When Scyld Scefing’s2c1a ship had set sail,2b2‐ leaving behind2e1a the land of the Danes,2b2a they crowned Beowulf+1d1 110king in his stead2b2‐ and for many years3b1b he remained their leader.++1a1a(i) His highborn son3b1a Healfdene followed2a1a(iii) and ruled in his turn2b2a the realm of Denmark,+1a1a(i) fathering four3e1 famous children2a1a(i) who were given by God3b*1b 120to this great war‐king:2c1b Heorogar, Hrothgar,‐‐‐‐‐ Halga the Good,2e1a and a blithe daughter,2c1b the bride of Onela,+1a1a(ii) sweet bedfellow1d1 of the Swedish king.3b1b Glory in battle1a*1a(i) was given to Hrothgar,+1a*1a(i) fortune in war,2e1a 130so his followers all3b2b obeyed him gladly+2a1a(i) and his band of young2b1b comrades increased.2e1a It occurred to him then3b2b to command a mighty++1a1a(i) meadhall to be built,2e1b richer and rarer1a*1a(i) than the race of men2b1b had ever seen3b1a 140on earth before,2b1a and in that stately hall3b1c to distribute all3b1b the gifts God3f1a had given him,d1a except for public land3b1c and people’s lives.3b1a They tell us he assigned+2e1b the task of building+1a1a(i) that marvelous meadhall+2a1a(iii) 150to many races+2a1a(i) from around the earth.2b1b It rose quickly,2c1a soaring to the clouds,2e1b and soon it was finished,+1a1b(i) noblest of buildings.1a*1a(i) He named it Heorot,+2a1a(i) he whose word and will2b1b had wide dominion.+1a1a(i) He stood by his vow,2b2a 160distributing gold+3e1 from the hoard, while high2b1b overhead the great2b1b wooden rafters2a1a(i) waited for floods2e1a of fire to enfold them,+1a1b(i) for the fated day3b1b when the tragic hate3b1b of two in‐laws2c1a would flash into flame,2b2a 170into fierce warfare.2c1b A dread demon2c1a who dwelt in the shadows+1a1b(i) daily endured2e1a desperate pain,3e1 obliged to listen+1a1a(i) to the bright music2c1b of heroes in hall,3b*1a the harp ringing2c1a to the song of the singer++1a1b(i) 180singing the story1a*1a(i) of earth’s creation+1a1a(i) ages ago,2e1a how almighty God3b1b made this glorious1a1a(ii) world of wonders1a1a(i) washed by the sea,2b2‐ how he set on high2b1b the sun and moon2b1a as undying lights3b1b 190for dwellers on earth3b*1a and trimmed the distant+1a1a(i) tracts of the world2b2‐ with branches and leaves,3b*1a bringing forth life3e1 in every kind3b1a of earthly creature.+2a1a(i) Thus Hrothgar’s thanes3b1a reveled in joys,2e1a feasting and drinking,1a*1a(i) 200until their foe started2c1c his persecutions,a1c a creature of hell.3b*1a Grendel, they called him,1a*1a(i) this grim spoiler,2c1a a demon who prowled3b*1a the dark borderlands,+1d1 moors and marshes,1a1a(i) a man‐eating giant+2a1a(iii) who had lived in a lair2b2b 210in the land of monsters++1a1a(i) ever since God2e1a had outlawed himd1a along with the rest2b2a of the line of Cain.2b1b Abel’s murder2a1a(i) had angered the Lord,3b*1a who avenged that deed2b1b of violence on Cain,+3e*1 driving him far3e1 220from the dwellings of men.3b*1b Spooks and spirits1a1a(i) are spawned from his seed,2b2a elves and goblins1a1a(i) and evil ghouls3b1a and those bold giants2c1b who rebelled against God,2b2b asking for trouble.1a*1a(i) They earned their reward!2b2a