working conditions by legislation, in vocational guidance and 
placement, in industrial education, and especially, in awakening 
the public conscience may each find here data which can be re- 
arranged or grouped so as to form a basis upon which to act. As 
an illustration: the educator endeavoring to develop a scheme of 
part time schooling, may be able to conclude from the tables show- 
ing the exact week of opening and closing the shops what plan 
might be feasible for dull season instruction. Or the constructive 
agent of a placement bureau endeavoring to discover a way in 
which to dovetail occupations may determine from the detailed 
pay roll information the period of employment in various types 
of millinery occupations and establishments. 
  More than any other industrial occupation, a fashion trade is 
dependent upon the will or whim of the consumer and of all 
trades millinery seems to feel the vagaries of fashion most keenly. 
The greatest need at present is an arousing of public conscience 
so that consumers may so regulate their demands as to avoid the 
rush of late week orders and to extend the seasons to the advan- 
tage of both employer and employee. But all the grave problems 
here discussed must be attacked constructively from all sides by 
all agencies and if to Boards of Education and Trade School 
Directors, Legislators, Trades Unions, the Consumers' League 
and other societies concerned with protective and regulative legis- 
lation this work shall prove of practical value, its object will have 
been attained. 
  Simultaneously with the study of millinery, an investigation 
has been made of Dressmaking as a Trade for Women and of 
The Boot and Shoe Industry in Massachusetts as a Vocation for 
Women, both of which are now In preparation for the press. It 
is believed that the comparative studies which may be based upon 
these surveys will contribute much to an understanding of the 
needle trades. 
  Acknowledgment is due the many employers and employees 
who have so generously given of their time and experience in the 
preparation of this volume. 
                                   SUSAN M. KINGSBURY, 
                           Director of the Department of Research, 
                         Women's Educational and IndastriaZ Union. 
   [tONGKONG, October 10, 1913. 
 
 
X 
 
 
PREFACE