of 
arbutus. 
December-Rose-hips, juniper berries, and browse. 
"This is of course a mere list of staples, as in reality nothing of

the nature of grain, fruit, leaves, or insects comes amiss to this nearly

omnivorous bird, but it illustrates the importance of the rose-hips, 
which are always obtainable, as they grow everywhere, and do not 
fall when ripe." 
Grinnell, Bryant, and Storer (1918, p. 563) say of the Sharp- 
tailed Grouse (all races): "Especially during the winter when other

kinds of food are difficult to procure do these birds feed rather ex- 
tensively on buds and leaves .... The wild rose supplies the Sharp-tail 
with about 17 per cent of its fruit food, the stony-seeded hips being 
taken in great quantity; in places where gravel is lacking these seeds 
seem to serve for grinding other materials in the stomach." 
Dery (pp. 4-7) reports rose hips in eleven of nineteen stomachs. 
The amount varied from a trace to 21 per cent of the stomach contents. 
In Wisconsin, possibly due to a good supply of grit, rose hips are 
not very extensively eaten. 
Errington (1931, p. 8) has shown by feeding experiments that 
rose hips are low in nutrition value for quail and this may also be 
true for grouse. It is possible, however, that they may digest them 
more efficiently than quail do. 
According to observations made on Red Grouse (The Grouse in 
Health and in Disease, p. 99), fruit stones are poor substitutes for 
gravel and may cause more harm than good. When thornapple stones 
were eaten the gizzard was found to be unable to retain the more use- 
ful quartz, and when this happened at a time of grit shortage, the 
Red Grouse was unable efficiently to digest browse. 
We can conclude either that the sharptail is better adapted than 
the Red Grouse to grind browse with only rose or thornapple stones 
as grit, or that the American authors above quoted have over-rated 
fruit stones as an effective substitute for mineral grits. 
In general, the principal differences in the winter diet between 
Wisconsin and other sharptails are the heavier consumption of willow 
buds in other regions, and the inclusion of certain foods not available 
in Wisconsin, such as juniper buds and berries, mountain ash buds 
and berries, ironwood buds, and cottonwood buds. 
 
 

					
				
				
192            The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
ARTIFICIAL FEEDING OF GRAIN 
Experiments have been conducted to determine the amount of 
grain that may be eaten and the best methods of feeding it. 
Buckwheat food patches were planted in central and northern 
counties. They were used in fall, but not after the first snow. 
It was found that sbarptails did not know how to eat corn from 
shocks, but learned the trick from Prairie Chickens when the two 
occurred in the same flock. Sharptails have been observed feeding 
with Prairie Chickens on shocked corn in Wood, Portage, Adams, 
Washburn, and Burnett Counties. Corn, however, was not found to 
be an important item in the diet of the sharptail, as very little corn 
is raised in northern Wisconsin. 
Numerous experiments were made on hopper feeding. Sharptails 
learned almost at once to eat buckwheat from hoppers and would go 
under shelters to feed. Shelled corn, wheat, rye, and oats fed in ad- 
jacent hoppers were not eaten. Sharptails did not at first recognize 
ear corn as a food. They gradually learned to feed on husked ears 
placed on the ground where they were feeding on buckwheat. Later 
they even learned to strip the husks from ears. Once they knew how 
to eat ear corn, they would fly up to platforms where ear corn was 
stuck on spikes. This system was first used to feed Prairie Chickens 
(see Figs. 36-37). 
In Juneau and Wood Counties where sharptails were fed for the 
purpose of banding, it was found that approximately 2,000 birds ate 
3,000 pounds of buckwheat and 1,000 pounds of corn, or two pounds 
of grain per bird per month. The cost of the grain amounted to only 
four cents per bird per month, but labor and equipment brought the 
total cost to fifty cents per bird per season. 
EVIDENCE THAT WINTER GRAIN IS UNNECESSARY 
Ignoring of Food Patches. As evidence that winter grain is not 
necessary for sharptails, Mr. E. R. Van Wormer of Babcock informs 
me that even when stacks of buckwheat were opened up in a food 
patch located right in a budding area, only a few of the birds which 
had fed in the patch during November made their appearance there 
as long as there was snow. After the snow bad melted in March, the 
birds returned to feed on the buckwheat. 
Another instance: In northern Juneau County a flock of ten cocks 
and eleven hens fed in a patch of buckwheat until the advent of snow 
about December 1, when they changed to a bud diet. Buckwheat 
shocks and a hopper filled with buckwheat, together with corn shocks 
and ear corn, were placed in the food patch. Apparently they no 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated Grouse                193 
FIG. 36. Prairie Chickens feeding on ear corn stuck in snow and on ear 
corn held in woven wire container. Photograph was taken from a blind 
built of snow. 
FIG. 37. Prairie Chickens feeding on ear corn impaled on spikes and stuck

in the snow. 
 
 

					
				
				
194            The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
longer recognized the food patch as a source of food, although buck- 
wheat shocks were in plain sight of the white birches on which they 
budded and only 100 yards away. Neither did they think of visiting 
the food patch to see if any grain were available. On January 18 
grain was strung along on top of the snow from the birch trees on 
which they budded to the feeding station. They followed the path of 
grain and located the grain in the hopper and in the shocks. They 
continued to feed at the hopper until spring. It does not necessarily 
follow that they needed this grain, for they had been getting along 
very well without it. 
I conclude that sharptails use food patches in fall until the first 
snow of winter, and again in the spring, but not during the wintei 
budding season. Additional winter grain appears not only to be un- 
necessary, but may be ignored by the birds unless literally "thrust

under their noses". Prairie Chickens, on the other hand, seek out 
grain even during the budding season. 
Changes in sharptail population levels are brought about by 
causes other than available winter grain and deep snow. This seems 
to be positive evidence that winter grain is unnecessary for survival 
and increase. Thus in northern Wisconsin where not more than 10 
per cent of the sharptails were within reach of winter grain, and where 
the snow was deep, there was an increase during the summer of 1933, 
the license reports indicating a larger kill than in 1932. 
It might be mentioned as negative evidence that during the sum- 
mer of 1933 there was a big drop in the number of sharptails in Wood 
and Juneau Counties. This drop in numbers followed a nearly snow- 
less winter and two winters of extensive feeding of grain by means of 
hoppers. 
Bud Feeding Experiments. Two captive sharptails were fed on white 
birch and willow buds only. One lost five ounces in two weeks, while 
the other lost three ounces in the same time. A third sharptail fed on 
mixed grains and buds lost three and one-half ounces in the same 
time. As the control lost weight at about the same rate as the two 
birds fed on buds only, it is probable that the loss of weight was due 
to being in a pen, and not to the diet. 
Feeding experiments should be conducted with more birds and 
over a longer period. At present there is no reason to doubt the abil- 
ity of the sharptail to keep in good condition for several months on a 
browse diet. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated Grouse      195 
MANAGEMENT 
Winter feeding of grain is not recommended for sharptails, but 
where Prairie Chickens are being fed there is, of course, no harm in 
feeding both. 
There can be no doubt, however, that the availability of grain in 
fall increases the carrying capacity of sharptail range during the pre- 
budding season. Food patches of buckwheat, standing corn, oats, and 
soy beans are especially needed in wild regions where there are no 
farms, and hence few weeds and no grain. In farmed regions farmers 
should be encouraged to raise more buckwheat. A harvested buck. 
wheat field is an excellent source of early winter grain, provided it is

not fall-plowed. Farmers might, if offered share-cropping privileges, 
be willing to plant buckwheat on wild state land several miles from 
their farms, just as they now go five to thirty miles to make hay in a 
hay marsh. On the Upper Mississippi Wild Life and Fish Refuge 
farmers are given permits to cut marsh hay, and also land on which 
to raise corn on a share basis. The farmer gets free hay "stumpage"

and part of the grain; the government gets the remaining grain for 
feeding purposes without cash outlay. 
Reflooding of drained marshes unfit for agriculture will be bene- 
ficial to the winter food supply of sharptails. Such flooding is now 
under way in Juneau, Jackson, and Wood Counties. White birch will 
become abundant on all wet borders without artificial planting. A 
growth of white birch, bog birch, and white pine has already taken 
place on the borders of flooded areas belonging to cranberry growers 
in Wood, Jackson, and Monroe counties. If hay marshes are de- 
veloped on flooded areas, bog birch will come in around the edges 
of the hay land. The importance of hay marshes will be more fully 
explained in a paper on grouse range. 
Budding grouse of all species prefer trees that are at the edge of 
a thicket, standing alone, or in small groups. A dense stand of white 
birch or aspen is of little use as a bud supply except for a few trees 
around the edge. It is not known whether the buds are larger or bet- 
ter on trees in the open, but it is apparent that a stocky, busby tree 
has more buds and is easier to climb around on than a slim tree in a 
dense thicket. Budding trees which meet these specifications can be 
provided either by planting isolated trees, or by thinning thickets 
which are too dense, either by cutting or pasturing. 
On some of the drained marshes of Portage County, where the 
farms are large and have many small patches of aspen, buddirg 
grounds are very good. This is especially true of the region west of 
 
 

					
				
				
196            The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
Bancroft. Farmers generally should encourage small patches of aspen 
and white birch in treeless areas. Why not leave a patch of fast 
growing aspen to grow stove wood and to feed grouse at the same 
time? 
THE GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN OR PINNATED GROUSE 
(Tympanuchus cupido americanus) 
Browse. At first it was believed that Prairie Chickens did not bud to 
any extent in Wisconsin, but more recent observations indicate that 
Prairie Chickens feed on buds and catkins all through the winter. 
They differ from sharptails first in that the hens migrate in winter to 
the southerly counties, where they have ready access to both corn and 
buds. Second, they differ in that the wintering cocks which remain in 
the north seek out grain and weed foods, whereas sharptails do not. 
[ have evidence proving that the wintering cocks can subsist on browse 
plus a small amount of weed seed. A flock at Swamp Lake, Oneida 
County, wintered on browse, no grain, and very little weed seed. 
There are not many records of Prairie Chickens feeding on buds. 
Judd (p. 18) says: "Naturally the prairie hen is much less given to

budding than the ruffed grouse, but it has been known to pluck buds 
of poplar, elm, pine, apple, dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa), and 
black birch (B. lenta)."  In Wisconsin chickens browse mostly on 
the buds and catkins of white birch, bog birch, hazel, and aspen. This 
applies to both hens and cocks. 
Grain and Seeds. The hen chickens, having repaired to the southern 
counties and mixed with the resident birds of both sexes, feed with 
them on weed seeds and small grains until about December 1, after 
which they begin eating corn. I have not yet found out just when 
buds become a large item in the dietary, but I know they are taken 
regularly as soon as regular corn-eating begins. The food of cocks 
remaining in the north is similar, except, as already stated, there may 
be no corn. 
Of the weed seeds eaten, the most common are ragweed (Am- 
brosia artemisiifolia), sedge (Carex intumescens), green foxtail 
(Chaetochloa viridis), lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album), barn- 
yard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), smartweed (Polygonum pennsyl- 
vanicum), common smartweed (Polygonum hydropiper), climbing 
false buckwheat (Polygonum dumetorum), black bindweed (Polygo- 
num convolvulus), and knotweed (Polygonum cilinade). Ragweed 
and climbing false buckwheat form a regular part of the diet when- 
ever available, while the other weeds are eaten only occasionally. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated Grouse       197 
Leaves. Leaves and greens are eaten regularly in summer and fall, 
and in winter when not snow-covered. The green leaves eaten include 
willow, clover, alfalfa, sweet clover, sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella), 
goldenrod, wild strawberries, and other leaves that remain green all 
winter. A considerable amount of green hay is eaten when the bay 
is hauled out of the marshes during the winter. In February it was 
found that pieces of green grass were present in Prairie Chicken drop- 
pings, although due to deep snow there was no green grass available. 
The mystery was cleared up when the source was found to be green 
hay picked up on stack bottoms. 
Wintering Grounds. Food determines what range is habitable in win- 
ter, but so does cover, particularly roost cover. The sexes seem to 
differ as to the kinds of both food and cover needed, and this may 
account for the fact that the hens but not the cocks migrate. Migra- 
tion and cover will be discussed in separate papers. I am here con- 
sidering only the food needed for winter range. 
The male Prairie Chickens winter a few miles of their booming 
grounds, and seek whatever grain is available, not necessarily corn. 
Thus in Burnett County a flock of thirty cocks fed on soybeans when 
there was no snow. When the snow was deep they picked grain from 
straw stacks and from the manure and straw that the farmers spread 
on the snow. There seems to be a definite correlation between win- 
tering cocks and farms even if there is no grain. Perhaps the weed 
seeds, however scarce, that occur on farms, are enough to supple- 
ment buds. On the other hand, the sharptails on the winter cock 
range are found as far away from farms in winter as in summer. 
The hen chickens which travel southward apparently move until 
they find a combination of food and cover that suits them. For the 
upper Mississippi Valley this winter food requirement may at present 
be said to be corn and buds. At least they seem to migrate far enough 
to reach bountiful corn and buds, and there they stop. 
Cooke (1888, p. 105) tells of the migration of hens into Iowa. 
Leopold (1931, p. 174) shows this movement still persists, and must 
come from Minnesota because there are virtually no nesting birds in 
Iowa. The distance hen chickens move is therefore several hundred 
miles. 
In Wisconsin, however, a shorter movement seems to answer the 
purpose. The accompanying map, derived from banding records, in- 
dicates that the northern Wisconsin hens winter in the southern half 
of the state. 
 
 

					
				
				
198                 The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
0 
More chickens in sumner than in                          ? 
winter. Winter population mostly 
cocks. winter sex count at five 
stations shows 121 cocks to 16 
hens. 
,0 O                             0 
More chickens in winter than 
in summer. Winter population 
consists of local breeders 
piue migrant hens. Winter sex 
count at three stations shows 
149 cocks to 272 hens. 
FIG. 38. In winter the range north of the horizontal line holds mostly 
cocks. Range south of the line holds a resident population plus the northern

hens.. Dots show handing stations, and which sex predominates in the winter-

caught chickens at each station. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated Grouse      199 
I suspect that a wintering ground, to be acceptable, must offer 
certain essential elements. I tried to analyze this by comparing the 
composition of two typical wintering grounds: O'Brien County, Iowa, 
and Adams County, Wisconsin. In Iowa there is about ten times as 
much unhusked and shocked corn as there is roost, while in Wisconsin 
the opposite is true. In Wisconsin Prairie Chickens live almost en- 
tirely on buds when the temperature is above zero, but eat, and prob- 
ably need, corn when it is below zero. In Iowa corn is eaten regu- 
larly and clover is eaten as a substitute for buds when it is not cov- 
ered by snow. Chickens migrate to northern Iowa in the fall and 
may resume migration in midwinter. Resumption of migration south- 
ward across Iowa on snowy winters when there is no shortage of avail- 
able corn is probably due to a shortage of roosting places, a shortage 
of buds, and snow covering the clover. In Wisconsin where good 
roost grounds and plenty of buds are available, there is no migration 
during the winter no matter how much it snows. What migration 
there is occurs in late fall. 
It is therefore probable that corn, roosts, and buds, or a substi- 
tute for buds such as available clover leaves, may be the essential ele-

ments and that the low percentage of roost and buds in Iowa is tol- 
erated only because of an abundance of corn and only when clover 
leaves are available. If this is correct, it would follow that the Iowa 
range could be strengthened by more roost and buds, and the Wis- 
consin range by more corn. 
Hen Prairie Chickens prefer shocked corn to small patches of 
standing corn. Thus in Adams County a farmer left out one acre of 
standing corn next to a field of shocked corn. Chickens refused to 
feed in the standing corn as long as there were shocks. In Iowa stand- 
ing corn is preferred because it is in large fields and the stalks are 
constantly being broken down by cattle so that the ears can be reached 
by the birds. In February, 1935, several hundred were feeding in a 
25-acre field of unhusked standing corn at Trempealeau, Wisconsin. 
The farmer stated that ordinarily there is no unhusked standing corn 
in the vicinity. This year it was left because deep snow halted husk- 
ing. It was noted that the chickens fed almost exclusively in the 
northwest corner of the field where the stalks were bent over or broken 
by the northwest blizzards. 
Hen Prairie Chickens wintering in eastern Wisconsin on the Wolf 
River and Lake Poygan marshes feed on shocked corn and on the 
grain and seeds in the manure which is spread on the snow. 
 
 

					
				
				
200            The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
Range Extension. Increase in Prairie Chicken population and an ex- 
tension of range resulted from the extensive growing of corn by the 
early settlers. This indicates that corn replaced some other staple 
food eaten in pre-settlement days which could be obtained by migra- 
tion from the summer range. I suspect that this may have been acorns 
or some legume. The exact winter range of the Prairie Chicken is not 
known, but it was probably Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, 
southern Illinois, and eastern Kansas. Judd (p. 12) quotes Audubon 
as saying that chickens were abundant in winter at Henderson, Ken- 
tucky, in 1810. These were probably local birds plus winter mi- 
grants from Ohio. The fact that the birds came into the streets and 
farm-yards indicates that Kentucky did not have a good supply of 
natural winter food and perhaps was not original winter range. 
The increase in population is best noted in Illinois. Judd (p. 12) 
quotes Hatch as saying that as late as 1836 a hunter was lucky to bag 
a dozen in a day. Bogardus (1874, p. 66) states that he and another 
hunter killed 600 in ten days in McLean County, Illinois, in 1872. 
Bogardus (p. 87) states further that in Logan County native chickens 
were abundant in 1860, but by 1874 the main shooting was on fall 
migrants from counties to the north where unbroken prairie suitable 
for nesting was still abundant. 
Leopold (1931, p. 165) speculates that the Indians did not leave 
enough corn out to give the chickens a chance to learn to eat it. 
In Wisconsin chickens followed settlement until now they have 
reached Lake Superior. In certain central counties they are still ex- 
tending their range. Thus they became established in northern Clark 
and southwestern Taylor Counties as recently as 1928. 
Gross (1931, p. 28) quotes Spurrell as observing that after 1880 
"corn became a common crop [in Sac County, Iowa] and birds win- 
tered as well as nested abundantly", whereas previously there had 
been a marked migration. 
MANAGEMENT 
Grain. Corn, preferably shocked, should be provided wherever not 
already available. Food patches of other small grains and harvested 
fields of buckwheat and soybeans are valuable supplements to corn 
when there is no snow, but should not be relied upon as the chief 
source of winter grain in regions of heavy snowfall. 
Feeding stations may also be used to furnish winter grain to 
chickens. Ear corn may be impaled on sharp sticks that may be set 
upright in the snow. This system was used by John Worden of Plain- 
field as early as 1928. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated Grouse        201 
A similar device consists of two parallel boards, one with spikes 
to stick the corn on, and one for the birds to sit on, erected as a rough

table high enough above the ground to be rabbit-proof. 
Poles with spikes work equally well. The poles should be three 
feet above the ground, six or eight inches apart, and every other pole 
should be without spikes. Where two-inch poles are available, the 
only cost for such a feeding station would be ten cents' worth of spikes.

Ear corn may be tied in strings with bindertwine and tied around 
a cornshock. This system works well but is more work than the spike 
system. Ear corn may also be fed in a wire cylinder from which the 
corn may be worked out as it is eaten (see Fig. 36). Prairie Chickens 
do not like to eat grain from a hopper, as they dislike to enter the 
shelter necessary to protect the hopper from rain and snow. Hoppers 
for this reason are not recommended. 
All Prairie Chicken feeders should be placed in the middle of a 
field, as Prairie Chickens like to feed where they can see in every 
direction (see Figs. 36-37). 
Browse. If browse for chickens needs improvement, the following 
differences in browse requirements of Wisconsin grouse should be 
noted. Browse requirements of Prairie Chickens and Sharp-tailed 
Grouse are approximately the same except that chickens do not feed 
on leatherleaf and sharptails do not feed on hazel. Both differ from 
Ruffed Grouse in that they do not browse on alder to any extent. 
Ruffed Grouse, like Prairie Chickens, are very fond of hazel catkins. 
These differences may be due to availability, which depends on the 
type of range inhabited by the different species of grouse, and not to 
a difference in palatability. For Prairie Chickens the buds and cat- 
kins of white birch, bog birch, hazel, and aspen are important staple 
foods and an abundance of these plants greatly improves the winter 
food supply. They may be in hedges or scattered in pastures. Hazel 
hedges are especially recommended. As snow drifts into the hedge. 
more and more of the catkins become available to browsing chickenF 
and other grouse. 
SUMMARY 
The table of grouse foods given below corresponds to that given 
by Leopold (1933, p. 261) except that the subspecies of sharptails 
are distinguished from each other and Ruffed Grouse is added for 
comparison. For definitions of the various classes of winter feed see 
Leopold (1933, p. 259). 
 
 

					
				
				
202               The Wilson Bulletin-September, 1936 
TABLE 1. Palatability Sequence of Winter Foods. 
SPECIES AND EXAMPLES OF FOOD IN EACH CLASS 
PRAIRIE SHARP-TAILED 
CLASS            GROUSE       NORTHERN SHARP.UFFED GROUSE 
TAILED GROUSE  (Gross, Schmidt, 
(Gross, Cones, Schmidt,  (Dery, Bent)   Judd)          (Schmidt) 
Bendire)          Qubc         Wsosn oa          Wisconsin 
Wis., Nebraska, Dakotas  Qoebee      Wiosin, Iowa 
Preferred Foods Buckwheat                 ?        Buckwheat       Clover
leaves 
(eaten mostly   Corn                              Soy beans       Strawberry

before snow)    Soy beans                          Barley            leaves

Oats                               Oats            Acorns 
Sheep sorrel                       Ragweed         Mountain ash 
Acorns                             Smartweed         berries 
Clover leaves                      Acorns 
Rye 
Climbing false 
buckwheat 
Staple Foods    White birch buds* Ironwood buds    Corn            Aspen
buds 
(eaten mostly   Bog birch buds       (Ostrya vir.  Hazel buds      White
birch 
after first snow) Aspen buds          giniana)     White birch       buds

Leatherleaf leaves Mountain ash      buds          Hazel buds 
and buds           berries       Bog birch buds Willow buds 
Willow buds        Aspen buds      Aspen buds      Alder buds 
Cedar berries      Willow buds     Black birch 
Cottonwood buds    Juniper buds      buds 
Emergency       Blueberry buds     White birch     Maple buds 
Foods           Pincherry buds       buds          Elm buds 
Climbing false     Cherry buds     Willow buds 
buckwheat        Tamarack buds Pine buds 
Tamarack buds      Alder buds      Apple buds 
Alder buds 
Mineral         Green leaves       Rubus           Various weed    Sweet
fern buds 
Tonic           Rose hips          Rose hips         seeds         Sumac
berries 
Vitamin         Sweet fern buds   4ralia          Rose hips       Rose hips

Weed seeds         Berries         Hay             Corn 
Berries                            Sorghum seeds 
Mullein seeds 
Green leaves 
Grit            Gravel             Gravel          Gravel          Gravel

Rose stones        Rose stones     Rose stones     Rose stones 
Cherry stones 
*In this table buds include catkins and twigs. 
REFERENCES 
Bendire, Charles. 1892. Life histories of North American birds, with special

reference to their breeding habits and eggs. 
Bent, Arthur Cleveland. 1932. Life histories of North American gallinaceous

birds. Bull. 162, U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington. 
Bogardus, A. H. 1874. Field, cover, and trap shooting. J. B. Ford & Company,

New York. 
Chapman, Abel. 1928. Retrospect. Gurney and Jackson, London. 
Committee of Inquiry on Grouse Disease. 1911. The grouse in health and in
dis- 
ease. Smith, Elder & Co., London. 
Cooke, W. W. 1888. Report on bird migration in the Mississippi valley. Bull.
2. 
Div. Econ. Ornith., U. S. Dept. Agr. 
 
 

					
				
				
First Descriptions of North American Birds               203 
Coues, Elliott. 1874. Birds of the northwest. Misc. Publ. 3, U. S. Geol.
Survey. 
Dery, D. A. 1933. Preliminary report on the migration in Quebec of the northern

sharp-tailed grouse. Bull. 1, Quebec Zool. Soc. 
Errington, P. L. 1931. The northern bobwhite's winter food, Part If. Amer.

Game, September-October. 
Grinnell, J., Bryant, H. C., and Storer, T. I. 1918. The game birds of California.

Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley. 
Gross, Alfred 0. 1930. Progress report of the Wisconsin prairie chicken investi-

gation. Wisconsin Conservation Commission, Madison. 
Judd, S. D. 1905. The grouse and wild turkeys of the United States, and their

economic value. Bull. 24, U. S. Biol. Survey. 
Leopold, Aldo. 1931. Report on a game survey of the north central staies.
Sport- 
ing Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute, Madison, Wisconsin. 
1933. Game management. Charles Scribners' Sons, New York. 
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 
MADISON, WISC. 
 
 

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
P.J.W. Schmidt - tqot- (35- 
1926.-   Reptiles and Amphibiens of Worden Township, Clark County, 
Wisconsin. 
Copeia, lb4, pp.151-132. 
1927.-   Pitymys pinetorum scalopeoides in Wisconsin 
Journ. k    1., §, p.248. 
1931.-   The Mammals of Western Clark County, Wisconsin. 
ldem, 1', pp. 99-117, 1 map. 
Bishop, Sherman C,, and VoJ.We Somidt 
1931.-   The painted turtles of the genus Chrysemys. 
Publ. Field Mus., Zool.Ser., 18, pp.121-139, fig. 1-27. 
Schmidt, Karl P., and .J.W. Schmidt 
1925.-   New Uoral Snakes from South America 
iJem, 12, pp.127-134, pl.11-12. 
 
 

					
				
				
Awst 13, 136 
im Ol1, Iow 
Doo Dr, R4s~smu 
19m0 log i fo te pit~   with Pr1da SbxWts mae 
vw ataao to fte pltrs *t*a ,-- -ew to U& -WM wes 
op. 1ta a                                                   ) blw 
Pw. ~  riw dhi~s fooingo ar -o espl is 
snow MAo ar ear hU inwoe wire .0sat". 
$Pike an st* in Wew* 
"9- 311. (V). - I wiator w  roug *o of thebr 1sonal 
Ila* hold mostl so. Ptnso   to the ls 
holds a rosldet peptao plu We notenhw 
Doesho *.v dta b tftos, and YiI* se pveo 
taates In the wfke Qx*t h m at each station 
Professo of Oae angsi 
 
 

					
				
				
FOUNDED, FALL RIVER, MASS., DECEMBER 3. 1885 
SECRETARY                                                            EDITOR
OF THE BULLETIN 
LAWRENCE E. HICKS                h         o     u                      
  T. C. STEPHENS 
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY          ahr wit'so4 Bulin                        
MORNINGSIDE COLLEGE 
COLUMBUS. OHIO                     OFFICIAL ORGAN                       
 SIOUX CITY, IOWA 
TREASURER       PRESIDENT, JOSSELYN VAN TYNE, MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY, ANN ARBOR,
MICH.  LIBRARIAN 
S. E. PERKINS, III,  1ST VICE-PRESIDENT, ALFRED M. BAILEY, CHICAGO ACADEMY
OF SCIENCES  F. P. ALLEN 
709 INLAND BLDG.,                                                       
MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY 
INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA                   CHICAGO. ILL.                   
   ANN ARBOR, MICH. 
END VICE-PRESIDENT, MARGARET M. NICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO 
COUNCILLORS. ALBERT F. GANIER, NASHVILLE, TENN. 
LYNDS JONES, OBERLIN, OHIO 
W. M. ROSENE, OGDEN, IOWA 
Sioux City, Iowa, August 11, 1036 
Professor Aldo Leopold, 
Madison, Wis., 
Dear Professor Leopold:         I am not sure whether I had 
full legends for the figures in your paper, but if I 
did they have been mislaid them.             The cuts are made 
and I am paging up the dummy.           Will you kindly let 
me have the wording which you wish to have placed 
under these cuts, as follows: 
Fig. 38.     Prairie Chickens fedding from wire 
basket and open ground. 
Fig. 37     Prairie Chickens feed from wire platform 
and spiked ears. 
Fig. 38.       p of distribution in Wisconsin. 
Of course, thse figures belong to Schmidt' s paper. 
Sincerely yours, 
T. C. Stephens 
 
 

					
				
				
Proposed Franklin Schmidt Memorial Fellowship 
for a study of 
E P.&IRIE CHICKET IN THE LAM STATES 
Franklin James White Schmidt 
In 1929 Franklin Schmidt resolved to dedicate his career to the conser- 
vation of the prairie chicken. 
He had just been graduated from a biological course at the University of

Wisconsin. He had been raised in the Wisconsin chicken country in Clark 
County. He had acquired skill in field research while employed on scientific

expeditions for the Field Museum. Herbert Stoddard, his friend and advisor,

had just shown, by his studies of bobwhite, how a technique for conservation

and management could be built up by first constructing a foundation of life

history facts. Schmidt resolved to do the same thing for prairie chickens.

He got a job as assistant to Dr. A. 0. Gross, who had been employed by 
the Conservation Commission to study prairie chickens. At the end of the

summer, when Dr. Gross had to leave,Schmidt was put in charge of the project.

For five years, with intermittent support from the Commission and from 
interested sportsmen, he worked early and late at his self-appointed task.

His work centered in the "sand counties" of central Wisconsin,
the largest 
remaining chicken range in the Lake States region. 
By 1935 he had won a research fellowship from the University, was within

easy distance of his doctorate, and had accumulated more new information

about prairie chickens and sharptail grouse than had ever been gathered 
by any naturalist, living or dead. At the insistence of the University, he

had set down the gist of his findings in a series of eight papers. His plan

was ultimately to publish a monograph on the chicken and the sharptail, 
equivalent to Stoddard's "Bobwhite." 
On August 8, 1935, while stopping overnight at the home of his parents 
in Clark County, Wisconsin, he met his death in a midnight fire, which also

destroyed seven of his papers and most of his photographs, notes and records.

The presumption is that he was overcome by smoke in trying to gather up his

manuscripts, on which ho had been working before going to bed. 
One of the eight papers had been submitted to the Wilson Bulletin, and 
will be published shortly. 
Proposal 
It is proposed to establish, at the University of Wisconsin, a 
Franklin Schmidt Memorial Fellowship for the study of prairie chickens and

sharptail grouse. 
The purpose of the fellowship is to resume Schmidt's work at the point 
where it was snatched from his hands, and carry it forward to the point 
where a monograph can be published. 
 
 

					
				
				
To this end, the duration of the fellowship should be at least five years.

The cost per year would be: 
Stipend  of  Fellow ...........................$S00 
Field travel expense ........................ $00 
Equipment, supplies, etc .................... 200 
Sinking fund for ultimate monograph ........ 200 
Total ................................... $2,000 
The University is prepared to furnish supervision, office space, clerical

and stenographic service, laboratory facilities, and possibly field assistants

as needed. The fellowship could be administered by the Graduate School through

the Chair of Game Management, College of Agriculture. 
Facilities for Work 
In preparation for the resumption of Schmidt's work, the Chair of Game 
Management, after wide inquiry for promising timber, has tried out a series

of men and is prepared to select an extra good one for this project. 
The salvaged portion of Schuidt's notes, photos, files, papers, and 
specimens has been organized for use. 
The cooperation of the following agencies which own prairie chicken range

or maintain field forces on such range can be counted upon: 
1. State Conservation Commission 
2. U. S. Biological Survey 
U:. S. Resettlement Administration 
U. S. Forest Service 
For work affecting diseases, the cooperation of the Biological Survey 
disease laboratory at the University of Minnesota can be counted upon. 
The prairie chicken is a cyclic bird. The University supports a fellow- 
ship on the wild life cycle. The two parallel studies will illuminate each

other. 
For the identification of difficult crop contents the Food Habits 
Division of the Biological Survey at W:.shington wo'ld continue the cooperation

already extended to Schmidt. The bird banding division would also continue

to furnish bands and banding records. 
The University offers consulting facilities in almost any kind of 
question w~hich might arise in the course of the work. 
Another prairie chicken investigation is under way at the Davison Ranch 
in Oklahoma. This, however, deals with the small southwestern species on
a 
range much different from ours. The two projects do not duplicate, but they

can probably learn much from each other by periodic conferences. 
 
 

					
				
				
-3- 
Plan of Work 
The proposed research is to be focused on the accumulation of facts 
applicable to conservation. 
In such an investigation, it is seldom possible to see more than a year 
ahead. The strategy for any one year is largely based upon the new leads

of the preceding year. Hence the new work plann~d for the immediate future

must rest upon Schmidt's latest findings. 
Banding. At the time of his death, he was trying to learn more about 
migratory movements by banding. With the cooperation of the Upper Mississippi

Refuge, he had trapped and banded some of the prairie chickens which winter

there, but whose summer range is unknown. This should be continued until
the 
source of the Mississippi winter flight is definitely located. 
A similar flight occurs along Lake Michigan. Its limits and extent should

be determined. 
The flights in central Wisconsin had been quite well unravelled by Schmidt.

Sex Petio and Breeding Habits. Schmidt suspected that some of the rem- 
nants in southern Wisconsin failed to increase because they are all males.

Meanwhile a demonstration area has been developed at Faville Grove, Jefferson

County, where this question can be studied in cooperation with the student
in 
charge. 
The assumption that a given group of males always booms at the same 
booming ground is now open to question. This should be checked. If not true,

it might considerably alter the technique for arranging nesting cover. 
Roost Cover. Schmidt had discovered that in winter, chickens are very 
particular about roosts. They seem to insist on one of three or four kinds

of marsh growths. This lead should be tested by actually developing such
cover 
o'n "weak" ranges, to see if the population may thereby be built
up. 
Foods. The broad outlines of food habits had been pretty well worked out

by Schmidt. Much detailed testing work, however, remains to be done. For

example: the exact palatability and sustenance value of buds under various

temperature conditions is not sufficiently known, but could be tested on

captive stock. 
Schmidt believed that certain foods of known value, such as false climbing

buckwheat, ought to be greatly increased by treating the soil. This can be

tested. It might prove superior to grain food patches, especially where the

frost risk is heavy, as in the central counties. 
The Kill. The effects of shooting have never been studied except on a 
small scale. Schmidt suspected that the effect on sex and age composition

of the population might be more important than the numerical effect alone.

With the central Wisconsin game area about to be put under administration,
a 
large-scale study of shooting effects should become possible. 
 
 

					
				
				
Several hundred birds banded by Schmidt are now at large. Any recovery 
of bands during the next open season would have special value, because such

birds will have survived the low of the cycle. 
Minnesota and Michigan pursue shooting policies quite different from 
those of Wisconsin. A comparative study of the effects would be valuable.

The foregoing are merely samples of tho kind of work proposed. 
Information concerning the proposed study can be obtained from 
Aldo Leopold, Professor of Game Management, College of Agriculture, Madison,

Wisconsin. 
This proposal is sponsored by the KUMLIEN OFNITHOLOGICAL CLUB, of which 
Franklin Schmidt was a charter member. 
May 12, 1936. 
 
 

					
				
				
C40V ADR BRS- MUSEUM, CHICAGO 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
ROOSEVELT ROAD AND LAKE MICHIGAN 
CHICAGO 
November 26,1935. 
Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
Department of Agricultural Economics, 
University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, V/isconsin. 
Dear Dr. Leopoldt- 
I am very glad to hear from you and will appreciate 
very much your preparation of an obituary of nr brother for the Wilson 
Bulletinwhich should emphasize his work on the game birds and should 
appear over your name or initials.   I haWf sent a brief one to the 
Journal of Mammalogy. 
A memorial fellowship would of course please me)and 
mW father as well, very much and we will be glad to discuss it with 
you.   I wilk arrange to visit you in kadison some time early next 
year.   Meanwhile I would appreciate it very much if you will call here 
if you are passing thru Chicago.   I do not believe however, that we 
could get any support from our museum patrons here but will of course 
enquire when we have a project in hand. 
There could be no better disposition of the grouse 
painting which was made by Walter Weber than to leave it to youas I am 
sure that this is appropriate and is what Frank himself would have lik- 
 
 

					
				
				
Dr. Aldo Leopold,                                 November 26,1935, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
-2- 
ed to do with it,   I will consult my father about this but am sure 
that he will agree with me.   It will of course be available for 
*10 %LI' 
publication attsuggestion,   Mr. Weber was one of the small circle 
who had a real appreciation of Yrank. 
My father will be here over Thanksgiving and he 
will be very much pleased to hear about your interest in this matter. 
Please call on him in Plattville when you can. 
Sincerely yours 
KP8/s. 
 
 

					
				
				
THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
MADISON 
OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR 
November 20, 1935 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
New Soils Building 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Sir: 
Mr. Franklin J. W. Schmidt was admitted to the 
University of Wisconsin, College of Letters and Science, on trans- 
fer from Platteville State Normal in February 1927 and remained in 
attendance as an undergraduate until June 1950 when he graduated 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 
He was admitted to the Graduate School in Septem- 
ber 1932 and remained until June 1935. 
Yours very truly, 
Transcript Clerk 
 
 

					
				
				
New Soils Bilding 
November 20, 1935 
Dr, raa   . Sabmi d 
Yield Muse= of Natural Histor 
Rosevelt    ad and Lake Miin 
Chicago, Illos 
Dear Dr. Sahmiti 
IIam just beok from hurope and was glad to learn that 
Leonard Wing wa  Miss Hon had 'b   in touch with you and your father, 
All of us ae, of ourse, very &nious to help you oomplete 
the obituary, and I m espaially glad that you ar  in posevsuion of such 
a good ptogap. Wing and I will get to w       k on Iis, and o    ult with

you farther as son as w have added our infomtion to It. 
I    also awmous to see you pereonally about an idea which I 
have been carrytg In m7 mind hever sie* the sad news first rea  d me. I 
want to establish here at the University a pent prairie hicen folow- 
ship named after Franklin and speifically aimed to exa    and ontinue his

pioneer work in this field. T m mind this vuld be an evn better peman 
ont memorial than the idea of a par or game         .lthugh   aturally I

would welcome any such action by the Conervation Commission and will do 
m7 best to help push It. On the other head, I wuld like your help in push-

ing the followohip matter. I have amme specific ideas as to Wisconsin eiti-

sons wh  could ppropriately establish suh a felewship, but I have naturally

not yet had any time to see t,     It also occurs to me as possible that
the 
private citizens intorsted in the Musem migt have a peronal interest in 
this subjot and evem a personal kawlodge of    kin's work. I want to 
talk this over with you on or next visit to Cicag, and dinld your travels

take you in this direction, I wish y   would stop in here,  I have some very

specific details outlined in my mind. 
There is another matter wih    want to toll you about: A year 
ag Pranklins friend Mr. Weber made a very good color plate of a group of

sharptail grouse on their  ,i groud. Franklin was at that time on eon- 
timmou field work and had no safe or convenient place to house this drawing.

Consequently he hW   it in the offi  e here and I have always been very proud

to have it o exhbit. My v   rstandin was that Franklin was simply keeping

it as a future iluustration for his           on the gTouse. vhich he and
I 
often discussed as the ultimate objective of his career and vhich I think

should now beom   the objeotive of the proposed fellowship. In a   went,

the drawing is here and was Franklin's property. I await your in-etwtions

or those of rranklin's father as to its disposition. Naturally I would be

very pro-d to oontiwe to k-o   it here should you wish simply to leave the

 
 

					
				
				
K'lP., Schmidt-2                                     Noeber 20. 1935 
matter In abqane pendin the Out        Of Plan* fr an uitmate publation.

That wll, of corse, be more than satisfatory to m. I       um smply under

obligation to tell yu of this drawing and to ak for your wlies in regar 
to it, 
Z IS sialnt *you attenpt to .q w~thing about our 5ltual loss 
it would b          entirely Idle to e=res in a few words on paper iat I

have been thinking aboutall      vr. 
Wheni you see your father, will you pleas* tell him that I as 
anxious to mk hie acpqatawe a will can on his the next time I am 
the neighbohood of Platteville. Meanwhile, sboula he by any chance be in

Madison I wuld appreolate his     ttig me know. 
Youre sincerely, 
Aldo L~eopold 
In Uaarge, Gase Roearh 
 
 

					
				
				
STATE OF WISCONSIN 
FILE REFERENCE:       CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
Z-General                     MADISON         November 19, 195b 
Miss Vivian Horn 
Secretary to ',r. Leopold 
New Soils Building 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Miss Horn: 
Relative to your letter of November 18, I find that 
Franklin Schmidt was employed as biolo6ical aide from 
Nay 31, 1930 to February 1, 1933. In March of 1933 he 
was temporarily employed in the same capacity; also from 
September 13, 1933 to October 31, 1933. 
While he co-operated with this department at various 
other periods, he was not directly on our payroll. How- 
ever, from lay 6, 1935 to August 3, 1935 he was working 
in the central nesting area under a project set up under 
FERA by this department. 
FOR THE DIRECTOR 
W. F.Grmr 
Su p't, Game vision 
GI1C 
 
 

					
				
				
CABLB ADDRS - MUSEUM. CHICAGO 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
ROOSEVELT ROAD AND LAKE MICHIGAN 
CHICAGO 
I ovemuer 6,193E. 
Mr. Leonard W. 'ing, 
College of Ag iulture, 
University of ,isconsin, 
kadison, "  isconsin. 
Dear kr,#la: 
I have mislaid nW duplicate of a brief obituary of my brother 
which I wrote for the Journal of kmmalogy, and have drawn up a slightly 
more amplified one which is enclose.   Please verify the "tes of his

entry and graduation at 7,isconsin, and add anything you like.  I would 
be glad if you or Dr, Leopold would use this as a base and do the 
obituary fur the Wilson Bulletin which you suggested,   if you would 
like more information from me I would of course be only too glad to 
have it incluaed.,  I enclose a priat for a cut.   There will LDe 1 
in the Journal of "iaxnlogy. 
Our Loye liked Jim Hawkins verv much.   I hope that you will 
all come to see me here whenever opportunity offers.   There im no com- 
fort fjr x in trying to forget irank;    no consolation anyway;   and. 
one does somehow live and carry on. 
1-r. 'iackenzie told my father of a project to aamre a -ark or 
CQne ilefuge for i,'rarx .  This seems to me e.traordinarily appropriate.

hpSi.                      incerely yours 
encl.Q~~'~                                        L~ 
Vo    La  5  03 L HIS  V S0O. IV. 0. A. 
 
 

					
				
				
Amn 0. W"chistn 
I h.m Io readw1M. 'by VIte, Kenton that 
therw Is nthing in you  reords to inidts  the am** 
swat as assistat Ina gvimltral soonoics, working 
wAor Prf. Aldo L~eopl 
Mr. 5umdt was killed in a fir, at his horn. 
at Stmaey, m...ansta, an&Wmst St 135, home* th 
official enin of his qmiatt on sJ    t 7'. 
In Mr. Leool' abesa. I an sending in this 
tafwuation for the riles. 
Ohmirely yfs. 
8svei to r, zopoad 
 
 

					
				
				
'OAA, 
-tb 
We 
kL 04    0641..- evIA. 
IL 
-C, tb 4Ao 
Jul 
 
 

					
				
				
dL 
 
 

					
				
				
Now Soils uilding 
Agust 20, 1935 
Mr. J. mas 
Agrioul tural Ranl 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr, Soami 
Mbosed is th    report for the Industri..l Commission regr- 
ing o rakl  J. V.  hmidt. De to the fact that Professor Leopold is 
absent on a prolonged trip to brope, I have takn the liberty of 
filling out this blank and sending you this letter, 
Mr. Schmidt vas a research assistant in the Deparmonnt of 
Agrieultural eonomice end wo*e under Prof. Aldo Leopold, division 
of gsm aamt, Now Soils uhilding. The main subject of his 
research was the lit history of the prairie chicken In Wisconsin, 
and th     execution of the w  reqnired that much of his tins, specially

during the  s.r, be spent in field wrk. g had study areas in 
various parts of the state wich he visited at intervals, mng the 
several iich mer easily accessible from his family home at Stanley# 
Wisconsin.    ile working on the he usually made his headquarters at 
Stanley In order to save living and traveling epeses. 
Mr. Scmidt was eng~ged in this kind of timld work ad wus 
headquartermg at his home whea, in the early moning of Aagast 8 
while he was sleeping, the, home aat fire. and he was burned to death, 
together with his mother and the hired man on the faau. 
If other facts are needed to amoana the application to 
the Industrial Coision, I shall he glad to funi* the as far as 
o. knowledge goes, 
Your-s sinoerely, 
Secretary to Mr. Leopold 
 
 

					
				
				
Form A-12 
INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION                             Employer's No.       ----------------
Accident No .................. 
(Do not fill in)                   (Do not fill in) 
EMPLOYER'S FIRST REPORT OF INJURY OR DISEASE 
rhis report must be made by employer himself directly to Industrial Commission
on the fourth day after employe leaves work 
if disability still continues. In death cases report must be made within
twenty-four hours. 
(1) Date of report  -------------------------------- (2) Made out by --------------------
(3) Position ------------- 
(4)  E m ployer's  nam e  ------------  ---- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- -....................................

(Individual or firm name) 
(5)  O ffi ce  address   .------------------  I  ...................................................
. 
(Street   No)                                           (City or town) 
(6) Principal products or business ----- 
(Goods producad, work done or kind of trade or transportation) 
(7)  Nam e  of  your  insurance  company  .........................................

(If "self-insurer" by commission's ordqr, ,s state) 
(8) Where did injury or disease occur (if not at office address)---- ---------------------------
.... 
(Street   No.)                      (City or town) 
(9) Injured ------------------------------------------------ ----       
     (0    e_------    -------- 
(9)  Injured  employe  .. ..                    (N.. .a::. . . .. . . . .
.. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .  (10)  Sex _ _ =  _.!.. . . . 
(11)  A ddress  of  em ploye  ___ --... .....  --.... -- ...... -.___ --..
........ ........ .... ... ........ ....... ........ ....... 
(Street   No.)                                        (City or town) 
(12)  Age ------- -------------------  (13)  Permit  on  file: .............................................
I ---------------- 
(Give date .f birth, if injured Is under 18)                         (If
injured was minor under 11) 
(14) In what department or branch employed ---------------.---------------
(15) Occupation-  ------------.......... 
(Kind of work) 
(16) Length o   xeinewt       hsepoe 
(16) Lenth of exerience-ith-this- mploy---  ----------------------------------------------

(17) Wage of employe at the time of injury: Per hour $ --  ...----------
per day $  ----------per week $ 
(Incluoirig bonuses, etc.) 
per month   ....-------....Hours per day -------------days per week ------------------------------------------

(13)  Last  D ate  W orked  ---------- _-------------------------------------------------------------------

(Month, day, year) 
(19) Date of accident or first illness ...... ....... .....................
(20) Hour...------- A. M  -----------P.M. 
(Month, day, year) 
(21)  Machine, tool, object, substance  or  condition  involved ----------------------------------------------------------------

(22)  If  machine, indicate  exact  part and  whether  guarded ----------------...................................................

(28)  W hat  was  em ploye   doing  when  hurt?  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(24) How did accident happen? 
(95) Submit further information you believe important ------------------------------------------------------------------

(26)  Nature  of  Injury  or  disease ------------  -----------ive-----------------------------

tState exactly the part of body afteetk and tii character of iu;ur7 or di..u.)
 (It IPu t,   exact point) 
(27) Did the injury become infected? ----------------- (28) Did accident
or disease result in death? 
(29) How long will employe be away from work? ---------------- (30) Attending
physician    ------------------------- 
(31) If employe was killed, give the following information as to his dependents,
using other side of sheet, if necessary: 
(Name)                     (Relationship)                   (Age)       
               (Adre.      .. 
 
 

					
				
				
*Schedul dzring Mr. Leopold' s absence 
Grose Std 
Aug, 1-Set. 151 Field wor on grouse and msmal @eas in northern 
counties. 
Set. 15-7*. It crse wor at University, and completing as aw 
as possible of the series of papers listed on 
attached sheet. 
Feb. I-June 15: Field wrok with Botany Seminar weekly. More banding 
on Mississippi Bottoms next Jan-ar and February, 
in ooperation with Ray Steele, U. S. Biol. urvey. 
Di~g~ii e only' diff iculty will be editorial revision of the papers 
writ ten dhrng my absence. I leave it to Schmidt' j udgment to embmit ar

papers hih he thine are s.ffieiently polished off. Miss Horn can -ive all

editorial help needed on all but technimal qestions. 
1. Is Scmidt's course wok properly selected te fit his research 
project and fau    plans? 
1. atch for chance to get ruffed grouse for Faville Grove and 
21khora Demontrations. 
2. If there are fnds for          to attend the Game Conference this 
year, Schidt is entitled to the trip. I want him to go if funds 
allow. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sdu   t a Sert., of Ieos 
%. Winter Food of the  usp-tailed Grouse and Pinnated. Grouse in Wisconsin

02, Rearing of the Prairie Cicken (M md Na   rist?) 
.3. F.loolng Habits of Wisconsin Grouse (            l 
5. Sex Ratio of Wiseoosin Grouse (Jal of G aetios) 
6, Nesting Habits of Wisoonsin Grouse (The Ax*) 
7. Mets of Gru        in Wisonsin (          ing) 
a. Migrtion 
b. Loal mvmnts 
. Wghts of Wisconsi Grouse (         &    a   l 
9. Histow of Wiscsin Grouse (Wis. ApAd_  k--.) 
10. Spring,  =er a Fa1 Fod of Wisconsin Grouse (not ready till 1937) 
11, Plant and Animal Sucssions on the Burned Peat Marshes of Central Wisoonsin

12. Yluotmation of Shatail and Prairie Cicoken in Wisconsin (gAMAR 
13. Grouse Tiating in Wisconsin (  r.aginL~Lacaa) 
a. Ches in lrunting conditions 
b. Methods of hunting 
o. Bag records past and preent 
14. ftall Mwaal Cy3les and heir Relation to the Grouse Cyce in Wisoonsin

Inc1ds a onus of 11 species of m        s ad two species of gouse 
for five consecutive years in A*lad Comity and a census of four sces 
of uusls and two species of grouse in Clark County for three consecutive

years. 
15. Sex Behavior of Prairie Chice and Shar-taUl Grouse (O     or 
16. Fod Habits of C      'soper' and Marsh Hawks in the Central Wisconsin
Cone Area 
(Q r or A     ort & 
* Paper bmitted for Publoation 
* Paper in rogh draft 
 
 

					
				
				
L~rt ma Mt  -ZO  V,  Awlo4raph  Tobn 
3n~-e X.Y RM JA~j  saxm  oOMToa  fp~r*m  o*f& 
2"vl Th Vkatlu~oootob loom    vitS11  t  , 
vM xA aIaMnm~ ofhi~balms *tog~ho ft~ts ~t&ammt   / 
 
 

					
				
				
New bls bildi 
Dr. . 0. StMas dtorr 
Sioux city, Iowa 
At th A#,,. meting I told yon of a serie of papoe on 
VisoonsiaR &"us to 1nafld    J. Sdo , . h .i t.J4g his bictsrtio

br on. tnis subject. 
I = sndn you     r the W lllon Bletin t   first of this 
s..ies, "Winter Food of 2.rtalod #m.se aMd Finnatd Gre    in 
It YM  mt thi  . pleas pat i dow for 1000 rrints, 
TOu  an hve as MV of Re rst of .th series as yo 
to take .u. I will sen y        titls as the be      M    bl o. 
1*0Sit has bee w     n  a  is amst eoatLnouy since 
1930, In    opinion O   amoat of goo solid wk beind o      mn 
ooprs f.Wavosj eve with Irrivta. Inadd4*ion Sdbidt has 
man ehalont, o*        o i   I og,.b to r th pnvat paper. 
S   l       mwit a third to   a *l-pep     a, I a sply you 
with o. I will par m      za *Mo fo pictues. 
None of the rest of the s.eie will W vW longer than this 
onemet will besotr 
I feel mo pride in this wr and hope It will pleaso you 
Alt.do Lol 
a*s 
 
 

					
				
				
E, MVwAFFR J 
Agrcutura Hall 
The Reets of the Univrsity of wiscnin have 
apponte   yo  ssitat in agicltra eonmies from 
Auut li, 1935.    un  30@ 19361 M"     m71 not, 
M. E, McCAFFREY 
Ow1tia..    - 2" 
to Wsonsi Almi Researc Fuai           (Sm   m 
4u 
44! 
4 44?                                              - 
 
 

					
				
				
June 12, 1935 
wow r Sdaidt 
My b'u~et for tho year 'bqlmtng Jly 1 carrl#S 
$110 chargable to tho Aluaut Research Aui4. for yoiur saary begn- 
nigAu.t 1, also *500 travel payable froms the sm fuA4 
Aldlo X4.polt 
 
 

					
				
				
Recommendation For Appointment 
College of Agriculture . . . University of Wisconsin 
Department AVl -IUd  A                                    Date i     1, 1935

1. Name -   _                                               Date of Birt

Married 
2. Staff Position                                    _   _ 
3. Beginning Date x     I 12 35 
Closing Date  J     N1 11 
4. Compensation  $T0 (X)            -Payable in-          -Installments 
5. Chargeable to: 
Department Wa 
Budget Page 
Budget Item 
Fund     3   Wih                    FoUNWIM 
6. Character of work to be done 
7. Training and Qualifications 
Graduated from   -"     -0tW-"              Date - -_13 .-.--.
Degree-'... 
Other Pertinent Data 
*at P~, AI. Loqv14. Agiau.lZamts 
APPROVED 
Chairman of Department 
 
 

					
				
				
N" 2713 
wr. Trmln       omd 
care'Pro *sar H~so 
-giulua Nall 
M. E. McCAFFREy 
Chrisense  2 
 
 

					
				
				
Recommendation For Appointment 
College of Agriculture . . . University of Wisconsin 
Department                           .....                   Date-,     
    ......... 
1. Name    W    L     J' S   4                              Date of Birth_-J7
   -* -WI 
Married 
2. Staff Position  Msiitsxt                   _ 
3. Beginning Date  h    T  - 
Closing Date Jam....... 
4. Compensation  n, p    .,              Payable in -2--.-- -Installments

5. Chargeable to: 
Department _  . 3sZ   *de 
Budget Page 
Budget Item 
Fund 
6. Character of work to be done 
7. Training and Qualifications 
Graduated from Ua  i   t74'f  1=81UI         Date-193  -     Degree--1 .-.-....

Other Pertinent Data 
W*will 'be ouw      e  jointly by Pwof. 0ro, bWage, Zo4og, 
amd Prof. Leopold, Agrioulft    4 boo   s. 
11 jet  arie  b  0osevaio  Camss*Rt   1930Q4932- 
APPROVED 
Chairman of Department 
 
 

					
				
				
Now Soils ftildb 
x~3, 193 
Dea C. L.Crs~s 
Colg of Agru wt* re 
Madisn, 110cuoi 
 
 

					
				
				
U. W. Form 18 
12-32-15M                  UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
Travel Expense Form 
Use Ink, Indelible Pencil or Typewriter                   Madison, Wisconsin
          DateAP    L_    ,-------------- 1935__ 
Account of        7         J 8 42 10                                   
        Address    1v $1 ftl3ft 
Number 
711A !         A      Gaw'ae pm at&                               Voucher

Apr.      9       Frehip-MadoAS 
19        Mdisn-Bbo*                                         125 
21        Baboo *4-aaou 1n 25 
26        Uion-W          on   in Rapis                       110 
29        W~0issi Papie-4IB4orn  
Hot4 April 26-2s                                                   1    
           00 
555 all*5             -                                                 
       275 
PURPOSE OF TRIP                                                         
                  Total        32   75 
(See other side for travel regulations) 
Audited by 
Approved ------------------------------------------------De. ........................--pt.....Activity._..
 ..... 
C lass  _ M       -------------------------------------- 
Approved   --------------------------------------------            Fund _
  1iS _  lJ* ,1,W1            _.X   _       1.9 
STATE OF WISCONSIN,              5s. 
County ----------------------........................          -        
 ------------------------------------, being duly 
sworn, says that the within account of services and daily expenses amounting
in all to ---------------------------------- 
dollars, is just, correct and true; that the sums charged were actually disbursed
by him for the State of Wisconsin, as stated in 
the account, and that no part of the same has been paid for. That no part
of the expenses of travel herein charged for has 
been had upon a free pass or free transportation of any nature whatever,
and the amount herein charged as a disbursement 
for transportation or for other expenses incident to travel has been actually
paid out. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this----------------- 
day of ---------------------------------------, A. D. 193.._ 
Notary Public. 
 
 

					
				
				
LAWS OF WISCONSIN 
(Statutes) 
Section 14.31 (3) (c). Include receipts for all items of expenditure of one
dollar or more, unless other satisfactory 
evidence is accepted by the auditing officer. 
(3) (d). Include the claimant's affidavit setting forth that the items of
traveling expenses were incurred in the per- 
formance of duties required by the public service, and that the amount charged
for transportation or for other expenses 
incident to travel was actually paid out and that no part of such transportation
was had upon a free pass or otherwise 
free of charge. The blank form of such affidavit shall be prescribed by the
secretary of state. 
Section 14.32. The secretary of state shall not audit items of expenditure
for tips, porterage, parlor car seats 
other than sleeping-car berths, or for expenses not necessarily incurred
in the performance of duties required by the 
public service; nor shall he audit items of expenditures for expenses of
any officer or employee of the state, or any de- 
partment or institution thereof incurred while attending any convention or
other meeting held outside of the state, or 
other traveling expenses incurred outside the state unless such expense is
authorized by the governor or specific statutory 
authority exists therefor; nor shall he audit items of expenditure for expenses
of more than one officer or employee of the 
state or of any department or institution thereof in attending any convention
or meeting held outside the state unless 
otherwise provided by law. 
Section 14.71 (2). Traveling Expenses. The chief officers enumerated in subsection
(1), and their appointees and 
employees shall each be reimbursed for actual and necessary traveling expenses
incurred in the discharge of their duties. 
The officers and employes of any department, board or commission, shall,
when for reasons of economy or efficiency, they 
are stationed at any other place than the official location of such department,
board or commission, receive their actual 
and necessary traveling and other expenses when called to such official location
for temporary service. The members of 
boards, departments and commissions who are entitled to expenses but not
compensation, the members of boards, depart 
ments and commissions who are entitled to a per diem for time actually spent
in state service, and the members of 
boards, departments and commissions who receive an honorarium, shall be entitled
to travel and other expenses while 
attending meetings of such board, department or commission held at the city
of Madison; provided that no such travel- 
ing or other expenses shall be allowed to any such member of any department,
board or commission who actually resides 
in the city of Madison while attending any such meeting at said city. 
(6) (b). If the officer or employe travels less than six hundred miles in
any month, he may receive an allowance 
of not to exceed seven cents for each mile travelled. 
(6) (c). If the officer or employe travels six hundred miles or more in any
month, he may receive an allowance 
of not to exceed thirty dollars plus his actual and necessary disbursements
for gasoline and lubricating oil. 
(6) (f). For travel between points convenient to be reached by railroad or
bus without unreasonable loss of time 
the allowance for the use of a personal automobile shall not exceed the railroad
or bus fare between such points. 
TRAVEL REGULATIONS 
1. Purpose of trip must be stated on expense account. 
2. Give name of railway, time leaving, and returning to Madison or headquarters.

3. Meals in Madison (or headquarters) for persons living in Madison (or headquarters)
cannot be allowed. 
4. Receipts are required for all expenditures of $1.00 or over, except for
railway fare. (See section 14.31 Wisconsin 
Statutes). 
5. Original Pullman sleeper ticket stub must be attached to the expense account,
as receipt covering expenditure for 
sleeper. 
6. Item for taxi will not be allowed unless fully explained, i. e., heavy
luggage, early train, etc. 
7. In making out vouchers for hotel expenses, state whether American or European
plan. Designate morning meal as 
B," noon meal as "D," evening meal as "S," and lodging
as "L." Example: Voucher for supper, lodging and 
breakfast should be made out-From "S" to "B" inclusive.
Receipt must be signed (name of hotel, per name of 
clerk or manager), and dated. 
8. Receipts which bear evidence of changes will not be allowed. If an error
is made in making receipt, write a new one. 
 
 

					
				
				
U. W. Form 17. 6-33-10M 
THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
Travel Expense Form 
Use Ink, Indelible Pencil or Typewriter 
See reverse side for travel regulations              Madison, Wis.      Date.Ap
    1.2 .------------- 198 5 
Account of                                                             Address

PURPOSE OF TRIP -_-- e_J                            ........ -------Receipt

Number 
Chiken InvestigtionN m1e 
Fob.    1          Mad son-Frmont                                      0

115 
~90 
It        Frmntfywt                           90                        
                 S 
5 gas 
5      oywtte-a4ossw                   110 
9          L       - En        r120 
13 ga                                         2.%2                      
  1   42~ 
2 oil                                           0252 
10                                               0 
T  a212                                                    1   24 
I   i                                           .26                     
      26 
7 gs                                          1*2             3         
      2 
1 oil 
23          OolaaTepn            =            120 
2 a                                 .01                        1 08 
25          Romat LaCos                                                 
  5            1 0 
142 tenis note for twoptv                   gruse6                      
           7   35 
Total                               6 IT 
A udited  by  ----------------------------------------------- 
Approved -..    .    .   .    .   .    ..--------------------------------------
Div .--  i tU------------------- 
Dept. ------ Ee rum l  a- - - -- - - - --- - - -- - - - - 
Aetivity 
Approved .---------------------------------------------- Class..I     . --
   .........-------- Re  La. . 
Fund-.. -1-5B-_i  ._Ai       -     joY nud3     tio 
STATE OF WISCONSIN, 
s. 
County of ----------------------------    ----------------------------------------------------------.
being duly 
sworn, says that the within account of services and daily expenses amounting
in all to ....---------------------------------- 
dollars, is just, correct and true; that the sums charged were actually disbursed
by him for the State of Wisconsin, as stated in the 
account, and that no part of the same has been paid for. That no part of
the expenses of travel herein charged for has been had upon 
a free pass or free transportation of any nature whatever, and the amount
herein charged as a disbursement for transportation or from 
other expenses incident to travel has been actually paid out. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this ............... 
day of -----------------------------, A. D. 193 ------ 
Notary Public. 
 
 

					
				
				
LAWS OF WISCONSIN 
...(Statutes) 
Section 14.31 (3) (c). Include recefpts for all items of expenditure of one
dollar or more, unless other satisfactory eviderce is 
accepted by the auditing officer. 
.. .. . (3). (d). Include the claimant's affidavit setting forth that the
items of traveling expenses were incurred in the performance of 
duties required by the public service, and that the amount charged for transportation
or for other expenses incident to travel was 
actually paid out and that no part of such transportation was had upon a
free pass or otherwise flee of charge. The blank form of 
such affidavit shall be prescribed by the secretary of state. 
Section 14.32. The secretary of state shall not audit items of expenditure
for tips, porterage, parlor car seats other than sleeping- 
car berths, or for expenses not necessarily incurred in the performance of
duties requirea by the public service; nor shall he audit 
items of expenditure for expenses of any officer or employee of the state,
or any department or institution thereof incurred while 
attending any convention or other meeting held outside of the state, or other
traveling expenses incurred outside the state unless such 
expense ir authorized by the governor or specific statutory authority exists
therefor; nor shall he audit items of expenditure for 
expenses of nrore than one officer or employe of the state or of any department
or institution thereof in attending any convention or 
mepting held*;outsid6 the state unless otherwise provided by law. 
Section 14.71 (2). Travelng Expenses. The chief officers enumerated in subsection
(1), and their appointees and employes, 
shall each be! reimbursed for actual and necessary traveling expenses incurred
in the discharge of their duties. The officers and em- 
ployes of anyrdepartment, board or commission, shall, when for reasons of
economy or efficiency, they are stationed at any other place 
than the offidial location of such department, board or commission, receive
their actual and necessary traveling and other !expenses 
whbn called to such official location for temporary service. The members
of boards, departments and commissions who are entitled 
to expenses but not compensation, the members of boards, departments and
commissions who are entitled to a per diem for time act- 
ually spent in state service, and the members of boards, departments and
commissions who receive an honorarium, shall be entitled 
to travel and other expenses while attending meetings of such board, department
or commission held at the city of Madison; provided 
that no such traveling or other Oxpenses shll be allowed to any such member
of any department, board or commission who actually 
resides in the  city of Madison while attending any such meeting at said
city. 
(6) (b). "If the officer or employe travels less than six hundred miles
in any month, he may receive an allowance of not to exceed 
seven cents for each mile travelled. 
(6) (c). fIf the officer or employe travels six hundred miles or more in
any month, he may receive an allowance of not to exceed 
thirty dollars plus his actual and necessary disbursements for gasoline and
lubricating oil. 
(6) (f).  For travel between points convenient to be reached by railroad
or bus without unreasonable loss of time the allowance 
for the use of a personal automobile shall not exceed the railroad or bus
fare between such points. 
TRAVEL REGULATIONS 
1. Purpose of trip must be stated on expepse account. 
2. Give name of railway, time leaving, and returning to Madison or headquarters.

3. Meals in'Madisqn (or headhuarters) for persons living in Madison (or headquarters)
cannot be allowed. 
4. 'Receipts are required for all expenditures of $1.00 or over, except for
railway fare. (See section 14.31 Wisconsin 
Statutes). 
5. Original Pullman sleeper ticet stub mjst be attached to the expense account,
as receipt covering expenditure for sleeper. 
6. Item for taxi will not beallowed unless fully explained, i. e., heavy
luggage, early train, etc. 
7. In making out vouchers for hotel expenses, state whether American or European
plan. Designate morning meal as "B," noon 
meal as 'q D," evening meal as "S," and lodging as "L."
Example: Voucher forsupper, lodging and breakfast should be made 
out-Fro~n "S to "' B" inclusive. Receipt must be signed (name
of hotel, per name of clerk or manager), and dated. 
8. Receipts which bear evidence of changes will not be allowed. If an error
is made in making receipt, write a new one. 
Charge to fotowing:accounts: 
DIVISION                          DEPARTMENT                     CLASS  
                     FUND                     AMOUNT 
Approval of Head of Department                          Dean            
                                Audited by 
 
 

					
				
				
DIRECTORS 
W. W. RICKMAN                PRESIDENT 
JEAN ROLFE              VICE PRESIDENT                                  
                       HENRY AHRENS      LEONARD FUNK 
G. M. HETHERINGTON     SECY AND TREAS.                                  
                      LYNN VAN ZANDT    PHIL KIRCH 
DON E. FIELD   IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT                                 
                       HENRY TROGER      OTTO NELSON 
GEO. SNODGRASS 
KIWANIS CLUB OF LA CROSSE,WIS. 
COMMITTEES FOR 
FIRST HALF 1935                                                         J
   S   t-'.r,7. 
Song Leader, C. I. Wollan 
PROGRAM                1'          eeo 
Ted Dahl, Jr., Chairman                                                 
                                    " 
R. F. Pagels                                                            
                    V 
Thos. Annett 
Otto Nelson 
Harry Leithold, Chairman 
Leonard Funk                    -     *~ 
Dr. F. A. Douglas 
UNDER-PRIVILEGED CHILD AND0/ 
BOYa' AND GIRLS WORK 
Phil Kirch & J. R. Johnson, 
Ernie Spicer                                                            
                                           V4~ i'.  --e 
Doyle Whtworth 
PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND                                                  co 
AGRICULTURE                        .- 
Chas. Schweizer, Chairman  6 
Lynn Van Zandt 
Heny Troger                I     '    I 
Ol lbertaon                i   J-       L 
C. B. Byers 
FIN ANCE         IV/l-~ 7 ,t           t~~~~ 
Geo. M. Snodgrass, Chairman 
R. B. Krutzner 
S. Taylor, Jr.o-h 
PUBLICITY 
Emery Lamer, Chairman 
Rh. L. DnnSr 
Win Beriner 
George RaelIle- 
HOUSE AND RECEPTION 
G. M. Wiley, Chairman 
Peter Brink 
Don Murphy 
Judg Roy V. Ahlstrorn 
. H   oanson 
MEMBERSHIP AND ATTENDANCE 
. H. Malles & B. F. Kutz, CoCh 
Art: Swan 
Theo. L. Dahi, Sr. 
John D. Ward, Jr. 
INTERCLUS 
Cassle Wollan, Chairman 
Glen Meader 
Don Field 
John B. Coleman 
Geo Philips 
Jhn P. Robinson 
Hnry Ahrens 
PAST PRESIDENTS 
Louis Robinson, Chairman 
Geo. Philips 
C. H. Schweizer 
judge Roy V. Ahlstrom. 
G. M. Wiley 
C. 1. Wollan                           t 
D. E.Field 
Art Swan 
Dr. F. A. Douglas 
Ge.Sndass 
Pa14g1 
R. F.   rs                                                              
                                          6 
 
 

					
				
				
DIRECTORS 
W. W. RICKMAN                 PRESIDENT 
JEAN ROLFE                VICE PRESIDENT                                
                            HENRY AHRENS        LEONARD FUNK 
G. M. HETHERINGTON      SEC'Y AND TREAS.                                
                            LYNN VAN ZANDT      PHIL KIRCH 
DON E. FIELD    IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT                                
                            HENRY TROGER       OTTO NELSON 
GEO. SNODGRASS 
KIWANIS CLUB OF LA CROSSE, WIS. 
COMMITTEES FOR 
FIRST HALF 1935 
Song Leader, C. I. Wollan 
PROGRAM 
Ted Dahl, Jr., Chairman 
R. F. Pagels 
Thos. Annett 
Otto Nelson00 
music 
Harry Leithold, Chairman 
Leonard Funk 
Dr. F. A. Douglas 
UNDER-PRIVILEGED CHILD ANDA 
BOYS- AND GIRLS, WORK 
Phil Kirch & J. R. Johnson, Co-Chr. 
S. F. Brokaw                                                      've 
Ernie Spie 
Doyle Witworth 
PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND 
AGRICULTURE 
Chas. Schweizer, Chairman 
Lynn Van Zandt 
Henry Troger 
Ole Elhertson 
C. B. Byers 
FINANCE 
Geo. M. Snodgrasa, Chairm 
R. B. Krutzner 
S. Taylor, Jr. 
PUBLICITY 
R. L. Dunn 
Win. Beringer 
George Radell 
HOUSE AND RECEPTION 
G. M. Wiley, Chairman 
Peter Brink 
Don Murphy 
Judge Roy V. Ahlstrom 
Alf. Hanson                                                   7 
MEMBERSHIP AND ATTENDANCE 
J. H. Malles & B. F. Kutz, Co-Chr. 
Art Swan 
Theo. L. Dahl, Sr. 
John D. Ward, Jr. 
INTERCLUB 
Cassie Wollan, Chairman 
Glen Meader 
Don Field 
John B. Coleman 
Geo Philips 
John P. Robinson 
Henry Ahrens 
PAST PRESIDENTS 
Louis Robinson, Chairman 
Geo. Philips 
C. H. Schweizer 
Judge Roy V. AhIstrom 
G. M. Wiley 
C. I. Wollan 
D. E. Field 
Art Swan 
Dr. F. A. Douglas 
Geo. Snodgrass 
R. F. Pagels 
 
 

					
				
				
FORM 102 
ThqUniversity of-Wisconsin               INSTRUCTIONAL REPORT           
                             RANK                  t----i.- NAME .      
                           t        J   . 
ITEM    I. PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF SERVICE-Definitions on Back.      
                             SCHOOL 
Part time Instructors report only on service given the University, representing
it by 100%.          OR 
Instructors -in more than one department fill a separate form for each department.
                 COLLEGE            A r c.                       DEPT   
  __             _       _     _ 
Tl er 
Instruction       Reseafh      Administration    Extension      Other Activities
 Total 
a                b                c                d            (specify)
e   _____                                                               
                                         x 
semester, 19i-192.1.          Date           3/, 19                Part time

100%                                                                    
                        (Strike out one) 
Full time or part time refers to total univer- 
ITM        r II.i h s~e~id funds are provided                           
                                                                       sity
service--not to departmental service. 
ITEM II.                          ___ 
DATA FOR                                    ENROLL-                     
                             CLASSIFICATION OF STUDENTS                 
                             DATA ON INSTRUC- 
COURSE       INSTR.             Room        MENT                        
                                                                        
                               TIONAL STAFF 
DAY                                 I                Graduates          Fourth
Year          Third Year              Second Year                  First
Year 
NumberI...... 
AND 
a   24and                           a 
E' Type Z       HOUR              Total                                 
                                                                        
                         See note (7) 
00                      Buildinga 
Buldn :Z                                                                
  W                    c .i .                   2                .      02
          a               at Bottom of 
'M 
,  W 
W 
M 
W 
28        4    5      6                               w~                
                                       i s  d ,~~"4 E ~ r  ~  i    
                                       '~~,. 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
M 
W 
M 
W 
M 
W 
M 
W 
M 
W 
M 
M 
W 
ITEM III (OVER)                                                         
                                                                        
                                REMARKS ON BACK 
ITEM II. 
(1) Instructors in more than one department report separately for each department
as to item II. 
(2) Use a separate line for each claes, section, or credit group. 
(3) "Credits". Where students earn different credits in the same
course, use separate lines for each credit group, and show student classification
for each. 
(4) "Type". Use a separate line for each type of instruction. Indicate
type classification as follows; L, lecture; L-Q, Lecture-Quiz; Q, Quiz, Lab,
Laboratory; Sere, Seminary; The, Thesis; Conf, Conference; etc. or a combination

of these. 
(5) " Hours per week". Classroom and laboratory hours only, excepting
thesis or research conferences. Please estimate these conference hours. 
(6) "Classification of students". FI in for each class, section,
or credit group. Include Commerce, Journalism, Music, Pre-Med., Hyg. C. in"
"L & S "; Home Economics in "Agr." ; Gr. N. in"
Med. ". Include adult specials and 
specials in the college or school and year in which they belong. The number
of auditors may be given in a footnote. Do not include in totals for course.

(7) Please indicate: (a) Name of person, if any, who Is reporting the same
class and the same students, 
(b) Any class meeting for less than entire semester, giving number of weeks.

 
 

					
				
				
ITEM 1. DWINITIONS. 
( tain)lud a   aato   tuei and..emin      assignmen-., p  raton o    e same
aS amative workand study b7 the instructor tendung to advance his scholarship,
  ientifc attain- 
.ents, and    caiy for insruction and* drection of student~s according to
university standards), reading of students papers, and conferences with students
as to your courses. 
(b) "Research" includes all investigations designed to enlarge
the field of science or letters and not directly related to current instruction
of students. 
(c) "Administration". Attendance on University, College, School,
and De partment faculty meetings, student advising, committee work, high
school inspection, correspondence, and similar work re- 
lated directly to other members of the faculty and other persons, on University
matters, but not related directly to instruction, research, or extension.

(d) "Extension." All instruction, lectures, demonstrations, correspondence
and other assignments designed for persons who at the time are not regularly
listed in the roster of resident students. 
(e) "Other Activities." Indicate appropriate captions and estimates,
if any-such as student activities, control (College of Agriculture only)
Hygienic Laboratory, etc. 
ITEM III. DESCRIPTIVE REPORT. Use extra sheets of this size if necessary
and attach them firmly. Report specifically on the points listed below, repeating
the captions on such extra sheets as 
are used. PLEASE PRINT ALL TITLES. 
a. Subjects of research with comments as to progress and results: 
neatin'. rot~ni             fi    ]n :   a~sx rrtl    oi       t:      ritality
   rate ,     &rasita. ad         disease: artificial          oroniagatlnn.
migratlons; 
Dred&toret flock bhavior; econowic                 value of izrouse 
     in  reL tion     to  land use on      =nfar md      lands;    and dealeprant

of a erouse mrnn-ent taen iu-               a    fr   araersl  rou      
   and  ntate i~axn     restoration areas.           The field vnrk i   
      ca r-implate 
on      sot of the    ite      i ci-ted. 
b. Publications:     1In    auckt 
c, Addresses: 
d. Changes in course: 
() New ""ea 
(b) Courses discontinued 
() Courses mo   di 
L Other matters deemed important: 
REMARKS 
AW9OVKD                3'-'."a.m'n of  eprtmnet.                   
                          SIGNATURE                                     
                                Instructor 
 
 

					
				
				
FORM    102 
The University of Wisconsin                    INSTRUCTIONAL REPORT     
                                            RANK         i      I t     
                         NAME  
ITEM I. PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF SERVICE-Definitions on Back.         
                                            SCHOOL 
Part time Instructors report only on service given the University, representing
it by 100%.                        OR 
Instructors in more than one department fill a separate form for each department.
                                COLLEGE                    i1           
              D DEPT                        e 
Instruction      si$gA    Wheri     Administration       Extension      
 Other Activities     Total 
(speify)e     i                                                         
            7     ,19-      Part time 
a-- spcf)e                                                         ___  
                       l           mester192I19                  Date~ ''.
 92                               ~   tm 
100%                                                                    
                                          (Strike out one) 
Full time or part time refers to total univer- 
ITEM 11.          *Research for which speciallesity service-not to departmental
service. 
DATA    FOR                                        ENROL-               
                                           CLASSIFICATION OF STUDENTS   
                                                      DATA ON INSTRUC- 
COURSE        INSTR.                 Room         MENT                  
                                                                        
                                                        TIONAL STAFF 
DAY                                            Graduates            Fourth
Year             Third Year                  Second Year                
    First Year 
Number                                    ------- 
AND 
0.  .                             and                'go 
z    Type    --    HOUR                Total                            
                                                                        
                                                 See note (1) 
Building                                                                
                                   an                                   
                       at Bottom of 
t   GIVEN                                                               
                                            0        t!                 
                      10                Sheet 
M 
W 
M 
W 
M 
w 
M 
W 
M 
W 
M 
W 
M 
W 
M 
w 
M 
w 
_                       _ _ _w.                                         
             ..                   .-                     I  -- 
ITEM   III (OVER)                                                       
                                                                        
                                                         REMARKS ON BACK

ITEM IL 
(1) Instructors In more than one department report separately for each department
as to item H. 
(2) Use a separate line for each class, section, or credit group. 
(3) "Credits". Where students earn different credits in the same
course, use separate lines for each credit group, an show student classification
for each. 
(4) "Type". Use a separate line for each type of instruction. Indicate
type classification as follows: L, lecture; L-Q, Lecture-Quiz; Q, Quiz, Lab,
Laboratory; Sem, Seminary; The, Thesis; Conf, Conference; etc. or a combination

of these. 
(5) "Hours per week". Classroom and laboratory hours only, excepting
thesis or research conferences. Please estimate these conference hours. 
(6) "Classification of students"., Fll in for each class, section,
or credit group. Include Commerce, Journalism, Music, Pre-Med., Hyg. C. in
"L & S"; Home Economics in "Agr."; Gr. N. in "Med.".
Include adult pecials and 
specials in the college or school and year in which they belong. The number
of auditors may be given Ina footnote. Do not include in totals for course.

(7) Please indicate: (a) Name of person, if any, who is reporting the same
class and the same students. 
()Any class meeting for less than entire semester, giving number of weeks.

 
 

					
				
				
ITEM I. DEFINITIONS. 
(a) "Instruction" includes Supervision of Instruction (inspecting,
directing, or improving the instructional work of another), and all work
relating directly to instruction of students in your own courses. 
It includes class, laboratory, thesis and seminary assignments, preparation
for the same (all assimilative work and study by the instructor tending to
advance his scholarship, scientific attain- 
ments, and capacity for instruction and direction of students according to
university standards), reading of students' papers, and conferences with
students as to your courses. 
(b) 'Research" includes all investigations designed to enlarge the field
of science or letters and not directly related to current instruction of
students. 
(c) "Administration". Attendance on University, College, School,
and Department faculty meetings, stul ent advising, committee work, high
school inspection, correspondence, and similar work r,- 
lated directly to other members of the faculty and other persons, on University
matters, but not relates directly to instruction, research, or extension.

(d) "Extension." All instruction, lectures, demonstrations, correspondence
and other assignments designed for persons who at the time are not regularly
listed in the roster of resident students. 
(e) "Other Activities." Indicate appropriate captions and estimates,
if any--such as student activities, short courses, Hygienic Laboratory, etc.

ITEM III. DESCRIPTIVE REPORT. Use extra sheets of this size if necessary
and attach them firmly. Report specifically on the points listed below, repeating
the captions on such extra sheets as 
are used. PLEASE PRINT ALL TITLES. 
a. Subjects of research with comments as to progress and results: 
r-r         ~                      n.     r   u                         
                                                     r,    o re- irer 
b. Publications:  _    - 4.:-          I a', z                          
                         ? 
c. Addresses: 
d. Changes in course: 
(a) New courses 
(b) Courses discontinued 
(c) Courses modified 
e. Other matters deemed important :- 
REMARKS:      -                                                         
                                                                        
              .............--.. 
APPROVED               Chairman of Department.                          
                       SIGNATURE                                        
                               Instructor 
 
 

					
				
				
FORM    102 
The University of Wisconsin                     INSTRUCTIONAL REPORT    
                                              RANK         AS i        t
                            NAME               C        t         tT. ' 
ITEM I. PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF SERVICE-Definitions on Back.         
                                              SCHOOL 
Part time Instructors report only on service given the University, representing
it by 100%.                           OR 
Instructors in more than one department fill a separate form for each department.
                                  COLLEGE            A   'cultire       
                 DEPT.                 .  r Je 
Instruction     ASSigne   r es her   Administration       Extension     
   Other Activities     Total 
a                  b                   c                  d             
(specify) e                                     1        emester,19i    
    195          Date                t      7      , 
semester  ,9_,1t9 _1  Date   -                                  Part time

100%                                                                    
                                        (Strike out one) 
Full time or part time refers to total univer- 
ITEM IT.            *  esearchi ior which special iunds are provided    
                                                                        
                                         sity service-not to departmental
service. 
DATA    FOR                                        ENROLL-              
                                              CLASSIFICATION OF STUDENTS
                                                          DATA ON INSTRUC-

COURSE         INSTR.                Room          MENT                 
                                                                        
                                                            TIONAL STAFF

DAY                                             Graduates            Fourth
Year              Third Year                  Second Year               
      First Year 
Number 
-AND 
A  92                     and 
S SType~          HOUR                 Total     0See note (7) 
UZ  U  Mzat Bottom of 
2IVE                                    8                               
                        3                                               
                                                      Sheet 
M 
W 
M 
w 
M 
W 
W 
W 
M 
M 
M 
W 
W 
W1 
ITEM   III (OVER)                                                       
                                                                        
                                                             REMARKS ON BACK

ITEM 11. 
(1) Instructors in more than one department report separately for each department
as to item II. 
(2) Use a separate line for each class, section, or credit group. 
(3) "Credits". Where students earn different credits in the same
course, use separate lines for each credit group, and show student classification
for ach 
(4) "ye.Use a separate line for each type of instruction. Indicate type
classification asfollows: L, lecture; L-Q, Lecture-Quiz; Q, Quiz, Lab, Laboratory;
Sam, Seminary; The, Thesis; Conf. Conference; etc. or a combination 
ofthese. 
(6) "Hours per week". Classroom and laboratory hours only, excepting
thesis or research conferences.. Please estimAte these conference hours.

(6) "Classification of students". Fill in for each class, section,
or credit group. Include Commerce, lournalism, Music, Pre-Mod., Hyg. C. In
"L &S"; Home Economics In "Agr."; Gr. N.in "Med,".
Include adult specilssand 
specials in the college or school and year in which they belong. The number
of auditors may be given in a footnote. Do not include in totals for course.

(1) Please indicate: ()Name of person, if any, who is reporting the same
class and the same students. 
()Any class meeting for less than entire semester, giving number of weeks.

 
 

					
				
				
ITEM I. DEFINITIONS. 
(a) "Instruction" includes Supervision of Instruction (inspecting,
directing, or improving the instructional work of another), and all work
relating directly to instruction of students in your own courses. 
It includes class, laboratory, thesis and seminary assignments, preparation
for the same (all assimilative work and study by the instructor tending to
advance his scholarship, scientific attain- 
ments, and capacity for instruction and direction of students according to
university standards), reading of students' papers, and conferences with
students as to your courses. 
(b) "Research" includes all investigations designed to enlarge
the field of science or letters and not directly related to current instruction
of students. 
(c) "Administration". Attendance on University, College, School,
and Department faculty meetings, student advising, committee work, high school
inspection, correspondence, and similar work re- 
lated directly to other members of the faculty and other persons, on University
matters, but not related directly to instruction, research, or extension.

(d) "Extension." All instruction, lectures, demonstrations, correspondence
and other assignments designed for persons who at the time are not regularly
listed in the roster of resident students. 
(e) "Other Activities." Indicate appropriate captions and estimates,
if any---such as student activities, short courses, Hygienic Laboratory,
etc. 
ITEM III. DESCRIPTIVE REPORT. Use extra sheets of this size if necessary
and attach them firmly. Report specifically on the points listed below, repeating
the captions on such extra sheets as 
are used. PLEASE PRINT ALL TITLES. 
a. Subjects of research with comments as to progress and results: 
Ti ~ii                      ~      A    ~     r       il    ~   ~   icm 
    l    ~      e    'r aseo-  r T  re ?e. Arer "'t; fno 
ne~tin,                                                              -)otir.ftffA:~e
 ravo rnl-  -rnfity  17                   llr artcAn.      rotan    tin 
   r4  rino- 
.......owe;  fi                                                e ....   
  ..                                          'Le oP1 r1  1: 71A !  ro d
 YA1Org fl  ot 
n~t iaei-noi'p                                                          
                                                                        
     -1rrva  i  tt  #~   i6i  h  i1  i  ~ tnn~  nf tT- 
b. Publications:            :r ,3vr   ti        ar.              r   ten
  f     nu 14r            n 14313a 
c. Addresses: 
d. Changes in course: 
(a) New courses 
(b) Courses discontinued 
(c) Courses modified 
e. Other matters deemed important: 
REMARKS:        -   -- 
APPROVED                Chairman of Department.                         
                         SIGNATURE                                      
                                  Tnstructor 
 
 

					
				
				
U. W. Form 17. 6-33--10M 
THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
Travel Expense Form 
Use Ink, Indelible Pencil or Typewriter 
See reverse side for travel regulations                Madison, Wis.    
  Date   .A.A...31    .--------- 193-.5 
Account of                                                              
 Address 
PURPOSE OF TRIP_ ._1..       _ft. __U I          e_ 1h1 cken   Receipt 
mNumber 
Zan.                                                                 150

11so                                                        110 
1 4          7 t m  n  -  a i  o                            1 10 
IS   a~i110 
is          Madi so&-Pwrenn                                 110 
25          UadMo-pwou                                     _U 
590 mi. at 5                                                            
     2950 
26          Lube      fo    trpbilig172 
Total 
A udited  by  ----------------------------------------------- 
Approved .---------------------------------------------- Div -... A.    
          ...tu   ----------------------------- 
Dept ...... __9A   _ 1t ........ 
Activity 
Approved .---------------------------------------------- Class .   r... 
 -....------------_..  a      ...... 
F und _-              -- -----------------------------... 
STATE OF WISCONSIN, 
SS. 
County of ----------------------------.----------------------------------------------------------.,
being duly 
sworn, says that the within account of services and daily expenses amounting
in all to.................................. 
dollars, is just, correct and true; that the sums charged were actually disbursed
by him for the State of Wisconsin, as stated in the 
account, and that no part of the same has been paid for. That no part of
the expenses of travel herein charged for has been had upon 
a free pass or free transportation of any nature whatever, and the amount
herein charged as a disbursement for transportation or from 
other expenses incident to travel has been actually paid out. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this .............. 
day of ---------------------------- 7--, A. D. 193 .... 
Notary Public. 
 
 

					
				
				
LAWS OF WISCONSIN 
(Statutes) 
Section 14.31 (3) (c). Include receipts for all items of expenditure of one
dollar or more, unless other satisfactory eviderce is 
accepted by the auditing officer. 
(3) (d). Include the claimant's affidavit setting forth that the items of
traveling expenses were incurred in the performance of 
duties required by the public service, and that the amount charged for transportation
or for other expenses incident to travel was 
actually paid-out ard that no part of such transportation was had upon a
free pass or otherwise fiee of charge. The blank form of 
such affidavit shall be prescribed by the secretary of state. 
Section 44.32. The secretary of state shall not audit items of expenditure
for tips, porterage, parlor car seats other than sleepin.- 
car berths, or for expenses not necessarily incurred in the performance of
duties requirea by the 2public service; nor shall he audit 
items of expenditure for expenses of any officer or employee of the state,
or any department or institution thereof incurred while 
attending any convention or other meeting held outside of the state, or other
traveling expenses incurred outside the state unless such 
expense ir authorized by the governor or specific statutory authority exists
therefor; nor shall he audit items of expenditure for 
expenses of more than one officer or employe of the state or of any department
or institution thereof in attending any convention or 
meeting heldoutside the state unless otherwise provided by law. 
Section 14.71 (2). Traveling Expenses. The chief officers enumerated in subsection
(1), and their appointees and employes, 
shall each befreimbursed for actual and necessary traveling expenses incurred
in the discharge of their duties. The officers and em- 
ployes of any;department, board or commission, shall, when for reasons of
economy or efficiency, they are stationed at any other place 
than the official location of such department, board or commission, receive
their actual and necessary traveling and other expenses 
whn called tlo such official locapion for temporary service. The members
of boards, departments and commissions who are entitled 
to expenses but not compensation, the members of boards, departments and
commissions who are entitled to a per diem for time act- 
ually spent in state service, and the members of boards, departments and
commissions who receive an honorarium, shall be entitled 
to travel and 'other expenses while attending meetings of such board, department
or commission held at the city of Madison; provided 
that no such traveling or other expenses shall be allowed to any such member
of any department, board or commission who actually 
resides in the city of Madison while attending any such meeting at said city.

(6) (b). If the officer or employe travels less than six hundred miles in
any month, he may receive an allowance of not to exceed 
seven cents for eacn mile travelled. 
(6) (c). If the officer or employe travelz six hundred miles or more in any
month, he may receive an allowance of not to exceed 
thirty dollar plus his actual and necessary disbursements for gasoline and
lubricating oil. 
(6) (f). For travel between points convenient to be reached by railroad or
bus without unreasonable loss of time the allowance 
for the use of a personal automobile shall not exceed the railroad or bus
fare between such points. 
TRAVEL REGULATIONS 
1. Purpose of trip must be stated on expense account. 
2. Give namie of railway, time leaving, and returning to Madison or headquarters.

3. Meals in Madison (or headquarters) foi persons living in Madison (or headquarters)
cannot be allowed. 
4. Receipts are required for all expeuditures of $1.00 or over, except for
railway fare. (See section 14.31 Wisconsin 
Statutes). 
5. Original Pullman sleeper ticket stub mst be attached to the expense account,
as receipt covering expenditure for sleeper. 
6. Item for taxi will not be allowed unlless fully explained, i. e., heavy
luggage, early train, etc. 
7. In making out vouchers for hotel expenses, state whether American or European
plan. Designate morning meal as "B," noon 
meal as "D," evening meal as "S," and lodging as "L."
Example: Voucher for supper, lodging and breakfast should be made 
out-From "S" to "'B" inclusive. Receipt must be signed
(name of hotel, per name of clerk or manager), and dated. 
8. Receipts which bear evidence of changes will not be allowed. If an error
is made in making receipt, write a new one. 
Charge to following accounts: 
DIVISION                          DEPARTMENT                     CLASS  
                     FUND                     AMOUNT 
Approval of Head of Department                          Dean            
                                Audited by 
 
 

					
				
				
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 
ADDRESS REPLY TO 
CHIEF, BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 
AND REFER TO 
January 28, 1935 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
College of Agriculture 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, wise. 
Dear Vrof. Leopold: 
Une thing ± intended to discuss with you at the recent Usme Confer-

ence entirely slipped my mind, although we were both so busy that . doubt

if we would have been able to give it very much attention even had i re-

membered it. 
I refer to a communication received early this month from Mr. Ray 
C. Steele, Superintendent of the upper Mississippi River Wild Life and Fish

Refuge relative to the prairie chicken banding project that you have in-

augurated. ir. Steele accompanied his latter with a copy of your letter 
of December 18, 1934, to Mr. Alfred W. Rice of the La Crosse Tribune. 
As you, of course, know the Bureau is glad to give you all possible 
cooperation in this matter and my main purpose in writing is to ascertain

just what bands you expect to use and to recommend that the bands of the

Biological Survey be employed. I mention this because there have been 
several banding experiments made where the bands used carried a local ad-

dress such as a particular game farm or a State conservation caission 
address and I believe that almost without exception the results have not

proved satisfactory. It is my belief that such bands largely defeat their

purpose as the address stamped on the band supplies the hunter with a very

fair idea of the information that he otherwise would be obliged to write

for. Also, it seems to me that it is desirable to eliminate all possible

confusion in regard to the banding work by having so far as possible, a 
single series of bands used in any experimental work with North American

birds. Possibly this last is not a very serious consideration but i am 
quite sure that a larger number of recovery records are reported from 
Biological Survey bands than is the case with any carrying a local address.

Accordingly if your plans are not too far advanced or you would 
like to reconsider the matter you may be assured that we will be glad to

 
 

					
				
				
AL - p. 2 
supply you with bands fran our regular series for this experiment. 
it was good to have a chance for even a short visit with you in 
New York and . hope that one of these times we may again see you in 
washington. with cordial regards, I am 
Sincerely yours, 
r. C. Lincoln, In Charge 
Distribution amd Migration of birds 
Division of Wildlife Research 
 
 

					
				
				
U. W. Form 18 
1UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
Travel Expense Form 
Use Ink, Indelible Pencil or Typewriter                 Madison, Wisconsin
         Date- -__,2Q-------               193__h_ 
Account of       Is :# V. 1      m    t                                 
        Address    x#        ____s ___ 
Number 
Zxpen"S Jacared in 0               ation With                  Voucher

D*.       7        7 ten   s nets                                       
                       24 69 
6 f ilm packs at $15                                                    
       9 930 
PURPOSE OF TRIP                                                         
               Total         33 99 
(See other side for travel regulations) 
A udited  by  ------------------------------------------- 
Approved--------------------------------------------             Dv-----
-  Agriaztu      -------------         --- 
Dept ...... VIL -... Activity_- .B.o.a.. 
Class  ...  .        -   -_- 
Approved   --------------------------------------------          Fund __t
  i1_,A14.        . 
STATE OF WISCONSIN, 
SB. 
County                    ----------------------- e--------------------------------------
                  being duly 
sworn, says that the within account of services and daily expenses amounting
in all to ................................ 
dollars, is just, correct and true; that the sums charged were actually disbursed
by him for the State of Wisconsin, as stated in 
the account, and that no part of the same has been paid for. That no part
of the expenses of travel herein charged for has 
been had upon a free pass or free transportation of any nature whatever,
and the amount herein charged as a disbursement 
for transportation or for other expenses incident to travel has been actually
paid out. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this------------- 
day of ----------------------------------------, A. D. 193_.A 
Notary Public. 
 
 

					
				
				
LAWS OF WISCONSIN 
(Statutes) 
Section 14.31 (3) (c). Include receipts for all items of expenditure of one
dollar or more, unless other satisfactory 
evidence is accepted by the auditing officer. 
(3) (d). Include the claimant's affidavit setting forth that the items of
traveling expenses were incurred in the per- 
formance of duties required by the public service, and that the amount charged
for transportation or for other expenses 
incident to travel was actually paid out and that no part of such transportation
was had upon a free pass or otherwise 
free of charge. The blank form of such affidavit shall be prescribed by the
secretary of state. 
Section 14.32. The secretary of state shall not audit items of expenditure
for tips, porterage, parlor car seats 
other than sleeping-car berths, or for expenses not necessarily incurred
in the performance of duties required by the 
public service; nor shall he audit items of expenditures for expenses of
any officer or employee of the state, or any de- 
partment or institution thereof incurred while attending any convention or
other meeting held outside of the state, or 
other traveling expenses incurred outside the state unless such expense is
authorized by the governor or specific statutory 
authority exists therefor; nor shall he audit items of expenditure for expenses
of more than one officer or employee of the 
state or of any department or institution thereof in attending any convention
or meeting held outside the state unless 
otherwise provided by law. 
Section 14.71 (2). Traveling Expenses. The chief officers enumerated in subsection
(1), and their appointees and 
employees shall each be reimbursed for actual and necessary traveling expenses
incurred in the discharge of their duties. 
The officers and employes of any department, board or commission, shall,
when for reasons of economy or efficiency, they 
are stationed at any other place than the official location of such department,
board or commission, receive their actual 
and necessary traveling and other expenses when called to such official location
for temporary service. The members of 
boards, departments and commissions who are entitled to expenses but not
compensation, the members of boards, depart 
ments and commissions who are entitled to a per diem for time actually spent
in state service, and the members of 
boards, departments and commissions who receive an honorarium, shall be entitled
to travel and other expenses while 
attending meetings of such board, department or commission held at the city
of Madison; provided that no such travel- 
ing or other expenses shall be allowed to any such member of any department,
board or commission who actually resides 
in the city of Madison while attending any such meeting at said city. 
(6) (b). If the officer or employe travels less than six hundred miles in
any month, he may receive an allowance 
of not to exceed seven cents for each mile travelled. 
(6) (c). If the officer or employe travels six hundred miles or more in any
month, he may receive an allowance 
of not to exceed thirty dollars plus his actual and necessary disbursements
for gasoline and lubricating oil. 
(6) (f). For travel between points convenient to be reached by railroad or
bus without unreasonable loss of time 
the allowance for the use of a personal automobile shall not exceed the railroad
or bus fare between such points. 
TRAVEL REGULATIONS 
1. Purpose of trip must be stated on expense account. 
2. Give name of railway, time leaving, and returning to Madison or headquarters.

3. Meals in Madison (or headquarters) for persons living in Madison (or headquarters)
cannot be allowed. 
4. Receipts are required for all expenditures of $1.00 or over, except for
railway fare. (See section 14.31 Wisconsin 
Statutes). 
5. Original Pullman sleeper ticket stub must be attached to the expense account,
as receipt covering expenditure for 
sleeper. 
6. Item for taxi will not be allowed unless fully explained, i. e., heavy
luggage, early train, etc. 
7. In making out vouchers for hotel expenses, state whether American or European
plan. Designate morning meal as 
B," noon meal as "D," evening meal as "S," and lodging
as "L."     Example: Voucher for supper, lodging and 
breakfast should be made out-From "S" to "B" inclusive.
Receipt must be signed (name of hotel, per name of 
clerk or manager), and dated. 
8. Receipts which bear evidence of changes will not be allowed. If an error
is made in making receipt, write a new one. 
 
 

					
				
				
New Soils Building 
December I, 1934 
Mr. Alfred W. Rice 
The LaCrosse Tribune 
LaCrosse, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Rice: 
I am glad to tell you that, thanks to the hearty cooperation 
of Ray Steele, arrangenents were completed Saturday for the prairie 
chicken banding project. Mr. Steele kindly offered the services of 
Ranger Homer Hall in selecting the area and preparing the bait, and as 
soon as the birds are on the hait, Mr. Schmidt and Ranger Hall will 
jointly conduct the trapping, Schmidt to bring the traps with him. 
Since this lies immediately in the territory of your Chapter, 
I think that your members, as well as the University, should appreciate 
the cooperation which Mr. Steele has kindly offered to furnish. It 
was more than gratifying to me. I want to thank you and the committee 
which was appointed at the recent meeting for your consideration of 
this matter. 
The remaining thing which is not yet provided for is for 
all chicken huntsrs to be sure and turn in their bands so that the 
information which we hope to get from this banding venture will 
actually materialize. 
After the meeting was over I had a long talk with Mr. 
Hetheringson, who is anxious to undertake some prairie chicken banding 
through the boys in his school. It of course stands to reason that 
the more banding the better, and I told Mr. Hetheringson that the 
University would furnish him with traps and technical direction when- 
ever he gets a bunch of chickens baited up, so that they can be trapped.

I was glad to note the moral support which your chapter is extending 
him and I hope you will further encourage him in this venture. 
With best regards, 
Yours sincerely, 
Aldo Leopold 
In Charge, Game Research 
Copies to Hetheringeon 
Oadersen 
Holt 
Homer Hall 
Schmidt 
Steele 
 
 

					
				
				
New Soils Bulirdtjg 
NTov,-iber 16, 193k 
Guneron , orni 
Dear Alf* 
Thanks for yor efforts to arn     for the pnirie ohicke 
trapping. 
Unless som  other date suits you better, Scmdt an   I AII 
plan to come over Pridq, Domner 111 and spn      riday, Sattrda  nnc 
Stud  organizing sitable locations for feediv and later trapping. 
Doubtlees throg     mere confusion of termn, your ietter 
inlicrte a  pOozoie b oon? aon between rooestn  pous and feedin 
grounds, Thee, as you nm, are often far apart, especialy in winter, 
We are at present nt concerned rith the roost . All we are 
loohing for is a feeding ground re&'larlr used b a m:1fficiant number

of *htc8eks end so set up that battig can be used as a means for ox 
centrating them for trapping Inn"pes. Th best feedig ground for 
trapping umally consists of a crield in which the brds are seen to 
gather during th  e-rly pert of the winter but where the eorn by the 
end of the winter gets scarce enough to allow of concentrating the birds

by' baiting. 
A aboaed cornfield often meets these mpeetfications. beoauee 
the birds radualy e*het the corn on the outside of the shocs !,d 
as the shooced corn becomes scarce. it is easV to concentratis the birds

on a pile of )nsed *are arranged for trapping purpoes, 
Schdt will, of course, fani ih the traps, bt it will be 
necessary for some resident famer  o is interested in the job to 
operate them under his general direction. It mijit not be necessary, 
howver  for the farmer to do the traping if he can do the baiting andL 
get a sufficient concentration of birds, Once the concentration is 
sufficiently built up. Schmidt could coe out some wookend and do the 
trapping himelf, This question of nhether the famer or        dt 
should do the trapping ts one of the points to be considered after 
lookin at the grun. 
With best reards, 
Yours sincerely, 
Aldo Leopold 
*h                                   In Charge, Game Reseearch 
 
 

					
				
				
GUNDERSEN CLINIC 
LACROSSE,WISCONSIN 
November 13, 1934 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
Your letter regarding establishing feeding stations for 
prairie chicken this winter was received a few days ago. In the 
meantime I made every effort to find out just vhere the birds are 
located. 
I hive known for a long time that a flock of two to four 
hundred prairie chicken go into the Delta Fish and Fur Farm fbr 
roosting. I made a copy of your letter, sent it to Mike Lapinski, 
president of the company, and urged him to co-operate with you. 
However, I had a letter from him today which I am enclosing, which 
is not very promising. As you probably know, the State of Wisconsin 
has been very antagonistic and has been a big stumbling block in the 
success of this organization. Mr. Fugina, who is counsel for the 
company, is very much opposed to the company's allowing the State 
to g in, although it is my personal opinion that it is a very small 
and narrow point of view. 
As Mike Lapinski suggests, I might contact Mr. Clark and 
get his reaction. I am therefore writing him today, asking him for 
his co-operation.   I believe that the greatest success vuuld be 
in the area near the Delta Fish and Fur Farm. A second roosting 
place for prairie chicken has been on French Island where a flock 
has been gathering each winter for maxWyears. I should think there 
would be very little difficulty in securing a feeding station on 
French Island. I do not happen to know the farmer on whose place 
these birds roost, but his name and co-operation could be secured, 
S_1'a  ZP#w- on coming up for an evening dinner with the 
lzaak Walton League' we could then probably discuss the matter with 
the powers that be and possibly you could discuss with us the investiga-

tion work you have been doing in the central part of the state for the 
last few months. I shall let you know when I hear from Mr. Clark. 
With kindest personal regards, I am 
Yours very truly 
Alf H. Gundersea,UA.D. 
 
 

					
				
				
Delta Fish and Fur Farms, Inc. 
Best Dark                                     BUSINESS OFFICE 
Room 205 Exchange Bldg. 
Northern Rats   (Telephone 826 
WINONA, MINNESOTA 
Nov. 11, 1934 
Dr. Alf Gunderson 
La Crosse, Wis. 
Dear Doctor: 
Your letter of November 8 received with letter from 
the Department of Agriculture and contents noted. 
I have taken up the matter with Mr. 9. L. Fugina, our 
attorney, and he absolutely advises against any such feeding 
of hame birds as it would give the state an entering wedge. 
Personally, I cannot see so much objection to it but we 
surely must be governed by the advice of our counsel. 
I do not think there is a suitable place for feeding 
on our property as the chickens usually roost down in the 
marsh and I don't believe they would feed where they roost. 
But, there are quite a number of prairie chickens that usualy 
feed every winter on the Clark property or high lands ad- 
joining ours, and I think suitable arrangements could be 
made with Mr. H. L. Clark of Trempeleau. Should I be able 
to be of any assistance to you further in this matter, I 
will gladly do what I can. 
Very truly yours, 
 
 

					
				
				
New Soils 3ilding 
Noveaber 6, 1934 
Dr. Alf Gnderson 
La~rose 
Wiscone 
Dear Alft: 
I need sorla cooperation from the I&wo see lsmok Walton LS   , and 
not knwig the pres3nt officers, I am adrssing this letter to you with the

request that "ou had It to the proper party. 
As you probabl kow, Mr. Fraklin Shmdt has been win for th 
past five years on a study of prairie cickens. He now has in operation ni

banding stationas ..dh witar in the central Wisconsin ounties. These stations

are yielding some valuable now infoation about the loal movemts of chickens.

but theq are not yieldin  a satisfactor amount of information on one of the

most important questions ihic we want to explore, nwly migration. 
To find out how far chi*.ne migrate, we need to band some chickens 
on winter rawe populated entirely by migratory   aick-oes. As near   as I
have 
been able to find out, the winter chice. range alone the river in Laross

and Trepoealea best mots this veifloation. Probably the single point best

suited for this w    is the ringe at th mouth of the Blac River.        first

move toward banding operations in this area is to get a =ber of seleted 
farmers to start batting the birds at points favorable for later trV-ping.

Then toward the end of the winter Mr. Schmidt can help install the traps
and 
instmot the farmers in how to attac bands. 
We naturally wo ld like the local wardens (Lange in Larosee ad 
T. J. Johnson at 11itall in Trinpeelea) to take an ative part in this It

they are willing. 
It ma prove neeessa  to c   ensate the fa   rs for the grain used 
in baiting, and it ay be further necessary to give then a  Aall  a as oo-

peasatien for operating the tras. There will also be a question of pickin

the riht famers. D you think the L       e coud be inuced to sbscribe vatt-

ever cash costs are Inolved?   I do not think the to+al &-mn-nt wold
ee" 
$50 and it migt be m     less if the Leaue could help us locat the right
man. 
It ma also be possible for us to get Mr. Grimmer to take care of the corn,
In 
vhich event the cost to the League would be muh less. 
If the Leage sould be interested in cooperating in this ventue, 
Mr. Scidt and I would lke to ome out and meet with a suitble OsIttee 
some Frlid  evening in esly Pesisber. We can oe on any date wiah you sq 
designate. Mr. Sdidt has classes during the week, heae* the ridayDa ring

the following Sabwdq and Sana Mr. Schmtdt and I wold look up the fa-rs 
and cplete the proliminary ar       ets for baiting, 
 
 

					
				
				
IW. AlNU4ronsvmber 6, 19~34 
MW, Sc*sdt WM1& then visit the". famr     eihe duing the 
Christmas holids. or early in February to install1 the trap. 
If you m arrng a coite meein           fo eal    eemei 
woul  be aprcae    f you oo idaso invite the wardens, so that wema Malle

disuz&s the wittur toothe.w 
I woiild 5p2?Wealate it if the proper -officer of the Lage wizid4 let 
me knorwh~ether t1~ir veutiyv ap~ealv to the Leagu  orgausation. 
With kids rgrs 
AldoLe.  nl 
In Qharge, Gmo evnrdh~ 
 
 

					
				
				
Now Soils Building 
Alust 10, 19314 
Mr, Franklin J, W. Schmidt 
Stanley 
Wisconsin 
D~ear Franklin: 
Your report on the predator study came just In time for me to 
insert a simmary of it in the Game Research News Letter, 
Miss Hor  sas she recently forwarded to you at Staney a letter 
from ftlae Gage    Wallace'sa address to still T.pran  althoui~ he basm 
been a good deal in the field. 
You probably got a cop  of a letterI ,Yrote to Dering about the 
possible use of his place as a demnstration area. He offers to put in all

food patches, plantings, or other improvements in case we should decide to

accept his offer, He also has a resident caretaer who seems to know a good

deal about g     nd vdo woald doubtless be available as an observ  r if you

should find him sfficiently competent. I did nt wnt to cooit us to an 
acceptance of his offer In advance of your seeing the layout. It bas too
muc 
woods to be hig-lass sharail country, but it might be of some valu5 to us

to demonstrate what can be done in country largely woodd  . If convenient,
I 
hope you will drop In there on your way to or from Ashland County, 
I assme you will look over the field trial grounds at Solon Springs 
while you are up there. Gerg    Smith of Solon Springs can show you around,

but the real leader of the enterprise is Dr. T. S. Smith, Board of  rad Bldg.,,

Superior. 
Yours sincerely, 
Aldo Leopold 
Ale-vh                                  In Charge, Ga e Research 
P. S. I am sorry to tell you that Wallace has vacated his half-time position,

effective at the end of the period cowered by inforalt. 
a new man there are important questions of bow the cycle project shall tie
in 
with your own. There may even be a question of your taking it over with possibly

an assistant. I would like to talk over all these matters with you and wish

you would drop in as soon as you can without intsrruption of important field
work. 
Let me knw the probable date you will get here. 
AoL. 
 
 

					
				
				
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
MADISON 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 
.5 7, 
tz 
7LAAJ~   64( ,LL/                            1/ 
 
 

					
				
				
tJNIVERSiTY OF WISCONSIN 
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
MADISON 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 
c&~jt4 (ttA-A   ~yr~~                 K     A~c7 
~4ct4 3- 
/21 
 
 

					
				
				
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          COPYRIGHT sy A. J. NYSTROM & CO., CHICAGO 
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BAYFIELD 
DOUGLAS 
ASHLAND 
IRON 
VILAS 
WASHBURN SAWYER 
14ETT 
PRICE                               FOREST  FLORENCE 
ONEIDA 
OLK    BARRON          RUSK                                             
                  MARINETTE 
LINCOLN 
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CHIPPEWA 
ST CROIX      DUNN 
MARATHON 
CLARK                                 _jHAWANO 
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PEPIN 
WOOD      PORTAGE       WAUPACA               BROWN      KEWAAUMNE 
0VffAL0    TREMPE. 
ALEAU                                                         OUTAGAMIE 
JACKSON 
JUNEAU   ADAMS WAUSHARA         WINNEBAGO     ALU- MANITOWOC 
MO"GE                                                         MET 
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DANE 
JEFFERSON WAUKESHA MIL. 
ORANT IDWA 
LA FAYETTE    G-R EEN  ROGK           WALWORTH - RACINE 
I 
 
 

					
				
				
he Irgegeuts of thr Iniurraity of 5wtronstn 
labisoi 
M. E. McCAFFREY 
SECRETARY 
rune 20, 1934 
Mr. Franklin Jo Schmidt 
c/o Prof. Hobson 
Agricultural Hall 
Dear Sir: 
The Regents of the University of Wisconsin have ap- 
pointed you assistant in agricultural economies from May 7 to 
June 30, 1934; salary $135.58 for the period, loss waiver $18.27; 
not $119.31o 
Yours very truly, 
Se et 
 
 

					
				
				
4t   egeuts of tl~t Inttlrrsty of i stttntt 
Mabisalt 
M. E. McCAFFREY 
SECRETARY 
June 20, 1934 
Mr. Franklin J. Schmidt 
c/o Prof. Hobson 
Agricultural Hall 
Dear Sir: 
The Regents of the University of Wisconsin have ap- 
pointed you assistant in agricultural economies for the year 
1934-35; salary $900, less waiver $124, net $776 for the year. 
Yours very truly, 
'or p'ro 
 
 

					
				
				
:une 20, 13 
c/o~  Prf.Hoso 
AV1UO  tU?   JI 
Dear Sr: 
The      ts of the Univriwty of Wisonsin hve up- 
pointdyo assistant In agricultua    cnmc     frteya 
1934-5; salay $900, lose waiver $124, net $77 for the yer. 
Yours very truly, 
M1 E, MC CAFFREY 
ChMrge to Wisonsin Alumi Research Founation fund, 15B 
Christenen   2 
 
 

					
				
				
Status of Prairie Chicken Banders 
1. Allen Cardo (Coloma) - Paid by Grimmer. 
2. Lloyd Larson (R.J.D., Pittsville) - Removed from the Department 
list upon the recommendation of                    73 
Cole of Wisconsin Rapids.                        /. 
3. Edward Bertotto (Bancroft) - Banded 29 birds and was paid by 
Leopold upon recommendation of Grange. 
4. Reinhard Steinert (Nekoosa) - Paid by Leopold upon recommendation 
of Grange. 
5. Harold Wilkins (Babcock) - No action   i-       7      I'/3- 
(//1 
 
 

					
				
				
NwJun 11ro1 19341 
Babo.*k 
D M  r, Wiins: 
Up1on t              on of M. F      in 
Schmit, I -m sending you the ewloW 0hoc for 
$20.00 in retum for yourw winter's wor in badin 
Prairie hiekns. 
Wil you kindlfy retuarn the 0aeosd reosipt, 
stht I uq us      it as a Toucher on vq officia 
expeas aeo~t? 
Your* vey  t-y, 
ALDO LWPOX.D 
In Charg, Gam Rsarch 
3301. 
 
 

					
				
				
Mr, Lloyd Larson 
R.F, D, 
Dear Mr,, Larson: 
Upn thw reoedtion of Mr. rras*1% 
Scbuidt, I a  sendig you the encoaed oeck for 
$20.00 in return for you wintorls wrk in bandirg 
prairie chicken*. 
Will you kindly retur the   elos - d 
receipt, go that I W   use it as a vomher on 
official expese aount? 
'fours very truly, 
ALDO zMOFC 
In Charge, Gam Resarch 
ALyVh 
I3d4. 
 
 

					
				
				
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New Soils Bilding 
Novebe 24, 1933 
Mr. Harold WIL3fjs 
Babcock 
Wsconsin 
Dear Mr. Wilkins: 
Prxktin Sd14t has probably told you that your 
gmse beang wor this winter will be uler the      uspl&oss 
of the University of Wisconsin. 
I will try to visit yu sometime   ring the winter, 
but meanwile I hone you will go right ahead in accordanos 
with Mr. Schidt's instructions. 
It i  =Aderstood that you will be paid $20 for 
this wok. After the season's work is completed, I will see 
that yoi receive dhedl tr this am-ant. 
Let me know if ersr is anything Y0u need to so 
ahAvd with the Job. 
Tours very traly, 
ALDO IRo POL 
0a~  Mangr 
 
 

					
				
				
'Now Soils Building 
Noveber 24o 1933 
Mr. Lloyd Larson 
, D.T 
Pittsville, Wsonsin 
Dor Mr. Larsont 
lmaklin Sebidt has probbly tolA 3rou that yourw 
grouse bading work this winter will be under the auspices 
of the Univrsity of WisconiZ. 
I will try to visit you sometime ftring h 
winter, Vat weaiwhle I hope you will go right ahead in 
acodance with Mr. Schidt's istuctions. 
It i umisstood that you will be patd $20 for 
this work. After the seaUon's work is ompleted I will 
see that you r   ie chec for this amout. 
Let me know if there is anythin you ne   to go 
ahead rith th  job. 
Tours very truly, 
ALDO IAJOLD 
Gme MaWer 
AL/Yb 
 
 

					
				
				
New Soils Bilding 
November 24I, 1933 
Mr. Allen Qardo 
Coloina 
Wisconsin 
Franklin Schiidt has probably told you that your 
grouse bading work this winterw ill be under theeo seea of 
the Universty of Wisconsin. 
I will try tO visit Yolu somet" durliw the winteryj 
Vat nM    ile I hope you will go rit ahea   in xowoatmo* 
with Mr. 3ohidt' s instructions. 
It ist nderstood that yru have been paid $?O for tis 
work# 
Let an know if ther. is anything you nsed to go ahea 
with the Job. 
Y~rs t~1y, 
AT," LEOPOL.D 
Gvne nager 
 
 

					
				
				
Reseac Proet 
hair of Gae Movagomt 
Franlin J. w. Scmit      T'otorate thesis In ool.  sady =  botany, with 
Chair of G    Maaut acting in advisory waity. 
II. 
This re-search ws ear  ed by the State Conervation (iseion from 1929 
to 1933, at vhioh time the work was dropped by the Comission.  It was motiusd

hovr, as a researc assistantship ,upported by the hair of G 
beginning Whq, 1933, Daring the first year Schmidt was assiant to 
Dr. A, 0. Grss, mo was onductin the wor for the onservation Denrunt, 
but sinc  then he has been In charge of the projeot, 
The completion of S      tmidtis ootorate inu aproxttely 1935 will be a 
proper ompletion date fo the first phae of the project and pblicatio of 
the rewdts to date a    tae place at that tim. 
IT. Mal 
The objective of the project is to anlyse the life history of Wiconslua 
soase with a vie to constutin       a umagnt or aoppin te miqi.. That is

to sa, grouse eropping is to be developed as a no use for idle lands in Wit-

consin. Incidentally, the extension of the life history  noledge piced up

In purvat of the above objeetive will greatly extend sintific knowee ato

the thares speies principally concerne, aly piunated groue, sharp tal 
grse, awd ruffed g     se, 
To M11QO of rgA 
The early years of the projet dealt entirely with the  mssing   f life 
history data. The following kinds of data have been obtaind    history of

nests, the weight of various mortality fators, vac as predators, Lufomation

on food habits and infoation on ovemts as otemlined by banding. 
The next loginal stop in the de1pint of the work is to apply the 
leads derived from the faetWa material. This has alrea#y been ttone to earn

extesnt in the installation of food patches for Ipoigthe food factor. 
Prelimnary experiuats are now nder way in Imoing the cover factor. Theses

are gradally leading up to the systematic applioatio of all known leads to

the actual mana      of a   ople pniece of ld. 'Is saple area will probably

be the entral Wisconsintame area now in process of pniwshase by the Federal

Stipend, . J, . Shmidt -$776 net per year. 
Travel (during smesters set In field) -$100 per year* 
The budget is carried out of the ftnds contributed by the Wisconsin Alaid

Reseav*h Founation to establish the Chair of Goe M   anaeet in the Agricultural

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THE STATE OF WISCONSIN 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
Mellen, Wisconsin. 
October 15, 1933. 
Mr. F. J. W. Schmidt, 
Conservation Department, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Sir: 
I have your letter of September 20. 
Four men on a 200 acre tract of land about fifty per cent 
cultivated and the balance covered with Aspen-cultivated land covered 
with second erop of clover, situated at a point about 8 miles north 
of Mellen, Wisconsin, in section 54-T.46N.,-R.3W., in Ashland county, 
killed with the ail of shot guns all automatics 48 grouse (sharp-tailed)

in S successive days by firing 56 shots-they also killed two woodcocks, 
thus they wasted but 6 shells-most of these grouse were flushed and 
killed in the Aspen, except on the first day when most of them were 
flushed and killed in the clover field-the woodcocks were also flushed 
and killed in the Aspen-but one grouse was crippled, although one of 
the four hunters found it before it died, so there waee no loses at all-

there was no dog used at any time by these four hunters-these four hunteri

stayed close together when hunting and devoted about four hours each 
morning to hunting on said tract of land, there usual time for hunting 
was between seven and eleven o'clock-they flushed about 75 grouse each dal

on said tract. 
A little later I expect forward to Dr. Green some specimens of 
partridge (rmffed grouse) as per your request for examination. 
Very tr ;y roum, 
J hn Long, 
' onservation Warden. 
OONSERVATION DjP~r.- 
OCeT 1 613 
Refe-m to 
 
 

					
				
				
THE STATE OF WISCONSIN 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
Three Lakes, Wis. 
Oct. 14, 1033 
To the Director 
F. J. W. Schmidt 
Wisconsin Conservation Dept. 
Madison, Wis. 
Dear Sir. 
I have your letter requesting information on the past 
bird season. 
It is difficult for me to give you all the information 
that you would like due to the fact the my hunting was 
incidental to my work. That is, I carried my tun in the fh6ld 
and shot when I saw birds. 
Only on one ocassion I was really hunting. That time 
in one hour I shot at six partridge and got four. I saw about 
ten birds during that time. Shooting was difficult due to 
heavy foliage. 
During the season I shot eleven partridge and one 
sharp tail grouse. I saw plenty of birds but had no use for 
more, therefor did not shoot more. 
I did not use a dog and lost two birds that I was certain 
I killed. 
Yours Truly 
ACTa 
40f.1 g , 
 
 

					
				
				
Copy to Mr. Olib 
.26, 1932 
Mr. Seth Godon. President 
American Ge Association 
Investment Thi1diug 
Dear Seh 
Twork on wisconsin prairie chiken               an  sarptails on 
whth Dr. Gross ma e a       ss report in 1930 has been goin   forward since

that time In carge of his fomer apprentice, Franklin J. 8      4t. I    
  at 
progress has been made. 
During the coin year 3chidt wantsa to retutrn to echooln tork* 
for his deree. I have b oo    rgiug Wisconsin to make it possible for him
to 
tae his dre    in chickens. thus automatically continuing the work at very

sligt epense, but as nearly as I c     learn the work is now to be dropped

upon the ccletion of a report this winter, just at the time whe 
results have aulated to warrant actual appliction in                    A

proposal to try out these findins      roping chickens on a sample   a 
of reverted lands in Wisconsin has met with no response. 
I learn upon Inquiry that Icbmidt is wlling to work on chickens 
for a fellowship stipend of $50 per year plus travel eeses. proviod 
he can attach himself to soe   oeteat university for his degree.     If we

estimate travel at 6004100i0. hie mkes his series available for les 
than half of wat research projets cost a few years go. 
I am personally interested in preventing this venture fro lapsing, 
It is the first serious attmt at prairie chicen conservation ever me 
in the United Sttes. &M   it reflets scantesit on the       nrvatio 
anvamont that this trone4 mnshould have to drop this project. waMre= 
his stu   of ses or feld4 micein order to get a dgee. 
Th following states probably have the requi site combination of 
chickens and a copeet uaiveityi      Iowa, the Daktas, Kansas, N~ebraska,

Minnesota. an 'euas. 
I am seeding copies of this letter to persnal friends in Iowa, 
Minnesota an  Texman   would sugest your providing-, your field fore with

copies s@ that t        follow    a          nties to Interest te 
universities or gam departments in the states mentitoned. 
I am also sending cpies to the mbrs of the Wild Life Comittee 
of the National Re    c          . al       that organization has a yet 
 
 

					
				
				
a*- d for thi sor of wr.A*p sben tt r.. Grossfo 
Tour t1sinoey, 
ALD MFW 
web* 
 
 

					
				
				
Aug. 26, 1932 
Mr. Seth Gordon, President 
American Game Association 
Investment Building 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sethi 
The research work on Wisconsin prairie chickens and sharptails 
on which Dr. Gross made a progress report in 1930 has been going forward

since that time in charge of his former apprentice, Franklin J. Schmidt.

Excellent progress has been made. 
During the coming year Schmidt wants to return to school to 
work for his degree. I have been urging Wisconsin to make it possible 
for him to take his degree in cickens, thus automatically continuing the

work at very slight expense, but as nearly as I can learn the work is now

to be dropped upon the completion of a report this winter, just at the time

when enough results have accumulated to warrant actual application in 
management. A proposal to try out these findings by cropping chickens on

a sample area of reverted lands in Wisconsin has met with no response. 
I learn upon inquiry that Schmidt is willinig to work on chickens 
for a fellowship stipend of $500 per year plus travel expenses, provided

he can attach himself to some competent university for his degree. If we

estimate travel at $600-$1000, this makes his services available for less

than half of what research projects cost a few years Wgo. 
I am personally interested in preventing this venture from 
lapsing. It is the first seric s attempt at prairie chicken conservation
ever 
made in the United States, and it reflects scant credit on the conservation

movement that this trained man should have to drop this project, and resume

his study of snakes or field mice, in order to get a degree. 
The following states probably have the requisite combination of 
chickens, and a competent university:  Iowa, the Dakotas, Kansas, Nebraska,

Minnesota, and Texas. 
I am sending copies of this letter to personal friends in Iowa, 
Minnesota and Texas, and would suggest your providing your field force with

copies so that they can follow -p any opportunities to interest the 
universities or game departments in the states mentioned. 
I am also sending copies to the members of the Wild Life 
Conittee of the National Research Council, although that organization has

 
 

					
				
				
2                   Seth Gordon                 8/26/32 
as Xet no funds for this sort of work. A copy is being sent to Dr. Gross

for his information. 
Schmidt will be available by next spring. 
Yours sincerely, 
ALDO LEOPOLD 
ALl Vi 
 
 

					
				
				
THE STATE OF WISCONSIN 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
PAUL D. KELLETER. CONSERVATION DIRECTOR 
MADISON 
ADDRESS REPLY TO 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                       August 23, 1932 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
905 University Ave. 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Sir: 
Your letter of August 17 is received. 
It is part of the program of the department 
to carry Franklin Schmidt as a full time employee 
until January 1, 1933. Employment after that time 
will be a subject of further consideration, princip- 
ally in connection with the financial status as it 
may obtain at that time. 
Very truly yours, 
PAUL D. KELLETER Director 
Matt Patterson 
Deputy Director 
 
 

					
				
				
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an atemp   tpace th t~   so othe  stat .~a~ 
~~~~at~~or    sincerely, *  m1  ~  wth~ 
tion) of hisL 
Asloot Zs,?1Uotua 
 
 

					
				
				
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Pr~orO    ?lR      A  GR~T1 E  A       AREA 
AND CO I ARLO?1 T FO('REI G OROUSZ I'AITAQMT 
The purpose of this expariment is to test out the faets 
and theories resulting from the preirie chieken investigation whieh 
are likely to reduce the nuer of low years in the grouse oyole, 
By increasing the number of years open to grouse hunting, the 
Conservation Department would benefit by an Inreased hunting 
license income. A plan will be worked out which will make it pos- 
sible for private owners of large bloeks of land to greatly increase 
the number of grouse on sueh lands and which will moke it possible 
for such owners to realize a return on money spent to increase the 
number of grouse. An increase of grouse on privtte lands would lead 
to an increase on adjacent areas due to a certain amount of migrotion 
whih would take plae, The experiments will be planned espeially 
to obtain information which will be of use in maintaining a big 
population of grouse on a refuge with adjacent public shooting grounds, 
Such a system will eventually be necessary in Wisconsin, and the 
advantages of grouse management on public shooting grounds are obvious, 
Prairie chicken management has not been practised in the 
United 8tates on public khooting grounds, due to the fact that there 
are no prairie ehickens in Pennsylvnia and the other eastern states 
where ptblic shooting grounds are in operation, The only sucessaful 
e mple of grouse management on large areas is in ngUland and Scotland. 
In England the number of red grouse shot is over one per acre on the 
best grouse moors and one per two acres on the best moors in Scotland, 
In 1931 the number of prairie chickes and sbarptailed grouse shot 
in  isconsin was 368,00, In England that many birds would be shot on 
 
 

					
				
				
less than two townships. That .any could not be produced on an 
area of similar size in Wiseonsin for the reason that it is probably 
not possible to produce as much grouse food per acre in Wisconsin as 
in England and icotland, On the grouse moors of 1ngland and 0eotland 
there is a uniform stlnd of hather, the leaves, flowr  and seeds of 
which furnish a year around supply of food. In addition to heather, 
the red grouse eats insects, blueberries, a sr*ll amount of gtreen 
leaves of various plants, and some grain during the winter, In Wis- 
oonsin the grouse toods which must be substituted for heather are 
the leaves of clover, sheep sorrel, wild strawberries, aspen, and 
goldenrod and the ceatkins and buds of aspen,white birch and willow, 
Northern Wisconsin has a big advantage over the grouse lands of 
England and Seotland in the variety of its wild fruits end seeds, 
Following is a list of the moore important steps tkken on 
!7nglish grouse moors to insure a bi grouse crop, 
I. The quality and quantity of heather, the chief grouse 
food, is carefully reruleted, 
2, Disease is kept at a minimum by reducing the stock to 
such an extent as to prevent crowding for food, 
3, Extensive migration is prevented by winter feeding, 
4. Only old birds are shot on bad years, 
5, Excess cook birds are disposed of during the winter, 
6. So    predators are kept under control 
T,  In 1land and Scotland 2,000,000 p      s or about 
$8,    000 are spent annually on 7rouse, the aportion- 
ment of which is as follows: 
1. Net profit to proprietor                  34% 
2, Wages to parnent staff                    35%, 
3, Cost of upkeep, interest on outlay, 
value f keepers' houses, depreciation on 
equipment, rates, taxes, and wa es to 
temporary help                           31$ 
 
 

					
				
				
'he above review of English grouse man      nt is to point 
out the complicated orgenization needed to carry out grouse manage- 
ment on a large scale, The method practised in grouse management 
in isconsin will of course be very different fro, those practised 
and 
in Zngland/-cotland due to the difrerence in the birds thmselves and 
to the difference In the range inhabited by them, 
agg~al Requirements of the Lrea.    - The area to be used in the 
*zpqriment should eonsist of one township or a little less in a 
bloek which can be oonveniently posted as a refuge, and should be 
ded by on area whi        h ban be hunted on by the public, The area 
should have at least 40 acres of open grassland per section for nesting.

There should be enough roads to make it possible tp provide feeding 
places for the birds,   There should be a stock of nesting prairie 
chickens on the area, and if possible also sharp-tailed grouse and 
rufted grouse, There should be patches of aspen and white birch to 
furnish buds in the winter to ro with the grain, These trees should 
be in small patches, well dispersed and not in large patches, 
ino~ation Desired and luggested I eies          I   simotn 
Ino          ds,,n                              -  It Is important 
to get more information on the value of buds as a winter food and 
their relation to grain feeding, It is proposed thait both fall food 
patches and winter feeding stations be provided in the vicinity of 
areas with a good bud supply, 
It is probable that trees in a dense thicket are not of 
much value for budding, More observations shuld be made to check 
on this probability# Aspen grows and multiplies rapidly once it ts 
established, It is important to find out how to keep the groves 
from becoming too thiek, White birch is easier to keep under control 
than open, but it is also more difficult to establish, although It 
spreds rapidly in many of the northern counties, Information is 
 
 

					
				
				
needed on how to establish white bireh on areas whieh oould be 
improved by its presence, 
There has been no evidence of widespread disease during 
the past three years, If the cycle follows Its regular eouirse thero 
should be a big drop in numbers within the next three or four years, 
If disease is the oause or one of the causes of the cycle it will 
be possible to detrmine the nature of the disase on an area under 
close observation, It is proposed that sick birds be delivered to 
Dr, R, G. Green at the University of Minesota, provided Dr. Green 
is willing to do this work in addition to the study he ismaking of 
disease in ruffed grouse, It is important that siek birds be delivered 
alive as dead birds are immediately after death invaded by the bacteria 
eausing decomposition and it is generally impossible to isolate the 
bacteria responsible for the death of the bird, 'o control measures 
against disease can be taken until the identity of the disease has been 
established, 
It will be important to get inforation on bacterial diseases 
in WNisonsin to ehedk with the findings in 17innesota and the findings 
of the Vew England Ruffed Grouse Investipstions 
The factor which Is probably next in     *tana to disease 
is the sex ratio, It is important to find out whether or not the sex 
ratio *an be regulated,  In the case of the red froue of Scotland the 
exess mles are shot during the winter. It is proposed that excess 
mle   In Wisconsin be trapped and shipped to those counties which are 
not nesting areas. he excess prairie e'Aiken and shar-tailed grouse 
roosters are not detrimental to the raising of the young as the 
roosters do not aeeompany the hens during the nesting period, For the 
sein reason it is probably not necessary to have even as many roosters 
 
 

					
				
				
as hens. The ehief objection to n exeass of roosters i# food 
oopetition. It takes just as muoh feed to winter 100 roosters and 
50 hens as it toes to winter 75 roosters and 75 hens. The 75 hens 
would raise 50% more young then the flock of 50, 
It is important to determine the value of refuges and their 
bearing on the gme *ycle. It is prob able that refuges under the 
control of a refuge keper and regulated accordin to the findings of 
the preent invetigatio will better the hunting aronziz the refuges 
on ordinary years and lesson the        of years which would be 
closet to hunting, It is proposed that the experimental area in the 
present investigation be closed to hunting at all times, but that 
the areas adjacent to it be open to huntin7 in order to determine 
the effect of huntin; on such adjacent areas end on the refuge itself* 
The ohief thing to be determined will be the extent of migration into 
and out of the refuge before, during and after hunting seasons, end 
the cause of the mipratio-s, 
It is important to know what eunses the migrations and how 
to prevent them. The distance that shaer-ptailed grouse and prairie 
chickens travel is being determined by banding, It is probable that 
food patches and wirr feeding will regulate migration, It is there- 
fore proposed that winter feeding and bandin7 be carried out as ex- 
tensively as possible in addition to food patches, the chief use of 
which will be to concentrate te grouse to facilitete winter feeding 
and banding, 
The above work will also furnish, by means of the banding 
records, a check on the yearly mortality rate fromall causes, 
It is proposed that observations be made on predatory animals, 
Control masures will be used or not used, depending on the area 
 
 

					
				
				
ehoem  for the eaperiment, If the experiment is earried out In 
Northern Forest State Perk there would be no huntint or traping 
under park regulations. 
The following questions in reard to the weather are to 
be studied. 
,     hat are the ideal weather  onditions requtred to 
insure a successful breeding sees oni 
2, What are the ideal weather  onditions required to insure 
a good food supply? 
3, What weather eonditions are most likely to insure thet 
chicks will live to maturity? 
4. What are the weather eonditions usually associeted with 
mortality from Ooeoidiosis? 
5, What oonneetion, if any, can be established between the 
food supply of one y-ar and the health of the stock in 
the following year? 
G* How does snow and sleet affect the winter food habits of 
grouse? 
7, Do weather conditions bring about migration or locai 
shifts? 
April 19, 1932 
Fo Jo 4t -tehmdt 
 
 

					
				
				
THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
CHRIS L. CHRISTENSEN        COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE                      
 '" 
'Dean and 'Director 
K. L. HATCH                           MADISON 
o ssoc. 'Dir. q2gr. Exten. 
NOBLE CLARK                                        November 30, 1931. 
Asst.  Dir. o gr. Exl,. Sta. 
J. A. JAMES 
, ssistant 'Dean 
A. J. HAAS 
Executive Secretary 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
University Avenue National Bank Building 
905 University Avenue 
Madison, Wisconsin 
My dear Mr. Leopold: 
Your secretary has told me that you have not received a copy 
of the grouse report of Washburn county prepared by F.J.W. Schmidt 
of the Conservation Commission. 
I received my copy in today's mail and I am enclosing it 
herewith for your purusal. 
It strikes me that the material will need considerable editing 
before we have it in final shape to be included in our Washburn County 
report. If your time permits I would much appreciate having your 
suggestions in c6nnection with this editing. In particular it would 
seem to me well worth while to be more specific regarding the particular

food plants available in the county which make the area suitable for 
grouse. If some of these plants are present in inadequate numbers it 
will be well to call attention to this fact. 
The one limiting factor in grouse in Washburn County, so far 
as I can gather from the manuscript, is winter feed which Mr. Schmidt 
seems to believe can be taken care of if patches of buckwheat and corn 
are left standing. Do you think the problem is as simple as this? 
How much can we reasonably expect to increase the number of 
grouse in the county, provided the additional winter feed is supplied 
in the manner indicated by Mr. Schmidt. Certain areas in the county are 
libted by Mr. Schmidt as being especially suitable for grouse, but he 
does not indicate which species of grouse he has in mind. He speaks of 
increasing the grouse population 30 times by proper management in 
England and Scotland and infers that similar increases can be obtained 
with the prairie chicken and the sharp tailed grouse. Are we to believe 
that some buckwheat and corn planted in Washburn County will make possible

a grouse population 30 times the present number? 
I do not want to appear as being unduly critical of Mr. Schmidt's 
report because he undoubtedly has made a large number of very careful 
observations. Vv whole purpose is to get the information in as clear cut

form as possible so that when we publish the report we may give the 
residents of Washburn County as definite information as is available regard.

ing the grouse conditions in their county, and the potentialities of the

area in terms of gamewithout unduly raising hopes which can not reasonably

be gratified. 
 
 

					
				
				
Mr. Aldo Leopold.                    -2- 
I know your deep interest in this proJectand appreciating your 
wide knowledge in the fieldI naturally turn to you to help me clarify 
the material before it goes to the printer. 
Sincerely yours, 
~?itre t r 
NC:O Experiment Station 
 
 

					
				
				
THE STATUS OF TH    OSSi      &BMCUT 
By F. J.W.Sehmidt 
Wisconsin co6nservation Comission 
fonQ  I   h  hev   %labo I anw t4      o o  Ian" grow 
brs~    pastures* It Is   seoaa     abundan  ont 
m~erscaimt aWre       wher  ther  to a don   eta" of 
rafodgrus  *mw It was os1Iated the      er   5rufd 
grous  per aua" al* and asearin     to ths who hunted 
Im Octobew  tbar ware abot 80 per Sqare MileW.       , 
Thes harp-tailo  grues found on the brut- 
toet  4nigh*   ix pIes      an  inr tis  o pen Jack plae- 
an   oeai      fyMo      h  ppuatiou 94ate W" 10 po0 
sqav   mie         #5 $as  was not opm In191 
575*         arxme L~o     or prae sekn      is$er 
x.W sxizt 4sta      ra 
 
 

					
				
				
Grou e ve,.   The &T~     *vr areas In 
Washburnaout7 *Le~h are least suitable for aVicutdr 
and foretry are the beat dreas in the eot for shrp 
tai led grouae and prairie ohiken angmtonaitesv 
oasle* Thoe are th     areas or wtwsh along the Yafllw, 
Neskgo, atd Totatorvos xI, ~area are le" 
enouh t allow extoasive fo" patehos to be platd    As 
the nesting *e    ad roostinggoud     are already go" 
a  as there isa godsppyo       foo  during the simr, 
It is prbabl# that the ahoee     of winter food is the 
onl  large factorwhich limits the   uber of grous under 
natural oonditions, A eoination of grain patcheis, 
feeding atationeg ad groves of white Weh wault funish 
the winter toot reqir&. The Vuse shooting in the 
farmin seon ofa the oovaty vuld~ be groatl7 lzprowet 
if *aek tawe mintalt a feeding station during the 
vwine, A possible fiancial mean    of supporting those 
tesdlag statimm wul be that eaeh farme a.11w a certain 
numt ato hutws, depndn    on the nube    f surplus 
grouse, to hunt provitet that they paid the *tat  eeding 
the birts not only an yeas when the season Is oeox but 
on *lased years. This would no dou*bt retuce theume 
ofat oo 4e esos    This woult apply to sharp-tailedgrus 
an  prairie *blae  , but probably not to ruffed grouse, as 
It in vey doubtful it the numbe af nfed grous ca be 
reulated tue to 'the ltttieulty of training it to sat 
artificial ttosov 
 
 

					
				
				
In Wissn there ar    severa   large areas or 
oatwasb sand, aM pos   whieh arenot satattble fo     gro 
tar  or forestr, but which eoulA be made ino A 
3tran. Thisde        o  an thtte9gih system of 
ihotln4 wuld be uso, but somthin        opea       t   h 
Egish sstex of reguting the eavrmn trdc 
the highst possibl    nuber of grus* per square mile, 
vl& have to bo uod        h  aet  shooting wu     be 
something on the orler of th quail shooting &"undo in 
Geogiaorthe state shooting     ~nsi       onyvna 
At Vwsezt tb*" ig en open s9630n On grUM        IU W$.sOnsi* 
about four out of eight "ae       It ts asume   that when 
larg  shootin   presems* a" oraix*       whith a" &bot 
yearly an they do in xagloft and ;*tant without over 
shootin, the law will be s4jut~t accordingl, 
Th  prpseofth  goue   mvr survey of Wfahbmr 
*outy ias to   etrisa possible future stowo those 
areas nat enitol to oi~br agrioltmr or forestry.        It 
will take sieveral years of exerietation to dotormiu* 
just what stp   will have to be taken to chng     the on- 
oqsra  ile,  In the #ae   of the ret goso o     4a lm  ant 
 
 

					
				
				
$%     d It  s posble to 4    a  the   vi 
iftk an xtn    tha~t tr are 30 t1ms as may grus per 
squa   mil ther as ther  ar In no4     a Wiscnsin ,Ian d 
thr    Is n  vie remaon wh similar ra14. suts an    t be 
obtained withthe4 prairi chi*ke 04sap-al           rue 
&tAn fro wha i already knwn relatim to 
th  eqie nesting fac4iie, sumer and win4m food and 
winter cover  the follwing areas wil no"a0  th* lst 
an *r at presen    tax 44uens anM mwited fo .45*. 
ataa aM should4 It h    a     ?Ir  vl valen    ut    , 
It m   b gr     a a siAd  ne a the ga    p         and 
will have betto fire protectio  thn at psen. Rod 
pie w       o on   re        gow , 
1. Th ara between Gull lako and th 4Wso 
riveri Ta 4W RM 11    0A cnistingo stions 1, 2, 3, 
4S III lot go at 1!, l~, 1*, aMd 20, (?1gar 
to, The amee nztith %f ake Gi1mor .1g the 
Toto a   M  n  St* 0wIz rivrs* This are inaud 
So 9, T* 4, R8 1, 8, 5, 4, 13, 14 15# l5*, 17t 8# 50, 
So ~    uay 90I. 108151*l 2  o4, 5,6 Ito- S,  Z9,0 51, 3, 
(Dogla cunt) eeloa 25  29 2, SI 91 0# 310 $2US 
 
 

					
				
				
in WaRbur county~1~ 
3*~ T 38NI R~* 1*4 Sotin          1      I& 17a0 20 1,fgr 
and P1liel   loWz *an&),    In aover4l plao   t~wre ar 
In general it is levl     i      nuer  ,    is moaix 
Si4 (Vila* san) wA in hilly with te lakes, 
It grose shotng     rue er         blnd with 
forstry, about one half at the aea. aoult. be planted to 
*k p.ie or rod pint a4      ukwheat 9uA     be planod, In 
log trips to act as ftro ehsks,    Fir's will not run in 
bskvbeat or    qr  fielods an  these ar  tho two plants 
whish wol    be relied upo nor ftl and winter foo 
ho fllowing table shows the distribution of 
so=e of the pU       fon  on the ou tah san    of Waslbu= 
 
 

					
				
				
89oosl  WY.osrw PassbUitle 
4 
E~tITXOIN CHH OUNTY~ 
RI* 1 *2R3W  R 22RW:W R* 11l *2* IZ 1W RUV 
,900 *  80.2 30414 Se**R4 30.4 300.2 #OW.R*2 
2                             x 
R! M                            2      2LM I2 
2ibae  2bpu                                    2   2 
ftsn         2      2           2    1     2    2 
op.2                                     2 
x                             1 
KIMM  XMg                                2   x 
&AIL~t up 
2                                    2   2~m 
2                      2 u 
Ase                              2             2~aft 
cowbay"aupu212 
used anIdbyga 
 
 

					
				
				
Xwoof "'t R)V R13W RIX* R13W 2111 1111 R13V RUE 
Suop.      2   2                     z 
2     2                2w 1, 2-U-   2   2D 
2oilx  2p.    x                 X   X 
nosMPI.L                2   2            2 
2 0 Ul2ap-*x Z 
24V  Lo 1' 2.                       2    2 
2AMM  2m  ~                2    2 
2"ml          2    2   2   2        2    2 
2M)M op-2 
REMS.      2    2            2        1   2 
2             1    2   2   1            2 
"Badi~o  x         x    x   x2 
U,,  2 
1pil op                    2 
wagU a. 
 
 

					
				
				
R1* UN  1W R lw R      U~ Rw R1v lg R  aI 1 11 
22AAoj3 ge2                        e,21 
Salt MPAMAM* x               z 
Minow OEMMO x                2 
2-!!4 NP42 
mtk~vl2 
2                    2 
!&Mlk 
velg. 2 2-                                  2 X 
Rmla sI                                          2 
AxliA                                  2    2 
TOERM  VIUM~a 
Les22fll x2 
Aab                                         2     2 
2  2     2 
I A."2 
Rld.Lkgmit, 
9,12 12 
@1.            2                     2          2    2 
2                                       2hu 
gwg2g                            2          2 
tam   s.            X               x 
ueats food by g~ou 
 
 

					
				
				
Shboila# Prsev Possibilit1.o 
T 4NT43 T 401   N T@ ?44  T 4MT 3#9N T38N 
-3*"5.O-4A 8.44 SeeJ4 Se. 6,442 soo.0 S1.0910 
2AM 221~rl 
R~jrdg*     1                                  x 
MIs a"nem    x.t. IIt   f i 
pIn knM, X,   IIW x#1 x      x    aA x  x   x 
Pl~ux s tmb 
30   Ix                                  x ~~noa 
!ORHwS Apb x         x    x    xW~  x~t~  x 
*uevass ap.  tx x~    T1    xt.  &xy wa of $ 
1)-tl op.*  Xttr 4, xM      x 01 I R  z 5      x t 
usedva as food by gous 
 
 

					
				
				
Copies to: E. R. Jones 
Noble Clark 
F.J.*W. Schmidt 
W. B. Grange 
MUM: A     OSSIBLt CASH CROP FOR C-T OU 
F. J. VF. Schmidt 
Wisconsin Conservation  tission 
osTe abudance of gae birds depens on whether 
their re is in A co     itiz favorable for their inavease. By arti- 
fleisly maki    the re     m  favorable, abunlance can be built up 
to such a point that the surplus popilation can be safely harvested by 
shooting. 7is process is !=w as         m      e 
In parts of arope, grouse are managed with such skill and 
vwoess that the grouse crp brings a larger cash retun  than the 
other uses of the lam. 
In 192  the W1seosin Comsem  tion Omissilon retained Dr. 
A. 0. Gross to berin a study of grouse   z        in Wisconsin. His 
report.*  blishod In 1930. indicates some of the odifications of 
the Wisconsin gro se rave whih ,ill be necessary to enlarge the 
crop. 
lie investigation started by Dr. Gross has been continued 
by the author, and the work has now reached a sta-e justifying actual 
tests of the various findings.  In other words, we have discovered 
some of the reasons why rose are scarce, aWl the Prpose of the pro.- 
posed tests is to find out to what extent the =rop will be enlarged 
when a given piece of land is   dified in the lipght of th9se reasons. 
At the request of the Coll.ei of Agriculture. a preliminary 
examina~tion of WTashburn ounty wsas made duriwr Agut. 1931. to find 
*Gross, A. 0. "Poress Rport of the 1isconsin Prairie Chicken Investiga-

tion.*' Wisconsin Conservation Commsion. Hedison, 1930. 
 
 

					
				
				
out waethe  it offered~ favorable opportuities for grouie maaeet. 
Pneft DTee species of grouse ofcour in 
Wahburn Couty, the rffod grose or partrid,'e, the sharptail, grouso, 
and the pinaated grouse or prairie chicken. 
ie rueffe grouse is found in the heavy timber, on the seow, 
grewth of sitovew lands. and in brushy pstures.   It is espeilly 
abnant an the    gher moraines where there is a dene stand of y 
second grwth* Prom     sus  ounts made on sevewl typteal sections. I 
eut ite that there are abut 15 ruffed grause ner square mile, or 
o   pew 4 £0a5res, on the beet rang*. 
The shaptail grouse is found on brush-overed moraines, Ia 
pastures, and in the open Rrowths of Jaekpine and oak brush which occuw 
on the outash sand along the Yellow,           n. and Totogatic rivers, 
and fwam census ouats   de on several typteal seotlons, I estimate 
the populatin as 10 per square mile, ow 1 per 60 aces. 
1h  pinated grs     ow prairie chicke  is very soae.    Tere 
ae a few mall n     * around Stone Lake. Tey were fomerly abuwvLt 
in Zvergreen Township. 
22giel to be Manwozed   Control of the ruffed groue* rane am he 
aeomplishM through forestry operations. but since these are still 
in the     .   it seem premture to discusii the m       nt of rfTted 
grouse at this time. Ruffed grue do not eat agricultural foods readily. 
9harptail grose, however, respond readily to agricultural 
manipulation of the rae, an     this epies, therefore, presents the 
beat op .rtanity efo  manmt.       It is entirely possible that sharptail

manaemetmasures will likewise brings bad   the "en more valhuable 
 
 

					
				
				
prairie chakn    The remindhr of this report. howver. deals with 
sharptail only. 
Avial     Shroal     aI h areas shown on the acmayn              a 
will need the least change to make them suitable for gronse 
Tax delinquency is Drevalent on these areas, indicating that they are 
mt very suitable for other uses.  Te    =Vrise the eutwash alo'   the 
rivers already   med, and are level enou   to allow inexpensive eui- 
tivation of food patces. Tey alrey offer good ntiz         c      and 
roostlu- grouds in their Present condition, aWl the m     r food mpply 
Is saple. It Is probble that the scarcity of wiater food Is the 
principal factor which now lits the m ber of sharptails. 'Tinter food 
ca be provided by installium small patches of grain, groves of vhdt 
birch and aspen for bddin, and artificial feeding hoppers for e 
geny use during severe storms. 
Snatiw ve    g tation is favorable for *arp tail grouse, In 
so far as It goes. Som   60 speeles of nlats were identified, of which 
26 offer gro-se food in s    degree at 3    season. The     plants are 
listed below* 
1. Cho, )n boios op. 
6. r eed(3       90ws.) 
9. Crner      OM      js.). In bo-s only,. 
1.3. -Yl  roe)Ppa      4 
 
 

					
				
				
1. Rapery(oO   s. 
22.  ) 
a8Q~       am-J7 Adn 
Of hee native plants     *it biw*, ehs  e,l 
ae       ae. ererry, wUew, blabw    b   ee arnd beberies 
awe the  st t~ratas grue food.   pa-tride teed  o aspe 
anad wite bir bos MI etkas either on sii e tre or thi* 
groves.  e s   taied    e feeds on asen ano p.  bir  s 
and entkis, Ragwt te tres  st be  h o  or in rs of not 
ere tn five rods in ater. TZ  trees are eeall  te 
for shap.-taied gs to eed on. At th prset tineaspn a  whte 
bir.eh awe sme on th eutwa sand d it is aeesai-F for the grose 
to go to the riverg bett  Ororl.io hils du.r-i th wonte 
it2is eoison tv feed on ican 
2of Aspe.           :   ssie     j. Poe plat  of wh 
birh n a2   in   s or  ll  vs on '- 'ton   l1 
resut in an eve distributo of  s an preen ovrroiz alo 
the river ott f a   n is &opn, whe t bescst be  ot rred 
out an rost   tno sruse fooa. 2d e a srnd ifeed a itable 
for nifed  se. 
ee sultiatin f  atkin e wr   te aditon e o  it. 
dctk effset iu s       the wmtes food itplop, will have an 
modreta effetod in ieterni  Beds. tislreesaespclysutabffet 
 
 

					
				
				
mVbe frther enhaned by rotating the food patches. The distance 
from other agricItal op erations will rnder such weads hamless. 
F    t      At present there are no prodators a   ant enoug to 
Interfere with grxue mnagement, but as the rnber of birds Is increased 
certain animals will have to be I.pt down. The oat and the weasel are 
important as destroyers of nests.  If crows bother. it is an inication 
of not sufficient nesting cov-r and the mnge sould be Imroved for 
nesting by regulating the abundance of small hizhea and grasses. On 
certain winters goshaks my com in from Canada andl shouldI be kept 
under control. The other hawks are of negligible            as des- 
troyers of grose. Until the nuber of birds to much greater than at 
present, it iill not be possible to detemine Just what other predators, 
if anywill have to be kept under control4 
The extent of the increase of grouse obtainable by modification 
of the rawe mast be determined by actual tests. On the heither lands 
of Scotland populations of red grouse at least 30 times as dense as 
those now fw! in Washburn County are prev-alet. - vea a 10-fold 
increase in the annual crop would provide shooting much better than arW 
now existing in this @untr7  Siarptail Pee shootin    and prairie 
chicken shooting are both of such outstanding quality, exwecially from 
the viewpoint of the bird do, enthusiast, that there shold be no 
difficulty In finding a ready denn for 4Ltwver crop can be produaed, 
either in ashburn County, or elsewhere in Wisconsin. Bird dog men 
now  ome from ma   distant states to atted field triKls at Solon Springs

In Dglas Cunty, *Fere a fair grse population exists due to food 
patches maintained by the Northern States Amater Field Trial Association.

 
 

					
				
				
Wot Am~es IMAO: Groms      W1.Te next move toward feeling out the 
possibilities of gos     cros is for the state to aaquire the   ontrol 
of a sitable area    (possibly tax reversions furnishd  it by the county)

to  enus the grouse now accidentally -prsisting thereon. and then to 
apply s    man   ment measures as the research wor btdleates migt be 
useful.  Ma  resulting las       should then naia be amaused snd 
further ipvm     ts an  refieents of ima         t  eares tested out. 
Yinally the possible perent- e of gruse vhiih ea be safely killed 
should be detemined by tests. 
All opeies of grouse in Tisconsin 'ie off ever 10 years.* 
This periodic disappearance is kwn as the g       ccle. Te last Uie- 
ef occurred about 1927. 
On u~manusgd land. it takes the grouse at least five years 
to recover their norml ubers. A ccle also ocurs in Scotland, 
but there, probably due to           t, the grouse poilation recovers 
In one or two years. Ut shuld be able to likewise             eed up 
recovery here, but it reans to be dtermined, by actual test. Just 
how nush. In other woes the proposed tests will ghow what to the 
ueavoldebl, nimu  a of lean years rhich mat be expected on   naed 
land, 
Te outwash swids shown on the map wauld -oostitute a 
suitable location for a shayptal test area.    Mhere are mw  available 
areas in other counties. s   of which would be sitable for both aarp- 
tail snd plunated groue. 
*Leopold, Aide.  *A R"rt on a Gam -m        of the North Oatral States,5

1931. 
 
 

					
				
				
-7- 
SOnly the ].AM Ider a practice gam 
inanaemet of mW kind*   The landh.)r In the case of the grose range 
her  in quetionay bt teounty *r private g             ouporanize  for th

nurpoUs, or bth.   Ina    e vet oosldernbl areas wula       ve to be 
consolidated uler a sIwe ownership or control. 
Gnmty lawis mpht be *Perated~ by' the Stte Ooservation 
umissilon as -public shooting          open to limited mbers of 
bantors on pamt of a fee to c          the cst of aministration. 
Private ,an.s migt be held by cluabs or by inivitsals eemt- 
on a Gumerclal fee basis. 'Wat cam           l fees could be expected 
is an open question.L        of c    able valus, c         m   ed for 
quail in the Gulf States, commoly bring 10 to 15 cats per awe per year. 
 
 

					
				
				
(Lad req4.A zi-bzmt 1 tovastp) 
Bioloit Inaxg 
3 mumtb, mmr. Sax          w * * * m  $ 375.00 
Trve   . * 0 * 0  300.00 
pall tim. ulary . . .     - . . . . . 1,800.00 
7oop   Ta .  . . . . ... . . . .  5,00-00 
Fire cotrol, posting & 
$,5,000.00 
 
 

					
				
				
Wissonsin has some five mtillion acres of potential grouse 
rane whi    is now prodneing only a negligible grouse crop, princi- 
pally by reason of lack of managment. 
Much of this area lies in the central counties on marginal 
agrieultural soils and in the northern countes on forest soils* 
,ke production of gse crops presents an opportunity for 
the private owner to real. cash reve      from those lans and for 
the public ovaer to reals either *ash r~ev= or valuable p.mblie 
service In furnishing recreation. 
T   gathering of technical facts on whtch a syst m of gVrse 
magement night be baso was begu by the State in 1929 and has now 
progressed to the point where there are enough fests to .ttstif 
actual tests or demonstrations. 
The nature of the prop.sed demonstration is Indicated by 
7raWkin 8Saklt' s reort on #Gmusz A Possible Cash Crop for Wash- 
burn CJounty.* 
I& tots ar doslgne     to find aati 
(1) To what  emt am    the          of grouse be increased 
through mai~met? 
(2) At what st a     by what  ans? 
(3) That proportion of the resulting population can be 
safely killed without dereasing twur* crops? 
(4~) What percentage of lean. years =mot b# oipeted by, 
reason of the cycle? 
Utilizing the existing facilities for coperation, the probable 
cost of a dmostration     u     be about $5,000 per year for a period of

at least t   e and prefrably five to ten years. 
 
 

					
				
				
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 
WASHINGTON, D. C,.t 
ADDRESS REPLY TO               "AHNTN   . C. 
CHIEF. BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 
AND REFER TO 
FH-B                                             Iuly 17, 1931. 
Prairie Chicken 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
404 University Ave. National Bank Bldg., 
Madison, Wiuconsin. 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
Wallace B. Grange has asked that a copy of his 
report on the Wisconsin prairie chicken investigation 
be sent to you. We take pleasure in inclosing it. 
Sincerely, 
Incl. 0-37798.                     Acting Chief. 
VAQU 
too '~a~~ 
tkA.At 
 
 

					
				
				
Report on the Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Investigation 
.The work of the Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Investigation has 
been carried on, since Dr. Gross completed his Progress Report, by 
Lr. Franklin 5. C. Schmidt, who acted as Dr. Qross's assistant in 
1930. The Wisconsin Conservation Commission has made plans for 
continuing the Investigation even in spite of severe financial 
handicaps imposed by the last legislature in curtailing expenditures 
for research work. The Commission should be congratulated on its 
attitude toward this work. 
I spent several days with Lr. Schmidt in the field at Babcock, 
Wisconsin, in Wood County, where he headquartered last winter and 
spring. Aldo Leopold and John Ball spent one day at Babcock during 
the same period. I also had an opportunity to talk with William F. 
Grimmer, Supt. of Game, relating to the work. Mr. Kelleter, 
Director of Conservation, was unfortunately seriously ill fnd it was 
not possible to see him at the time of my visit. 
The following will summarize some of the outstanding features 
of the work and some of my impressions. 
Upset Sex Ratio in Sharp-tailed Grouse. !fIhile thoroughly conclusive 
evidence is not claimed by Schmidt, and while there are several 
possible interpretations of the existing evidence which might lead 
to other conclusions, the banding work to date would seem to indicate 
an upset sex ratio. Something in the neighborhood of one hundred 
Sharp-tailed Grouse were banded by Schraidt in the late winter and 
spring. Banding was done at winter feeding stations and to a very 
limited extent on or near crowing grounds. As I recall, a ratio of 
about three cocks to every hen was indicated for the banded birds. 
If this preliminary *     indication is verified on a large scale, a 
serious condition exists. 
Other explanations are conceivable, however, and are being 
kept in mind by Schmidt. There have been frequent statements by 
sportsmen and others that there is same sex segregation in Sharp- 
tails at various times of the year, and it is known, of course, that 
the crowing or dancing grounds almost invariably show a high percent- 
age of males. It is possible that sex segregation begins in mid- 
winter or even before, or that it exists through a major portion of 
the year. Schmidt's observations of crowing grouse in December and 
Tanuary might be interpreted to lend weight to this possibility, and 
migft explain the high proportion of cock birds secured at winter 
feeding stations. 
It is possible also that something in the trapping technique 
is cock-selective. Game farm trapping operations not infrequently 
give catches of birds mostly of one sex. Whether or not this is a 
probability with Sharp-tailed Grouse is unknown. 
 
 

					
				
				
On the other hand, if further work indicates an abnormal surplus 
of cock birds, the explanation may involve some sex-selective disease. 
For instance, in game farming, it is not uncommon for small producers, 
especially back-yard amateurs, to end the season with as many as 75% 
cock Ring Neck Pheasants following the ravages of coccidiosis and 
possibly other diseases. 
At the present time the situation shows that a lead of possibly 
very great significance has been found. The whole subject of the 
courting habits of Sharp-tailed Grouse, the significance and mechanism 
of the crowing phendmena in its relation to mating, the problems of 
covey fbrmation, composition, and the mechanism of breaking up, of the 
winter aggegations are all involved and Schmidt has plans for fol- 
lowing out the life history work along lines which will permit the 
drawing of final conclusions. It was particularly encouraging to me 
to note Schmidt's caution in interpreting his results and to note his 
innate disposition to examine his field observations scientifically. 
Nest Studies. In the course of the last two years considerable 
publicity of the nest-finding work has been given in the Babcock 
vicinity and this, combined with intensive field work on the part of 
Schmidt and with assistance from Mr. Irv Van Wormer has resulted in 
securing something over 20 nests (including both Sharp-tails and 
Prairie Chickens) this year up to the time of my visit. Routine 
observations on most of these nests are being carried on. Schmidt is 
obtaining some very good information on the effect of the great fires 
of last fall in determining nest sites. 
Popagation Experiments. Eggs from several nests of both Pinnated 
and Sharp-tailed Grouse have been transported to the Wisconsin State 
Game Farm for experimental work. My latest information was to the 
effect that one or more broods of grouse were alive and thrifty at 
the age of two weeks. 
Winter Feeding. Schmidt carried on winter feeding activities in the 
Babcock vicinity last winter, particularly with Sharp-tailed Grouse, 
using large brush shelters which protected wooden food hoppers from 
the wind and snow. Sheaf buckwheat was used in conjunction with 
hoppers at some stations. Schmidt found that Pinnated Grouse did not 
come to hoppers but he states there was an abundance of ragweed in 
many sections so that there may have been no particular pressure 
exerted on the Pinat4     drive them to hoppers. It is his observa- 
tion that Sharp-tailed Grouse do not eat ragweed. 
Food Habits Studies are being continued by the taking of a few speci- 
mens regularly. I suggested that, in my opinion, a much larger number 
of specimens for this purpose would be justified, especially in the 
seasons of the year which are now poorly represented. 
General Life History Studies are being carried on for both Pinmated 
and Sharp-tailed Grouse. Information on several aspects of life 
history problems is being accumulated. 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
Impressions of the Investigation. Schmidt has accomplished a very 
creditable amount of work, very largely on his own resources and 
without aid, and which shows initiative, decided field ability, and a 
definite inclination toward the management phases of the work. 
I feel that a great deal more could be accomplished, however, if 
the Investigation were tied up with a definite land management experi- 
mental Prairie Chicken increase project. Sehmidt and I have talked this 
over at length and are in close agreement concerning the desirability 
of actual Prairie Chicken management and as to methods which might 
profitably be followed out should such a project be consummated. 
Aldo Leopold, William F. Grimmer, and 5ohn Ball are also enthusiastic 
about such a management undertaking. The stage would seem to be set 
for the inauguration of an experimental management venture provided 
smeone takes the initiative in drawing up plans and in presenting 
these to the Wisconsin conservation public. 
As I see it, the following minimum requirements are necessary 
for the proper execution of an experimental Prairie Chicken Management 
Project: 
(1) From 2000 to 10,000 acres of land subject to control 
of the project for a minimum of three, and preferably 
five or ten years. 
(2) A working plan for the operation of such area, laid out 
on the basis of the topography, soils, location, and 
general characteristics of the area selected, and 
incorporating operating plans designed to increase or 
improve feed and cover, inaugurate fire control, main- 
tain the country in diversified condition, and otherwise 
conduct the area for the welfare of Prairie Chickens, 
Sharp-tailed Grouse and other game species. A detailed 
plan should accompany inauguration of the project, 
with adequate provision made for changes in plans in 
accordance with new information developed by the research 
end of the work. 
(3)   an-power for the execution of the management and 
research work. 
(4)   ~1500.00 to $5000.00 annually for actual operations on 
the land area selected. (This in addition to salary and 
field-expenses of the investigator or administrative 
officer). 
In respect to the above requirements, I believe that a satisfac- 
tory area of frcm 2000 to 10,000 acres can be furnished either by the 
State or by one of the Central Wisconsin counties or by private 
individuals. I think the land is to be had if proper requests are made. 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
The workilg plan for an experimental management area should be 
drawn up by technical men, by and with such advice as they might find 
desirable from specialists on soils, drainage, forestry, : mrsh cropping

practices, etc. 
pan power for the execution of the work would not need to be large 
or necessarily paid directly. Franklin Schmidt answers all the require- 
ments for the resident investigator-manager, with the per diem hire of 
necessary labor from local sources. Technical assistance in the 
execution of the work can be obtained free. 
The necessary finances, can, in my opinion, be raised in Wisconsin 
from private sources. Aldo Leopold made preliminary approaches along 
this line a year ago with enough encouragement to warrant further activity.

I would suggest the following concrete steps which might be under- 
taken in pursuing the proposed project. 
(1) Formation of a Committee having an executive head and 
whose membership should include the Investigator, Franklin 
Schmidt; the Superintendent of Game, WilliamF. I ,immer; 
The Game Survey, Aldo Leopold; the du Pont field conserva- 
tion promotion man, John Ball, and the Biological Survey, 
represented by myself. This Committee to determine on 
ways and means and courses of action and to constitute an 
administrative body. 
(2) The Committee to seek the following assurances from 
interested agencies: 
a. Conservation Commission assurance of continued 
assignment of Schmidt to the project. 
b. Biological Survey assurance of advisory services. 
c. State Izaak Walton League   appointment of a 
comittee by the President for the purpose of 
stiimlating interest and raising operating funds 
frmu private sources. 
(3) The Committee then to approach the necessary agencies, 
whether the State Land Ca nission, the various counties, 
private individuals or others, by means determined upon 
by it, in respect to securing the desired land area. 
(4) Preparation of the working plan for the area secured and 
execution of the plan in accordance with finances raised 
by the Izask Walton League Committee. 
The above course of action is suggested tentatively and should be 
I   mended as may be found necessary. I would suggest that a meeting be 
held in !&dison sometime in September, 1931, at which time the whole

matter ight be discussed in detail. I should like to go to L1dison 
for this meeting and to assist in every possible way in getting the 
proposed management project under way. 
Tuly 10, 1931                               Signed: allace B. Grange 
 
 

					
				
				
Wisconsin Prairie Chicken Investigation 
franklin J. Schmidt 
SMMARY 07 
7.3D1* INVESTIGATIONS 1930-31 
Sixty-two feed patches were planted in 1930. 
Buckwheat             49 patches 
Corn                   8 patches 
Wheat and oats         1 patch 
Corn and millet       1 patch 
Buckwheat, corn, 
and millet          1 patch 
Buckwheat, millet 
and sorghum         1 patch 
Sorghum               1 patch 
U          in 23 counties 
cost $S06. Cost Rw patch $13. 
Both sharp-tailed grouse and prairie chickens fed in the 
small grain patches until December 1. Sharp-tails fed in the patches 
every day, but prairie chickens only once or twice a week. 
In the northern counties deer ate as much of the snall grain 
as the birds. 
In Tila, Oneida, Portage, Adams, Wushara, Wood, Juneau, 
and Jackson counties where buckwheat patches were examined, it was found

that sharp-tailed grouse fed on buckwheat in October and deserted the 
patches in November, while prairie chickens fed only occasionally in 
November and December. The sharp-tailed grouse cleaned up all of the 
buckwheat before snowfall. 
 
 

					
				
				
-2- 
Sharptaile desert the buckwheat patches for two reasons: 
1. The buckwheat is all eaten* 
2. It is covered with snow. 
Prairie chickens did not eat all of the grain in the buckwheat 
patches. They deserted the food patches in Portage and Adams counties 
during January where other food was available. 
All flocks of prairie chickens did not act the same. In Adams 
County one flock ate from a hopper. line other flocks refused to eat 
from hoppers, and it was decided not to use hoppers for prairie chickens

in 1932, unless for experiments. In portage county a buckwheat patch was

located next to a field of shocked corn* Only six out of a flock of 250 
ate buckwheat. The entire flock migrated in February in search of another

cornfield. In Waushara county a path of standing corn with good corn 
was visited only occasionally during the winter by a small flock. In Adams

county a flock fed on shocks instead of on standing corn in the same field.

The only feeding station used regularly by prairie chickens 
was the tepee shock station at BUbcock, Wood county. It was decided that

tepee shocks would be used for feeding prairie chickens in 1931-32. The 
tepee shock has several advantages. 
1. The cob corn is tied on in strings on the shock where it 
is above the snow. 
2. Prairie chickens would rather climb up on a shock than go 
under it. 
3. The tepee shock can be made hollow and a hopper placed under 
it for quail* 
 
 

					
				
				
-3- 
4. The supply of corn can be renewed, while in an ordinary 
shock the corn available is soon eaten. 
5. Power tepees shocks are needed. A field of 160 ordinary 
corn shocks was deserted on January 1 because the corn on the outside 
of the shocks was all eaten. Pour tepee shocks fed a flock of the same 
size and more corn was eaten in March than in January or February, as 
there was snow in March from the first to the twenty-first. 
6. Tepee shocks can be placed in cornfields, clover, fields, 
grain fields, or fields of ragweed in which prairie chickens are feeding.

7. Even if the stalks are short, the tepee shock can be made 
six or seven feet high. 
The hopper with backwheat was used for feeding sharp-tailed 
grouse. Buckwheat patcheswero deserted in November except where 
hoppers were set up. One pound of grain per bird was eaten per month. 
Cob corn can be fed on the ground near the hopper or under the lean-to. 
In 1928-29 buckwheat was stacked at the food patches and the straw 
scattered once or twice a week. In January and Pebruary the sharp-tails 
deserted the stations, probably due to the irregular supply of foods In 
1930-31 the hoppers were visited every day, and the number of birds did 
not decrease and at three stations the number increased during January 
and Debruar7. Sharp-tails learn to eat buaked cob corn and at least one 
flock which ate cob corn in 1930-31 was feeding on standingcorn in the 
fall of 1931. Bundles of buckwheat spread out around hoppers are fed on 
by sharp-tails and the best combination is probably a buckwheat food 
Note: Per preferred, staple, and emergency foods of grouse, see Aldo 
Leopold's gam . me. 
 
 

					
				
				
-4. 
patch with half standing and half shocked, and one or two hoppers 
to prevent the birds from deserting the station when the person looking 
after the station is slow about getting around. 
Locations for hoppers are as follows: 
1. In buckwheat fields 
2. In standing corn where sharp-tails are feeding 
3. Where sharp-tails feed reguarly on aspen or white birch 
)*On damce grounds. 
Sharp-tailed Grouse Bandin 
Banding was begun February 27 and continued to March 21. 
Wire traps cat the heads of the grouse and tennis net was sabstituted 
and found satisfactory. Sharptails mast be trained to eat cob corn. 
They are then easily trapped in funnel traps. One hundred and thirty 
sharp-tails mre banded. One prairie chicken was caught on a nest 
and banded. 
Following is a list of banding stations, number of birds 
banded, and number shot October 1-4. 1931. 
No.Females No.Males 
station Not              No. Maes     No. Females    shot        shot 
1  Dance ground             21             2           1           1 
2 Feeding station            4             2           0           0 
Feeding station            1              0           0           2 
Feeding station             13             3           0           1 
T                            3             0           0           0 
S    '        S             20            12           2           6 
9    6                      11            10           0           1 
10  Dane* ground              2             0           0           1 
11    m     a                 1             0           0           0 
12  Feeding station           3             0           0           2 
13    a        x              3             2           0           0 
Stations 1 to 7 - Area burned over Sept. 16 - oct. 1, 1930. 
Stations S to 13 - Area not burned until April, 1931. 
 
 

					
				
				
-5- 
It is expected that more returns will be obtained by trapping 
in 1931-32 than were reported by hunters* 
Food Study 
Fifty crops and gizzards were obtained in the fall, winter and 
spring of 1930-31. 
About 120 crops and gizzards were obtained in October, 1931, 
during open season. Viscera of 60 specimens were preserved to determine 
number of parasites per bird to compare with figures for 1930. 
Sex Coiunt 
The birds examined during open season consisted of 69 males 
and 64 females. 
For sex of banded birds, see banding figures. 
In 1931, 38 prairie chickens and sharp-tailed grouse nests 
were located. Piotixes were taken of all nesting sites and the number 
of eggs and the number of hatchings were recorded. 
Prodators 
One hundred forty-five stomachs of predators from Fish Creek, 
Babcock, and Moon Lake were secured for the Biological Survey. 
,Cor St-g_ 
Eighty-four species of plants were collected in Washburn 
County on soils belonging to the Plainfield group to compare to the 
plants on similar soil in central Wisconsin. 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS 
MATT. PATTERSON 
HASKELL NOYES, MILWAUKEE                                                
         DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
ACTING CHAIRMAN                                                         
    C.L.HARRNTON 
L. M. HOBBINS, MADISON    TUTE STATE           OF    W   ISCONSIN       
        S.  ORR TNPARKS 
RALPH M. IMMELL, MADISON                                                
       B. 0. WEBSTER 
R. . GOODMAN. MARINETTE    CO     S  R    A  INSUPT. OF FISHERIES 
CONSERVATION COMMISSION                             H. W. MAC KENZIE 
E. M. DAHLBERG, LADYSMITH                                               
         CHIEF WARDEN 
SECRETARY 
PAUL D. KELLETER                        WM. F. GRIMMER 
SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                     F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                ANO PULICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN, RESEARCH BUREAU 
-                                       -      =";,- vi 
T. lz.         -\                                     w_ 
Dx   lee 
T   1 IN.      -                                _ 
1597r'1 
Ska~rf-  t           idc  Iro,.,,Se         tdz,,.,,.   -e   ,, 
Isvtq5                                                       I z 
-I-, 7-                                   -     -      -     - Bm 1~ -ra0(

No taxes are levied aganst the people of Wiosonsin for fish, Jame, or state
parks 
 
 

					
				
				
DIAGRAM 
OF 
Township No.                                 Range No. 
..................... ....... ................ .............. .. ...................
. .................... 
... .. ..   -  -   -- - - . .  ...  ....   . .   . . . . .  . . .      .
. . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .  I      f 3 
t0 
.........      .. ..... ..  ......  . ....... .....  ......  ......... .................
.. . . . .....  - ....   . , o   - 
..........                                    .. .... .. ..   .... .   ...........
 .. .  ..... 
,                  Ii b7/ 
................ ........ ..                           ..........       
      ....    ....  ............ . ........... 
..                                                                      
   .   .        .   ..... . .. 
......  .. .... ............  ....... . .....  i . .... ......  ..........
 - . ... ...... ...... .  .  .....................  ... 
- -------------------------.--                                          
                             4 
4~5_ o-                                                                 
                 as__ 
S J   "               ..   .. ......... ......                     
        ............... .... ..... 
d' K'S hol by H. C. Miller Co, Milwaukee. 
 
 

					
				
				
SumRested Outline for the Proposed Prairie Chicken Investigation. 
There are tw maih. phitses of the problem: 
1. The cycle study. This involves several other 
species, (ruffed grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, 
snowshoe hares, etc.), and should be pursued as 
a unit. 
2. The Prairie chicken management technique. This is 
a problem primarily of land use, and involves certain 
other species and certain other operations in progress 
simultaneously on the available lands.(Forestry, 
drainage, agriculture; deer, bear, beaver, ducks, etc.). 
The development of adequate management technique 
will require the filling-in of certain blank spaces 
in our life history knowledge of prairie chickens, 
some life history stidy of other species, and much 
experimentation in cultural practices. 
My suggestions for conducting these twm main phases of the 
work follow. 
The Cycle Study. 
It is of the utmost nportance to follow accurately the 
course of the down trend, Learning not only the exact time of 
decimation for the sever. localities of the state, but so far 
as may be also the mechanism and behavior of the populations as 
decrease continues to its lowest level. To do this job adequately 
for Wisconsin is the first step in the whole investigation. The 
main methods of charting the decline shape up as follows. 
1. An organization of gnme observers, reporting 
frequently for several localities within each 
county. The state already has a game observer 
system with reports available from many reliable 
sources, Including the conservation wardens. If 
access to these reports can be had, they will form 
a good basis for preliminary mrk. The observer 
system may be amplified as requirements demand, 
but it Aould be well, insofar as possible, to 
tie in with the existing system to the end that 
better technical data on abundance may become 
permanently available to the Wisconsin Conservation 
Commission. Since Bill Grimmer is already swamped 
 
 

					
				
				
with work, and I believe would welcome some assistance, 
I would explore the possibility of taking over the 
correspondence with and supervision of the game obserters 
of the state for the duration of the decline, provided 
this met with his approval. Eactly the type of information 
wanted could thus be secured without duplication of 
correspondence; his burden would be lightened temporarily, 
and I should hope to build up the observer system to 
function even better than it now does. 
If the above arrangement proves inadvisable, it is 
possible, of course, to build up a temporary cycle 
observer organization, but with more work, duplication 
and expen se. 
Field 
2. /Investigation of decimation reports which appear to 
have opportunities for special findings. For example, 
if the game observers in Tilas County report that 
grouse are dying, with some dead birds in evidence, 
it would be well worth while to devote actual field 
time to recovering specimens, checking on the field 
phases of the decline, (predator pressure, food, 
parasites, or any possible accompanying phenomena 
which could help explain the decrease mechanism). 
3. Sample prospecting. An attempt to make definite 
measurements of grouse and rabbit populations in 
areas which are judged to be: (a) Pre-peak, 
(b) Peak, (c) Post-peak, and (d) Bottom. Admittedly 
difficult, this sampling challenges our knowledge at 
a fundamental point. 
4. Health sampling. An attempt, by regularly taking 
a few specimens to be forwarded to Dr. Green, to 
study the health of individuals taken at random 
from populations believed to be pre-peak, peak, 
post-peak and bottom. It is necessary first to 
determine how much material Dr. Green wants, after 
which the collection of specimens taken systematically 
from definite localities is routine.   We might take 
I grouse a month from Remington Township, Wood County, 
I a month from Thornapple Township, Rusk County, 1 
from Liberty Grove Township, Door County, etc., checking 
Dr. Green's results against the reports and field 
observations obtainable. 
All in all, the cycle study demands a high degree of 
organization; a systematic plan for obtaining very definite 
types of information; checking of field observations and reports 
with competent laboratory examinations; and an effort to eliminate 
doubtful, inconclusive and unreliable evidence. 
 
 

					
				
				
Among questions which need to be answered by this type of 
work are: 
1. How sudden is the decline? 
2. What species first? 
3. Is the species sequence constant? 
4. How far apart are the first affected and last affected species, 
in time? 
5. What percentage of the population is wiped out? 
6. Do they die outright, fall prey to predators due to weakened 
condition, (like quail in blizzards), fail to breed, fall to 
mature, succumb to c'imatic catastrophes, or die in some 
other way? 
7. Is the season of decline the same for all species? 
8. What is the population extreme, if any, at high and low points? 
9. Are there any clue phenomena which can serve as measuring 
rods to indicate the peak, or the decline, in advance? 
10.  Is the die-off mechanism different in regions where one or 
more associated cyclic species is absent? 
That is, Do prairie chickens in Dane County, where 
snowshoe rabbits, and in many parts ruffed 
grouse, as well as sharp-tails, are absent 
behave the same as Washburn County, where 
all species occur together. 
11. Is the die-off mechanism different as between regions of 
unusual high population level and those of relatively low 
population level, measured at the high? 
12, Does Door County, an isolated, foggy, humid territory, 
behave the same as contiguous counties in the sunnier, 
dryer, northwestern counties? 
12. VWhat becomes of predator populations following the 
decline? 
14. Is there any one type of covert which increase resistence 
to the die-offV- say a type of covert which is unfavorable 
to ticks, or which has some compensatory advantage to 
off-set the decinating agent. 
15. Is there any one soil type which evidences increased or 
decreased susceptibility of its grouse population? 
16. Does any stabilizing operation suggest itself at anr 
point in the study? 
ETC. 
 
 

					
				
				
Managgment Technique 
It is 04 this activity, the attempted management of a cyclic 
species, which offers the greatest opportunity for accomplishent. 
We may understand, and must understand eventiually, the mechanism 
of decrease, but if we fall to discover anything which we can 
trnnslate into productive management, we shall miss our goal. 
We know, however, that: 
typical 
1. We can increase the carrying capacity of/grouse 
lands, during abundance periods. 
2. We can restore some vacant lands to the production 
of prairie chickens. 
3. We can increase the percentage of surplus, that is 
the "margin of profit", or kill. 
Whether it is possible to accelerate the pick-up, following 
the low of the cycle, retard the decline, following the peak, 
or maintain a relatively higher population level all across the 
bottom, we do not know. We can tell only be trying it out on 
the land. 
Some of the definite management operation possibilities 
can be outlined, not to present an exhaustive list, but to 
indicate the type of thing which must be tried out in any 
comprehensive inve stigation. 
I Fod. 
Food is comonly a factor of extreme importance in determining 
the maximum stand of game. Anything which will Increase food should 
be tried. Among such things are: 
1. Food secured by "natural methods". 
a. By disking. (ragweed, etc.) 
b. By fire. (wild buckwheats, etc.) 
c. By seeding to self-perpetiuating crop. (such 
as clover). 
2. Food secured by "artificial methods". 
a. Planting corn, buckwheat, rye, etc. 
b. Re-planting with choke-berry, choke cherry, 
acorn-bearing oaks of twarf type (possibly 
some from Oklahoma, etc.), sedges or other 
important native foods absent from certain 
sul table regions. 
c. Winter feeding by bringing in grain from 
outside the area. 
 
 

					
				
				
IT _Covez. 
Much Wisconsin prairie chi cken rang 1 s out of balatnce as 
regards the extent and types of cover. It is essentlal to detern~ne 
the most favorable cover combinations, so theft these may be -UaplIcated

elsewhere, and poorer         -)binat~wn made over. The import ,x e of a

proper distribution of b oming    .md , nesting -over, roost  cover, 
fee d.ng areaj, etc, must be e-a t; d. 
]Exatl!e 1. W ood onntZ, oi~consL- , Le-- '-aspen t 'pe, meni 
irhabited by sharp-taile.,but with so!e pi  nttes, especitaly during. 
the roimer period. 
There are huge blocks of peat-Iand which are extreniely wet 
during rainy springs, v4th nesting cover lmltnd very lIr l; to 
drninn   41t 1' bank s. It mry be a half mile, or several miles 
between ditch banks. Would sjrd mounds, or island s, created out 
in the wet peat arean increase the breeding population of grouse? 
Would it favorably influence nest 6urvival? WXould fairly large 
smad is1nda, (possibly crested from the  ggding- out of waterfowl 
ponds), being sliftly elevated, sandy, warmer and dryer, increase 
the chances of maturing seed of feed crops ordinarily damaged by 
frost on the typical peat lands? WVould a satisfactory response 
of native seed plants, (dewberry, blackberry, pin-cherry, sedges, 
wild buck:tieats) be obtained by the chatng of sil type involved 
in this digging up of the sub-soil? Would it be possible to so 
concentrate nesting on these mounds as to facilitate a more 
careful surveillance of them against natural enemies? Would 
this Interspersion of new soil types, bj constructing mounds, 
off-set the barren-ness of the solid aspen type, particulprly 
as regards pinnites? 
Example IT. Dodge County, Wisconsin, Crass-sedge marsh type, 
as typified by much of Horicon marsh in ites present state. Would 
the introduction of the choke-berry, a fruit-bearing swampland 
shrub, increase the food, cover and general value of otherwise 
deficient territory? Would the introduction of white cedar 
uwamp thickets in these areas be feasible, and if so, valuable 
from a winter and refuge standpoint? 
Exas)rle III. Marinette County, Wisconsin. WNould the oak 
barrens be more attractive U  the two species of prairie grouse 
by systematic patchy burning of the kind practised 6n the 
British grouse moors? Would the introduction of more prolific 
acorn-bearing species of oaks, say from northw'stern Oklahoma, 
be of any advantage?  'hat happens when the tpa rack swaunp type 
of sharp-tail roosting cover is destroyed by fire?  Vould plowed 
clearings- increase the number of crowing grounds? If so, would 
this increase carrying capacity of the land? 
 
 

					
				
				
III ~Corination With Oth!r Land Uses. 
Is it possible to manage larce blocks of "worthless V is onsin 
land, such as those in Centrpl Wisconsin, for          eharp-tai.ed 
and ruffed grouse, ducks, geese, jacksnipe, deer, beavers, muskrats 
and forests, with enough success to permit both private and puiblic 
holdings for these purposes without fintmcial loss? 
If so, what should the forest plqnting policy be? VhaRt species, 
in what distribution, and in what combination with other land 
uses? For instance, can we plant forewts which will provide 
good winter refuCe and feed for deer? Vhat soil types are best 
adapted for flooding?    h.t combination of uses will best serve 
the purpose of returning the land to tax income status?   To what 
extent should the state and the counties go in assisting this 
restoration process? 
Etc. 
 
 

				
      
      
				
				
24 
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r 
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~ j~JLeojwld Low 
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C,                                         Z 
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?ee4 ,4   looyte. iciTrteIs4          c(/cc 
 
 

					
				
				
?Ole 
?w5 e-eDe&/1fe               j o ,nt t5 
7. 2iWeed '4e-./,7)3t/ &JoitP ei-c/ P  Ye 
'be~7ed TIC rn MAu 0, (pA~r, 
4-               ws 
3,j 
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ar/C34314,   761cl^                   r 
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/  144                              ~uIzT-4( 
L/-c&QA WIT*-~w                 e   3            C~(5 
op                   Al        5ee        s(3 
C723                          a Mrs  60(/A/d.aC/La 
"             /'?Yp  C 
 
 

					
				
				
Xi7e/ I2.#F-l      ' r--                t;, 
e7 htrqndf lilt e e16 & ~ oe- 7 e, ekp e('. 
/0 
3.- 
ealq Yz riiIe ea 5 of 7)ero case, /A1 4-j!AU -p, Aoes5 
ticre &trhedlk  ea47' lo ~7in  ei/7t-S. /ej7ev  c 
onr-td  Sui   1%5eatleii00".4u        a       () 
4          ./P4                         A 
 
 

					
				
				
5fxcd(ou*aw e~ I~h 7Xc(s j7reSellt AlC?/(rrdr, Teel/ 
w a n  s 'n, 0        &),So; 
(atov~el A tte Wlie) C\S CO'\1r     ilc Ik0    L) 
-I _ 
 
 

					
				
				
Wle w~                 r 
C, let               /A 4lAt M(? 
/                      r 
W&4 CX;clee                             (S)sr   '  / 
4   -  /4       0/ ' klt 
( s)) 
-77t 
paI 
3~ 
 
 

					
				
				
'Pak  P 7    ft 
n                                 c 
pe,     A  Lke   Cke v-iS  / :a3 
li, s  4/o 
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3, os 1Pt  It vi //l /e T V c/ I e I LAI 
It #t /7 
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3.    "      o Lv' AVLS* A4o -. 
~~32, 
3    ,.  I.3 
5,        #t " 53 
/lo 
?     wt'  If .   .   4 
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b      d-  <  I                  (S)t -11 
3      ~42*,10 
/71  .1          5 
'Pic /?)13 
u1cs                    "Do JT~g jjeI IleSeai 
&j~f /oe A 
t,    wdTe 60k7 dr 
o*jr   6lC(erals    7i 
r~ol ifVc P.l iAej/v5   rA~plilCie ij 
 
 

					
				
				
1A              K PC' kr'q  CAJW  54 
of   1 it'  I   &/,P-n 5, / 
~~~N~~~~~A~  ec e~v5  c f  J r~~~ 
c-/                   vo 
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/i 
aL~~      //f5i15 Ccceesc 
~-%-~- Qfm * 
/~c, e7~  ,- o.9 -  I\ d''s  62   eo~ dVc ^Ale 
Afy S-/6 6Th  C9~t. (w~s  ee 
 
 

					
				
				
,~~('9(l co~~ 
CLCLA( bfrc e~    45aj   0b I35Q 
--L (t.$ I?) 
I-  -    W~ 
m ~eCA 
6            c~~ 
Set  k6q/3/cc A~1             49(,L 
t(9) 
($7?) 
Ae -           t- 13..c  cx k) 7e 16  4a /4~/eJ  Ks(7V 
 
 

					
				
				
wA 
oil v s   e7e '0c7m-e,, neq r   nIf,( 
.9c,- 
/eC ,,A\oY~VS  Jcl.s    40C )( i 
S"04,~  /T1w3.)./4//T ~A4FIe       H 
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r/ e~oT e  aUtt  . h0G    1t     - 
 
 

					
				
				
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7~Lon-~1,L~We secC1  TiO 
so/W 
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'G /t 
/~~t                               To3,  wi G~ 
wo        T 
44)T             7d Al-  P/                    1 V  e  t 
/ioL$3?)          7-                                 oo c La 
 
 

					
				
				
STATE OF WISCONSIN 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
MADISON 
October 30, 1934 
Jr. F. J. W. Schmidt 
New Soils Bldg. 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Re: Information 
Dear Frank: 
Will you please look up your records as to the 
number of birds and eggs you have taken out of Wood 
county in 1933 and 1934 and advise me over the 
telephone. 
If possible, I would also like the figures on 
1931 and 1932. 
FORTHE DIRECTOR 
W. F. Grin e 
Sup't, Gam   ivision 
WFG: GMC 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL OOMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION. MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
                MATT. PATTERSON 
DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
W    OLLIAM  U  A             TH         SE MAU , CHAIIRMANS            
            N        C. L. HARRINGTON 
FOND I DU LAC TEE.pCHAIRMANOF                              W   ISCONSIOFSUPT.
OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
0. C1 LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                     B. 0. WEBSTER 
A. ;. ICKS. GREEN SAY              O                          COMMISSION
                        SUPT. OF FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE         C                            C         
                     H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS, MADISON                                                  
                        CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                      PAUL D. KELLETER         
                     WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSM ITH                                                              
                    SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRE3TOR                            F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
/       suPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                     AND PULICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN, RESEARCH BUREAU 
o-co";                           a0"                    a 
~~~- MAA., i L 
 
 

					
				
				
3 3             73 /.,, 
C1tz 
 
 

					
				
				
DIAGRAM 
OF 
Township No.                      Range Nof I W 
i~1        -  -   ----   -   -  I.' 
. . .. L ..... ..... ............ . .. .. ... ...  . .  ................................
. ....... ..... 
.... . .......-...-.-... ..... ...... .... ............. .---- .------............
.  .-----   ------- - -  . -..- --. .  .....  ...   .......... 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .. . . . .... . .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . .
  . .... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . 
-'                                                         -    ; - 
F M   A.....       ............                     .  .... .  M ill r .
 ....e  ...... . 
......        ...  ........ .         .......... ...  ...........: 
.  .. . .. .  ...  . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . .. .   ...  .....
...... 
FORMA.  "  )x   I 0                     oldby H C.Millr C., Mlwakee

 
 

					
				
				
				
				
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN- 
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
MADISON 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 
IZ 
4>                             to  lz.. 
SOva"  6".v 
<; L  >+ I  L 
;; + 
#',c, 
o t4 
c "1"k s k. 
 
 

					
				
				
More chickens in saer than in 
wliter. Winter pop lation mostly 
cqoks. Winter sex count at five 
stations shows 121 cocks to 16 
henso 
0 
w  ! 
W         More chickens in winter than 
in smmer. Winter population 
consists of local breeders 
plus migrant hens. Winter sex 
count at three stations shows 
49 cocks to 272 hens.0 
0W 
w 
200 I qS5 
 
 

					
				
				
A   (p77/ 
 
 

					
				
				
f* 3.  ,!4 (- 
 
 

					
				
				
/4  'x~..01A'L, 
I?  f7$i~2IY 
(Fl 
 
 

					
				
				
3if 
LocL 
A4 -e 
 
 

					
				
				
aL 
IP3/ 
 
 

					
				
				
M~ay 16, 1932A 
~To- M     c.3Qmidt 
..In a joint meeting with Chairman Noyes and 
Dr. Jones lat Wednesday eveninug in Mt1i.waiiae,,bothi 
have asked that you make a very complete report of 
yourlas1&t two, years' wokwith the departmnt.  This 
report must be in writing anid be in my hands not 
lae   then June 5. 
~The report sh iIJ.4 cover winter~ feeding, parasites, 
mi~tirs5 ensup. rtif'icia breeding-a 
rearing, predators, natural pfoaair- migrati i 
census reports -photoglwphy, ocyclC5- weterf~owl workC, and 
your work with~ deer, hare, rabbit, etc. It hould also A 
includie anythig else that I-hbave omitted here, and 
in addition I wish that you would give me a parqgraph 
on the practical results tat we can expect to accomplish 
from youar wok. 
In tireotIwudnot attempt to make it4 too             ~ 
detai$led, btI wol     maei      point to list abeolutel 
everything 9 tha  a  eo  mportance. 
I wihthti addition you~ would make a cleto 
of5Ar6          fyu     ietpcue         n    unte      vrt 
mea           h  sm     ie 
W  F . r  e 
 
 

					
				
				
				
				
3~~~J71-~t~z) 
4                 K 
7I 
 
 

					
				
				
,3          7 
2'-A  to, J    0??  '2 u 
,        "-  7 oy   3,4i- 
137 
9 -'q0r '0 r 
)Vg-9of7 53 % 7 O}, 
5-4 
 
 

					
				
				
7i-tn 
 
 

					
				
				
LA)~                   ~ -4rd a  0, 
ID 
J,)~ 
44 
iAC 
 
 

					
				
				
Al 
 
 

					
				
				
iti beivedo ties  imotnetattWPai 
ie   Cthck Inos iti  b  *oti.4  kv Lapeido 
yearo T is .5vr   wel  ea  temjr  el4 
&MAW11on  of  tt.cm5rmaohp r.  No tho tati at 
th M ~ n mt iui tudigpaii  hsk tad  opo 
vio  siudo  ofaeuaeso  h  e-mao  e 
-4,ldotiooftesget4std  nset2 
TboUnvesit  o  WsoainIsstdyig urnive 
quail.M.Ersm  h  a  hswr  npags a 
 
 

					
				
				
n . SAA  U29O  MOg 
The Pairi  0hae lav tigt  as bo=i  9 
with~ ~ ~       bye tlt~ 0,Goa o  wot4.lg haigu 
wImxtlis ben  -ftnA  wit  hi e a w"4, oi  90 
a mo  m~mtave In de his duin  t Preen 
-04  Inodrta  h  msiaincnb  =wo 
 
 

					
				
				
The otud should he" for Its ultimate Purpose us 
working out 9 recti"I M9WW of 90AU601 rckv, the ftotors 
zhudifal       Involved. In other wordst the inv"tigation ought to 
wark out praotioal applications of the footors, stiAlod. 
An exa;Wle of what measures might be de"Upod In 
the permwont winter foediAe statims now being usied ex- 
tenslv*ly In Wimmusin. These stationis tide the birds 
over a aritioal period. The" are mmy other ariti*al 
'o*riods in a gwm birWls life. In nmy of them it should 
$e possible to tbrow the balanoe In the birdta favor. It 
ban been often damonstrat" that a very mall ahangs In 
tbo enviroment produoos a marked ahunrte in the waber of 
birds. The quail Invostigation$ for oxwVlot eoutorod 
mah of its predator 4ontrol work on the Ocoper Hawk, a 
9-Wl"          bird known to be tarrifloally ftstructive. The Cooper

Havk was fbuxA to bo a serious faotor va0king against Us 
gluau          birds. On the other headt anakes dostroy*d a great may 
numil. Control of makes to difficult. Stuidy of March 
A iis show" thea to be a naturva eontrol agency feeding 
on nomy moll snake*. The natural applicatim of the** 
facts was to kill Cooper Hawks and to protoot Ma"h Haftso 
This Is what in xwmmt by getting fact& of praotioal applioa-, 
Uon In Inereaning birds# 
It Is pvabablr that =wW such facts can be found lay 
stu4yiw- Ue relation of fire, drainsZo. clam farmIM 
effect of such Wicultural praotioes as the use of MAW 
and crop rotatione U the 3*Uth It Vac pocalble to Us- 
*over a riant, Apanaso Clover, WhIah         *a food for 
ils whi0h grown wad sad whiah buixs Vup the nitrogen 
wxbaustod nollso Tba" my be *ome plent that would 
aacomplish the &me purpose in ftsomsta. 
Rovover, no prodiation "n be mad* as to what might 
develop. It is within the realm of p"xibility that a 
= atw might reveal a din0ourasing Siftatime in that 
t it would be Well to ftow the feets In order 
plan aberA for som suah bird as the ph*&*an*, 
The Investleation has done ramtkably well In devslop. 
R2W19          ins display awterial of we in wafting up Interest in the-

Prairie Woken SUAy. This in essontialo end It to ap- 
of           parent that tb* =e of this mterial is doing mob good. 
The van fins pbotogmphs taken In 1929 by Gross *an be 
mt 'to even greater use by gotting thm out sys*ematically 
to           1i mrs organintions. Th* p*sent plen of a short motion 
piature is also an *=allent Idea. 
 
 

					
				
				
ness.  wabo o   aqoets iwu1 be anxne for Para 
*is*!an dsaet goo star ats the 4wMnoa co 
prire hmko e studied  .intb1 grate doa inth 
fildor the awlu p*4asea of he u ar e tollowin 
ap~iflg proesa  uptda faigdie os- 
bilitles12 prntag .tlW usabl fots 
1*~~~~a          t2ntlaiv stud ofparecisknn 
t. de*1    on n os fdsroln 
Th ~ix    no fnxt nwihaoito 
 
 

					
				
				
6 
3. 4"Attiativu "Is on food habits.       wo kww V"y 
UtUo about prairle Ohlobw diots and profox4w- 
404* Stoddama ix the souih rovad that tho focA 
of quail varted Uaomndously ftom year to 
when Vwro mm     Opigm most yocW    Us Qqu       0 
Aw 
peat we at tbAw, mat use do - Xwio ohitkas 
w*o of Us oak rid                      i %bat tUro 
ps? It is 46Rim 
is an twwr4ant MAU= beVmm   and for"'try 
hm* ifiiidd-tba Control DlAi!*T-#VSi MMMS a 
mtat* ftroms ax4vao wbat Uo*s vdU som as gma 
rood proftoors " ft11 " timber produs"O 
Stoddard also tound ihat Womorre *wAm vwo 
puatim    foods for quall at      t NVAINN, SUAr 
"th p2mt=V" 
Vdh fto" *1mh mattw Vwm the 0^11 
h" an ab"Amts "PAO IAODMPLVAOWS xatwd 
food mu ly. A system Mo am Won Melted Out 
at p1mme foods whith watwo In t*A doriolext 
seamms, 1% is ontiroly possiblo that the" is a 
look ot sorlain prairie ohiokvu foods at tims 
ofter than ViMer. 
The relatsion of safth r1rom to P*Irio shiftm 
foods ou&k to be studied* It my b* that ths 
*Uooxmica of vmwatatiox In narmhos "A be favor- 
&UY inau"OeAd ;i Vory 4*16tly OMUOLUA bum- 
lng$ On trio OUMV hand, study Might ohm ftalk 
*iX burnim Is 4104510rOUB to VAtMM1 fOO& PIM'kS. 
(hw prom$ kawledip at prairio shlokon to" re- 
latimships is a3mcot An f*m w waetio*l or 
momagorwas angUe This is nat aw amAwds quwattant 
tut a Oloor out O"S of rutding ft*U mhuh am U- 
0000 %003A at use in butldlM up ow pealris ohiskm 
40 quotitativs SUA      of prodetwo. Xm1neftnt SM11 
Ara* Ustiftia MUW, Waking War Wilson, is 
na OA uptematio ftdios of         % horned owl 
rox a0" md so fwft Zi "XW ' 
ne poLuut ex- 
0     1; dowi. blvis and ;a"      r0=4 at mats, am 
moreftfly rooardln JUM aw=ts of daU *kM*d 
in the quail torv    ry, SLVAUr VoVk an an ovem 
la%"r "*U OUA% to bo maortak" In the Main 
pralyle Ohiskoft OWU=s# VbAt are ** aettol 
foots as U pmiri* obleken 404%M114A loy 
toxw , Owls 0 bafts  md s"r         j "IA* 
dostr"111oft at ;M48? No inNomli6t nems or 0OW- 
Uolling prodat"s Ow     bs worked "t 4      t on a 
*r omroftl24r Ux"d ftolw* =4; no 
Mwo VAITO"al owmam's ONO be found %Mm Vat 
*Grew  40SUOY kandrods of aralri* ohlolum OWN* 
Most eanowts are basod an 5T&UA Obsemumalf 
 
 

					
				
				
Ilk has bow abom In some per" of two OmAtry 
that erm work loom v"ary XU*h III" **ruin--QTO*r 
pred0or wwk* *ad that ato-WntifloaUm is 
*=mon. It is imperative Utat am* real ftets, 
based an qumsity of data,, be *"=,ad* 
in tM violent tUstuOlms of qrslrio 
214,0*1=dO Pamaitox am atse&wa PIW I% a* wt 
kftOW O"M 14bo reftwAts of field "torinary "lows, 
6AG     as anliod 10 Wis"Win ons, We do Imow 00 
=W poew"no" of perasitias and ovw disewo 
bm boo% reeor0ked from Wimwasix b1s4s, Mat 
Is Us minsawal solution of Vw P"'blax? 
VMY often UO.Point. to raimod that "a       It we 
*boa& d1swever Me disoik"s and parasites roopma- 
ible fw ftolosale qVidwil in up irie shlekaw 
gr tbor *AS*) VO Ow t 40"Siw-dUa alout twa. 
ou *am' t do*Uw a x1ok *11A bift*#- it is 
Ukoly. howover, that soMostion of birds usine 
%be "no toodbW or"*,# the *me dmt b*Vwt *w 
sams roce" owrorts, ***, allwa nudxm dovelop- 
mant or dio"40     it *him. It   6 $0 bt *hO OSAO, 
voys of disUlbutinz UO     UMx wer ame, Verritory 
by making *6U*i;iiT roodim, 4ustw' ana Vow;. 
Ing 6r*="   avallatle adght be a very       isleal 
wasms of O*xtxVl'O 00ruft disomms,        Parasites 
0" amroly bo oontrollet In th* f1*1 by 1weven- 
Utmt buis 11 to imossiblo to vc*m 
that wo is itot know cdsU* The solutim ="j7b* 
,preeoded by eta In"Miar of the exten't Wd In- 
or 4140as" = Par"It"O 
The    sm't lValrio ahloken lAv"llsOlm      Us boom a 
good strMin the ri$ht Alreationo To be of pmotioal 
Talmo, howmr# VA IMMOURation OU&'t to take aceftat ot 
the folliming Points, amne otho"s 
le The ftat fWtxg studles shou3A be oontinums 
inst4wd of InUM04MU 
Of as                 leasmah as Dro Gross ouzot be in Wisocasin 
awe th" a ftw Moafts at a t$w =4 Osavat 
sow to Wisoonsin atUr 1950, It Is "Matul 
that a good =a be Plased *a the $ob " "an as 
po"Ole to wwk wilh hft *at ge$ 1ho banoM 
bt his U*Inlm 1his wanor. Th* qwditUmsims 
Ibis Man a" a Pestle" fi*IA aqwrim" 
b               (a) 
:W   tbr for ",lostifle         *h to a P"blaft 
* e-howww inter"t i'spre"WV01601. so 
nay or my not bo, w1vis"Ity train"o Above a.U 
*IAO# tminimse ixeludodt he =at be a keen obwar- 
vor sad a i u-4 workwo He mb*vLLd bia wmilable 22 
==Us of fto year, I             to be passiblo to 
seowm suah a max for ;2=O**O a year plus alocas 
OIS00*00 ror flo" GMWR"so 
 
 

					
				
				
S. Th ftelUits ate Untit should be use 
40=03  s y.  wmstI 000  4t dob 
a  t  Q~iX  migo Itf Would pWbi the oli 
v.rie7l oatei~y noditt a0 othe   tetar 
OgAMS~nI& awt of bee inivb~ete t 
be ma4 than t te a w*u"ns" 
ofth mtvri b he  l sha be t U*pI 
()astlsl the pmlwes~t tWa~ 
Ithe at with thewr shoue bteeolsd ead 
 
 

					
				
				
(3) ld  =Aa tr  ra  dto*mm 
(4) siato  afe  eh  ef  h  ~e 
 
 

					
				
				
ol 
AY 
OCA-14--A- 
66 
A 7, 
44), 
A4  ,Y 
 
 

					
				
				
' 1                   \\ 
- ------- 
I'                      A 
 
 

				
      
      
				
				
New $.il$ Building 
Otobe. 11, 1934 
Mr. Alber Yaa 5. alflhg 
U. S, Forest servie 
Fark Fall s, Wiesosin 
Is too, had noticed that the birts are Aal of 
amrms this fall, and I quite o~ra with yu that duin      asora 
years they are the staple food rapply for deo, sha   til, and 
patriges. So one, however     has ever presented sy data as 
t  the         e     arn years or figured out what hspens 
when there ar Ao aeo    .s 
If you o-a make a ontribution to the qmost1io of 
when satd how often  a   years ocur, it will be really 
valuable. I think Shmit, too, has overlooked this point, so 
I am passi   this suggestion to him also. 
With best rqpswt 
Tours sinaerely,, 
Aldo Leopl 
In Charge, Game Researoh 
opy to Mr. IShaitv 
 
 

					
				
				
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
FOREST SERVICE 
LAKE STATES REGION 
ADDRESS REPLY TO 
REGIONAL FORESTER                                            FEDERAL BUILDING

AND REFER TO                                            MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN

G 
Fish & Gazm                              October 11, 1934 
Mr. Franklyn Schmidt, 
Babcock, 
Wisconsin. 
Dear Mr. Schmidt: 
Mr. Leopold has advised me to get in touch with you 
on managemeat practices for sharptail and prairie-chicken 
in the National Forests. Mr. King of Minnesota has kindly 
furnished us with material for the ruffed grouse and we 
are anxious to get under way on these two other species 
of birds. 
We need methods for censusing and practices for meet- 
ing the winter food requirements and reproductive needs of 
the birds. Let me assure you that credit will be given for 
all material used. 
I hope you will stop in and get acquainted if you get 
to Milwaukee in the near future. 
Very truly yours, 
R. X. 
Technical Supervisor, 
Fish & Game R-9 
 
 

					
				
				
vew Soils Buildig 
Jue11,.93 
Osxra    aph V. 1=*_1 
Coservtion earnR 
Mr, Albert of the Haoc     risent Station has s*w4 - 
hiw           plat~sin UuWu ra Ovaty a       has told m about the 
proposa he Is discusin with you c           state coopetion l 
fhrizhin Plaatirw stock to fame,, Who wish to install such wind- 
breaks. 
I wit to reor the aopinion that the rwp.#n.  planting 
of winraks      ud z  greatly to the  ae oer of the san    oatie. 
I would    . to* -s  t howevr, that white bic be  me i* plac 
of Bl of a        as a vapplwnt to the conifer p1atis. This 
rWstion in based on ?vrii Schidts ftrdinrs that opngrm 
white bireh treesa  zwesx ~   for winter badn of prairie chckn 
and shartall eyse. 
Me rs        mkiu the wggestion at this ti    is that 
if you 4e   . to go into these plantigs o a large e, y     mg 
wish yvaW nursrts to stock wNhita birch, 
Tours stnee17ly 
ALDO IZOOZCfl 
In Chage Gis Reerc 
Copies to Messrs. Albert/ 
Schmidt/ 
 
 

					
				
				
Oslo, Nowa 
Dear Dr. Lid: 
naj you v7m~ for the reprints, in A3glis, of your 
pulicationst 
I ti , Bergen. ico-operation with other 
institutions. 1933. 
1 am sending you the following Wsconsin pubication bearing 
on rouse foadi 
mssioA, 0.30 
Additional publications ar inpraato           RlhKn 
of the University of ?Jin  ta (Buzffed Grouso) an Franklin Sainid 
of this Uiersity (Prairie Chicen and MuurptM1 Grouse). Dr. Gross 
and als Dr. A. A. Ale of Cornell Uivrsity. Ithaca. Now Tok 
havs earlier -publications an Ruffed Grouse food *ihich tbAq  b  able. 
to  endyou  I um  lsohead smetingabout Dr. J. Grimel3. of 
California unetknaome work on Blu        Gese. I an sending a1 
of them copies of this letter to acquaint them with your wor, and to 
reque.st them to send you~ material as it beoomes available. 
Your work will be a valuable addition to ou a  cuxodfo 
American guse studies. 
'Yours sincerely, 
ALDOLEPD 
In Chargist Ge Research 
 
 

					
				
				
November 25, 1933 
Mr. Clyde B. Terrell 
Oshkosh 
Wi soonsin 
Dear Mr. Terrell: 
I have your letter of November 23. 
I will take up the question of plantin: 
sheep sorrel with ranklin 8ohmidt upon his 
return to the office. In the event th t he 
recommends the planting of this seed, I shall 
be glad to  et in touch with you. 
Very sincerely yours, 
PAUL D. K7'LLFTER, Director 
By 
W. F. Orimer 
WGFG;EL                   Sup't, (lae Division 
 
 

					
				
				
PLANTS FOR WILD LIFE                                             PLACES MADE

UNUSUAL PLANTS          TE       R     L    '                 ATTRACTIVE
TO FINS 
FOR LAND AND WATER          AQUATIC 'U Ei                       FURS, FEATHERS

+ +       -   %AQU              NUI RSEIE                   AND FOLKS 
WATER LILIES    A.&A*  'ESTABLISHED 1896 
WATER  ILIESCLYDE B. TERRELL., OWNER 
WILD FLOWERS                                            1 IINVESTIGATIONS,

ROCK PLANTS                                                   REPORTS AND

TREES - SHRUBS -VINES                C                   IN     PLANTINGS
MADE 
OFFICE                                                       TELEPHONE 
83 MONUMENT SQUARE        Osbkmb WiseOit3 U. S. A.           OFFICE 977 --
HOME 3347 
Nov. 23, 1932. 
Mr. W. F. Grimmer, 
SuDt. of Game, 
Madison, Wis. 
ear Mr. Grimmer:- 
At the recent meeting of the Wisconsin Division of the Izaak 
Walton League of America, held at Sheboygan, Mr. Franklin J. Schmidt 
.   /who has been making a study of the Prairie Chicken, Ruffed Grouse 
and Sharo-tailed Grouse for our State Conservati  n Commission, 
mentioned the sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella) as a very important 
food for these birds. Considerable interest was aroused as to 
where the seed of this plant could be obtained. I am glad to say 
that I have located a small supply of this seed, and am wondering 
if you would like to make ufe of some of this seed on some of the 
State Refuges, where it is not at present growing and available 
to the e birds. 
I thought you would like to know that we are going to be able 
to supoly it for planting, in limited quantities, as you may have 
some inquiries for it from persons who are anxious to get a supply; 
also that you might like to know where you could get it, in case 
any is needed for planting some of the State Refuges. 
We have not yet determined just what the price on this seed 
will be, as we have not yet satisfied ourselves as to just what 
it is going to cost us to get it, and out it in shape for planting. 
If you are interested in it, please drop me a line, and I will be 
glad to give you prices just as soon as we have determined what 
we can obtain it and out it on the market for. 
Sincerely yours 
CBT: Xm 
CONS RVATIof 
NV2 5 9     ! 
Referred to 
Acknowledged 
Complete Line oJ Natural Food Plant for All Kinds of Wild Life 
 
 

					
				
				
Crop contents 
Ringneck p7easant,(cock), Collected November 2,5p.m. Portage county,arsh

*mile from cultivated fields with available corn. Weight 3pounds ,7 onnces

White corn             61 kernels 
Grasshoppers            9 
Small beatles           5 
grass blades           21 
Beatle larvae           2 
tuber, small            3 
Begger ticks        1738 
smartweed               7 
seeds weed           167 not identified by Madison state dpartment of 
Agriculture and marketeMilwaukee Museumsamples 
sent to biological survey. 
 
 

					
				
				
ul 
 
 

					
				
				
THE STATE OF WISCONSIN 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
Jot 
0, 
7.                      4 
 
 

					
				
				
It iLS 0xv40" tat -or returns will~ be obtained 'by 
trappin  i 13-6     than we  reprted by hunters. 
Ffty *repsan   gisards. wm   obtained in the ftaU 
wlte a prwx   of 19R331 
About 10 *reps ant gixarda wre obtained in 
Ocober, 191 luin ope       seso, Vica    of  0secmn 
tov compare t fgs fo 1e30. t v 
Th blvs     1R aa pxm &duigom  "a  cosated 
for sox of bw.M4 b1,s moo bsatngfiur 
grns   Matv"       oae.      trs 1~  * Lwr tabon of all 
ne$lag alts a     US nube    of St  &M thb nube ofgg 
rih  rek a~e, e" Mo      Lake mr secre for the 
11*htyfe    spce    of plantser    collected in 
mbu     cont an *all* blmg to     o 'Plnfield grou  to 
eampro o th pb~to on    *1 sl" *oil in soatwel Wiscoin* 
 
 

					
				
				
FROM 
X1A 
HER A.DRE 
SEEDS PLNT AN UB 
130    14N GADN4T 
STA, ~ ~ ~ 4 SP ILADLPI,  A 
 
 

					
				
				
MASIE K SURE YHAT ORMIR iS 
00", AND FUM ADDRM4MVIEN 
 
 

					
				
				
Copies for: Schmidt 
P.C. 
S.T. 
Food & Cover 
2/35 
Ginseng Eaten by Prairie Chicken and Sharptail. In 1934, late August, ginseng

seeds on the farm of M. J. Goodrich, Westboro, Taylor Co., Wisconsin, were
eaten 
by Prairie Chicken and Sharptail which went in under the frames to eat seed.
Also 
red 
ate ginseng seed being raised in woods. The seed is in a/berry, 2 seeds each,

cluster of berries. 
 
 

					
				
				
FOOD TAL FOR ,OMMR       195 
Babcock, Wisconsi 
BY Je 7. w, SO1UM 
2                         2, 
".ee~o                         IN6 6f I 
Pae  tDab     I   by             :birds  z ?ood eaten         z 8eie 
Baboak    Nov. 6 :Cop examti:              t corn *0%          :Parie 
SRagwee                                      seed 80%   t chchken 
O 'bsevati* :                       Bukwht 
Obervtion      I   1s    Buokwat             :airie chio 
S        ; Obseation      :         Alde bus I           Partridge 
i Nov.  1 Obrvation          25  2 Go   & bckwhat   *:8I  p-tai1 
INov 8     Observatio :    t    5  : Buckhat 
:Nov*9   bseration          1 32  Bukwea 
2                                  t 2  2               I 
*+    "     I  b.tu           2   41  * Bukwat:mio*h 
2Nov* 1t O bservation     £    5  t White birch biu   :8ar-aie 
 I                                                  grouse 
2Nov   21: Obsvation       2 100   3 Buckwhe a 
2                          I       I                   I 
I Nov. 21: Obsertion       t   4 2   Cor 0n             2 
2Nov. 22: Obration       1   P4  2Corn 
Nov* 242 Observation.        40    WhUite bfrah buds   I 
Ozbservation              2 1      ~orn. 
2Nov. 25t Observation     t   20  1 White bfroh andM 
2  22                      pin cherybuds      2 
Nov, 26; Obsrvation     1   33  t White birch bus 
 
 

					
				
				
1$$t t Contints of Birds ZIMo a Ut 
at hw* - A&       mi 
36-,t- Z9-30, 13) 
9/29          or.       *YI                     SW       ttw)ol   opty. Killed
3 
P's. mi  e y.  o 
I )iasol eakA 
Cokca 6N                                   1/a .om    2 gras  sed, 
sevora lfto*. 
N   7                     457 
O 0dky' tall m1              5t&         Ahpt, I pie** of 1ef. 
1  0 brwn             54       2 aqv1m1l-pm     afrs 
I h.*.1 eatkim 6 viol* 
Rod* of Clman    buak 
brown                            502      3 sqm~t*1-ped       ors 
fron, **wo leavos, 
Ook              OW                623     2 tmr frondR, 2 do.    e4s xp?

Cocko* Ibrem                       540     50 nam    r-br  fruits. 
2 hihm  shrdi tst 
9Iyo                 I       , brow              50?7       o.sos       
p 
Coo* brow                         5n      1   mybr        1 bhtbas* frut,

1 f.= frnA. 
toobrn                             4       Ior.e brado   frnd   frgwts 
* ft mushoom 
(red wuft) 
? j bra.                          525(0)  wmty    1 alder 1..t. 
Yellow lose lt&tly feathero ou LMIAa of #.wms, to* Ur. 
 
 

					
				
				
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I9 
to feed at straw  t I(and on gr In from m        that was pread /n thpe 
Ilocks of  osters have been observed 
feeding on                      manare spread on *now in Clark,/Chippewa,

Taylor, Marathon, and Wa   ca counties.  The roost rounds in ;ost cases 
were small marshes of fr      to 20 acres. 
An abton ance of  ~cked orn and large hay marsh-~   ich could be used 
as roost ground, are  ot enough  o prevent migration of   n prairie chickens.

As shown on the map the migrating  ens wh   'have   E     c    oa 
wintered at about he same latitude. However, aitho      lati de may limit

-4 
the northward wi er range of hens, i does not urn     their mi  ation to
the 
southward. A good food supply in the f     of sho ed or standing corn is

, probably the most important factor. In Wisconsin the flocks of migrating
hens 
winterN where there O    anbundance of roost ground consisting of several

sqaare miles of hay marsh, interspersed with willows, and bordered by aspen

and birch. On these wintering grounds the deep snow which lasted from 
December 1, 1934, to March, 1935, did not have any noticeable effect on the

.ja &ch-QkS. Those which were weighed were above average weiht 
and those trapped for banding did not seem to act any hungrier than In previous

years when there was no snow. When the grass on the roost grounds became

covered with snow they roosted among the willows. In Iowa it was the general

opinion that ;n years of deep snow the migrating prairie chickens continued
to 
'move southward, sometimes as far as Missouri.A In Iowa the roost grounds
are 
snall marshes one to ten acres in size) and are of the tall grass type which

may become buried under the snow. Vhis would indicate that roost ground,
as 
well as food, play an important role in regtilating the migration of prairie

chickens. There are several other differences between the Iowa type of 
wintering ground and the Wisconsin type, as will be noted below. 
 
 

					
				
				
, Experiments have been conducted to determine             ' 
grain     nee               the m        amount eateno# t 
This grain was farnished in 
theform of food patches, hoppers, and platforms with ear corn impaled on

spikes (see photo). vAi 
At presentm   opinion is that 1         winter grai   -P LAY. 
~~           ssaly f r sharp-tai                         ~IA 
Aevidence that winter gan isn~ot 9rolnecessar  Mr. E. R. 
an Wormer of Babcock informs me that even when stacks of burckwheat &e
        opened 
up in a food patch located right in a budding area, only a few of the birds

a    in thl patch during November m      their appearance at the food patch
as 
long as there %snow. In an aspen thicket area there were two adjoining flocks.

)   /   One was fed grain all winter by means of hoppers and the birds were
trapped and 
S       banded. The other flock lived entirely on aspen buds with occasional
leaves 
a 
of sheep sorrel and seeds of smartweed picked up on/bare ditchbank. Both
of 
these flocks came thog     he winter without loss.    Ts indicated that winte

Crain is not necessary. 
tce                 e du        e     er o  1933,whicfol          mild win
 r 
"ihu  s  r.   iatu caeht               e 
If buckwheat in hoppers or earn corn on spikes is made available above 
te snow, sharP-tailed grouse can be indaoed to feed on grain all winter if
such 
feeding is done within one-half mile of their budding ground. In one case
a 
flock of 10 cocks and 11 hens fed in a patch of buckwheat until about December
1, 
when they changed to a bud diet. Buckwheat shocks and a hopper with buckwheat,

together with corn shocks and ear corn, were moved into the food patch. Some
of 
 
 

					
				
				
the white birch on which they budded wepe within 10 rods of the feeding station.

4 
but all through December and most of January they never bothered to see if
there 
was, any available grain in the food patch. On Ja      y 18 I showed them
where 
the feeding station was by laying down a row of buckwheat and corn on top
of 
the snow from the food patch to the white birchb, The next day tracks indicated

that they had followed the path of grain and located the feeding station.
From 
that day on, they visited the feedin   station daily. It was concluded from
this 
experiment that ta will eat gra     at hoppers because it can be obtained
with 
the least effort and not becau e they need it, &that' they are satisfied
with 
buds) and do not go about in  stigating buckwheat patches in which they fed
during 
November. 
In 1933 there was a bl3g drop in the number of birds in the area in ric 
the most feeding by hoppers had been done the two previous winters. This
was 
in northern Juneau County and southwestern Wood County. This would indicate

that winter feeding of grain does not prevent a drop in numbers toward the
low 
of the grouse cycle  -AS   -L!l U                  ;X 1             - 
6=1    C             as phP,4ftiT.'.d7                      S          even
be 
beneficial to grouse. fo            b tter growti, of spring plants, especially
      t 
grass, after ,-intcr .-th d     -~ w. 
Where        e  fed throughout the   nter by means of hoppers for 
purpose of banding, it was found that a     ximately 2,000 birds ate  , 
pounds of buckwheat and 1,000 pounds     corn -a o   .0 rent    a per   rd
p 
month/'The amount eaten would pro bly vary in different regions. byt e  
     s 
.it is                             doubtful whth r continuous winter feeding

of grain has any beneficial  ffect*-k          . 
Management. There can be no doubt, however, that the availability of grain
in 
fall increases the carrying capacity of sharp-tail range4 Food patches of
buckwheat, 
 
 

					
				
				
-?'S'. Ear corn may be 
stack on sharp sticks that may be stuck in the snow. This system was used
by 
John Worden of Plainfield as earl as 1929. Two boards, one with spikes to

stici the corn on, and one for the birds to sit on, may be erected az a rough

table high enough above the ground to be rabbit-proof. It should be placed
in 
the middle of a field,as prairie chickens like to feed where they can s 
in every direction. Poles with spikes work equaly well. The poles &iou.1d
be 
three feet above tae ground, six or eight inches apart,and every other pole

should be without spikes. Where two-inch poles are available, the only cost

for such a feeding station would be ten cents worth of spikes. 
Ear corn may be tied in strings with bin-ertwine and tied around a corn-

shock. This syste works well but is more work than the spike system.    
ar corn 
may also be fed In a wire cylinder from which the corn may be wked out as
it 
is eaten         e chickens do not like to eat grain from a hopper and this

system is not recomended. 
 
 

					
				
				
Why not leave a patch of fast growing aspen to grow stove wood and. to feed

grouse at the same time? 
The Greater Prairie Chicken (Tympanchus cupido wiericanus)    , 
A 
i1LAAJ ~ ,At first it was believed thlat prairie chickens dd not bud to a
 extent 
in Wisconsin, but more recent observations indicate the prairie chickens
feed 
on buds and c           throug  the winter, differing from s   p-tai 
only in that t    dep    w i.nter i: sz' arn      Uat-i             ; sho&ed

t                                     cocorne 
ncle                       eating corn about Decber 1     The green leaves
eaten 
include willow, clover, alfalfa, sweet clover, sheep sorrel (Ramex acetosella),

'fldenrod, wild strawberries and other leaves that remain green all winter.

4       seeds include ragweed (Ambrosia artemisaefolial, sedge (Carex intumescens),

green foxtail (Chaetochloa viridis), lamb's quarters (Chenopodium      ),
barnyard 
grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), smartweed (Polygonnm pennsylvanicum), conmon
smrt- 
weed (P1Ygonum hydropiper), climbing false buckwheat (Polygonu     metorum),

black bindweed (Polyom= convolvulus), and knotweed (Polygonu cilinode). Ragweed

and climbing false buckwheat form a regular part of the diet, while the other_---

weeds are only eaten occasionally       f-o69 Of tite             is the
sewe 
gis that of the ro 
Winterin G rounds. The male prairie chickens remain xrthin a few miles of

their booming grainds.whether there are cornfields available or not. They
use 
either small or large marshes ra roost gronds. 
in Dirnett County a flock of 30 WOO       roosted in a large hay marsh 
in the St. Croix River bottoms. Tn November they were feeding on harvested

fields of soybeans. The farmers informed me that Vcame in 
 
 

					
				
				
-10 - 
u'ahusked standing corn in the vicinity. This year it was left because 
deep snow halted husking. 
Hen prairie chickens wintering in eastern Wisconsin on the Wolf River 
and Lake Poygan marshes feed on shocked corn and on the grain and seeds in

the manure which is spread on the snow. 
Man agee t.  Za   o-ee 4&a t        rp- tailed  ouse, winter feeding
 f grain 
V7       WVs not,"                            The saptailed grouse 
has always   ived as far no th as it   es  t present and 
In the   se of the prairie   icke  it is obvious that orn has 'eplaced 
some other stapl  fo d.                    rn has made it poe sible for the

%f   prairie chicken to'.ecome a pe     ent resid  t in Wisconsin, Michigan,
Minnesota, 
Iowa, South Dakotaand North       ta. %fOf cou se, corn alone does not assure

'resident prairie  itens;      re must also be  ost grounds in the form of
I     * 
marshes. Anoth     facor    'h tended to etend he range of resident prairie

chickens was pwing,          although it re   ed     nesting ground, increased

the winter foo  in the  orm   ragweed and   ter se  -pr~oducing weeds. Certain

agricultural  ractices      as preading    resh manure on the snow, ten to

increase the resident prrie chi ken pulation. In the bedding mixed with 
the manure     numerous we   seed)s,   ver seeds, grass seeds, and 'ome grain

from the st a. Flocks fee      on      er-spread manure have been b served
at 
Stanley, A   ttsford, Marshfi d, P tt     lie, Wausau, Fremont, an    een
Bay. 
A s rther increase in       nter f d supply would result In an   nerease

in the r sident population only    those ar   s supplying more roost and
 sting 
grounds han are necessary for     e  resent po   ation. 
Post of the -prairie cirkens n Wisconsi   feed on shocked :corn and on 
 
 

					
				
				
VAUGHAN'S SEED STORE 
47-49 Barclay Street, NEW        YORK          601 West Jackson Blvd., CHICAGO

N    R          NAME.       ...         ...       . .........           
     Date 
Write very plainly 
P o s t   O f f i c e   . ...-- .--------------.--------. .. .. . .. . ..
.. . .. . .. .. . .. . ...-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -  S t a t e -  -------------------- - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - ---------------- 
Street, P. O. Box 
WE DO OUR PART  or Rural Delivery.....................................................................................................................................................
. D 
press or    'If different I. 
ight Office Ifrom  P. O.j --------------............... .......................
.................. ....... Forward   Goods  by ............................E

(Parcel Post, Express, Freight or .Boat)---- 
AMOUNT ENCLOSED 
(SEND NO CASH OR            Money Order     $ -------------------------------------
 See page 112 for our SPECIAL PREPAID OFFER, 
RENCS          E  SS       Draft or Check $ ------------------------------------
 also Table of PARCEL POST RATES 
REGISTERED)             PsaeSap$                                   e 
P                        o s t a g e   S t a m p $   - - - - - - . . ..--
- - . . .-.- . . . . . . . ..-   t o   d i ff e r e n t   z o n e s . 
Make Money Orders or Checks 
P a y a b l e   t o   V a u g h a n 's   S e e d   S t o r e   C a s h  
-   -   -   $   .... ..... -   -  ....... . . . ......... 
More order blanks will be sent upon request.    Always write letters on a
separate sheet from your order. 
We do not warrant in any way, expressed or implied, the contents or the description,
purity, productiveness or any other matter of any seeds, bulbs 
or plants, sold by us, and we will not be in any way responsible for the
crop. If the purchaser does not accept these goods on above terms, no eale

Is made thereof, and he must return them at once, and money will be refunded.
Subject to the above conditions we make this sale at the moderate 
prices we charge.                                                       
          VAUGHAN'S SEED STORE (Incorporated). 
N. B. Examine seeds closely, test if desired, write us if anything is wrong
and we will adjust. 
QUANTITY                                                                
                                        PRICE 
NAME OF ARTICLE                                          SIZE 
Do not                                                                  
                                  Dols.     Cts. 
Abbreviate 
A PREMIUM        FOR    EARLY      ORDERS-For every cash mail order for vegetable
sec s; floyd r seed,, lawn 
seeds anct-Ui -1bs.,4m~outting to-$2.00 or more, received on this blank before
Marc 11 !j93                              endric 
as a premit m      to reward foresight, gladiolus bulbs, our selection of
the better n               med v, ieties. to the 
value oT 10    er cent o-fh-e-order. Premium         bulbs will be mailed
after March 1. Is 0 prer             m  on orders 
eceived aft pr March 1, 193C --- --..... 
Substitutes You may substitute the next best of any variety you cannot supply.

Please do not substitute without first notifying me ................ 
(Please mark a cross (X) in one of the above spaces.) 
(Order flower Seeds by numbers only)           Carried Forward,      lbs
      $ 
If by mal, and PREPAID OFFER on page 112 does not apply, add postage for
your Zone.              (OVER) 
 
 

					
				
				
QUANTITY                         NAME OR CATALOG NUMBER OF ARTICLE      
                                WEGH          PRICE 
Where Catalog gives a Number, please order by it.                     Post
  1   Dols.    Cts. 
Brought Forward 
DOMESTIC PARCEL POST RATES               First  additional 
On Seeds, Plants, Bulbs. Roots. Books, Tools, etc.  pound or pound or   
              Total Weight, 
within the U. S. and Possessions. Effectve Oct. 1, IJ32, fraction  fraction

Local-Chicago or New York City ....................  70.  lc (2Iba)  A fraction
of a cent 
First an, Second Zone within 160 miles of either . .........  .S.  e1.1 
in the total amount of 
Third Zone  within 150 to 300 miles ................................  9c
 2c  postage on any parcel  Amount for Postage 
Fourth Zone within 300 to 600 miles . ....      lc.    3.5c     shall be
counted as a 
Fifth  Zone  within 600 to 1000 miles ..............................  lic.
 53c  full cent. 
Sixth Zone  within 1000 to 1400 miles................... 12c.  70 
Seventh Zone within 1400 to 1800 miles .....................  14c .  9eT

Elrhth Zone all over 18go miles. .......................  150.  lie     
                           Grand Toti, 
Filled  by ................................ Checked  by ..............................
Packed   by .................... 
Shipped  by ................................................ Style   of Package
 .................................. 
Date .......................................... Book   ..............................
W   eight ................... 
 
 

					
				
				
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Bogs, Swamps, and Marshes in Relation to 
Wisconsin Game Animals 
Introduotion 
The game animals, such as the rabbit, the doer, the ruffed grouse, 
the sharp-tailed grouse, the prairie ohicken, the sand-hill crane, and 
the quail are affected in several ways by the plants and animals of 
bogs, swamps, and marshes. These three habitats provide nesting cover, 
roost cover, yarding grounds, food, and protection against enemies. 
The small animals provide food for predators and fur-bearing animals, 
and act as buffers between the predators and the game. In addition the 
small animals, especially the mamle, act as intermediate hosts 
for parasites and disease organisms that affect game animals. 
Pesting Cover 
Sharp-tailed Grouse.- 
In 1934 sharp-tailed grouse were found to be nesting in a 
large bog in Jackson county. This bog was several miles in diameter 
and was mostly open sphagnum with a few patches of tamarack. On 
about-1 square mile of bog eigt nests were found by a crew of fire- 
fighters. In most eases the nests were simply a depression in the 
sphagnum and when the surfac sphagnum around the eggs was burned 
they became visible. These were the only sharp-tailed grouse nests 
found in 1934, while in 1930, 1931, 1932, and 1933 nests were found 
in patches of grass on drained peat together with prairie chicken 
nests. In 1934, sharp-tailed grouse were at the lw of their cycle, 
whieh indicates that they rely on sphagnum bog for "sting cover 
when their numbers are reduced. It probably also indicates that 
originally their chief habitat in Wisconsin was the sphagnum bog. 
Later they spread into the cutover lane i northern Wisconsin 
 
 

					
				
				
which have a sparse vegetation, due to frequent burning. A sparse, 
dry vegetation seems to be the deciding factor in determining the 
range of the sharp-tallod grouse. The sphagnum, slthough damp be. 
neath is dry on the surfact. During wet weather the grouse oould 
live on top of the dnea nte of latherleaf whlh grows extensive- 
ly in most bogs. In the West the sharp-tailed grse is more of a 
plains bird than a prairie bird. It Inhabited western North Dakota, 
western South Dakota, eastern Wyoming, Kansas, and Nebraska. Sine 
settlment It has mved eastward, probably due to cultivation, whioh 
has resulted in a sparser vegetation than formerly occurred. In 
Iowa the sharp-tail nested only in sandy areas where the vegetation 
was sparse, while the prairie chicken nested In the dense grass. It 
is probable that the sharp-tailed grouse did not nest in the original 
prairie areas of Wisconsin as they were probably mestly of the dense 
grass type. Rote also that the sharp-tailed grouse occurred in 
northeastern Illinois, which is the only part of the State that has 
sphagnum bogs. 
Food, Roost Cover, and Protective Cover of the Bog 
In Relation to $harp-Tailed Grus 
Jackson County 
Several flocks of sharp-tails were found In the vioinity of 
Birch Bluff in a large bog that f     a reservoir for a cranberry 
farm. As they may be so    here at all times of the year It is 
probable that a large bog provides everything that is neessary in 
the line of roost cow.er, protection aganst enemies and food for 
permanent residonce. However, bogs are generally bordered by 
swamps whiah furnish food in the form of alder atkins, white birh 
buds and catkins, willow buds and catkins, and mountain ash berries. 
The food eaten by the shar-tail in the bog proper consists during 
 
 

					
				
				
the summer of the leaves and flowers of Chamaodaphno Calyoulata, 
the berries and leaves of Yacciniun pennsyvanicuOT. Yaegiiu 
oanadense, Vac   i  .ocO      , and vaociriu, macrocarpon, and 
insects. During the winter the buds and catk ns of the bo 
birch Be      vumllavar. ,landulfera are eaten. 
The oranberry farmr reported that the sharp-tails ate a large 
number of branberries laocnig meocarpo_ in the cultivated cran- 
berry beds. 
ndhill Crane 
t  sandhill crane lone of our rarest birds. It spends most 
of its time in bogs and marshes. Most of the sandhill cranes seen 
in Wisconsin are migrants that stop over for a few weeks spring and 
fall on their way to and from Canada. Only a few nest in the State. 
For nesting they seem to prefer bogs or marshes that have patches of 
tamarack or spru-ee in them or around then. They do not like tama- 
rack swamps without open spaces. John Cardo, a farmer living on 
Shiprock Marsh, west of Coloma, has given us a fairly accurate de- 
seription of the changes that have taken place there during the 
last 50 years. Before 1890, all et what Is now hay-marsh was a 
tamarack swamp with no open spaces exept where small clearings had 
been made. Loads of poles were hauled to Portage by oxen. There 
were no cranes at that time. In 1894, following several dry years, 
the entire swamp was burned with only scattered patches of tamarack 
escaping. The plat was burned to a depth of 2 feet so that the tree# 
were burned out by  he roots. The trees that were not hauled out 
for firewood were piled up and burned in 1895. Crops of oats and 
millet were raised in 1895 on the burned peat, in 1895 it was too 
wet. After that grasses came in and by 1900 it became a hay marsh. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sanahill cranes began stopping about 1904. In 1914, the first 
nest was found. At least one palr has been nesting there sin** a 
the number stopping in the fall has been inoeasing in resent years. 
On Otober 1, 1934, 81 in one flook were seen. In the spring of 
1934, Alo Leop d, Wallace B. Grange, and myself saw a pair with 
their young In a strip of grass that had tamaraok and aspen on two 
sides, and oonne t d with large hay marshes on the other two sides. 
Most of the  ests that I have seen have been in sphagum bogs. 
The first was in Burnett conty near the St. Croix river. The nest 
was on a hummock of sphagum in an open space that eonnected with a 
large hay marsh, but was nearly surrouned by tamaraoks. The second 
was on a   at sin a bog of about 40 ares that was surrounded 
on all sides by white pine, That was in Wood County near Oransoor, 
The third was in Jack     nounty, north of Mather In a large bg that 
is 6 m11es across,  thagm is baled and taken out on ars that run 
on a small track. The nest consisted ot a few blado of gras 
flattened down on top of the sphagnum, The nest was in a small open 
space In a patch of bog bireh that was about 4 feet hi. The cranes 
were able to look over the tops of these bushes without themselves 
'being seen* The fourth nest was in southwestern Wood county In an 
Immnse bog with no bushes or trees for a mile or more in any dirc- 
tion. The fifth nest was west of City Point in Jackson county n 
th  Ellis Cranber   farn. The nest was found by noes balers and was 
located at the edge of a spruoe wamp       a mana) *eh boers a 
shgum bog several miles In extet. 
eanehill era4es are reported to nest at New London, at Oonto, 
and in the marsh northwest of Endeavor in Marwtto couty. Altogether 
ther are probably a ozen pairs nesting In Wisconsin. They lay but 
two egs, somewhat larger than goose egg. They 4 not seem to be 
 
 

					
				
				
decrsing at presn$ and if the zvmaining large       phagnm bogs are 
not drained or burne   th  sandill crane will not become extint. 
Prairie Chieken -fo 
Maz.h Food 
Bog Birah 
Gras   (sumer 
Ra(winter) 
insets (summer) 
Willow leaves 
Swamp 
White btroh 
.igh   s   in sarsh or edge of    rsh. 
lai   youn   in tall grss and are seen b7 hyakers. Vee       original 
gra prirf  e    r nestng  and h    rh was h       ly habia   that 
could be iteed in its piae.  San prairies awe not need, p @aby d 
to some difference in tmpe at     and meisre. 
Hay marshes a    ve   mprta     t    e prairie ohieeen boh as 
Ai3er rousts and as winter      andsts.  senby t ahy er they rst in 
pashes of upa e   gaf s.  equntl hayma    ke rs th t olya  patohes of 
ha  so eat u ere iI  a ae.  an f   ras are unot ue, and willws. 
toh a plae is a favotep    a r          In  th  winer    y rs 
depressions in the sno   whieh t y dig by sctcvihing. Thes roosts 
are located In willows. The areas where migrating hens spend the 
winter are always near large hay marshes or muskrat marshes. The 
 
 

					
				
				
small floks df r osters which do not migrate roost in either large 
or small marshes and prefer marshes with tal grass. 
ftffed-Grous 
Bluebery 
C a     ?No reord. 
Willow. leaves catkins. 
Willow, leaves, oatkias. 
Nannyberr 
White birch 
Alder 
XMutain Ash 
(PZrus -or Srbus americana) 
Bot in evergrens or alder swamps. Dig holes in snow for 
roost when snow is oose. 
Rabbit* 
Snowshoe rabbits and cottontail rabbits prefer tamarack, sprue 
and alder swamps that are next to or mixed with oen sbgs. 
They use the swamps as over during the day and sprad out over the 
higer ground at nigt. 
Dor 
In the winter when there is deep snow and story weather, deer 
spend most of their time in tamarack and spruce swamps. As the doer 
oongregate in large herds these swamps are calld doer yards. The 
snow is packed down and trails lead in every direetion. Where sprse 
or tamarack do not occur they use birch, alder, or ash swamps. 
 
 

					
				
				
Plant Ford 
Bog                      Go" Animalas 
2. Erlphorms2. Shiarp-tailed grouse 
4. Vaciiu canadonse               4. quail1 
5. Yacoinium pennsylvanisum         5, Manhill crane 
6. Vaeoini.um Oxsoos                6. Snowshoe rabbit 
7. Vaoeiniuis marooar~              7. Cottontai.l rabbit 
8. Bog bireb                        S Dor 
9. Muskrat 
Swamp 
1. Alniuw orispa                           Bufers between game birds 
and predator* 
2. Alnus Incana 
1. Bog lingR 
4.2. be-baoksd souse 
D. Larix Larl
	
				
Buffers (Continue) 
7. Litl o hipmunk 
S. Muskrat~ 
9. Snowhoe rabbit 
10. Cottontail rabbIt 
1. Wolf (it op.) 
2. Fox 
3. Mink 
4. Bay lnIx 
5. Caad lynx 
6. easel 
7. Horned owl 
8. Barred owl 
9. Re-tall*d hawk 
10. Goop rIs hawk 
11, harp-shinned hawk 
12, Goshawk 
DV 
4/17/41 
 
 

					
				
				
Form A-164 
Conserv ion Depar-ent 
AVOID VERBAL ORDERS 
Date,              ----------- D t 
L*Q4 
_i                           Jd --- --- 
 
 

					
				
				
FOOD, PARASITES, DISEASE, AND 
ABUNDANCE OF GROUSE IN WOOD COUNTY 
By F. J. W. Schmidt 
As Wood county is the county with the greatest number of sharp- 
tailed grouse and pinnated grouse (prairie chicken), and might be 
called the prairie chicken center of Wisconsin, the prairie chicken 
investigation conducted by the Wisconsin Conservation Commission is 
being centered on this county." Dr.'A.'O.'Gross, who has directed the

prairie chicken investigation for the past two years, recommended that 
about 1,000 grouse should be collected at different seasons of the 
year for food, parasite, and disease study during years in which grouse 
are not scarce.' The New England Ruffed Grouse Investigation has col- 
lected over 2,000 specimens for a similar study of ruffed grouse. 
During the fall of 1930 the Research Bureau has conducted several 
hunting trips to secure specimens for examination and to determine the 
density of grouse population in the various townships of Wood county. 
During August, W. A. Cole, and F. J. W. Schmidt collected four young 
sharp-tailed grouse and one sick prairie chicken was turned in by W. 
Boles of Wisconsin Rapids. On September 27, Dr. Merritt L. Jones, 
Dr. 'Freeman, W. F. Grimmer, E. Van Wormer, and F. J. JW. Schmidt hunted

three sections of typical prairie chicken country in Remington town- 
ship, Wood county, five miles southeast of Babcock. Six sharp-tailed 
grouse, four prairie chickens, and one ruffed grouse were collected. 
On October 4, Dr. Merritt L. Jonew, Dr. Freeman, W. F. Grimmer, Philip 
Eberlein, W. A. Cole, E. Van Wormer, and F. J. W. Schmidt hunted two 
sections in Cary township, ten miles northwest of Pittsville, and one 
section in Remington township, four miles southeast of Babcock. Thir- 
teen sharp-tailed grouse, one prairie chicken, and two ruffed grouse 
were collected. 
 
 

					
				
				
The fou  young sharp-tailed grouse collected during ugut ha 
acre tapewozs and wood tios, but fewer oundwors tha the adult birds 
collected during September and October. Dr. C. A. Heric    of the Uiv- 
ersity of Wisconsin has found that in general there ar me worms in 
young birs     than in adults, but in the case of the birds  eained this

fall, this       ion hel tru    for tapewoms but not for            . 
For     aso    refer to table of parasites. 
The pare chicken turned In by Mr. Boles of Wisconin Rapids 
was       as the result of a     burst ca eou. te left  eewa was      ly

disendd  nd  as ron tgeterwhere the tube loop  back uo    tef 
The oaequm and liver were preserved and sent to Dr. E. E. Tyvzaer, Har- 
vad Mial Sho, fo                 is   Dr, Tyzer          that he kew 
of no disease ohrthan blackhead that would result In suha condi- 
tion, although no bakedorganisms we present in the diseased 
t.issue  Dr. Tyer's fina    diagosis was as folo s: 
"a       tyitis with ocuson        poibly due to    o      b 
n          ve o     tr  Stheember 
27, ten prairie db   a  , forty-ive aharp-tailet grue and two rufed 
gruse were observed.   Six shvzp-talledgrueforpaiecckn 
and one ruffed grus were collected.    Std  ski-ns of two shaptaild 
grose adone prii        hlken were w~o      A study skl ws alo made 
of a shrteared owl shot by Mr. Grimmer. The stomach of thi ol con- 
tained one flick~er. 
In the survey ade in Gary township on October 4, forty-six sharp- 
tailed grue, fou    prairie chickens, uix rufed grue, and five rbits 
were seen. Nine uhrptailod grouse, one prairie ciknand two ruffed 
grose were collected,   Study skins of three sharp-ailed gruse and on 
prairie chicken were made. On October 4 one section in Rmntn tow- 
ship wam  ooe over and 120 sharp-tailed gruse were seen. Four sharp- 
 
 

					
				
				
tailed gro. wer collected in this sections 
On~ ~ ~ SetabQ 7w  oobw 4,, a total of six setions, ori 
Remngonndtwo In Cary townhbip     re thruhygoeoe          n   a 
total of 2M grous me     observed~. This Is an asag of 39pr sqar 
mil.B   leaving out the seation on which 120 were seen (this section 
prob blybing waptiona1) 113 were see In f1y sections or 22 per. 
isquare mile or on for each 29 acres,, 
In Wodcut beries and chries wer killed by the frost and 
wood seed  are por due to the dry sumr       zmnto       fteooso 
thebirs cleted indoatso that the only foods available this fall are 
poplar leaves, cloverlas b    ucweaad&rshoprsiut                 h 
"tat o food th      ukha     at 'the state feeing stations in Woo 
coutyhasalead ben ostly eaten. In Wausha an Adams cute 
whr   there are mor oat fields and shockeorn,~ the grouse have nt 
yet starte to food at the state feeding stations. It Is th"foe 
recomdedthat in eovnties not having extnsilve fields O ottubl 
and shce     onognz~in          lnigt feed pe        at  should seur 
their con hok     as soon as posibe, 
!WIZ Or PARABU AND FWD 
Iue alouse 
 
 

					
				
				
$. Saptailed       32 tapeworm         Gras shoppers 90% Port Edwad  Aug,
7 
gue8            oo  ticks      Saw thistl        township, 
blossoms     10% 'goo d    couy 
7*     Shar-tailed  I w. 80 
grouse        1 tap  mase                                     Sept. 1p 
Wo county 
SPraireors                                              Wsonsin      Aug.
11 
#*Raspberries 
0                   tls 
14e           2possibly due.to 
aNon                                                   State gam     Sept.
10 
farm 
19  Doeast                 roundoms                State  ae   Sept. 10 
eke..-.%                                    farm 
chicke                   laler 
1 ept 
11861  PhesantNoneState game                              Sept. 10 
farm 
9471  PhesantNoneState game                             8Sept. 10 
1 Ru0d0ros         Noeae         Black chri      sstate gae       Sept, 11

60%        farm 
19* Pheasant      102   a~e     c, roundwormsns SKtae game         Sept.
11 
20* Phesat        Deae c  ec                     State game    Sept. 11 
(nbeolye~ deer                       farm 
100 feater lc 
10*hesat   o runwomeStte                             am     Spt   1 
 
 

					
				
				
Not         Nae           arasites         Food           Lcaity      Date

(Asardi)     ras shoppers   Wood county 
Note:   urn xs 15, 17, 18, ad 19 were four runts out of a flock of several

thousan and are not represetative of the state game farm pheasants. 
SPoplar lavs 
gruse          7 wood ticke            0         tonhp 
Bkwheat 50%   Wood county 
24     Sharp-tailed     2 wood ticks      lover           Rt. 
26     Sharp-tailed     6 wood                                       Sept

grus                                             towshp, 
26     Prairie chickesn  1 onwr           ukhat 30%       RmntnSp.2 
1 wood tick70                     Wodcut 
27     Prairie cikn10 wodticks           Poplar leaves    RmntnSp.2 
Willow leaves    Wood 
60% 
28     Rffed gruse   Z wood ticks     Poplar leaves    RmntnSp.2 
29     Srtailed        V lioe            Poplar loaves    Rn         St.
27 
  wood ticks 
Bukwea 5%                                       Wo   cut 
30     Shr-ald          5rudom            rassdwppers     RmntnSp.2 
grouse   Usearidia)90%                 twsi, 
7a wodtik                    Sheep sorl      Woo   out 
10% 
31     Prairie chicken  2 wood ticOks    Bukha,            aig       Set.
27 
townshp, 
32     Prairie chicke  9                 Oats                        Sept.
27 
Willow leaves    to     p 
2 wood tcks                 2              t 
3,   Shazrp-tailed   7~ rond   si      Clover    W%  Cary township Oct, 4

7rous e        6  sai~a          uckwheat 40%    Wood county 
35     Sharp-tailede loer                         5%   Cary township  Oct
4 
grouse         t:Marda          Buceat          Woo   out 
30     8hap-t ailed     11  rn     m     G   shoppers  Cary township  Oct.
4 
groue   (Acariia)70%                 Wood county 
3. tapeworm l over          30% 
- 5 - 
 
 

					
				
				
No$    !Le      Parauites     Food       Lrait         ate 
37 Prairie chicken 10 ronwom   Ce  60% Cary townshiip  Oct.* 4 
(1uG           hopprs Wood coty 
8d                  None       Glo       Cary townshp  Oct. 4 
Wood ounty 
39 Rufe grue    2rudwrs      Coeary townsip          Oct. 4 
(Gizzard wors)          Wood county 
40 Shr-ae       : onwrmi      Grasshopprs Cary township  Oct.* 4 
grous   8 zeardia)80% Wood county 
5 Hetera)    Clover  20% 
41 8artaied      9 tapewrs     Clover  80     townhip   0t. 4 
e           7 wood tics  Bt         Wood county 
2     p          2 rtrms        .over  5                Oct 4 
e     i    Gasshoppers Wood county 
e                2 rm          Clr     9% Cary township  Oct. 4 
Barley                           10% Wood county 
41 woodtic 
4Sharpa          2                                      Oct. 4 
4Wood ounty 
4   grus 04      Awt tks      3tkwda 8%    a toshp  t4 
1 tapeworm               Wood county 
4aover                                 50% Cary townhip Oct. 4 
grouse      4i0% Wo                       county 
47 Sbtaekpta     2at. 
gros                     Gr 1% Wood county 
1    gr o  use       None       oes         Wusau      et. 1 
Wodn county 
Ccpp.e 1A/1 
49 Shr-tie       8-onwrs       Coe      0%Cr    onhpOt 
 
 

					
				
				
GROUSE POPUIATION FIGURES 
The following report on the population of gruse in Wisconsin was 
drawn up to supplement the game observers' reports relative to opening 
the hunting season on prairie chicken, sharp-tailed grouse, and ruffed 
grouse in 1931. 
The figures are given by counties so that a comparison may be made. 
Wood County 
1. Prairie ohicken. - Figure 1 shows the number of prairie 
chickens in those townships where counts have been made In the other 
townships the flocks are too scattered to make a definite count possible.

In Gary township 100 were seen at threshing time by George Smith, 
In oat stubble. On dance grounds 5? male prairie chickens were counted 
in May. Allowing 57 females in the same area the total for the three 
sections would be 114. The total number of counted birds in Oary 
toU ship was 214. 
In Remington township 27 were seen in cornfields and at feeding 
stations. 
In Port Edwards township 140 were counted in cornfields. 
In Seneca 40 were counted in a stubblefield. 
In Rudolph 45 were counted In a hayfield. Scattering flocks of 
20 or more have been reported in the other townships. Allowing 50 
for each of the townships in which counts were not made, the total 
population for Wood county would be: 
Counted townships    716  for 5 townships 
Estimated townships 80 for 17 townships 
Total          1,568 
 
 

					
				
				
Grouse Population Figures 
The total prairie chicken population for Wood county is about 
equal to the figure estimated for 1930. The above figure is the spring 
population, so In order to compare it to the 1930 figure, which was a 
fall estimate, the increase for this summer should be added. Of the 38 
nests studie this spring, 50 per cent hatched. The average number of 
eggs is 11, and therefore each pair of birds raised on the average, 
five young. 
Provided that the number of males and females is equal, the fall 
population for 1931 would be; 
Total spring birds          1,5 
Number of females             783 
Number of males               783 
Number of young 
Total f1  birds         6,481 
The chief reason for the slight Increase was fire. Some observers 
estimated that as high as 50 per cent of the grouse in Remington an 
Hiles townships were killed by the fire. The chief damge was not in 
the number of birds killed, but in the destruction of the nesting 
cover. In Remington township there were practically no nests in May 
and mo t of the nests reported were destroyed by predatory animals due 
to the lack of grass for ooncealment. On May 29, 30, and 31 about 
2,000 acres of burned marsh  n Dexter township was thoroughly gone 
over. About 75 birds were living on this area but no nests were found. 
In three places single eggs vere found on bare grund. It is probable 
that eggs were being laid without a nest being made, due to lack of 
nest cover, 
 
 

					
				
				
Grouse Population Figures 
In Port Edwards township there were several sections of land which 
were not burned. As this area is largely grassland, it Is a natural 
nesting ground. Thirteen nests, of which six were prairie chicken and 
see wre sharp-tailed grouse, were located. As all of these nests 
were made in May or before, it Is probable that nesting cover in the 
form of dr grass induces early nesting. On the basis of one female 
for each male, there were 75 prairie chicken nests In this area. 
2. Sharp-tailed grouse. - Sharp-tailed grouse are more numerousl 
and more uniform in distribution than the prairie chicken in Wood 
county, but the sharp-tailed grouse Is limited to that part of Weed 
county which is west of the Wisonsin river. Refer to figure 2. 
The flocks listed on the map in figure 2 are not all different 
flocks, as both feeding station and dance ground flecks are listed, 
The following are separate flocks: 
Flock No.      No. of Birds 
1                 20           Feeding station 
2                 22           Feeding station 
3                 40           Feeding station 
4                 50           Feeding station 
6                 12           Seen buAding 
6                 5           Seen budding 
7                 60           Feeding station 
a                 10           Seen budding 
9                 21           Feeding station 
12                 26           Dance ground 
15                 40           Feeding station 
1. Total number In Wo    county on Xay 1 1951, 1,727. 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
Grouse Population Figures 
Flock No.      No. of Birds 
17                 18           Dance ground 
18                 21           Dance ground 
20                 12           Feeding station 
21                 20           Dance ground 
22                 50           Flushed May a0 
23                 18           Dance ground 
24                  6           Danegon 
25                 13           Dance gon 
26                              Dance grund 
Total          500 
Of the 500 sharp-tails counted at feeding stations and danee 
grounds, 140 were banded. The number banded at feeding stations was 
130. Of these, 31 were females. Flock number four was at a feding 
station and dane ground and as a result all of the birds trpped 
here were males. At station number nine, or flock nine in figure 2, 
all of the sharp-tails were banded; and at station eight, or flock 15 
In figure 2, all except one or two were banded, as 45 was the most 
seen feeding here, and 40 were banded. Six of these birds were shipped 
to the game farm, reducing the flock to 39. 
Allowing one female to three-males, the total number In the mapped 
area shown in figure 2 would be: 
Feeding stations 
and                 322 male and female 
Buddinggrud 
Dance gounds             178 males 
5 females 
Total59 
 
 

					
				
				
Grouse Population Figures 
Deducting flocks number 22, 23, 24, and 25, there would be 472 
_arp-tails for the three townships in which a thorough count was made. 
The population on this basis would be a little over four sharp-tails 
per square mile, or 157 per township. The total spring population for 
the eleven townships in which sharp-tails are evenly distributed would 
be 1727. Using the same sex ratio as was found in the banded birds, 
the number of females would be 57b. As each female should raise, on 
the average, five young, the total fall population would be: 
Spring                 1,727 
Young                  2.S75 
Total Fall population 4,602 
A total fall population of 4,602 sharp-tails is about 5,000 less 
than the number .of estimated for 1930. It is probable that the 1930 
figure was overestimated and that actually the number of birds is 
about the same. 
The main reason for the small number of sharp-tails in 1931 is 
the loss of birds in the fire of September, 1930, and lack of cover 
for shelter and nesting. A few of the effects of the fire are discussed 
under prairie chicken nesting on pages 2 and 3. 
Ruffed urouoe. - The total amount of partridge cover in Wood 
county is about 20 per oent of the total area, or 150 square miles. 
In the Babcock region five coveys of young birds were located. Along 
the river bottoms there were about two partridges per square mile 
during the winter, or seven per square mile in the fall, provided each 
female raises five young. The total population would then be 1,050. 
 
 

					
				
				
Grouse Population Figures 
The number of prairie chickens and sharp-tailed grouse In the other 
counties Is considerably less than in Wood county. 
The counties in which Information has been secured are listed below. 
1. Vushara county 
The number of prairie chickens counted at feeding stations 
was 190. The total for the county is estimated at 2,000. 
2. Portage county 
Prairie chickens only. The number counted at feeding 
stations was 300. The total number in the county is estimated at 2,000. 
3. Adams county 
Prairie ohickens only. The number seen at feeding 
stations was 45. The total estimate for the county is 500. 
4. Juneau county 
The number of sharp-tails seen at feeding stations was 40. 
The estimate for the county is 200. 
5 Ashland county 
harp-tailed grouse - One covey of 13 seen eight and one- 
half miles west of Butternut. Two square miles of g      sharp-tail 
nesting grounds were studied 18 siles west of Butternut. No sharp-tails 
were located on this area and it is therefore probable that the flocks 
are very scattered. Mr. Cas. Rindt found 11 nests in 1929 that had 
been burned. 
The total population Is estimated at 2,000. 
Prairie chickens - None seen. 
Partridge - Two seen ten miles west of Butternut. The 
number of partridge is at least ten per square mile in the areas not 
burned over. The partridge cover in Ashland county is extensive enough 
to prevent over-shooting. The total number of square miles of partridge 
cover is estimated at 900. Total partridge population 9,000. 
-6- 
 
 

					
				
				
Grouse Population Figures 
. Rusk county 
No sharp-tailed grouse nor prairie chickens seen. Resort 
owner on Potato lake reports that prairie chickens are nearly extinct 
In Chippea county. 
Partridge - Your sections of land in western Rusk county 
were studied. A total of 24 were located. There were four coveys 
with a total of 18 young or four and one-half young per covey. The 
country Is rough terminal moraine with steep gravel hills between 
which are lakes and alder swamps. Two coveys were found on hills In 
a growth of aspen, white birch, hazel, pineberry and blackberry with 
wild grapes and h      (green briar) in the more open spots. The other 
two coveys were in alder-willow thickets on swampy land. Figure 3 
shows the exact location of the birds. 
This area represents the best ruffed grouse cover in Rusk county. 
As one section of the area has not been Investigated, the number per 
section of the three seetions that were thoroughly searched was eight, 
As the cover was very dense, it would be safe to estimate ten partridge 
per section for the partridge cover of Rusk county. The total area of 
partridge cover in Husk county Is 625 square miles. Due to fires, 
the 1931 figure Is about 600 square miles. The total number of 
partridge on this basis would be 5,000. As the area between Island 
lake and Birchwood Is di ficult to penetrate, and is similar to the 
Potato lake area, there would be no danger of overshooting in Rusk county.

. Washburn county 
Prairie chicken- None seen. A flock is reported to have 
wintered at Stone lake In 1930-31. 
Sharp-tailed grouse - One covey of 13 was seen 13 miles 
southeast of Spooner. Several other coveys have been seen by the soils 
-7 - 
 
 

					
				
				
Grouse Population Figures 
survey men, but the distribution is not uniform. In the terminal moraine

areas the sharp-tails are numerous where the brush has been kept down 
by fires or is pastured, but such lands are not very extensive. In the 
Jackpine areas there are very few birds to be seen. A party of four in 
crossing a four mile strip of meadow, Jack pine, and aspen did not see 
a grouse of any description. In Evergreen township n the Yellow river 
valley, three farmers were questioned. The first farmer had seen no 
grouse during 1931. The other two reported that each had a covey of 
sharp-tails in the section in which he lived. The fall ppulation for 
the Yellow river valley Is about ten per square mile. These farmers 
reported that about ten years ago, prairie chickens could be heard in 
the spring, but that none were heard in 1931. 
Estimated sharp-tail cover         100 square miles 
Sharp-tails per square mile         10 
Total sharp-tails                1,000 
Prairie chikens                   None reprted 
Estimated partridge cover          36  square miles 
Eetimated partridge per sq. mile    16 
Ttal partridge                   8,?80 
One square mile of partridge cover north of Baroaa was Investigated. 
Tw partridges were seen and dust bathe and feathers were f      on the 
forties in which birds were not seen. It Is safe to estimate 16 
partridges per square mile of cover. 
8. Clark county 
In 1930 sharp-tails were seen in Mentor, Fester, and 
Kewett townships. The sharp- taled grouse cover in Clark county is 200 
square miles. As much of this area was burned over at the time it was 
visited in June, 1931, it is probable that there are less than 1,000 
sharp-tailed grouse In the county. 
-8a- 
 
 

					
				
				
Grouse Population Figures 
In 1928 fifty-six prairie chickens fed on standing corn in 
Worden township during the winter. During the summer none were seen. 
In 19   none were seen by the farmers. In 1930 a flock of 40 or 50 
returned and fed on corn one-half mile north of the 1928 cornfield. In 
the spring of 1931 those prairie ohickens established a crowing ground 
for the first time. No nests were found and It Is possible that all 
of these birds were males. See figure 4. 
Recomedains 
Due to fires in 1930 and 1931 the prairie chicken and sharp-tailed 
grouse populations have been reduced or have remained stationary. In 
Wood county an open season would result In serious overshooting due to 
the reduction of cover by the peat fires of 1930. In the other counties 
the population per square mile is less and the cover is less extensive. 
Areas of open land in Ashland and Washburn counties which should 
make good sharp-tailed grouse cover are still uninhabited by this grouse.

The prairie chicken has not yet returned to the areas which it 
inhabited In 1920. (See Washburn county). 
Partridge were numerous In the areas studied In Ashland, Rusk, 
and Washburn counties and most observers report the partridge to be 
abundant. The        r of Johaon's stare at Web lake, Burnett county, 
wanted a closed season on partridge as well as sharp-tailed grouse, 
but all others were in favor of open partridge season. 
The total area of ruffed grouse (partridge) cover in the northern 
counties is extensive enough to prevent overshooting in all except a 
few localities, but before it is decided to open the season on partridge,

It should be taken into consideration that much of the partridge cover 
was burned over in 1930 and 1931. 
Copied 11/17/31 
3/12/41 - MOW                   - 
 
 

					
				
				
SUMMARY OF FEEDING INVESTIGATIONS 1930-31 
Bixty- tw fed patches were planted in 19,3. 
Buckwheat           49 patches 
Corn                 8 patches 
Wheat and Oats       1 patch 
Corn and Millet      I patch 
Buckwhea;t Corn, 
and millet         1 patch 
Buckwheat, millet, 
and sorghum       I patch 
Sorghum              I patch 
62 patches in 23 counties 
cost $   . Cost per patch   $13. 
Both sharp-tailed grouse and prairie chickens fed in the small 
grain patches until December 1. Sharp-tails fed in the patches 
every day, but prairie chickens only once or twle a week. 
In the northern counties deer ate as much of the small grain 
as the birds. 
In Vilas, Oneida, Portage, Adams, Waushara, Wood, Juneau, and 
Jackson counties where buckwheat patches were examined, it was found 
that aharp-talled grouse fed on buckwheat in October and deserted the 
patches In November, while prairie chickens fed only occasionally In 
November and December. The sharp-tailed grouse Cleaned up all of the 
buckwheat before snowfall. 
Sharp tails desert the buckwheat patches for two reasons: 
1. The buckwheat is all eaten. 
2. It is covered with snow. 
Prairie chickens did not eat all of the grain in the buckwheat 
patches. They deserted the food patches in Portage and Adams counties 
during January except where other food was available. 
 
 

					
				
				
Summary of Feeding Investigations, 1930-3l 
All flocks of prairie chickens did not aot the same. In Adams 
county one flock ate from a hopper. Nine other flocks refused to eat 
from hoppers, and it was decided not to use hoppers for prairie chickens

in 192, unless for experiments. In Portage county a buckwheat patch 
was located next to a field of shocked corn. Only six out of a flok 
of 250 ate buckwvheat. The entire flock migrated in February in search 
of another cornfield. In Waushara county a patch of standing corn 
with good corn was visited only occasionally during the winter by a 
small flock. In Adams cunty a flock fed on shocks Instead of on 
standing corn in the same fieold, 
The only feeding station used regularly by prairie chickens was 
the tepee shook station at Babcock, Wood county. It was decided that 
tepee shocks would be used for feeding prairie chickens In 1931-32. 
The tepee shook has several advantages. 
1. The cob corn is tied on In strings on the shook where it is 
above the snow. 
S. Prairie chickens would rather climb up on a shock than go 
under it. 
3. The tepee shock can be made hollow and a hopper placed under 
it for quail. 
4. The supply of corn can be renewed, while in an ordinary 
shock the corn available is soon eaten. 
5. Fewer tepee shocks are needed. A field of 160 ordinary corn 
shocks was deserted on January 1 because the corn on the outside of 
the shocks was all eatn. Four tepee shocks fed a flock of the same 
size and more corn was eaten in March than in January or February, as 
there was snow in March from the first to the twenty-first. 
6. Tepee shocks can be placed in cornfields, clover fields, grain 
fields, or fields of ragweed in which prairie chickens are feeding. 
 
 

					
				
				
Summary of Feeding Investigations, 1930-31 
7. Even If the stalks are short, the tepee shook can be made six 
or seven feet high. 
The hopper with buckwheat was used for feeding sharp-tailed grouse. 
Buckwheat patches were deserted In November except where hoppers were 
set up. One pound of grain per bird was eaten per month. Cob corn 
can be fed on the ground near the hopper or under the lean-to. In 
1928-29 buc   eat was stacked at the food patches and the straw 
scattered once or twice a week. In January and February the sharp- 
tails deserted the stations, probably due to the Irregular supply of 
food. In 1930-31 the hoppers were visited every day, and the number 
of birds did not decrease and at three stations the number increased 
during January and February. Sharp-tails learn to eat husked cob 
corn and at least one flock which ate cob corn In 1930-31 was feeding 
on standing corn in the fall of 1931. Bundles of buckwheat spread 
out around hoppers are fed on by sharp-tails and the best combination 
is probably a buckwheat food patch with half standing and half shocked, 
and one or two hoppers to prevent the birds from deserting the station 
when the person locking after the station is slow about getting around. 
Locations for hoppers are as follows: 
1. In buckwheat fields 
2. In standing corn where sharp-tails are feeding 
3. Where sharp-tails feed regularly on aspen or white birch 
4. On dance grounds. 
Sharp-tailed Grouse Banding 
Banding was begun February 27 and continued to March 21. Wire 
traps out the heads of the grouse and tennis net was substituted and 
Nte: For preferred, staple, and emergency foods of grouse, see 
Aldo Leopold' sam   Survel. 
 
 

					
				
				
Summary of Feeding Investigations, 1930-ZI 
found satisfactory. Sharp-tails must be trained to eat cob crn. They 
are then easily trapped in funnel traps. One hundred and thirty shp. 
tails were banded. One prairie chicken was caught on a nest and banded. 
Following Is a list of banding stations, number of birds banded, 
and number shot Oetber 1 - 4, 1931. 
Station No. No.Nales    NoFemales      No.Females      No.Males 
i Dance ground     21        2               1             1 
2 Feeding stati     4         2              0             0 
3                  is3       0               02 
4 
6 Feeding station  1                         0             1 
7    a       0      5        0               0             0 
a                  20       12               2             6 
t)                 11        10              0             1 
10 Dneground         2        0               0             1 
11                   1        0               0             0 
12 Feedng station   Z        0               0             2 
1        a           3        2               0             0 
Stations 1 to   - Area burned over Sept. 16 - October 1, 1930 
Stations 8 to 13- Area not burned until April 1931 
It Is exected that more returns will be obtained by trapping 
in 1931-32 than were reported by hunters. 
Food Study 
Fifty crops and gizzards were obtained in the fall, winter and 
spring of 1930-31. 
-4 - 
 
 

					
				
				
Form F-145 
Wisconsin Conservation Commission 
Madison, Wisconsin 
DIAGRAM 
OF 
Township No.                      Range No. 
County, State of 
---       -  -- - - -  .... . ........ . . . . . . . ..  .    .......  -
-- -  ---- ----   B i r d 
*        :            .I 
+i Oct..1-4 
--- T                                  -- -  -------- 
-~                                  15804 
...-.. .              .  . . .  - - - -- -   .. . . . .- - - - - --- - ---
-- -- -  1  8 0 4 
- -~ 18825 
.   ..     -.... ;................. ....  "..........  :......... .
. .. ...........  ..............  :.... ....... .. .  .....  ..... ... ..
.. 
...~                       18930 
......................................................:..... 
x                                       -------- -------- 
__-                                       ',*          *       4 
..... .. ... ....... ................. ....        ... ...... . .. . . ..

.............. 
,,                              5 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tailed Grouse Banding Returns 
R21                                    R31 
____                                   Ptyli1 Le 
T 22N                                                          L 
-  - - \-             -- 
S                                   .. . ... . ... . . 
1582i                                  g    Male 
15876       Shot 
15878  Oetober 1-4, 1931                    Female 
18950                                       Banding station 
X     Spot where bird 
was shot 
 
 

					
				
				
Summary of Feeding Investigations, 1930-3 
About 120 crops and gizzards were obtained in October, 1931, 
during open season. Viscera of 80 specimens were preserved to 
determine number of parasites per bird to compare to figures for 1930. 
Sex ounts 
The birds examined during open season consisted of 89 males and 
84 females, 
For sex of banded birds, see banding figures. 
Nest, 
In 1931, thirty-eight prairie chicken and sharp-tailed grouse 
nests were located. Pictures were taken of all nesting sites and the 
number of eggs and the number of eggs hatching were recorded. 
Predators 
One hundred forty-fiv stomachs of predators from Fish Creek, 
Babcock, Ad Moon Lke were secured for the Biological 8urvey. 
Cover Study 
Eighty-four species of plants were collcted in Wasbburn county 
on soils belon to the Plainfield group to compare to the plants on 
similar soil In central Wisconsin. 
Copied 11/17/81 
GC 
-M    3/14/41 
 
 

					
				
				
THE STTUS OF THE GROUSE IN WASHBURN COUNTY 
AND POSSIBLE FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 
Present Distribution. - The ruffed grouse . sfound in the heavy 
timber, on the cutover lands grown up to aspen and other second growth 
trees, and in brushy pastures. It Is especially abundant on the 
rougher morainic areas where there is a dense stand of second growth 
trees and brush from five to fifteen feet In height. From counts made 
on typical sections of ruffed grouse cover it was estimated there 
were 15 ruffed grouse per square mile and according to those who hunted 
in October, there were about 20 per square mile. 
The sharp-tailed grouse Is found on the brush-covered moraines 
where the brush Is from one to five feet In height, in pastures, and 
In the open jack pine-oak brush of the outwash mnd along the Yellow, 
Namekagon, and Totogatic rivers. The population estimate was 10 per 
square mile. The season was not open n 1931. 
The pinnated grouse, or prairie chicken, is very scarce. There 
are a few small flocks around Stone Lake. Formerly there were large 
flocks of prairie chickens in Evergreen township along the Yellow 
river, but they are now extinct in that area. 
Grouse Cover. - The grouse cover areas in Washburn county which 
are least suitable for agriculture and forestry are the best areas in 
the county for sharp-tailed grouse and prairie chicken management on 
an intensive scale. These are the areas of outwash along the Yellow, 
Namekagon, and Totogatic rivers. These areas are level enough to 
allow extensive food patches to be planted. As the Resting cover 
and roosting grounds are already good and as there is a good supply 
of food during the summer, it Is probable that the absence of winter 
food Is the only large factor which limits the number of grouse under 
 
 

					
				
				
Status of Grouse in Washburn County 
natural conditions. A combination of grain patches, feeding stations, 
and groves of white birch would furnish the winter food required. The 
grouse shooting in the farming sections of the county would be greatly 
improved if each farmer maintained a feeding station during the 
winter, A possible financial means of supporting these feeding 
stations would be that each farmer allow a certain number of hunters, 
depending on the number of surplus grouse, to hunt provided that 
they paid the cost of feeding the birds not only on years when the 
season is open, but on closed years. This would no doubt reduce the 
number of closed seasons. This would apply to sharp-tailed grouse 
and prairie chicken, but probably not to ruffed grouse, as it is 
very doubtful if the number of ruffed grouse can be regulated due 
to the difficulty of training it to eat artificial feeds. 
-2- 
MNB - 3/13/41 
 
 

					
				
				
BHDTING PRESERVE POSSIBILITIES IN WASHBRN    NTY 
In Wisconsin there are several large areas of outwash sand and 
peat which are not suitable for agriculture or forestry, but which could

be made into grouse shooting grounds comparable to those in England and 
Scotland. This does not mean that the English system of shooting would 
be used, but something comparable to the English system of regulating 
the environment to produce the highest possible number of grouse per 
square mile, woild have to be used, The actual shooting would be 
something on the order of the quail shooting grounds in Georgia or 
the state shooting grounds in Pennsylvania. At present there is an 
open season on grouse in Wisconsin about four out of eight years. It 
is assumed that when large shooting preserves are organized which can 
shoot yearly as they do in England and Scotland without overshooting, 
the law will be adjusted accordingly. 
The purpose of the grouse cover survey of Washburn county was to 
determine a possible future use for those areas not suited to either 
agriculture or forestry. It will take several years of experimentation 
to determine just wht sts will have to be taken to change the en- 
vironment to produce the maximum number of grouse per square mile. In 
the case of the red grouse of England and Scotland, It was possible to 
change the environment to such an extent that there are 30 times as 
many grouse per square mi. there as there are in northern Wisconsin, 
and there Is no visible reason why similar results can not be obtained 
with the prairie chicken and sharp-tailed grouse. 
Judging from what is already known relative to the required nesting 
facilities, sumer and winter food, and winter cover, the following 
areas will need the least change to make them suitable for grouse 
shooting preserves and are at present tax delinquent and unsuited for 
either agriculture or forestry. Jack pine will grow on these areas 
 
 

					
				
				
Shooting Preserve possibilities in Washburn County 
and should it have a commercial value in the future, It can be grown 
as a sideline on the game preserves, and will have better fire protection

than at present. Red pine will grow on area number 3. 
1. The area between Gull lake and the Namekagon river n T 40N 
R 1ll and consisting of sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 10, 9, 8, 17, 16, 15, 
and 20.  (Figure 
2. The area northwest of Lake Gillmore along the Totogatic and 
St. Croix rivers. This area includes T 42N R 12W, Sections 17, 18, ?, 
8, 9, 10, 11, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; T 421 R 13W, Sections 13, 14, 16, 16, 17, 
18, 7, 8, 9, 10, I1, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6r19, 20, 21, 29, 30, 32, 31; 
T 42N  R 14W (Burnett county). T 43N R 13W (Douglas county) Sec- 
tions 25, 26, 2?, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 36; T 43N R 12W 
(Douglas county) Sections 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 23, 
22, 21, 20, 19. (Figures 
3. T 38N4RIIW, Seotions 16, 17, 20, 21. (Figure 
Areas number one and two are nearly all outvash sand and gravel 
(Plainfield sand, Plaintield sandy loam, and Plainfield loamy en4). 
In several places there are numerous kettle holes, which make the 
country roug, but in general It is level. Area number three is 
mtraInIe sand (Vilas sand) and Is hilly with two lakes. 
If grouse shooting grounds are combined with forestry, about one 
half of the area could be planted to Jack pine or red pine and buck- 
wheat could be planted in long strips to act as fire checks. Fire will 
not run in buckwheat or cornfields and these are the two plants which 
would be relied upon for fall and winter food. 
The following table shows the distribution of some of the plants 
found on the outwash sand of Washburn county during August. 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
Shooting Preserve Possibilities in Washburn County 
DISTRIBUTION or PIANTS ON OUTWASH SAND IN WASHBURN QOUNY! 
Name of Planzt       T 42N1 T 43N  T 4Q11  T 40N1  T40N  T 40N1  T 39N  T
38N' 
R112W  R 13W   R 12W  R 13W   R 11W R 12W   R 13W   R 11W 
8eo.5 Sec.22 See. 14 Sec.34 Sec.4 Seo,26 Seo.30 Sec.21 
Aselepias tuberose,   2 
Amelanchiersop.*      x       2              2       2     2 
Krgi   nplezx.aulIs x                                      It           
 x 
Ar'abio lavgt                                        2     x      X     
 2 
Alium stlau                                         2 
Acils millef olum                                    2     x      2 
Prumus pennsylvaflica* x      x      2               2            2     
 X, 
!runu vir2giniana*                   x               1                  
 x 
verbascum Thapsus                                    I     x            
 x 
Itumex acetooella*'                  x               x 
Epi.obiuma op.*     x               x               x    2              
x 
Campnul 2oudiol x                                         2             
 2 
________a 2oir                            2       2     2       2       2

Zi:L op.                                             x 
S-mhrie~ 
________s                                           2     X      2 
Amrh    csoensR52 
Aster ptarmicoi.&es                          x 
Convlyu 
Salix 5p.*           x        2      2       2      2 
*-used as food by grouse 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
Shooting Preserve Possibilities in Washburn County 
Name ofPlant       T 42N  T43N- T 40J    T 4N    T 4ON T40N  T39N  T38N 
R 12W R 13W   R 12W   R 13V   R 11W R 12W R 13W R 11 
Sews.5 Seo.22 Seo.14 Sec.34 Seo,4 Se.26 Sec.30 Sec.23. 
Q..nothus op.         2     z                      2            x 
Vacoiium p.*          x      x              x      x     x      x     x 
Ptrsaqiia             x      x      x       x      x     x      x 
Qorylussp.*          x     x       x       x      x            x     x 
Liti scarlosa         x     x       x       x      x            x 
Andrpgon fureatus   x      x              x      x     x      x      x 
Koeleria oristata   x      x              x      x            X     2 
Agrpyo  p.                               x       x                  x 
________se          I      x                     x     x      x     x 
Aetostapuos 
SlIAdMo op.*          x      x              x      x            x 
Gau3.herla op.*      2      1                      x 
Hellantbus oolenai x        x      x       x      x 
RosahulliU5         x      x      x       x      xx 
Ijcopodium op.        x                            x 
ErIgeron raious       x     x                      x 
Aster vais x.U            x                      x 
Moara  itulsa,      x             x       x       x    x            x 
Agaoth  op.         x             1              x 
Ru 1p.              x                            2 x 
Myic asplenifolia*    x                     x      z 
CornM op.*,                         z              x 
used as food by grouse 
-4- 
 
 

					
				
				
5hool1ag Preserve Possib1il3it1. in Wathburn Couinty 
Name of Plant       T 42N  T 43N- T 40N1   T 4QN   T 40N1 T 4Q1N  T 39N T38N

2R12W  R11W1  R12W    R 13W   Rl11WRI2W   Rl13W R11W 
Set.5  Seo.22  Seo.14  Seeo.M  Seo.4 Sec.26 Sec.30 Seo.21 
PoZou     convolvulua*                2               2 
Ase .2unceus 
Eyol   op.                                                         x 
Aquilegia 2aaeni                                                   xx 
Leipdez  op.                                                     x 
Ambosi artemsaef olia*                                     x      x 
Rubol 3*oita 
Pelgnm     aviculare                                       2      x 
Asaran thus retroflexus               x 
Ooth     opm.                                2             x 
Polgnel articulata                                    x     x 
Cyeu filioulias* 
!ione op.                            2                     2      2 
Rhusradianx*x 
3Hru    op.*           2      x       2       x       2     it     2    
 2 
2eul  2p.                       2       2 x  It  x    x 
-used as fod by grouse 
 
 

					
				
				
Shooting Preserve Possibilities in Washburn County 
The above plants were identified on sample plots on the sections 
Indicated and include only the plants on the high and dry areas and 
not bogs or river bottoms, where there is a greater variety of plants. 
Township 42N, R 12W, Section 5 and T 43N, R 13W, Section 5 are 
representative of the area of outwash sand along the Totogatio river. 
Township 40N, R 12W, Section 14 is representative of the 
morainic areas with a mixture of Chelsea loam and Vilas sand. 
Township 38N, R 11W, section 21 represents the Vilas sand In 
a rough morainic area. 
Township 39N, R 13W, section 30 represents the outwash sand 
in the Yellow river valley west of Spooner. 
Township 40N, R 13W, section 34, Township 40N, R 11W, section 4, 
and T 40N, R 12W, section 28 represent the outwash sand along the 
Naaekagon river. 
Cpied 
11/18/31 
GC 
1414 - 3/13/41 
 
 

					
				
				
... .- ... 
Jj                                                - 
Q -LA 
~~6 l 
rA~A~
	
				
				
				
/ 
INTRODUCTION 
This bulletin has been compiled by the Game Division and the 
Research Bureau of the Wisconsin Conservation Commission to enable farmers,

sportsmen's clubs, resort owners and anyone else interested in game to 
properly care for the game birds on their lands or shooting grounds. In 
the past, much energy and time has been wasted by distributing feed where

it 4ould not be found or by starting the feeding too late in the season.

As a result the game birds did not get the benefit of the money and en- 
thusiasm put into the project. The information available in this bul- 
letin will make it possible for those interested in feeding game to get a

better understanding of the food requirements of game birds during the 
different seasons of the year than has ever been possible before. Some of

the advantages of winter feeding, in addition to food requirements, are 
briefly outlined. 
Advantages of Winter Feeding - The yearly food supply is one of the factors

which limits the density of population of animals. Those regions which 
are blanketed with snow during the winter have a plentiful supply of food

during the summer, and a scarcity during the winter  A 1vorone       &_s

. . caus44the migration of all but the hardiest species of birds to 
warmer regions before winter blankets the northland with its frosty mantle.

The game birds which remain over the winter are limited under natural 
conditions to the number which can live on the available food. If a 
winter is mild and a large amount of food is available, game birds generally

show an increase the following summer, but if a severe winter follows there

is a scarcity of available food and heavy mortality results. It follwws 
that winter feeding of game birds has come to be recognized as one of the

most important factors in preventing severe losses during the winter. Every

 
 

					
				
				
year new facts are being discovered which lend weight to its importance.

Winter feeding in the northern states is of especial importance 
due to snow and sleet which make food unavailable. In addition.to the 
climate there are other factors which make game bird feed scarce during the

winter. Mice often destroy the weed seed and grain which lie under the 
snow so that whenthe snow melts the game birds are still short of fo&d.

Quail, prairie chickens, pheasants, and Hungarian partridges depend on 
weed seeds to pull them through the winter, but it often happens that even

if not covered with snow this food supply is exhausted bmidwinter, due to

the raids of large flocks of snowbirds, juncoes, tree sparrows, English 
sparrows, longspurs and other seed eating winter birds. In dry years, 
prairie and forpst fires destroy thousands of acres of game bird cover. 
In dry years fruits of all kinds are scarce or poor in quality, and as a

result game bird food is scarce in the fall as well as winter. Severe 
frosts may also cause the destruction of wild fruits and nuts. In agri- 
cultural districts natural winter food is scarce, due to the high percent-

age of pastured and plowed land. 
The chief purpose of winter feeding is to remedy any shortage of food 
due to such causes as those outlined above. 
In Wisconsin the ruffed grouse, the sharp-tailed grouse,and the 
pinnated grouse have been subject to a violeit fluctuation in numbers every

eight or nine years. As yet there is no definite pooof that lack of grain

and grit during heavy snow is the cause of sickness irlisconsin game birds,

except that most animals are more suscdptible to disease when undernourished

than wherwell feed. 
Errington (19314 ound that Wisconsin quail decreased rapidly in 
number when their food supply was cut off. Aside from actual starvation,

the quail under observation were easily killed by cold weather and predators

when weakened by lack of food. 
1 
I.,JrI FL                  C*U Savr  Wij+er;1           W eJ6CA43C^aIGe 
'WaoVAsder 1930 . 
 
 

					
				
				
Although Wisconsin game birds are not migratory in the same sense 
as the birds which go south before winter, they do make local migrations

in search of food and cover. The distance traveled by the different species

of game birds is not definitely known, but banding operations being carried

on at present will throw light on this question. Efficient winter feeding

will lessen and possibly eliminate the movement of game birds from one 
area to another. Farmers wishing to have a large number of quail, prairie

chickens or other game birds on their land, either to provide hunting or

to eat the chinch bugs, potato feetles, weevils and grasshpppers which 
destroy the farmers' ctops, do not want to see the birds which they have

protected move into an area where they may or may not find enough food to

protect them against the cold blats bf winter, or where they may be the 
victims of pot hunters. On private shooting grounds, or public shootihg 
grounds the loss of birds by straying or migration of entire flocks must

be prevented if a dense population of birds is to be maintained permanently.

One important purpose of winter feeding is to make it possible to 
check up on the game bird population. When winter feeding is carried on 
as extensively as it should be, practically all of the birds will be at the

feedingstations where they can be counted, and when suitable methods have

been worked out for trapping, it will be possible for private shooting 
ground owners to band their birds. That will make it possible to determine

the percentage of birds shot in the fall and in that way overshooting will

be prevented if hunting is stopped when fifty per cent of the birds have

been shot. If the male is easily distinguished from the female it would 
also be possible to keep the sexes balanced by means of banding. 
WISCONSIN NkTIVE AND EXOTIC SPECIES THAT REQUIRE WInTER FEEDING 
1. The pheasant - -4   C 
2. The Hungarian partridge --M 
 
 

					
				
				
3. The Cuail - The quail is a permanent inhabitant of the southern part 
of Wisconsin and occasionally ranges into the northern counties. The 
season has been closed for the past t       years, but there has been no

marked increase in numbers. Lack of cover and lack of food during the 
winter are probably the two factors which limit the number of quail in 
s .Errington (19 4ound that the quail under observation fed 
on trefoil and ragweed seed during the early part of the winter. One flock

of thirty-seven feeding on ragweed ran out of available food on January 20

and all perished except twelve, which managed to find a corn crib. In 
contrast to this flock, seven flocks totalling one hundred six birds came

through the winter with a loss of only three birds, due to the fact that

they had access all winter to a constant supply of food. One flock 
wintered on ragweed and shocked corn, one on ragweed and cribbed corn, one

and 
on ragweed,/soy beans, three on ragweed, soy beans and cribbed corn, and

one flock joined the other six flocks. 
In feeding quail the corn shock system in combination with the 
hollow shock system is the best method. At Poynette a flock of thirty-five

quail fed with wild turkeys at a hopper, and judging from thdSexample the

hopper system should be a great success in feeding quail. The hopper 
system is especially recomhlended for regions in which corn shocks are not

available. 
4. The Sharp-tailed Grouse - The sharp-tailed grouse and the prairie 
chicken have similar food habits during the summer and fall, but differences

in their winter feeding makes it difficult to feed the two together. The

feeding habits of the sharp-tailed grouse as outl$ ted below are Based on

observations made in Wood, Juneau and Jackson counties. In the northerN 
counties their habits may be slightly different. 
In September and October sharp-tails gather in flocks of from twenty 
to two hundred in stubble fields, especially bugkqheat, to feed on the 
,.  X 
 
 

					
				
				
grain which is on the ground. At this time of the year prairie chickens 
are likely to be found feeding with them. 
During November, the sharp-tails break up into flocks of from 
twenty to forty and go in search of aspen and white birch thickets. Once

they have located a suitable patch of aspen or which birdh, their movements

are restricted to about one section of territory. Birds banded at three 
stations which were less than one mile apart did not mix at any time 
during the winter. Two flocks which were feeding on aspen one mile from 
feeding stations never found the feeding stations. One feeding station in

a buckwheat field was not put up until just after the sharp-tails had 
abandoned it. (November 24)e This flock of sharp-tails fed on Ispen and 
white birch buds only thirty rods from the feeding station all through 
December. In January a pile of cob corn wax put on the ditch bank near 
the white birch on which the sharp-tails were feeding and in a few days the

sharp-tails were feeding bn this corn. On January 18th a line of cob corn

was strung from the dithh bank to the feeding station and the next day the

sharp-tails lcated the fedding station.   Theed at the station all through

February and March and the entire flock of twenty-one was trapped and banded.

Durihg December, January and February, the sharp-tails feeding at 
hopper feeding stations consumed one pound of buckwheat each per month. 
The greater part of their food consisted of aspen and white birch buds. 
eaten 
During February the amount of buds/decreased and in March buds were only

eaten during snow storms. The amount of buckwheat and cob corn eaten in 
March was greater than the amount eaten during the winter. In March those

sharp-tails which had learned to eat cob corn preferred it to buckwheat and

would go into a trap to get it although buckwheat was available nearby. 
The hopper method is recommended for the sharp-tail. The sharp-tail 
(  prefers buckwheat to other grains. Shelled corn is not eaten, but cob
corn 
may be given from time to time as a supplementary food.   *-a S 
 
 

					
				
				
5. The Prairie chdcken - In 6eptember and October prairie chickens 
gather in flocks of from twenty to three hundred to feed on stubble fields

and weed patches. In the fall and early winter the prairie chicken feeds

mostly on weed seeds,and of these ragweed and black bindweed are preferred.

Small flocks feed on corn and as the supply of weed seed becomes exhausted

the number in fields of shocked corn increases. Prairie chickens can 
husk cob corn provided the ears are on the outside of the shocks. Where 
prairie chickens are abundant the outside ears are all eaten by the end 
of December and although the shocks are left tn the field the birds will

starve. 
The hollow shock system is recommended for prairie chickens. The 
hopper system may work but it is not recommended if corn shocks are 
available. 
6. The Ruffed Grouse - The ruffed grouse or partridge feeds on wild fruits

and green leaves during the fall. As much as a pint and a half of clover

leaves, strawberry leaves and ferns have been found in a single crop. As

green leaves become scarce the buds and catkins of alder, white birch, dwarf

birch and aspen are eaten. It is very difficult to train ruffed grouse to

come to feeding stations, and unless they accidentally feed with other game

birds at a feeding station it is not practical to 9ttempt to feed them by

artificial means. Their winter diet of buds can be improved by planting 
shrubs and trees, such as mountain ash and hawthorne, which retain their

fruit all winter. If grit is hard to obtain these dried fruits may be 
detrimental instead of beneficial, due to the fact that when the gizzard

is full of hard pits or fruit stones the quartz grit is not retained (Grouse

Report, Page q?). Fruit stones and grit are hard enough to grind the dried

fruits, but if buds were eaten it would be necessary for the bird to get

a new supply of mineral grit. 
7. The Wild Turkey - Altb.ough the wild turkey at present has a very 
I  ~   (~4tL &- 
 
 

					
				
				
limited range in Wisconsin, it may be possible to greatly extand its 
range if properly taken care of during the winter. 
During the fall the diet consists of green leaves, insects, fruits 
and nuts. As these foods become scarce a search is made for fields of 
shocked corn or the hungry birds will go to a farmer's barnyard in case 
corn has been slocked or is fed to livestock on the ground. This wandering

in search of food during the winter must be prevented,for if the wild 
turkeys seek food at farms they get mixed up with tame turkeys and it is

hard to separate them again. 
The hopper, corn shock and tree hopper are recommended for feeding 
wild turkeys. 
 
 

					
				
				
7 
HOW TO FEED 
The hopper leanto method - The hopper leanto is an efficient method of 
feeding all of Wisconsin's upland game birds, with the exception of 
the prairie chicken and the ruffed grouse. The hopper leanto method has 
the following advantages: It can be set up quickly and at any time of the

year. It can be so constructed that the food does not become contaminated

with the droppings. Very little of the grain put into a hopper is wasted.

Inspection is necessary only after snow storms and otherwise every two 
weeks or so, according to the number of birds and the size of the hopper.

A box of grit or oyster shells can be put under the same leanto which 
protects the hopper. Once a hopper is built it can be stored during the 
summer and used again the following winter. The amount of food can be 
regulated to suit the number of birds. One or more kinds of grain can 
be fed according to the species of birds feeding at the station. The 
amount of food eaten can be known both as to the total amount eaten and 
the  amount  per  bird.     o         6s4e 
The construction of a hopper is not difficult. The tools required 
-iw    A 
are a hammer or hatchet, a square, a aaw, tin shears, and nails. No. 2 
white pine is the best lumber as it will not check when exposed to the 
weather. The hopper should be three feet high, three feet long, two feet

wide at the top and six inches wide at the bottom. The feeding trough 
should be four inches high and should not project out more than three 
inches, for it it projects too far the edge of the food trough will some-

times be used asa roost and droppings will then get into the feed. This 
should be prevented as certain bacteriaand spores, cysts or eggs of para-

sites present in particles of droppings might infect the bird ingesting 
them. The bottom of the hopper should be about six inches above the 
 
 

					
				
				
ground and a platform with a gradual slope up to the feed trough should 
be made for the birds to stand on. This platform should be of       inch

wire netting with enough framework to hold it rigid. It should be firm 
but made so that it can be easily be removed, in order that once a month

the droppings which accumulate under it may be cleaned away if necessary.

SThe leanto which protects the hopper against rain, snow and cold 
'winds may be built in a number of ways according to the materials at 
hand. Bundles of grain tied to a pole framework by means of binder twine

make an excellent shelter. A leanto built with buckwheat bundles is 
illustrated in figure   . A waterproof shelter may be made with twenty 
feet of roofing paper and poles. The roof is four feet high in front 
and three feet high at the back, and is six feet long and three feet wide.

The back is three feet high and six feet long and the ends are three 
feet wide, four feet high on the front corner and three feet high on the

back corner. The framework should have flat surfaces where the paper 
is nailed, for if the paper is not nailed on well it may blow off. 
If evergreen branches are available they may be used to build a leanto, 
but care must be taken that trees are not injured by careless breaking 
of branches. 
The hopper should be installed in such a way that it can be moved 
for filling or the leanto should be made with a movable roof. 
The tree hoper   Thisyse     i thesaas thebppe           anto 
exce       tha '        er     ade s  tat i c n be4hung on a tree. It i8

 ece 1nt method or f eeding wiI*    urkeys 
The corn shock system - Corn shocks have always been recommended 
as the best method of winter feeding.most game birds. They have several 
advantages. A game bird can live on corn alone for several months. 
Corn shocks are never entirely covered with snow. They are large enough 
to make it possible for game birds to find them easily. Corn shocks 
have several serious defects, but fortunately most of these defects 
 
 

					
				
				
1/ 
can be remedied. Cuail canburrow into a corn shock and perhaps feed on the

corn which is on the inside of the shock, but most other game birds must

rely on the corn which is exposed on the outside. Mice and rats often 
eat most of the corn which is on the inside of the shock. In cornfields 
where prairie chickens feed the available corn on the outside may be 
exhausted by the end of December. Figure ( ) shows a corn shock with 
the outside ears eaten. Thts corn shock represents the condition of a 
ten acre field of corn shocks in Wood county on January 1, 1931. In 
many regions corn is nht shocked but is put in the silo, and even if not

put in the silo the shocks would contain no ripe corn. These defects 
can be remedied as follows: 
Where game birds are known to be feeding in a field of corn shocks 
a feeding station can basily be set up by making five shocks into 
hollow or tepee shocks. To do this take three or four poles five feet 
long and nail them together at the top in the form of an Indian tepee. 
Two cross sticks should be nailed on two or three feet from the ground 
to keen the corn stalks from sagging in. Then place the corn stalks 
against the framework and tie them on with binder twine. Leave the south

side of the tepee open. A pile of cob corn should be put under each shock.

Two or three bushels of cob corn ban be tied in long strings with binder

twine and wrapped around the shock. The ends of the strings are tied to 
the poles supporting the corn stalks. If nedessafy, two or three bushe 
of cob corn can be tied on each tepee shock. Ahis type of feeding 
station is recommended for prairie chickens, as it has been observed that

they will climb up and feed on the strings of corn just as readily as 
eat what is on the ground. Quail have been seen feeding on the pile of 
corn under the tepee, but not on the strings of cob corn. It is not 
recommended for feeding sharp-tails as they do not visit cornfields unless

they are mixed in with a flock of prairie chickens. 
 
 

					
				
				
The Ear Corn Method - Thie method is the same as the corn shock 
method as far as the food eaten is coneerned. Without corn stalks it 
is more difficult to place the ears in a place where they will be found.

Ear corn may be held in place by sticking it on spikes driven through 
boMrds or poles or can be tied with binder twine or haywire into long 
strings and wrapped around a pole or tree. Ear corn put out in this 
way should be protected by a leanto or arranged in such a way that it 
will not become covered with snow. It may be possible to build a sloping

platform of poles that is not too steep for game birds to climb, but 
steep enough not to retain much snow driven by wind. A roof could be 
out over it to prevent snow from falling on it when there is no wind. 
Ears chuld be fastened on either by spikes or in strings. The value of 
such a platform has not been determined, but it may be an efficient 
method of feeding ruffed grouse and sharp-tailed grouse in aspen thickets

where corn on the ground would be eaten by rabbits. A large amount of 
ear corn should never be put out until the game birds have located it, 
otherwise it may be eaten by rabbits or carried off by squirrels. Should

squirrels chew the binder twine on strings of ear corn, wire may be used.

Copper wire may be the best for this purpose. 
Buckwheat - Patches of buckwheat, sorghum, sunflowers, millet and 
other small 7rains have been planted for the purpose of feeding game birds

during the winter. If left standing, such patches of grain provide an 
excellent feeding place for game birds to feed during the fall and early

winter. Observations in Wood, Adams, Waushara, Portage, Marathon and Vilas

counties, where extensive experiments have been made, indicate that unless

such patches of grain are shooked or stacked the available grain is all 
eaten by the end of November. 1hen tied in bundles and shocked, or cut 
and stacked, buckwheat can be fed during the winter Provided the birds 4o

 
 

					
				
				
not leave the feeding station. In order to prevent the birds from 
deserting the feeding station, fresh material must be spread out at least

twice a week. In 1928 and 1929 sharp-tailed gfouse sat on the stacks 
during December and waited until the. buckwheat straw was spread out. 
In January and February the feeding stations were deserted. In "arch

a few of the sharptails returned. In 1931 a patch of buckwheat was 
located next to a field of shocked corn. ±'he buckwheat was stacked
and 
a hopper and leanto set up. It was found that only six prairie chickens 
out of 250 fed on the buckwheat, the remainder feeding on corn shocks. 
None of the prairie chickens learned to feed at the hopper. Early in 
February the corn shocks were hauled away and the entire flock left the 
vicinity. On the basis of these observations patches of 4rain are not 
recommended for sharp-tails,,pheasants, quail and Hungarian partridge, 
unless supplemented with a hopper and leanto, and are not recommended for

prairie chickens, unless supplemented with the tepee shock system. 
Standing corn - Corn left standing in the fall without being husked 
furnished food for game birds during the winter, provided the ears are 
high enough tot to be covered with snow. In Waushara county two fields 
of standing corn were left for prairie chickens. Observations at these 
two feeding stations indicate that prairie chickens do not feed on standing

corn if corn shocks are available. It is recommended that one tepee 
shock be set up in each patchof standing corn. 
Standing Corn - Sweet Clover - By planting a strip of corn next to 
a patch of sweet clover, an excellent hiding place next to the food 
su-nly is provided. This system is recommended for pheasants, quail, and

Hungarian partridge. This feeding arrangement could be greatly improved 
where there is a heavy snowfall by the addition of a tepee shock or 
hopper and leanto. 
 
 

					
				
				
The Furnace Pipe Hopper - This hopper is built of galvanized 
furnace pipe eight or ten inches in diameter and two or three feet long.

Near the bottom a cone with the point up is riveted on the inside. One 
inch above the junction of the cone with the furnace pipe several horizon-

tal slits are made, each about three inches long. The furnace pipe just 
above each slit is then bent in an inch or so. This hopper has the 
advantage of being mouse, rabbit and deer proof. As its feeding spaces 
are small, the grain is not as visible as it is in the hoppers built of 
lumber and greater pains must be taken to train the birds to eat from it.

As the feeding space is very limited it would be necessary to use several

of these hoppers where there are a large number of birds. If the cone on

the inside is placed six inches from the bottom the hopper may be fitted

over a stump. If small birds are to be fed a sloping platform may be 
built for them to stand on. 
FOOD AND GRIT 
Food may be classified in a great varjety of ways if the food 
for the entire year is considered. For winter feeding, however, a rough 
ilassification is &ll that is necessary. The three most important things

to be taken into consideration are the food preferences of the game birds

being fed, the food value of the grain being fed, and the availabiLity of

the food. 
Food Preferences - Each species of game has certainfoods which it 
relies on during the winter. The form in which the grain is fed is also 
important. Quail, pheasants and prairie chickens learn to eat ear corn 
whether it is husked or unhusked, Sharp-tailed grouse in Wood county pre-

ferred husked corn to unhusked. Both sharp-tailed grouse and prairie 
chickens will eat buckwheat, but not shelled corn, from a hopper. Pheasants,

Hungarian partridge, and possibly quail are not tarticular as to what kind

of grain is fed them. Wild turkeys in Columbia county preferred corn, 
 
 

					
				
				
either shelled or on the cob, to other grains. 
Food Value - Game birds which eat only one kind of grain obviously 
cannot be given a wide choice of food, but those eating a variety of grains

should be fed that grain which is best suited to keep the birds fit.to 
meet the hardships of winter. Errington (1930, p.9 found that corn was 
capable of brir~ng quail through the winter in excellent condition, and 
as yet there is nothing to prove that this does not apply to other game 
birds. In Wood and Juneau counties sharp-tailed grouse that were fed on 
buckwheat came through the winter without losing weight. 
Availability - Food may be present, but not available as a food. 
Errington (1931)finds that locust beans are not available due to the fact

that more energy must be used in clipping the beans from the tree than 
can be derived from the food eaten. Errington tunpublishedo notes that 
a corn shock or feedin   s not available if it is watched by a Cooper's 
hawk. Weed seeds, nuts and grains are not available if they are covered 
with ice and snow. 
The exact grit requirements of game birds in the northern states 
is not known, but the addition of grit to a feeding station can not help

but be beneficial. In England an extensive study of grit was made and below

are two quotations from the "Grouse Report. 
"It is particularly unfortunate that during deep snow, when grouse 
have great difficulty in replenishing their stock of gizzard grits, they

are compelled by hunger to feed upon the very foods which most rapidly 
evacuate their entire stock of grits. The hips and haws whose large hatd

seeds, as has been said, quickly replace the quartz in their gizzards, are

comparatively useless to them for dealing with heather or blackberry 
shoots, yet the bush and tree fnuits are among the first emergency rations

used in a heavy fall of snow, since they come within reach as the ground
foods 
become mpre deeply buried."  (Grouse Report, p.99)3 
S-November,ngtnPaul L. Corn on Cob Saves Wintering Quail, American Game,

 
 

					
				
				
"The strongest evidence that quartz is the most suitable form of 
grit is its universal presence in all the vegetable feedink birds that 
can obtainit. Red Grouse, Ptarmigan, Black grouse and Caper.cailzie, as 
well as pheasants and partridges bred on the moor  borders and Scandin- 
avian Willow Grouse, all collect quartz, and nothing but quartz, if it 
is by any means to be obtained."  (Grouse Report, p.99)3 
PREDATORS AT FEEDING STATIONS 
Due to the large number of birds at a feeding station, predatory 
animals may cause trouble. 
Cats and weasels are likely to be the worst as they are small 
and are expert stalkers. A box trap baited with stale codliver oil is 
a good cat trap, and a stovepipe with a steel trap at each end with bait

in the middle is a good way to catch weasels. AAnothor, 
Hawks and owls are not likely to cause much trouble except in 
certain parts of the state. In Wood county in 1930-31 eight horned owls 
were caught at feeding stations. Observations show that these owls visited

these stations only at night and fed on mice and rabbits which were 
stealing food from the birds. No birds were caught by hawks in Wood county

during the winter at feeding stations, as there were no Cooper's hawks or.

Roshawks in that region. Errington (1930, p.12) notes that a Cooper's hawk

sometimes stays over winter in Southern Wisconsin and preys on game birds

at feeding stations. Wherever a Cooper's hawk is found near a feeding station

a pole trap should be set. On certain years goshawks may be found in the

northern counties and along Lake Michigan. Where goshawks are known to be

in the vicinity pole traps should be set up near the feeding stations. The

other hawks will not bother feeding stations during the winter and it is
not 
advised at present to take precautions against them. Foxes and coyotes Will

2 - Errington Paul L. - Amen   an Game 
3 - "The rouse in Health      a n is Gam ) e1 dU u{;3 eport of the Committee

of Inqgiry on grouse   sease    v      unabrLdge e   ion) Smith, Elder &
Co 
London, 1911. 
 
 

					
				
				
probe ly be seen b.t the game birds before any damage can be done. In the

case of the sharp-tailed grouse, several birds are always on the lookout

for predators. 
MERE AM1  gIEN TO ESTABLISH STATEONS, and HOW TO ATTRACT BIRDS 
When and where to establish a feeding station depends on the 
type of station planned on. 
For standing corn, buckwheat patch, or standing corn-sweet clover 
systems, arrangements should be made in the spring before planting time.

Such stations should be established in localities that are likely to have

game birds within reach so that theywill be sure to find them before winter.

The corn shock or tepee shock type of station should be established in corn-

fields where game birds are reported to be working. The stations should 
be established as soon as possible after it is known in which cornfields

the game birds are working. This will prevent the game birds from feeding

on the other shook s and will bring about a better understanding between

the farmer and sportsman. The hopper-leanto and ear corn feeding stations

are established as soon as it is definitely known where the game birds are

feeding. Before establishing such a station it is a good idea to put out

a small amount of feed in such places as hedgerows, swales, wooded hillsides,

dr weed patches and establish the station where the birds come ,regularly

to.-feed. Hopper-leanto stations for sharp-tailed grouse should be established

at sharD-tail crowing ,rounds or in aspen and white birch thickets where

sharp-tails feed'.on buds. These thickets may be located by looking for tracks

after the first snow. Feeding stations for pheasants, Hungarian partridges

and wild turkeys should be established at the time of releasing the birds

whenever these birds are being planted and in the succeedin' years feeding

should begin early enough to prevent migration in search of food. 
If the above rules are followed in establishing feeding stations 
it will not generally be necessary to use additional means to attract 
 
 

					
				
				
the birds. In the case of the sharp-tailed grouse there may be difficulty

in getting the birds to feed at one place. In general sharp-tails do not

recognize ear corn as a food, but they may be easily trained to eat it by

placing a few ears where they are known to feed on buds. As soon as they

begin feeding on ear corn, a permanent station may be located at that place.

A small patch of buckwheat, standing corn, millet or ragweed are excellent

attractions for qame birds and should be used whenever possible to attract

birds to such types of stations as the hopper-leanto and tepee shock. 
Although the available food in patches of small grain is generally ex- 
hausted before winter really begins and cannot be classified as efficient

winter feeding stations, continued experiment will probably prove them 
to be of great value when supplemented with the hopper-leanto, or tepee 
shock. 
Feeding stations should be where they can be reached in any kind 
of weather, but should be far enough from roads to prevent disturbance by

passing vehicles. 
Scattering of grain as an emergency measure without training the 
birds to come to a definite place to feed is not recommended as most of the

grain would be wasted and it would be better to save the time and money 
until the next year and establish a permanent feeding station. If it is 
known exactly where a flock is located emergency feeding would, of course,

be a good thing. 
 
 

					
				
				
!r e  AUeSt   of the Grous  in Vashbwna Oouath 
*Ad Possible ftm r  o  hlo -ts 
Present Distributio.- , l  ruffed p   se ts fomt  the Wae  tiberws on 
the cutover lade grin up to aspen mat other ieee. p*wt    trees, andItn tbe

pastures. It Is uspeoiallr aadmat on the rouew      morainic eas where t
h e 
Is a deone stand of second growth trees an brush f ro five to rftoot.   fet
Is 
height. ARM counts te on typical setins of ruffed groue oover it was 
stuotstod ther wre 15 ru fed grMs    per. square mile an according to thoee
wbo 
hunted Is Otober there wer      about 20 per aqe mile. Te shrptalet g   
 se 
is found an the brush covered moraines where the brush to from one to five

feet Is holtt In pastures, and In the open Sa* pise-cok brush of the outw*As

sa alog the Yellow )mekN,, and Totostteo 1vers.       ehe p*1      . i hestjmtee

was 10 per square nito. the season was not open In 19, The pimate. grouse
or 
prairie chicken ts very scarce. 2eore are a fow mal flecks around $tone J&ke.

Yorxerly there were large flecks of prairte obickoas In Rvergroen fownehip
almsg 
the Tellow River but they are now extinct in that arbw. 
Grouse Cover.--fte groue cover ariess in Vashburu couty whida are least 
suitable for agriculture and foret7 or*e the best areas is the eonty for
shawp- 
tailed grouse and prairie chikn me agment on an intensiv state. These aro

the avfs of outwash along the Y#ewg Ranska st Totocatte Rivers. Yheee 
areas are level enough to allow extensive food patches to be planted* As
the 
nsting cor and roostinag grounds are £rea4r Wed and as there io a good

"lwof food during the semr It Is probable that absence of winter food

is the only large factor whicht limits the number of grouse under matural
oovk 
ditions. A combination of grain patches, feeding stations, ant groves 0 thito

 
 

					
				
				
birth wuld fuuish tbe winter' food reuired, . h   gese shoing In the 
f4wsIngseatios of the County would be gretly Isproved if toa farw     main-

tWae,4 4 fee~ing statto* tariag the wfialmew A poesible f$,anall msao or

supporting these toe&5*g etatlas wo~U be that epeh ft^Ww S11w a mtaia

mimbor of heren, depoomias on the nmmb of surpt"& grosse to hizat
pwovttei 
thy paid the boet of f..42a the blirds not only as yer wAmm thes sesom is

open, but on 4ao1Sd y~ers. This woult a* Asabt redme the, umto of Awad, 
season*. ftse wou1 appy to sharpotalled grouse ad p'airle, ehiokea, . 
pro.bably not to ruffed grmse as It to yex' doubtful If the xomber of rafft

grouso sa be 'egulate &we to the tiff loulty at treanig it to eat artifiolal

 
 

					
				
				
Shting Preserve Possibilities 
In WisonSiA there are   eWel lWP Oras of outwash to     g iulture or 
fo.stp, bat whiah omud be UM *     toue shootin ounds .Ooambl to 
those is *44     ant SeotleAt. Tis does not mean that the bWlish Seytem of

*otias Molt b UsM, %it something earbe to the bglih syste             of

regulating the Ovvironumt to prodWe th    hihest possible number of gros
per 
square mile, would have to be used. The actual shootag would be something

a the order of e qail ehoting groun s in Oeorgia or the state shooting 
srunts in Ponnvqaia. At preeset there is an op       season on grouse In

Wisoonsta, about four out of eight yews. It is aesme4 that when large shoot-

A   Ing proeer ems a  orgaised &hi h oa   shet yearly as they o in b4.M
    and 
Seotland withoat overshooting, the law will be atjuste  according. 
The vpose of the grouse ever surve    of Vashbun County was to determine

a possible future use for these areme not suited to either agricltue   o

forestry. It will take seveal years of ezperimentatio to determne just what

steps will have to be taka to ohans he environmento produce the waxtiu 
uober of grouse per squars mile. In the *as of the r et grouse vt Jglaz 
and Scotland it wae possible to ehange the environment to such an extent

that t4    ar 30 tpe   as ey grouse per sqvar mie there as there are Is 
aerthem  Wsiuscnin sad thee is no visible roam  *by s   lar results  annot
be 
ebtainel with the prairie *doen ant sh.arptalet grose. 
ndfing from what is alread   knon relative to the requare nesting 
facilitiess, snmer and winter foot, and winter cover, the following areas

will Aje4 the least change to ms:e then uitable for groase shooting Pro-

/ 
sev   n   r   tpeettxtlnintn                nutttrete           giutr 
 
 

					
				
				
or forestry. Jac pi.ne will grow Of these ersas and shmld it bav a *ftW1r.,$

Va.W in the fNtu  it Om be g'      a  sidelie OU the  W  Presrvs AM will

have better fire p"otetion than at pMesMt. Ro pIS will &Ow o ares
No. 3. 
1. f. area between Oull Zaks and the Nomkaa River iA T. 0 I. 16 111. 
an omamietig of sootioa 1# 2, 3, 4, 11, 10, 9, 0# 17, 16o 15, and 20. 
2. fte area northwest of lak* Gllae along the Toteogtic ea   St. Croix 
Rive*r.   Yhi area Iselveu 1. 41 R. IN. setioa 17, 18, 7, g, 9, I0, 11, /

go 3o 4o 5, 6..  421o R- 1.3w. Secios 13, 14, l5, 16.17 IT, , g 9 , 1 ,l

12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 19, 20, 21, 29, 30, 329, 31 Y.I 42. R. 141. (bmaott

county). To 43N. 2.131. (Doupas Omnty), otione 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 
32# 33v 3, 359 23o?, P1 -o 20    9. 3- T- 3$. R. 1lw. Sections 16, 17. 20,
2,. 
Area wmber oe tad two are nearly all outwash san and ugvel (Plainfield 
sa, P1. nwdr loam, and Pl. loWaM     ). Is several plaose there ar m   rous

kettle holes, which aake the eomtry ran&, but In geeral it is level.
Area 
msber three is oralni. seed (ilas smA) aMv is hilly with two lakes, 
If grose shoottng gromde are combines with foesstry about we half of the

emld be planted to Ja pine or ret pine an buckeat mit be plamte 
In lea strips to ast as f ir oheaks. 7ire will not rau Ia    keat or oer

fields and these eo the two plants which would be relit upon for fll ad 
winter fo04. 
the folling table show   the £istribution of sow  of the plats fowM

an the utwash seat of Washbuu Osmaty ftrln   Augaet. 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
~4'!T43Wt40X)O )NO T 0)Q0V 30i 39 1 3sX 
212 1 1 13 1 R 12 1 R 13 v XLI w la2 1 113 v 1 11 W 
8.5t~wwp          S. X2 2, 1    4S      .633     .2 
Polygminfl. artoulats                 I   x 
Aperamap. -            x        x                2    2 
Oanios oilawe       2 
MOROe sp.                    x             1     2 
Mme. rzM5.cm                                         2 
Pims reio             2     2                        x 
Ptu  2akdn                    S x     2 z  x 
Pinus ot~bm                  2                        1 
2ouu op.     x                2 x  x  x  x2 
2om op**                       I   x  x        2 
Botu op~.,       2     x    x     2   2    2    X    x 
 
 

					
				
				
!h. &Uwo P1~wts wet. Idouttfied oa sample plot* on the sections 
b.Aloated =Am Include only th. platt w the biab ad d%7 atrs" em 
not UPg or river bttoos **z.o t here Is e, postwtari of plants. 
1.42 1., 1. 12 W.0 Soato  5 and It. )43 N.,0 R# 13 1., soctiof 5 
we, wrWosmt~tw* of the area of vatwash sand along the Totogstic River. 
to 40 1., A* 12 1*# Sestion 14 to roproeatativo of tbe Ktminto 
sins with a sixture of Otelsea loss eM lilso osAn. 
T. 38 N.0 R. 11 #,,p Section 21 ropresents tbe lilas son in a 
raa* Momisio was 
T# 39 No# 3. 13 Vo, soticst 30 represets the Gmowsl SWA In the 
Yellow River Valley West of Spooftor. 
Y. 40 1-* It- 13 1., Sstion 34 T. ho N.0 1t. 11 W40 section 4s, a" 
T. 40 U,, R. 1L2 V.0 Seetioa 26 represnt the outwah ssA slong the 
Ram.ngusRiver. 
/f 
 
 

					
				
				
40 k) 13l4J S 3f cptO 
403J1~ 
LJ~~ 10c 
A-tL-~ 
.40 00  A 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMU rIATI6NS TO STATE OONSlRVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMIkS      S                                             MATT. PATTERSON

HASKELL NOYE, MILWAUKEE                                       W         
                     DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
ACTING CHAI IAN ITH                  CTATE         OF                   
               C. L. HARRINGTON 
L. M. HOBBINS. MApIsOAN      THE        STATE  OF             W         
                     SUPT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
RALPH M. IMMELL. MADISON                                                
                  B. 0. WEBSTER 
R. B. GOODMAN. MARINETTE                           -SUPT. OF FISHERIES 
MD GCONSERVATION COMMISSION                               H. W. MAC KENZIE

E. M. DAHLEERO. LADYSMITH                                               
                     CHIEF WARDEN 
SECRETARY                                                               
                 CIFWRE 
PAUL D. KELLETER                              WM. F. GRIMMER 
SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                           F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON,7                   AND PUBLICATIONS 
- - ,DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESE"RCH BUREAU 
NOV 18 Ar.!:. 
No taxes are levied against the people of Wisconsin for fish, game, or state
parks 
 
 

					
				
				
0 ~ 
-, 
-a     V  ~  ~ 
a '-' 
3~          ~  ~   7 
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A~a~ 
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VV 
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VA     4t 
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(7 fio~+ 
 
 

					
				
				
37 
3, 3 
I  a1 
o4-r rK4   _e S 
C+v73                       _-73 
-51   0  vLiII (-4 ~ - 
/2f 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
             MATT. PATTERSON 
DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
WILLIAM MAUTHE. CHAIRMAN                                                
                 C. L. HARRINGTON 
FOND DU LAC              T     E    STATE         OF WISCONSIN          
             CUPT. OF FOREST$ AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                 B. 0. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN SAY            SONSE       VATION          OMMISSI    
      N              UPT. OF FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE        CONSERVH. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                                                  
                    CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                    PAUL D. KELLETER           
                 WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSM ITH                                                              
                SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                          F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                   AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
~, 
13 
/7- 
/'                                £1 -_ 
 
 

					
				
				
2~~~ 10,j~                   T~~- 
elI 
-~j            -~  -      ----- 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

'CMISSONERS                                                             
           MATT. PATTERSON 
-                          DEPUTY DIRIECTOR 
WILLIAM MAUJ1HE. CHAIRMAN    TUEOF I'                                   
                 . L. HARRINGTON 
OUPT. OF FOREET AND PKARKS 
0. C. LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                   O.ETh 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN BA                                                    
                   S T ~ UJM1~A N   UPT OFFISERIES 
HASKELL NOYES, MILWAUKEE           INE       VlOC               M      S
  I   N          H. W. MA KENZIE 
L. M. HOBSINS. MADISON                                                  
                    CHIEF ' ARDEN 
E, M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                    PAUL D. KELLETER           
                 WM. F. GRIMMR 
LADYSMITH      A                         QSR~AtO          I~~~SUPT OFGAIME

CONSERVATION DIRE:t.R                          F.G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUIT. OF EDU CATION 
h   .ACfR (                AND PUBLICATIONS 
0R. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN, RESEARCH BUREAU 
44.                  4 
".                          . C 
e. 
- - - - -- - - 
 
 

					
				
				
f3. 
X4-V  ~ 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENE QRA IMUNICATIONS TO $TATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                    -MATrT. PATTERSON 
WILLIAM MATHE., CHAIRMAN                                                
                    C.STATE  L WHIS INSIN  , "EPTY DIRCTORAANo  PARKS

FOND   L LAC                                                            
                   UP. OANDPARKS 
0. C. LEMK  WAUSAU                                                      
                    1,o. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN BAY                                                   
                     SUPT. OF F aIHERIES 
HASKELL NO~YES, M~ILWAULKEE        O    S   R    A    I  N   C    M     I
 S   O             H. W. MAC KIENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                                                  
                      CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAH4LBERG, SECRETARY                   PAUL P. KE!L.LETER         
                   WMd. F. GRIMMER 
LARYMIT~  ~                               ~SUPT. OF GAME 
COSRVT6    DRCOR                           F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON,                    AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
-3- 
2t4A 6  ~ 
26  _L      __ 
4-L           4L 
 
 

					
				
				
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4.       T         TTA4A                                                
                                                                        
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ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
                MATT. PATTERSON 
DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
WILLIAM MAUTHE. CHAIRMAN                                                
                     C..RRINTON 
FONDTHE                                TAE OF WISCONSIN                 
                   SUPT. OF FORET AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE, WAUSAU                                                     
                     S. 0. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN SAY              O                          COMMISS   
       I              SUPT. OF FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES, MILWAUKEE         C                            COMMISSIO 
                     H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                                                  
                        CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                      PAUL D. KELLETER         
                     WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
                    SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                            F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                     AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
1/  ~                             /      ~CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
//       7-#.4~ 
/27 
'CC; 
LA. 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
             MATT. PATTERSON 
DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
WILLIAM MAUTHE. CHAIRMAN                                                
                 C   .HRIGO 
WOND'DU AG.°R.           THE        S      TEOF          W        CO
     SN          C. L.HARRINOToN 
FOND U LAC               TSUPT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                 B. 0. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN SAY                                                   
                    SUPT. OF FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE        CONSERVATION                            
                 H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS, MADISON                                                  
                    CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG, SECRETARY                    PAUL D. KELLETER           
                 WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
                SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                          F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                   ANO PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
S.                                                                     CHAIRMAN.
RESEARCH BUREAU 
0). 6CZ- 
3 1      Pt-W&~                  e..                        K~~ 
3 y 
-3-7-7 
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c-.    -Qcd;.    /z 
C,   T    0 
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12- 
73 
.-j:   _ _ _ _ _ _ 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
             MATT. PATTERSON 
DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
WILLIAM MAUTHE. CHAIRMAN                                                
                 C. L. HARRINGTON 
FOND DU LAC              T   RTWISCONSIN                                
                S.  OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                 B. 0. WEBSTER 
. W. ,CKS. GREEN AY            CO     S   R    A   I   NUOM           S 
 I   NEPT. or FISHERIE 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE        CONSERVATION               COMMISSION   
                 H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS, MADISON                                                  
                    CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                    PAUL D. KELLETER           
                 WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSM ITH                                                              
                SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                          F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                   AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
>                                                                    z

/- 
/31 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
                MATT. PATTERSON 
DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
WILLIAM MAUTHE. CHAIRMAN                                                
                     C.  HARRINGTON 
FOND DU LAC               THE        STATE OF WISCONSIN                 
                     UPT. OF FOREST AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE, WAUSAU                                                     
                     B. 0. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN BAY            C        E    VATIONSUPT. OP PISH ERIES

HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE         CONSERVATION                 C         
                     H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                                                  
                        CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                      PAUL D. KELLETER         
                     WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
                    SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                            F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                    AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
C--! 
3-3 
3 5) 
~~- L7 
c~3.                                 00_ 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION. MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
              MATT. PATTERSON 
DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
WILLIAM MAUTHE. CHAIRMAN                                                
                  C L.ARRINGTON 
FOND DU LAC              THE        STATE OF WISCONSIN                  
               C.    O FORESTS AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE, WAUSAU                                                     
                   B. 0. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN AY              ON     E      A     O       COMMISSION
                    SUPT. Of FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES, MILWAUKEE        C                           C           
                   H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                                                  
                     CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                    PAUL D. KELLETER           
                  WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
                 SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                           F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                    AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
o.- 
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a  VID do *-L                                                           
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N3,aUVM JaIHO                                                           
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31ZN3)4 :)VW *M 'H                                                      
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bl3lse3M ' 0 a                                                          
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SXUVA ONVOISBUO.AAG -. ans                                              
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            ,                H.Lnvw wvri'lim 
MOIDIMIG A-Ln-rsa 
NOi;M3.LlVci 'IIVW                                                      
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Plant           T 42 NT 43 NT 4o0N T40 NT      0 N TJ40N  T739 NT 3 9 
R 12 WR13 W R12WRl13W Rl1WR 12 WRl13 W R 111 
S-.5   S. 22  s. 14  S .34  s. 4  s.26   5. 30  S. 21 
Polygonum Convolvulus*                  X             x                 
  x 
Aster junceus                                                  x 
Cornus eircinata*                        x                              
  X 
Geranium maculatum                                     X                
  X 
Maianthemum canadense                                  X       x      x 
   X 
Pyrola. sp.                              x                            I 
Aquilegia canadensis                                          x      x  
  x 
Veronica virginica,                                                   x 
Lespedeza sp.                                                         x 
   x 
Abrosia artemisaef oli 
Irigeron canadense                                    x       x      I 
Rbeckia lacintata                                           x 
Rbeckia hirta                   I 
Polygonvm aviculare                                           x      X 
Lepidium sp.              I                            X             x  
  I 
Aaanthus retroflemis                   x                           x 
Cenopodium album*'               x      X             x             x 
Sanicula, marilazidica                   x                              
  X 
etaria virdis                          x                           x 
*Used as food b~y grousD 
 
 

					
				
				
Name ofPlant          TJ42 N T 43 x  4oN T 4N r4o N T 4oN T3 9N T 381 
R12 W R131W   12W VR 3      11VR 12 TR 13WR 11 W 
S. 5   S. 5  S-1     .3     .11   S. 26 S5.30 S. 21 
ali S P.*              X       X      x     X      x      I      I    I 
jeanothus sp.           I      I x                 x 
Yacciniumsop.*          I      x             x     I      x       X   I 
Pterie aquilina*        I      x      x      x     x      I      x   'x 
Corylus sp.*            x      x      x      I     I             I    x 
Liatris scariosa        x     x       I     I     I             I    x 
Andropogon furcatus      I     x             x     x      I      x   I 
Koeleria, cristata,      I     I             I     x             I    I 
Agropyron sp.                                I     I                  x 
Bromus purgans                               x     x                  x 
Helianthemm canadense*  X     x                   x      I      I    I 
Arctostaphylos ura-ursi  x     x                   x       x 
olidago sp.*            I      X      I      x     x             I    x 
igasa, repens          x                          x 
Gaultheria, op.*'       x      x                   I             x    x 
Helianthus occidentalis  X     x       x     x     I                  I 
Rosa humilis*            x     x       I     x     x             x 
Ilycopodiiim op.         x                         x 
Brigeron ramosus        x      x                   x 
Aster leavis             I     X                   x 
Ltvhyrus venosus        x              x           I      x      I    I 
Monardafistulosa,       I             x     I     x      x      I    I 
Agastache sp.            x             x           x 
Thubus sp.*              I             I           x             I    x 
Myrica, asplenifolia*    I                   x     I                  x 
Hieraciun canadense*    x 
Cornus op.*                            I 
 
 

					
				
				
Name of plant        12 W IR13 WR 121WE13      RW        12 w#13 W     111W

ASC.as. 4OS                                    s.~ 2. 5s.30  S. 21 
S.olues                    22  s. 4   s. 34R.1V 
Bfrigera gzalexcuei     x                            x       x 
Arobisaevip.*                          X                            X   
 X 
Acariensileflu                                      I       X      I 
Prunus pennhylvanlea*     x      x       I            x               I 
 Ix 
Prunus virginiaia*                      I            x 
Verbascu Thapsus                                     x 
Rumex acetosella*                       I            I 
3pilobium op.*                          x                     x 
Camupanula rotundifolia          x I                           x I 
TiervillaLonicers,    Ixx. 
gils.a op.                                            I 
Syphoricarpo raceo s. I 
Ahmorpha canescens                               1                    1 
,Aster ptarmicoidee                             x 
Convolmilus spithamaeus*"        I 
 
 

					
				
				
S. 5  S. 22 s. 14 5341 s.41s. 26.s 53o0      . 1 
Fo1ygmau convolvIlue                                                x 
Aster jim 
Corem  circlnatO 
Goemana xslau                                   2 
Usiant)heo  canMrn"                               x      2         
 x 
pyoI& xp 
Aqulogia isn"=sis                                       X,,   X,   
x 
V2'054a vlrginio&                                              x 
L40p"Os sp~.   -                                               x 
Ambrosioa oztemlafo1l 
Wir1pon cansto"                                 x       x     x 
ftbe@1a laolut*                                         x 
fbookela hirta 
P101mnm ^444                                                 2 
T'Spt4.1um x                                     x            z 
hiuin~mas vwtwof1tuaw                2 
2hmpdu al2                                 x           x 
5aLOUIA 10miwtdi"1                  I                              
x 
BetV'tA ,1i1s                        1 
*Used as food by grouse 
 
 

					
				
				
t                 'r 42 1 T 4     4* it 17- 4o w!,r 4o x T 4o v *j -39 NI
39 N 
It 12 T R 'i3  12 WA 13 wl it 11 It It 12 1 It 13 w It 11 v 
S. 5   8      go 14'! S. 341 B. 4   S. 26  S. 30  S. 21 
WIX Sp'#                  x       x      x      x      x       x      x 
  x 
Cesawthus spo'            x       x                    x 
Taftinlas op.*           x       x              x     x       x       I 
 x 
Ptarls *qudlina*         x       x              x     x       x      x  
 x 
coryllis spi * - ,        x      x      x       x     x              x  
 x 
Liatris scariesa          x      x       x      x     x              x  
 x 
Andropegm furoutus        x      x              I     x       x      x  
 x 
Xo4oria aristat&          I      x              x     x             
I    x 
Ag"Wm ip*                                       x     I            
      x 
groom  PwWas                                    x     x 
Roll=,thm a- camdonsoO    X      x                    I       x 
Arctovtai bvlos ura--urai* I     x                    x 
56lids4;o SP4,*            x      x       x      x     x 
446ma rop"S                x                           x 
amIthor" op$              x      x                    x            
 x    x 
U61SOMMUO O*CidA*Wto      x      x              x     x                 
 x 
**a husluto               x      x              x     x              x 
Zoopod lum op.            x                           x 
vrigem zoom$ 
Astor %ommis              x      x 
Lathyrue venosus          x                           x       x      x  
 x 
*saw" f is tulooft        x              x      x     x       x    
 x    x 
Apoft&* op#               x                           2 
pxfto sp.*                x                           x              x  
 2 
14MLOO 4 0940"Ollao       x                     x     2            
      x 
Comus op,*                               x            x 
 
 

					
				
				
T 42 v  T 43 xT 4o x;T 40-N4 40-N -40 x!739 v T 3g i 
12 1 A 13 T:R 12 WA 13 w  R 11 T R 12 T It 13 w R 11 w 
5    S. 22. S. l4i s. 34; s, 4   s. 26  s. 3o: s. Ln 
Aficlopias tubeross       x 
Brigorm gUballus          x                     x     x       x         
  x 
Armla Op"O                x      x                                 
 x     x 
ftelandb4sr Op'le         x      x              x     x       x 
F- '" 
Litho spomm 
Irigis explexiawdlo       x                                  x          
  I 
Ambis laevigata                                       x              x  
  x 
AMW stollatum 
Achillea Nillefolium                                  x       x      x 
Prwmis pwm#ylvwAas*       x      x       x                           x  
 x 
Prmw virgintawO                          x            x 
Verbasaw lfhapnw                                      x 
Imez "Otossluo                           2            1 
mpiloblxw op.*                          x            x       I          
  x 
CaMP&MJ& ratuallfalla     x      x                    x       x 
Di*rvIIIA Louisa*                        x      x     x              I  
 x 
"horloarpm rasmomw 
Anorpha canoseeas 
Aster ptaftlooldn                               x 
 
 

					
				
				
T.qLN. T. NTA"  ~fN-  -r-qML 1~y' 
'I          x 
Vc~ & s .         __   _ ___  _ _ _ 
Kole0v-ta. cs~ c                  x ___  __  __  __I__   __  x 
__ _ _ _ _ ___2       _ _  _ _ _ _ _  _ _   _ _   x 
Irc.4o S+cLpkyxo 
coliciAL164e&  ji.  X 
(:7 u   4 -_ 
h-54-e" 4evisx__             _  __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 
aso4-0. C Ae 
 
 

					
				
				
Vol  6m won  4_       _-                 _ _ _ _ _ _ 
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V;ec~ C.-c    __ ___           _-  _  _       _ _  _ 
p  CA_ w%__                                _ _ 
S-~~~     r 
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ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMM ISSIONERS 
MATT. PATTERSON 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
  DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
ACTING CHAIRMAN                                                       C.E
STATE  WISCONSIN  C L. HARRINGTON 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                      OF                          
  SUPT. OFFORESTSAND PARKS 
RALPH M. IMMELL, MADISON                                                
B. 0. WEBSTER 
R. B. GOODMAN. MARINETTE                                                
  SUPT. OF FISHERIES 
E. M. DAHLBERG. LADYSMITH                                               
  W. MAC KENZIE 
SECRETARY                                                               CHIEF
WARDEN 
PAUL D. KELLETER                     WM F GRIMMER 
SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                 F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
0. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
-r .2     'F '13 N  T. '/o A  MADISON,             AND PUBLICATIONS  - 3
 y 
D.4 , i  r L             JONES. WAUSAU 
3ecfKK                   3    S  .                          /'J, 
IC. w       I's .                  -r- 4'  o      . INMAN_ _ 
RBc le3 & RIte                                                    w 
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p~ciro~a s  -)abei-ost                                                  
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.    2Lx                                                           _ __x,
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'Vg±6am- Tea                              ____    _____        X 
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As wwA cont isb* ioAty with thegets 
on thi cony  r, 0. Gross who has deto4 the 
prari chi4u inves iatlo for %Mpat byer 
ovi 200 poimestor a siallar stu of ruffe guse,. 
Dur lbg the al of 1930 th lb. v  ura a 
aodutd ##~a1 hungtrp bo sure seieno 
 
 

					
				
				
1'etab27, D3, Mort Lw Janos, r     rW,  s#t 
Babo 4 -Si shap-tied grous, four prairie~ ohiams 
DZ. Mrit L. Jin.., Dr, Preen, W. ?.Grmsr 
PhiiXL  lon W . X. Colo.    YE*a Wm* and 
V, Z, W. 3*md but"~ tw setiot      ar   tovmip, 
%on mile xrtbIos of Pittsville, ad mm section in 
Roulngt, toau t four ail**A Sotest Bb*k. 
Thirtee sarwptail    vw* gm e ou prailet ahIoke, an 
two ruf* grous were oab sta 
Th    bet. amwk         $*tptale grous oos ated 
durng .uus hd mretaswo1 bit wodU*kso butX 
fovobw eouAvt  tIbiiw th   adul  birds o ot" durin 
Univerity of Wi~sxhsfo t#       bat In goneral tbo" 
arm wom   Inon birdst ba in aftItst but in the 
oaso fthe bira exaine tis~ fall tbis e#ditio hlU 
true for tpow*   but not for euvz* ftW        apalo 
"fo st table of pwaIasits 
The prii    eicken turne in by J~r Saleso 
wteelansi Rpis wase dying as the result ofta burs% oaoe=6 
 
 

					
				
				
t4gther *te tbe tub I.UM     baak Upem 14tq,  Th 
that he imr no die      o the thea blaekbe.& that wul 
reult in su*h a 0tedItimt altth  1  b).aakhoad arm 
isms we pomt in the diseae      til.,o  Or, TY14ort 
]A the sue of tbree Seatise SoUthat of 
Babooka s$Qtz~    a?, ton Praie alks,(forty-five 
3I2 sharw-tal1.& gmue, towm P".1w1. Lhkenus u4 m 
rutfel 4"es   w" *11ted, Study skins of twsap 
tailed grme   and cue mrirle OhIO)a "" mNAS. A 
study skinan e  s mad orM ta shrt-oa~ wi sh t by 
Mr, Griwr ?ho stom* o ethis owl cotaiadt one maker. 
IA tbe surve et0 in GM     towship on Otbo 4, 
Cuse, fow prairle ahaeu, six 
ruttot groue, ad five rabbits wee~ seen, Nnea-sharp. 
taied grus, one prawie ohies    ad tw rufet gmu 
Wro 41@t.U~      -3d   skins or thre shbwp-ta1~d Sue 
.at m#e pralil ehikten we" ume*O eato~er 4 one seetlus 
in Remlagto  twahip van loked over sad 120 sharp.taied 
g~use were aem.    ftu  shap-tailod groa  w" cofleetet, 
 
 

					
				
				
In this s**+Ioa 
UA 8ptmtor "? OeM Qetowl 4      a tebl of six 
s#tins ftu    in Rint   and two in Ou7 towhip wro 
throghy pmo eve    nl a total of 223 awOwr         b 
served. This i* an &Y.&S of 29 per sqar stile, By 
eootin probbl   being    ptiomsX) US we soon in 
five setin* or 22 per sqv      milt or one     for t 
in Wood couty berri and    herris we" kilZ2* 
by the rrot and mld **oo   a" poor due to the 4 
sumo# Mudution of the crps of the bix~a oollseto4 
iudioteto that the oily fbods available this fall aro 
T~u  to the aortopM of foo  the bow*ta        h    tt 
feeding xtallms in Woo    oaty has alrea~ybo h mosl 
oateu* IR WashrRWa? a     a M e outlem where thr  are mor 
*at fields and shoem   *ra  the grouse hay* not yet 
start#4 to feol at the state ftee4i4 staflonsw It Is 
therof ro rethat in smtatis not having extenslye 
tis14b of &at atubtle nl eheekel eoo orguniattns Paig 
to feed phaats shoull sswe, their aon         *   asek  som 
an posile,* 
 
 

					
				
				
To" 
A;Zla;rm of Growl* in "at *Ouxty 
TANJ ()? PAIWITZS AND FOOD 
Of BIRDS =XZCM IN 1930 
No                       Parasit*I                                      
    Date- 
tapo""m                            Rsaim4rom       AUg* 4 
10 rovmdwovm         41"er 22%        %ammkipo 
! Asoaridk)        Gftsx "ea 60      Wo"  OOAMt y 
I JAMUO 
Im V"d Usu 
is ta"W"m            arasshop""       AMMJ&     
     Aug* 
rou"Mm"                            towships, 
(4m   ulft)                        Amoau eotmtr 
8 Wo" Sisk$ 
"P*"=n            Wasshappers 00      ?*,rt Uvards    Qg. 7 
won"         6 V004 tiou          Saw thist,10       towshipl, 
blassms      10    wood 00=1*7 
T* Shan-talled     I ""    list         ar"abb"Ors  
                     -iug. 
g""O           tap*vom                             towkshipt 
"ad MAMIly 
Pralrl*                              G*terpiua"       Wissensill   
   Aug* U 
14 ro"Aws-ria               so           Rapids 
(ALImmk)            Raspbs"i" 
lf--07il-fliks             40% 
10 lies 
Ca**W diMM"ds 
p4mutb4 tus to 
ebrenis blAokboa& 
9*                     1"*                                state guo
      3opt, le 
ram 
10   Dmsm Us        a roumAxom                             Stale gwo    
  Sept. 10 
(311MM)                                 ram 
IW61* ftoamm*             so"                                stato saw
      Sopt, 10 
 
 

					
				
				
Not-  NOWx Ua" 
#4?1 Ph*4"I                       stae PO     ;3pt Z0 
Raffe Jh *MAt      now         Blatkt UrnrU   Stt 80.    'Spt. 
1* Pheasat      2t~    Ufem        OPOM      stat. gam   sp%. L 
chicken9m                               fna= 
t6 Peaan     40 re~wa 3nat                       gam   Sept tkst$ 
 
 

					
				
				
amatwat       *H 0=t 
grouse                 *1AP 
*Numw           Polrlae* tv* 
wiua  We~e  ood county 
 
 

					
				
				
All   a -      t"LIMA21LI 
34 SUV"Kod.       60% Garytownshp  @.t, 4 
grw   6#t 4S-X"   uk~t4% We  et 
so4 a~"      eml!01-  aoo  o Cr  ~mbp Os 
x mowe' mty 
 
 

					
				
				
r*04 7wmxiteg 0 DIXOSAW 0 MA 
7ahZoa of Groms* in W64A oomtr 
Le                                                        kg!"Iitz 
     D4k!l 
465  SUMp-tail"     is romavono                        *0118gtan   
  oat. 4 
(ASILAdig)                      tomablp 
I sapew*m                        W04A comatr 
46 3bsmp-tailoi       5 +apsvonw    olov*r      So    08.ry *GV"hjp
   004 4 
gro"o         4 W"d tiou      arasahoppo"   60  "*a 
    ty 
x voot Uou      Buakwboat        Oary tomship     04t, 4 
grous*                        or"*hoppo m0% wo"      40unty 
48  shweso-4s iled    S tap*varmw.   'Dwokwboat        Ro".ngt4ft  
    Oct. 
grouso                                          tomship 
wood 00unty 
4if  3harp-Ui 144     8 "=*"Zug      010T*r      004   oozy %omxAlp
    Oat - 4 
(AsearltU)    Suckwbeal         Wool egmty 
4 UIP01FOM 
50  RuIT"  grou"            No"                        Baboook
         Sept. 
(nuot by Wire)                                     wood samty, 
61  Ruffed grouso                                                       oat,
I 
gg"tboa "unty 
copiod 11/16/31 
GC 
 
 

					
				
				
in amm Wa drea UP to supp~at th goosres 
repots relate to opnAM  hn seso an pairi 
.aricknarptie wme an uf    ruei 91 
T ptfi $  Iar gie )bp **nte to  MbA 
aompri~sn na be &4* 
WMA 00tnt 
1, PeiwL choka4 - x ?Iw  I smm he4ag 
of1 i ohee intoetonhp weeeunshv 
male pmrl ah~m w~r -me Ins May Allwin 
51fale i te 0m are te tl fo hah 
m~etonswoud be114 Th totl nmbe of oum*4 ird 
 
 

					
				
				
or"&                      0 Poop.41*£            ytU,3an 
ing floks of 40 sr nor* hav boon reported~ in te othe 
tM~sIP6*Allwing 50 for each of the towss       in lhic 
*auts were not mado the total~ populan foi wowod emty 
would bet 
osutol tewshs       nU   fowr5 taimohip* 
"'t iat  towah1ps 85      ow 11    W&    S 
The toal prairie *hl*.a population forwWod 
outy Is abut*$    a  to th  figur  extimtd for 1930# 
Th  above *Ir     Is the spring population, so inore 
to ~eapr  It to the 193   figur, wbXb was a fall esti- 
KN    ma te* the turam     or this sutw    abowlt he add*&. Of 
th M3 nest* stue  this spring, 50 per cout hat ohod, 
Theave age m  abo    oggs is 1, taM therefore ea* 
pair of brd   raieona the avera~, flv* yom. 
Prvided that the xmtbo    o  al es and fmal 
is eqal  the fall poultion for 1931 iwu     bet 
To~a  spingbird           W 
Rvwo   of, foual"             lye 
Nub"o males                 783 
imbom of YOX                 *1 
Totl fall b Ir 
Vb   awo reaon tor the sligt ine~aso me 
< I"     fire.  smn *hen-.ws oatlmated tat as high as 50 per 
"atofthgruse In Rx~toa and Hiles tons hips w" 
 
 

					
				
				
I 
killed by the fire* Th   chief dak   was not in the number 
of birds kilUobt in the detrution of the RitIR# Nove? 
I'l ReingonWRmmhip the" wro paetolly no nests in 
N     and mt of the nest r e     wer  ds t     by eow"    y 
RIu2      o due to the la.  of gss for wznalt. on 
m   9   , m  #1 about 2,000 aes of b         zwak In 
Dxter twvsbip wstoooygn            ve*Aotf         id 
wr living an thisearea but n. aosts we" fbund, In thmo 
plas    ige one weefada           ee   rud     tis pbabl 
S          that eg   w   beig laid without a nest bing mae, du 
Tx Port Mmars    .owskIp there mer  severl 
sections of Ia whiob wer nxot          A  this are  is 
larey gasand      it is a           smting      , 
nest, of wih esi w      prai i    ahleo   an  ""a "r* 
sarp-t4Ied g      e, w   lomted. As all of these nests 
were xAd  In May or before, It to prbbl   that anting 
omw   i th  for*n of dry game induesearly n estina    On 
the basis of oe  tnle for **oh mae   the we" 71 
prairie *hlakon &oats In tbi a 
2 ~   ~   4~9, whr-ald  rue  Sharptaled grus  UI. 
mor  anumosRs     naM  .  tfors in 4lstibutimn tha tho 
prairie obick   in Wod sooint, but the sharp-t43aie  g  a.u 
isa taitA to that nWt of Wi  L e*oty %hieh is wet of the 
Wscoin river     RWo to figure     ,,, 
1. Total number in Wood county on May 1, 1931,) 1,9727. 
 
 

					
				
				
Th fSk 1i$A on tb* Mp In ttwu 2 ar o 
aIXAl Uffant flook, a* both talg statio Lan xAo daa* t 
tlo#ke mm litd Tb rOUvln are iseparas f~oe 
lok No*ft. of. Dt$I 
*          2*fte1Rg Statift 
4                10       ?0Alg statio 
to                   Iro*u 0 0  o 
40      ftedin s titln 
*9~~Da* ).*ft             OUs ALa 
*0      7*4aa sato 
3A      Due* -rur 
so                         3-. -O&n  tto 
 
 

					
				
				
ofth   $0  sh arp-tails outdat fting station 
teoding stations *v   M,    Of thos, 31 wr  rowales. 
look nube   fou  wa  at a feeding stationan anro~ 
andasa   out all of the birds trappe he" we"      sls, 
At tatioau va      la ns or tlook al" in tiu  2I, all of 
theshrptalswoe~ bR*nela4 at station eight, or flosk 
16 in figurt, all exeept on    or two "    banded* as 
*5 was the mst som footing h"#,and 40 wore banded. Six 
of these bird wer shipped to the gons tara, wedutxel the 
flook to 39. 
Allowing one fnale to throe saes, tho total 
zabew in the nappe area shw     in figure * wu  be: 
rodt stations 
59 foltue 
D~eucag flok number 220 *3, 24, sad U5, thm 
woul  be 472             tatptll   tohe three towksips in wvMah a 
thorv~ghomt was m=ds* The population ax this basis 
wuld be a little ovr four shevptailh per sqwae mile, 
or 167 pmr tovnstp, The tta     spring population for the 
olevm  towships in whiob sMQrp1ails *re oenly distibuted 
umlA be lV*T. Using the s      sex ratio as was foun  in 
the banded birds, the Enber of femle would be R5. As 
sash femle should raie~o the aveager, five young, the toal) 
fall population WOU14 bet 
 
 

					
				
				
Total Paul popattmu       40 
A& staU. fal po Viai   of 4.6xa0Ztasi 
abut 5100   los   ka th nater estiate fo      1 3#  It Is 
probbl  that the 193o rigu    was oworotina~et and $th 
aetually the su~e    of birds Is about the sam. 
tails in 123  Is the lose of' birds ina the fire of 
nesling, A few of the oftots of the fir* arse 41ouse 
udrprairie ohio    westing an peM    V, 
Ruft    gmWe-         total sx   t of patids 
oeve  in WoA  eounty Is about 0 per set of the total 
&"a, or 15  square ails,   In the aabooek reio    fie 
oewy  of yok birwe"m lsaot        Alont the river 
botmsth" wore about two partriftes per squ4      ails 
during the winter, or seven per sqare all Ix the fall 
prvie  oa fo*el raise. five yong        Tb  total popu 
latonwul   then W   #00 
"ow   uo of prairie, c    es ad sharptalleA 
Vausein the e *oreunties Is sosioanbly Ies tha in 
The scunt~s in whiah inforation has been 
s*O~aax   U~tadL below* 
 
 

					
				
				
~,WaxhwM ocns 
at t.o4in .t1in wax10, The tota for the cont is 
esis  8da, 200. 
aounte at feding station  ma   00# Th   tot.a nabo 
in the *ount Is .etite   t ,099,t 
I.  kA=Mut 
f~e    4,n st a'o MS4,e#    oa etmtefrte on 
Tbn~bwet ofsap-al snat feeing 
statonswas40*The satiat. for th* eutt is W,0 
so Ashlad 0unty 
Sharp-tailet grus - one *ovoy of 13 
"o eight and on-Alaf miles wet% of duttztp Tw 
*qare mile of 04o sharp-ail nesting po~         mo  studiet 
~ 11 ie  et of   t~rmut, No sarsp.td1s wr loat4o 
this aeal dit Is %b~fr probable that thefoo e axe 
ver setordoEr, ftw     1*1 int foun  U1 nests in19 
that had boo bwu&.oj 
The total p1puAtio i. otlmat* at ,9000, 
Pririe *1*akou. - Nos #**a* 
Patrde     Two ""~ tonail" west c 
Buttomut   Tbz amero pawtri* is at least ten pW 
squr ail* in the areas not haweo ove. "m prti40 
 
 

					
				
				
amwri IR   hlx   oounty Is extmsieonv       to p#Tyot ovhr 
*ove  in estimatedt 9W9, Toa      pwrtridopopsIat~m 9,*9*,0 
seeRsor ow    an Potato lake reot        t prairie 
Parride   Pou  sections of land inwstr 
Rusk   ut7 w" stdid       k tota  of 24 wr    oetd     Thre 
wer  for cvey  with a total of I* youn  or four and on- 
with 3tep gravel h~l   btee wih ar lake        and alder 
swmp.    Tw  ww7y wr    ft on hills in aroth of 
a.,-n, white biroh, bwwl, pabrr      and blakberry with 
vildgraeMa  j      (aen briar) in the ace ope     q~ota, 
Theotertwo obes wre In aUderwillo3w tbieketsa      awxy 
lad.ngr*3Shows the *at locto         of the birds, 
in ftsk oe   y   Ason sia .tian of the ara has not bee 
5*vetigat5, the w    o  pe section of the three sections 
that werw  hrogl seerohe      was eight* As the cover was 
ver  done, It woul   be seto estt Son partridge per 
se#tio  for the partridge *oer of Rusk sout,    T'*e total 
araofprtig        Q9e   in Ruuk Got 14 R0 square atiles, 
D"    t ires, the 1931 fi~ir  is abut 500 aqa  miles. 
Th  tot4al xieof partridge on this basis wovl4 be 5#000. 
M& the area beten Isand ak~e and Bitebwoo     is difficult to 
 
 

					
				
				
Gr-=-$*  opuation 
*swu   atami sila      to the i#t    ake area, thr 
wou4 ben aner of overshooting in ftak county. 
V. Wahbr    .m#at 
Praire Oeb     - Noneea on     tA t0k is 
reporte  to hv wftto    at 3Yta  1** i 1951 
was soo  13 &ile southeast of Spooerw    Several obthe 
ovy  hv  beenso     by th  soils surve   win, but the dis 
tribution is not uifor.    In %be tois       oai& a"&*s 
%he shMrp-tfls aro narus wbe" the buhhas boon kept 
domby !rit  o  is pasture, butt sush lants   ae t vr 
extesive   3A*e Aa.kpine aroas %hre are very few birds 
to be soi,   L prZty of  ou  in     u1rosbk  fou t ilo strip 
of mo4owo jaek plast ad aspea did sot seo a grus      of any 
vallys thre    taw   w" custie&o. The first farme      had 
soon no grus    durin  191    The otert      reported that oaah 
The fall population tor the Yellow river valley is about 
tus per square silo* Thse fames reported that about Um 
years ago, pwii ishikos coal& be heart in the spin, 
but that am wre heart is 1931 
shap-taas pr sita    ails0 
wilo chiskos                    Nan  ropoal 
latia~  Pat~oe          ~          Osur       io 
Tot~a ptri     ~                507qWdl 
 
 

					
				
				
not soex  It is sst to atints 16 partidges pe sqaawe 
4B.Aak  muty 
Tootr eMHwetmsi           The sharp-tail.4 vos  o 
vs.6 bua   mve &S the tia. it sa visite In Jun 191 It 
to prbable that thr a* less tha 1000 starp-tafle 
on  eM m.-tsdt  Isr inWmd owsip durig the vito During 
fams. In 1930 a flook tf#--qA    retrne an   Aa 
sonm  #hf all* ut of the 1928 &otI*# In the sprin 
of 191te, rii ehicken astbt~e&4 ttaroiggon 
for tfirm% time No nets w" foun a" It Is psil 
Duo t~ fire   in 9  and 121 the  mirio cek 
have~ ~ ~ lewnAsainrI  ood acuty an *"a saon 
val rlt    i **s    overhooting * to 4t* euai 
of owe  byth peat fires of 19     nthe othe ooutis t 
pp~atio per square al* i UeMan the mar is less 
 
 

					
				
				
-WMS *t PI~ SRt s 
wblh hO14XW 00 Obi~ ttaldgos 1*obor Iar x#*O, 
W~br GOpS )   ) #e#~a     b 
rtpr lthe partie th ineknt The mhage o 
wXMse' &tr 0x iWbUo nt o ot*wnodacoe 
so"C  Ol paxxidp &  wol  asshar-lalodSmum, bt a 
 
 

					
				
				
Several attms haebenmd to ra praiie chce' ncpiiy 
as successfu breeig  Usingts definition, there are no records ofprie 
......          ... sucesfll  bre  inl! P captsivity. 
Aubn in       N810 e s  6         bn 
birds in 1973, and a similar attep inAmeric in 1912.* , 
egs at. t %he Wisconsin StateGm Fr in 1932.              ... 
eggs. T youn weeeae attenKna Stat QmlFr.Sol           ae 
suce in rern-on  rmteebrs w    ilhv      is   eodo 
prari chckn sucssul          bre in captivity. 
Nh abv all               ~ ree to th grae rii hce   T=ncNscp 
amrians) 
Grs (1929 D- 513 cie tw atepstNer h   ete 
N     evraAttem- have s  been made to rea h  sr prairie  hicken  iy 
(Zhmpxkens  Peafl1l bed.in cptiity 
 
 

					
				
				
AA 
"ILAI 
444 
Aet Vfl* Art~g 
ev                                                   4 wlt4 
 
 

					
				
				
Davison (1934, P. 5) states that on the Davison Ranch, in Ellis 
County, Oklahoma, several attmpts have been made to rear the lesser prairie

chicken, but so far none have been successful. (Note: Although Davison does

not state which species occurs on the Davison Ranch, I an assuming that it
is 
the lesser prairie chicken.) 
W. B. Coleman is experimenting on the rearing of lesser prairie 
chickens with pleetric brooders, but has not as yet published on his findings.

Ligon 
Value of Artificial Rearing 
Prairie chickens reared in captivity are of little value for stocking 
purposes. Even if they were able to live in the wild it is doubtful if they

could establish a permanent population in a new area. Gross (1928, P. 514)
has 
pointed out that even Where prairie chickens flourished for a few years after

being stocked, they eventually died out. He cites numerous exBIapes of prairie

chicken plantings in the eastern states. 
In my opinion prairie chickens have become adjusted to the available 
habitable range in the states in which they now occur. An increase in population

or a further extension of range can be brought about only by range improven

However, captive birds are of value in securing data unobtainable from 
wild birds. 'For exmple, we do not know how mny eggs a hen may lay in a sason,

whether young hens lay more eggs than old ones, or whether old birds are
less 
fertile than young ones. 
Rearing Studies in 1932 
Six clutches of grouse eggs gathered in the wild, or obtained from 
farmers who had' plowed into nests, were moved to the Wisconsin 'State Gae
Fr 
 
 

					
				
				
34 
on May 25. On June 2, 45 of the 49 prairie chicken eggs hatched. Ten sharp-tails

hatched on June 4. On June 5, 11 ruffedgrouse were hatched. 
The young prairie chickens were kept on wire-bettomed pens in a 
brooder house until June 15. Mortality was heavy, either due to being inside
or 
to slorness in learning to eat food. (See Fig. 1 for mortality rate.)   On
June 15 
the nine remaining prairie chickens and two sharp-tails were moved outside
and 
Sallowed to run in the grass in pens six by three feet which connected with
a 
coop in which the bantam brood hen was caged. Grasshoppers and berries added
to 
the diet seem to have been beneficial, as seven of the nine alive on June
15 
survived until October 4, at which time the game farm was swept by an epidemic

of chicken pox. For details of diet see Table 1. 
The ruffed grouse were in an outside pen with a run on the ground and 
none died until the tenth day, when five succumbed. On the eleventh day there

were five more dead. The lone survivor lived to an age of 91 days. This grouse

was fed the same as the prairie chickens until July 10. It was then put on
a 
berry diet beccuse it appeared sick and was losing weight. The berry diet
seems 
to have cured it, as it regained its lost weight and started growing again.

After July 20 it was again fed the same as the prairie chickens. (See growth

curve.) 
The sharp-tails were fed the same as the prairie chickens. All died 
before the tenth day except one, which lived until 40 days old. 
Of the three species of grouse the prairie chicken was the easiest 
L. 
 
 

					
				
				
OVO 
,  vj - ;   %b 
A 
16 7 r 
CL 
4a A                 i-w--u 
W      S;   4-4,tk 
 
 

					
				
				
PCLL I tl  z 
j ('r 
0   r 
Aor 
ttAw   CVA"A.". 1.0 
46 
 
 

					
				
				
to raise. The ruffed grouse was sick most of the time and I was urprised

it lived as long as it did. The sharp-tails never became tame as did the

prairie chickens and ruffe'd grouse, and were therefore difficult to handle
and 
feed. 
Sex Rto. Of the seven raised to October 4, one was a cock and six were hens.

It is possible that hens are more resistant to disease than cocks, but seven

birds is not        on which to base a conclusion. Ramey (1935, p.,6   reports

six hens and four cocks, which leaves the ratiojin    or of the hens up to

the present time. 
Sex Behavior, At the age of 14 days the young cock erected the down on the

neck (in the region of the orange sac of the a ult), stood stiff-legged and

circled around the hens in shortistamping steps Just as the adult cock does

before booming in the courtship dance. The young hens paid no attention to

this performance. Later as he grew older he did not repeat this performance

As might have been expected. 
Foo.   Chicks were fed egg yolk and lettue ground together, and grit. After

a few days Spratt's mash was added to the diet. After being moved outside
at 
the age of 13 days, the chicks were fed grasshoppers and wild strawberries,
Later in 
the sumer blueberries, Juneberries, 
/cherries, choecherries, black cherries, and mountain ash berries were fed.
At the 
age of six weeks the pens were moved into the lettuce patch so that the birds
ould 
browse on growing lettuce. The most important foods seem to have been grashoppers,

berries and lettuce. Perhaps more of the chicks which died early wud have
li ved. 
if grasshoppers had.been fed from the first. Only two of the nine birds alive

June 15 died after grasshoppers and berries were added to the diet. Ramey's
success 
with grasshoppers indicates their importance in the diet. See Table I for
details 
of foods fed at different ages* 
 
 

					
				
				
Growth. The rate of growth is shown in Pig. 2. Prairie chickens are sligtly

lighter than ring-neck pheasants after the twentieth day, but the rate of
growth 
is practically the same. The ruffed grouse and sharp-tail curves are probably

not typical of wild birds, as their early death indicates that they were
sick. 
 
 

					
				
				
				
				
j i  ii  i   m   ii,  i ii i  iii iir  i ii  i: i:i  i   !I!! !II  iiiiiid
 il  111  i R  11   he 111e111  11  11  ll  Il   :r 1;  1  5 4l111  1,1 
1 
73T              17 i11T)11T111 1-1 
?kk4~ ~ ~ Sot_+       ialqexa- 
I_~~~0 ______ 
'44 
14-0 
W1s.S4-d4t aa~ F4vr4 jq 
itoo 
10  -40          50 G~ O  -7    ~     (00 11o iJoiw o 130 
THIS IS A SAMPL OF ouRNt  OBOD 
 
 

					
				
				
Table 1,. 
Food, Water and Grit 
Age 1-3 das: Water, pearl grit, chopped lettuce, chopped egg yolk, ant egp,

Age 3-5 days: Same, and also Spratt's No. 12 and clover. 
Age 5-10 days: Same, except amount of egg reduced to 20%. 
Age 10-13 days: Spratts No. 5, Spratt's chic grain, egg yolk, lettu.ce. 
Spratt's mash and chick grain not eaten to any extent until age of 35 days,
Chick 
moved to outside pens and allowed to run on ground. Grasshoppers and wild
straw- 
berries added to diet. 
Age 13-20 das: Same, except quartz and feldspar grit added to grit supply.

One pint grasshoppers fed daily. 
Age 20-2. days: Moved to 12x16 foot pen. Food same except grasshoppers 
increased to one quart daily. 
Age 28-34 days: Same, except chicks now begin to eat more Spratt's Io. 5.

Age 3439 days: Same. Added cherries. Chicks learned to tear up lettuce 
leaves. Brood hen removed. 
Age 39-43 days: Same. Pens moved into lettuce patch to allow browsing 
on growing lettuce plants. 
Age 1.3-47 days: Sane, except added six Juneberries and 50 spice berries
per 
day per bird. Fed grasshoppers four times per day. 
Age 4-5.3 days: Same except amount of grassphopers reduced and weed seeds

added. 
Age 53-70 days: Same, except grasshoppers discontinued and blueberries 
replaced spice berries. 
Age 70-S0 days: Mash: Startena and Growena, 45%, Chic Grain 45%, buttermilk

5%, meat scraps 2%, alfalfa meal 2%, quartz 1%. Fruit: chokeeherries, tomato,

mountain ash berries, apple. Greens: lettuce, clover leaves. 
Age 90-120 days: Chic Grain, weed seeds, .ohokeherries, tomato, apple. 
lettce,  motain ash  berries,  quartz 
 
 

					
				
				
ot 
 
 

					
				
				
iii 
Bibli ography 
Audubon, John Jame. 1935. Ornithological biography. 
Dvis    Vrnen E. 1934. Learning how to produce game birds on the Dvi 
Gross, A. 0. 192. The      th hen.    oirs of the Boston Society of 
Natural Hstory. 
H    n      Elius. 1926. Records of birds bred in cativity. H.     . and

G. Witherby', Londn. 
Johnson, Harry F. 1932. Wisconsin prairie chikeon propagation experiment.

Game reeder, Febru..ary. 
Leopold, Aldo. 1933.                  . Charles Scribner' s Sons, Now York.

E-mey, Dan   1935. And now the prairie chicken,. GaneBreder and Spotsman,

4-  r 
44 
 
 

				
      
      
				
				
S iI iY lI GajiiAL OTAiY 
Kqay 1, 1935.                                         H. Clarke 
Morphology and Anatomy of Lygodium .iaponicum. 
The Sporangium. 
1. Development from a single marginal cell, appearing in 
acropetal succession. 
2. A monangial sorus. 
3. Terminal annulus. 
Gametophyte. 
1. Germinationl of the spore forms a protlallium at first 
unsymmetrical, older prot.llia are syrmmetrical, 
2. Sex organs resemble L;ios of ot~her leptosporangiate ferns. 
The Young Sporophyte. 
1. Juvenile leves. 
2. Intermediabe leaves. 
The Leaf. 
1. Adult leaves characterized by indeterminate growth, and by 
twining. 
2. Arrested growing points associated with the lcaflets. 
3. Fertile and sterilu piniac. 
L-  Stem. 
1. An exarch protostele. 
2. Protoxylem does not have spiral or annular elements. 
3. Tracheids are long, havc scalariform thickenings, and may 
be irregular in shape. 
4. Small amount of phloem present. 
The Root. 
1. Xylem of root is diarch. 
2. Storage roots are present as branchies from the adventitious 
roots. The storage roots have vevy small stele. 
Lite,'ature Cited 
Binford, R. The development of the Sporangium of Lygodium, Bot. Gaz. 
44:214. 1903. 
 
 

					
				
				
General Botany--May 1, 1935.        2.                 H. Clarke 
Boodle, L. A. Comparative anatomy of tie Hymenophyllaceae, Schizaea- 
ceac, and Gleichhniceae II. On the anatomy of the Schizaea- 
ceae. Annals of Botany   15:559-421. 190J, 
vwer, F. 0. Studies in the morpology of tlie spore-producing 
membors, IV. Leptosporaigiat  Fms.    Ann. Lot. 13:320- 
324. 1899. 
-- -------Studies in the phylogeny of the Filicales, VII. Aim i 
Bot0  32:1-68. 1018. 
The u.ormal appcndages of ferns. Am.. Bet. 40:482. 
The ferns. Cambrid, Univ. Press. Vol. JI:155-17., 
Britton & Taylor. Schizaea psilla. Bull. lorroy Bot. Club. 28:1 
Diels, In Engler -aid Prantl, Vol. I:359-Z6. 
Cwyanc-Vaughn, D. T. The petiole of LygodiuL. Ani. Bet. 30:178. 
1916. 
LoLm, Carl. Untrsuchungen ubur Farnprot lallium. Flora 82:329- 
371. 1896. 
Luhl, Margaret. The histolo'y of thie sirv; tubcs of Pteridium 
Acnilinum, with so-ri notes oi, k>rsil1ia quadrifolia  and 
Lygodiu dichotomuL. Ani. Lot. 26:57--588. 
Litirdiere, Rene de. a'clerchs sar l ILeLit cihronosomique dans la 
caryocirese souatic des ilicineas. Ls 2ollule 31. 1920. 
' rantl, K. Untersucnungen zur Morpliooji. der Gcf~sskryptcgaien. 
Leipzig, 1881. 
:rs, Lenette. Developnent of te pror-haliium in Lygodiu  oal mu m 
Bet. Gaz. 75:75-81. 1923. 
-----------Developcnt of t ie archegone and studies in the 
fertilization of Lygodium palatuL. La Cellule 36: 
327-352. 1926. 
Stephens, Wo. Chase. On the developiment of the s,     " and spores

or Aneiraia Ahyl.itidis. A. :ct. 25:1039-1069. 
Twiss, Edith iv. Th  prothaliia of Al i ,... axf' L7 g 'iur. Bot. Gaz. 
49 :168. 2110 . 
 
 

					
				
				
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-Seminary in General Botany 
March 20, 1935.                                 Burdean E. Struckmeyei 
The structure of the transition region. 
I Introduction 
II Early studies on transition. 
A. Van Tiegham - 3 types - 1891 
B. Ethel Sargent - 1 type - 1900 
III Recent studies on the anatomy of the transition region. 
A. Phaseolus vulgaris (coimCoj7 -v rfen bean) 
B. Nicotiana tobacum (tobacc) 
C. Gossypium hirsutum (cet.cc 
D. Solanum melog~na (eggp Lrt' 
Bibliography 
Eames and MacDaniels. An Introduction to Plant Anatomy. 214-244. 
1925. 
Siler, M. A. Transition from root to stem in Helianthus annus 
L. and Arctium minus Bernh. Amer. Mid. Nat. 12:425-428. 
1931. 
Sargent, E. A New type of transition from stem to root in the 
vascular system of seedlings. Ann. Bot. 14:633-639. 
1900. 
Thiel, A. A. Anatomy of the Primary axis of Solanum melogina. 
Bot. Gaz. 92:407-419. 
Spieth, A. M. Anatomy of the transition region in Gossypium. 
Bot. Gaz. 95:338-347. 1933. 
Avery, G. S. Structure and germination of tobacco seed and the 
developmental anatomy of the seedling plant. Amer. Jour. 
Bot. 20:309-327. 1932. 
Doutt, M. A. Anatomy of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Variety Black 
Valentine. Michigan Agriculture Experiment Station 
Bulletin No. 128. 1932. 
Compton, R. H. Theories of the anatomical transition from root to 
stem. New Phyt. 11:13-25. 191 r. 
 
 

					
				
				
Bogs, Swamps, and Marshes in Relation to 
Wisconsin Game Animals 
Introduction 
The game animals, such as the rabbit, the deer, the ruffed grouse, 
the sharp-tailed grouse, the prairie chicken, the sand-hill crane, and 
the quail are affected in several ways by the plants and animals of bogs,

swamps, and marshes. These three habitats provide nesting cover, roost 
cover, yarding grounds, food, and protection against enemies. The 
small animals provide food for predators and fur-bearing animals, and 
act as buffers between the predators and the game. In addition the 
small animals, especially the mammals act as intermediate hosts for 
parasites and disease organisms that affect game animals. 
Nesting Cover 
Sharp-tailed Grouse.-- 
In 1934 sharp-tailed grouse were found to be nesting in a large 
bog in Jackson County. This bog was several miles in diameter and was 
mostly open sphagnum with a few patches of tamarack. On about 1 square 
mile of bog eight nests were found by a crew of firefighters. In most 
cases the nests were simply a depression in the sphagnum and when the 
surface sphagnum around the eggs was burned they became visible. These 
were the only sharp-tailed grouse nests found in 1934, while in 1930, 
1931, 1932, and 1933 nests were found in patches of grass on drained 
peat together with prairie chicken nests. In 1934, sharp-tailed grouse 
 
 

					
				
				
were at the low of their cycle, which indicates that they rely on sphagm.

num bog for nesting cover when their numbers are reduced. It probably 
also indicates that originally their chief habitat in wisconsin was the 
sphagnum bog. Later they spread into the cutover lands in northern 
Wisconsin which have a sparse vegetation, due to frequent burning. 
A sparse, dry vegetation seems to be the deciding factor in determining 
the range of the sharp-tailed grouse. The sphagnu, although damp beneath

is dry on the surfpce. During wet weather the grouse could live on top 
of the dense mats of leatherleaf which grows extensively in most bogs. 
In the West the sharp-tailed grouse is more of a plains bird than a 
prairie bird. It inhabited western North Dakota, western South Dakota, 
eastern Wyoming, Kansas, and Nebraska. Since settlement it has moved 
eastward, probably due to cultivation, which has resulted in a sparser 
vegetation than formerly occurred. In Iowa the sharp-tail nested only 
in sandy areas where the vegetation was sparse, while the prairie chicken

nested in the dense grass. It is probable that the sharp-tailed grouse 
did not nest in the original prairie areas of Wisconsin as they were 
probably mostly of the dense grass type. Note also that the sharp-tailed

grouse occurred in northeastern Illinois, which is the only part of the 
State that has sphagnum bogs. 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
Food, Roost Cover, and Protective Cover of the Bog 
in Relation to Sharp-Tailed Grouse 
Jackson County 
Several flocks of sharp-tails were found in the vicinity of Birch 
Bluff in a large bog that forms a reservoir for a cranberry farm. As 
they may be seen here at all times of the year it is probable that a 
large bog provides everything that is necessary in the line of roost 
cover, protection against enemies and food for permanent residence. 
However, bogs are generally bordered by swamps which furnish food in 
the form of alder catkins, white birch buds and catkins, willow buds and

catkins, and mountain ash berries. The food eaten by the sharp-tail in 
the bog proper consists during the summer of leaves and flowers of 
Chamaedaphne Calyculata, The berries and leaves of Vaccinium pennsyl- 
vanicum, Vaccinium canadense, Vaccinium oxycoccos, and vaccinium macrocarpon,

and insects. During the winter the buds end catkins of the bog birch Betula

pumil var. glandulifera are later. 
The cranberry farmer reported that the sharp-tails ate a large 
number of cranberries Vaccinium mcarocarpon in the cultivated cranberry 
beds. 
Sandhill Crane 
The sandhill crane is one of our rarest birds. It spends most of its 
time in bogs and marshes. Most of the sandhill cranes seen in Wisconsin 
are migrants that stop over for a few weeks spring and fall on their way

to and from Canada. Only a few nest in the State. For nesting they seem 
to prefer bogs or smarshes that have patches of tamarack or spruce in them

or around them. They do not like tamarack swamps without open spaces. 
John Cardo, a farmer living on Shiprock Marsh, west of Coloma, has given

us a fairly accurate description of the changes that have taken place 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
there during the last 50 years. Before 1890, all of what is now hay- 
marsh was a tamarack swamp with no open spaces except where wall clear- 
ings had been made. Loads of poles were hauled to Portage by oxen. 
There were no cranes at that time. In 1894, following several dry years,

the entire swamp was burned with only scattered patches of tamarack 
escaping. The plat was burned to a depth of 2 feet so that the trees 
were burned out by the roots. The trees that were not hauled out for 
firewood were piled up and burned in 1895. Crops of oats and millet were

raised in 1895 on the burned peat, in 1896 it was too wet. After that 
grasses came in and * 1900 it became a hay marsh. Sandhill cranes 
began stopping about 1904. In 1914, the first nest was found. At 
least one pair has been nesting there since and the number stopping 
in the fall has been increasing in recent years.  On October 1, 1934, 
81 in one flock were seen. In the spring of 1934, Aldo Leopold, Wallace 
B Grange, and myself saw a pair with their young in a strip of grass 
that had tamarack and aspen on two sides, and connected with large hay 
matshes on the other two sides. 
Most of the nests that I have seen have been in sphagnum bogs. 
The first was in Barnett County near the St. Croix River. The nest 
was on a hummock of sphagnum in an open space that connected with a 
large hay marsh, but was nearly surrounded by tamaracks. The second 
was on a flat sphagnum in a bog of about 40 acres that was surrounded 
on all sides by white pine. That was in Wood County near Cranmoor. 
The third was in Jackson County, north of Mather in a large bog that is 
6 miles across. Sphagnum is baled and taken out on cars that run on 
a small track. The nest consisted of a few blades of grass flattened 
down on top of the sphagnum. The nest was in a small open space in 
-14- 
 
 

					
				
				
a patch of bog birch that was about 4 feet high. The cranes were able 
to look over the tops of these bushes without themselves being seen. 
The fourth nest was in southwestern Wood County in an immense bog with 
no bushes or trees for a mile or more in any direction. The fifth 
nest was west of City Point in Jackson County on the Illis Cranberry 
farm. The nest was found hr moss balers and was located at the edge 
of a spruce swamp (Picea mariana) which borders a sphagnum bog several 
miles in extent. 
Sandhill cranes are reported to nest at New London, at Oconto, and 
in the marsh northwest of Endeavor in Marquette County. Altogether 
there are probably a dozen pairs nesting in Wisconsin.   They lay but 
two eggs, somewhat larger than goose egg. They do not seem to be de- 
creasing at present and if the remaining large sphagnum bogs are not 
drained or burned the sandhill crane will not become extinct. 
Prairie Chicken --loods 
Marsh Food 
Bog Birch 
Grass (summer) 
Hay (winter) 
Willow galls 
Insects (summer) 
Willow leaves 
Swamp 
Cornus stolonifera 
Berries 
Viburnum Opulus 
Var. americanum 
Highbush cranberry 
Viburnum lentago 
Nannyberry 
White birch 
-5- 
 
 

					
				
				
Nests 
High spots in marsh or edge of marsh. 
Raise young in tall grass and are seen by haymakers. Used original 
grass prairies for nesting, and haymarsh was the only habitat that could

be used in its place. Sand prairies are not used, probably due to some 
difference in temperature and moisture. 
Roost s 
Hay marshes are very important to the prairie chicke both as 
summer roosts and as winter roosts. During the summer they roost in 
patches of uncut grass. Frequently the haymakers cut only patches of 
hay so that there is a mixture of cut grass, uncut grass, and willows. 
Such a place is a favorite roost ground. In the winter they roost in 
depressions in the snow which they dig by scratching. These roosts 
are located in willows. The areas where migrating hens spend the 
winter are always near large hay marshes or muskrat marshes. The small 
flocks of roosters which do not migrate roost in either large or small 
marshes and prefer marshes with tall grass. 
Ruffed-Grouse 
Bog 
Blueberry 
Cranberry ? No record. 
Willow, leaves, catkins. 
Marsh 
Willow, leaves, catkins 
Swamp 
Viburnum O1ulus 
Var. americanum 
Viburnum lentagc 
Nannyberry 
White birch 
Alder 
Mountain Ash 
(pns or Sorbus americana) 
-b- 
 
 

					
				
				
Roost in evergreens or aier swamps. Dig holes in snow for roost 
when snow is loose. 
Snowshoe rabbits and cottontail rabbits prefer tamarack, spruce and 
alder swamps that are next to or mixed with open sphagnum bogs. They 
use the swamps as cover during the day and spread out over the higher 
ground at night. 
Deer 
In the winter when there is deep snow and stormy weather, deer spend 
most of their time in tamarack and spruce swamps. As the deer congregate

in large herds these swamps are called deer yards. The now is packed 
down and trails lead in every direction. Where spruce or tamarack do not

occur they use birch, alder, or ash swamps. 
-7- 
 
 

					
				
				
Foods, Buffers, and Predators 
Plant Food                              Game Animals 
Bog 
1. Sphagmnm                          1. Ruffed grouse 
2. Eriophorum                        2. Sharp-tailed grouse 
3- Chamaedapbne                      3. Prairie chicken 
4. Vaccinium canadense               4. Quail 
5- Vaccinium pnnpylvanicum          5. Sandhill crane 
6. Vaccinium Oxycoccos               6. Snowshoe rabbit 
7- Vaccinium marcocarpon             7- Cottontail rabbit 
8. Bog birch                         9. Deer 
9. Muskrat 
Swamp 
1. Alnus crispa                               Buffers between game birds

and predators 
2. Alnus incana 
1. Bog lemming 
3. Betula japyrifera 
Synaptomys 
4. Salix sp. 
2. Red-backed mouse 
5. Larix Laricina 
Clethrionomys 
6. Picea mariana 
3- Meadow mouse 
Hay Marsh 
Microtus 
1. Grasses 
4. Shrews 
2. Salix sp. 
Sorex cinerens microsorex 
3. Bog birch 
Sorex arcticus 
5. Star-nosed mole 
Condyla 
6. Red squirrel 
-5- 
 
 

					
				
				
=fae (Continued) 
7. Little chipmunk 
8. Muskrat 
9. Snowshoe rabbit 
10. Cottontail rabbit 
Predators 
1. Wolf (a sp.) 
2. Fox 
3. Mink 
4. Bay lynx 
5. Canad   lYnx 
6 Weasel 
7. Horned owl 
S. Barred owl 
9. Red-tailed hawk 
10. Cooper's hawk 
11. Sharp-shinned hawk 
12. Goshawk 
 
 

					
				
				
				
				
Botany Seminary 
March 20, 1935                                     F. J. W. Schmidt 
Bogs, Swamps, and Marshes in Relation to Wisconsin 
Game Animals. 
Cover Relationships 
1. Nesting cover. 
2. Protective cover. 
3. Roost cover. 
4. Yarding grounds for deer. 
Buffer Relationship. 
1. Plant foods. 
2. Game birds. 
3. Small mammals. 
4. Predators. 
Disease Relationship. 
1. Two host ticks. 
2. Tularemia. 
a. Hosts 
b. Carriers 
c. Disease reservoirs 
Bibliography 
Leopold, Aldo. 1933. Gamie Management. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
New York. 
Matamek Conference on Biological Cycles. 1932. 
Green, R. G. 1929. "Tularemia in Relation to Wild Life." Proc.

International Assoc. Game and Fish Commissioners. 
Minneapolis. September 127129. 
Green, R. G., and Wade, E. M. 1928. "Ruffed Grouse Are Susceptible 
to Tularemia."  Proc. Soc. for Exoer. Biol. and Medicine. 
Paper 3930, Vol. 25:515-517. 
 
 

					
				
				
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THE STATE OF WISCONSIN 
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V444 Zook*=m County Oems Di1strict; 
P. ;. W. 8Shmidt 
this paper outlines the history of the area from the stsa4oit of 
its Pao .imls am& the possibilities of the oar     as a Ibnio rereaties

The sad ritds .a4 IslaMs in the area were coored with pins. %h 
peat lam was GowerM with phage" and stands of sprace via taRaek. 
that part of the are  which is il Jckson Couty still has extensive trwts

of spruce and sphag. 
Not  ah Is known of the saimals Ia prosettlemst d m, but there 
wer deear, bft   g ma*wIogt 813. martftf fishor w"sls, bear, otter.

*e Ofed gromms, sharp*tsiled grease, a"4 em"if erse., 
The three facton which bwoht aboat the      oea    o6itio   of 
the are. were 10lum    fre sad 4Maawe. 
After the rgmoval of the timber the area dried-up to such an 
extent that big fires s     the country it 1996 and 1997. Those 
fires were a benefit to the eme In several was. The sand "idces 
and lla~ns which tmA been domnated by pine now grew up to ak 
which provided fed in the form of &oor  s to deer, prl   chick*as, 
ehat 4a$.1d gme and ruffed prae. The moss In ost of the laSe 
bes vas bund sand marsh 83ss took its plae. Asa rmut of thse 
gassy marehos prairie chickews Increased rapidly and reohed their 
psh between 1900 and 1910. In all of the ares between 3bbcok sad 
XOer .luff prairie chickaes wre as sahla   rt as ghazp.tafled rose. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sime of the p'a35   =MO    WWere wet enQ%  for tu*wts. In Me 
mASh the post had been burned to a depth of five feet and a lake 
,ersmlte4. Rice was pleAted in this Uk. an iskrato beame so abWW       %t

/that when it was   daive4 nore mskrat* Were killed by the dredg  thn 
ocull be skinned by the ore,, 
Not of the a     in Wo O0utY wadraine4 during the years   19o515 
to make it of aOr'tit  al Us. term buYing this land soon went bank- 
supt a4 in a4ddti= the terSer alreay in the area lost their hs 
SUPPlY so th&  therare no eveS leso farmers than before rainag. 
Drainae a'd4etrtmental to game. Prtzie chicken* disappeared 
aMi muskrats " exters i1atM eept for a few living in the ditch**, 
At pres t th     are shoarptailod gros. muskrats beavor, deor, 
sink, a ft4   s atewe4 throughout the ar a, It they ar  often 
As   req retial  area it would be neoessax7 for the   state to on 
theeairs  res 4e o~  he weesr      ipoment v ould be made. A 
special arr&ntext ould be made with oreaberry oopsaies. 
As soon ao the state bad control certain parts of the area could 
be flooded. Now, that the peat has been burned permanent lakes c    4l 
be created. The" could be p ,uted to rice for ducks sad muskrats. 
Dttohe could be 4a 4nae! and dikes thrown up between sad ridges. 
mlh okes ould not haive bee eestod before doluagis as the flood- 
ina of the o         p        bog would result in a      tleating bed of

moas with ao  open wattr. 
/ 
/ 
\N 
 
 

					
				
				
ROUv.S Of 1Rmnu4 
Door.0$10 
2. Maskatso I** huanting by permit 
3. MinkU 
4. mm*kU 
5. Volvvs 
7. Badgers                 1 
S.             U     I     U  U 
9. Rabbits 
100 8Sir4                 " 
11. 3smvw.*5 
13. Prtrie @hi*.s.         * 1. 
15. Pheaants               $ 1 
17. Ducks- Proo hunting by p.*int. 
1. Sluoberrwi.. Free for reidnt* only. 
2. Craberries. 
2. Eq. 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
P nosel of a,,RMm District and Use 
Th# area as a whole is more valuable as A one ooutry than as 
a forest. Meet of the area is peat as shows in Figorel. Where the 
peat has been burned it shoul be flooded * means of dams sat tikos 
The open water would be used by ducks ant muskrats. the lsa   bori  g 
the open water would grow up to marsh grass ad *at-tals which wuld 
result in a bie increase in prairie chickens. The saind should be partly

pleated to evorgroes, but oak woods and blueberrr lad should be 
reserved for Soe feeo, Cranberry opanies could be ialudte in the 
are  without byting their lad as 99 per oet of their land is not used 
excpt as a somroe of water,. 
Reforestatton amo. would never "pay the money tavested and there 
would be no Immedisto returns. As a ge    district the area would rem 
the people of the State In the form of hunting ead trappiu  and. row 
forestation could be eared mut at the same tine heneyhe seoh plant- 
Ing would Improve g- oontittions. The ridges and islads should be 
allow  to grow up to oak and the aks should be thinoed out to Ia- 
prove the aoorn crop mAt the blueberrr crop. In large peat narshos 
small Islands could be thrown up b mas of a dredge and a birch pleated 
on ejoh. This muU result is a big increase in growse and also in 
ducks If the mrsh were flooded. 
 
 

					
				
				
Cowity land could be obtained for about oe doflar per ore. 
Other isAowaoes would probably .ell f or less than $10.00 peW sor   if 
Sivea certain hnting rights which is the only present advantae of 
ownership. Cranberry coapanies oould be inclided in the area without 
purchasin their ladi although it might be neoessn:7 to shoot off 
m5ess trose around cranberry plantin. 
The area as show in Figure I would Iaolue about 180 sqvare miles 
with a bwdur of about 65 ailes# 
The only roads entering the oa are frm Sabb     o, bsaow Yalq, 
kither, Knapp, Pray# and City Poiat. Men sttioed on these roads 
could prevent huiters enteriag the are witboet a permit* fhe only 
roade entering the area would be dikessat eantamoo at other points 
would be preveted by flooding of the brw marsheos, fiTere would boe 
six or senu reeds enterin   the area. Two of these roads are alread 
built as dikes. Huaters on foot would not peetate more than a 
,ile. A &me k sper would be posted at each entrame ard would 
che*k all g~xw leaving the area. Ruters would be given tags for 
all Vame to be killed. 
Later the border laads could be reforested  in eoAition to floodi g 
to prevent illegal entranoe. 
The kvepers will enfeore '   regulations of the district, props- 
&te gmue, orerate feeding sations, and operate dredges. Oam which 
*ould U propsted wml4 inclde ducks, pheoaats. wild turkeys, aM 
h*      artdg. 
 
 

					
				
				
Urn areation of the area as a aomo dIstriat the Oonervwailon 
Department should have the authority to dispoe, of all excess ame. 
fte nuabor of salaals sht would be relade1W tags to be isumed 
util the excess population of eah anim* was shot off. So hunt- 
In esoon should be lonc so that not more than 20 hunters ouMld be 
hunting sa7 oo speoots of Swo ax any one dr. Rabbits 3miht be an 
exception. for example, 10 night be hunting deor 10 Vmarie ohicns, 
10 ducks, m 10 squirrels, making 40 hunte in a11, All huters 
wmld oheck in aount of Se     klled at entrano point before leaving 
the area. 
ftere awe a tho sad or more deer on the are a. ft winter quarters 
are in th  spnoe forests in Jaeksoa County *ewe as many as 100 cam be 
seoa in a dnys trvel. At prosent the exoess der are killed by 
violators and sold Ilo1   1. 
amaged as a @mo distriet, there wouled be abont 300 exess eer 
to be remvoed 00004fl7# 
There are esnough rabbits on the area to furnish o tabbit hunt- 
Inc to ay n=mbr of hunters. 
Rof looding of parts of the area would etend the rage of the 
prairi ohicea into this arenand would lrnease tho number of sharp" 
tails< lwemi oa the area. 
 
 

					
				
				
AS hig a. 5OOO ducks sLAM      Y.S*1R7 bo pro     on tho sr*64 
d4VOdia  Oxtb*SMat of UwM that to fan   to bo Oattab   or  roow 
flooding and tho amoun~t of vot available, The duck pqwationa ould 
bo built up IV artificial prope~ptS.a. 
 
 

					
				
				
				
				
(YA, 
 
 

					
				
				
The Status of the Grouse in Washburn County 
and Possible Future Developments 
Present Distribution.--The ruffed grouse is found in the heavy timbers, on

the cutover lands grown up to aspen and other second-growth trees, and in

brushy pastures. It is especially abundant on the rougher morainic areas

where there is a dense stand of second growth trees and brush from five to

fifteen feet in height. From counts made on typical sections of ruffed 
grouse cover it was estimated there were 15 ruffed grouse per square mile

and according to those who hunted in October there were about 20 per square

mile. The sharp-tailed grouse is found on the brush covered moraines where

the brush is from one to five feet in height, in pastures, and in the open

jack pine-oak brush of the outwash sand along the Yellow, Namekagon, and

Totogatic Rivers. The population estimate was 10 per square mile. The 
season was not open in 1931. The pinnated grouse or prairie chicken is 
very scarce. There are a few small flocks around Stone Lake. Formerly 
there were large flocks of prairie chickens in Evergreen Township along 
the Yellow River but they are now extinct in that area. 
Grouse Cover.-The grouse cover areas in Washburn County which are least 
suitable for agriculture and forestry are the best areas in the county for

sharp-tailed grouse and prairie chicken management on an intensive scale.

These are the areas of outwash along the Yellow, Namekagon, and Totogatic

Rivers. These areas are level enough to allow extensive food patches to 
be planted. As the nexting cover and roosting grounds are already good 
and as there  is a good supply of food during the sumer it is probable 
that absence of winter food is the only large factor which limits the 
 
 

					
				
				
number of grouse under natural conditions. A combination of grain patches,

feeding stations and groves of white birch would furnish the winter food

required. The grouse shooting in the farming sections of the County would

be greatly improved if each farmer maintained a feeding station during the

winter. A possible financial means of supporting these feeding stations 
would be that each farmer allow a certain number of hunters, depending on

the number of surplus grouse, to hunt provided they paid the cost of feeding

the birds not only on years when the season is open, but on closed years.

This would no doubt reduce the number of closed seasons. This would apply

to sharp-tailed grouse and prairie chicken, but probably not to ruffed grouse

as it is very doubtful if the number of ruffed grouse can be regulated due

to the difficulty of training it to eat artificial feeds. 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
Shooting Preserve Possibilities 
in Washburn County 
In Wisconsin there are several large areas of outwash for agriculture or

forestry, but which could be made into grouse shooting grounds comparable
to 
those in England and Scotland. This does not mean that the English system

of shooting would be used, but something comparable to the English system
of 
regulating the environment to produce the highest possible number of grouse

per square mile, would have to be used. The actual shooting would be some-

thing on the order of the quail shooting grounds in Georgia or the state

shooting grounds in Pennsylvania. At present there is an open season on 
grouse in Wisconsin, about four out of eight years. It is assumed that when

large shooting preserves are organized which can shoot yearly as they do
in 
England and Scotland without overshooting, the law will be adjusted accordingly.

the purpose of the grouse cover survey of Washburn County was to determine

a possible future use for those areas not suited to either agriculture or

forestry. It will take several years of experimentation to determine just

what steps will have to be taken to change the environment to produce the

maximum number of grouse per square mile. In the case of the red grouse of

England and Scotland it was possible to change the environment to such an

extent that there are 30 times as many grouse per square mile there as there

are in northern Wisconsin and there is no visible reason why similar results

cannot be obtained with the prairie chicken and sharp-tailed grouse. 
Judging from what is already known relative to the required nesting 
facilities, summer and winter food, and winter cover, the following areas

will need the least change to make them suitable for grouse shooting pre-

serves and are at present tax delinquent and unsuited for either agriculture

 
 

					
				
				
or forestry. Jack pine will grow on these areas and should it have a com-

mercial value in the future it can be grown as a sideline on the game pre-

serves and will have better fire protection that at present. Red pine will

grow on area No. 3. 
1. The area between Gull Lake and the Namekagon River in T. 40 N. 
R. 11 W. and consisting of sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 10, 9, 9, 17, 16, 15,
and 
20. 
2. The area northwest of Lake Gillmore along the Totogatic and St. Croix

Rivers. This area includes T. 42 N R. 12 W. sections 17, 1, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 
2, 3, 4, 5, 6. T. 42 N. R. 13 W. Sections 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 7, 9, 9,

10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 19, 20, 21, 29, 30, 32. 31, T. 42 N. R. 14
w. 
(Burnett County), T. 43 N. R. 13 W. (Douglas County). Sections 26, 27, 28,
29, 
30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19. 3. T. 38N. R. 11 W. Sections
16, 
17, 20, 21. 
Areas number 1 and two are nearly all outwash sand and gravel (Plainfield

sand, P1. sandy loam, and P1. loamy sand). In several places there are numer-

ous kettle holes, which make the country rough, but in general it is level.

Area number three is morainic sand (Vilas sand) and is hilly with two lakes.

If grouse shooting grounds are combined with forestry about one half of 
the area could be planted to Jack pine or red pine and buckwheat could be

planted in long strips to act as fire checks. Fire will not run in buckwheat

or corn fields and these are the two plants which would be relied upon for

fall and winter food. 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
4f2 N TI43 NT40ON T 4oN    4~oN   4o N   39 NT 38 
Nameof Plant     R 12 WR13 W R12 WR 13 W      11 W  112W R13WVR 111 
S. 5   8. 22  s. 14 s. 34 S. 4   8. 26  5. 30 5. 21 
Oenothera op.                                x     x       X 
Polygonella, articulata,                            x      x 
Apocynum op.                    x     I             X            I      I

Cyperas uulicualmis*            x 
Panic=m capillare*                                        x 
Anemone cylindrica                                         I 
Berteroa, incana,                                          x 
Silene op..                          x                    I      x 
Rhus raclicans*                                                         I

Pinus resinous                 I     x             I                   I

Pinus bankejana         x       X    x       x      x      I     x      x

Pinus strobus                        x                                  I

Populus op.*            I       X'   X       I      x      I     x      x

quercussop.*            x      x     x       I      x      x     x      x

Betulasp.*             I       x    X       x      x     x      x      I

 
 

					
				
				
The above plants were identified on sample plots on the sections 
indicated and include only the plants on the high and dry areas and 
not bogs or river bottoms where there is a greater variety of plants. 
T. 42 N., R. 12 W., Section 5 and T. 43 N., R. 13 W., Section 5 
are representative of the area of outwash sand along the Totogatic River.

T. 140 N., R. 12 W., Section 14 is representative of the Morainic 
areas with a mixture of Chelsea loam and Yilas sand. 
T. 3S N.,R. 11 W., Section 21 represents the Tilas sand in a 
rough Morainic area. 
T. 39 N., R. 13 W., Section 30 represents the outwash sand in the 
Yellow River valley west of Spooner. 
T. 40 N., R. 13 W., Section 34, T. 4o) N., R. 11 W., Section 4, and 
T. 40 N., R. 12 W., Section 26 represent the outwash sand along the 
Namekagon River. 
 
 

					
				
				
4L. 
L41 
LAZ 
'oo-v                           Z F 
0 
 
 

					
				
				
a64-6e                            J-4 
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-t4 
7-   l-le 
-~ OF 
4 z~A~# Cc* 
19AW1, 
~1 
 
 

					
				
				
K..k) ~              T~T~ C ~ ~             a 
~e s-~-&~ 
~          tb 
j~'f 4~~L QL~*~ cz~ 3 c~ 
~ 
76L~~t-~ ~i~1( 6~                  _ 
&~2&A~ 6~JA~&-L. 
47 
~                              z ;4 
 
 

					
				
				
A  CI 
'~vv, 
~~1.5j 
/3 tJ3,IV, 3-                         6 
34            2).  3  -/ 
V,                          , 
*                cJ 5 
R          o  W.(,)1. 
1.7 -tam 
AOL 
 
 

					
				
				
;2 
az 
I-x 
 
 

					
				
				
-A                R. i( -7L   12-oA  p31   3-1a 
sec.~he                        f sae4         Se- 
4h_              ___ 
e It 
a r + C d + 
1? ji i oI i d__ y__                                  ____ 
13DP + el o d~t  "K4~~t~ 
____(LA.  it~                      I      _      _  _   _ 
S~~--__-----_-_-_-- 
 
 

					
				
				
* ApDnqI  ALL GIENERAL COMMJNIGATIQNS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, FAADIS
t 
COMMISSIONERS                                                           
     MATT. PATTERSON 
ST           ODEPUTY DIRECTOR 
WILLIAM- MAUTHE. CHAIMANE                                               
        C. L.HARRINGTON 
FOND DU .AC           THE      STATE        OF     W   ISL.PSd          
     SUPT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE, WAUSAU                                                     
         B. 0. WEBST R 
A. W. ICKS, GREEN BAY        E   LT     7AITb          'fRLTQ        (N 
           SUPT. OF FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE     CO    S   RV    TO        CO    M   SSO    
         H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                                                  
           CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG, SECRETARY                PAUL D. KELLETER               
        WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
        SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                      F. G<. WILSON 
CHIIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
.                           MADISON,                AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN, RESERCH BUREAU 
0-7~ 
SA? S*  '                           - 
z1 o                                                       7# 
Ta 
+ ~~~                             ~~ / *+I+   '   .   *    +' 
o . . 
/ R3 v      .   ", 
4              4 ++ * * > ,                       44. 
* . 4                                          ./' . .. .+ + , 
 
 

					
				
				
JW%4 Owa44 MA-4 Mas*        nIsaint. 
'4444sx 06"              "lode, 
s4w    va                             4444ob  Th"t4:hlae  poI*noti,*oe*4
a 
14 93                 :44'tiG4-r 9  Mor  44am  tobenstngI  a 4n 
Mu      of4 Ussgtnt$444  od ya-w O  O f~ 4  -me 
:44et      ust  we  sipl  a                    44eo  t  heshgwi sdAo  h 
444 4444  -br~altzos  sso-aodi  94  ~l  s1" 4 
'.4>                                    44th  wihpare  444 wtl'1  34 
uVUl  rt 
 
 

					
				
				
ww at the low of their eyele, which Indicates that theW rely on qbag- 
nam bogs for nestn cover when their numbers are reduced, It probably 
also Lndieates that originally their bitef habitat in Wisoonsin was the 
au       bog. Later they sprea into the cutover lands in northern 
Wisoonsin which have a spars* vsg.tatim, due to frequemt brning. 
A sparse, ry vegetation seems to be the deoiding faster in determinina 
the renoe of the shwrp-taile4 gromse.   bo  bsignua, althoag*  amp beneath

is dry on the   rfaoe. Daing wet weathe the      oumse oould live oan top

of the ease nte of leatherlef whitoh grows etensively in meet bogs. 
In the Wont the sharp-taile& grouse is goe of a plains bird than a 
pririe bird. It inhabited western North Dnkota, western South akota, 
eastern Wyoming, Kasas, Mad Noblao. Sino sottlemeat it ii. moved 
eastward, probably fuo to ealtivation, whioh has resulted in a sparser 
vegetation than fornerly ocur-red.   la loft the shorp-tail ne.ted only 
In sandy araw where the veptatioa was sparse, while the praiwio chicken 
nested in the dense grss, It is probable that the sharp-tailed groue 
did not nest in the original prairie areas of Visconsin as they w 
pibably mostly of the dense a ms type. Xote also that the shsrp-til$ 
gramse occurred in northeastern Illinois, which is the only part of the 
State that has ephagnum bogs. 
-2- 
/ 
 
 

					
				
				
Food, Roost Coe, and r tetive Cover of the Sag 
Ia Rlation to Sp-Taile Grouse 
Several floas  of sharp-talls were found In the vioLtty of lKoh 
Buff in a larw   bog tat forns a reservolr for a cranberry farm. As 
thsr ay b seen her at all tims of the year it I proble that m 
larg. bog provides everythin that is noooseary I the line of roost 
cover, protection aginst enemies and food for peromannt residene. 
However, bogs are generally bordered r so      which fnis food in 
the form of alder catkins, *Jhte birch buds nd catkns, w111iw buts ant 
oatkiAns, an mountain ash berries. fhe food eaten by the sharp-toil in 
the bog proper opsists during the suer of leaves and flowers at 
, The brrits and bares of Taeimn                            M     *nsl- 
Mmg     . OOCRU     aaem, TaL1%gggo, anapuumMg~~ 
a insects. Dring the winter the bads gt .atins of the bog birch 1 
Pvar.                    are later. 
fte cranberry farmer reported that the sharp-tails ate a large 
mer of     raberrtes               E2        iin thi sltivatet eramberr 
The sathill m   e is oo of our raoest birds. It spead smost of Its 
tim  in bos and sowoes. Most of the sadhill aras seem I Wisconsia 
are mgrants that stop over for a few week spring and fall qa their w 
to and from Canda. Only a few nest in the State.    o   nestFm ing Ow sew

to prefer bogs ow  marshes that bve patohes of temarok or spruce in them

ow around them. They do not like tamarack swops without opea tpines. 
John Cardo, a fsor living on Shiprook 3o*, west of       olome. has given

us a fairly accurate desoription of the cbans, that )  h taken plato 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
there drt*# the last 50 Years.    Wef    1590v mat of what Is now hay- 
marh was a tm*        ow" with no open spaces emept wheO mall lo   
 p.- 
imp had, boon m"s. L6ads of polos were hauled to    ortage by oen, 
lhere were no Oraes at that tiw*. Is 1994, following seV*Pal 4r7 Years, 
the etir-    p iwas buAnd with only soattertd, pathes of tmar 
0so&ping. *be plat was burned to a depth at 2 feet so that the tree 
were  urnds out by the rests.  Te tres that were not hflod est for 
firewood were piled up ad burned, In 1595. Crop of oats ad aie W* 
raised In 1595 an the burned peat, In 1896 it mas too wet. After    4 
osos oaus in a d 1900 it beosme a hay marsh. Seadhill oenoes 
begn stopping about 1904. In 1914, the first nost was found. At 
leat one pair has boon meting thee sinoe and the meber stopping 
in the fall has bon increasing in recent years.    On October 1, 1934#, 
51 in one flook were soe. In the spring of 19349 Aldo Leopold, Vallac* 
I Orae,    d self saw a pair with their yv=C in a strip of grass 
that ha temarmok and aspen on two side, and conneoted with largs ba 
nohes on th    other two sie. 
tof the nests that I have seen hae bon in sphau bog. 
The first was in 3rnett ounty near the St. Oroiz River. The mest 
was /o  A hummock of sphaaw in an open space that oonnsoted with a 
largeba )marsh, but was nearly urrouadod by tmnara*ks. The s**om& 
was on a flat sphaw    in a bog at about 40 acres that was surrounde 
ow all sides by bite pine. That was in Wood Covunty near Onumoor. 
The thir was in Jackson 0uty, north of Mather in a large be    that it 
6 aileo  "rose. Bp3gs    it baled and taken out m oars that run on 
a small It . ThO nest consisted of a few bods of     rass ftlattened 
down an top of the sphaa. The nest was In a smell open space in 
 
 

					
				
				
& potah of bog birh that vae abt 4 feet hIih. fo osms vWe able 
to look over the tops of these bushes without themselves being Sef 
Mw fourth nst mae in southweten Wood    ounty in an inmase bog with 
sob   hes or te    for a  ile or  oro n a& 4reo tan,   The fifth 
nest was west of City Polnt in Jackson Oounty om the 31lt Crabeory 
farm. 1he nust was found * me blers and was located at the edge 
of a spruce swr (Koa m         a) which borders a spagm    bog several 
miles in extent. 
S    tahill cranes wm  reported to nesot at Now London. at Ocomtow ov 
in the marsh northwst of Indesor itn    arquetto  ount, ' Altogether 
the*r are probably a dozen pairs nesting in Wisonsin.   they lay bat 
two eggs, somewhat lrgew than gose ei. They do not seem to be 4e.- 
creasing at present and if the remaining large sophag    bngs e not 
drained or burned the sadhill re" will not become extinet. 
Praie Ohik    --Foods 
Marsh Yeed 
log Birch 
Ovate (summer) 
Raw (Winter) 
Willow OP110 
mshto tsummr) 
Willaw le4wS 
 
 

					
				
				
Hig  spots in  arh or edge of mnamh. 
Raise Yong in tall grass amd ame seen by hayuecers. Used o ginal 
grass prairies for nesting, ad hayarnh Ws the only habitat that oould 
be used in its place. 5aM pratries awex not used, probbly due to *e 
4ifferene in teature and moisture. 
Bay marss are very tuportant to the prairie hhtai     , both as 
er roosts and as winter roosts, Darag the owner shq          roost in 
pathes of uncut gras. Proquently the haeom          out only patches of 
ha  so that there is a miture of cut pass, u at grass, aM    willows. 
Such a place is a favorite roost grmd, Intihe winter they roost in 
depressions in the snow whieh they dig by scratching. These rosts 
are located in willows.   he area, wher. migrating boo #pod the 
winter awae aftr lwge ha Nrshes or nuwat marshe.            Sb small 
flocs of reosters which do not migrato roost in either lrgse or smell 
ash*s and prefer marshes with tall gra. 
3..o 
Blueberry 
Granbe M, No reword. 
Villow, leaves, * atns. 
marsh 
Willow, leaves, oatkins 
swaxp 
White birch 
Aler 
Mountain Ash 
(1xnus or -Sorbs ameriosnek) 
 
 

					
				
				
R..~t in *VW"        9r               Ug~ h P  )OS. in *n ow r ~ 
Sa~wsh  abbits vA *~ottai1  fbbits* pw'.fw takm*, 9.mqj uu 
a~dr ww      tba  wr next toeo muix" wl*.h oen sqan       t" 
use the S"s ~s.~ **TW          dur  '  and spm"  out ow  the h1abe

grudat night. 
In the winterwhen there Is Ldo* snow MAL str     weather, doo sen 
most of their time in *aaa     aA spw     ~sps. As the deer co       t* 
in 'Aar? e 1nordq thee  g."s  e  lit der yas, '"he mew It psLke

Orwn and trAlls lad In oe7 direction. Where rs~u. or taaavc*k &o not

ocir thi-* us-, 'birah  aildr, or oth  mays. 
 
 

					
				
				
Plat ?l4                            AwMSeLU  S 
2. Rgh      e2.                       46p..tled grm 
3.                                3. 3'vario *tid 
3. Y  nium penaplvvaia          Sandhill ovu 
7.-                               7,AR® MR92 1T  ottemtalw rbbit 
.Bog birch                      o. Ilo 
1.  nu Aar~et"                         bftwo betwe    pas blwlsm 
2. Almu inama 
1.lethiog 
3,                            slo   os 
3. Bog~ birch 
b Marshu 
5. ter-saso4 mole 
-6-UT- 
 
 

					
				
				
Snwso riabit 
1. Wof 2 p. 
Z. 1,51     ab$. 
3. Mink 
1, BNV Iy= 
a. bww." owl 
U.   -ai~   hawk 
10. Coe'*bm 
 
 

					
				
				
XF 
 
 

					
				
				
Wood -- Jackson County Game District 
BY 
F. J. W. Schmidt 
This paper outlines the history of the area from the standpoint of 
its game animals and the possibilities of the area as a public recreation

ground. 
History 
The sand ridges and islands in the area were covered with pine. The 
peat land was covered with sphagnum and stands of spruce and tamarack. 
That part of the area which is in Jackson County still has extensive tracts

of spruce and sphagnum. 
Not much is known of the animals in presettlement days, but there 
were deer, beaver, muskrats, mink, marten, fisher, weasels, bear, otter,

ftffed grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, and sand-hill cranes. 
The three factors which brought about the present cobdition of 
the area were logging, fire and drainage. 
After the removal of the timber the area dried up to such an 
extent that big fires swept the country in 1S96 and 1997. These 
fires were a benefit to the game in several ways. The sand ridges 
and islands which had been dominated by pine now grew up to oak 
which provided food in the form of acorns to deer, prairie chickens, 
sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse. The moss in most of the large 
bogs was burned and marsh grass took its place. As a result of these 
grassy marshes prairie chickens increased rapidly and reached their 
peak between 1900 and 1910. In all of the area between Babcock and 
Bear Bluff prairie chickens were as abandant as sharp-tailed grouse. 
 
 

					
				
				
Some of the grassy, ~rshes were wet enough for muskrats. In one 
marsh the peat had been burned to a depth of five feet and a lake 
resulted. Rice was planted in this lake and muskrats became so abundant 
that when it was drained more muskrats were killed by the dredge than 
could be skinned by the crew. 
Most of the area in Wood County was drained during the years 1905-15 
to make it of agricultural use. Farmers buying this land soon went bank-

rupt and in addition the farmers already in the area lost their hay 
supply so that there are now even less farmers than before drainage. 
Drainage was detrimental to game. Prairie chickens disappeared 
and muskrats were exterminated except for a few living in the ditches. 
At present there are sharp-tailed grouse, muskrats, beaver, deer, 
mink, and ducks scattered throughout the area, but they are often 
decimated by fires. 
As a recreational area it would be necessary for the State to own 
the entire area before the necessary improvements could be made. A 
special arrangement could be made with cranberry companies. 
As soon as the state had control certain parts of the area could 
be flooded. Now that the peat has been burned permanent lakes could 
be created. These could be planted to rice for ducks and muskrats, 
Ditches could be drained and dikes thrown up between sand ridges. 
Such lakes could not have been created before drainage as the flood- 
ing of the original sphagnum bogs would result in a floating bed of 
moss with no open water. 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
Sources of Revenue 
Game 
1. Deer.    $10. 
2. Muskrats. Free hunting by permit 
3. Mink              U     " 
4~. skunk                      t 
5- Wolves      .           .   U 
6. Weasels                 N   . 
7. Badgers     "               V I  U 
9. Raccoon                 i s N  N 
9. Rabbits                 "   " 
10. Squirrels   "     "         N 
11. Beaver.   $5- 
12. Sharp-tailed grouse.   $ 1. 
13. Prairie chicken.       $ 1. 
14. Ruffed grouse.         $ 1. 
15. Pheasants              $ 1. 
16. quail.                 $25. 
17. Ducks. Free hunting by permit. 
1. Blueberries. free for residents only. 
2. Cranberries. 
Miscellaneous 
1. Moss. 
2. Hay. 
3. Wiregrass. 
4. Christmas trees. 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
Purpose of a Game District and Use 
The area as a whole is more valuable as a game country than as 
a forest. Most of the area is peat as shown in Figurel. Where the 
peat has been burned it should be flooded by means of dams and dikes. 
The open water would be used by ducks and muskrats. The land bordering 
the open water would grow up to marsh grass and cat-tails which would 
result in a big increase in prairie chickens. The sand should be partly 
planted to evergreens, but oak woods and blueberry land should be 
reserved for game feed. Cranberry companies could be included in the 
area without buying their land as 99 per cent of their land is not used 
except as a source of water. 
Reforestation alone would never repay the money invested and there 
would be no immediate returns. As a game district the area would repay 
the people of the State in the form of hunting and trapping and re- 
forestation could be carried out at the same time whenever such plant- 
ing would improve game conditions. The ridges and islands should be 
allowed to grow up to oak and the oaks should be thinned out to im- 
prove the acorn crop and the blueberry crop. In large peat marshes 
small islands could be thrown up by means of a dredge and a birch planted

on each. This would result in a big increase in grouse and also in 
ducks if the marsh were flooded. 
-4- 
 
 

					
				
				
Purchase Price 
County land could be obtained for about one dollar per acre. 
Other landowners would probably sell for less than $10.00 per acre if 
given certain hunting rights which is the only present advantage of 
ownership. Cranberry companies could be included in the area without 
purchasing their lands although it might be necessary to shoot off 
excess grouse around cranberry plantings. 
Enforcement Plan 
The area as shown in Figure 1 would include about 1SO square miles 
with a boundary of about 65 miles. 
The only roads entering the area are from Babcock, Meadow Valley, 
Mather, Knapp, Pray, and City Point. Men stationed on these roads 
could prevent hunters entering the area without a permit. The only 
roads entering the area would be dikes and entrance at other points 
would be prevented by flooding of the border marshes. There would be 
six or seven roads entering the area. Two of these roads are already 
built as dikes. Hunters on foot would not penetrate more than a 
mile. A game keeper would be posted at each entrance and would 
check all game leaving  the area. Hunters would be given tags for 
all game to be killed. 
Later the border lands could be reforested in addition to flooding 
to prevent illegal entrance. 
Game District Keepers 
The keepers will enforce the regulations of the district, propa- 
gate game, operate feeding stations, and operate dredges. Game which 
could be propagated would include ducks, pheasants, wild turkeys, and 
chukar partridge. 
-5- 
 
 

					
				
				
Open Seasons 
Upon creation of the area as a game district the Conservation 
Department should have the authority to dispose of all excess game. 
The number of animals shot would be regulated by tags to be issued 
until the excess population of each animal was shot off. The hunt- 
ing season should be long so that not more than 20 hunters would be 
hunting any one species of game on any one day. Rabbits might be an 
exception. ?or example, 10 might be hunting deer, 10 prairie chickens, 
10 ducks, and 10 squirrels, making 40 hunters in all. All hunters 
would check in amount of game killed at entrance point before leaving 
the area. 
Deer 
There are a thousand or more deer on the area. The winter quarters 
are in the spruce forests in Jackson County where as many as 100 can be 
seen in a day's travel. At present the excess deer are killed by 
violators and sold illegally. 
Managed as a game district, there would be about 500 excess deer 
to be removed annually. 
Rabbits 
There are enough rabbits on the area to furnish good rabbit hunt- 
ing to any number of hunters. 
Grouse 
Refloding of parts of the area would extend the range of the 
prairie chicken into this area and would increase the number of sharp- 
tails .already on the area. 
-6- 
 
 

					
				
				
Ducks 
As high as 500,000 ducks might eventually be produced on the area, 
depending -on the amount of land that is found to be suitable for re- 
flooding and the amount of water available. The duck population could 
be built up ly artificial propagation. 
-7- 
 
 

					
				
				
STATE OF WISCONSIN 
Conservation Commission 
March 22 
Mr. William F. Grimmer 
Cons ervation Department 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Grimmer: 
I am enclosing a map showing a possible arrangement 
for a grouse management area which would furnish the information 
needed to complete the grouse investigation. There are other flocks 
of birds besides the ones on the map. The ones shown I have either 
counted or banded.  Most of the county land is in the west half of 
Remington and Hiles. I am including part of Juneau County north of 
the Meadow Valley-Finley road as it includes the biggest flocks of 
Prairie chickens and a large number of quail. The area north of the Mather-

Sprague road could also be open to hunting 1933-6. I do not think the 
area closed to hunting should be closed until 1933 if it is to be a 
three-year plan as there will be no marked drop in numbers until 1933 
or 1934 and the best time to get the information we need will be when 
the number is low and the season in the rest of the state is closed. 
F. J. W. Schmidt 
 
 

					
				
				
-(aWi I- 
I~~a (Aiv- 
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A Journal of Cold-Blooded 
Vertebrates 
ESTABLISHED IN 1913 
OCTOBER-DECEMBER 
No. 173                 JANUARY 16, 1930 
 
 

					
				
				
CONTENTS OF ISSUE 173 
PAGE 
An Atlantic Pipefish Caught in Transit Through the 
Panama Canal by A. M. CHICKERING      .         .     85 
The Specifiic Name of the European Trout Salmo 
Trutta Linnaus by C. L. HUBBS .    .    .   .   .   . 86 
Some Considerations in the Study of the Effects of 
Heat and Light on Fishes by D. R. CRAWFORD      *     89 
Some Embryological Notes of Hynobius Naevius 
by JuNJI OYAMA       .   .   .   .    .   .     .   . 92 
Reptiles and Amphibians from Pawnee County, 
Oklahoma by A. I. ORTENBURGER             .   .   .. 94 
A Note on .lnniella Nigra Fischer 
by M. E. MUSGRAVE    .   .   ......             95 
Bufo Alvarius, a Poisonous Toad 
by M. E. MUSGRAVE and DORIS M. COCHRAN                96 
Amphibians and Reptiles Observed in the Palisades 
Interstate Park, New York and New Jersey, 
by GEORGE. S. MYERS                 *               * 99 
Balancer in Diemictylus Pyrrhogaster and in 
Hynobius Nebulosus by JuNjI OYAMA         .        . o3 
Notes on Amphibia and Lacertilia Collected at 
Weymouth, N. J., by ALEXANDER BARRETr KLOTS .      . 107 
On Some Skinks of the Genus Eumeces from North 
America by ARTHUR LOVERIDGE .      .    .        .  .  .I 
Published Quarterly by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
at 
Burton Hall, Northampton. Mass. Entered as second-class matter Feb. 11. 1924,
at the post 
office at Northampton, Mass., under the Act of Aug. 24, 1912. Acceptance
for mailing at 
ipeciai rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103. Act of Oct. 3. 1917, authorized
Feb. 11, 1924. 
 
 

					
				
				
AN ATLANTIC PIPEFISH CAUGHT IN 
TRANSIT THROUGH THE PANAMA CANAL 
The following note may be of some interest to 
ichthyologists, ecologists, zoogeographers and others. 
On August 7, 1928 I caught an active and apparently 
healthy Atlantic pipefish while searching among the 
weeds and grasses in the shallow water along the 
shore of Gatun Lake, Canal Zone. This was in an 
inlet near the landing of the Barro Colorado Island 
biological laboratory. 
This pipefish was carrying about 220 young em- 
bryos, all normal in appearance, in its abdominal 
brooding organ. Each embryo was contained in a 
cup developed in the skin, and the cups were arranged 
in open honeycomb-like form. Dr. Carl L. Hubbs, 
University Museums, University of Michigan, to 
whom the specimen was submitted for identification, 
has found that this fish has had no legal generic 
name for reasons given in a paper still in press, and 
has named it Oostethus lineatus (Kaup). He gives its 
range as chiefly the brackish waters of the tropical 
Atlantic coast of the new world, but states that it 
extends its range into purely fresh water, and prob- 
ably into the sea as well. 
The Suez Canal as a means of dispersal of marine 
fishes has been considered by a number of authors. 
Norman ('27) has recently summarized the available 
information on this subject. As pointed out by 
Hubbs ('27) the remarkable distinctness of the fish 
faunas of the Mediterranean and Red Seas so long 
evident to ichthyologists is being reduced due to the 
fact that certain species have been able to pass through 
the Suez Canal and thus greatly extend their ranges. 
I am also informed by Dr. Hubbs that Dr. C. H. 
Eigenmann ('20) at one time gave some attention to 
the relation of the Panama Canal to the transference 
of Atlantic and Pacific drainage freshwater fishes. He 
did not consider the Canal as a means of dispersal of 
j85 
 
 

					
				
				
marine fishes, however. The taking of the pipefish 
here recorded suggests a process of dispersal of marine 
fishes similar to that known to be taking place through 
the Suez Canal. 
A. M. CHICKERING 
Albion College 
Albion, Mich. 
Eigenmann, Carl H., 1920. The Freshwater Fishes of Panama east of lon- 
gitude 800 W. Ind. Univ. Studies. 7 pp. 3-19. 
Hubbs, Carl L., 1927. The Suez Canal as a means of dispersal of marine 
fishes. Copeia, No. 165, p. 94. 
1929. Oostethus: A new generic name for a Doryrhamphine pipefish. 
Occ. Papers, 199, Mus. Zool., Univ. of Michigan. In press. 
Norman, J. R., 1927., Report on the Fishes. Trans. Zool. Soc., London, 22,

pt. 3, no. 12, pp. 375-390. 
THE SPECIFIC NAME 
OF THE EUROPEAN TROUT 
SALMO TRUTTA LINNAUS 
Dr. David Starr Jordan recently submitted the 
following case to the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature: 
"Salmo eriox vs. S. trutta and S. fario... 
"In naming the European trout, Linnaeus, Syst. 
Nat. ed. 10, 1758, tom. I, p. 308, made it Salmo eriox 
(No. 2), Salmo trutta (No. 3), and Salmo fario (No. 4), 
page 309. These three names belong to one species. 
The two names Salmo fario (based on brook trout) 
and Salmo trutta (based on sea-run specimens) have 
both been in common use, the name Salmo fario most 
generally. Salmo eriox, based on the gray trout of 
Sweden, has line priority over both, and page priority 
over the name most commonly used, Salmo fario. 
"Which name should be used? The issue lies be- 
tween convenience and common usage on the one 
hand, and page priority and early acceptance on the 
other." The discussion of the case by the Inter- 
national Commission and the opinion on it (Opinion 
[861 
 
 

					
				
				
No. 40) concurred in by eleven of the twelve com- 
missioners, were as follows: 
"According to Article 28, if two or more competi- 
tive names are of the same date, that selected by the 
first reviser shall stand. A recommendation under 
Article 28, provides that in absence of any previous 
revision, the establishment of precedence by various 
methods is recommended; among these methods the 
following is mentioned: 'Other things being equal, 
that name is to be preferred which stands first in the 
publication (page precedence).' 
"According to the premises submitted, the issue 
lies between convenience and common usage on the 
one hand, and page priority on the other. Accordingly 
all other things are not equal in this case, and it is 
best to select the most commonly used name, which 
under these premises is Salmo fario. (See also note by 
Stejneger.) 
"Hartert says: 'I can not agree that "accordingly 
all other things are not equal in that case" because in 
cases of priority, convenience and common usage can 
not decide. In Article 28 evidently "all other things 
being equal" is meant in the sense of "all names 
being equally available." The greatest convenience 
is undoubtedly page priority, and as it is the only 
one which admits no discussion (convenience and 
common usage being uncertain quantities), it alone 
must decide.' 
"Jentink says: 'Salmo eriox is the first published 
name like also Chaetodon acuminatus, and they have 
therefore priority.' 
"Jordan says: 'I personally much prefer the recog- 
nition of line and page priority as giving absolute 
fixity. But I agree that the above is the rule and shall 
abide by it.' 
"Stejneger says: ' concur, as per appended separate 
vote.' 
"According to the premises submitted, the issue 
lies between convenience and common usage on the 
1871 
 
 

					
				
				
one hand, and page priority on the other, but as a 
matter of fact the issue lies in the question as to who 
first united the three Linnaean specific names eriox, 
trutta, and fario, and which of the three names did 
he select for the united species. I call attention to 
the fact that Professor Robert Collett so united them 
in 1875 (Norges fiske, p. 157) and that he selected 
eriox as the collective name, thus: '125. [SalmoI 
eriox, Lin. 1766. Salmo eriox trutta, fario Lin. Syst. 
Nat. ed. 12, tom. I, p. 509.' 
"This action must stand unless it can be shown 
that somebody else made a different selection before 
1875." 
Dr. Jordan has since agreed with Dr. Stejneger, 
stating in Copeia (No. 29, 1916, p. 28) that: 
"Opinion 40 with special note by Dr. Stejneger 
confirms Salmo eriox L. as the proper name of the 
trout of western Europe, in place of Salmo fario and 
Salmo trutta." 
On the basis of this reasoning however, the proper 
name of the trout of western Europe is neither fario 
nor eriox, but apparently Salmo trutta Linnaeus, under 
which name Widegren (Ofvers. Vetensk. Akad. F6r- 
handl., I9, 1862, p. 560) united among other nominal 
forms, "S. eriox, trutta, fario, och carpio, Linne." 
Widegren believed that these names were all based on 
one species which assumes different appearances in 
diverse types of environment. Dr. Guinther, in his 
catalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum (Vol. 
6, 1866, p. 104), after stating this view of Widegren, 
remarked: "He names this species Salmo trutta; so 
that Scandinavia and the remainder of Europe would 
be, in fact, inhabited by two species only, viz. this 
S. trutta and S. salar." 
The taxinomic status of the various forms of trout 
inhabiting the streams of western Europe is not 
wholly settled, but the current opinion is that they 
[881 
 
 

					
				
				
are only races or subspecies, perhaps only environ- 
mental variations. If any of these three views is 
held, then, upon the basis of Article 28 and Opinion 
40 (with appended note by Stejneger) of the Inter- 
national Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
the nominal forms of trout inhabiting western Europe 
(excepting of course the salmon, Salmo salar) should 
be united under a common specific name, Salmo trutta, 
unless it can be shown that some reviser of these 
nominal species combined them and chose a different 
specific name for the united species, prior to Wide- 
gren's revision of 1862. 
(On the basis of all this, the European Trout should 
stand as Salmo trutta.-D.S.J.) 
C. L. HUBBS 
University Museum 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
SOME CONSIDERATIONS 
IN THE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS 
OF HEAT AND LIGHT ON FISHES 
Recent experiments at the College of Fisheries indi- 
cate that the problems of physiology are far from 
simple, and it is suspected that many investigators 
have been misled by the apparent simplicity of the 
reactions of the fish to various stimuli. It is pointed 
out that there may be a similarity of response to 
different stimuli which makes difficult the separation 
of the various causes for the effect. 
Thus, in the study of the effects of light on develop- 
ing fish and eggs, we find it impossible to distinguish 
between the effects of light and those of heat, and the 
effects of heat seem to be inextricably bound to the 
[891 
 
 

					
				
				
effects of a varying oxygen supply. It may be that 
many other factors also are involved which depend on 
immeasurable quantities of dissolved materials. 
In the use of colored glasses placed between the 
eggs or fish and a source of light, it was observed that 
red light yielded results similar to those obtained in 
total darkness. Green and yellow lights seemed to be 
optimum for young salmon, while under the blue 
light there was the heaviest loss and the slowest rate 
of growth. These results are so much in accord with 
what one might suspect from the usually supposed 
effects of various light wave lengths that the tempta- 
tion would be to conclude that the shorter wave 
lengths are damaging to the fish. This is not borne 
out by the use of ultra-violet rays gave very diverse 
results, depending on wave length and time of ex- 
posure, ranging from favorable to adverse. If the fish 
were actually burned, death would result. 
When a sufficiently sensitive thermometer was used 
to observe the temperatures under each colored glass, 
it was found that the water was warmest under the 
red and coldest under the blue. It is well known that 
the speed of development of fish is governed by the 
temperature of the water, but very little was known 
about how small a difference of temperature was 
necessary to cause a noticeable difference in the rate 
of development. It appears from our experiments 
that probably less than o.i degree Centigrade will 
cause a noticeable effect. The observed temperature 
under the colored glasses varied more than this amount. 
Thus it is apparent that the differences in results were 
not causeo by light alone, if indeed light had any 
effect. The retarded development and heavier loss 
under blue glass can be accounted for by the lower 
temperature of the water. 
The oxygen contents of water vary with tempera- 
ture, and speed of development of the fish depends 
upon the amount of dissolved oxygen which the fish 
1901 
 
 

					
				
				
can assimilate. As the water temperature rises there 
is a loss of dissolved oxygen, but the speed of assimi- 
lation is greater because blood reaches the gills at a 
more rapid rate. Here, again, we deal in very small 
quantities. It was found that variations of small 
fractions of a milliliter of oxygen would cause a notice- 
able difference in the rate of growth. The loss of 
oxygen from the water is accompanied by changes in 
hydrogen-ion concentration, which are known to 
affect the fish. Here, again, the differences in rate of 
development of the fish, or eggs, under the colored 
glasses can be accounted for by other things than the 
effect of light. 
It has been found, also, that the acceleration or 
retardation of development can be accomplished in 
other ways than by changing the temperature of the 
water, or by varying the oxygen content. If accumu- 
lations of carbon dioxide gas from respiration are not 
rapidly removed, the rate of development is slower 
than otherwise. If salmon eggs are partially covered 
with vaseline to render part of the surface impervious 
to exchange of gases then it is seen that those eggs 
with the most surface so covered develop at the 
slowest rate. In a similar manner eggs in the middle 
layers of deep hatching baskets are retarded in de- 
velopment because so much of their surfaces is covered 
by other eggs. 
Thus it has been shown that no noticeable differ- 
ences in development of fish or eggs necessarily is 
accounted for by exposure to colored lights. It is 
probable that the effects of colored lights are not 
different from those of heat. The effects of actinic 
rays vary according to their wave length and time of 
exposure to them. Infra red radiations were the same 
in effect as heat. Indeed these rays are continuous in 
series with heat rays on one side and colored light on 
the other. Blue light appears to be at a neutral point 
between the effects of heat and the effects of actinic 
rays. 
[91] 
 
 

					
				
				
Mast (1914) has shown that light perceived by the 
eyes of a fish may be the stimulus causing changes in 
the coloration of the skin. Other investigators have 
shown that modifications in coloration may be caused 
by anaesthetics or adrenalin, (epinephrin) etc. Excess 
of acids or alkalies in the water also cause changes in 
color. 
It therefore is pointed out that problems dealing 
with the physiology of fishes are apt to lead into many 
phases of physics and chemistry not clearly under- 
stood when applied to living fishes. 
D. R. CRAWFORD 
College of Fisheries 
SOME EMBRYOLOGICAL NOTES OF 
HYNOBIUS NAEVIUS1 
Hynobius naevius (Schlegel) ("Buchi-sanshou'")2 is 
a salamander indigenous to Japan. It lives near a 
mountain stream, and spawns usually under stones in 
the stream in the later part of March. A pair of egg- 
sacs, each containing some fourteen or fifteen eggs, 
are laid at a time. The egg is white in color, with 
much yolk, and has a diameter of about 5 mm. 
In a week after spawning, gastrulation is completed, 
and soon after this neural folds are formed. For the 
completion of the neural groove about ten days are 
required. 
After a fortnight the fusion of the neural folds takes 
place and the head part is distinguishable. In two or 
1. Contributions from the Zoological Laboratory, Kyflshfi Imperial Uni- 
versity, No. 16. 
2. Buchi, spotted or mottled; sansh~uo, salamander. 
[921 
 
 

					
				
				
three days after this the head becomes more distinct. 
Posterior to the eyeballs arise the rudiments of the 
external gills and on the hinder part of the body the 
tail appears. At this time the embryo measures 8 mm. 
in length, bent a little, and holds a round yolk mass 
on the ventral region. 
After another week, i.e., three weeks after spawning, 
the embryo becomes straight and measures 15 mm. in 
total length, the head being about 2 mm., the tail 
about 5 mm. The external gills consist of three pairs 
of rods and measure I mm. The fore-limbs now pro- 
ject and the nostrils appear. In the eyes black pig- 
ment appears. On the tail arises the fin, and now the 
yolk mass becomes elongated, lying along the body. 
After two or three days the external gills increase in 
length more and more, and little branches spring up 
from them. The rudiments of the hind-limbs now 
become visible. Pigment gradually appears over the 
surface of the body. 
Fig. I 
By the end of the fourth week the total length 
attains 19 mm., external gills measure 5 mm., and two 
or three toes appear on the fore-limbs. 
Thus in the fifth week the embryo hatches out. At 
this time the total length is 21-22 mM., the fore-limbs 
measure 2 mm., and the hind-limbs i mm. In the 
abdomen there still remains a good quantity of yolk. 
This hatched-out larva has no balancing-sticks (bal- 
ancers) and generally lies on its side on the bottom of 
the water, remaining in this posture till the time when 
the fore-limbs are strong enough to perform their 
function. Fig. i shows the larva just hatched out. 
1931 
 
 

					
				
				
(In his report on the Japanese salamanders, Tago3 
writes an account on the development of H. naevius. 
His descriptions, however, lead me to think that he is 
dealing with some other species of Hynobius than 
naevi us.) 
JUNJI OYAMA 
3. Tago, K. Nihon Sansh8uo no Kendyfi. (Japanese). D~butsugaku 
Zasshi, Vol. 19. 1907. 
REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS 
FROM PAWNEE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA* 
Due to the efforts of Mr. J. W. Peery, superintendent 
of schools at Quay, Oklahoma, a representative collec- 
tion of reptiles and amphibians from Pawnee County 
has been received by the Museum. Because of the 
fact that no collections have hitherto been reported 
from this section of the State, the list of species is 
herewith presented. 
Bufo woodhousii Girard 
Acris gryllus (Le Conte) 
Crotaphytus collaris collaris (Say) 
Phrynosoma coronatum (Blainville) 
Ophisaurus ventralis (Linnaeus) 
Cnemidophorus sexlineatus (Linnaeus) 
Leiolopisma laterale (Say) 
Eumeces fasciatus (Linnaeus) 
Eumeces guttulatus (Hallowell) 
Opheodrys aestivus (Linnaeus) 
Masticophis flagellum flagellum (Shaw) 
Masticophis flagellum flavigularis (Hallowell) 
Coluber constrictor flaviventris (Say) 
Elaphe laeta (Baird and Girard) 
Pituophis sayi (Schlegel) 
Lampropeltis calligaster (Harlan) 
Storeria dekayi (Holbrook) 
*Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of the University of Oklahoma,

Second Series, No. 9i. 
[94] 
 
 

					
				
				
Tropidoclonion lineatum (Hallowell) 
Thamnophis sauritus proximus (Say) 
Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (Linnaeus) 
Tantilla gracilis Baird and Girard 
A. I. ORTENBURGER 
Museum of Zoology, 
Univ. of Oklahoma. 
A NOTE ON ANNIELLA NIGRA FISCHER 
During a recent stay in Pacific Grove, Monterey 
County, California, advantage was taken of an ex- 
ceptionally low tide (Feb. 22, 1929) to investigate the 
fauna about the rocks off Lighthouse Point (Point 
Pinos). All the rocks could be reached without wading 
except one quite far out. At high tide the water com- 
pletely insolates these rocks from all mainland con- 
nections. About two hundred feet or more from the 
mainland is a small islet, a level plateau about fifty 
by sixty feet and perhaps eight or nine feet above 
high tide line. Although never submerged it is subject 
to the spray from the breakers. There are no trees or 
shrubs on it, only grass and very low growing plants 
such as the common "loco weed". The northern 
portion is covered by an old shellmound of at least 
two feet in thickness. Just how long this islet has 
been cut off from the mainland is not known. 
It was while kicking around in the surface debris 
of this shellmound that a specimen of Anniella nigra, 
the black legless lizard, was discovered. Further 
search was made but no other specimen was to be 
found at that time. There is no doubt but that there 
are other individuals on the islet and future search 
may find them. 
This record extends the range of this species from 
the mainland to an isolated islet, although the dis- 
tance involved is perhaps not more than two hundred 
feet. 
[95] 
 
 

					
				
				
In coloration this specimen more closely resembles 
the lighter forms of A. pulchra from the southern 
part of California (Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 
collection). In life it was notably silver and not black 
or even dark. The dorsal line of dark color is one 
scale wide while the lateral lines vary from several 
wide at the head to two for the greater length of the 
body. Some of the measurements are: length from 
head to anus 60 mm., width of head 4 mm., width 
of tne body 3.5 mm. taken at approximately 1.5 cm. 
posterior to the head, length of tail about 24 rn., 
the end was broken off but saved. The scales are so 
very tiny that it is extremely difficult to count the 
scale rows. The scales on the head correspond in 
number and arrangement to Van Denburgh's de- 
scription of the genus. 
This lizard is no doubt an immature of A. nigra 
but due to scant comparative material it is impossible 
to be certain. All specimens of both species at hand 
are more than twice the length of this one. The very 
light coloration may well be due to age, since only 
A. nigra has been reported from the Monterey penin- 
sula. 
M. E. MUSGRAVE 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 
Bureau of Biological Survey 
BUFO ALVARIUS, A POISONOUS TOAD 
Although I have been intimately acquainted with 
toads of this species for the past ten or twelve years 
and have at various times handled them and carried 
them about in my car, it was not until the evening of 
September 1, 1928, that I realized what a dangerous 
amphibian Bufo alvarius could really be upon occasion. 
Just about sundown of that evening I was looking 
over a planting in the front of our home when I dis- 
covered a large green toad in a standpipe used for 
irrigation purposes. I lifted the big fellow out and 
t 96 ] 
 
 

					
				
				
dropped him over the side. Our little wire haired fox 
terrier, standing nearby made a dash at the toad, but 
I spoke to her and she stepped back. Immediately 
the toad swelled himself up, hissed at the dog and 
hopped a little way toward her. That was too much, 
the dog immediately grabbed him and in one shake 
the toad was dead. I was leaning over the standpipe 
and my face was perhaps four or five feet from the 
toad while she was shaking it. 
About this time a large police dog that is a visitor 
at our home ran up and touched his nose to the toad; 
the little terrier snatched it away. I thought no more 
of it and started back to the house, the big police 
dog following. He had gone no more than a hundred 
feet when his front legs crumpled under him and he 
pitched forward. However, he gathered himself and 
then tipped backwards, his legs and body being 
paralyzed. 
Immediately I realized that something was wrong 
and looking over to where the little terrier had been 
I saw her lying on the ground with her feet crumpled 
under her and her face in the dirt. I ran over and 
picked her up and found that she had fallen on top of 
the toad as she was carrying it. I felt her heart and 
found the action slow, and although she gasped and 
did her best, she could get no air into her lungs. 
Within two or three minutes from the time she first 
bit the toad she died. Immediately after death, 
bloody foam oozed from her mouth and nose. 
About that time I became very sick myself, my 
head was swimming, and there was a lifting feeling in 
my lung cavity. It affected me rather peculiarly, as I 
wanted to walk and keep walking. I took a large dose 
of warm salt water and after disgorging what I had in 
my stomach I felt better. However, the effects did 
not wear off for about thirty minutes. The old police 
dog also revived in about three quarters of an hour. 
I do not know whether I got the effects of the 
poison while leaning over the standpipe or while 
197 1 
 
 

					
				
				
working with the little dog, as I pried her mouth open 
and tried to get salt water down her. I did not detect 
any odor whatsoever. I am quite sure that I did not 
get the poison from the toad before the dog attacked 
it, although I did lift it with my hand, but this I have 
done on many occasions before without experiencing 
any trouble. I also handled with no ill effect, a toad 
of the same species that was later sent to the Bureau 
of Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
Recently I have had a communication from Miss 
May Noble, who lives in Phoenix and who within the 
past few days has had a similar experience. Her 
Pekinese dog seized one of these green toads but 
Miss Noble got it away from the dog before he had 
hurt it to any great extent. However, the dog soon 
became paralyzed and Miss Noble called two veteri- 
narians, one of whom seemed to know nothing of the 
effects of that sort of poisoning, but the other said it 
was not uncommon in this valley. Miss Noble in- 
forms me that she used ammonia with good results 
and that the dog recovered within an hour after it 
had gotten the poison. This dog, however, did not 
puncture the skin of the toad, only picking it up. 
Just how the poison acts I do not know. My theory 
is that it is a gland secretion thrown out by the toad 
through tiny vents. Whether it forms a gas or an 
imperceptible spray, it comes in contact with the 
mucous membranes of the body and seems to do its 
deadly work then. 
M. E. MUSGRAVE 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Biological Survey. 
My own observations gathered from having kept 
two specimens of Bufo alvarius in captivity prove that 
they make harmless and interesting pets. I have 
never seen any secretion of slime from the skin glands, 
although I have often resorted to forcible feeding 
[981 
 
 

					
				
				
when my toads' appetites were a little sluggish. Even 
the process of prying open their jaws and stuffing in 
angle worms or meat brought about no exudation of 
poison; therefore it must be only under the severest 
physical stress of danger or pain that the glands 
become active. The second individual which Mr. 
Musgrave sent alive to the Biological Survey is now 
in my possession. It seems quite satisfied to be kept 
in a large wooden tub containing an inch or two of 
water. When touched or even when it hears a noise 
near its tub, it inflates to a remarkable degree and 
remains in this condition for some time. 
In Dr. Tracy Storer's book "A Synopsis of the 
Amphibia of California" (Univ. California Publ. Zool., 
Vol. 27, 1925), some brief notes are given on the life 
history of this toad, the largest species occurring 
north of Mexico, and one of the least known of all 
our North American amphibians. Its semi-aquatic 
habits restrict it to places where the water supply is 
constant. Irrigation ditches in southern Arizona and 
southeastern California provide ideal breeding places 
for it, and the young toads are said to develop from 
the egg stage in a month's time. 
DORIS M. COCHRAN 
U. S. National Museum 
AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OBSERVED 
IN THE PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK, 
NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 
The writer spent July and August, 1923, in the Boy 
Scout camp at the Kanohwahke Lakes in the Bear 
Mountain-Harriman Section of the Palisades Inter- 
state Park, New York, doing nature study work. 
Some time was available for collecting and a fairly 
representative list of the herpetological fauna was 
prepared. With this was incorporated the work done 
in the summer of 1922 by Mr. Alvah C. Bessie and a 
f 99 1 
 
 

					
				
				
few notes made by myself in the Palisades Section of 
the Park in New Jersey. Unfortunately most of my 
detailed notes, with those of other work, were destroyed 
in 1926, but enough remains to make a list possibly 
of some distributional interest.  Unless otherwise 
listed, records refer to the vicinity of the Kanohwahke 
Lakes. 
Triturus viridescens viridescens (Rafinesque). Red 
efts were rather common in the woods and the water 
form was occasionally taken. 
Ambystomca maculatum   (Shaw). Not common. A 
few young taken. 
Ambystoma opacum (Gravenhorst). One adult from 
a rather dry burrow in a hillside. 
Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel). Four adults 
were taken about Beaver Swamp, a sphagnum swamp 
below Hogan Hill. One was in rubble in the ascending 
shaft of the abandoned Hogan Iron Mine, far up the 
hill. Another was under a board a few feet from the 
water, in very damp surroundings, while the two last 
were together under a tiny stick in a dry field on the 
other side of the swamp. Search in the water failed 
to net any larvae. 
Plethodon cinereus (Green). Common under logs. 
Plethodon glutinosus (Green). 'Ibis handson e species 
was common in piles of rotting wood and occasicnal 
under rotten logs. It is seldom found away from 
rotting wood of some kind. 
Pseudotriton ruber ruber (Sonnini). Occasicrally 
taken in rocky streams throughout the I car Mt.- 
Harriman Section. A single larxa from a spring rear 
the road half way between Kanohwahke Lakes and 
Bear Mt. P. montanus montanus is recorded frcm 
Orangeburg, a short distance to the south, thrcitgh 
one old specimen in the American Museum.' 'l his 
1. Dr. Nob~e and I, and later Dr. and Mrs. Noble, visited Oran& irgh

and examined mu'dy trickles for nontanus without succ( s. A native 
of the section told Dr. Noble that in cleaning out a muddy ditch he 
had uncovered numerous "red lizards." 
[oo] 
 
 

					
				
				
fact made me doubly careful in examination of red 
salamanders but all taken were ruber. Digging for 
montanus in the mud near Wildcat Bridge and other 
likely places proved fruitless. 
Eurycea bislineata bislineata (Green). A very com- 
mon species along brooks. 
Desmognathus fuscus fuscus (Rafinesque). Common 
along brooks. A careful watch was kept for D. f. 
ochrophaeus but none were seen and I do not believe 
the form occurs here. I have taken many fuscus at 
Ossining, N. Y. 
Bufo americanus Holbrook. Not rare about the 
Kanohwahke Lakes. Notes on this species and the 
next have been given in Copeia No. 163, 1927, pp. 50- 
53. 
Bufo fowleri Garman. Common. See note, as above. 
Hyla crucifera Wied. Heard and collected only in 
the reeds near the road at the end of Little Long Pond. 
Hyla versicolor versicolor (Le Conte). Common but 
not often seen. Heard on Hogan Hill above the upper 
shaft and at Bear Mt. 
Rana clamitans Latreille. No definite notes other 
than its occurrence. 
Rana palustris Le Conte. Occasionally heard calling 
about the lakes. R. pipiens was not seen within the 
park boundaries. 
Rana sylvatica Le Conte. Occasionally seen in tLe 
woods. 
Eumeces fasciatus (Linn6). One specimen from the 
hills behind the Middle Lake. Often taken on hill- 
tops near Suffern, a little to the south, and at Green- 
wood Lake, N. J. 
Diadophis punctatus edwardsii (Merrem). A few 
taken in the Park. I took an exceptionally large one, 
i8 inches, under a stone on a hill near Sussex (Dicker- 
town), Sussex Co., N. J. 
Heterodon contortrix (Linn6). Occasionally seen. 
One from near Twin Lakes was of the black phase. 
One obtained by Bessie was attempting to swim Little 
l oll 
 
 

					
				
				
Long Pond. Commonly mistaken for the copperhead. 
Liopeltis vernalis (Harlan). Rare at the lakes. Only 
one during summer. 
Coluber constrictor constrictor (Linne). Not rare. 
Taken commonly on the old golf course at Greenwood 
Lake, N. J. 
Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (Say). Not common. One 
adult taken under a tent at Camp Cropsey. A spotted 
young one was taken when it crossed the path before 
me high up the talus slope of the Palisades, a mile or 
so south of the state line. 
Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum (Lacepede). 
Young and adults commonly taken. 
Natrix sipedon sipedon (Linne). Common along 
streams. 
Storeria dekayi (Holbrook). Not common. 
Storeria occipito-maculata (Storer). One taken in 
1922 by Bessie. Decidedly not common. 
Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (Linne). Common. 
Thamnophis sauritus (Linn6). Occasional. 
Agkistrodon mokasen Beauvois. Copperheads were 
rather common over the whole Park and occasionally 
wandered into the camps. One was taken by Mr. W. 
G. Holbein and the writer at the foot of the Palisades 
a mile or two below the state line. 
Crotalus horridus Linn6.  Rattlesnakes were as 
common or commoner than copperheads. One was 
found sunning itself on a camp dock, but in general 
they are more shy than the copperheads. 
Sternotherus odoratus (Latreille). I did not see this 
turtle at the Kanohwahke Lakes but it was common 
at Twin Lakes. 
Chelydra serpentina (Linne). Snappers were rare in 
the Kanohwahke Lakes but common at Twin Lakes. 
Clemmys guttata (Schneider). Not common at the 
lakes. Seen in ponds above the Palisades near Ft. Lee. 
Clemmys insculpta (Le Conte). Common in woods. 
Several young with flat shell and long tail taken at 
the Kanohwahke Lakes. 
[1021 
 
 

					
				
				
Clemmys muhlenbergii (Schoepff). One adult from 
a little swamp below the dam at the end of the Third 
Lake was taken by Bessie in 1922. 
Terrapene carolina carolina (Linn6). Common in 
woods.   One young specimen     obtained  near the 
Kanohwahke Lakes. This with the young wood 
turtles and the single muhlenbergii were in the collec- 
tion at the Scout Museum when I left. 
Chrysemys picta (Schneider). Not common. 
GEORGE S. MYERS 
Stanford University 
California 
BALANCER 
IN DIEMICTYLUS PYRRHOGASTER 
AND IN HYNOBIUS NEBULOSUS' 
Diemictylus pyrrhogaster (Boie) ("Imori")2 and 
Hynobius nebulosus (Schlegel) ("Kasumi-sanshouo")3 
are both urodeles indigenous to Japan. The larvae of 
both these species have balancers which are much 
alike in their development, structure, and function. 
But they differ a little from each other in the changes 
which they undergo from the time of hatching until 
their disappearance. The following is a brief descrip- 
tion to show the differences found between the two 
forms. 
Diemictylus pyrrhogaster spawns between late spring 
and middle summer. The embryos hatch out within 
from two to four weeks after spawning according to 
the temperature of the water in which they are placed. 
The larvae just after hatching measure 10-12 mm. in 
total length, and the length of their balancer is about 
i mm. At this time the fore-limbs are of the shape of 
1. Contributions from the Zoological Laboratory, KyashI Imperial Uni- 
versity, No. 15. 
2. Japanese name for newt. 
3. Kasumi, haze or mist; sansh6uo, salamander. 
1103 1 
 
 

					
				
				
short rods of 1-1.5 mm. in length, and are pro-k ed 
with three toes, but these fore-linbs are yet function- 
less. These fore-limbs, however, grow rapiGly and in 
the course of four or five days they generally attain 
to a length of 2 mm. At this time they are provided 
with the elbow-joint and the fourth toe, and begin to 
perform their function. The total body-length, then, 
becomes 12-14 mm. increased by 2 mm. as compared 
to that of the time of hatching. The hind-limbs at 
this stage are represented by a pair of insignificant 
round projections o.5 mm. high. 
The balancers, on the other hand, also undergo a 
remarkable change during this period. As soon as the 
larvae hatch out of their envelopes and fall down to 
the bottom of the water, they assume an upright pos- 
ture, supporting the body with their balancers as 
props. Within two or three days after hatching, the 
flow of afferent and efferent blood streams in the 
balancer generally becomes very slow and stops 
utterly. Gradual shrinkage in the length of the 
balancers then follows, and in two or three days they 
disappear from the surface of the body. 
Examination of the sections shows clearly the cause 
of these phenomena. At the time when the blood 
flow becomes slow, there arises the growth of a peculiar 
plug composed of epithelial cells which have prolifer- 
ated from the epidermis transversely into the interior 
of the balancer at the basal part of this organ, namely 
at the level of the body surface. This plug presses the 
balancer membrane and the blood vessels so as finally 
to obliterate them. The arrangement of the cells in 
the axial region of the plug, however, is so loose that 
the communication of blood between the interior of 
the balancer and the body proper is still possible. 
After the formation of this epithelial plug, the tissues 
and cells in the balancer are disintegrated gradually, 
to be absorbed eventually into the body. Hand in 
hand with this, the balancer shrinks by degrees, until 
it disappears completely from the skin surface. The 
[1041 
 
 

					
				
				
basal part of the balancer membrane attached to the 
articular process of the palatoquadrate cartilage re- 
mains for a short while after the disappearance of the 
balancer itself, but it has the ultimate fate soon to be 
absorbed (3). 
Hynobius nebulosus spawns in early spring, and the 
embryos hatch out in about three weeks. The 'total 
length of the larvae at the time of hatching measures 
12-13 mm., the balancer is then 1.25 mm. and the 
fore-limbs are I mm. long. Thenceforth the balancers 
increase in their length and in four or five days they 
reach 1.5 mm. About two weeks after hatching the 
balancer falls off leaving a stump-like basal part. 
This stump, however, disappears in a day or two from 
the body surface. 
Examination of the sections shows the internal 
changes in connection with this detaching mechanism 
of the balancers. Like the formation of the absciss 
layer at the base of petioles of deciduous trees in 
autumn, the epithelial plug tightly fills up the basal 
part of the balancers before the latter are lost. The 
way of nutrition of the balancer being thus shut off, 
this balancer decays and becomes detached at the 
plug in a few days. The basal remnant of the balancer, 
as well as the basal part of the balancer membrane, 
are both soon absorbed. This phenomenon in Hynobius 
nebulosus is exactly the same as those observed by 
Harrison in Amblystoma (I), and by Murayama in 
Hynobiusfuscus (2). About the time when the balancers 
are shed, the fore-limbs, on the other hand, attain the 
length of 2.5 mm. and begin to function. 
From the above description, we may at least get an 
idea of some differences between the balancers of 
Diemictylus pyrrhogaster and of Hynobius nebulosus. 
In the former species the balancers become shorter 
after hatching until at last they are wholly lost, while 
in the latter species they become even longer a little 
after hatching and after some duration they drop off. 
Along with this externally visible difference in modes 
[105] 
 
 

					
				
				
of losing balancers, internally the structure of the 
epithelial plug which grows in both species is different, 
namely, in Diemictylus pyrrhogaster the plug is loosely 
formed and allows the substance to pass through it, 
while in Hynobius nebulosus it is compactly formed so 
as to prevent the substance from passing. The duration 
of the existence of the balancers is also very different 
between the two species. It is longer in Hynobius 
nebulosus and shorter in Diemictylus pyrrhogaster, 
though the former species is adapted to a lower 
temperature than is the latter. 
In this connection I wish to propose for the peculiar 
larval organ a new name "balancing-stick" to replace 
the older one "balancer." The word "balancer," 
though it has long been used, is, at any rate, inade- 
quate to represent this organ, if we consider its true 
function of supporting the larval body on the bottom 
of water. The other reason for my proposal is that 
it is desirable to make a distinction between this 
urodelan "balancer" and the organ of dipterous 
insects which bears the same name. There has as yet 
been no word in Japanese for this organ and I have 
named it "heik6shijijO" which means "balancing- 
stick" (3). 
My thanks are due to Prof. H. Ohshima for his 
kindness of reading the manuscript. 
LITERATURE 
1. Harrison, Ross G. 1925. The development of the balancer in 
Amblystoma, studied by the method of transplantation and in rela- 
tion to the connective-tissue problem. Jour. Exp. Zool., Vol. 41, 
No. 4. 
2. Murayama, Terukuni. 1028. Uber die Balanzierstange bei Hyno- 
biuslarven. Folia Anatomica Japonica, Bd. VI, H. 4. 
3. Oyama, Junji. 1926. The fate of the balancer after hatching in 
Diemictylus pyrrhogaster. (in Japanese) D~butsugaku Zasshi, Vol. 38, 
No. 452. 
JUNJI OYAMA 
[io6 ] 
 
 

					
				
				
NOTES ON AMPHIBIA AND LACERTILIA 
COLLECTED AT WEYMOUTH, N. J. 
From the i6th to the 28th of June, 1928, the writer 
and Mrs. Klots collected at Weymouth, N. J., located 
about midway between May's Landing and Hammon- 
ton, in Atlantic County. Most of our attention was 
devoted to insect collecting, but considerable time was 
spent on Reptiles and Amphibia. The following cap- 
tures and observations seem worthy of being recorded. 
Leiolopisma laterale. Three specimens were taken, 
all within a radius of a half mile from camp. The 
first was under a brush heap in dry pine woods at 
eleven o'clock in the morning of a hot day. The 
second was under a heap of damp drift material on 
the bank of a creek, about noon. The third was under 
a log in pine woods, after a heavy rainstorm. It is 
probable that the paucity of records for this species 
from southern New Jersey is due more to its incon- 
spicuousness and retiring habits than to its extreme 
rarity. Its slow movements (compared with the other 
Lizards found) and appearance were rather suggestive 
of the Salamander Eurycea bislineata. 
Eumeces fasciatus. Six specimens in all were taken, 
all under the loose bark of standing pine stubs. The 
largest, measuring about i5o mm., was of the adult, 
red-headed phase. The others were all smaller and of 
the immature blue-tailed coloring. A female, measur- 
ing approximately 140 mm. and typical of the blue- 
tailed phase, deposited two eggs on July 23d in the 
can in which it was being kept. The lizard and the 
eggs were immediately transferred to a cage with a 
layer of sand on the bottom and above that a layer 
of damp sphagnum. The lizard promptly buried the 
eggs about two inches deep in the sand and took up 
its station above them. Twice the eggs were dug up, 
and each time the lizard buried them again. At night 
it burrows down to the eggs and appears to coil around 
them. In spite of this evident care for the eggs the 
lizard makes no attempt at their defense when they 
So1071 
 
 

					
				
				
are disturbed. Since writing the above the eggs have 
been eaten by another Skink of the same species 
which was placed in the cage. 
Sceloporus undulatus. A considerable number of 
specimens of this species were taken. A large female 
laid five eggs on July 9th, which failed to hatch. 
Other reptiles were taken or observed as follows: 
Bascanion constrictor. An immature specimen, about 
50 cm. in length. 
Heterodon contortrix. A large specimen was found 
dead in the road. It was unusually black, the entire 
dorsum showing practically no markings. 
Kinosternon subrubrum. Five specimens taken, one 
of which laid three eggs during the first two weeks of 
August. 
Kinosternon pennsylvanicum. Three specimens taken. 
Clemmys guttata. Exceedingly common. 
AmPHIBIA 
Hyla andersonii. This Tree Frog was found to be 
quite common, upwards of 25 individuals in song 
being definitely located. The following notes on the 
environment and habits seem worthy of record. The 
writer is indebted to Dr. A. H. Wright for the use of 
an unpublished bibliography and of a compendium of 
previous observations on the species. 
Many attempts have been made to reproduce the 
quality of the song in print, with results differing for 
practically every observer. Thus the call has been 
variously  recorded  as "peep", "keck", "quak"

(Harper), "quack-ack" like a frightened guinea fowl, 
and "quank". To the writer the call seemed a nasal 
"quack", almost verging on a "quank" but without 
the strong "n" sound of the latter. The call was 
never disyllabic. 
The note is repeated at about half-second intervals 
for sometimes fully 30 seconds. When the frogs are 
in full song an interval of about two minutes inter- 
venes between outbursts. We had no difficulty in 
[ 1o8 ] 
 
 

					
				
				
starting the Irogs calling again at distances of from 
fifty to three feet, after they had been silent for a 
minute or so. One individual was recorded as having 
called 74 times in one period of song. 
The frogs definitely associate together for singing, 
whether because of the presence of females or for 
companionship. The latter probably plays a con- 
siderable share in the performance, as is evidenced by 
the quick response to an imitation of the call. Five 
such singing groups were definitely located. Of these 
the first contained seven individuals, the second con- 
tained three, the third contained eight, the fourth 
contained three and the fifth, which was just across 
an uncrossable creek, contained at least six. Only 
once was a single individual noted in song alone, and 
that was a frog which called three times in a spot a 
half-mile distant from any others and was never heard 
from again. 
The locations of the groups were fixed, and during 
our stay did not change a particle. Night after night 
a group would be in exactly the same area, though the 
individuals composing it shifted position a bit. 
The time of singing was remarkably constant. On 
every night but one the chorus started between ten 
and fifteen minutes before sundown. On the one ex- 
ception, a clear dry night with a bright moon, the 
first songs were not heard until twenty minutes after 
sundown. 
The carrying power of the song was excellent. A 
chorus was plainly heard as an entity over 800 paces 
away, with two patches of woods and a brushy swamp 
intervening. The wind was negligible. Individual 
voices were distinguishable 754 paces away down a 
straight road, with a light wind blowing from the 
observers toward the frogs. 
The exact positions of ten individuals were located, 
of which seven were captured. High-bush Blueberry 
tangles festooned with Green Briars made further 
[1091 
 
 

					
				
				
investigations in this line impossible. The individuals 
are here referred to by number. 
Numbers i, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were in one group, within 
5o feet of the main "pike" from May's Landing to 
Hammonton. The ground was covered quite evenly 
with Blueberry bushes from a foot to i8 inches high. 
Scattered Pitch Pines up to 12 inches in diameter 
stood from 10 to 30 feet apart. The ground was at 
most damp, and the only water nearby was a shallow 
pool about 30 feet away which probably dries up in 
the summer. Near the bases of the pines stood taller 
Blueberry bushes, up to three feet in height. No. i 
was sitting on the main stem of a small Blueberry 
bush, i8 inches from the ground and six inches from 
the tip of the bush. A Pine stood i feet away. No. 2 
was on the leaf of a Blueberry bush, 2  feet from the 
ground and I  feet from a Pine trunk. No. 3 was on 
a little twiglet growing out from the trunk of a pine 
32 feet from the ground. No. 4 was on the ground at 
the base of a Pine. No. 5 was one foot from the ground, 
where the twig of a Blueberry bush lay against the 
trunk of a Pine. All of the specimens in this group 
showed a strong preference for the near vicinity of a 
Pine. 
Nos. 6, 7 and 8 were in a thicket of small Red 
Maples and high Blueberry bushes in a creek "bottom." 
No. 6 was on the main stem of a Blueberry bush about 
four feet from the ground. No. 7 was similarly located. 
No. 8 was about six feet from the ground in a small 
Red Maple. 
Nos. 9 and io were in a thick tangle of high Blue- 
berry bushes and Smilax. Both were near the tops 
of Blueberry bushes at least nine feet from the ground. 
For fifty feet around none of the vegetation was any 
lower, so it seems that these individuals climbed higher 
than is usual for the species in order to be out in the 
open. 
Not all of the individuals were as tame as is gener- 
ally noted for andersonii. A number of individuals 
[ Iol 
 
 

					
				
				
would not continue singing when the observer turned 
the light on them or approached nearer than fifteen 
or twenty feet, and so could not be located. A silent 
andersonii in a thick tangle of Blueberry bushes could 
give points on hiding to a very small needle in a very 
large haystack. No females were taken. 
The writer would not have presented this evidence 
regarding andersonii at such length except that in 
some degree it contradicts statements previously made 
in the literature regarding the species. 
It is to be expected, of course, that individuals will 
always differ in different localities. It is only by taking 
the sum total of observations from a great many 
localities, and averaging it, that we dare generalize 
about a species, and even then we cannot do it with 
perfect safety. 
All specimens taken have been placed in the collec- 
tion of Cornell University, except the andersonii 
which were unfortunately lost after arrival in Ithaca. 
ALEXANDER BARRETT KLOTS 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
ON SOME SKINKS OF THE GENUS EUMECES 
FROM NORTH AMERICA 
Recently, when attempting to identify a skink 
(M.C.Z. 28383) collected by Prof. C. T. Brues on 
Los Coronados Islands, I observed that it combined 
the key characters for Eumeces skiltonianus and E. 
lagunensis. Van Denburgh ("Reptiles of Western 
North America," 1922, Vol. I, p. 578) defines them as 
follows: 
b. Interparietal larger than a frontoparietal, 
separating parietals; tail of young usually 
blue ......................... P. skiltonianus 
b2. Interparietal smaller than either fronto- 
parietal, not  separating  parietals;  tail 
salmon-color ................... P. lagunensis 
[III] 
 
 

					
				
				
In the specimen before me the interparietal is 
larger than a frontoparietal but does not separate 
the parietals which are in contact behind it for half 
a millimetre; its tail appears to be salmon-color below. 
It might be added that the right frontoparietal is 
tranversely divided; the seventh upper labial on the 
right side having undergone division there are eight 
labels on that side though only seven on the left. In 
alcohol the upper surface of the tail in its coloring 
appears to be merely a continuation of the dorsal 
pattern. With these exceptions the specimen agrees 
in every minutest detail of squamation and color 
pattern with the description of the two types of E. 
lagunensis described by Van Denburgh in 1895, and 
of which he states, in 1922, that they are still the 
only known examples. These types came from San 
Francisquito, Sierra Laguna, Lower California. 
Van Denburgh himself (1922), under the heading 
"Remarks," expresses some doubts as to the validity 
of legunensis. He records skiltonianus as occurring on 
Los Coronados Islands. From the specimen in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology it would appear 
that the form is unrecognisable unless large series 
from the type locality show that the characters on 
which it is based are reasonably constant in large 
series from a well defined area. 
I should also like to mention-though perhaps it is 
already known-that Eumeces egregius Baird has a 
range in midbody scale rows of from 18 to 22. Baird 
originally described it as possessing "about 22." In 
a series of thirteen skinks in the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology there is only one specimen (M.C.Z. 28386) 
with I8 rows and only one (M.C.Z. 6152) with 22, the 
rest having 20 or 21, with an average for the whole 
series of 20. No. 28286 with the unusually low num- 
ber was collected at Royal Palm Beach hammocks, 
Florida, by C. S. Mosier. 
ARTHUR LOVERIDGE 
[11121 
 
 

					
				
				
COPEIA is the Journal of the American Society of Ichthyologists 
and Herpetologists. Subscription for 1929, $2.oo; 50 cents per 
copy. Dues to the Society, $2.oo a year, including subscription 
to Copeia. 
OFFICERS 
Honorary President-J. T. Nichols. 
President-A. G. Ruthven. 
Fice-Presidents-G. K. Noble, A. W. Henn, W. M. Mann. 
Secretary-Carl L. Hubbs, Museum of Zodlogy, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Treasurer-Editor of Copeia-E. R. Dunn, Burton Hall, North- 
ampton, Mass. 
Separates of any articles printed in Copeia may be had at the 
following prices if ordered when sending in manuscript: $2.oo 
per printed page for the first hundred, add 5oc per page for 
each hundred thereafter. Send such orders either to the editor 
or direct to the Kingsbury Box & Printing Co., 38-4o North 
St., Northampton, Mass. 
Back numbers, when available may be obtained from J. T. 
Nichols, American Museum of Natural History, New York City 
(i-x25, ioc a copy); E. R. Dunn, Burton Hall, Northampton, 
Mass. (126-161, ioc a copy; 162-to date, 25c a copy). 
 
 

					
				
				
				
				
THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
MADISON 
ZOOLOGICAL LABORATORY 
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NAME___ 
Museum  Number  LOCALITY  COLLECTOR  Sex                   b 
1 K   -__/v   _ --                          - --_......_s - _ 
"             ..... .   . . . . .. . . ... ... ....  E 
_ _  -_-_ _ _ _ _             --/_- '_  _   _   _,  1... ___-  9 
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--------------------- 
I16, 
11S_   __ _   6_               -35   _  /1          ( 
~  ~o.W~  _  _ ~TL /L 3L    1,9l 
__     2~~2~~  4  33  _ _/7_ 
(~  _ ___ ___ ____ ___ Co 
___~ 7 - I                        6 _   _ 
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NAME 
When 
MuCollectedOCAIT   COLLECTOR  SexS4 
'~o~ce .... . .... "[ ....                          I-- g1  =   .. 
- -; 
!sub.___                      E _L I 
_ _   75    _ _ _ _ 
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k3~                                                  4.4 <"_ _  _

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NAME______________________________ 
Museum  Number  LOCALITY  Coente  COLLECTOR  --Se* 
Collected 
_  __- _____         6         _ 
___E )                                          E_ _ L.Y I 
_I Km_   W 44__                            _ 
___                            _ 14o  64  3 
__          ___                  /5  3    _7 
L2 
H  r~i~              liz-  ~   _ 
 
 

					
				
				
Reprinted from the PSOC3EDINGS OF THZ SooI1TT FOn EXPE&IMUNTAL BiOLOGY
A"D XBDION, 
1927, xxv. pp. 218 219 
3779 
Biometric Studies Upon Development and Growth in Amblystoma 
Punctatum and Tigrinum. 
E. M. PATCH. (Introduced by J. 8. Nicholas.) 
Fron the Osborn Zoological Laboratory, Yale University. 
Measurements of Amblystoma punctatum and tigrinum have been 
made in order to secure data upon the normal rate of growth and 
upon the modifications of this growth rate by experimental pro- 
cedure. Data show that the rate of enlargement during embryonic 
stages is dependent upon the temperature, the size at any named 
stage being correlated with the size of the egg. Length increase in 
the embryo is made at the expense of the other dimensions. The 
curve of absolute increments of length when plotted against time 
during embryonic development is S-shaped, terminating at the end 
of this period. 
The mean lengths of Amblystoma punctatum, tigrinum, and Axo- 
lotis at this point of development are 15.61 mm., 14.07 mm., and 
11.96 mm., respectively. Tables for mean length, standard devia- 
tion coefficient of variation, and the probable errors of these quanti- 
ties demonstrate the value of the criterion used. 
Growth following the embryonic period is dependent upon food- 
quality, quantity, and frequency of feeding. Where feeding is alike, 
size relations of the embryonic period hold for larval growth. No 
food has been found as adaptable for early use as the natural diet 
which consists of small aquatic forms. Beef-liver can be used at 
early stages and produces a remarkable acceleration of growth. 
Of the tissues tried, kidney is second in value. 
In the later larval development and adult life, beef muscle produces 
greater growth than liver; at these stages, liver feeding is attended 
by excessive glandular production, by lack of growth, and often with 
loss of appetite. Death sometimes follows. There is a weakening 
of normal peristaltic action, which can be compensated for, partly at 
 
 

					
				
				
SCIENTIFIC PROCEEDINGS 
least, by use of agar. Beef muscle is of poor value for early larval 
growth and development. Here, as later, there is a lack of pigmen- 
tation with this food. In later larval and adult life, while the growth 
made on muscle is large, the mineral deficiency is evident-especially 
the calcium lack as shown by the tetanic condition. 
Feeding on earthworms, with cuticle broken and digestive contents 
removed, produced little growth; the animals so fed are, however, 
apparently normal. Enchytraei (white worms) as food give a good 
growth rate; but the animals so fed, though large and well-formed, 
do not metamorphose. Animals fed on beef muscle will not meta- 
morphose without addition of vitamins or minerals to their diet. 
Metamorphosis occurs successfully with liver and with earthworms, 
as is true with a mixed diet of the meats and worms. The latter, 
started in later larval life, produces the best growth of all diets. All

of the reactions to foods are modified by the quality, quantity, fre- 
quency, and duration of the initial diet. 
Use of synthetic diets emphasized the need for minerals and vita- 
mins, the greater growth with vitamin A, showed greater growth 
with degtrin present, the value of low fat content, the preference 
for beef muscle powder as protein basis rather than the powdered 
liver, egg-white, egg-yolk, casein, or klim-though growth was 
made with all of these. The diets were more useful with older, 
larger larvae. Younger larvae showed different relative reactions. 
During larval life the size relations of Amblystoma punctatum 
and tigrinum were reversed, so that at the time for metamorphosis 
the ratio was approximately 1 :2 in the order named. Larval life 
gave another .S-cycle to the growth curve, this cycle terminating at 
the time of metamorphosis. A third life cycle, beginning at this 
point, is probably related to the development of sexual maturity. 
Plotting of the cube of length against weight, for measurements 
made on adults, shows the first quantity to be a linear function of the 
second. 
Hibernation of adults was followed, on return to warm tempera- 
ture and food, by a remarkable acceleration of growth until the size 
characteristic for the stage of development was reached or sur- 
passed. The tail became proportionally shorter during the hiber- 
nation period, with return to normal proportion after renewal of 
growth. The index of build; weight/lengtl, (Bardeen et al), was 
slowly decreased with increase of size. 
 
 

					
				
				
Th  only book a th  reptiles anamhiba of Wimonsi s  nttled, 
"Te  eretlogy of Wisconsin* by Po and Dickinso, and ca bo obtaind 
from tb Uit1wkoe Public Maw= 
For a norher   stats, Wsonsi has mor kIMs of frogs, salamander 
and reptils thRan  m wou   w~c. I dz31l tr and give a rou&       I4*.
of 
the nmbe of kinds that w have wa   a low of Uw habits of thes wr    Vr 
taut seciese. 
ft  cold-bloo4 lad vertebrates of Wicsnar divUed Intotw 
mostly distingshed~ gr~--       reptiles aMd the amphbias  . Th  mhbi.ans

pass thog    a larval stag with gills and generally spend a considerable
time 
1A the wter beoe   mogn    as the 1dut laMd fob.    2w amphbians are 
represnted in Wiscosin by *h fros and the slamande. Salmnnos~ as 
always be dittagmishe  fro  frgs by the fact that the   retain teir tails

in the adlt for. 
In~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ mw  arso            011.4slaner  cle lisarts.  The  to 
really no  eo  for confusing the tw. as saandrs, like all other Wisconesin

ambians, have a moh. soft skin without scales, while lixards, like otbo 
reptiles# ar   overed ith had scaes. Me salamners are represted ta 
Wisonasin by *oW50 amon specie.s    Th =*pM       which to frqunty c 
by fishemn    spends all of its life in the water. The aflt of theoth*ers

art generall~y foua  snr stons aMd logosi am    plaes 
Me frogs in, i  ssi wr roprosmnted by elevn species. the lepard 
 
 

					
				
				
-2 
frog, the green frg   the mink frog, the pickerel frog, the bull faqo, this

woo  frog, an  the toard are geerally omon and well 'nov     i the parts

of the state Ahe the   ecr. Te four tree frogswas the co               tree

toa  the spring peopew,  the      tree fg, . a   the cikt frog are rarely

seen due to their wall els and protective eloratiou. As they all have, 
lou  eall., they are the ones most r   ertybaditMsinAloif, 
frogs have a different sn   an  if oe ows then a11, it is ouW    to  eeine

hw   n   kinds of frogs live in w   give area. 
2he stor  that teas me warts to talse. The wts on a toad ae 
poeo  glands an4 do not c   -rp   n a    a  V to the warts os poopleu4oh

ar genrally a        e gwth. 
There m   be some basis for the story that tre. rgs mn predict rain. 
As their skin met be kupt mist, they probably feel beter on hIt des 
ad are more likely to siv than on dry ds. As it is more likely to rain 
whn the air is humid than       it is try. it is probable that tree frogs

sing son before rains than during dx weather. 
Tee frs cimb by memo of emotion dtisk on their toes. Omw       kins 
of tree frogs like the om   toat and4th pickerel frog have a very pateawos

skin. Te yello gw         o he logs of the        fg and oomn tree toad 
is probably anaattion to wr their e         -em  nt toat them. 
Te rtiles of Wiscnsin are represte       by f     speeies of Ziserd., 
ten "alot of turles, .&M 19 species of snaes. Some mt.ws claim thr

aesmor s     c   than I have listed, but their armts        based an 
tochiol dttails and4          : stimublo re rds. 
The trtlee that an omon and best     wvn are the snapping    t     o the

and t atlot the painted tle    Bl3anigle turtle, and the soft-shelled tertle,

The snaping turtle eats yon    ducs and does considerable 4inaoe *esn it
bomes 
 
 

					
				
				
40 
too memus. It I hel4      n  hk by ekmke, *ih dig up Its e"s se4 
*at then. Taetore, wo aesting &ks a" umeeue       *uake are a aid

to eo   oatn. Snappig ttles an         soft-helled ttl  s are sold in on-

sitdrablo    bores fo  soup.  he other speLe of turtles are of little 
ecnomic tao   ,tae. 
Your opest. of lzrs. are found in Wsousin.      W  un be is 
tinguisLhd  o t sake b   thel movabloUolide and exter      e. Thr 
speaes have leog, but on  Is legleee and looks   mh    ke a mae   that 
it Is eallod glass snke or joint sn    .  The   l e a ulespread belief that

if out in to,the two halves will later g      togther again. or if roke 
into pleoso the piece* will Vow to    her al.  Of oouee the piecs. do 
not gow togeth, but tere Is, wwortholss, sme bass for this belief. 
The gas snake, like other ltu*rds, ti able to gow a A"tail &a  
   freqeAtl 
eaks off its tall and leaves It behind in oe     t e    p  fr   Its s   loo.

As the tail Is   aog eM an thlk as the body, It look. as If the l1saw 
were be.l  brkea in ti *onvor th. tail is broken eff. Hoe      arose the

nes    lase snake a Joint sW". Tis lizr        is ftud uner the lese

at burrowing in the bossiest in the Wilcsu  in River bettom* from Portag

to Prairie ft Chie. It li a largo leawd weachin a lngth *        fall gm

of 18 Inhes. The other liarts to be mentioned a1 haye legs. 
? he siz1Livod rae ruane  Is a small lisard, the avierage leagt* being 
about seen icee. Tt tail is blue and the back Is brown with s 1*v4Ltubtu

Yellow stripes, It io ema In the *an &me* at Spriag Gre. Aweuao. and

Ions Rock, an along the rallra    trsc at L    o    o f   t    . It is also

a     nt on the saMer parts of the bluffs that face southwest alog t  e 
Misissippi from D       u buq  Ptpoa. ien ometime whe  ayu   elibig on of

the Missiitppi bluffs an y   ia omething soot uner a roek or a log, It 
 
 

					
				
				
will probabl1 be one of thee little rww            XIt I#  e&t spot to

try to  atsoh tbom alive. M    are vy   ctive i1hir search      r iseets

amA womo    wr  days   The can rum 301 )o0 feet in a second, and when 
ala      they bie unde   lua   of Crass, stones., or les, or dart dow a hole

If on~e to ba~r 
The other Um lizards foun   in Wsconsi arkn    ks T1*  e betalle 
s     .ewees =er lgs and deri., on saa       beaeh   and rcy river beas 
in cental an   west     Wiscnsi       is rath   stoc   La   i14 da  rehos

leth     f seven or eight      . In color it to redish olive wih appe 
oelee head. eae young or **lk with five yellow stipes, but as th        beoe

oler the stuipes beoe  faint. The tail is briht blue in t     y    , bat
is 
brown In the   ftlt. It is ver  adle# an   like the other lizards found in

Wisonsin. it. tail breaks eaLly, so that i c     t by its tail. It e"Iy

esaes by parting with the captured portion, Th    food of he, blue-ailod

okink consits mostly' of inects.e specially ante, The e are lald In* the

piles of dabris, consstin   of wood, law*.    M ba2*, which are let b 
wves an   floods an boeah   and river haks.     female st* with 0h 
util they hAteh, probably to guad th, bt the         uooe eo not kwa 
Th northern &kink ts brow with s.win loeeitmdlnl stripes, It is fe'rM

in th  St. Oroix aM Ihppews valles. It is espeeal3ly abundat on h       sandy

behes of the lakes In Bmntt Cony        Pro isonsin ies rang   exted  south-

wear   as Minnesota to Nebrasa and Uncut. Aqn        owin    In Dantt 
Cuty ma    see tbso liards by poking about in the rett    wood of old, tuslo-

down lg  barns.   he northrn k*i    seems to prefer old log buildigs as &
plago 
to live We*=&* the        side t         wr  and the a              
   vi 
excllet hidi pla   s. Its food consist* of ants, g. and ciw             
   . 
Of the 19 o 20 seopes of s      s that oecu in Wtsonsin, only      are 
 
 

					
				
				
dacrous to man-tho two rattleskes. There ts a widepead opinion that 
y    of the hols      akes a    polssno. 
Ourw mll smake. that d4 not r*&A a lenth of mori than 1* in** areth 
gtn snake or gras    ak, tho ro-bollied. sak, the risel4d suak, 
Do    s .ako or lIttloe       s      and Krtla  's nake. The littleod- 
bellied msnk, which could not bite anthn bigger tha a fl     is conidered

isomas in u%      plases an  is often called opperhad. All of thes    peeso

of wal nuakos feod oan inots and      ms an are bmafioW     to agriculture.

r        na k         an  the groa  anaks lay from tw to len e  .  hich hatch

in from 4  to 6odas 
Th  red-belied sak, DoX7ys sm, aM Pfltn4#      anake give birth to 
livin       . Thee an the other makes that give birth to living Yg retain

the o     within th  bod. instead of laing then, util the y      ars full

weloped     It a ruks with ful dvelopod yn within It Is killed and mt 
open, as wold be the case if it w   killed with a    h  or n-or   al 
the youn would be able to orawl       amd o  e. T    Ulio that eae 
wallow thei young In ordr to protect that p          a"** b    sing
the you 
oscping fo    tho boes of sakes out In two In this W. Coetain       s   
40 
eat other smnake and W ms ny ho had sthng to do with the o.in of th 
story. ft   wa point in the story lie.s In the Uat that snke    do not hue

onoug  brain  to think of saying thelwoung, and that oe If the yun ew 
awal4o. they maM nt be In a very healft   pluso. Nov, I would not be surpies

ifo ak   sallowed Its yvg but it would be boiemee it me bw%         and 
set because It wate  to sae then trm tkoir   e s. 
Thr  r  fou  spooos of garter snakes In Wisoin    the Gown gartor 
emke Bul~~      gao    smt   the ribbon sao eMd the plins garer oam 
All of Us carte snakns give birth to living yon.   Tao reord ts TS. TM 
 
 

					
				
				
food nfogs, toads, and mie, Snake       waell d ptoto walloW ailmsei 
tieor than the are thmselves. A gaer s       ae tuo feet lon   osa easily

swallow a large fr-. a     so, or a    aow, and a pin  sna., fox #Am   .,

or bull make o   easily wallow a gopbar e a rt. This Is de to the lower 
Jaws bti   not fasteed together In front or -t the bak. In addition, the

teeth are long ad pint b~~r,     s thai onoe started, aobject a wri 
backwat but not forward.   h  lowr jaws can be moved be* and forth ae 
well as up and dom. In   .llo.wing, the tooth of o  lwra hok Into 
the pr    ad the jaw is 4tavn back. pulling the pre back with it. Te Jaw

is then   v*d forwar for a now hld a the ohr lower jaw to drwsm b&as.

hile swallowing a large objset broathia t done thr       the tongu, which

is a hollow tie. MW     people believe that a sak. oa sting with its tnPO.

The tongues of all snake* are harmless. 
After a gooed al a make ca live for thoo or four rears witbmt 
oating prvided It has wter. Wall, that's one way of getting thwg a 
iperssiont 
The qaoe  snake is a mall vat.?    ak  occasionally found in suth- 
eastrn itsosi.      Th  oein water snake to foM  all 6or imson8a  i 
lakes snd rivers. It gws to th.e feet in length and ba a st.       b4ui.

It ts ves  oomn on the Uississippi sd    isconsn Rivers.   I may plAoe 
It Is called water swoman Pad Is believed to be poisonous. Although its 
bite is harmless# it ts vo   savage and bites *hnewe  it gots a cance. 
The tre water moccasin is foun   as far north as southern Illinois,&e
is 
alse the true cperea. The water ske ts alwms killed on sight. both 
becase it eats fish and bia   se It is thauht to be p iseonvu. This. howver,

fails to rdeao its mbem and it     oins one of oamon w   et sak*. All 
of the water snake* ive birth to living yvg. 
 
 

					
				
				
The milk sake, **Mrs in sauthewa A eastr viesusia. It pow 
to a lai   of three or fou   teat. It r~1els a pinesnk      or fox mak 
but the spots are 5!uswmll? lined with red aM the scale* ar porfeatly 
smoth instead ot heia kseled4   It it frequetly toum  a~uz  bw     Ri 
9eaw*  of =to* and it was opsed by mat    that It we after milk. Hoe 
ar*** then amsmilk vzok." )lw      peoplo think thoW hov  "ona
milk msnki 
sak am   and6 the belief *hat the  d  I wis epa.         eift        rdc

of the imgination, r7 hearing other people toll the story n    people ome
to 
believe, that they bh eea It thmselvos Thes idea that tusk** sok milk 
is & t)*q,     beakes, being retiles, do not recogpis. milk a a food
or 
drink, ad if thoy did they wuld not 3mov wo to gt It. In addition,a 
eow wuld not allw anything with long, *arp teeth to try to suck Its .nd 
fiinally. a sake is not able to suck am It It vmtel to* 
The Dii snke geally called plus snake    io one of the best knwv 
Wisonsinae*~. It io bl&* and Yellow with 30 or h0 spots on th. bw. 
The tail emls In a spin* and the tail can be buri, . Dii fb m~ks to h~volos

bu m bellow* that Uoth its bito and its tail aw* peimonas. As It has&

eapper-oolore  head, It to sometimes sistlma for the tru. opperha4 and 
accouts for the belief that the ceftw   ad occus In Wsmsia. Its food 
consists of uos, gopers, an    ratt,, and It io thaeeoe beeii~al t 
aertmltuo.  n man  parts of the state it has boom* rar.   In spite of its

bexeoftoWa habits, wvo~     kills It uovas It hapens to be a Akae, It 
wuld be har lines to be a ~su     e  nspiuu  a. the fox sake. 
The black snak or pilot msake is related to the fox or pine oae, bnt 
is nt well knwn in Wisosin 6.. to Its wailkyo 
Tebell smaks ows in sothwestmr Wisconsin. Like the fox. woks 
it soetie readhot a l~t of six loet. The contrit* rstha fbona 
 
 

					
				
				
t"e pilt sake     d t ball SmA&*s11 kill their per by spoesng 'before

eating it. The    ll snake i la vyW  pwotf  constrictor and ts said to kill

rattlesnakes and eat thiou  Th  bmll sn     busses ito t.i l  4  is so5oam

Itself uielc  for a rattlesake. Thir chif foo4 is mie and gophers. 
Bu  snake*  re eaily t      ma make good pots. The are frequntly seen in

side "    ,w. 
T   blue racer occs In central and southem Wisooin, It Is bliio or 
gvV above an yellowish beth. It reaches a lenth of six tot an is 
rather slender. It ts difflwamt to capturo due to its rat Woso. Tales of

Its chasing people and of Its bing poisonous &re false.     Ue blue tacer

fe0os on Insecs. mice frogs. ant snals. 
The blew snake or pufing ader to a well known snake in     isoonsin. d  to

its peculiar habits. It ills Itself fall of air, 111k    a balloo, ad thea

Ulr   it out with a loud hiss to frighten its moaes. MeW beltIo       the
air 
that to blown out to be poseos. Of coarse, It is possible for people to 
faint or d1o of heart failure just frm being soare. It has been froqantly

dmnstrated that the blew sake Is haress. 'hen it faIl* to frigten Its 
eneies, b7 blowing, it olls over a    makes believe it Is te". If turned

ever it gives Itself saW IV tang over on its back aain. The blow snau 
makes a good pot# but after it gets too tame it stops blowing. All of the
kids 
in   e          o   c    oer to go blows on to the onsternation of the parents,

who believe the breath of the blow sn      to be certain death. The milk
snake. 
the foX nA , the pilot snak, the blue raaer, the bull snak suit the blow

msake all la   ggs whih ae about one inch long ant hatch In frw    40 to
60 dart. 
The only poiwmnos snakes in Visoonssi are the rattlesnakes. Twosn oeies 
o   , the timber rattlesn   and the prairte  rattlesnake or nessaanu. 
The timber rttle    seccur#      g the ro   blffs along the IssIssippi 
 
 

					
				
				
&Mi Wisconsin livers. It ~te# roahes a lesth of sit feet, bnt the 
&vetq~g lenth to about ibrwe toot    Timber rattlesnkes hibernate ftiwig
thes 
winter in erwvocs in~ the rook. Several people In southwetorn Wisaousi% 
make a buiness of locating thee places,*I whihae calledsnake done# and Is

the spring whe the snake*s   eg   thW are killed for the bounty which to

paid by certain inwities. 
The prairie rattlenak ocms in Colubia. Maquette, Juneau, Jackson 
an&4 Mark counties and lives in hay marshes and swas.    It foods on
frogs. szaos 
na4 miae and Is sometlaes fo'und in collars where it Mas been chasing rats.

snppose most peopl~e would sioouer have rats tha rat tisoukee in their collars,

Thie bite of the prairie rattler ts not as 4grous as that of the timber 
rattlesnak because it rarely reaches a length of more thea two feet. Tis
only 
positive am for rattlesnake bite is the use of antivesin within 10 hours

of the time of being Ibitta. With other remediss about five per oat are fatal.

Sualtineu wount helps onsai~rably anA the poison ts not harmful if aeioinetally

mwllmwo. The use of potaesie permxaato helps if properly used, bct the 
sulution is gvesrally either toe week or too strog Other romodies, uc mas

*iiskey, =7 help to restore *axftdins# bat that Is the only beneficial 
efft that ca be expft*. 
gan  thi*k that if the faags of a rattler are rvewod the snake will 
become harmess. As a result people are **"times bittenbewmae tu 
fey weeks a now se" of fangs replaces the old oaes., 
Another fallaoy is the belief that osh button on the rattle represents 
one year of age   2w skin ioshod4 two or three tines each smer and a button

Ito rmed w*vwr the skin Is shod, As n beuttons a" formed, thtensd ones

are broken off. 
Both the timbr and the prairie rattlesake giv  birth to living y~.g 
In sumary it uW be smid that most of our saakoosar- benefiil to 
 
 

					
				
				
*10 
agroture m ar all flosecp t* ratenks the tmo wat~w 
moo~.Dll and pprhad do not oariWiscoi..la 
 
 

				
      
      
				
				
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THE STATE OF WISCONSIN 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
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Farmers1 Short Course 
Game Management 
U. of Wis., 19314-35 
Specifications for Standard Food Patch 
For Qbiail and Pheasant 
Definition. A standard patch is one big enoirh to winter a covey of quail
or 
10 pheasants, plus the usual wastage from small birds and rodents. It is

intended to remain dependable through snowfalls u'? to 2 feet in depth, and

during any ordinary combination of rain, wind and ice. 
Size. The standard size is 1/2 acre. The minimum area of cultivated ground

is 1/4 acre. The fence should, if possible, include extra ground over and

above the cultivated area, and this extra ground should preferabl, lie on
the 
northeast or west end, so that the vegetation on it may act as a rindbrea:
with- 
out shading the food crop. 
Soil. The soil should be good enough to raise corn. If poorer soils are used,

they should be fertilized to assure a good crop. 
.ence, If in permanent pasture, the patch should be enclosed by a 3-wire
fence. 
If in fields grazed only after harvest, 2 wires will do. The posts should
be 
not more than 1 rod apart. There should be a wire gate wide enough to allow

entrance for team and harrow (10 feet). If the patch lies in ground never

grazed, no fence is needed. 
Location. The patch sfould be within 100 yardoof winter cover, rich usually

means either ungrazed marsh, ungrazed brush, or young conifers.  If the adjacent

cover is thinner or farther away than this, there should be special cover

installed in or near the patch. This may consist of 3 sunmer-felled oak tree

tops, or 3 brush piles, or 3 grape tangles, or 6 cobnifers at least 6 feet
high. 
Brush piles or tree tops may be used while waiting for conifers or grape

tangles to grow up. 
The patch should never be located on a steep north slope. A southeast or

west slope is best, 
 
 

					
				
				
Tilth. The cultivated area should be plowed and disc-harrowed preparatory

to planting the food crop. 
Food Crop. If the size of the patch allows, the cultivated area should consist

of 1/3 grain, 1/3 fallow for weeds, and 1/3 greens such as winter wheat,
alfalfa, 
or clover. The 3 respective parts should be rotated. 
Where space does not permit of rotation, the greens may be omitted and 
fertilizer used to maintain the soil. 
Crop Acres.   There should be at least 1/S acre of spring and fall food unable

to resist snow, plus 1/ acre of stiff-stemmed food offering maximum snow

resistance. Sorghum cane is an outstanding spring and fall food. Field corn,

or one of the short-stenrned grain sorghums such as wheatland milo, s tands
up 
well in snow. 
Snow Resistpce. As insurance against the patch being buried by snor, any
one 
of three precautions may be ta:zen: (a) cut and shoclk half the grain, (b)
move 
three corn shocks into the patch, (c) add a shelter and hopper, or a wire
feeder, 
for use after the standing grain is covered. 
Shocks must be opened or turned over from time to time during winter. 
Neither of these three precautions is necessary if field corn is used for

the stiff-stemmed grain* Field corn left standing accomplishes the same purpose.

Soy beans also serve the same purpose but do not yield a heavy crop. 
If buckwheat or other low weak-stemmed grain is used, it should be all 
cut and stacked, and the stack opened every weel: so as to expose new grain.

Plantin ,  Do not mix the seed, that is, plant each grain separately. Plant
not 
later than June 1 and as much earlier as is indicated by the table for the

particular grain chosen (see table attached). Never broadcast 8ny patch at

a heavier rate than 10 pounds per acre. 
Food crops may be either broadcast or drilled. Drilling Is better. If 
drilled, cultivate at least once if possible. 
OTHER SPECIES:  THE ABOVE INSTRUCTIONS ARE FOR QUAIL AND PIFAANTS. FOR 
HUNGARIAN PARTRIDGE, PRAIRIE CHICKEN, OR SHARPTAIL GROUSE, THE SAM  INSTRUCTIONS

APPLY 3UT THERE IS NO EED TO HAVE HEAVY COVER NEARBY. FOR PRAIRIE CHICKENS,

A LARGER PATCH MAY BE NEDED IF THE FLOCK IS LARGE. 
 
 

					
				
				
*Heads break off, which is equivalent      Exeriental ood Patches, 193a 
to shattering                           ExpeRmERS F     Pace PLNT       
                       Stems are cut by 
,Possibly will not mature in Wisconsin          A                PLANTS 
                            rabbits 
Loss from        Mechanical loss     Ability   Maturity 
Loss      small birds            from          to seed    (must be 
from   Biting    Exhaus-   Shatter-           despite    planted     Seed
     Height 
Species   .    .smt   in milk   tion      ing       Lodging  crowding   
y          color     (feet) 
Corn                           none      none     none      none      poor
     May 20     yellow       6 
Grain sorghums 
Wheatland milo               some      none      none     none      poor
     May 15     orange       3 
Ialo sorghum         some    bad       little   none      little    poor
     May 20 
Early kalo sorghum           some      little   none      little    poor
     May 20 
Rox orange sorghum           bad       little   none      bad       poor
     May 20                  7 
0 
Feterita             bad   very bad    bad      none      little    poor
     June 1     white        5 
Kaffirs 
Pink kaffir                  bad       bad       none      some     poor
     May 150                 5 5 7 
Greeley kaffir               none      little   none      little    good
     June 1                  5 7 
Sweet sorghums 
Minnesota cane               none      none      none   very bad    best
     June 1     orange       7 
(amber sorghum)                                                         
                                  Q 
Hay sorghums 
Sudan grass                  none     none      bad*      bad       good
     June 1     black        5     0 
0Millets 
Proso millet         some    none      bad       bad       bad       good
    June "20   white.       2 
Jap millet                   none      bad       bad       bad      good
     June 10    f 
Hemp                           none      bad       bad?      good     good
     June 1     gray         6 
Flax                           none      bad**     none      little  excellent
 June I    brown 
Sunflower                      none      bad      none      none      good
     June 1     white &      6 
black 
Buckwheat                                ?         bad       bad        ?
      June 15    black        2 
 
 

					
				
				
				
				
Copy 
STATE OF WISCONSIN 
Conservation Commission 
Madison, Jan. 12, 1931 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
lue to the dry summer there was not enough grain on the 
64 patches to pay to cut any of it for the winter. The grain was all 
eaten by November first and at that time the stations were abandoned 
by the birds. Of course the grain they ate there in the fall helped 
to put them in good shape for the winter. 
Fall Stations - 1930 
No. of Birds 
No. Stations   :   Total   :  Per Station     :    Cost per Station 
64:            3200   :       50                   $15 
Although the $1,000 allowed for 1930-1 was all spent, 
Mr. Grimmer raised an additional $165 with which we bought two fields 
of buckwheat and 130 shocks of corn. 
The corn shocks and buckwheat bundles were used to construct 
lean-to shelters. These are located as follows: Wood County, 8; 
Juneau County, 2; Portage County, 3; Adams County, 4; Waushara County, 3.

The cost of these 20 stations, including lumber for hoppers 
but not grain, was $9 per station. Ten of these were put up at the 
grain patches which I listed as fall stations. 
The 20 stations in operation this winter are taking $2 worth 
of grain per month. I am going to put up 3 more yet this month, one 
at Princeton for pheasants, one at Poynette for turkeys, and one at 
 
 

					
				
				
-2- 
Astigo for Huns. These 3 will be for taking pictures. 
I took 100 feet of movies and 12 photos this morning and 
built a trap for banding this afternoon. 
This ought to answer your question. 
Sincerely yours, 
F. J. W. Schmidt 
No. of    :       No. Birds 
Date       : stations  :  Total : Per station           : Cost 
Fall 1930  :    64     :   3200:      50                :  $15 
estimate 
Winter     .    20          740 :     37                : $15 plus 9 
1930-31                :        : count on Jan.6,1931   : $9 at the 
:           :        : Note: the number is   :  other 
: increasing at most   :   stations 
: of the stations 
 
 

					
				
				
Sumary of Feeding Investigations - 1930-1 
Sixty-two food patches were planted in 1930 
Buckwheat                       49 patches 
Corn                             9 patches 
Wheat and Oats                   1 patch 
Corn and Millet                 1 patch 
Backwheat, Corn, and Millet     1 patch 
Buckwheat, Millet and Sorghum    I patch 
Sorghum                                                  c patch 
62 patches in 23 counties cost $906. 
Cost per patch $ 13. 
Both sharp-tailed grouse and prairie chickens feed in the small 
grain patches until December 1. Sharp-tails feed in the patches every 
day, but prairie chickens only once or twice a week. 
In the northern counties deer ate as much of the small grain as the 
birds. 
In Vilas, Oneida, Portage, Adams, Waushara, Wood, Juneau, and 
Jackson Counties where buckwheat patches were examined it was found 
that sharp-tailed grouse fed on buckwheat in October and deserted the 
patches in November, while prairie chickens fed only occasionally in 
November and December. The sharp-tailed grouse cleaned up all of the 
buckwheat before snowfall. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sharp-tails desert the buckwheat patches for two reasons: 
1. The buckwheat is all eaten. 
2. It is covered with snow. 
Prairie chickens did not eat all of the grain in the buckwheat patches. 
They deserted the food patches in Portage and Adams Counties during January

except where other food was available. 
All flocks of prairie chickens did not act the same. In Adams 
County one flock ate from a hopper. Nine other flocks refused to eat from

hoppers and it was decided not to use hoppers for prairie chickens in 
1932 unless for experiments. In Portage County a buckwheat patch was 
located next to a field of shocked corn. Only 6 out of a flock of 250 ate

buckwheat. The entire flock migrated in rebruary in search of another 
cornfield. In Waushara County a patch of standing corn with good corn was

visited only occasionally during the winter by a small flock. In Adams 
County a flock fed on shocks instead of on standing corn in the same field.

The only feeding station used refularly by prairie chickens was the 
tepee shock station at Babcock, Wood County. It was decided that tepee 
shocks would be used for feeding prairie chickens in 1931-2. The tepee 
shock has several advantages. 
1. The cob corn is tied on in strings on the shock where it is 
above the snow. 
2. Prairie chickens would rather climb up on a shock than go 
under it. 
3. The tepee shock can be made hollow and a hopper placed under it 
for quail. 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
4. The supply of corn cp be renewed, while in an ordinary shook 
the corn available is soon eaten. 
5. Power tepee shocks are needed. A field of 160 ordinary corn 
shocks was deserted on January 1 because the corn on the outside of the 
shocks was all eaten. Four tepee shocks fed a flock of the same size 
and more corn was eaten in March than in January of February as there 
was snow in March from the lst to the 21st. 
6. Tepee shocks can be placed in cornfields, clover fields, grain 
fields, or fields of ragweed in which prairie chickens are feeding. 
7- Zven if the stalks are short the tepee shock can be made 6 or 
7 feet high. 
NOTE For preferred, staple, and emergency foods of grouse 
see Aldo Leopold's Game Survey. 
The hopper with buckwheat was used for feeding sharp-tailed grouse. 
Backwheat patches were deserted in November except where hoppers were 
set up. One pound of grain per bird was eaten per month. Cob corn can 
be fed on the ground near the hopper or under the leanto. In 1928-9 
buckwheat was stacked at the food patches and the straw scattered once 
or twice a week. In January and Februay the sharp-tails deserted the 
stations, probabl7 due to the irregular supply of food. In 1930-1 
the hoppers were visited every day and the number of birds did not de- 
crease and at three stations the number increased during January and 
February. Sharp-tails learn to eat husked cob corn and at least one 
flock which ate cob corn in 1930-1 was feeding on standing corn in the 
fall of 1931. Bundles of buckwheat spread out around hoppers are fed 
on by sharp-tails and the best combination is probably a buckwheat 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
food patch with half standing and half shocked ani one or two hoppers 
to prevent the birds from deserting the station when the person looking 
after the station is slow about getting around. 
Locations for hoppers are as follows: 
1. In buckwheat fields. 
2.   In standing corn where sharp-tails are feeding. 
3.   Where sharp-tails feed regularly on aspen or white birch. 
4.   On dance grounds. 
 
 

					
				
				
Feeding Stations 1932 
Estimate of No. of Birds located up to Nov. 10, 1931 
Progress               125 Sharp-tails 
Pittsville              50         " 
Cary                    55   U     . 
Babcock                500  
Wisconsin Rapids        20         N 
Butternut              100   " 
Stone Lake              75   " 
Grantsburg              75   " 
Stanley                 40 Prairie chickens 
Abbottuford             45   "     U 
Rothschild              160       I 
M.m Lake                45 
Bancroft               125        14 
Kellner                  75  14 
Plainfield              50   "     N 
Vesper                  45         " 
Pittsville              so   " 
Babcock                200   " 
New Minor 
Total 
Estimated cost per 
bird for feeding       $ .10 
 
 

					
				
				
1932 Rice Plantings at Babcock 
Wild rice planted in 1932 grew, but dried up during the summer 
due to complete drying up of the ditches. 
Rice planting is not recommended until permanent ponds are 
established. 
Drainage Ditch Dams 
Ditches will be ktept full by dams but the marshes above the dam 
will probably only be flooded in the spring until a series of dams are 
put in. 
 
 

					
				
				
If 
latt of No. of Birds 1*mt" vo to Nov. 10, 1931 
Pipwo               25hvaw-tf 
nIttdllo           50 
OwT                    5 
Bobaek500* 
Wsconsin lapUP      0 
Dattrnut100 ) 
stone Zako          73 
$%MAW7 40 pa            p bll 
AbbOttofvr          4 
1bosI1 
X1ow               75 No 
Tooal* 
batiaated cost Par 
bird for fw~tja    * .10 
 
 

					
				
				
ADoRESE ALL QENERAL OOMMUNICATIONS TO STATE OONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS 
MATT. PATTERSON 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
                   DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
ACTING CHAIRMAN          THE STATE ORIWISCONSIN                         
             C         G.ARRNTON 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                               OF                 
                   SUPT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
RALPH M. IMM ELL. MADISON                                               
                 B. 0. WEBSTER 
R. B. GOODMAN. MARINETTE       CO      S  R    A     O                  
                   S       S O EIES 
E. M. DAHLBERG, LADYSMITH                                  COMMISSION   
                H. W. MAC KENZIE 
SECRETARY                                                               
               CHIEF WARDEN 
PAUL D. KELLETER                             WM. F. GRIMMER 
5UPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                          F.G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D, H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                   AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN, RESEARCH BUREAU 
4,hs-i... . oto. 4  Ir45 (occd-.  .j 4-0 )tv IO.(4'3( 
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V  r -I '-5                      ..               6 irc(                
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&a~.Ls ~75' 
No taxes ,,re levied aga~inst the people of Wisoonsin for fish. game, or
state parks 
 
 

					
				
				
Vwite *ated in~ 1932 rev.Iw buto "i. *mring the ov 
tu to opwjoe4 drig up ofth *iitahe., 
Rice planting it not moeowae until' poument, pnds a" 
ostablishod 
Ditadw Vill be kept Wul bgr 4mm. but the maee ab*ve the tap 
Will pwobobr os3y be f1..4.4 In the spring until a owl*e$ of tAme a- 
put In. 
IWO 
 
 

					
				
				
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July 26, 1C32 
r. Charles V. Peds 
702 Ellis Stret 
Keweou, Wiseonsin 
Dear Mr. Peda: 
Your letter of July 1,, to the conservation 
depermnt has beer referred to me. 
I epprecinte tha picturea of your winter 
feedine hoper and your desorptio    nd o      t 
on it,  I en turnlng this over to F.   . Slchmidt, 
our biologist, in order that ho -my give it a try. 
Thankiu  you for your interest, I am 
Very sincerely yours, 
PA    . t, Director 
By 
EWt, Ge (r                          iver 
WG:RI.Sup' t, Gem, Di~isien 
 
 

					
				
				
34 
 
 

					
				
				
The dark s     in the snow 
under the hopper Js eause4 by 
the birds picing ip the grain 
th ey have thrown outt. 
 
 

					
				
				
Moot& 
' 4\ 
tt 
 
 

					
				
				
10 
 
 

					
				
				
Pheasznt tracks leaZdng to the hopper. 
 
 

					
				
				
702 E'lle Sto8 
State Conservtm on Coam-esion                                         "A
  C 
JUL    o  J 
D rar Sirs-. 
Being enaged in the winter feeding of ga e birds each winter you 
ray be interested in a new type of fooC. hopper with which T have had success

in the feeding of wild intro&uaed pheasants.   As the photoo show, this
bopper 
is hw4 frcm an elvate! wpport at mwl heiht from the grourd that a pheasant

can eat out of the feeding tray rzile standing on the gr    , 
The suspending wire is swiveled* The happer Itself is provided with 
a wing vdich oauses the feedin  tray side to be tiwred away. from the stoM
  T2 
" very strong stnii, the hopper taks oun a cira-Uar pendlu  vement in
addition 
to keeping the feeding tray cide couitouuy away frm the weather, This pen-

dulm roveent deflects wind to the p'o1a2 in a way to keep the     ow at a
low 
level =Uar and aound it. 
Being of t he groui, it does not feed. a horde of ulesidabl- boaero 
The pheasants fed. last winter were entirely wld and bad to be brought to
eat 
out of a hopper by careftl infoent.       Once started they came with reg-laxity.

Tours very truly 
 
 

					
				
				
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3 
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
              MATT. PATTERSON 
WILLIAM MAITHE, CHAIRMAN                                                
                   C.L. HARRINGTON 
FOUSTATE                                                 W   ISCONSIN   
                SUPT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                   B. 0. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS, GREEN SAY                                                   
                     SUPT. OF FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAKEE         CON                         C,          
                   H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                                                  
                     CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                     PAUL D. KELLETER          
                   WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
                 SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                           F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                    AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
-0-                     64~-t 
6~~                                   :> L~ 
 
 

					
				
				
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. .. . . .. . . . ................... : ...... . 
 
 

					
				
				
By F.J.W.Schmidt 
H. F. Johnson recently built a hopper suitable for feeding 
pheasants and other game birds. A detailed description is found 
below. 
Specifications of hopper 
Material - pine boards, roofing, strip of sheet metal 4 by 36 
inches, nails, cresote, two steel scrap hinges, 
Measurements - length of feed trough and feed box 31 inches; 
length of roof 36 inches; width of feed trough 15-1/2 inches; 
width of feed box at bottom on inside 4-1/2 inches; at top 15 
inchesj on inside; Height 26 inches; height of feed trough 
on sides four inches; height of roof 6-1 2 inches; width of 
roof between baves 22 inches; width of one side of roof from 
eave to peak 13 inches; amount offeeding space five feet; 
capacity abo .-t 100 pounds depending on feed used. 
Building - build feed trough first. The size of the feed 
trough is 31 by 15-1/2 by 4 inches.  (See Figure 1.)  Next 
build the sides of the feed box with the lower six inches of 
side boards nailed to the corner strips.  (See Figure 2.) 
Figure2 is end view showing corner strips nailed to end 
board of feed trough with i    lower six inches of side boards 
of feed box nailed to corner strips. The other side boards 
are longer and are put on after the end boards are nailed on. 
Fit these sides into the feed trough and nail them to the 
ends of the feed trough as shown in Figure 2. Nail on the 
end boards and then the 31 inch side boards which fit over the 
end boards as shown in Figure 1. Nail on one side of the roof 
and fasten the other side with hinges. 
Set the hopper on a wire frame three feet wide, four feet 
long and six inches high. This should be built of two by sixes 
with one inch mesh wire stretched between them.  (Figure 5.) 
This frame will prevent contamination of most of the feed which 
is spilled as it will fall through to the ground where the birds 
can not reach it. Slope dirt around the outside of the frame 
for the birds to walk up on. 
A roof six by six feet built of poles and roofing should be 
built over the hopper and a cornstalk lean-to should protect the 
hopper on the north, northeast and northwest sides. For the 
framework of the lean-to and the roof over the hopper, aspen poles 
three inches in diameter do very well if the structure is to be 
used for a single season. Six five foot poles for uprights and 
six six foot poles for cross bars areAeeded for the lean-to. Two 
five foot poles and fifteen six foot poles are needed for the 
roof.  (See photographi) The oornstalks should be tied against the 
framework of the lean-to with bindert*ine. If cornstalks are not 
FJWS'M0     available, grain bundles or evergreen branches may be used. 
10/5/31     i±xx Figure    shows hopper and lean-to at the State Game
Farm 
at Fish Creek.. 
 
 

					
				
				
By F.J.W.Schmidt 
H. F. Johnson recently built a hopper suitable for feedi:g 
pheasants and other game birds. A detailed description is found 
below, 
Specifications of hopper 
Material - pine boards, roofing, strip of sheet metal 4 by 38 
inches, nails, cresote, two steel surap hinges 
Measurements - length of feed trough and feed box 31 inches; 
length of roof 36 inches; width of feed trough 15-1/2 inches; 
width of feed box at bottom on inside 4-1/2 inches; at top 15 
inohes' on insidei height 26 inches; height of feed trough 
on sides four inches, height of roof 6-1 2 Inches; width of 
roof between haves 22 inches; width of one side of roof from 
eave to peak 13 inches; amount offeding space five feet; 
capacity abo t 100 pounds depending on feed used. 
Building - build feed trough first. The size of the feed 
trough is 31 by 15-1/2 by 4 inches,  (See Figure 1.)   Next 
build the sides of the feed box with the lower six inches of 
side boards nailed to the corner strips.  (See Figure 2.) 
Figu, re2 is end view showing corner strips nailed to O 
board of feed trough with 2     lower six inehes of side boards 
of feed box nailed to corner strips. The other side boards 
are longer and are put on after the end boards are nailed on. 
Fit these sides into the feed trough and nail them to the 
ends of the feed trough as shown in Fig.ire 2. Nail on the 
end boards and then the 31 inch side boards which fit over the 
end boards as shown in Figure 1. Nail on one side of the roof 
and fasten the other side with hinges. 
Set the hopper on a wire frame three feet wide, four feet 
lon  and six inches high. This should be built of two by sixes 
with one inch mesh wire stretched between them.   (Figure 5.) 
This frame will prevent contamination of most of the feed which 
is spilled as it will fall through to the ground where the birds 
can not reach it. Slope dirt around the outside of the frame 
for the birds to walk up on. 
A roof six by six feet built of poles and roofing should be 
built over the hopper and a cornstalk lean-to should protect the 
hopper on the north, northeast and northwest sides, For the 
framework of the lean-to and the roof over the hopper aspen poles 
three inches in dianeter do very well if the structure is to be 
used for a single season. Six five foot poles for uprights and 
six six foot poles for cross bars areeeded for the 3an-to.    Two 
five foot poles and fifteen six foot poles are needed for the 
roof.  (See photograph,) The cornstalks should be tied against the 
framework of the lean-to with binderttine. If cornstalks are not 
F/WS M     available, grain bundles or evergreen branches may be used. 
10/b/31     It   Figure    shows hopper and lean-to at the State Game Farm

n  "1 WI  l 
 
 

					
				
				
By FJ.W.,hmidt 
f-, F, Johnson recently built a hopper suitable for £eedL g 
pheasants and other game birds. A detailed description is found 
belowo 
, aeoigfiatlois of hoD er 
Material - pine boards, roofing, strip of sheet metal 4 by 36 
Inohes, nails, cresote, two steel s.rap hinges 
Measurements - length of feed trough and feed box 31 inches; 
length of roof 36 Inches; width of feed trough 15-1/2 Inches; 
width of feed box at bottom on inside 4-1/2 inches; at top 15 
Inohes; on inside; height 26 inches; height of feed trough 
on sides four inches; height of roof 6-1 2 *nohes; width of 
roof between haves 22 inches; width of one side of roof from 
eave to peia 13 inohesj amount offeding spaoe five feet; 
oapaoity abo t 100 pounds dependng on feed used. 
Building - build feed trough first. T.e size of the feed 
trough is 51 by 15-1/2 by 4 Inohes,  (See Figure 1.)   Next 
build the sides of  he feed box with the lower six inches of 
side boards nailed to the oorner strips.  (See Figure 2.) 
71i-_'ue2 is end view showing oorner strips nailed to  nd 
board of feed trough with 2    lower six in%:hes of side boards 
of feed box nailed to aorner strips. The other sIde b ards 
are longer and ire put on after the end boards are nailed ,no 
Fit these sides into the feed trough and nail them to the 
ends of the feed trourh as shown in Figre 2. Nall on the 
end boards and then the 31 inch side boards which fit over the 
end boards as show in Figure 1. Nail on one side of the roof 
and fasten the other side with hinges, 
Sot the hopper on a wire frane three feet wide four feet 
lon and six inches hig. This should be blt of two by sizes 
with one Inch mesh wire stretohed between them. (Figure 5.) 
This frame wIll prevent contrmination of most of the feed which 
is spilled as it will 'ell through to the ground where the birds 
can not reach it. Slope dirt around the outside of the frame 
for the birds to walk up on. 
A roof six by six feet built of poles and roofing should be 
built over the hopper and a cornstalk lean-to should protect the 
hopper on the north, northeast and northwest sideso For t 
framework of the lean-to and the roof .ver the hopper aspen poles 
three inches in dieneter do very well if the structure is to be 
used for a single season, Six five foot poles for uprights and 
six six foot poles for ezrss bars arefeeded for the lan-to, Two 
five foot poles and fifteen six foot poles are needed for the 
roof.  ( See photograph.) The cornstalks should be tied agarzwt th 
framework of the lean-to with binderttine. if oornstalks are not 
FJWS M0     available, grain bundles or evergre   branches may be used, 
10/5/31     X      Figure___ shows hopper and lean-to at the 8tate Game Fa
 Gd j 
 
 

					
				
				
BY F.J.W.iahndt 
TI, Y, Johnson recently built a hopper suitable for soedi. g 
pheasants and other      birds.   i. detai o desoription is found 
below, 
paterl tin. boards, rofing, strip of sheet -ttal 4 by 36 
:nches, nail, oresote, two steel P rai hinges 
Measurements - length of fe*d trough and reed box 31 inches; 
length of roof 38 -nehes; width of feed troug I      2 nl/ iches; 
width of feed box at bottom o  inside 4-1/2 inches; at top 15 
inohes4 on insi4ej height 26 ijches; heit of feed trou 
on sides four inches; height of roof 6-1 " inohs; width of 
roof between baves 22 inches; width of one side of roof from 
eave to  OaC 1 inchesi amount of   edln'j Spaoe five feet; 
capaoity abe t 100 pounds depending on teed used. 
Building - build feed trough first.   r-e size of the feed 
trough is 31 by 15-1/2 by 4 inches, (Gle Jig-re I.)     Next 
build the sides of the feed box with the lower six _nhes of 
aide boa d2 nailed to the oorner strips.   ( ee Figure 2.) 
fi1gure  Is end View showing oorner strips nailed to  nd 
board of feed trouh with       lov-er six lnhes of side boards 
of feed box nailed to     er strips. Ihe othor aIde boards 
are longer and  e put on ater the end boards are ,ailed    r, 
Fit these sides £nto the feed tro     and nil them to the 
ends of the feed tr1ouh as shown In Fi       2,  ail on the 
end boarda and then the .3 Xnoh side boards whioh fit over the 
end boards as -how in Figur,#     1all un  ne side of the roof 
and fasten the other side wit h ines, 
Set the hopper on a wire frane thee feet wide   four feet 
lon  and six inohes 1igh. This Ah(uld be b-lilt of two by sizes 
with one inch mesh wire stretched between them,   (FI re 5. ) 
This fr    will pevent co!tinaio       of mst of te ed wi 
I spilled as it %ill 1 all through to the gund where the birds 
can not reach it. Slope dirt around the outside Of the frame 
for the birds to wali  up on, 
A roof six by six feet built of pule. ard roofing should be 
built over the ho p per and a cornstulk lean-to ihould protect the 
ho  -r .n the nortn, noPrQthst and northwest side.   For the 
framework of the lean-to and the   of   v   the hopper aspen poles 
thre inches in dieetsr do very well if the structure il to be 
used for a sinvle season,   .ix five foot poles for uprights and 
six six foot poles for  ross bars ar$eeded for the loan-to. Two 
five foot ooles and fifteen six foot pule- are needed for the 
roof.  (Lee photograph.)  e oorstals should be tied ae4      t tho 
f      rk of the lean-to with binderttne,    11 oo* stalis are not 
FJL3 110    available, grain bundles or everp-een branches may be ,sd. 
10/5/          _F31igure    shows hoptper end lean-to at the state Gane Far
 d S   A 
 
 

					
				
				
't, Fe Jo",!ns@1  0rc-atly built nao1-e  auiable for f'i,  g 
nheaents nrx othr~    fr -,tehrs.  A, tio d  oo4a.iptio1 is found 
Vater  4, - a PieWoad, wuofing& strip of shoet !vt4l 4 by, 36 
J nohea . nails, or~nte, two stee  s runhige 
', aarvies- leghOf 1feod tru,  ~d feed box 31Inohes; 
lengh qf W o~f 6 nalhea; idth of' fee 'trogh1- I     na* Uhe's; 
width ,)f food box at bottom on1 inside 4-1/'S inches; at top 13 
inohes; on insieo   High1t Z0 inohes; higt fo trough 
011 sides four £110 *5  height of roof 6-1  inaboa; width of 
roo  btwcrihaes  2 naec; width of on  iade or rof from 
ORYS to  eak~ 13 iiohesf amut of fbdN spo fIve feet; 
ospe)otty aio,o t 100 aod deedn     on fo    sd 
flui'.dilig - build feedtrug  first.  Pie size of the ree 
trouh is Z1 by 15-1/2 by    i1oheso  (15-4  Figur 1.)  Next 
buldtlcsides of '.he feed box uith the low  six  no~ha of 
side boardo nille4 to t,* oorrer strips.  (S ee 14gr  to) 
board o)f tee  ruh4ihU          ovrsxin-a        fsiebnA 
of feed box nailed to cone   stri ps.  "he other .4d* boards 
a ., 1one- er u re puat (.n after the end boards are nalled no 
Pit thoe sid~es tnto Vne feed eruhMn nail th~ to the 
ennis of the teed Irvu   as shoymi   iue2.Nl         r  h 
enid bo)ards and then the 31L-o sneide boards whio fit over the 
eMd board. as thovi in        1.iux  I* 1 Nal n  ne side of the root 
and fasten the other sid# wit hAgs 
Ot the hop-,,,r on a wire fran th.-oo feet wide* four feet 
lnaMd six 'L£n T1         z*bul  be~ b,,   ftob      ie 
with on  £no aoh wire stwetohod bemth*           (Figue 5. ) 
hIsm frm  will  .-revent on  ien of ztst of the food whicht 
0 n pilled as it Pill I'1 tlro7    to -the gmnd    btr  the birds 
O6Ua not reaoh it.  Uoedirt arudthe )uts#      o of the rm 
for the birds to UP Zp on, 
A roof six by six feet built ..f poles r ooting,, should be 
fronewrkof the loan-to end the ro   7v   the  op    asperi p-ole. 
thrinchea in diant~r do very wll If the ntut5r        :    b 
used for a e    *season. Si five toot poles  for uprigt    n 
six six foot poles-, for  "o e bar% arhso Tr th         wintc,. Two

five toot       ande fite    ixfo           reace     for the 
roo.   -eep~,.og~p*)The oowstalis should be tied ag~Wt the 
frame orkcf th~* eanto wit bin*Atine.     If .orntalk.s are not 
ZJ;ISO~   available, grin budes or      er   enbacsmybe eo 
10/,"1    X1=Tigue       shows hopper and la-to at "Who 8taWe Gae
arJ"( 
 
 

					
				
				
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dly 
 
 

					
				
				
INTRODUCTaION 
This bulletin has been compiled by the Game Division and the Research 
Bureau of the Wisconsin Conservation Commission to enable farmers, sports-

men's clubs, resort owners and anyone else interested in game to properly

care for the game birds on their lands or shooting grounds. In the past,

much energy and time has been wasted by distributing feed where it could

not be found or by starting the feeding too late in the season. As a 
result the game birds did not get the benefit of the money and enthusiasm

put into the project. The information available in this bulletin will 
make it possible for those interested in feeding game to get a better 
understanding of the food requirements of game birds during the different

seasons of the year than has ever been possible before. Some of the ad- 
vantages of winter feeding, in addition to food requirements, are briefly

outlined. 
Advantages of Winter FeedinK - The yearly food supply is one of the factors

which limits the density of population of animals. Those regions which are

blanketed with snow during the winter have a plentiful supply of food during

the summer, and a scarcity during the winter, causing the migration of all

but the hardiest species of birds to warmer regions before winter blankets

the northland with its frosty mantle. The game birds which remain over the

winter are limited under natural conditions to the number which can live
on 
the available food. If a winter is mild and a large amount of food is 
available, game birds generally show an increase the following summer, but

if a severe winter follows there is a scarcity of available food and heavy

mortality results. It follows that winter feeding of game birds has come
to 
 
 

					
				
				
be recognized as one of the most important factors in preventing severe 
losses during the winter. Ivery year new facts are being discovered which

lend weight to its importance. 
Winter feeding in the northern states is of especial importance due to 
snow and sleet which make food unavailable. In addition to the climate 
there are other factors which make game bird feed scarce during the winter.

Mice often destroy the weed seed and grain which lie under the snow so 
that when the snow melts the game birds are still short of food. Quail, 
prairie chickens, pheasants, and Hungarian partridges depend on weed seeds

to pull them through the winter, but it often happens that even if not 
covered with snow this food supply is exhausted by mid winter, due to the

raids of large flocks of snowbirds, juncoes, tree sparrows, Inglish spar-

rows, longspurs and other seed eating winter birds. In dry years, prairie

and forest fires destroy thousands of acres of game bird cover. In dry 
years fruits of all kinds are scarce or poor in quality, and as a result

game bird food is scarce in the fall as well as winter. Severe frosts may

also cause the destruction of wild fruits and nuts. In agricultural 
districts natural winter food is scarce, due to the high percentage of 
pastured and plowed land. 
The chief purpose of winter feeding is to remedy any shortage of food 
due to such causes as those outlined above. 
In Wisconsin the ruffed grouse, the sharp-tailed grouse, and the pin- 
mated grouse have been subject to a violent fluctuation in numbers every

eight or nine years. As yet there is no definite proof that lack of grain

and grit during heavy snow is the cause of sickness in Wisconsin game birds,

except that most animals are more susceptible to disease when undernourished

than when well fed. 
 
 

					
				
				
Zrrington (1930, p. 9)1 found that Wisconsin quail decreased rapidly 
in number when their food supply was cut off. Aside from actual starvation,

the quail under observation were esily killed by cold weather and predators

when weakened by lack of food. 
Although Wisconsin game birds are not migratory in the same sense as 
the birds which go south before winter, they do make local migrations in

search of food and cover. The distance traveled by the different species

of game birds is not definitely known, but banding operations being carried

on at present will throw light on this question. Efficient winter feeding

will lessen and possibly eliminate the movement of game birds from one 
area to another. Farmers wishing to have a large number of quail, prairie

dickens or other game birds on their land, either to provide hunting or to

eat the chinch bugs, potato beetles, weevils and grasshoppers which destroy

the farmerst crops, do not want to see the birds which they have protected

move into an area where they may or not find enough food to protect them

against the cold blasts of winter, or where they may be the victims of 
pot hunters. On private shooting grounds, or public shooting grounds the

loss of birds by straying or migration of entire flocks must be prevented
if 
a dense population of birds is to be maintained permanently. 
One important purpose of winter feeding is to make it possible to 
check up on the game bird population. When winter feeding is carried on 
as extensively as it should be, practically all of the birds will be at 
the feedingtations where they can be counted, and when suitable methods 
have been worked out for trapping, it will be possible for private shooting

ground owners to band their birds. That will make it possible to determine

-rrington, Paul L., Corn on Cob Saves Wintering Quail, American Game, 
November 1930. 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
the percentage of birds shot in the fall and in that way overshooting will

be prevented if hunting is stopped when fifty per cent of the birds have

been shot. If the male is easily distinguished from the female it would 
also be possible to keep the sexes balanced by means of banding. 
WISCONSIN NATIVE AND EXOTIC SPECIES THAT 
IRUIRE WINTER FEDING 
1. The Pheasant. 
2. The Hungarian Partridge. 
3. The Quail.--The quail is a permanent inhabitant of the southern 
part of Wisconsin and occasionally ranges into the northern counties. The

season has been closed for the past 30 years, but there has been no marked

increase in numbers. Lack of cover and lack of food during the winter are

probably the two factors which limit the number of quail in Wisconsin. 
frrington (1930, p. 9)1, found that the quail under observation fed on 
trefoil and ragweed seed during the early part of the winter. One flock 
of thirty-seven feeding wn ragweed ran out of available food on January 20,

and all perished except twelve, which managed to find a corn crib. In 
contrast to this flock, seven flocks totalling one hundred six birds came

through the winter with a loss of only three birds, due to the fact that
they 
had access all winter to a constant supply of food. One flock wintered on

ragweed and shocked corn, one on ragweed and cribbed corn, one on ragweed

and soy beans, three on ragweed, soy beans and cribbed corn, and one 
flock joined the other six flocks. 
In feeding quail the corn shock system in combination with the hollow 
shock system is the best method. At Poynette a flock of thirty-five quail

fed with wild turkeys at a hopper, and judging from this example the 
lErrington, Paul L., Corn on Cob Saves Wintering Quail, American Game, 
November 1930. 
-4- 
 
 

					
				
				
hopper system should be a great success in feeding quail. The hopper 
system is especially recommended for regions in which corn shocks are not

available. 
4. The Sharp-Tailed Grouse.--The sharp-tailed grouse and the prairie 
chicken have similar food habits during the summer and fall, but differences

in their winter feeding makes it difficult to feed the two together. The

feeding habits of the sharp-tailed grouse as outlined below are based on

observations made in Wood, Juneau, and Jackson counties. In the northern

counties their habits may be slightly different. 
In September and October sharp-tails gather in flocks from twenty to 
two hundred in stubble fields, especially buckwheat, to feed on the grain

which is on the ground. At this time of the year prairie chickens are 
likely to be found feeding with them. 
During November, the sharp-tails break up into flocks of from twenty 
to forty and go in search of aspen and white birch thickets. Once they 
have located a suitable patch of aspen or white birch, their movements 
are restricted to about one section of territory. Birds banded at three 
stations which were less than one mile apart, did not mix at any time 
during the winter. Two flocks which were feeding on aspen one mile from 
feeding stations never found the feeding stations. One feeding station in

a buckwheat field was not put up until Just after the sharp-tails had 
abandoned it. (November 24). This flock of sharp-tails fed on aspen and 
white birch buds only thirty rods from the feeding station all through 
December. In January a pile of cob corn was put on the ditch bank near 
the white birch on which the sharp-tails were feeding and in a few days 
the sharp-tails were feeding on this corn. On January 18th a line of cob

-5- 
 
 

					
				
				
corn was strung from the ditch bank to the feeding station and the next 
d~y the sharp-tails located the feeding station. They fed at the station

all through February and March and the entire flock of twenty-one was trap-

ped and banded. 
Daring December, January, and February, the sharp-tails feeding at 
hopper feeding stations consumed one pound of buckwheat each per month. 
The greater part of their food consisted of aspen and white birch buds. 
During February the amount of buds eaten decreased and in March buds were

only eaten during snow storms. The amount of buckwheat and cob corn eaten

in March was greater than the amount eaten during the winter. In March 
those sharp-tails which had learned to eat cob corn preferred it to buck-

wheat and would go into a trap to get it, although buckwheat was available

nearby. 
The hopper method is recommended for the sharp-tail. The sharp-tail 
prefers buckwheat to other grains. Shelled corn is not eaten, but cob 
corn may be given from time to time as a supplementary food. 
5. The Prairie Chicken.--In September and October prairie chickens 
gather in flocks of from twenty to three hundred to feed on stubble fields

and weed patches. In the fall and early winter the prairie chicken feeds

mostly on weed seeds, and of these ragweed and black bindweed are preferred.

Small flocks feed on corn and as the supply of weed seed becomes exhausted

the number in fields of shocked corn increases. Prairie chickens can 
husk cob corn provided the ears are on the outside of the shocks. Where 
prairie chickens are pbundant the outside ears are all eaten by the end 
of December and although the shocks are left in the field, the birds will

starve. 
The hollow shock system is recommended for prairie chickens. The 
hopper system may work, but it is not recommended if corn shocks are 
available. 
-6- 
 
 

					
				
				
6. The Ruffed Grouse.--The ruffed grouse or partridge feeds on wild 
fruits and green leaves during the fall. As much as a pint and a half of

clover leaves, strawberry leaves and ferns have been found in a single 
crop. As green leaves become scarce the buds and catkins of alder, white

birch, dwarf birch and aspen are eaten. It is very difficult to train ruffed

grouse to come to feeding stations, and unless they accidentally feed with

other game birds at a feeding station it is not practical to attempt to 
feed them by artificial means. Their winter diet of buds can be improved

by planting shrubs and trees, such as mountain ash and hawthorne, which 
retain their fruit all winter. If grit is hard to obtain these dried fruits

may be detrimental instead of beneficial, due to the fact that when the 
gizzard is full of hard pits or fruit stones the quartz grit is not retained

(Grouse Report, p. 99)1. Fruit stones and grit are hard enough to grind 
the dried fruits, but if buds were eaten it would be necessary for the bird

to get a new supply of mineral grit. 
7. The Wild Turkey.--Although the wild turkey at present has a very 
limited range in Wisconsin, it may be possible to greatly extend its range

if properly taken care of during the winter. 
During the fall the diet consists of green leaves, insects, fruits, 
and nuts. As these foods become scarce a search is made for fields of 
shocked corn or the hungry birds will go to a farmer's barnyard in case 
corn has been shocked or is fed to livestock on the ground. This wandering

in search of food during the winter must be prevented, for if the wild 
turkeys seek food at farms they get mixed up with tame turkeys and it is

hard to separate them again. 
The hopper, corn shock and tree hopper are recommended for feeding 
wild turkeys. 
-"The Grouse in Health and Disease", being the final report of
the Committee 
of Inquiry on grouse disease (2 vols., unabridged edition), Smith Ilder 
and Co., London, 1911. 
-7- 
 
 

					
				
				
HOW TO FEED 
The hopper leanto method.--The hopper leanto is an efficient method of 
feeding all of Wisconsin's upland game birds, with the exception of the 
prairie chicken and the ruffed grouse. The hopper leanto method has the 
following advantages: It can be set up quickly and at any time of the 
year. It can be so constructed that the food does not become contaminated

with the droppings. Very little of the grain put into a hopper is wasted.

Inspection is necessary only after snow storms and otherwise every two 
weeks or so, according to the number of birds and the size of the hopper.

A box of grit or oyster shells can be put under the same leanto which 
protects the hopper. Once a hopper is built it can be stored during the 
summer and used again the following winter. The amount of food can be 
regulated to suit the number of birds. One or more kinds of grain can 
be fed according to the species of birds feeding at the station. The 
amount of food eaten can be known both as to the total amount eaten and 
the amount per bird. 
The construction of a hopper built of lumber is not difficult. The 
tools required are a hammer or hatchet, a square, a sew, tin shears, and

nails. No. 2 white pine is the best lumber as it will not check when 
exposed to the weather. The hopper should be three feet high, three feet

long, two feet wide at the top and six inches wide at the bottom. The 
feeding trough should be four inches high and should not project out more

than three inches, for if it projects too far the edge of the food trough

will sometimes be used as a roost and droppings will then get into the 
feed. This should be prevented as certain bacteria, and spores, cysts or

 
 

					
				
				
eggs of parasites present in particles of droppings might infect the bird

ingesting them. The bottom of the hopper should be about six inches 
above the ground and a platform with a gradual slope up to the feed 
trough should be made for the birds to stand on. This platform should 
be of .-- inch wire netting with enough framework to hold it rigid. It 
should be firm but made so that it can be easily removed, in order that 
once a month the droppings which accumulate under it may be cleaned away

if necessary. 
The leanto which protects the hopper against rain, snow and cold 
winds may be built in a number of ways according to the materials at 
hand. Bundles of grain tied to a pole framework by means of binder twine

make an excellent shelter. A leanto built with buckwheat bundles is 
illustrated in Figure    . A waterproof shelter may be made with twenty 
feet of roofing paper and poles. The roof is four feet high in front 
and three feet high at the back, and is six feet long and three feet wide.

The back is three feet high and six feet long and the ends are three 
feet wide, four feet high on the front corner and three feet high on the

back corner. The framework should have flat surfaces where the paper is 
nailed, for if the paper is not nailed on well it may blow off. If ever-

green branches are available theymay be used to build a leanto, but care

must be taken *at trees are not injured by careless breaking of branches.

The hopper should be installed in such a way that it can be moved for 
filling or the leanto should be made with a movable roof. 
The Furnace Pipe Hopper.--This hopper is built of galvanized furnace 
pipe eight or ten inches in diameter and two or three feet long. Near the

bottom a cone with the point up is riveted on the inside. One inch above

-9- 
 
 

					
				
				
the junction of the cone with the furnace pipe several horizontal slits 
are made, each about three inches long. The furnace pipe just above each

slit is then bent in an inch or so. This hopper has the advantage of 
being mouse, rabbit, and deer proof. As its feeding spaces are small, the

grain is not as visible as it is in the hoppers built of lumber, and 
greater pains must be taken to train the birds to eat from it. As th1e 
feeding space is very limited it would be necessary to use several of these

hoppers where there are a large number of birds. If the cone on the inside

is placed six inches from the bottom the hopper may be fitted over a stump.

If small birds are to be fed a sloping platform may be built for them to

stand on. 
The Corn Shock System.--Corn shocks have always been recommended as 
the best method of winter feeding most game birds. They have several ad-

vantages. A game bird can live on corn alone for several months. Corn 
shocks are never entirely covered with snow. They are large enough to 
make it possible for game birds to find them easily. Corn shocks have 
several serious defects, but fortunately most of these defects can be 
remedied. Quail can burrow into a corn shock and perhaps feed on the 
corn which is on the inside of the shock, but most other game birds must

rely on the corn which is exposed on the outside. Mice and rats often eat

most of the corn which is on the inside of the shock. In cornfields where

prairie chickens feed the available corn on the outside may be exhausted

by the end of December. Figure ( ) shows a corn shock with the outside 
ears eaten. This corn shock represents the condition of a ten-acre field

of corn shocks in Wood county on January 1, 1931.  In many regions corn 
is not shocked but is put in the silo, and even if not put in the silo 
the shocks would contain no ripe corn. These defects can be remedied 
as follows: 
-10- 
 
 

					
				
				
Where game birds are known to be feeding in a field of corn shocks 
a feeding station can easily be set up by making five shocks into hollow

or tepee shocks. To do this take three or four poles five feet long and 
nail them together at the top in the form of an Indian tepee. Two cross 
sticks should be nailed on two or three feet from the ground to keep the

corn stalks from sagging in. Then place the corn stalks against the frame-

work and tie them on with binder twine. Leave the south side of the tepee

open. A pile of cob corn should be put under each shock. Two or three 
bushels of cob corn can be tied in long strings with binder twine and 
wrapped around the shock. The ends of the strings are tied to the poles 
supporting the corn stalks. If necessary, two or three bushels of cob 
corn can be tied on each tepee shock, Figure ( ). This type of feeding 
station is recommended for prairie chickens, as it has beeni observed that

they will climb up and feed on the strings of corn just as readily as eat

what is on the ground. Quiail have been seen feeding on the pile of corn

under the tepee, but not on the strings of cob corn. It is not recommended

for feeding sharp-tails as they do not visit cornfields unless they are 
mixed in with a flock of prairie chickens. 
The Ear Corn Method.--This method is the same as the corn shock 
method as far as the food eaten is concerned. Without corn stalks it is 
more difficult to place the ears in a place where they will be found. Ear

corn may be held in place by sticking it on spikes driven through boards

or poles or can be tied with binder twine or bay wire into long strings 
and wrapped around a pole or tree. Ear corn put out in this way should 
be protected by a leanto or arranged in such a way that it will not be- 
come covered with snow. It may be possible to build a sloping platform 
of poles that is not too steep for game birds to climb, but steep enough

-1l- 
 
 

					
				
				
not to retain much snow driven by wind. A roof could be put over it 
to prevent snow from falling on it when there is no wind. Ears could 
be fastened on either by spikes or in strings. The value of such a plat-

form has not been determined, but it may be an efficient method of feeding

ruffed grouse and sharp-tailed grouse in aspen thickets where corn on the

ground would be eaten by rabbits. A large amount of ear corn should never

be put out until the game birds have located it, otherwise it may be eaten

by rabbits or carried off t squirrels. Should squirrels chew the binder 
twine on strings of ear corn, wire may be used. Copper wire may be the 
best for this purpose. 
Buckwheat.-Patches of buckwheat, sorghum, sunflowers, millet and. 
other small grains have been planted for the purpose of feeding game birds

during the winter. If left standing, such patches of grain provide an 
excellent feeding place for game birds to feed during the fall and early

winter. Observations in Wood, Adams, Waushara, Portage, Marathon, and 
Vilas counties, where extensive experiments have been made, indicate that

unless such patches of grain are shocked or stacked the available grain 
is all eaten by the end of November. When tied in bundles and shocked, or

cut and stacked, buckwheat can be fed during the winter provided the birds

do not leave the feeding station. In order to prevent the birds from 
deserting the feeding station, fresh material must be spread out at least

twice a veek. In 1928 and 1929 sharp-tailed grouse sat on the stacks 
during December and waited until the buckwheat straw was spread out. 
In January and February the feeding stations were deserted. In March 
a few of the sharp-tails returned. In 1931 a patch of buckwheat was 
-12- 
 
 

					
				
				
located next to a field of shocked corn, The buckwheat was stacked and 
a hopper and leanto set up.  It was found that only six prairie chickens

out of 250 fed on the buckwheat, the remainder feeding on corn shocks. 
None of the prairie chickens learned to feed at the hopper. Early in 
Jebraury the corn shocks were hauled away and the entire flock left the 
vicinity. On the basis of these observations patches of grain are not 
recommended for sharp-tails, pheasants, quail and Hungarian partridge, 
unless supplemented with a hopper and leanto, and are not recommended for

prairie chickens, unless supplemented with the tepee shock system. 
Standing Corn.-Corn left standing in the fall without being husked 
furnishes food for game birds during the winter, provided the ears are 
high enough not to be covered with snow. In Waushara county two fields 
of standing corn were left for prairie chickens. Observations at these 
two feeding stations indicate that prairie chickens do not feed on stand-

ing corn if corn shocks are available. It is recommended that one tepee 
shock be set up in each patch of standing corn. 
Standing Corn - Sweet Clover.--By planting a strip of corn next to a 
patch of sweet clover, an excellent hiding place next to the food supply

is provided. This system is recommended for pheasants, quail, and 
Hungarian partridge. This feeding arrangement could be greatly improved 
where there is a heavy snowfall by the addition of a tepee shock or hopper

and leanto. 
FOOD AND GRIT 
Food may be classified in a great variety of ways if the food for 
the entire year is considered. For winter feeding, however, a rough 
classification is all that is necessary. The three most important things

-13- 
 
 

					
				
				
to be taken into consideration are the food preferences of the game birds

being fed, the food value of the grain being fed, and the availability of

the food. 
Food Preferences.--Each species of game has certain foods which it 
relies on during the winter. The form in which the grain is fed is also 
important. quail, pheasants and prairie chickens learn to eat ear corn 
whether it is husked or unhusked,. Sharp-tailed grouse in Wood county 
preferred husked corn to unhusked. Both sharp-tailed grouse and prairie 
chickens will eat buckwheat, but not shelled corn, from a hopper. Pheasants,

Hungarian partridge, and possibly quail are not particular as to what kind

of grain is fed them. Wild turkeys in Columbia county preferred corn, 
either shelled or on the cob, to other grains. 
Food Value.-Game birds which eat only one kind of grain obviously 
cannot be given a wide choice of food, but those eating a variety of grains

should be fed that grain which is best suited to keep the birds fit to meet

the hardships of winter. 3rrington (1930, p. 9)1 found that corn was cap-

able of bringing quail through the winter in excellent condition, and as
yet 
there is nothing to prove that this does not apply to other game birds. 
In Wood and Juneau counties sharp-tailed grouse that were fed on buckwheat

came through the winter without losing weight. 
Availability.-Food may be present, but not available as a food. 
Errington (1931)2 finds that locust beans are not available due to the fact

that more energ must be used in clipping the beans from the tree than can

be derived from the food eaten. Errington (unpublished), notes that a corn

shock or feedint station is not available if it is watched by a Cooper's

hawk. Weed seeds, nuts and grains are not available if they are covered 
with ice and snow. 
AErrington, Paul L., Corn on Cob Saves Wintering quail, American Game, 
2 November, 1930. 
-rrington, Paul L.., - American Game July, August, 1931. 
-14- 
 
 

					
				
				
The exact grit requirements of game birds in the northern states is 
not known, but the addition of grit to a feeding station cannot help but

be beneficial. In Ragland an extensive study of grit was made and below 
are two quotations from the "Grouse Report." 
"It is particularly unfortunate that during deep snow, when grouse 
have great difficulty in replenishing their stock of gizzard grits, they

are compelled by hunger to feed upon the very foods which most rapidly 
evacuate their entire stock of grits. The hips and haws whose large, hard

seeds, as has been said, quickly replace the quarts in their gizzards, are

comparptively useless to them for dealing with heather or blackberry shoots,

yet the bush and tree fruits are among the first emergency rations used in

a heavy fall of snow, since they come within reach as the ground foods become

more deeply buried." (Grouse Report, p. 99)3. 
"The strongest evidence that quartz is the most suitable form of grit

is its universal presence in all the vegetable feeding birds that can obtain

it. Red grouse, Ptarmigan, Black grouse and Capercailsie, as well as 
pheasants and partridges bred on the moor borders and Scandinavian willow

grouse, all collect quarts, and nothing but quartz, if it is by any means

to be obtained." (Grouse Report, p. 99)3 
PREDATORS AT FEEDING STATIONS 
Due to the large number of birds at a feeding station, predatory 
animals may cause trouble. 
Cats and weasels are likely to be the worst as they are small and 
are expert stalkers. A box trap baited with stale codliver oil is a good

cat trap, and a stovepipe with a steel trap at each end with bait in the

middle is a good way to catch weasels. 
"'The Grouse in Health and Disease," being the final report of
the Committee 
of Inquirey on grouse disease (2 Vols.) unabridged edition) Smith, 
Elder & Co., London, 1911. 
-15- 
 
 

					
				
				
Hawks and owls are not likely to cause much trouble except in certain 
parts of the state. In Wood county in 1930-31, eight horned owls were 
caught at feeding stations. Observations show that these owls visited 
these stations only at night and fed on mive and rabbits which were steal-

ing food from the birds. No birds were caught by hawks in Wood county 
during the winter at feeding stations, as there were no Cooper's hawks or

goshawks in that region. Errington (1930, p. 12) notes that a Cooper's hawk

sometimes stays over winter in southern Wisconsin and preys on game birds

at feeding stations. Wherever a Cooper's hawk is found near a feeding 
station a pole trap should be set. On certain years goshawks may be found

in the northern counties and along Lake Michigan. Where goshawks are 
known to be in the vicinity pole traps should be set up near the feeding

stations. The other hawks will not bother feeding stations during the 
winter and it is not advised at present to take precautions against them.

Foxes and coyotes will probably be seen by the game birds before any damage

can be done. In the case of the haarp-tailed grouse, several birds are 
always on the lookout for predators. 
WHERE AND WHEN TO ESTABLISH STATIONS, 
AND HOW TO ATTRACT BIRDS 
When and where to establish a feeding station depends on the type of 
station planned on. 
For Atanding corn, buckwheat patch, or standing corn-sweet clover 
systems, arrangements should be made in the spring before planting time.

Such stations should be established in localities that are likely to have

game birds within reach so that they will be sure to find them before 
-16-f 
 
 

					
				
				
winter. The corn shock or tepee shock type of station should be established

in cornfields where game birds are reported to be working. The stations 
should be established as soon as possible after it is known in which corn-

fields the game birds are working. This will prevent the game birds from

feeding on the other shocks and will bring about a better understanding be-

tween the farmer and sportsman. The hopper-leanto and ear corn feeding 
stations are established as soon as it is definitely known where the game

birds are feeding. Before establishing such a station it is a good idea 
to put out a small amount of feed in such places as hedgerows, swales, 
wooded hillsides, or weed patches and establish the station where the birds

come regularly to feed. Hopper-leanto stations for sharp-tailed grouse 
should be established at sharp-tail crowing grounds or in aspen and white

birch thickets where sharp-tails feed on buds. These thickets may be 
located by looking for tracks after the first snow. Feeding stations for

pheasants, Hungarian partridges and wild turkeys should be established at

the time of releasing the birds whenever these birds are being planted 
and in the succeeding years feeding should begin early enough to prevent

migration in search of food. 
If the above rules are followed in establishing feeding stations, 
it will not generally be necessary to use additional means to attract 
the birds. In the case of the sharp-tailed gourse there may be diffi- 
culty in getting the birds to feed at one place. In general sharp- 
tails do not recognize ear corne a food, but they may be easily trained 
to eat it by placing a few ears where they are known to feed on buds. As

soon as they begin feeding on ear corn, a permanent station may be located

at that place. A small patch of buckwheat, standing corn, millet or ragweed

-17- 
 
 

					
				
				
are excellent attractions f or game birds and should be used whenever pos-

sible to attract birds to such types of stations as the hopper-leanto and

tepee shock. Although the available food in patches of small grain is 
generally exhausted before winter really begins and cannot be classified

as efficient winter feeding stations, continued experiment will probably

prove them to be of great value when supplemented with the hopper-leanto,

or tepee shock. 
Feeding stations should be where they can be reached in any kind of 
weather, but should be far enough from roads to prevent disturbance by 
passing vehicles. 
Scattering of grain as an emergency measure without training the 
birds to come to a definite place to feed is not recommended, as most of
the 
grain would be wasted and it would be better to save the time and money 
until the next year and establish a permanent feeding station. If it is 
known exactly where a flock is located, emergency feeding would, of course,

be a good thing. 
-1S- 
 
 

					
				
				
hqmo    a of F ea Xaytattoas  1930-1 
Smakwhet                       49 patches 
corn                              patch* 
Whet ILIA Oats                  1 patch 
Qorm avA Millet                 1 patch 
wwbet, Gorn,, mod Millet      1 patch 
bakiheat, Mllet am4 $or*=      1 patch 
I .ntch 
bpatchs I     -oatle .o*t$56 
Oost Per P&Ate   13. 
Both sbarp-talle4 Vuss. mad prairi., ohidtua. fee  In the smll 
Woa patches until UDoembew 1. Sbawptails, feed in the patches w.M 
day, but prairie .hiom only one or Wte & 19*. 
lit the norther **aties teer ate as zm~k of the small gra as te 
In TflAW# OSaida, Poto    Mpg Wrmhoa, lost, IJammn    a* 
J&a*s, ounties Amee todobooat patche* e r* .moiad It wa      m 
that sarpwtallea gre ei *4 tm*vhftt in Otober &v4 Leeertod the 
potdwse In Nomber, while praliie *iloems fad only "oaeiaally is 
No~we and ftooeer. The *awp-tatled pmse eleamed up *1l of the 
bwkehheat before snowfall. 
 
 

					
				
				
Sbarp-tel# dsert the budniv-st patshes for two r     easonst 
L. the heakat to all eaten. 
2.  It to oovered with snow. 
Pnrii Chickas did not eat All of the grain tn the ba*kwent paths. 
Thy 4erte4 thes tood patch** In Porta e. "s AQo ostiss during :sans

Inept *.w other tood was milable. 
All flooks of prairie chickoens did not mt the sam Is Adam 
County 03t f lok ate twom a hopper, Nine other flocks rfused to oat fwm 
ppers and it was d4oed not to use hoppers for prairie     icke  t* in 
1932 iIlos  for o"re    nts,  In Portages  ouaty a buekikat patch ws

located next to a field of shodceI corn. O       6 out of a flock of 250
ate 
eaot. The entire flock igrot         in rFebrwwy in search of another 
ornf 1el,  In Vrusar  County a patch of standing oorn with good corn was

vitt only' ooasionally during the winter by a small flock. In ms 
Gouty a flok fdL on shocks insto" of on stmAi      corn In the sein
fie1i. 
The only fooelae statiton us"L refularly by prairie chickons us the

tepee shook stationa at Babodo Wood Qounty. It mas decided that tepee 
shocks would bo usae for foodIng praitie abickeh s   L 1931-2. The topee

shockt has sevra   6vaats. 
1. The cob corn is tie   on in strings o, the shock *ere it is 
aboe the snow. 
2. Prairie  hicos. wou.d rather *limb up on a shoo   than 
eAOV it. 
3. The tepe   shook a   be udo hollow ad a hopper place     uder it 
for qu.ail. 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
14. Te supply of oora *an be nevwe, vhlo I      ma ordnlaay shook 
the oea afvmlbl is soon e.tea. 
5, Fe      te    shocks are *eedo. A fiel of 160 ordnary  
shocks was d sert4 a Jaauamy I bso     the mra an the outsleo of the 
shook was all oaten. Your te poo shooks fed a flock of the ams Iso 
a4 smore cown was oate  in March than in Jnuar Sr YFebwUry as there 
was wow in March frox the Ist to the 21st. 
6. Tepee shoko "a be plaoe I ncorafields# clover f.o2*e. grain 
fields, or fl1lA. of lgWoed In mkLsh priril ohickes are foo4ig. 
7.  *oe If the stalks are short the tope   shock a be    4oe 6 or 
7 feet high. 
W)?3  or profewoi, stoplo   m,  omerge  foods of grouse 
see AU* Lopold's Oems Survey. 
The hopper with buckwheat was used ow foeeding sharp-taile4 grouse. 
Bckwheat ptches mre 4eserted in November eoept whers hoppers wets 
set up. One pound of graln per bir4 was sate per soath. Oob oore osa 
be fed on the grun     ne  the hopper or under the leato. Is 1929-9 
V*dmhet was staks at the food patches and the straw scttered omos 
or twice a week. In Jaawy sal Febrmfuary the sharp-tails deserted the 
stations, probably fto to thetm'eealar supply of toot. * a 1930-1 
the hoppers war visited eery doW and the xbew of birds     id not de- 
orese a"  at throe statios the mber increased during JnmaW and 
Feb-ra. $ha.rptlls learn to eat huske4 cob c rn and at least sns 
flok which ate oob corn iO 1930-1 was feeding o standing corn in the 
fall of 1931.Budles of buckwheat sprea out arsoud hopprs we ted 
on by sharp-lals and the beet combination It probably a buckwheat 
 
 

					
				
				
toA pova w bid O £t atU 00 #UUM AM*  e  to bf UmU 
Sest*temet f eOr afti A4 follows? 
3.Is 04Aig am  *mmsaytin     w   ~is 
3,AhWO sharp-til t#a regar42 .s ap  or whit* 'bilqk 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL QNER4L  OMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

CoMoMleskRs                                                            MATT.
PATTERSON 
HASKELL NOYES. MIIWAUKRE                                                
     DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
A=NIH CHAIRMAN                                                          
C. . ARINTO 
'"°"*""       T    E STATE OF WISCONSIN         
                C. .A,,O 
L. M, HOBBINS. MADISON  THE                                             
     SUPT. OFFOREST$ AND PARKS 
RALPH M. IMMELL. MADISON                                                
   B. 0. WEBSTER 
R. ,,. GOODMAN. MA,,,N.ET-r  CO SR      A   INC       M    ISO          
      u, . OF ,,,.,,,,, 
E.M DA                     CONSERVATION           COMMISSION            
   H. W. MAC KENZIE 
SECRETAR Y                                                              
  CHIRP WARDEN 
PAUL D. KELLETER                      WM. F. GRIMMER 
SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                   F. G. WILSON 
I                                                            CHIEF FIRE WARDEN

D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON                AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
Core  'I                       I    P4-( C4 
1.- ,c L                     1 0 
'a-   SOtyus&I 
T> 
-3*tJj4g~,h4.ss.~J~ai~&hh o~s rutpw 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSRVATION COMMISSION. MADISON

COMMISSIONERS 
MATT. PATTERSON 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
                DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
ACTING CHAIRMAN                                                         
          C L.ARRIGTON 
L.E M. HOBBINS. MADISON     T.SUPT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
RALPH M. IMMELL. MADISON                                                
             B. 0. WEBSTER 
8.GOMNMR~TECONSERVATION                         COMMISSION              
    H..o,,,,, 
R. B. GOODMAN. MARINETTE                                                
             H    . OF' M FISKEIES 
E. M. DAHLBERG. LADYSMITH     CO     S   R   A    I  N     O    M   S   I
 NH              WARKENZI 
SECRETARY                                                               
            CHIEF WARDEN 
PAUL D. KELLETER                           WM. F. GRIMMER 
SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                        F. 0. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                  AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M, L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
4_.. 
t   A       -         - 
L.ab L4(    4:.                             or*nt v 
 
 

					
				
				
3 
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATIE OONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS 
MATT. PATTERSON 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
                   DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
ACTING CHAIRMAN          T   HE    STATE                                
             C. L. HARRINGTON 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON       THE       STATE         OF      W   ISCONSIN
                  SUPT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
RALPH M. IMMELL. MADISON                                                
                B, 0. WEBSTER 
R. B. GOODMAN, MARINETTE       CONSERVATION                COMMISSION   
                  .UPT. Of FISHERIES 
E. M. DAHLBERG. LADYSMITH                                               
                H. W. MAC KENZIE 
SECRETARY                                                               
               CHIEF WARDEN 
PAUL D. KELLETER                             WM. F. GRIMMER 
SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                          F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
0. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON,                   AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
o~         4 
C(t 
LCa4      -LL . C" Al
	
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE OONSERVATION COMMISSION. MADISON

COMM ISIONERSt                                                          
          MATT, PATTERSON 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
                 DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
ACTING CHAIRMAN                                                         
           C.O L.HARNTON 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON      THE, STATE              OF     W    ISSIN   
                 S.  OFFOREST$ AND PARKS 
RALPH M. IMMELL. MADISON                                                
              B. 0. WEBSTER 
R. B. GOODMAN.MRNET           CONSERVATION              COMMISSION      
             H. S    o FISHERIES 
E. M. DAHLBERG. LADYSMITH                                               
                W. MAC KENZIE 
SECRETARY                                                               
             CHIEF WARDEN 
PAUL D. KELLETER                            WM. F. GRIMMER 
SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                        F. 0. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                  AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
*            . 
~~' __64,                                                   ~           
 6 
t,   A14-u/*;aC41,- 
ar"I46.l               I* ide&mowma 1..I 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE OONSERVATION COMMISSION. MADISON

COMMISSIONERS 
MATT. PATTERSON 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
                     DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
ACTING CHAIRMAN              x                                          
               CL.HRIGO 
.cT..c.,...          HE STATE OF WISCONSIN                              
        C.. L.,TN 
L. M. HOBBINS, MADISON                                                  
                     SUPT. OF FORESTI AND PARKS 
RALPH M. IMMELL. MADISON                                                
                   S. 0. WEBSTER 
R. B. GOODMAN. MARINETTE        CONSERVATION COMMISSION                 
                     W MAC KIENZIE 
E. M. DAHLBERG. LADYSMITH                                               
                   H   WAEN 
SECRETARY                                                               
                 CHIEF WARDER 
PAUL D. KELLETER                              WM. F. GRIMMER 
SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                           F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
sUT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                    AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN, RESEARCH BUREAU 
. . 
-t/&_- 
4-&~aCAe                             d 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE OONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS 
MATT. PATTERSON 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
                     DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
ACTING CHAIRMAN                                                         
               C. L. HARRINGTON 
L. M. HOBBINS, MADISON       TH     E   STATE          OF     W   ISCONSIN
                   SUPT. OFFORESTSAND PARKS 
RALPH M. IMMELL, MADISON                                                
                   B. 0. WEBSTER 
R. B. GOODMAN. MARINETTE        C    N   E    V    T  OOF FISHERUEO 
E. M. DAHLBERG. LADYSMITH       CRO                                    I
                   H. W. MAC KENZIE 
SECRETARY                                                               
                 CHIEF WARDEN 
PAUL D. KELLETER                              WM. F. GRIMMER 
SUPT. OF GA ME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                           F. 0. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                    AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
p                             Bil I,  - 
,-4.4                     L 6b~t                        ~~fdceA 
 
 

					
				
				
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              4)4)144 
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44)  4*4                                                                
                   4 
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TO: Mr. I(ipp 
Attao1~.4 hereto ~1.asO. tiuid a copy ~                           WIUt!Z'
~4                  44 
44)4) 
44 
Q    4                feo4iu~ i~aots by Sehm±dt relating to his wo~*
with                                                        44 444 
4.              p~Airie ehic~eu~ and sharp~t~43.e4 gro~.se in the       
                                                       44 
44444 
district. 
'N  4                                                                   
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4)4) 4                                                                  
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444444             44   44                                              
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A           4 44444                                                    4

 
 

					
				
				
Uta$ feed fro a ypoa s0    at it In eup 
S.   a-is do not          l    f         stationa,(Rej 
5,      p~e   .                            e 
eM ta *ww w 
eat tw tshoe  s up  to 8a( 
wheath u1l* 2 atches hie setc or por: 3 azl 
4, It ath of bucwheta* s nedt atrct als sa ope 
s -a atseat tr In ttmrospovme, o ot mu st&: 
tnd doo food. tm iukt h a bth wA FNoerte ri 
stpac Ust e.  a IMo has boo set ep* (So  IA,04 
If th *aoft i s~tacke o ~whoksit sha~tal andprar 
th. setis aeeig n t I oe . Th ranothousd 
Asit an nt aot  a to vist feeingstats ate ten thits 
stty ol 
t  t.                 it  a   dti 
sothei -.ck toe oeed bu tha in JauryadFerer 
fooBttin sansI twe ated. it asth ugt ek,  The birs o 
thetation an &*ea$ 34f not noiu rain ui es am th a 
rn 190 fod ha~rs r l  t&a is n   biek bost wimt up 
With ~ am staysupyoffo the sarptal ro ~t the staton 
fti e yr2 to Tanwrt the  n4tt  nosert v llit the 
Ocptober  a oNvm 4 t this staus e  m a *tal leaUto a 
1.   tairos ofthe stahtio withot biwh reunn eotoation, 
frm heatc fwebrh to thee  41 ein stti.Thap 
til fe Owe th onadtenx a byfudtsain 
Afe    tha the ver attesaio  ydy/Alo heegte 
 
 

					
				
				
alo. a grai evr 1t bwa -a            4y 
9. Alhtg *bs vii-wb~rowr a bydoIo a 
%ha R~toPus at cmi fltt  Pm         aM w 
no vst a ent 0u na own rId =e morUt 
shrptal hppntostwit S lo of  "falr oblm atw 
1wntwoAtsbiio Wbe  iM.bw iime we"] fot 
 
 

					
				
				
ZJ  EUIA2- L41  I- -S 
Pket.  oe  f Waieldswats~tm 
Iwwll    **o bed  anrumdse 
So TW d  no to  wih *azV*1A Lup.atI  M  loko 
SoItPa-b of wkbata" -lnt V- vii *4*11 df -h 
W~~ 8410.", VI U9&L&0 
Thr*rt Zbina ol f is oost Iaafildm4UuoftsW 
So. Tbw ft not foo ansadusa  fom  bosa"aa 
4*~~~~~ -h~ -aey" rmabe hti na)a-oo *at som oo 
in  Um-to  bo at fm-  bap tat sym  tai  0o 
t~e Tw tobSm$ 0ttowwMMw ManV  OA 
-m ftnio wsollw  yshwUtt  ~*.  euaya 
lo t-o a he  th La   t d 
Yo  -Viri  ciea m  pon th  asa  so don 
So ley       *1S 1# -h ea  anV    Iad o  b  hos aez  o 
G~~tft*U~s yaw we"  -ee  4 aviblA"tea"ntiIav 
 
 

					
				
				
In ~ ~ 2 arm  wboalo  h  Ais put In th: sil* fara 
mihtas* o  aie  A%*  x  amtono wksa b. 
to- J*W  u  v  itoo Tefrm  bwd  opi  it 
cent  a  sho8*ths.fth  cusals  n*tAh1th 
 
 

					
				
				
t 6 
Z4 
ez 
Of 
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ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
             MATT PATTE IN 
WILLIAM"°       ATATE OF WISCONSIN                             
                             DEY H     °ION 
FOND DU LAC                                                             
                 SUPT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                  B.0. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. oRESA               CONSERVATION                COMMISSION SUPT.
O FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES, MILWAUKEE                                                
                  H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HODDINS. MADISON                                                  
                     CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                    PAUL D. KELLETER           
                  WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
                 SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                           F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
.D. H. KIPP 
ISUPT. OP EDUCATION 
MADISN                )3mIj       ATIONS 
7.7. 
/LL 
7-v~ 
I---                                    a' ; 4~~K 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL OOMMUNICATIONS TO S Att CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
              MATT. PATTERSON 
UTHE STATE OF WISCONSIN                                        D        
 °DIRECTOR 
WILLIAM MAUTHE, CHAIRMAN                                                
                  C.L. HARRINGTON 
FOND DU LAC               TH        %gjL    T        F    W    S    O   
 S   NSUPT. OF FORE[STS AND PARKE 
0. C. LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                  B.O . WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN AY           CONSERVATION                COMMISSION   
                    SUPT. OF FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
                  H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                                                  
                     CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                    PAUL D. KELLETER           
                  WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
                 SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                           F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON,                    AND PUBLICATIONS 
3                               - 
C7                                              /3 
VA 
-~Lt~r3p                                                5 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDmess ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
               MATT. PATTERSON 
WILLIAM MAUTHE, CHAIRMAN                                                
                   C. L. HARRINGTON 
FOND DU LAC                                                             
                  SUPT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE, WAUSAU                                                     
                   B. 0. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GRENS                CONSERVATION                COMMISSION 
                      SUPT. O' FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
                   H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS, MADISON                                                  
                      CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                     PAUL D. KELLETER          
                   WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
                  SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                           F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON,                    AND PUBLICATIONS 
/C?-C                  -Z7/ .       3--  --,  * 
 
 

					
				
				
MEORNDU1M 
October 21, 1930 
TO,:        Mr. D. H. Kipp 
SUJECT:     1930-31 winter feeding program. 
Due to the extreme drouth of the past summer and fall, 
emergency winter feeding measureswill be necessary in many parts 
of the state. Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the fact that 
this year the usual crop of wild fruits, berries, nuts and seeds 
were practically a total failure on the lighter soils. I believe 
that generally throughout the state the second crop of weeds, 
clover, alfalfa, etc. due to the drouth is very short and there 
will be a decided decrease in the usual number of clover and weed 
seeds. I understand from the recent article in the Milwauk 
Journal that the Wisconsin corn crop is estimated to be 20% 
below normal. This means .that the usual amount of corn that is 
left in the fields and on which our game birds feed to some extent 
will be removed from these fields probably six weeks to two months 
earlier next spring than it was last spring, inasmuch as according 
to reports the farmers had to start feeding that much earlier this 
fall. In addition to all this, a heavy frost in July in some of 
the low areas in the central part of the state, ruined to a 
great extent the buckwheat crop and seriously damaged the food 
beartng shrub crop to a great extent. 
It is of course always advisable to begin winter feeding 
operations as early as possible so that the game birds will accus- 
tom themselves to the feeding stations before the real winter 
weather begins. 
It seems t> be an established fact that the crucial period 
of the winter is from January 1 to March 1. We of course both 
realize that emergency measures should be taken during the severe 
blizzards and, sleet storms. 
All feeding stations should of course be placed as con- 
veniently as possible with respect to accessibility. They should 
be established and maintained whenever there is any doubt about 
their being plenty of available food. The stations should be 
placed in protected areas and in the majority of places temporary 
shelters should be built. It is well to remember too that feeding 
stations are natural gathering places for predators, and in es- 
tablishing these stations they should be placed at such distances 
from dense thickets and woods so that they are at least several 
yards from the hiding places of any prddators.      - 
Probably the best method of winter feeding is the placing 
-of shocked corn. These can be opened as they are needed. Shocks 
of buckwheat or other grains are likewise most valuable and an 
be tied or wired to trees or posts high-enough from the ground 
so that in case of dense snows the feed will be available to the 
birds..  ar corn placed on spikes on logs or rails or on branches 
of trep'±#ea excellent method of feeding. Threshed grains ar 
 
 

					
				
				
Mr aipp                            wt-aOctober 21, 1950 
valuable when the area is not windswept. It should be 
remembered that in addition to the grains .it is advisable, 
to throw out a considerable bit of grit and oyster shell, 
I believe that every sportman should take particular 
interest this year in interesting himself in-bird feeding 
work. In the event of a bad winter with heavy snows there 
is no doubt that Wisconsin's game birds and animals face the 
most cru6ial year that has yet been experienced in Wisconsin, 
as far as food is concerned, for many years. 
WFG:E                            MF.G       er 
 
 

					
				
				
"FEE  BIRDSI" IS PLEA 
Unless a concerted and extensive feeding 
program is carried on during the coming winter, hunters 
may face a real shortage of pheasants next spring, 
according to Dr. Yiles D. Pirnie, state ornithologist 
who today made a plea for the birds by urging all 
I 
s-ortsm.en-farmers, and other individuals and organizations 
to i..ake pans for winter feeding of pheasants and quail. 
The drought of the past season with its grass fires 
that burned over much bird cover; poor crops that resulted 
in almost barren fields; and over-grazing of pastures and 
swamp lands have oor.bined to threaten the ground-feeding 
birds with starvation the co-in   ri'te_-. 
The best way of feeding  easents, prairie chicken 
and quail, )r. Pirne said, is t, leave stanaing corn and 
other gran    ntefeds         h      si no      esb, 
yfariowa zr~etfid are explained in a 'bulletin 
iitiobh has been prepared on winter feeding stations and 
foods for ground feeding birds. This booklet is sent 
free on request Lade to the Department of Conservation, 
Lansing. The booklet is illustrated with pictures of 
see of the- various hinds of feeding stations and the 
text discusses what foods are the best and how the stations 
may be maintained in the cheapest and most effective manner4 
Seven fatal accidents have occurred in Iichigan 
since the fall hunting season opened September 16. A 
loaded {un is always a prospective source of injury or 
death. 
 
 

					
				
				
				
				
Feeding of Sharp-Tailed Grouse and 
Prairie Chickens in Central Wisconsin 
(January 1: Did not snow over 2 inches in Babcock) 
Babcock: Most of the grouse in the burned over area west of Babcock 
are sharp-tailed grouse. All of the following stations are in the burned
area: 
No. 1. Five miles west of Babcock. Hopper with buckwheat. Filled Novemtler

28 with 100 pounds of budvwheot. On January 7th, 75 pounds had been eaten.

Sixty-five sharp-tails feed here every day. Thirty rods south of this station

there is an elevated portion of the prairie about one acre in extent on which

the sharp-tails dance every morning from 7.30 to 8:30 before coming in to
feed 
at the hopper. 
In dancing the sharp-tails chase each other back and forth across the 
dance ground. In running the tail is straight up in the air, the wings 
are spread, and the neck feathers are extended. Very often after running
a 
short distance the two birds will stop and face each other 
(gurgle-goggle-goggle) =in English: 
jJust try and 
take a peck 
at me. 
After running a short distance the birds may fly across the dance 
ground and then run back so that while some pairs are facing each other,

others will be running or flying. Every few minutes an old rooster will 
stop and vibrate his foot on the ground to make a loud buzzing noise re-

sembling the vibration of a bull snake's tail on dry leaves. While some are

saying gurgle-gurgle-goggle-goggle-ga-dargle, others say Ka-Ka&Xa-Kaee-a-

a-ka-ka-ee-ee which sounds something like the song of a domestic chicken

 
 

					
				
				
No. 2. Hopper installed January 7th. Twenty sharp-tails feed here 
every day. Two miles west of Babcock. 
No. 3. Four miles west of Babcock. torty sharp-tails feed here every 
day. Most of the pictures of birds feeding are at this station.   One old

rooster takes great delight in chasing the others away from the hopper, but

as soon as he chases them away others come in to feed and after an hour or
so 
he gets tired of running. After leaving the station due to being alarmed

they hide in the brush for 30 or 40 minutes and then come in to a ditch 
bank about 20 rods away and Jump up in the air to flap their wings. If 
nothing appears they decide everything is O.K. and sail across the meadow

to the feeding station. 
No. 4. Five miles northwest of Babcock. Hopper with buckwheat. Fourteen 
sharp-tails feed here every day. Twenty-five pounds of buckwheat eaten 
November 2S-January 7. 
No. 5. one half mile north of Babcock. Leanto and 5 hollow corn shocks 
open on south. Forty-five prairie chickens and one quail feed here daily
on 
cob corn. Prairie chicken pictures will be taken at this station in February.

No. 6. Seven miles southwest of Babcock. One hundred and twenty sharp- 
tails and one prairie chicken feed here daily. Hopper and buckwheat shocks.

No. 7. Nine miles southwest of Babcock. Hopper and buckwheat straw. 
Twenty-six sharp-tails were seen here January 24. 
Unburned Area 
No. 8. Six miles southeast of Babcock. Hopper only. Fourteen sharp- 
tails fed here on November 29 and by January 7th the number had increased
to 40, 
No. 9 Four miles south of Babcock. Hopper and corn shocks. 
Sharp-tails fed on birch buds within 30 rods of the station all through 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
December and January, but did not find the station. On January 17 corn was
strung 
from this birch thicket to the feeding station and the sharp-tails followed
the 
corn to the station. Since then they have been at the station every day.

At the feeding stations listed above the sharp-tails have eaten less 
than one pound each per month of grain. They eat in addition to grain a 
large amount of buds most of which are white birch although they are sometimes

seen feeding on poplar. 
Plainfield: The prairie chickens feed on weed seeds, principally ragweed

and unlike the sharp-tails they are rarely hungry enough to visit a feeding

station due to the fact that the weed seeds have not been covered with snow

this winter. 
At only one station are they hungry enough to eat buckwheat from a hopper.

This is at No. 15. Twelve miles west of Plainfield. A flock of 17 prairie

chickens feeds here every day. 
No. 10. Four miles N.J. of Hancock. Twelve prairie chickens feed here. 
There is a field of standing corn, a hopper, a pile of buckwheat bundles,
and 
cob corn under a lean-to at this station. In November these birds fed on
the 
corn in the field, but on January 27 their tracks showed that they had been

scratching in the buckwheat bundles and not eating the other feed. 
No. 12. Ten miles N.W. of Hancock. Buckwheat field and lean-to with 
hopper and cob corn. About 30 prairie chickens feed here every day on cob
corn. 
No. i. Five miles west of Plainfield. Buckwheat field, leanto with 
hopper and cob corn, hollow corn shocks with cob corn and buckwheat shocks.

Twenty-four prairie chickens feed here and eat cob corn and buckwheat from
the 
shocks. 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
Fedaai of Sharp- ailed Grouse and 
Pratrie Qakies is Otml Wisconsin 
(January 16: #Dd not snow ove   2     inches & abcock) 
Daboocki Most of the grouse In the burned over area west of bbook 
a   sharp-tal ed grouse. All of the following stations are In the bursed
areat 
No. 1. 7iwv miles *st o   hbook. Hopper with bmakwheat.      uled Jovoulwr

26 with 100 Pds of                OnI Jauary 7th, 75 pounds had beem owt.,

Sly-ftive sharp-tills fee   her. evsr  AW, Thirty rods south of this station

there Is ma elevated portion of the pr=irie about  e a re in eztent a   
h 
the uharp-tails daaoe evey worming from 7.30 to S30 before oming In to food

at the hopper. 
In daming the sharp-talle ahbas eaa other back ad forth amros     o 
danc groua. In runnal the tail t straight up in the air, the wimp 
ms spread, ad the ae* feathers ar     extended. Very oftea after rminag a

short d4istaoe the two birds will stop and face each other 
(gSugl.*e-go~e-goggl*) ine bgltoh: 
Just try mmd 
take a peak 
at a. 
After running a short distance the bIrds wa fly across the    ance 
ground and then run back so that %hilo some pairs ae fntng ea h other. 
others will be running or flying. Iery few minutes an old rooster will 
stop sad vibrato his foot on the ground to make a loud buseing notise r 
sombling the vibration of a bull snak's tail on dry leaves. While som we

saying gugle-gurgsgo~legole-S.4argle, others saytk =Ki~ 
aa -a -.cces vhlh sesuds something like the song of a doestic chicken 
 
 

					
				
				
No. 2. Ropper installed January 7th. Twnty *sap-tls fe beps 
AVW7 d&ay. ?o miles wOft of b&boook, 
No- 3, Toar miles vest of Bboock. torty ohrp-ails fet her evo 
day. Most of the pictures of birds feeding Ae at this station. One o2 
roster takes pat delight in ahsi    g the others  ~  from the hopper, %M

as soon a he obaeo them awe others ome, in to feed and after an hour or m

he gets tired of mminisg, Ater leaving the sllation el  to being alavs..

they bide is the brah tor 30 or 40 minutes and them oene in to a ltah 
beak about 20 reds aw and jup up in the air to Vap their wings. If 
nothing appoan they deolde eerything is 0.. sal sall across the meadow 
to the feeding station. 
No. 4. Yle mile northwest of Babcock. Hopper with buckwheat. ?ourteen 
ehrp-tails feed here every day. Twenty-five pounds of cackwheat eaten November

Novmber 21Janurr 7. 
We. . One half mile north of Babcok. Lsato and 5 hollow em sheaks 
00en   south.   erty-five pririe ohlese and one .wdl feed her daily an 
cob corn. Prairie ohidkes pictures will be takes at this station Is le bry.

Wq, 6. Seven miles southwest of baboo*k. One hundred and twenty sharp- 
il. asA *ne prairie chioken tee here daily. Hopper and beawheat ehoee. 
So. 7. Nine miles southwest of habcok. Ropper and buokioet straw. 
/Twenty-six .harp-tails were sees her Ja    y 24. 
/ 
, 6. Six siles southeast of book. Hopper only. F ourtem           , t p-

tails fed here n Nov mber 26 and by Januar 7th the aber had lsreased to 40.

No. 9 Four mles south of Bbok. Ropper and on *hooks. 
f arp-talls fed on birc bad* within 30 reds of the station all throuA 
-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
De6eber and January, but did not find the station. On Jamsi'Y 17 cors m strung

fre this birch thicket to the feeding station and the sharp-tails followed
the 
corn to the station. Since then they have been at the station eveo7 dW. 
At the feeding stations listed above the sharptails have eates less 
than  ne pound each pew mocth of grain. They oat in adition to pain a 
large mount of buds mot of which are white birch although they awe soNetimes

sen feeding an poplar. 
PlaIntids The prairio ohickens feed on wood sees, principally raweed 
ad unlike the sharp-tails they are rarely hungry eangh to visit a feeding

station due to the fact that the wood seeds hae not bees covered with snow

this winter. 
At only we station ane they hungy eno      to eat buckweot from a hopper.

this isat No. 15. Twelve miles wost of Plainfield. A flock of 17 prairie

shiok"s foods her every day. 
No. 10. You mil s X.2. of Hancock. Twelve prairie chiokens feed here. 
There is a field of standing carn, a hopper, a pile of buckwheat bundles,
sad 
cob corn under a loan-to at this station. In November these birds fed on
the 
corn in the field, but on Janary 27 their traks showed that they had bo 
scratching Ia the buckwheat bundles and not eating the other feed. 
No. 12. Ten miles N.V. of Hancock. ckybeat field and lew-to with 
hopper and cob corn. About, 30 prairie ohickee fed here, every dW on sob
am. 
No. 14. Five miles vest of Plainfield. Bukwheat field, leato with 
hopper and cob com, hollow corn shocks with cob ao* and buckwhoat shocks.

twnty-four prairie chiokeas feed here s eat cob corn and budwhat from the

shocks. 
-3- 
 
 

					
				
				
Feeding of Sharp-Tailed arouse and 
Prairie Chickens in Central Wisconsin 
(January 18: !Did not snow over 2 inches in Babcock) 
Babcock: Most of the grouse in the burned over area west of Babcock are 
sharp-talle4 grous. All of the foloing statios a          thI ar   ar"I

NO. 1. Five mles west of Bock. Ropper with tmuk*ast. Filled Nvewmbeg 
28 with 100 pounds oef ba**,hsto Oa Januaw1 7th 75 Pouds had bees eatem.
  fSitr 
ft"   sbrp-4ails feed here *es* dar. thirty reds south of this station
there 
is a  4ewat.4 portion of the Prairie about one acre in extent on *ieh the
shat- 
tails Amo ever morain from 7TO to 6:30 before omig In te ted at the 
hopperO 
Xa damnia the sharp-tails chase eh ether bat and forth aares the aszo 
grond. In running the tall is straigt up in the air, the wings are eprted,
ad 
the neck feathers ae extendod. Very often after rnning a short distance the

two birds will stop an& taosesah other 
Oust tr "A 
take a pck 
at us. 
After ranxift a short distanse the birds m fly aoes the demosg oud and 
thm run bask so that while soe pairs awe facing eah other, others will be
running 
or fling, Nr*W   few ibmtes oa old" eester will stop and vibrate his
foot on 
the grwAd to make a lout Isaimi noise resembling the vibration of a bull
sik's 
tail ex dry leaves. Iilo some Ae saing gurgle-,gurgl 
ethers se          .hi                          sounds something like the
sang 
Of a destic ahieoks 
 
 

					
				
				
Hp. 2. !el       tast4led JAuar 7th. Tw=tY ehSrP tails fee here eve*3 4.

Twe miles Most of UUO*. 
No. 3   Fouw miles wet of B    eao*. Forty sharp-talls food her evey das.

lost ef the lotures of birds fooding at. at this station. One od roaster
takes 
geat delight Is e"asi    the othrs &W from the hoMwr, bat as see
    as he 
bases thow  ~   others eowe in to fee and after an hor or oe he "to
tired at 
rumal, After lea.ing the station due to being alarmed they hide in the brumh

for 30 or 40 minies and then cose in to a  itch bank about 20 rods awy aA

Jump up in the air to fILp their wip. If nothing appoas they dcie everything

is O.K. aad sail across the me sdw to the feeaing station. 
No, 4. Five mlls northwe of Babock        Happer with bu*oat, Foute 
shntp-talle food he" w. ever Ley.vty-f iv* pouxi* of bwftb*sst eaten
November 
No., 5, One half mile north of Babock    Lean-to en  5 hollow corn *o* 
open on eemt. Fortyfive pwairie chickens A     me quail feed here dolly oS

0ob crn, Priae ohidka pictures will be taken at this station In Pebruary.

W.. 6.   evean miles eothwest $I heoek. One hundred aM twentr shp 
tails op  ene pn.rare chied    f1eed here daily. Raper aM bt shk. 
No. 7. Nine miles southwest of B       . H     r a              tw. 
Ywoty-elz sharp-tails we seeon here Jamiwy 24. 
Urood AN"a 
No. 5. Six miles evtheast ot bcock. Roppew omly.      oLrtson sharp- 
tail* fe here on Nevember 28 and by JanWy T the wbe had inareg e to 40. 
No# 9, Tow nil. seth of   aboc. Hopper ad orn shooks. 
Sharp-tails fed on ULreh -vs within 30 rods of the station all throgh tembe

-2- 
 
 

					
				
				
a" J   q, bizt aid met find the 0t1tio4, 0o aamuOWr 11073 r    e tiag
ftem 
this bic thicet to the feeding tatioa Ai te eap-tails feleo1w      the eeoa
to 
the   te. Since thea    eW have   eM at the statieo eve 7 d. 
At the feeaing statioms listed abve the sharp-tails hae ..te  lees thea 
pound each eW somth of  ain. They eat in addition to gain a lawe        
ueat 
of buds most of which Ar wite br rc tathon& the am     sometimee soon
feedig on 
Plaiafieldt the praiLe oht*.s fted on weed seeds, priuipAlly vnwLed 
and unlik  the swptails they awemroy hung s     eough to vsit a feeding 
etation die to the fat that the wee soes have not boe ooVera& with new
this 
winter. 
At ely om. statiem Awe they humM osmo   to oat badkukst twom A ho   r. 
This 1 at N.. 15.  Welve miles west of Plaixa ieU. A fleek of 17 prwiite
chikea 
feeds hew evewy dw, 
No. 10. Tow miles X#X. of Has o.   . Twelve prairie, ohteas feed hore. 
There ioa f tld  f stastig eorn, a hopp, a pile of bua*'bee  bisileo, and

cob eorn me    a 1Asm4.te at this station.  I November these biwds fed  the

own in the fi    t bu&t e neajmr 27 their truc   showed that they had
beem 
sItelgs the bo1*         t bumle and n t eati g the ohe   feed. 
)1. 12,   " siloes LeW. of Isumee.    uk eat fied and Ie"uto with

topper aM   ob co e. Atmt 30 prairie h          feed here every "y an
esb orn. 
No. 14. lives        west of Plaist 1.e, Sekwhoat fl o, lemeto with 
hspper ea ob eon, hollew econ shocks with ob ecn and bi weat eh*. 
?Iont74* prairie ohaems fee her* a     eat eob con ead bIht from the 
shocks. 
 
 

					
				
				
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ADDRESS ALL aENERAL OOMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
            MATT. PATTERSON 
DEPUTY DIRECTOR 
PODDULCTHE STATEJ                            OFW         S.NI           
         L. HAo,.NGTo. 
WILLIAM MAUTHE, CHAIRMAN                                                
                 C. L. H ARRINGTON 
FOND DU LAC              TH           T    T         F   W     S   O    
S   NSUPT. OF FORIESTS AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                 B.   O   WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GREEN SAY                                                   
                 UT.  . O ISERIES 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE       CONSERVATION                COMMISSION   
                 H. W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS. MADISON                                                  
                   CHIIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                    PAUL D. KELLETER           
                 WM F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
               SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                          F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D H KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADISON.                    AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CHAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
-i/ -; /o 
-3 S". 
6         -0, 
- -,  _.                , 
 
 

					
				
				
wi 
 
 

					
				
				
PERLM NT FEDING STATIONS 
Adams County                                   Rea. by John D. Worden 
Name of person   Address   Location of Station     Size     Grains      Cost

Willard Pratt    Plainfield NW* of NW  of Sec.14, 1A.       Buckwheat   $10

T.20, R.7E. 
William Sparks   Plainfield SE  of NW* of Sec.12, 1A.       Buckwheat   
10 
T,20, R.7E. 
Louden Applebee Plainfield SE of NE of Sec.23,     1A.      Buckwheat   
10 
T.20, R.7E. 
Ole Pierson      Plainfield SE of SW of Sec.?,     1A.      Buckwheat   
10 
T.20, R.VE. 
Pat McDonnell    Hancock    SE of SW of Sec.15,    1A.      Corn        
15 
T.19, R.VE. 
R        County                                Rec. by A. W. Powell 
Win. Shuga       Bayfield SE of SE of Sec. 2,      1A.      Buckwheat   
 6.50 
T.51, R.SW. 
Reb Max Ha2l 
Weir Bros.                 Sec. 10, T.47, R.9W.    1A.      Buckwheat   
25. 
Melvin Larson              Sec. 19, T.49, R.8W.    2/3 A.   Wheat 
1/5 A.  Oats         25. 
Green Lake County                              Rec. by D. 0. Trainor 
Walter Bartol    Green Lake Sec. 14, T.16N, R.12E. 1A.      Buckwheat   
15. 
& Sec. 8, T.16N, R.12E. 1A.        Buckwheat    15. 
Iron County                                    Ree, by I. C. Rheaume 
Robert Kemke     Mercer    NWj of NWj of Sec.8,    1/2A.    Buckwheat   
 7. 
T.43, R.4E. 
W. E. Brandt     Mercer                                     Buckwheat   
 6. 
Jackson County                                 Rec. by B. P..  nin 
John Strozewski Black R. SW* of SE* of-Sec.6,      2A.      Buckwheat   
10. 
Falls    T.21, R.lW. 
Juneau CbuntY                                   e   .P. L. Button 
Dan Myers        New Lisbon Sec.19, Lemonweir Ts. 1A.       Buckwheat   
20. 
Route #4 
Erving Nichols   New Lisbon Sec.14, Lisbon To.     1A.      Buckwheat   
15. 
Route #4 
William Lau      New Lisbon Sec.12, Lisbon Ts.     1A.      Buckwheat   
15. 
Route #4 
John Loeacher    Necedah   Sec. 16, Germantown Ta. 1A.      Buckwheat   
15. 
Route #1 
Frank Pokorney   Mauston   Sec. 17, Marion To.     1A.      Buckwheat   
 15. 
Route #5 
Gene Senogles    Mauston   Sec. 22, Lemonweir Ts.  IA.      Buckwheat   
15. 
Route #4 
 
 

					
				
				
Juneau County (cont. 
Name of person   Address    Location of Station      Size   Grains      Cost

Edwin Kuska      New Lisbon Sec. 35, Germantomn Ts. IA.     Buckwheat   $15.

Lfayetle Coury                              Rec. by A. W. H 
H. Schreiter     Darlington T.2, R.E.                      Buckwheat 
Lineo  County                              Rec     J. B. D osnot 
Andrew Tresness Bradley     Sec.28, Lot 2, T.36,     1A.    Buckwheat   $15.

R.6E.                           Corn ,millet 
Marathon Count                             Rec. by Rothschild 
Rod and Gun Club 
Laut Brothers    Rothschild 1/2 mile east of         UA.    Corn        $15.

Rothschild 
Ben Jensen       Rothschild 5 miles south and 5 
miles east of Rothschild lA.   Corn (*A)    20. 
Buckwheat 
(UA.) 
Joseph Pflieger Rothschild 1 mile s. of Rothschild                      
10. 
H. T. Marsequ    Rothschild 2 miles south & 2 miles IA.     Buckwheat
   15. 
east of Rothschild 
August Brews     Rothschild 3 miles south and 2 mileslA.    Buckwheat   
10. 
west of Rothschild 
Rec. by L. M. Perry 
J. Ws Foster     Glandon    NN NE of Sec.9, T.30,    IA. 
R 9E. 
Mike Unertl      Miladore   El A. of NW NW of Seo.36,* A. 
T026, R.5E. 
Marquette                                   Re, by Do 0. Trainor 
Win. Klettke     Montello   Sec. 20, T.16N., R.1IE.         Buckwheat   
15. 
Route #2 
John Wagner      Montello   See.18, T15N., R.I1E.          Buckwheat    15.

Oneida Co umt                              Rec. by    B. Fosnot 
Otto Xaminski    Tomahawk   Lot 2, Sec.28, T.36,     IA.    Buckwheat   
15. 
R, GE.                          cornmillet, 
million $ 
grass 
Rierce County                               Rec, by Do L. Hurd, 
Izaak Waltons. 
0. P. Simner     River Falls Sec.3, T.27, R.18W.     IA.    Corn        $15.

Route #1 
 
 

					
				
				
"3- 
Pierce County (cont.) 
Name of verson   Address    Location of Station     Size   Grains     Cost

Arthur Dodge     RiverFalls See.10, To27, R.18W.    1A.    Corn       $15.

Route #1 
Portage CountY                                  Rec. by J.D.Worden 
Tom Leavitt      Plainfield NE of SW of Sec.34,     1A.    Corn       $15.

T.21, R.E. 
John Sherman     Bancroft  Lot 1, Sec.5, T.21,      1A.    Buckwheat   10.

R.8E. 
Ben Malntee      Bancroft  NE of NE of Seeog,      .1A.    Buckwheat   10.

T.21, R.8E 
Harry Hansen-    Bancroft   Lot 8j of NW fractional 1A.    Buckwheat   10.

* of See.Z0, T.21, 
R.SE. 
St. Croix County                  *             Roe. by R. L. Hurd, 
Izaak Walton League 
Frank Weishar   RiverFalls Sec,28, T#28, 2.19W.    1A.    Corn       $15.

Route #4 
L. P. Sherman    River Falls Sec.ll,T.28, R.18W.    2A.    Corn        30.

Route #3 
Sheboygan Count                                 Rec, by J. H. Ediok 
Walter Graham    Sheboygan Black River Refuge       1A.    1/5 Millet $11.45

1/3 Sorghum 
1/3 Buck. 
Waushara County                                 Rec. by J. D. Worden 
Jeff Ashley      Hancock   NE of SW of Sec.36,      IA.    Corn       $15.

T.20, R.8E.' 
Wood Couty                                      Rec. by E. Van Wormer 
E. Van Wormer    Babcock    Se0.32, T. of Port 
Edwards 
Sec,31, T. of Port 
Edwards 
See.9, T. of Remington    All of Stations planted 
All planted by Van       Sec13,T. of Remington    to sorghum, sunflower 
Wormer       Sec.14,T. of Remington    and buckwheat 
Sec.15,T. of Remington 
Sec.16,T. of Remington 
Sec. 8,T. of Remington 
Sec18,T* of Remington 
Seo.4 ,T. of Remington 
Sec. 59T. of Remington 
Sec.24,T. of Remington 
Sec. 2,T. of Remington 
 
 

					
				
				
Wood County (cont.) 
lame of person   Address    Location of Station     Size   Grains     Cost

Sec.25, T. of Remington 
Sec.31, T. of Dexter, 
(2 stations in sec.31) 
Sec. 8, T. of Cranmoor 
/3 _/ 
3o 
3 0 
,0 
(S 
3o 
4 o 
 
 

					
				
				
Person or     File     Grains 
CoXVty        0rg.       Index   V Suggested  Cost      Location 
Sheboygan   J. Edick     1 E. ;    Millett     $15      NW of SEC. 14, 
(Sheboygan)  Apr.29,30 Kaffir,corn,         T. 14, R. 23 E. 
Sorghum 
Vilas       F. Long      5 L       Buckwheat,   15      Sec. 36, T. 41, 
(Sayner)     Apr.24,30 Barley               R. 7E. 
I.C.Rheaume  1 R.      Buckwheat     See Iron Co. for cost 
Apr.23,30                      NW- of See. 35, 
T. 44, R. 5 E. 
Waushara    J. Worden    1 W.      Buckwheat    60      Six stations 
(Plainfield) Apr.22,30 
Wood        W. A. Cole   1 C.      Buckwheat   200      Sec. 1, T. 21, R.
2E. 
(Wis.Rapids) Apr.23,30 Clover               Sec.32, T. 22, R. 3E. 
Sec.15, T. 21, R. 2E. 
Sec. 9, T. 21, R. 39. 
Sec.29, T. 22, R. 5E. 
Sec.34, T. 21, R. 4E. 
ZSec. 6, T. 20, FL 4E. 
Juneau Co. 
Winnebago   I.W.L.   7                          75      Wof SEJ of T. 18,

(Oshkosh) ,                                 R.16 E.,Winnebago Co 
SE* of Sec. 18,T 18 N 
R.16 ' .,Winnebago Co. 
NJ of NW. of SS of 
See.12, T.18 N.,R.14E 
Winnebago County 
E.J. Derber farm 
Waushara County 
S* of NW, of Sec. 3 
and adjoining landsdn 
See. 25 and 36, Town 
of Plainfield, 
Waushara County 
Vilas      P.C.Christensen                      30 
(Trout Lake) 
Waupaca     F, D. Randall 1 R  r    Corn        10      A. Anderson farm,

May 26,1930  '                         town of Lind, 3 mi. 
(Waupaca)                                   S. of Waupaca 
 
 

					
				
				
, :                   PERMANENT FEEDING gTATIONS 
,  Person or  File         Grains 
County       Org.       Index       Suggested    Cost       Locati on 
Ashland    John Long   1 L          Loose 
(Mellen)    Apr. 22,30   grains        $15 
Burnett    B. Devine   1 D          Buckwheat     50     S.22, T.38,R.14
W. 
(Webster)   Apr. 22,30   corn                 S.16, T.3$,R.16 W. 
S.36, T.38,R.20 W. 
S.12, T.39,R.14 W. 
Door       H. Rowe     1 R.                       15 
(Sturgeon B) Apr. 23,30  (Does not believe stations necessary) 
Douglas    H. Percy    5 P.      S? 
(Brule)     Apr. 21,30                 20     S. 6, T.45,R.IO W. 
Eau Claire E. Apel     1 A.         Corn          15 
(E.Claire)  May 3,1930 
Green      D. Trainor  1 T.                       25 
Lake      (Princeton) Apr.23,30 
Iron       I.C.Rheaume 1 R.         Buckwheat     25     1/2 acre in NWj

(Mercer)    Apr. 23,30                        of NW. of Sec. 8, 
T. 43, R. 4 1. 
Jackson    B.P.Lanning 1 L.         Buckwheat     25     SWt of SE "
of 
(B.R. Falls) Apr.24,30   corn                 Sec. 6,T. 21,R.1 W. 
Juneau     See W. A. Cole in Wood county description 
Lindoln    J. Fosnot   1 F.         Buckwheat     30 
(Tomahawk)  Apr. 21,30   corn, millet, 
heavy grass 
Marathon   L. Perry    1 P.         Buckwheat     20 
(Wausau)    Apr. 23,30 
Monroe     E.Hilliker  5 H.         Buckwheat     15     Sec. 20 & 2$,

Apr. 18,30   corn                 T. 18 N.,R. 2 W. 
Pierce     R. L. Hurd  80           Corn         100     See. 10 & ll,)

(River Falls)Apr. 23,30                       T. 28,R.18 W.) St. 
Sec. 27 & 28,)Croix 
T. 28,R.1$ W.) 
Sec.10, T.27,R.18 W. 
Sec.l0 & 3, T.27, 
R.18 W. 
Portage    F.Hornberg  1 H.         Corn          75     1 acre corn in 
(Stevens Pt.)Apr.30, 30                       R. 8 M., T. 24N. 
Town of Hull 
Price      H. Weaver   6            Wheat, Oats,  15     SEx, of SW+, Sec.17,

(Phillips)  May 2, 30    Barley               T. 38N., R. 2 W. 
Richland   H. Durst    80                         16 
(Twin Bluffs)Apr. 30,30 ? 
 
 

					
				
				
P         FEDING STATIONS 
Aams County                                    Reo, by John D. Worden 
5 A                        Locatlon o Station                  a        
cost 
Willard Pratt    Plainfield NW1 of NW4 of Seo.14, 1A.       Buckwheat   $10

T,20, BR.7. 
William Sparks   Plainfield SE1 of NWj of Sec,12,   A.     Buckwheat    10

T.200 R.71, 
Louden Applebee Plainfield SE of NE of Seo,23,      A.      Buckwheat   
 10 
T.20 R.73. 
Ole Pierson      Plainfield S  of SW of Sec,7,     IA,      Buckwheat   
 10 
T.209 R.7E. 
Pat Mcoe         Hancock    SE of SW of Se0c13#    IA,       Corn       
 15 
T.19, R.E. 
Bayfild.CuntZRoek bA W. Powell 
Wm. Shuga        Bayfield SE of SE of   eo. 2,     A.     Buckwheat     
6.50 
T.511 RSW. 
Boe. by)      p 
Weir Bros.                 See. 10, T.47, R,9W.    1A.      Buckwheat   
 25, 
Melvin Larson              Sec. 19, T.490 R8W.      2/3 A.   Oat 
13A,   Oats         25. 
Green Lae CountXRoe. by D. 0. Trio 
Walter Bartol    Green Lake See. 14, T.16N, R.12E. I,        Buckwheat  
 15. 
&  Sec. 8, T.1N, RI2E, U.         Buckwheat    15. 
Iran C. Re£.                                                     um

Robert Kamke     Mercer    NW' of NW, of Sec,8,    1/2A.    Buckwheat   
  7. 
w. E. Brandt     Mer         430 R4E                           kwheat   
  6. 
4eon                                               by . . 
John Strosewski Black R. SW. of SE  of S8e.6,      2A.      Buckwheat   
 10. 
Falls    T.21, R.IW. 
Dan Myers        Now Lisbon See.19,        ir Ts, 1A,       Buckwheat   
 20. 
Route #4 
Erving Nichols   New Lisbon Sec.14, Lisbon Ts,     IA.      Buckwheat   
 15. 
Route #4 
William Lau      New Lisbon 6ec,1 , Lisbon Ts.    1A.      Buckwheat    
15. 
Route #4 
John Loecher     Neeah     see. 18, Gmtom      To. 1A.      Buckwheat   
 15. 
Route #1 
Frank Pokorney   Mauston   See, 17, Marion To.     1A.      Buckwheat   
  15. 
Route #5 
Gene Senogles    Mauston   See., 22, Leuonweir To, .        Buckwheat   
15. 
Route #4 
 
 

					
				
				
,,ocatlon of Station     Si_ 2£911 os 
Edwin Kusji,         ji bon Sao. 3S, za ntoun Ts,    A,   Bukwheat    $15,

Lfyet      ouyRebyA. W.Ha 
H. ScOhriter     Darlington T,2, RJI.                       Bukwheat 
Andre frsu    s Bradly      S.o,28, Lot 2, T.8,      A.    Bkwheat    $15.

R3.U                            Cornmllet 
M    h   O                                 Ree. by Rothsch21d 
Rod and Gun Club, 
Laut Brothrs     Rothschild 1/2 mile east of         1A.    Cor        $15.

Rothhil 
Ben Jensen       Roths   ld 5 miles o   h nd 5 
miles east of Rothshtld ljk     Corn (JA)    20. 
(3A.) 
Joseph Pflieger Rothschild 1 mle s, of Rothschild                       10.

H, T, Marsequ    Rothschild 2 miles south & 2 miles  IA    Dukht    
  15, 
east of Rothschild 
August Irows     Rot hshild 5 miles south and 2 milslA,                 0.

west of Rothsohild 
W, V. Foster     Glaxdon    XE NE of See.9, T.50,   U. 
R 9I, 
Mike Uneitl     )iladore  Ej A. of KW NW of S@ j3,j A. 
T,2, R.. 
Wk, K3.ettk      .ontello   So. 20, T.16X,, R.11.        Buo)w*eat    15.

Route #2 
John Wagner      Motello    See,18, T.15.. R.Iu.t                       15

0, P.                                                Rea, Rver Falls S,3,
T.57, R.SW,  UJ o  $15. 
Ro.o #1 
 
 

					
				
				
Pierce Comty (oont.) 
119 -O -R!Eon Addes   logatlon of Saio        iz     ran       Cs 
Arthur Dodge     RiverFall  Seo.1, T,27, R.18W.     UA.   Corn        15.

Route #1 
12ZIMCOMI                         Roe bX   ,P.Worden 
Tom Leavitt      Plainfield NE of 8W of See*34*     IA.   Corn       $15,

T,21t R.E. 
John Shera       Banroft   Lot It Se05, T,21,       U.    Buckwheat   10.

RBE. 
Ben MeXnt,      Bancroft  NE of NE of See.,.       1,    Buckwheat   10.

T,21 R. E 
rry Hansen-      Bacrft    Lot    of NW fractional  A.    Buckwheat  10.

* of See"0, T.21, 
ROS8!, 
St, Croi County                                 Rea by R. L. Hurd, 
Izaak Wal~ton Leagu 
lPrnk Weishanr   RiverFalls Se,28, TR8, 9.19W.    IA.   Corn       $15. 
Route #4 
Lo P. Shrman     River Falls saollT.aS, R8W.      2A.   Corn        50. 
Route #3 
hoDylsa conyRe# bX.Z. H. Ediek 
Walter Graham    Sheboygan Black River Refuge       U.   I/3 Millet $11.45

1/3 Sorghum 
1/3 Buck. 
Jeff Ashley      Hanock    N! of SW of Seo.6,       IA*    Corn      $15.

T.o, R.8. 
I. Van Wormer    Babcok    Seo.3*, TO of Port 
See,31, T, of Port 
Edwards 
Se.g T. of Rmington       All of Stations plante 
All planted by Van      Se,.1T, of Remington       to sorghu  sunflower 
Womer       Se14,T, of Reington 
Seo.15,T. of R 
Sea6,T, f Rengton 
Se.18,T, of Rmnton 
Seo.4  ,T of Re 
8ee. 51J. of Remingtoni 
Seej45,T, of Ri 
See, 21,T. of R 
 
 

					
				
				
Wod bounty (O.ot.) 
A~e g arsl :Ldros  Loot~onof stafln    Sie   Gan,      Cs 
$Ro,25, T. of Remington 
Sec31T. of Dexter 
(2 stdioa. in sec,31) 
Soo. 8g T. of Crwor 
 
 

				
      
      
				
				
THE GHIGAGO AGADEMY OF SGIENCES 
Lincoln Park at Center Street 
CHICAGO 
OFFICE O THE DIRECTOR 
May 3,1935 
Mr. Frank Schmidt, 
2 New Soils Building 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wis: 
Dear Frank: 
I have your letter and am pleased with the 
prospects of getting some chicken pictures. We would 
greatly prefer taking them during the middle of the 
week when others are not around, if it is just the 
same to you. If convenient, Mr. Dickinson, who has 
been making pictures with me for the last couple 
years, will dtive with me up to Babcock on Wednesday 
with the hope of getting pictures on Thursday and 
Friday. Kindly advise me if this will be satisfactory 
with you. 
Looking forward to seeing you, I am 
Sincer/ely yours, 
A. M. Baileyr 7     . 
AUB:R                    Director 
 
 

					
				
				
ADDRESS ALL GENERAL COMMUNICATIONS TO STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION, MADISON

COMMISSIONERS                                                           
              MATT. PATTERSON 
WILLIAM MAUTHE. CHAIRMAN                                                
                   C.L. HARRINGTON 
FOND DU LAC              THE        STATE          OF WISCONSIN         
                .UPT. OFFORET AND PARKS 
0. C. LEMKE. WAUSAU                                                     
                   B. O. WEBSTER 
A. W. ICKS. GREENBAY              ON     ERVAT        O      COMMISSION 
                     SUPT. OF FISHERIES 
HASKELL NOYES. MILWAUKEE                                                
                   H: W. MAC KENZIE 
L. M. HOBBINS, MADISON                                                  
                     CHIEF WARDEN 
E. M. DAHLBERG. SECRETARY                     PAUL D. KELLETER          
                   WM. F. GRIMMER 
LADYSMITH                                                               
                 SUPT. OF GAME 
CONSERVATION DIRECTOR                           F. G. WILSON 
CHIEF FIRE WARDEN 
D. H. KIPP 
SUPT. OF EDUCATION 
MADION.AND PUBLICATIONS 
DR. M. L. JONES. WAUSAU 
CfAIRMAN. RESEARCH BUREAU 
, 4 -- _ 1 
iiV 
 
 

					
				
				
G 
IA 
YAA-, - 
 
 

					
				
				
Radcotalk by F. j. W. Schmidt 
ove KA, January 18, .932 
PRAIRIE CHICKEN COURTSHIP 
The true prairie chicken and the sharp-tailed grouse are 
both referred to as prairie chickens, and therefore it is 
best to describe the courtship of both. The two birds often 
travel together and sometimes use the same crowing ground where 
their ranges overlap. Central Wisconsin is now one of the 
main strongholds of the prairie chicken and the best region 
to study this remarkable bird. 
Unlike most birds, the prairie chicken and sharp-tailed 
grouse do not pair during the nesting season and the roosters 
never know where the nests are unless they find them by 
accident. Instead of pairing, the roosters all gather at 
traditional urowing grounds oV dance grounds. As the birds 
spend much of their time buzzing their feet on the ground, 
the grass is all worn off and the ground is packed solid. 
The crowing ground might almost be called a buzz ground. 
The hens only occasionally visit the crowing ground, and when 
they do appear, the roosters show all of their best tricks. 
The spot chosen for a crowing ground is an open space 
in a field or on a sandy knoll in a marsh. Where prairie 
chickens are numerous there is a crowing ground on every 
section of land. The nests are generally found within a mile 
of the crowing ground. The prairie chicken appears 6n the 
crowing ground from March to July and the sharp-tailed grouse 
from November to July. During the winter the sharp-tailed 
grouse appears on the crowing ground only occasionally and then 
-l - 
 
 

					
				
				
Radio talk by F. J. W. Schmidt 
over WHA, January 18, 1932 
2 
only dances for about one hour just after sunrise. During 
the nesting season the roosters appear every day at the 
crowing ground. On bright days the roosters dance from four A.M. 
until seven A.M. and on cloudy days at most any hour. 
The toot or boom of the prairie chicken has been heard 
by almost everyone in regions inhabited by this bird as the 
noise can be heard for over a mile on still mornings. The 
prairie chicken boom sounds something like "whoo-dooh" or 
"whoo-do-dooh." The noise is hard to imitate because the 
prairie chicken has two orange colored, drum-like sacs on 
the neck which are used in making the noise. The bill and 
nose openings are closed and the air from the lungs passes 
into these sacs when the noise is being made so that although 
the noise is muffled,the vibration of the tight skin of the 
drum-like sacs gives the boom its great carrying power. 
When the prairie chicken booms, the tail is erected, the 
wings are spread out and the black pinnate feathers on the 
neck are thrust forward until they stick straight up in the 
air above the bird's head and resemble horns. Just before 
booming, the prairie chicken vibrates its feet on the ground 
by taking short rapid steps. 
Two roosters are often seen facing each other. The two 
often fly at each other a few times and then sit about a foot 
apart with heads together for several minuted. Prairie chickens 
make several noises which sound louder then the boom at close 
range, but which are not heard more than a quarter of a mile 
away; These noises are "wuuuuk, cac-cac-cac-kee-ae, quawk, 
 
 

					
				
				
Radio talk by F. J. W. Schmidt 
over WA, January 18, 1932 
3 
quaaawk." 
The courtship of the sharp-tailed grouse is more ompli- 
oated than that of the prairie chicken. The drum-like sacs 
on the neck are smaller than in the prairie chicken and are 
pink instead of orange. The noise produced when the sacs 
are inflated is"cooh-cooh-cooh."   Unlike the boom of the 
prairie chicken, this noise can not be heard for more than 
100 yards. In making the noise the rooster walks along with 
his head thrust forward. In just walking about the rooster 
frequently say* "ku-kuckle, kack-wuckle, ku-kuckle" or 
"ke-ke-ke-ke-ke-qua, qua-quawk-quawk, quawk." The rocsters 
spend most of the time facing each other. Two or three may 
sit with their heads together and every few minutes one takes 
a peck or flies at the other. 
When a hen walks across the dance ground several roosters 
circle about her and perform as follows: the wings are spread 
out, the tails stick straight up, the heads are thrust for- 
ward, the feet are vibrated on the ground with a loud buzzing 
noise, and several other noises are made at the same time. 
While buzzing the feet the rooster says "tuch-tuch-tuch" and 
"kenk-kenk-konk-konk" and the feathers on the tail are flicked

to make a whizzing noise. When the hen stops, the roosters 
freeze in whatever position they are in and remain motionless 
for several seconds and then all start at once. Then the 
rooster buzzes both feet he aeems to float along because the 
feet move so fast that they cannot be seen. When only one 
 
 

					
				
				
Radio talk by F. J. W. Schmidt 
over HA, January 18, 1932 
4 
foot is buzzed, the rooster pivots around on the other foot. 
Some of the birds, especially the hens, frequently fly back 
and forth across the dance ground. 
Last year 17 roosters were trapped and banded on one 
crowing ground. This spring the same flock will be trapped 
and banded and it will then be determined how many of last 
year's veterans return for the 1932 buzz. 
FJWS : GO 
1/18/32 
 
 

				
      
      
				
				
3-26-35 
From Ernest Swift: 
Prairie Chicken. Ratio of Prairie Chicken to Sharptail in Sawyer 
County has markedly gone up last two years. Total numbers, however, 
were somewhat less in 193--not over 25%, however. No sudden change in 
agricultural land. 
Geo. Reiger of Radison is good man to conmlt, 
Copies for Schmidt V 
Wing 
Sawyer Co. 
Cycle 
 
 

					
				
				
clopes ort  i$~ 
2mbmtu    m        4eivLA~f~4 
UnLrtt of Um*msh btta 
'SIra tin -n th f1 l I  mad spouM in s of  bk*  In 
wIXah% LimL   r a ndAu    mls .vm th f *lrtbe .M bne. 
wore reore. PIen 1jAe O*l went bo birs se=n to hwe dorased 
0rea? in uwA"sio 1933, Daz tht*wno 1333 1 )Jv tha~t tb 
10rd w  yr *budt in h*  mmy aias awthv n  and I Mdts ,bat 
wa esate~d to be me than & thn~   ad w sarwed t lIMt ina.beat 
tw mr esaw  d . In We&     %*mIe tertoyi 131k mly th  birdswo 
son V ou   #, I lockd er a lag ---      9n* *v1 h   bird 
wr    -~ budn In 1333. Is tfllo et3I4 Vxe of us amsi  o *a 
isaime of abmt six aI1s A oar on sign. And the terrtor sein4 to 
as tbe aotas tw  " M  hn I hadMvw   0 N. sitsof ead bid 
wer feMw  dteroyws ftftea or         alWmles fim the lal 
vhr b petso balt W beom *,,d#. I om  nt~ iae ot =q  "f 
few th birds hati 4I.a~m4 =loss It e d4mft at t MMuan6 
ye~ bat*Md. ObsmtIos an *aM dvutam wv      atat It *ended &Uet 
to Ocoub ,cy   ft1a to  me wndrugt maition ta Damto Can 
Mu #&Oa. It vas wt mat   serm& 
 
 

					
				
				
STATE OF WISCONSIN 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
MADISON 
July 2, 1934 
Mr. Franklin Schmidt 
Babcock 
Y isconsin 
Re: Grouse situation 
Dear Frank: 
Thanks for your letter of