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Additional Notes Joint, as to leave the deer fastened securely. When once caught in this manner, the deer invariably beats itgelf to death. Bucks, it seems, more often than does, are the victims of such tragedies due to the fact that does and younger animals are apt to go between wires of an ordinary fence. Furthermore does appear to beemore, careful in Jumping while bucks become careless at times, and do not always clear the wires with-their hind feet. Unfortunately, with increased fencing in the heart of deer ranges, fence tragedies are apt to occur more frequently. CHAPTER V Welfare Factors - Special Factors. Lack of sufficient salt and perhaps other mineral, in some localities, under certain and perhaps abnormal cond'tions is deleterious to the welfare of game. The age freyiuented "deer licks" in the Great Lakes area, where deer spend much time in an effort to supply their systems with certain essential elements, salt no doubt being the main attraction, is evidence of the need of certain elements not al- ways available in food and water. In the Southwest deer soon locate salt put out for cattle, and in some sections there is serious complaint regarding the amount of salt they consume. Deer, like cattle, no doubt when feeding largely on young browse relish salt most. Where salt is eaten too freely in the early spring injurious effects result. . Where the water is free from minerals, as is usually true of water in the higher southwestern mountains, their desire for salt is most apparent. -2-
Addittonal Notes Live oak when freely eaten seems to create an abnormal appetite for salt in deer or cattle. In both the Datil and Gila Forests, where the principal browse shrub is live &ak, deer are especially eager for salt. So persistent are they in their efforts to obtain it, that they do not hesitate to enter corrals, where salt is kept, their tracks often being far more numerous than those of cattle. Shedding Horns: H. B. Birmingham of the New Mexico Game Department advises me that Mr. Rachford of the U. S. Forest Service, recnt- ly told him that it has been learned at the Wichita Game Pre- serve in Oklahoma that White-tailed bucks do not shed their horns until the third year. Head Measurements: H. 0. Cassidy of the U. S. Forest Service measured spread of a mule deer's horns at Frijoles Canyon, the measure- ment of which was 32-1/2 inches. -3-