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which have a sparse vegetation, due to frequent burning. A sparse, dry vegetation seems to be the deciding factor in determining the range of the sharp-tallod grouse. The sphagnum, slthough damp be. neath is dry on the surfact. During wet weather the grouse oould live on top of the dnea nte of latherleaf whlh grows extensive- ly in most bogs. In the West the sharp-tailed grse is more of a plains bird than a prairie bird. It Inhabited western North Dakota, western South Dakota, eastern Wyoming, Kansas, and Nebraska. Sine settlment It has mved eastward, probably due to cultivation, whioh has resulted in a sparser vegetation than formerly occurred. In Iowa the sharp-tail nested only in sandy areas where the vegetation was sparse, while the prairie chicken nested In the dense grass. It is probable that the sharp-tailed grouse did not nest in the original prairie areas of Wisconsin as they were probably mestly of the dense grass type. Rote also that the sharp-tailed grouse occurred in northeastern Illinois, which is the only part of the State that has sphagnum bogs. Food, Roost Cover, and Protective Cover of the Bog In Relation to $harp-Tailed Grus Jackson County Several flocks of sharp-tails were found In the vioinity of Birch Bluff in a large bog that f a reservoir for a cranberry farm. As they may be so here at all times of the year It is probable that a large bog provides everything that is neessary in the line of roost cow.er, protection aganst enemies and food for permanent residonce. However, bogs are generally bordered by swamps whiah furnish food in the form of alder atkins, white birh buds and catkins, willow buds and catkins, and mountain ash berries. The food eaten by the shar-tail in the bog proper consists during
the summer of the leaves and flowers of Chamaodaphno Calyoulata, the berries and leaves of Yacciniun pennsyvanicuOT. Yaegiiu oanadense, Vac i .ocO , and vaociriu, macrocarpon, and insects. During the winter the buds and catk ns of the bo birch Be vumllavar. ,landulfera are eaten. The oranberry farmr reported that the sharp-tails ate a large number of branberries laocnig meocarpo_ in the cultivated cran- berry beds. ndhill Crane t sandhill crane lone of our rarest birds. It spends most of its time in bogs and marshes. Most of the sandhill cranes seen in Wisconsin are migrants that stop over for a few weeks spring and fall on their way to and from Canada. Only a few nest in the State. For nesting they seem to prefer bogs or marshes that have patches of tamarack or spru-ee in them or around then. They do not like tama- rack swamps without open spaces. John Cardo, a farmer living on Shiprock Marsh, west of Coloma, has given us a fairly accurate de- seription of the changes that have taken place there during the last 50 years. Before 1890, all et what Is now hay-marsh was a tamarack swamp with no open spaces exept where small clearings had been made. Loads of poles were hauled to Portage by oxen. There were no cranes at that time. In 1894, following several dry years, the entire swamp was burned with only scattered patches of tamarack escaping. The plat was burned to a depth of 2 feet so that the tree# were burned out by he roots. The trees that were not hauled out for firewood were piled up and burned in 1895. Crops of oats and millet were raised in 1895 on the burned peat, in 1895 it was too wet. After that grasses came in and by 1900 it became a hay marsh.