Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-5 : Research Areas and Projects

Much of the information here set forth is based on the recollections of 
early settlers in the Lake Mills area. To the members of these pioneer families

who enduredmn hours of questioning, I am ver7 grateful. I am especially 
indebted to Mr. Stoughton W. Faville, whose activities as a farmer-naturalist

began in the early sixties and without whose patient cooperation this paper

could not have been written. To Mr. John Hooper, whose journal and recollections

date back half a century, to Professor Aldo Leopold for his critical reading

of the mascript, to Dr. John T. Curtis for his suggestions concerning the

section on plants, and to Dr. A. W. Schorger for his suggestions concerning

the section on animals, I am also greatly indebted. 
Area Studied 
This report deals principally with 10 farms (2400 acres) now within the 
Faville Grove Wildlife Area. The area lies on the west bank of the Crawfish

River in the towns of Waterloo, ilford, and Lake Mills. Events of particular

importance, however, are traced for a larger area, roughly 10 miles in radius.


C        in the Landscae, lS13-1939 
I have attempted to trace .the major alterations in the landscape from 
the days when the first settlers arrived to the present. Most pronounced
the change from no cultivation in 1S38 to almost complete cultivation in
Agricul ture has maodifi ed every feature of the landscape, as is shown in
Table I. 
o  -F         1:  res21 show the parts ofFaville Grove in which these revisions
plac kehe most important of x      are discussed in detail under the following

Forests vs. OakOpenines 
Reference is made, in the following discussion, to "forests" and
to opn 
Both areas were more or less tree-covered. Forests, asAhere used, means a

rather dense stand made up of numerous tree and shrub species. T~he closed
cast a shade too dense for sod; hence the ground cover was composed of nueros,'

herbaceous spec ies. The trees, being crowded., produc4straight and clean
Openings were characterized by scattered trees and little or no us 
A heavy grass sod covered the ground. The trees had little competition from

their neighbors; hence spread outward rather than upward. Many gnarledbace

covered the massive boles. Old timers say that in the openings deer could
easily chased on horseback, but the forest was too dese to see deer at an
much less cha s them on horseback. 
The forests near Javille Grove contained elm, ash, basswood, hcory    bl

cherry, oaks, soft and hard maple, ironwood., black walnut and aspen, but
openings had. mainly bur, white and black oaks, a few hickori, and clump
red cedars on the gravelly knolls. 
A~ c entury ago *..- east &WA-.of the Crawf  a Riv er was a f ores t;
an            .... , Since t e mzrimm width of the Crawfish River is 
- ads with similr terrain on both sides, the question arises:           
:+:+ +i,,