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-2- Much of the information here set forth is based on the recollections of early settlers in the Lake Mills area. To the members of these pioneer families who enduredmn hours of questioning, I am ver7 grateful. I am especially indebted to Mr. Stoughton W. Faville, whose activities as a farmer-naturalist began in the early sixties and without whose patient cooperation this paper could not have been written. To Mr. John Hooper, whose journal and recollections date back half a century, to Professor Aldo Leopold for his critical reading of the mascript, to Dr. John T. Curtis for his suggestions concerning the section on plants, and to Dr. A. W. Schorger for his suggestions concerning the section on animals, I am also greatly indebted. Area Studied This report deals principally with 10 farms (2400 acres) now within the Faville Grove Wildlife Area. The area lies on the west bank of the Crawfish River in the towns of Waterloo, ilford, and Lake Mills. Events of particular importance, however, are traced for a larger area, roughly 10 miles in radius.
-3. C in the Landscae, lS13-1939 I have attempted to trace .the major alterations in the landscape from the days when the first settlers arrived to the present. Most pronounced is. the change from no cultivation in 1S38 to almost complete cultivation in 1938. Agricul ture has maodifi ed every feature of the landscape, as is shown in Table I. o -F 1: res21 show the parts ofFaville Grove in which these revisions took plac kehe most important of x are discussed in detail under the following captions. Forests vs. OakOpenines Reference is made, in the following discussion, to "forests" and to opn Both areas were more or less tree-covered. Forests, asAhere used, means a rather dense stand made up of numerous tree and shrub species. T~he closed cnp cast a shade too dense for sod; hence the ground cover was composed of nueros,' herbaceous spec ies. The trees, being crowded., produc4straight and clean boles. Openings were characterized by scattered trees and little or no us A heavy grass sod covered the ground. The trees had little competition from their neighbors; hence spread outward rather than upward. Many gnarledbace covered the massive boles. Old timers say that in the openings deer could be easily chased on horseback, but the forest was too dese to see deer at an d much less cha s them on horseback. The forests near Javille Grove contained elm, ash, basswood, hcory bl cherry, oaks, soft and hard maple, ironwood., black walnut and aspen, but the openings had. mainly bur, white and black oaks, a few hickori, and clump of red cedars on the gravelly knolls. A~ c entury ago *..- east &WA-.of the Crawf a Riv er was a f ores t; teWs an .... , Since t e mzrimm width of the Crawfish River is - ads with similr terrain on both sides, the question arises: e :+:+ +i,,