Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-6 : Writings

					
The winter of 1935-36 will go down in history as a killer. Probably 
no single winter since the tarn of the century, and possibly none since 
*The Big Snow" of 1881-82, has wrought equal destruction on bobwhite
quail 
in Wisconsinaand lowa. ) This paper aims to collect under one cover such

miscellaneous data on its effects as are available to the game research 
departments o! the two states. Lawrence E. Hicks is preparing a similar 
paper for Ohio.                                 .. *'"             
  ; . 
'~  ~  Losses in Wieonsin 
Since 1932 Wisconsin quail have been in a state of 8irruptic," i.e..

have built up to an extreme high and have spread northward and eastward into

new range.  Me year 1934-35 killed many, but in most counties not enough

to prevent a prompt return to high levels during the favorable breeding 
season of 1935. A paper on the nature and extent of the irruption, and the

quail losses of 1934-35, is in preparation by A. S. Hawkins. 
The cumulative effect of the winters of 1934-35 and 1935-36 was to 
push back the quail boundary a hundred miles southward and westward, and
to 
thin out the residual population in the southwestern counties to perhaps

ten per cent of their 1934 numbers. Large areas in this "regular range"
are 
now entirely depopulated. 
Interpretation of this sudden shrinkage in distribution and density 
is complicated by two attendant circumstances: (1) The period 1932-1936 represents

9        *The Wisconsin graduate student group contributed to this paper
as follows: 
Leonard W. Wing, photos and supervision of autopsies; Orville S. Lee, stomach

analyses and body-measurements; Douglas E. Wade, field observations and weather

charts; Arthur S. Hakins, Hilbert R. Siegler, Starker Leopold, field observations.

Q         Ralph C. Conway, State Conservation Department, also field officers
of the Soil 
Conservation Service and the Resettlement Administration were especially
helpful 
in sending in frosen birds. Dr. A. L. Stone of the Agronomy Department helped
in 
identifying doubtful seeds. 
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