tions, a single managed well near a fixed well resulted
in numerous wells being shut off. For the Fox Cities
simulations, a few wells control the withdrawals in the
Heart-of-the-Valley communities due to preferential
withdrawals for Western Town wells. Because the
water-level constraints were somewhat arbitrary, it
would be possible to obtain increased yield by further
relaxing the constraints at the individual wells.
     For two of the fixed wells in the model (Fort
Howard and Hortonville), the projected 2030 with-
drawal rate exceeds the capacity of the existing well
(see Appendix). For the simulations presented in this
report, the projected 2030 rate was used. To meet these
rates, the capacities of the existing wells would have to
be increased accordingly.


     The results presented in this report verify that opti-
mization is a valuable tool for allocating ground-water
resources. This statement is valid given the underlying
assumptions of the analysis: (1) managed wells are not
allowed to inject water into the aquifer; (2) the maxi-
mum withdrawal rate of a particular well is fixed based
on the well's actual capacity; (3) the distribution sys-
tems of communities sharing water are interconnected;
(4) the calibrated ground-water flow model is a realistic
representation of the flow system; and (5) all solutions
are steady state, thus represent sustainable withdrawals
in perpetuity if all conditions of the model remain the
     Three general conclusions are specific to the
results of the individual management alternatives pre-
sented. First, ground water can supply nearly all of the
projected 2030 demand for Central Brown County
municipalities if all of the wells are managed (includ-
ing the city of Green Bay), 8 new wells are installed,
and the water levels are allowed to decline as much as
100 feet below the bottom of the confining unit. Sec-
ond, if the municipalities in Central Brown County
convert to surface water, there is a substantial increase
in ground water available to the Fox Cities. Third, opti-
mization alternative results indicate steady-state water
levels due to projected 2030 withdrawal rates will
rebound to levels within 100 ft of the bottom of the con-
fining unit, resulting in increased well capacity.
     Two conclusions pertain to the general use of opti-
mization modeling for ground-water management.
First, in some cases either a single managed well or a
few closely spaced wells can control the results of an
entire simulation. Second, comparisons with other fac-

tors remaining constant indicate that managing with-
drawals will result in increased withdrawals and a more
uniform water-level distribution.


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