and soils tested by the Wisconsin soils laboratory, and the reports
show that much of the red clay soil is deficient in phosphorus. Some
of the low areas and sandy soils are also deficient in potash. Stable
manure is used extensively, but the amount, even in the dairying
region, is not sufficient to meet the needs of the soil.
  During 1924, 2,825 farmers reported a total of $679,070 spent for
feed. As the acreage of alfalfa increases this feed bill can be cut
very materially.
  The farms of the county are as a rule well equipped and efficiently
managed. Buildings are well built and substantial. Barns are
roomy and warm, and many are equipped with drinking cups for
cattle, litter carriers, and other modern equipment. Many of the
farm homes are modern, with electric lights, telephone, and modern
household conveniences.
  The State department of agriculture reports that the monthly
wages of farm laborers in Wisconsin in 1925 ranged from $42.60
to $45.50 with board, and during the harvest season extra help was
paid $2.30 a day with board or $3 without board. Efficient laborers
are scarce. Women and children often help in the fields and with
the milking, thus reducing the amount of hired help required.
  In 1925 there were in the county 3,887 farms, the average size of
which was 90.7 acres and in that year only 4.1 per cent of the farms
were operated by tenants.
  The average value of land and buildings per farm in 1925 was
$13,122, and that of the land alone was $68.53 an acre.
  Where soils are acid, lime in the amounts required should be
used. Most of the soils show a deficiency in phosphorus, and the
heavy soils in particular respond to the use of superphosphate. On
some of the low land, corn is frequently patchy and sometimes
yellowish. In such places potash fertilizer is recommended. The
peat soils are deficient in potash and in places in phosphorus as well.
Sandy soils are deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. It
should be the effort of farmers to supply nitrogen and organic matter
by growing legumes and using stable manure. When potash and
phosphorus are needed in addition, they should be supplied in the
form of commercial fertilizers.
  The original timber growth in Manitowoc County consisted of
maple, oak, elm, basswood, beech, ash, hickory, hemlock, and some
pine. The pine grew mainly though not entirely on the sandy areas,
hemlock on the loam and sandy loam soils, and oak, maple, beech,
basswood, and hickory on the heavy soils. On the Poygan and Clyde
soils, elm and ash were found, and in the marshes tamarack, cedar,
and alder grew. Most of the mechantable timber has been cut, except
on some low lands and gravelly ridges, and some of the second
growth is large enough to use for fuel. Many farmers have wood
lots, averaging about 4 acres in size, from which enough wood can
be cut for fuel for years to come. Some farmers take good care of
the wood lot, and others pay little attention to it.
According to the State census, as reported by the Wisconsin
Department of Agriculture, the pasture land of Manitowoc County,
which totals 99,915 acres, has been classified in three divisions.