Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-2 : Organizations, Committees

                           MAP OF 
              Showing Areas Set Apart as Provincial 
      Game Preserves and Bird Sanctuaries 
                          SCHEDULE A 
 1.  RIDING MOUNTAIN..............   ........   .  NATIONAL PARK 
 2.  SPRUCE WOODS ....................................... 1021Y2 SQ. MLS.

 3.  DUCK MOUNTAIN ...................................... 432 
 4.  PAHONAN POINT ........................................ 72 
 5.  RED DEER POINT........................................ 39 
 6.  DOG HEAD POINT ................... ................. 225 
 7.  GRINDSTONE POINT ................. ...................  42 
 8.  LAKE ST. MARTIN .................  .................. 240 
 9.  REINDEER ISLAND ....................................... 65 
 10. BIRCH ISLAND .......................................... 57 
 11. LAKE WINNIPEGOSIS..................................... .587 
 12. ST. CHARLES ............................................ 12 
 13. BIG GRASS MARSH ..... .. ............................. 71 
 21.(a)SPRUCE  LAKE ........................................... 18 
 26. B IRD'S  H ILL .................. ..........................  3 
 27. VICTORIA  BEACH .........................................  9 
 30. HALCROW LAKE ........................................ 210 ACRES 
     It shall be unlawful for any person 
        (1) to hunt game; 
        (2) to have in his possession firearms or traps of any description;

        (3) to permit hounds or dogs to run at large. 
                          SCHEDULE B 
14.  THE PAS ....................................         900  SQ. M LS.

15.  ASSINIBOINE........................................... 504 
25.  ZEPHYR ................................................ 34 
     It shall be unlawful for any person 
        (1) to hunt game at any time, except ducks, geese, chicken, partridge

            and grouse in the open season. 
                          SCHEDULE C 
16.  ROCK LAKE....................... ..................  234  SQ. M LS.

           (Closed in 1931 and Odd Numbered Years thereafter) 
     It shall be unlawful for any person 
        (1) to hunt big game in the odd numbered years, commencing with 
            the year 1931. 

                            SCHEDULE D 
17.  H ILLSIDE BEACH ............. ........................ 1  SQ. M L. 
18.  ROCKWOOD ............................................. 12 SQ. M LS.

19.  NORTH  KILDONAN ........................... ......... 1   " 
20.  ROSEISLE ............................................... 36 
     It shall be unlawful for any person 
         (1) to hunt game. 
                            SCHEDULE E 
21.(e)SHERIFF INKSTER  .................................... 2978  SQ. M LS.

22. WEST SHOAL LAKE ...................................... 37 
23.  SHOAL L AKE ..........................................  10 
         It shall be unlawful for any person 
         (1) to hunt game birds; 
         (2) to carry firearms for such purpose. 
                            SCHEDULE F 
24.  TURTLE M OUNTAIN .................................. 99/2 SQ. M LS. 
     It shall be unlawful for any person 
         (1) to hunt big game or fur-bearing animals; 
         (2) to hunt game birds, except ducks of any kind, in the open season;

         (3) to have firearms in his possession except for the purpose of
         (4) to have traps of any description in his possession. 
                   ORDER-IN-COUNCIL No. 237/38 
28.  W HITESHELL ......................................... 261  SQ. M LS.

     It shall be unlawful for any person 
         (1) to hunt big game or fur-bearing animals; 
         (2) to have traps of any description, snares or snare wire or any

             material from which a snare may be made, in his possession.

         (3) to hunt game birds other than migratory water fowl at any time,

             and migratory water fowl only during the open season for same;

         (4) to have firearms in his possession, except during the open season

              for water fowl, when under the authority of a license he may
              a shotgun in his possession. 
                    ORDER-IN-COUNCIL No. 314/35 
29. LAKE MANITOBA ....................................... 392 SQ. MLS. 
                    ORDER-IN-COUNCIL No. 299/37 
31. SUMMERBERRY RIVER ................................... 209 SQ. MLS. 
                   ORDER-IN-COUNCIL No. 1479/37 
32. MANIGOTAGAN.......................... ..............190 SQ. MLS. 
       Orders-in-Council Nos. 314/35, 299/37 and 1479/37-No trapping 
                          of fur-bearing animals. 

      North of the 53rd Parallel of Latitude 
    Wild Geese, Wild Ducks of any kind, Coots, Rails .... Sept. 10th to Oct.
    Wilson or Jack Snipe ......................... Sept. 15th to Nov. 30th

    Ptarm igan ......................................... Oct. 1st  to  Oct.
    Geese. 5 a day; possession, 15; season, 50. 
    Ducks, 12 a day; possession, 40; season, 100. 
    Coots and Rails, 25 a day. Wilson or Jack Snipe, 25 a day. Ptarmigan,
15 a 
        day, season 50. 
    Male, Caribou, Moose, Deer ....................... Nov. 28th to Dec.
    1 Male Animal over the age of one year. 
    O tter ............................................ N ov.  1st  to  A
pr. 30th 
    Fisher, Mink ............ .................... Nov. ist to Mar. 15th

    Any Fox (other than Blue, White or Arctic), Lynx .... Nov. Ist to Feb.
    Blue, White or Arctic Fox .......................... Nov. ist to Mar.
    M uskrats .................... .................. M ar. 20th  to  M ay
    Beaver, Marten, Raccoon, Badger, Bison (Buffalo) or Musk-ox. 
       North and South of the 53rd Parallel 
                         of Latitude 
    Mourning Dove, Little Brown, Sandhill or Whooping Crane, Swans or Curlew,

        or shore birds of any variety. Wood or Eider Duck, Plover, Woodcock

        or Yellowlegs, Caper Cailzie, Pheasant, Quail or Wild Turkey. 
    Ruffed, Canada, Sharp-tailed or Pinnated Grouse and Hungarian Partridge.

        Bag limit and date to be set by Order-in-Council. 
    Antelope, Cabri, Elk or Wapiti, Female or any Male under the age of one

        year of Caribou, Deer, Moose or Reindeer. 

      South of the 53rd Parallel of Latitude 
    Wild Geese, Wild Ducks of any kind, Coots, Rails.. Sept. 20th to Nov.
    Wilson or Jack Snipe ......................... Sept. 15th to Nov. 30th

    Ptarm igan ......................................... Oct. 1st  to  Oct.
    Geese, 5 a day; possession, 15; season, 50. 
    Ducks, 12 a day; possession, 40; season, 100. 
    Coots and Rails, 25 a day. Wilson or Jack Snipe, 25 a day. Ptarmigan,
15 a 
        day; season 50. 
    Male Caribou, Moose, Deer. 
    (1) Oct. it to Oct. 151h. In that portion of the Province lying north
of the 
        Winnipeg River, east of Lake Winnipeg to the Ontario boundary and

        north to the 53rd parallel of north latitude. Re-opens Nov. 28th
        Dec. 8th. 
    (2) Nov. 28th to Dec. 3rd. In that portion of the Province (except game

        preserves) lying south of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Winnipeg
        Edmonton line and west of the Red River. 
    (3) Nov. 28th to Dec. 8th. In any other portion of the Province (except
        preserves) not included in the above. 
    1 Male Animal over the age of one year. 
    Fisher, M ink   ................................. Nov. 1st to  Feb. 28th

    Fox, Lynx ........................................ N ov. 1st  to  Jan.
    M uskrats ..................... ................... Apr. 1st  to  Apr.
    In that portion of the Province lying to the South of the 53rd Parallel,
        of Lake Winnipeg and to the Bloodvein River, the season is from March

        20th to May 10th. 
    Otter, Beaver, Badger, Marten, Raccoon, Bison (Buffalo) or Musk-Ox. 
    Otter-In the area lying east of Lake Winnipeg to the Ontario boundary
        north of the Winnipe River to the 53rd. parallel of north latitude,
        in that part of the Whiteshell Forest Reserve lying to the north
of the 
        Whiteshell Game Preserve, the season is from Nov. 1st to April 30.


 It is Unlawful 
 To hunt game on Sunday. 
 To hunt between sunset and sunrise. 
 To hunt or trap on any person's land without permission. 
 To hunt game with an automatic shotgun. 
 To use weapons using ball cartridge when hunting ducks and geese. 
 To carry or discharge a rifle using ball cartridge in any marsh during the
    season for game birds. 
To hunt any game birds with a pump gun unless the magazine has been plugged

    or altered so that it cannot carry more than two shells in the magazine.

To use swivel gun or gun of any kind of a larger bore than 10 gauge. 
To 6arry a loaded firearm in or on or discharge from any vehicle, aircraft,
    or any boat propelled by steam, gasoline or other mechanical power, 
To use any contrivance for taking game birds known as monitors, sunken punts,

    batteries or night lights or boats not propelled by hand. 
To have wild ducks in possession after March 15. 
To use snares. 
To use live decoys. 
To buy, sell, deal or traffic in any game or part thereof. 
To kill any birds other than Goshawks, sharp-shinned hawks, Arctic owls,
    magpies, cowbirds, blackbirds, (grackles) and house or English sparrows.

To destroy or take the eggs of any birds protected by the Game and Fisheries
To hunt, shoot or trap without having a license and such license must be
    on the person. 
To export any game, skins or pelts of fur-bearing animals without the necessary

To ship big game later than seven days after close of season. 
To use or be accompanied by a dog while hunting big game. 
For any person to hunt big game unless clothed in a complete outer suit of
    white material. 
To have game of any kind in any camp used for commercial purposes. 

To neglect to attach tags on the carcass of any big game animal or part thereof

    immediately after the animal has been dressed and leave attached until

    disposition has been made of these parts. The tags must bear the number
    the license under which the animal was shot. 
To act as guide without first obtaining a license. 
For a guide while employed as such to kill or take game. 
To molest or destroy a den or usual place of habitation of any fur-bearing
    other than wolf or to destroy any muskrat or beaver houses or beaver
    or to shoot or spear any muskrat, beaver or otter. 
To use dogs for searching out or hunting muskrats or to allow a dog or dogs
    any marsh during the open season. 
To train more than one dog for hunting without a license. 
To deal, traffic or export the skins or pelts of fur-bearing animals without
a license. 
    . . . .L . . . . ..       . ..          .   - -" . .  1 ,L _ L 
-/ . . : 
. o purchase or upon any pretence or upon any device, sell, Iraue, oarter
or n 
    any way whatsoever deal in unprime skins or pelts of fur-bearing animals.

To have raw pelts in possession ten days after close season without a holding
To have in possession game or trapper's license thirty days after close of
To purchase or obtain by barter from any Indian the flesh of game. 
To set or use poison in any manner, shape or form for the purpose of taking
    bearing animals. 
To fail to supply the information asked for on the back of big game, game
    and trappers' licenses. 
                           License Fees 
G AM E B IRD  ........ ................................................ 
    M oose, C aribou  .................................. .............. 5.00

    W hite-tailed  or  Jumping  Deer  ...................... .......... 2.50

T RA PPER  .............................. ............................ 2.00

DoG TRAINER ......................................................... .10.00

F UR D EALER ........................ ............ .......... ....  10.00

TRAVELLING  AGENT .... .... .................. .................. .   10.00

C OLD STORAGE .......................... ........ ........... .....  5.00


               License Fees-Continued 
     1 to 15 Birds  or  Anim als ...................... ............... 
     16 to 50 Birds or Animals .....................................  2.00

     51 to 100 Birds or Animals ................................... 5.00

   101 or m ore  Birds or Anim als .................................... 
   First 160 Acres ...............................................  5.00

   Each additional 100 Acres or fraction thereof .......................
UR D RESSER OR TANNER ............................................  10.00

AXIDERMIST   .......................................................5.00

    M oose, Caribou  or Elk  Heads .................................... 
    D eer H eads  ....................................................  2.00

    H orns or  A ntlers ............. ..................................
    H id es .. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . .
. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . .2 5 
    S ca lp s . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. .. . .
.. .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . .10 
GUIDE ................................................ ............ 2.00

    (B ritish  Subjects) ...............................................
    (A lien )  . . ......................................................
 25 .00 
    (B ritish  Subjects) ...............................................
    (A lien )  . . ......................................................
 40 .00 
    (B ritish  Subject) ................ .............................  100.00

    U p to  25  D ogs ..................................................
    Each additional Dog ................ ......................... 1.00 

                   Conserve Our Wildlife 
     The religious conservation of our wildlife means the continuance of
a natural 
resource of incalculable value, which adds measurably to the health, happiness

and prosperity of our people. 
                      SPORTSMAN'S WATCHWORD 
     We must not, as a country responsible to posterity for the handing on
of our 
resources as unimpaired as possible, neglect or wantonly destroy the unique
of forest and stream. The sportsman's watchword must ever be- Ue without

    The artificial weapons of offence that man's intelligence has furnished
him a potentially destructive adversary. But that same intelligence should
him to appreciate the limits to which his destructive bent may be carried
                        OUR RESPONSIBILITIES 
    Our responsibilities in the matter of conservation of wildlife are unmistakably

clear. The major obligation of the Game and Fisheries Branch is to maintain
adequate and continuous supply of game, fur-bearers and fishes. In this the

Branch is concerned not only in the commercial aspects but also in the recreative

angle of wildlife, which, of course, cannot be measured in economic terms.

    While conservational measures can be carried to extremes, it is still
tially true that wildlife must not be destroyed at a greater rate than it
can reproduce 
itself. Therefore, we strive to adjust the duration of open seasons in accordance

with the numerical strength and current conditions of individual species.

    Conservational laws and regulations are necessarily restrictive; but
they are 
designed solely in the interest of wildlife and not for the embarrassment
of the 
conscientious sportsman. 
                    RESTORATION OF GAME FISH 
    The Game and Fisheries Branch is keenly concerned in the problem of restora-

tion. Within recent years an intensive study of a large number of rivers
and lakes 
in different parts of the Province has been conducted by experienced biologists

for the purpose of determining the variety of game fish best suited for introduction

into such waters. Within recent years approximately 25,000,000 Pickerel fry,

35,000 Salmon Trout fingerlings, 7,000 large-mouthed Black Bass fingerlings
25,000 Brook Trout fingerlings were planted in more than thirty selected
scientifically-surveyed lakes and streams. 

    Residents of the Province can fish by means of angling without a license,

subject always to bag limit and seasons, as shown elsewhere in this publication.

    The following is a list of the more important varieties of fish available
anglers in Manitoba waters: 
        Northern Pike                   Pickerel (or Wall-eyed Pike) 
        Yellow Perch                    Goldeyes 
        Mooneye                         Fresh Water Drum 
        Catfish                         Rock Bass 
        Lake Trout                      Grayling 
        Speckled Trout                  Arctic Charr or Trout 
    THE NORTHERN PIKE has the widest range of any of our sport or angling

fishes. It is to be found virtually in any waters where fish life exists.

    THE YELLOW PERCH AND PICKEREL (or Wall-eyed Pike) are almost 
as common as the Northern Pike. These varieties are found in waters across
Province from east to west and adjacent to and within fifty or sixty miles
of the 
United States border. These waters are accessible by motor car over all-weather

roads or by rail or bus line. 

SHEEPSHEAD, AND ROCK BASS are all to be found in the Red River, par- 
ticularly below St. Andrews Locks, and to a lesser degree above the locks,
as well 
as in the Assiniboine River as far west as Brandon. Lake Winnipeg is also
habitat of these varieties. These waters are convenient to all-weather highways

or railways. 
    LAKE TROUT is found in many of the small, deep lakes throughout the 
rocky areas of Eastern Manitoba adjacent to the Trans-Canada highway, and
the way north through the Central Manitoba Mining territory, as well as in
of the lakes in the Hudson Bay Railway area. These waters are accessible
by highway or railway, and beyond that by canoe or air routes. 
    ARCTIC CHARR OR TROUT is found in the tide waters of the Nelson and 
the Churchill Rivers and in fact in nearly all waters emptying into Hudson
from the west and'south, and as far north along the west coast as is known.
It is 
equal to any of our trout. The best time for fishing is during August and

September. Accessible only by rail, canoe or air routes. 
    ARCTIC GRAYLING-This is a fish little known by the angling fraternity.

The Northern or "Maritime" portion of Manitoba offers some of the
finest grayling 
fishing in the world. It is extremely abundant in certain rivers in the vicinity
Churchill and reaches a very good size. There are only eight different species
grayling widely distributed throughout the northern portion of Europe, Asia
America. Grayling fishing with the "dry-fly" is even better sport
than trout 
fishing. It is one of the best game fish in the world. Accessible only by
air or canoe routes. 
    SPECKLED TROUT-Conceded the peer of all fresh water sport fishes, is

plentiful in many of Manitoba's northern waters, particularly in the Nelson
and its tributaries. In abundance and individual sizes, they will hardly
be equalled 
on this continent. They are best taken by means of artificial fly or spoon.
sible only by railway, air or canoe routes. 

Save the Forest 
    On your hunting and fishing expeditions you are pleasure bent and"
thrilled with the grandeur of the scenery and delighted with the evergreen
... The scenes are enchanting today, but may be desolate tomorrow unless
are careful in the use of fire. 
    Fires are the relentless enemy of the forest.... Your camp fire, lighted
cigar, cigarette, or live ashes of your pipe may destroy many square miles
of trees, 
scrubs, flowers, bird nests, game animals and other interesting things. An
doned camp fire may even jeopardize human life. Do not leave your camp site

until every vestige of the fire is out .... Pour water on the ashes. 
    The considerate sportsman would no sooner throw a match in a keg of gun-

powder than cast a burning match in the woods. 
    Break your match in two before throwing it away. 
    Never break bottles (glass is dangerous) or leave them where the sun
focus through them and start a fire. 
                       Avoid Accidents 
    Do not mar your trip by avoidable accidents .... In the pursuit of pleasure

in the wilds, accidents are too numerous, and many of them are preventable.

    Do not attempt to swim long distances in unknown waters or against strong

currents, even though you pride yourself on your prowess in home waters.

    Do not carry loaded firearms in vehicles .... Remove the cartridges from

your gun before you return to camp. 
    Make sure of your target before you press the trigger. 
    Do not over-load canoes .... See that the load is evenly distributed.

    It is never safe to stand up in a canoe. 
    The amateur canoeist should always paddle to the shore before attempting

to change seats: the experienced canoeist arranges the seating accommodation

before he embarks. 
    Remember that moss-covered rocks are slippery. 
Be Careful! 

       Regulations Governing Non-Resident 
                   Angling in Manitoba 
    License fees for anglipg for non-residents are as follows: 
    T hree D ays  or  less ...............................................
    Seasonal ...... .......................................... 5.50 
    Family, 3 Days or less-(2 Adults and 2 Children under 16) ...........
    Fam ily- Seasonal ................................................  7.50

                        BAG LIMIT PER DAY 
    Black Bass-not more than 6 fish. 
    Trout-10 fish. 
    Other varieties-15 fish. 
    Weight doubled for family license holders. 
                   OPEN SEASONS FOR ANGLING 
                           (Subject to Change) 
Pickerel, Perch, Pike, Goldeye, Saugers, Maskinonge, 
    Mooneye, Arctic Grayling ......................... May  16th  to Oct.
Whitefish, Lake Trout, Speckled Trout ................ April 15th to Oct.
Large or Small Mouth Black Bass ........................ July 1st to Oct.
                             SIZE LIMIT 
Lake Trout ...................... .................. not less than  16  inches

Speckled Trout ................................... _..." "    
S au gers . . . .......................................... . . " 11

Pickerel (Dore) ............................. I .......        15 
Yellow Perch ......................................... ..       8 
Goldeye or Mooneye ...................................          9 
Black Bass ................. ........................   ..     10 
    No one shall buy, sell or offer for sale any fish caught by angling.

    Applications for 3-day licenses must state exact dates for which required.

    A licensee must carry his permit with him when engaged in angling, and

produce it upon request of any Law Enforcement Officer. 
    Such permit is not transferable and shall be used only by the person
    "One day" shall mean from sunrise to sunset. 

                   First Aid in Drowning 
    Persons completely immersed in water for even ten or fifteen minutes
been restored by artificial means. Therefore, if the body is recovered within
reasonable time, absence of the signs of life is not to deter immediate attempts

to restore animation. 
1. illake no attempt to loosen or remove clothing. 
2. Lay the patient in a prone position (back upwards) with his head turned
    one side, so as to keep his nose and mouth away from the ground. No pad
    placed under the patient, nor need the tongue be drawn out, as it will
3. Kneel at one side jacing the patient's head, and place the palms of your
    on his loins, one at each side, the thumbs nearly touching one another
in the 
    small of the back, and the fingers extending over the lowest ribs. Leaning
    body forward, let its weight press straight downwards upon the loins
and lower 
    part of the back, thus compressing the abdomen against the ground and

    driving air out of the chest. This produces expiration. Draw back your
    somewhat more rapidly and relax the pressure, but do not remove your
    this produces inspiration. 
4.  4lternate the movements by a rhythmic swaying backwards and forward of

    your body, twelve to fifteen times a minute, persevering until respiration
    While performing these operations send someone, if present, to the nearest

    place to procure blankets, dry clothing, hot water bottles, etc., and
to fetch 
    a doctor, if possible. 
1. Apply a firm pad on the pressure point. 
2. Encircle the limb by a narrow bandage with its centre over pad. 
3. Tie the ends of the bandage in a half-knot on the opposite side of the
4. Lay the twisting stick on the half-knot, and over it tie a reef-knot.

5. Twist the stick to tighten the bandage, thereby pressing the pad upon
    artery, and arresting the flow of blood. 
6. Lock the stick in position by the ends of the bandage already applied,
or by 
    another bandage passed round the stick and limb. 

         With Rod and Line 

    There are many types of canoe trips available for the visiting tourist
to choose 
from, ranging from a week-end to three months' duration. 
    On the waterways of Manitoba one sees nature at her best-vast marsh areas

where wild waterfowl nest and hatch in countless numbers. Some of these canoe

trips may be made without guides, but the majority traverse a country so
sparsely inhabited and with such myriads of lakes and streams, along with
rapids and portages, that competent guides are a necessity. 
          Some of the Canoe Routes recommended 
    The Whiteshell Forest Reserve' (along many lakes and streams) and the

Winnipeg River, either down to Lake Winnipeg or up to Kenora, Ontario, the

total distance depending upon the route selected. 
    From Norway House, at the north end of Lake Winnipeg, to York Factory,

on Hudson Bay, traversing Playgreen Lake, a reach of the Nelson River, numerous

small lakes to Gods Lake; thence through Knee and Swampy Lakes to the Hayes

River, and so to Hudson Bay, a distance of some 350 miles. 
    From Berens River on Lake Winnipeg, to Fort Severn, on Hudson Bay. 
This route, along the Wanipigow River, Family Lake and many smaller lakes,

Upper and Lower Severn Rivers, reaches the Bay in about 750 miles. 
    From The Pas to Port Nelson, on Hudson Bay, the tripper follows the 
Saskatchewan River, Cumberland, Athapapuskow, Cranberry, Elbow, Wekusko 
Setting, Witchai, Split and other lakes to the Nelson River, and on to the
covering in all about 644 miles. 

        Big Game 

T W E N T Y 

AgMa I 
% (IS( 
'-Az             .-- 
           .... ' -', ... T---  ÷   - - a-,.-.. 
      A-t... %"t-          o.JSf.rJ,HmSEE.ATOO[ 
    --t"          --4 i » Z. zCC LL.eARCTO 
      "                        MAP 
I #l~e~nnrrc% 
it 9 

              UatVMW 4'T Ut311 kT e.Ri,  WMlm.A 193S* 
                        H. abor  7.  l1  f 1UW4 
jV tM  voyt iias had v. the  1150' RIM; JOUtat, l~3.3and~. 
Usyrsitos, of .tiscnsa .a4  perao .ai b * the . do* ox  at provincia 
r2%   *oi. r In p~r tva  She~ wof  fom June  .to .a Noemer 13S. epaudi 
from the~o %* a, mmwo v~ded swA ri4o. The at*o Is xkbou 7*O 
       A~~bou. one-~thalf ofte osht cvrd ygra stus of lar  sw 1 
(loaolly *aled bay) and amilor shallow pors (Z0~lly caldsloughs). 
The"y sirs at. ete wit L' Maitoba and 4o not dry up. Tho oloade 
are Iesolokt  axM disqgoar in 07 oumuen.s $me bas wM #1ot  x 
  bodeodbV .sttll oM bulnms aMd n&A bay* *otnta b~ama iola*s 
    The uAw*h has boo ess I se. voely ffeotwi by recet wo*h thon 
the praivte rqloAm farther vast. Thit~oos p4ee of dak brood he". 
s~ne SPeIS in auute 
               Ue Rtio of bocks Killed at Dolt&, 193S 
    During the 1938 .shoting so~wi 1,30 duk 4fllM ea the Delt& 
Nao wet. insma.4 in bmatero bass, aMd eased Wy swartsoa with the 

hatchery birds. Unpublishe plumage studies of Dr. Miles D. Pirnto 
were used as a check on the tallies. 
     The sex ratio of 710 river ducks of 7 species    emined was 41 
mass to 59 ftmale (Table 1). 
                           Table 3 
           Sex Ra~tio of Ritver Ducks, Sept. 20-Nov. 15 
sTkecies            No. of birds  males   P1alee       Zattea 
Mallard                3216725435 
Blue-winged teal                   32       149 
Gadwall7                            24                  35 
Pintail,                T3272                           97 
P/Gromwisged, teo", k#3   shoveller, 29; baldpate, 15. 
     The kill of females was heaviest in early season shooting 
(September 20-october 7) when the    .peniamale ratio was 406.  feno 
in the late season shooting, wheu the kill was mostly iallards ant 
when there was a very decided preference on the part of man local 
gnners for greaneas, the ratio in this species wm       46 males to 54 
    Unlike the river ducks, the diving Lucks in the Delta bag showed 
a preponderance of males. The sex ratio of 591 birds of 4 species was 
52 males to 48 females (Table 2). The male-female ratio of 211 aavas- 
backs was 53 to 147. The early canvasback bag (September 20~-0ctober 1) 
was slightly heavy In females. bat for the remainder of the season the 
males predonenated. 
                           Table 2 
            SeX Ratio of Diving wkso, Sapt. 20.ov, 15 
                     0              7        1          1 
Canvasbaok             211         ill       100      53:*4T 
Lesser soaup           3ý7         171       166      51s149 
Othe specie                 3 
  Redhead *3V rings**, 9. 

     The male-female ratio of 337 losser scaups wae 5149. Beause of 
mild weather there was no large kill during the early flight, bAt in the

late season shooting (October 21-November 15) fesmles were more numerous

in the bag in the ratio of 45 mies to 55 fein.le. 
     This sex ratio in the Delta bg may not reflect the sex ratio in 
the Delta Marsh. Selection of drakes may distort the bUM ratio in some 
species; type of hunting in others. Moreover, even if we know the ratio 
for one marsh at one season, it would not refloet the ratio for the *oa*

tinental populatioa. 
     If, however, *W observers can make similar sex tallies for e 
marshes through a period of years, it is believed that valuable new light

can be thrown ou the sex balance of waterfowl. 
                               Age Ratios 
     We were unable to census all species for age ratio. With most species

clear-cut differences are lost early in the season and many Juvenal birds

are indistiuishable from adults as early as the last week in October. 
Lesser sesups, however, retain well-marked juvenal characters until the 
end of the local season, and the young blue-winged teal retain the rectrix

character until their departure early in the season. With these two 
species, then, on accurate age ratio was possible (see Table 3). 
                                   Table 3 
                            Age Ratios, Juvenals 
spoecies            No. of birds     Adults    juvoals      to JUvTnaS 
Lesser scaup             337           9          4            67 
Bluewwinged tee&j         77           22         55          28M 
     In the bag of lesser scaup there were 249 juvenal birds and 8 adults,

a ratio of 74.26, or 2.8 juvemals for every aWt. The sex ratios of the 
two age groups were quite dissimilar. The kill of youn birds was heavier


in sales (54tQ), while with the adults the females predominated (I4l59).

      The nuber of blue-winued teal taken was small, perhaps too small 
 to have statistical significance. Of 77 birds, 55 were juveials and 22 
 adults, a JuVoeal-adult ratio of 72:25, It should be mtedL that this 
 ratio is quite similar to that found with the lesser eSaup. 
                          Composition of Ba 
     The bag tally is more a record of what species bear the brunt of 
shooting pressure than of what species compose the local population. 
Shooting conditions, local shooting preferences, the habits of the 
different species, affeet the kill. The composition of the Delta bag 
is Kiven in Table 4. 
                                  Table I4 
                            Composition of Be 
                  Mallard               392       30.0 
                    s    sep            337       26. 
                  Oanvasback            211       16.0 
                  Blue-winged teal       81        6.0 
                  Oadvll                 7         6.o 
                  pitall                 73        6.o 
                  Greenn.winged teal     4          - 
                  Redhead                          3.0 
                  Shoveller              29        2.0 
                  Bdte                   1         1.0 
                        Flightless Period in Ducks 
     Adult ducks and geese become flightless daring the suMmer molt. 
This is obviously a critical period and dhould be better understood. 
     In mid-June great gatherings of river duoks, mostly mallard* and 
pintails, were loafing on the beach of Lake Manitoba and feeding at the 
edges of the marsh, or in the oponings in the sand ridge between the 

marsh and the lake. These flocks were composed largely of males rapidly 
losing their spring plumage and assumig the drab eclipse. Later in 
the month the flocks were amented by influxes of male baldpates, many 
still in full breeding plumage. The baldpate is not a eommon breeder 
here. These males presumably came from other marshes. 
         The congregations of males steadily grew until the second week in

July. Then, in a period of a few days, the gatherings dwindled and finally

disappeared from the lakeshore loafing grounds. Coincident with their 
disappearance from the loafing grounds, large numbers of flightless birds

appeared in the shalow bays of the marsh. Vvidently as the males became 
flightless ther moved to the marsh. Until now the marsh had contained 
only heos with broods, nesting females, and a few still mated birds, in-

eluding ruddies still going through their courtship performance*. Now 
the marsh was alive with flightless adults (flappers). As one paddled 
through the great bays, hundreds of birds boldly feeding in the open 
would make for the reeds in frantic, awkward rushes. In eight miles of 
travel on July 21, approximately 20,000 ducks were seen on the open 
water, a mere handful of which could take to the air. On several occasions

startled mallard drakes wore seen to drop to the water in a shower of 
primaries lost in the first quick strokes. 
         At times these flightless birds were not to be soon on open water,

but the reed-covered edges of the marsh fairly rattled with ducks as one

paddled by. Protectad loafing grounds were at a premium and old muskrat 
houses became feathered mounds. At mid-day on July 27 a long, narrow 
opening extending into the dry edge of the marsh spewed forth a stroam 
of flappers that passed the canoe for two solid minutes in their frantic

rush to water. Here several thousand birds had been loafing on an area 

less than one-quarter of an acre in extent. 
          A few flightless drakes of blue-winred teal and mallard were 
seen as early as the last week in June. These early birds wore socretive,

being seen only in the later afternoon, evening or early morning, A 
spending the day in the sanctuary of the reeds. With increased numbers 
the birds apparently become more bold. 
         The peak of abunianse of flightless males in the marsh ane between

the second week in July and the first week in Augst. larly in August 
gatherings of males were again appearing on the lake shore. At this time

males in eclipse plumage but with new primaries were taken at the lakeshore

banding station.   0y august 3 mallards and pintails, probably males, were

flying to the stubble fields to feed. 
         No flightless birds were seen in the manoy closed sloughs water-

filled in July but dry by the first of August. Whether they actually avoid

resorting to dwindling waters for the flightless period is an interesting

but   answered question. 
         Adult females followed the males in the lose of the pibaries. 
No flightless females woer seen with young. tvidently the female does 
not become flightless until after her family duties are over. 
         The flightless flWer escapes by a freuied skittering over the 
surfaee. The wing strokes strike the water hard, and are so clumsy 
that it seems doubtful hethoer they help to propel the bird. Skittering 
flappers can frequently be overtaken by a canoeist. When caught in open 
water, all the river ducks dive roadily, often returning to the 
surface with only the top of the head and back breaking water. Then, 
nearly submerged, they swim slowly to the nearest cover. When diving 
they become rapidly exhausted and may be rather easily captured. On 

one occasion a blue-winged teal flapper beoame hopelessly entangled 
in a bed of pondweeds after its second dive. 
         When taken unawares in cover, the flappmr strthees out the neck

and sinks slowly in the water until only the eyes and bac* are visiblet 
and in this posture remains motionless until dwagr has pass*., 
         It has bee generally believed that flightless birds are in a 
weakened condition. All of the birds I exmined were plump and Tery fat. 
         The flightless adults or flappers appear remarkably free from 
attacks of predators, Marsh hawks were contimally coursing the marsh 
edge, but on no occasion were the flappers seen to shy as the swung over.

The oink probably takes flappers; feathers of adult river ducks were 
found in mink seats collected during July. 
         Male river duek r    ained in the marsh during their flightless

period, but male diving ducks seemed to repair to the open lake. This 
is only an inference, but is supported br two kinds of evidence. 
         The first is that male redheadp, canvsbas, lesser scaxps and 
reddias disappeared from the marsh and appeared in the open lake immediately

after the breeding season. In the case of redheads, flights of males 
from the marsh to the lake were seen. 
          the second evidence is that throughout August, as flocks of males

appeared on the open lake, cast-off primaries of diving duck appeared 
on the beach, together with masses of pondweeds on whieh ther were 
evidently feeding. We found as ny as 12 primaries per yard of beach, 
mixed with windrows of pondweeds. 
          Althoug  the male deepwaters were largely absent from the nazsh
 late summer, females in the flightless stage were frequently ensountered


there after the brood season. As with the river ducks, female deep- 
water% with soft primries were encountered during the hunting season. 
         Viewing the flightless period for both the diving and river ducks,

I suggest the following as the probably sequence of events. The first 
flightless ducks are non-breeding males. These are followed by breeding 
males, non-breeding females and unsuccessful females. The last birds to 
lose the primaries are the successful females. The flightless blue-winged

teal and mallard~s seen in late June were already in their clips* plumage,

but were still identifiable as males. At the same time the males attending

females were still in brilliant spring plumage. A few females were seen 
with the great gatherings of males on the lakeshore in June, and a few 
flightless females were so   with the gatherings of flightless mals in 
July. Flightless females, however, were not seen in sy mnmbers until 
August and & lesser scaup with a very young brood at the end of August

had not lost her primaries. I conclude from all this that the non- 
breeding and unsuccessful females become flightless early, while the 
successful females retain their powers of flight until after their broods

are independent. 
         This preliminary work raises several questions important to 
         Why do females predominate in the Delta bag of river dueks? Doe

their belated molt detain them on the breeding grounds? 
         Does a bag tally reflect the true sex ratio om a waterfowl shool

groundsT How mnch does differential migration, type of hunting, and 
selective shooting affect the sex ratio of the killt 
         What Is thenormal ratio of youag to old ducks? The ratios here 
reported for two species will have meaning only after similar ratios are


recorded for all species through a period of years. 
         How extensive are the early sumor ements of sales proearing 
for the eclipse? Wetore L/ pointed out the early   uimer influx of males

21ietmore, Alexander. Wild ducks and duck foods of the bear river 
marshes, Utah. U. S. Det. Agr. Balletin No. 936, M    31. 11. 
on the Bear River marshes and the influx of ales was conspicuous at 
Delta, Species inventories should not be misled by these shifting mals. 
         What are the habitat requirements of birds during the flightless

         That is the phenology of the flightless period? It is evident 
that the sequeneo in which varitos species and sex groups become flightless

=at be known bore census counts can be correctly interpreted. 

                                                          424 Unlver stý
Farxm Place 
Division of Wildlife Xaaaýont                             Deeber 8,
                  Mr. James F. Bell 
                  200 Chamber of Commece 
                  Minnepo1is, Minnesota 
                  Der Mr. 391.l 
                            I have bee withholding action on our proposed

                  conforemae pendin assuranoe from the Instituto that we

                  are frauiatlly "in the running" for the cotnS
                  Henry Davis now write me that we are. 
                            Hance I reqest that you set a date when 
                  Dr. Pirnis, Albert Roohbaum, and I can meet with yo In

                  Chicago. I am gla  to tell you that Renz7 Davis w  come

                  on from Washington for thi meeting. I also sugget that

                  we invite krtvhr Naw"ns, who has been doing parallel
                  in Illinois ad whose technical advise would, I think, be

                  very valuable. 
                            I as tied up here after Deoceber 20 and wuld

                  appreciate it if we could hold this meeting before that

                                          Sincerely Yoursi, 
                                          Aldo Leopold 
                                          Professor of Wildlife NagmeA 
                  cc Davis 
                     Pirni e 

   Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
       December 5, 1938 
  F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
Come to the 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
            Sponsored by the 
      Hotel Statler, Detroit. Michigan 
         FEBRUARY 13 to 17, 1939 
Dear Aldot 
                Let me assure you that we have considered, upon 
your advice, the Delta project as a definite part of our 
program. We do not think we'll have any trouble in finding 
funds to follow through on this project during the comihg year. 
                I think it would be a very constructive plan for 
you to arrange a conference between Mr. Bell, Dr. Miles Pirnie, 
Mr. Hochbaum and yourself in the near future so that we will 
have a better idea of -what we shall attempt to do at Delta 
next year and what the activities will cost* I would like very 
much to be personally present at such a conference. 
                We are going to have to lay soae local ground 
work at Detroit for the Fourth North American Wildlife Conference 
pretty soon. Perhaps I, or some other member of the Institute's 
staff, could arrange to kill two birds with one stone--by 
attending your proposed oonferenoe with Mr. Bell and also work 
out some details at Detroit at approximately the some time. 
                Please see what dates will be convenient for all 
those comerned and we will try to make our plans accordingly. 
In the meantime don't forget that we are trying to arrange a 
conference for you with the Sloan Foundation. 
With kindest regards, I am 
                             ýnce e yours, 
                               Seoreta js 
                             Henry P. Davis 

                                                       424 Unilversty Taro
Divsion of Nildlieo Uxgeot                            Deenmbe 2, 1934 
               mr. Iinw7 P. Davis 
               Anrian Wildif If. ast)t toe 
               1xvo#1&sn Bulding 
               wa.iMtto, D. C. 
               DO"t UMq I 
                        Albert Hobtonn toJst~ book from Dolta srA 
               will eshotly sbamit to you s Me a t of ths y7in, 
                        Dacks Unlimited, through their fildi supervisor,

               S. V. Catwight, sugested to Hobbu   that thq woul 
               lke to help finwe the projet namt yev. I personally 
               a  net isposed to &oept tinaswmi help from them at this

               time a-a I mid like to amra..e a cosferesee shortly be- 
               Uem Xr. Doll, Milo Piwie,    chbown and myself to 
               formglat, dfialte propoosis for next year for siuaesios 
               to the Institutes. 
                        Before we cna forlate & proposal for next 
               year, bmhavr, we sheoud have some Inklin of the proba- 
               bility of Institut, support. Cam you give me s   light 
               as tbis? 
                                      Stace~rely yours, 
                                      Aldo Leopold 
               e Technical            Professor of Wildlife Am~snat 

                                                      42A Untversity Farm
Division of Wildlife Unmmat Dte 2                                       9

               Dr. Miles D. Pirnie, Director 
               w. x   eU1o  Bird Sanctuary 
               Dattlo Creek, Mchigan 
               Dear Miles: 
                        Albert got back yesterday an brought with him 
               the attached letter from Cartwright (please return). His 
               reply, which is enclosed purposely stalls the answer. 
                        I think we should have our oonference with Mr. 
               ell before replying. However, before we can effectively 
               have our confereace we must know somethig about probable 
               Institute support for next year. Accordingly I have 
               written Henry Davis the attached letter. As soon as I 
               hear from him I will try to get Mr. Bell to set a date for

               the conference. 
                                        Sinoerely yours, 
                                        Aldo Leopoe  l 
               anacl                    Professor of Wild~life Mwiasgment


                                                         44 University Urn
Division of Willitfe M  e=nt                             Deoewbo 3, 1935

               Mr. B. W Carwtwright 
               rield Supervisor 
               Ducks Ulimited (Oa~ada) 
               winndp.g, cana"a 
               Dear Mr. Cartwriait: 
                        Thank you for your letter of November 4 and 
               the coments on the malla4. I stoppd at your office 
               on sW wv down Tuesday only to find It emty  Sorry to 
               have msed you and Mr. Raeholt, for I hed hed we 
               might go over the chan es you d~esire.& Will you send
               piectue back wi sugeotions or shall I   Le another 
                        Tour propos*l rmrding fInFi-          t   r 
               research at 7Ieltst is iteresting. .L-s yet I haven' t had
               obacos to talk with Professor Leopoldo however, and believe

               that I  y be better eq-ippaA to aaw  yo   question afte 
               we have had an opportunity to go over the mttw together. 
                        T am realljy sorry that I finally hnl to leve 
               Canada and will be glad to get back anet spring. It bas 
               been a real pleasure to hrve befo a-bse to se you from tim

               to time at Dlta ad I hope you will plan to sto over in 
               Madison if you are in the stat this wintr., 
                        With kin& rtrus 
                                          Yours very trulys 
R.L Albert Hohboi 

          DR. .IILES D. PIRNIE, Director     Telephone 7-F-4 
       BATTLE CREEK       MICHIGAN           H   icioRY CORNRS 
             Sovernoer 17, 1~ 
                                             Freight and Express 
?rofessor ildo Leopold, 
4'4 University ?r "r 
cu iAson, i Ocons inf. 
Jear Professor Leopold: 
      1 ajpreciate receiv~ring  e coopiCe of 
 vouir letters to (cil, Langlois, and Albert. 
 am returning rour letter from 1r. eli. 
 -    ei~er from "r. "ell was verr simiiar 
 to yours z.o will riot botLe r t o  ien  it on 
 tO you. I cerLainiv 1ike his altitude as 
 far as it is revealed from thii correspondence. 
      Ecilo:eed is the )elta 4tory I sent in 
for the eptember Inland .ir,' andin±C V- 
At the     0D . U. meetin I. did noL report on 
the 9elta banding results as I had intended, 
bat reported on the reoults of ten years 
banding in VHichidan. 
      i am very anxious to discu:6 with you 
and' Albert the pres;enit t6'UWs of the -e-ta 
project anu the relationship with d1ucks 
Unlimiued. Of        lb 1± b.- ,id -o 
come to ý-nicaQo or '.ao±ion to meet with you 
and I.r .e1i 
      Please foru rd to !e atu Auga;iLa the 
 paitings of Aicert.     ie h i ho izih, to 
 havce exhibited at tle 7ilson 'lab aeeting,. 
      -ote to see sýome o   rou 00t the 1iilson 
and  aoubs    11eetin-s. 
 riac. C) 
                         .. Vrnie, 
,A Gift from  -i r. Kellogg * This Sanctuary is Now Owned and Operated by
lAiichigan State College, east Lansing 

                                  MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
FAMES F- BELL                        November 3, 1938 
   Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
   Professor of (GIme Management, 
   424 University Parm Place, 
   Madison, Wis. 
   Dear Dr. LeoPola: 
   First, my apologies for failure to acknowledge and 
   thank you for copy of your letter of September 1st 
   addressed to Mr. Davis, together with your report 
   on the Delta Project. 
   This was lost in an accumulation of mail while I 
   was away this summer and did not receive my 
   attention before I went North. 
   Certainly the work you have started at Delta 
   has me- with enthusiastic interest and support 
   and we are all delighted with it. I am so sorry 
   I could not have been there with you and Dr. Pirnie. 
   Hochbaum seems like an extr mely able young chap. 
   I did not have before me the suggestions you made 
   about the winter carry overs, but Hochbaum was 
   familiar with it and I gave instructions to Ward 
   that they should be followed out as you indicated 
   through Hochbaum. This I am sure will be accomplish- 
   ed to your satisfaction. 
   I did greatly enjoy reading your report and I am 
   encouraged in the thought that we have really done 
   something useful and that this may be continued with 
   increasing usefulness in the future.   I shall be 
   glad to confer with you and Dr. Pirnie at any time 
   you may elect.   Possibly we can find a convenient 
   date whuen we can both be in Chicago. 
   With kindest oersonpl rcga.ds, I am, 
                              Yours sincerely, 

                 INLAND     BIRD   BANDING   NEWS 
                     Quarterly, issued by the 
                   Inland Bird Banding Association. 
VOL. X                     September, 1938                  No. 3 
                          THE ANNUAL MEETING 
       Acting President J. W, Stack, after consultation with 
       the other officers of the Association, has called a 
       business meeting to be held at the Museum of Zoology, 
       Ann Arbor, Mich., Friday afternoon, Nov. 25, 1938. 
       This will follow, immediately, the program of that 
       day of the Wilson Ornithological Club. 
       There is an important election to be held at the time 
       and questions to be discussed having a bearing on the 
       future of bird banding organizations. 
       There will be no formal program but papers may be 
       submitted to the Secretary to be read by title.   These 
       will be published later in Inland Bird Banding News. 
       A notice of the meeting, giving all particulars, will 
       be mailed, about November 1, to each member. 
                                    Edward R. Ford, Secretary,, 
                                    Chicago Academy of Sciences, 
                                    Chicago, Ill. 

                     by M.D.Pirnie 
     In Canada is located one of the least known but one of the 
most important duck banding stations in North America.   It is 
owned by James F. Bell of Minneapolis and is in charge of 
Superintendent Edward Ward.   This duck hatchery has raised and 
leg-banded over 60QO. wild ducks in the past six years for release 
at the Delta Marshes of Man-itoba.  (At the south end of Lake 
Manitoba, about 70 miles west of Winnipeg.)   The species banded 
include the Mallard,.Pintail, Redhead, Canvasback, and Lesser 
Scaup,   This has been truly a pioneering work. for nowhere else 
have the Redheads, Canvasbacks and Pintails been raised success- 
fully in such large numbers. 
     Banding returns received to date show that the Pintails and 
Mallards raised at Delta have held very close to the Mississippi 
fly-way. The Lesser Scaups and Canvasbacks have .spread more 
widely and some have been shot at the Atlantic Coast. 
     During the past August, the writer was at the Delta Marshes 
for waterfowl plumage studies sponsored by the American Wildlife 
Institute, Michigan State College, and by the University of 
Wisconsin.   Professor Aldo Leopold spent the last week of August 
at Delta to confer with me and H.A.Hockbaum, one of his graduate 
students at the University of WisconsIn.   Mr. Hochbaum is banding 
ducks and is otherwise busy with intensive waterfowl studies at 
the Delta Marshes for a five-month period which began last June. 
He trapped 27 Blue-winged Teal in one "haul," and reports taking

young Ruddy Ducks and Redheads in his funnel traps. 
I I ý 

     Our late president, W. I. Lyon, banded Franklin's Gulls at 
the Delta Marshes several years ago and at that time reported 
mdst enthusiastically on the Delta Beach Wild Duck Project. 
                   BANDING             4K. - 1938 

Up to the present time we have banded more than 51,000 birds in 
the past 12 yearsý   Since January lst, 1938, we have received 
195 returns through the Biological Survey.   Some of them are most 
interesting.   I don't remember now how many returns in all we 
have received but it runs into a great many hundred. We have,*had 
reports fr6M thirty-one different states and eight foreign coun- 
tries, including several provinces of Canada. We are making maps 
of each species of bird, showing where they have been recovered.     - 

                                                        ý44 Uhdversity
Farm Pla&e 
DI'visiou of Wildlife M et 
            Delta, iani~toba 
            Dear Albert 
                     Glad to hear from you. The bag tally intreats me 
            partiexiarly. I am certainly 3urprised at the low peropen-a 
            of juveniles. The .vaace mirtition of f' ales is of oiare 
                     I am ruch inter~sted i Pitbldo's propos&X ha' t
            UnIvaerity of Wanie studmnt be asieA a8 your asilstant 
            next year. I suppose this is flnced by Ixickn UnlimteA. In 
            any c4ae my offhandA opirion is that if the offer comes 1A1o
            university we cnot eciine it, but of courso we would have tc

            insist that the nliversity pic the n- ,.4 I.Ot 3T O'U 01t8Lt
            Of coliTre, I      t vance this e ton. only for   -433sion th
            azd Milei. Hr. Rell 0.igbt have soaetlh-i  to say about it. I
            sending a copy of this to Miles so he oan be thinking it over.

                     Iam al  it    to hfr aboUt your tjC1 at the A-Wal 
            Histry Sonirty next nonth. 
                     Gax-Agpna is an keiatic lejume widely useod by the Soll

            Oonservation Service. It has not been euccsuful in Wisconsia.

                     With best regards, 
                                        Yours sinerely, 
                                                Aldo Leopold 
            hProfessor of Wildlife Msaeat 
cc Dr. Pirnie 

                                         Delta, Manitoba 
                                         O)ct. 2, 1938 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Game Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold, 
       I am afraid the temptation to slip out with the gun 
in any spare moment has been too great and I have let my 
correspondence sldde. It is a new experience to shoot ducks 
at ones very door.   Thank you for the new Riley Program and 
for the note from the boys. Must have served three Cocktails 
this time! 
       It has been a busy place here with guests coming and 
going every day. Mr. Bell arrives today and I am looking 
foreward to meeting him and going over our program. Since 
the opening day there have been 280 ducks shot and I believe 
that, even with this small number,you will be interested in 
the record. 
       Males    124   Adults     146 Adult M. 64 Juvenile M.60 
       Females 156    Juveniles 134 Adult F. 82 Juvenile F.74 
As L look over the records I am a bit concerned with the number 
of juvenile birds as compared with adults,but I have gone over 
all of the birds very carefully and the juvenile characteristics 
are still quite obvious on most of the birds I have seen. I have 
saved tail feathers and the wing or parts of the wing of each 
birds so that I will be able to check the records again. 
       Mallards head the list becausewith the June weatker we have 
been having a great deal of the hunting has been jump shooting. 
For the maliard the record is as follows: 
       Males 45   Adults 79 A.M. 31   J.M.14 
       Females 75 Juv.   41 A.F. 48 J.F.27 
       Shooting will continue at the lodge until the third week 
in October Ward says andwith the prospects of looking at over 
a thousand birds, I think these records should prove interesting. 
After that,the local game guardian has kindly consented to let 
me look at bags with him on Fridays and Saturdays until the end 
of the season. 
       The most surprising thing about the season here is the 
small amount of shooting that is done. Except on Saturdays when 
th-re is a small amount of shooting, one seldom hears a shot all 
dayt long. There is almost no shooting at all *mam east of the 
far lodge. 

       After I had written you last, I realized that it was too 
late to reach Mr. Elton in Ottawa by mail, and then car troubles 
complicated things for a trip to Winnipeg. I did get in and 
had a chance to talk with him for a shott while which made me 
all the more sorry that I could not have made better arrangements. 
       Here is an item that calls for a good deal of thought, 
considering our discussions regarding personnel,difficulties 
of maintaining a large staff here at the present time,and 
relations with Ducks Unlimited. Mr. Pitblado wants to have 
a University of Winnipeg student to work as an assistant under 
our direction here next summer. He seems to know where funds 
are available and his object, as he stated it, is to bring about 
an interest in this type of prworkm at the University. 
       You will be interested to know that the 14atural History 
Society of Winnipeg has asked my to give a talk next month. 
       Thank you for the troubles to which you have gone 
concerning enrollment in the University. I am not perturbed 
over being unaffiliated for a few months, 
       The plant used so much for snow fences here is Caragana. 
I am not familiar with it and can't find it in my booksbut 
you probably know what it is. 
       Hope you -ill enjoy a pleasant shooting season at Riley 
and that you bag a deer this year. Wish you could drop up 
here for a few days this fall. 
                        Yours sincerely, 

                                                          ~4?24 Uu versity
ratin Plae 
Division of Gtcie v, ený                                  Soptembaar
10, 3.93E 
           MIr. nry P. Davis 
           American Wi]JUife Institute 
           Investmt Jkt1d4zg 
           Is..hingtoz,,, D. C. 
           Dear Henry., 
                     I think it woula be safe to go ahead   pub  ity 
           on the Delta prolect ecept on the proposed plAge etud' Eaxi 
           duck tal1. It is barely possible that 4or Gam    Birds might 
           run away with this idea. In other words, go ahead with the 
           ban&ing progra ad the n esting study, but 9W uotiig about

           the other, 
                     Shou1d you want me to look at your material, I Wu6,

           of curse, be glad to do so. 
                     If you are espeoially desirous -.t I write the 
           iAterial, lot me know and I will dc m best, 
                     With best rega-rds, 
Ycurs sincrlly, 
        Mkdo L~opoUd 
 Prof eseor of Game Wmwgemet 

   HERBERT L. PRATT                                                     
                     FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                       F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chaimon of the Board          AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE         
   FREDERIC EWING                       Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935       T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                                       INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D.
   ALDO LEOPOLD                                                         
                       HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
7, 1938 
                            Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                            424 University Farm Place 
                            Madison, Wisconsin 
                            Dear A2-do: 
                                         Thank you very much for your letter
                            September Ist attaching the report on the Delta

                            project. We would like very much to give this

                            project quite a bit of publicity. You suggest
                            "the technical conclusions be given no publicity

                            at this time". Naturally, we will abide
by this. 
                            But we would like very much to "tell the
                            that we are engaged in a waterfowl study and
                            what type of work is being undertaken. 
                                         I'm sending copies of this report
on to 
                            the officers of the Institute. Many, many thanks

                            for your splendid cooperation. 
                                                              enry P. Day


          DR. ,W4ILES V. PIRNIE, Director          Telephone 7-F-4 
       BATTLE CREEK      -   MICHIGAN               MICKOYIGACORNRS 
               September 7, 1938.                       0 
                                                  Freight and Express 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
11~~5.~ Ak tI.Ll4JJA 
                 Madison, Wisc. 
                 Dear Mr. Leopold: 
                         I did not expect to let a week elapse 
                 before telling you again how much I enjoyed your 
                 visit at Delta, and especially the trip back and 
                 my stop-over at your home. I had a fine rest. 
                 Please thank Mrs. Leopold for me. 
                         I have again read the report to the Institute 
                 and to Mr. Bell. I am sure you have covered all of 
                 what had seemed to Albert and me essential items. In 
                 spite of a fail- start in plumage determinations of 
                 age and sex, I realize there is much hard work yet 
                 to be done in this part of the study; and I hope 
                 that it may be possible to greatly expand our local 
                 duck propagation as well as to make full use of the 
                 Delta Wild Duck Hatchery program. 
                         Enclosed are sample record sheets. [he 
                 printed one is used for birds or mammals, and it 
                 certainly savey work and prevents many omissions. 
                 Our field sheet for banding records is being revised 
                 to include a column for weights. Other suggestions 
                 will be appreciated. The ruled sheet for posting 
                 all bandings seems very satisfactory, provided the 
                 cause of death-when known- is recorded so as to 
                 permit tabulations of shooting mortality, etc. I 
                 believe repeats ( weights, etc.) can best be taken 
                 care of by a card file for all repeaters. Other data, 
                 weights and plumage records, etc. can be taken from 
                 field sheets directly. A card file for all bandings 
                 seems cumbersome and unworkable. Still need for study. 
                         A small enlargement of the dowitchers is 
                 on the way. Expect to send you several others when 
                 we get doing our own this winter. -- The color 
                 films are fine, including straw fires. Am anxious 
                 to finish them as slides so you can borrow some. 
                                  Sincerely yours,                      
                                  M. D. Pirnie. 
ý,A 4gift from ~,/Wr. Kellogg * This Sanctuary is Now Owned and Operated
by ,,Michigan State. College, Cast Lansing 

                                                        424a University larm
  Mat Division                                          September 1, 1936

Mr. lesry P. Davis 
American Wildlife Institute 
Investment Building 
Washingtoa, D. C. 
Dear fteary 
          I am jut bak from Delta and am enthusiastic aboxt the start which

Pirnte sa Hoobbaum have adAe, and hardly lees about the excellent cooperation

between them and Mr. 14110a organizatioa on the ground. 
          Mr. 3.11 is still in ScotlwA and I shall have no imediate opportunity

to confer with you and the other officers of the Institute. Hesce I have
had to 
make the budgetary eepeots of the attached report tentative rather than final.

So man possIbilities are opened up at Delta that I need to confer with you
with Mr. Sell and learn something of your wishee before I ca wAke a final
meadation for 1939 orpaisation. 
          I have seat copies of the report to Mr. Bsll, Dr. Pirnie, Hoebm
Mr. Wd, and as circulatlag a copy among member. of the Techncal Committee.

Will you kindly Sve the attached copy the necessary airoulation among officers

of the Institute? 
          I would sugest that the technical eonelusions be given no publicity

at %tis time. *r. Bell has wisely followe*d this ease policy in recent yoers.

Some of those conclusions night be snatched at and possibly misused by other

orgnimations. There are. of course, maw things about the project which could

be safely publicised even new, but I think this should await the determination

of fttue objectives I personal soomfrence with the Lastitute and Mr. 3e1l.

          I am glad to tell you that relations with the usaAian authorities

are oxeellent. I called em Mr. CuaniAam, the Provinoial gaue officer, and
him very friendly toward the whole uAdertaking. Several flyway officers of
R1iological Survey have dropped In and expressed enthusiasm for the usefulneas
the results which will shortly be forthcoming from this project. 
          A& aceounting for the 1938 gratnt from the Institute will be
to you by Dr. Plrote as soon as the season Is over, namely %bout November
                                           Yours sincerely, 
                                                 Aild. Leopold 
enol                                      Professor of Game Management 
to J. P. Sell 
   V. D. Pirnie 
   R. A. Iechbom 
   Tech. Corn. 

                                                42)4 University Flaru Place

                                                September 1, 1938 
Mr. H. Albert Hoohbaum 
Delta, Manitoba 
Dear Albert: 
         low that I have had a chance to collect iq thoughts, I think of

& few things we should have talked about. 
         aawim. I would like to have you take enou         time off to do

aditional painting  readesof wJ lose of tohnt           output. How Mcht

I will leave to you. 
          BI suspect that we overlooked somthing In Table I 
of the rep.    I dut If eaptive stock ti available this year for all of 
the nine secie proposed for eo-ge         on b  n    , T4     1y I 
have left a loophole La the report and will simply leave it to you and Mr.

Ward to make any necessary adjustment, suabjet, of course, to Pirni*es O.K.

There is, of course, no reason why part of the plumage lots cannot come 
from wild eggs next year. 
          AI have talked over the relationship 
between Fi   e and Ward a respect of artfic.ial propagation next year &ad

Pirnie and I find ourselves in entire agreement, namely, we will give 
a&Ice on artificial prpagation only as Mr. Ward asks for it. 
          Wtloa $taja. I have a further letter from Michigan State and 
have ain attemted to exlain the atter to them.        I suggest that you
Vivian your fees on a resident tmcis, and if we do not get resident status,

that you do not register during the first semester. I will try to get straight

with Michigan by that time. 
          Mr. and Mrs. lton will be in Winnipeg September 16-21, c/o The

Fur Trade Oommissioner, Hudson's By Compaoq, Hudson's Day House. From 
September 5 to 11 they will be c/o Dr. R. U. Anderson., National Miasma.,
          In closing let me again tell you of my satisfaction over the whole

job as you and Pirnie have conducted it. 
                                   You"s sincerely, 
                                          Aid. Leopold 
*a M. D. Pirnie                     Professor of Game Manageneat 

                                                             424 University
Vare Place 
Game Management Division                                     Septemher 1,
    Dr. H. R. Hunt 
    Department of Zoology 
    Michigan State College 
    Fast Lansing, Michigan 
    Dear Dr. Huat: 
              This spring Dr. Pirnle. with my help, obtained a $1,000 grant
    the American Wildlife Institute to make a duck study in Manitoba. 
              The field work required a student of special qualifications
and Pirnie 
    selected one of my students, Albert Hoohbaum, as better qualified than
any of 
    his available men. Hoohbaum has been at work all mumer and is being paid
    Michigan State College from Institute funds deposited with you. 
              This winter about November 15 Hoehbaum will return here to
work up 
    his field data and prepare for next year's field work. He will register
    fall in our Graduate School. The question is, "Mist he register
as a non- 
    resident student (he comes from Washington, D. C. ) or can he register
as a 
    student given the benefit of resident fees because he is doing research
work for 
    the University? 
              At this university all students supported by university -ante
    resident tuition privileges even though they may be non-residents. Non-resident

    tuition is $100, resident tuition is $2.750. Dean 1. B. Jred of our Graduate

    School told me he would be glad to recommend to the Regents that they
    resident tuition privileges to Rochbaum if Michigan State College would
    that he is doing satisfactory research work Jointly for the two institutions
    is receiving a stipend from Michigan from a grant for such work. 
               The question is of official importance to both tieconein and
    State because Eochbauu is supported in part by his savings, the stipend
    summer work being insuffioient to carry his personal expenses. Now that
he has 
    been especially trained for the job it is important to both of us that
he be 
    financially able to hold out long enough to finish the Job. If he has
to pay 
    non-resident tuition he will naturally be able to hold out for a shorter
    than if he can be accorded resident tuition status. If the grant had
been made 
    to Wisconsin instead of to Michigan State, he would atomatically have
    tuition status. Since, however, this is a Joint undertaking between the
    universities, I thought it would be to our matual interest if you wrote
to Dean 
    Fred, suggesting that he extend resident tuition status to Hochbaum.

              As to his qualifications and the satisfactoriness of his work,
    would prefer that you see Pirnie. Both of us are enthusiastic about Hochbaum

    and believe it would be very difficult to locate another man anywhere
near as 

September 1, 1938 
          I am sorry to have to bother you with this long explanation and

appreciate your friendly inquiry. 
          I might add in closing that I have a high admiration for the 
services which Dr. Pirnie has contributed to our project. If you have time

to read it, you might ask him for the progress report which he and I have

just drawn. In m opinion this project provides a channel for making useful

on a national scale all of the findings which you have been accumulating
the Kello4 SanctuAry. 
                                     Yours sincerely, 
                                              Aldo Leopold 
Vh                                     Professor of Game, Manageuent 
cc Pirnie 
2 -H. R. Eunt 

                                MICHIGAN STATE COLLEGE 
                              OF AGRICULTURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE 
                                       EAST LANSING 
                                              August 18, 1938 
     Professor Aldo Leopold 
     Department of Conservation 
     Division of Agriculture 
     University of Wisconsin 
     Madison, Wisconsin 
     Dear Professor Leopold: 
                      I have just received a letter from Dr. Pirnie mailed
     a town in Manitoba asking that a Mr. Hochbaum be given resident status.
     am not quite sure as to just what Dr. Pirnie means# I am not acquainted
     Mr. Hochbaum and I know nothing about his record or abilities as a student.

     Would you be so kind as to explain just what you and Dr. Pirnie wish
to have 
     done concerning Mr. Hochbaunmand give me your estimate of him from the

     standpoint of his ability, preparation and personality. 
                      We hope to see you in East Lansing again sometime before

     long. The recollections of our contacts are very pleasant to me. 
                                               Sincerely yours, 
                                               XRe!t Hunt 
                                               Head of the Department of

           DR. .MILES D. 1PIRNIE, Director           Telephone 7-F-4 
:b      BATTLE CREEK       -  MICHIGAN              HICKORY CORNERS 
             Portage la Prairie, Man.               Freight and Express 
                August 15, 1958.                       MICHIGAN 
rOf. Aldo Leopold 
niversity of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wise. 
Dear Prof. Leopold: 
       At the end of ten days at the Delta marshes 
with Albert, I feel qualified to report on the progress 
of the waterfowl study. In brief, both in public 
relations and in wildlife research I consider he has 
done an enviable job. His findings substantiate our 
hunches that censusing nesting waterfowl and "productivity' 
are exceedingly difficult,- that several years work and 
study in a marsh such as this would yield considerable 
base data for other waterfowl field work ,- and that 
the Delta Duck Hatchery can be very useful in studies 
of duck growth and plumage development. (Aids in taking 
inventories of broods and in sorting bags of ducks.) 
       The enclosed progress report from Albert is 
quite adequate for now, I believe, to give a good idea 
of accomplishments to date. A general inventory of 
a situation and marsh yields few specimens than a 
collecting trip, fewer nests than a nest study,,etc., 
but is, I believe, none the less valuble to wildlife 
management. And in this case I consider the details 
and specimens are of themselves a credit to the study. 
       To summarize: We are getting a photographic 
record (chiefly in color) of the marsh stations likely 
to be of importance in future studies, of birds and 
mimmala, habitats and special plants.  Albert has 
painted sketches of the downy young of 8 duck species. 
Forty specimens of ducks in various stages of development 
have been prepared to date. Five duck traps have been 
built and 115 &icks--mostly young- have been banded. 
(Baiting young ducks is far from easy, we find.) 
In predator study, 80 ground squirrel stomachs (Franklin's) 
50 mink scats, and 50 crow stomachs have been collected. 
In an intensive nest survey, 21 nests were found on 15 
acres; where incidentally, early nests have been robbed 
for the hatchery. Brood observations number over 500. 
-4 Gift Jrom  Wtr. Kellogg * This Sanctuary is Now Owned and Operated by
,Michigan State College, Cast Lansing 

            Current work includes completion of about 15 more 
       duck skins, juvenals and eclipse canvasbacks and redheads 
       of known age, hatchery birds; more photos of broods, etc.; 
       new traps and still more active banding efforts; more 
       marsh trips to locate new concentrations and *moving out'; 
       Fall work will include the tally of ducks bagged together 
       with listings of species seen in the marsh and redative 
       abundance. We plan to set up stations for marsh plant 
       ecology studies. Muskrats and algae- also milfoil- seem 
       likely to greatly affect other plants, but water fluctuations 
       may be even more important. 
              Mr. Ward has insisted on making tentative plans for 
       next year's duck rearing program; and,with no obligations 
       to the Institute, we are offering some suggestions. We 
       could have the use of extensive mink pens which seem very 
       suitable for starting young ducks. Ward is prepared to 
       build additional outside pens and to adapt his program 
       in the hatchery to suit the needs of plumage and species 
       studies, according to our needs. A wonderful chance, it 
              In taldng of possible future studies, Albert and 
       I boil down the opportunity to about the following, in 
              1. A full season study of waterfowl   __ 
              nesting in a Phragmites-Scirpus marsh. 
                 Detailed study of duck development, weights and 
           (..-'plumage changes, for age determination, sexing, etc. 
OBJECTIVES    ,. An evaluation of and contributions to artificial 
               propagation of ducks. Chiefly Ward's Program. 
               4. Study of flocking, migration, and dispersal by 
               means of the leg-banding. 
               5. Preparation (with Ward) of report on banding 
               results to date, and on artificial propagation; 
               also other reports and papers for publication as 
               data gathered seem to warrant, eventually including 
               the identification "text" Albert and I have taked
       Without doubt, the above objectives mn be fairly well 
       accomplished should it be possible to operate with at least 
       the present personnel and aids from the Institute and 
       from Mr. Bell. I trust that this season's results will 
       cause you to hold the same opinion.-- We look forward to 
       your visit; and still have funds for all or most of your 
       expenses one way. ** Have written Dr. Hunt as to letter 
       to Dean Fred.-- Advise if you wish special report to Davis 
       prepared by us now. We assume otherwise you will report 
       informally on basis of this letter and report. Thanks. 

     In a conference with Miles Pirnie on Augst 1 the following list of 
unanswered questions about duck nesting was drawn up. 
qZL& A. Qestions not likely to be investigtad by others. 
     1. Oat species renestT What species, if an, have second broods? 
        Is either character changed by domestication? 
     2. What per cent of birds on breoding marshes are actually breedingT

        What per cent are paired but not nesting? What is the age of first

        breeding In the various sposeis sad how does this-affect the first

        two questions? 
     3. What are the criteria of stage of incubation in duck es?    What
        the criteria of age in ducklings? (Moedod for mortality and predation

     4. Can plumage orltoria be developed for oclsifying the duck bag of

        the various *peel   by sex and sgO?  (Xoedod for productivity studies.)

Group X.    eostions whim might be investigated by others, but have not been

sficiently ostuded. 
     5. Is it possible to got productivity measuresment on sample units of

        broeding ground? Row? What kind of unite? (lsrniss' work indicates

        this is feasible on potholes. Staudt's work shows promise for lake

     6. Can nest density samples be obtained by burning sample areas? 
     7. low ean grasing, fire, cultivation, and barbed wire be used for cover

        improvement on nesting grounds? 
     S. What ref inments of technique for identifying nest predators can
SC.         estions not investigated by others and not yet approachablo for

  lak ftecnque. 
     9. What is the carrying capacity of typical nesting grounds?  To what

        xtent are they under-stocked? Is carrying capacity determinable by

        xperimental manipulation of sa kind (such as planting additional

        breeding stock) or mast it be historically determined, as by 'rrington

        in quail? If the latter, how should sample plots be loated and 
     It ws agreed that these approaches to waterfowl nesting problems are
yet crude and therefore likely to profit by repeated discussion. The group

interested in them is in part scattered and not able to hear such discussion.


It o theefore sugested that a special seminar be held anwally before or 
after the WildIlfe Oonference ia which isolated workers can deesrlbe theIr

l.ocl epportuaities an get the advice of the grup on vhat to attept. All

workers could likewise descrIbe their techiques an get criticism as to 
                                               Aldo Leopold 

                                             Delta ,Manitoba 
                                               July 29, 1938 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Game Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison , Wisconsin. 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       Certainly am glad to know that you have decided to 
visit Delta. I know you will find it a great place. 
       Thank you for sending me the announcement and the 
outline for the new course. It is very clear and quite brief 
enough, I believe, and I can offer little in the way of 
suggestions. I am enthusiastic about the new course, it is 
great. My only feeling is that it should stop at three credits. 
The Saturday field trips should be an important part of the 
course, but I believe the work outlined on page three should 
come under 161. 118 might well be a prerequisite for this 
work but could it be carried along with the course? Again, 
it will mean two groups of students under individual supervision 
rat  r than one. Thii   ara ra h describes work that I believe 
might  e o  ere   o students in other fields in 161. This is 
but a minor point and my perspective on school work may be a bit 
warped way up here. 
       Your outline of the purpose of the course certainly 
carries a great deal for thought. 
       Trapping started with a ban   ut has dropped off a bit 
 in the last few days. Have taken'35 young ducks and believe 
 I can take several hundred before the season is over. Mr. Kalmbach 
 informed Mr. Ward that he, too, intends to band young ducks this 
 year, though he has not started as yet. 
       Have had over 50% good luck on picturesthough the 
bright lights here fool one. Here are a couple of nest pictures 
taken with your camera. 
        Enclosed is an outline of progress during July as 
 requested by Pirnie for his visit with you August 1. 
        Hoping to see you at Delta soon, 
                                 Yours sincerely, 

Outline of ,rogress for July 
1: Field work 
       As much time as possible has been given to reconnoitering 
the marsh, particularly Bell's land. This has been justified, 
I believe, because any work we do here must be preceded by a 
knowledge of the area. Frankly I have been absorbing as much 
as possible about ducks, this being my f6rst opportunity to gain 
first-hand knowledge of them on the beeeding grounds. 
       I believe I have some interesting notes on birds during 
the flightless stage of the eclipse. This is apparently near 
its peak now and Ward and I estimated that about 75% of the 
birds seen in a trip through the marsh on thursday were flappers. 
Flightless birds of seweral species were seen the last week in 
June. Their increased abundance in the marsh was noticed shortlp 
after the disappearance of the large flocks of males that 
frequented the lakeshore until about Jut* 10. 
       Considerable attention has been given to brood observations, 
and I have observed about 300 broods, mostly redheads, canvasback, 
and ruddy. 
       Of the predators the most interesting object of study is 
the Franklin.s ground squirrel, more abundant on the marsh 
borders than I have ever seen a mammal.of its size. We have seen 
them kill a young duck and have found numerous others they have 
taken. I have a collection of crow stomachs, ground squirrel 
stomachs and mink feces for later study. 
2; Banding and Trapping 
       Two traps are now going and tkree more are under construction. 
I have banded 35 young redheads,pintails, mallards and blue-winged 
I: Skin collection 
       A beginning has been made on a collection of downy young as 
well as birds in eclipse plumage. Color sketches of downy young 
of several species have been made for future reference. The 
collecting permit has arrived from bud* Ottawa. Incidentally, 
redheads and bluebills have been immima"  NO    *collected 
in flightless stage because df feather-wear before the primaries 
are lost. Peter Ward is becomming adept at preparing skins and 
may be of help later on. 
4. The Hatchery 
       Eight species are now under observation for plumage 
developments, etc. 
       Ward has banded and released 437 of his own birds,cans, 
redheads,pintails and mallards. 100 birds have been sent to 
the Bio. Survey for experiments in changing birds from one 
flyway to another. 

       Ward has saved about and redheads for 
us and is going to release the adult birds now in the channel 
pen. Some of these birds might as bell be burtled as released 
and we wonder if it might be worthwhile to run some experiments on 
them -- differential mortalitt in lead poisoning etc. 

                                      Dlta , %nittoba 
                                         July 17, l OP? 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Game -nagement 
Uni,!ersity of Wiscdnsin 
-4 University Farm Plpce 
Madison , Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold, 
      It would be r mistrke, I Pm sure, if you did not come 
to Delta this F-uu, er. Wprd is expectinF you and would be very 
much disnppointed if you could not come. He is Pxtrnmely 
interested in thz propram und is -nxiour th!t you have - chance 
to see the set-up this su-rqe' and help outlin- the work for 
the future. I iw sur- that you will spee thinzs that Pirnie 
end I will overlook. 
      Yes, visitors htve been rather frequent but I nm certain 
that your coninay up would not be at all unwise. I think we 
might consider ourselv-s one of thV "1rmily" Y-re ,rnd the 
Wards Pre looking forewvrd to your visit. They fel. I b.,livpv, 
that they nre a'ettinr as much plessur- and knoIl5,dv out of 
this as we re Fand your Yisit this su'r e>n only -7d to thi . 
      As to the time, I ba]    e th'-t vnytime ft~r the lth of 
AuaGut would b,- bTst. Yr. Cu,,inffim   nd f 'amily susnd the 
first two 'w'1,k  in Au ust -t BeP 's lodge. 1Thil7 he is a very 
nice personI do not brlievi7 hp -,'ouli Pr1,' a "trv int  ting 
only iext,-door r ..or -,o' oy lenmth of time. Soý-, to speni 
most of his tir here "'ith P bottle. 
      Tb" "-. r  t-oin ir l       nd -, r- okn 
forev'ard to Pirni 's return.       Anrd Amd I c-n sex liýc- Iy- 
old duck1 no'1, o P   t, k n f o -          i -t. 
the f, I h~v> tV~k for ss-circns.      I t   dno t -i 
"xt yea r "e c-n ch,ck ti~o 'ycvI sIt1 a'~~l     n"a d th

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   HERBERT L PRATT                                                      
                       FREDERIC C. WALCOtT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                         F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairma of the Board          AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE         
   FREDERIC EWING                       Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935       T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                                      INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D.
   ALDO LEOPOLD                                                         
                        HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                                  June 29m
                         Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                         424 University Farm Place 
                         Madison, Wisoonsin 
                         Dear Aldos 
                                      You will note from the attached copy
of a 
                         letter I've Just written to Dr* Huston that Dr.
                         has outlined the plan for the expenditure of the

                         $1,000.00 which the Institute has appropriated for
                         Delta, Manitoba, duck study. This arrangement is
                         satisfactory to us and I hope it meets with your

                                      We will look forward with a great deal
                         interest to Dr. Pirnie's progress report. I think
                         project is going to be very worthwhile. 
                                      With personal regards, I am 
                                                                   erly yours,

                                                                Henry P.


                      Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935

                      INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
  Y  FOR ALDO LEOPOLD                      is   S    s 
      Dro . Co Huston 
          Do" o. Appie 8 sit4o                   o n aetbt 
      Dear Dtor  ~Ikets mO i4s      wus-          s  a 
      saotln  res~toraio  moint  A we ar g~a4 to be abl  to ploy 
                 I = weloingt boml* our obo* for $1,000,00 at. 
      "bl to the Tresrr of th Mlo R*p   State C41*o  Thisto in 
      "oordinoe -ith the sugate  A  by Dro ft1ml.. v~ Is otte 
      in his letter of Jun  27th to us. Dr. Kirmio sugestste     folwn 
         ogoam j~ amsmenn      th      Osursomt of thoe flns, ami is 
      1. salarys 
            Pay to Alborl Roaho    for salarya   fieldM worke 
            $100. a smth payable anJuly tenth (or )*th) 
            for th. port" Jue 10 to &l     100 and tor vie 
            .euoo4Si mth he work ful tim a the Doltla 
            std, for fiv noths, or to Noeme     10o, 
                                        salar total    $W0 
      to Travo an other inotdowial mWeas 
           A. 23esssof Albert hohoafr trip frm 
           Madiso to Delta Marses Jun 10, 11, and a      60,0 
           like ma to be paid at the tonato       of blo 
           seriews at Delta, for return to MIad a        50.00 
           Do Dr.M. D P. sio 
           Fenmes of Dr. MeD P.Firnt. for the Jstri, 
           to hldisoa and DeYlta Jun  8 to 1? nluie 
           (Pyal    m.)                                 100,00 
           l~in  expenses for the last hal of August, 
           at the Delta Mhrshes eandtravel rturnm to 
           Battle Greek. Ntyablo Augut *5.              100.00 
           Travel to the Delta Marshes and4 i~ving expenses 
           for the first half of August. Payable Juily 25        100 

Dro R# 0# Hus       8              J   ..3.5 
  Thes isttu~te isR not bein ehre fori~m D.t P ssaar 
whil a't Delt'ka as this 4in h o~ortriutio o X-leimSte 
Colege, t,o th tuy 
   Q. hO0.W 
      Fo adtioa 3o.l labr and (or) travel 
      exene to Winnpegsi and Nw~o  ~*s 
      or possbly to .mr Prt..ssr Ald loq.Wds 
      expnsetoDots for a ..uCerenowith Mrs 
      Bel. he etil of diiwibuto of this 
      1  t. t be left to Dr. Fir.i.e s 9rti 
 ~ withe Mrmtaa watofM tims3.  iatimtha.q  biia 
 Mt.We* would greatl ta. tpthira wit I yuhm .MiWin3 s"thtt-* 
 Awdnar isure inith abov nat or* 4  p~S 
            S h m5l1nriiy viny..d 
         It toudesod tha Dr. Pil  wilt funsh t~he 
Intttowih progres -_nd fia ript of th stu4" whih he 
Mr. Hokamwll mo at Deta together with whatever addita in- 
frteim! th Intiut wI roqpase 
         Aonlot us ammue you of cur do appreim of you-r 
oepetin"or eampe onlne in the efetieess ofth 
                             b~m7 . Deinw 
VPS * 
JOW no l"S 

   Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
                                          June 28. 1938 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisoonsin 
Dear Aldo: 
              The attaohed correspondence is 
TSino ly, 
    nryv P. 'eils, 
F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 

             P          CANADA 
                      MMNS AND RE5S.WCE8 
                                           ottm    June 14, 1938 
Dear Heny 
      I have rea dwith a grt deal of intrest your letter of June 10, 
1938, and the attached report to the Wildlife Institute on the Delta 
i atertuw1 PFrojoot byr Aldo Lop14d and Dr* 1irnie's de-laIled statement

of rosearc possibilitie that .ight be           in th  Delta area. 
      It in mot gratifyin to note that waterfowl reeearch under sucsh 
exzellent directien to planed to be  uertene at the instance of 
the Institutes and I am sue that this Departammt will be glad to 
eopemto In te   mtte   of permits, or ia any otr way possible* 
      Ur. J 4,iy Soperp ý;hit Federal Miratory Bird Office   for'
.hPrairie Proviseos, may be found at 536 Lesion Public Bldg*& Wimnipegs

Usnitoba, and will, I anem ..taia be pleased to exten any advice that 
he cea. It w&nld also be desirabae for you to  .in touch with Ur 
A. G. Cunningha   Direetor o Gm   and Fisebes    In nipeg. Vaitebae 
*o is the responible Provineial effleer on all wild life  attere 
relatingO othe * 'o r nae of Manitoba, If at all possibl I thn that 
it ni;ht be desirable for you to eend etoes, or etracet of the tw 
reports wl1c   re attachd to your letter to Messrs* 3oper and 
Cunninghe.d that they will undersetand oatly what wo    is pla   d 
      this office is alreat dealing with an eaquiry from Dr. fi'nai 
for a pemt under the Mirtory Birds Comentie. Act, and he has 
bown fully aAdvsed oonoornlag the requirmnata. 
                                eith beet reeares 
                                Yours vey truly, 
                                     (signed) HOY U, LM 
        Wild'? Life, kroeq.o 
American WII1dlife Institutes 
Tinvestment Bldg., hashington* 
     P. co, 1. so A. 

                     Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935

                     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
  Y  FOR ALM LEOPOLD                    Jue            e 1 
        Mr.    d Hoyoo U o yd~.                          
        Sut.o   Widlf   Frotoion      
        Otmv, hy  ai    o A 
        ihis ev        beom    red soon  I    no Z  ot i t 
        sou4 be the su*Joot of a peronal oeewerntu    with y~ a 
                  1e mr delightedto Lnm that ou aprove of the 
        Insttut's erion In. aupp.rting son    iosearoh va  xt Mr. 
        Bell's Delta, Mwta prpet une the r~evso of our 
        Toohntmil ritt    mid Dr. Miles 1). ftiulet  I note that you 
        hay almo~y hadwa   oorrespanen  with Dr. Pirb, soI = 
        oars, tht he has madeo leer to yuthe wor plznC       ie will 
        doep1y apmrtett you           -'prainan o th throg it 
        this aer'tiv Vall remi2t in $0  wav~ soat1wti 4m"103- 
                    Tkap   ye  ey h twyor moaassi tat I wits 
        Mess. Soer and    0   .sd-hm I' doin thi~s ty as per eopy 
        of th lettr ats&d     I an alesi senin the eople of 
          Laspld~ re',wihwill explin to thal the details ot **hs 
                  Dr,   1.mi will no dut  beo esaoti  you h~ 
        tivi to tw mad this efflao will bo" you ifnldonan 
           6oeor~ss  Please give myvr boat rtad to Tod and Dun 
        e~resieon of willingness to e."orte, I an 
                 Her F 'vs 

                   Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   C            SAME LETTER TO A. G. £¶JNNINGUW 
Y FOR ALDO LEOPOLD                 bssi" 
       ~rMr. J. Leoy", uf 
       "a* 1.iamwa atbi 'Wildianbeg           ~r 
       Amte v - mioa bCoro -~ ~ s er g,     ~u 
         It ive soa a~1 greatGalo plesol4 toe tara you 
       vke Mies 1etD. at Det. wai ba 1*  woul Ut v been w laft- 
       tofb aur alm 1gWram had tro noar for~ noto 
       takelmoi  asio In ere to got this ef insurn.  h 
       Utkdpe &bat Golo0 has Ioev~l omtrbtdtes  oa 
       fo stors slw p~m No are floonew g  1. Pisosvisit 
       of hesqbrps a"e th*qf pitan*4 I am ta MIgbrt 
       otpy at tbeer by Pr a bed Leopld of the Ukdo*1 of~ 
         wixowoU i     be isCam  t the *nst itu ~ Toor i r - Cmni 
       &Ak *rfo  Leopol wt Dra 1. wtuabaomd It olar tol ust 
       -olpst in* 16 ftmt.  of *m~ netn  Ul otn b 
         praciz A wor strt   *s 0t epW Inl a  gret uosr po 
       yýr mArni att Or* k.hbvi wx umo a %.Pefoo ope 
             Isat16 hdoriy t lomlx ooa) 1"see*si  Al  % 
             opro~t rqadie he  m otfm~ tho 141is*d "ois 

                24,000 feet turned in to Crow     Control office: 505 
                Commercial Bldg., Winnipeg. This Contest closes 
                when above 24,000 feet are received; or on July 
                51, 1938, at the latest. 
            2. For each 50 feet turned in a certificate will be 
                issued to the sender, entitling him to a draw for 
                valuable prizes (totalling $400.00.)     This part of 
                the contest open to Nov. 1, 1938. 
                 I. All contestants must abide by the decision of the 
                    judges appointed by the Manitoba Game and Fish 
                 2. Contest open to any sportsman in Manitoba who -is 
                    over 16 years of age. 
                 3. No pay made under contest unless and until 50 feet 
                 4. Crows feet should be thoroughly dried or treated 
                    with a solution of formaldehyde before mailing. 
                 5. We suggest mailing feet in old shell boxes. 
            Sponsored by: 
               Manitoba Game and Fish Association 
               Crow Control Offic: 505 Commercl Building, Winnipeg 

                                   UNIVERSITY Or WISCONSIN 
                              COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
                                    MADISON. WISCONSIN 
                                                            424 University
Farm Place 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS                        June 23, 1938

Division of Game Management 
             Mr. H. Albert Hochbaum 
             Delta, Manitoba 
             Dear Albert: 
                       I am much pleased with your letter, partimlarily 
             with the good news that you and Mr. Ward get along so nicely

             and that you have so high an opinion of his abilities. 
                       I circulated the Williams report with the intention

             of calling it up at seminar and seeing which of you boys coxuld

             do the best job of shooting it full of holes. My opinion of
             is the same as Mr. Ward's. Do you know this is the 
             Williams as is co-author of the excellent paper by Y.arshall
             Williams? One can't help drawing a flatteriag inference as to

                       I appreciate you and Miles both urging me to cone
             but I know I can't at present and I cannot promise later. 
                       Don' t worry about. a program not imiediately sha-piu

             itself. It should not. Your notes sound goof and the whole 
             thing will shake itself down soon enough. 
                       With best regards, 
                                             Yours sincerely, 
                                                     Aldo Leopold 
             vh                               Professor of Game Management


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                                                      41'ýL11 U111ve-rzt-y
b-rm Place 
sof                                                   aJe 23, 1938 
        Dr. Miles D. Pirnle 
        W. X. Xellog Bird Saictuary 
        Battle *re6ek, 'Michigan 
        Dear Miles: 
                  I am glad you and Albert were pleased with ycur first 
        impressions, andT axn especially glad to kaow of your good 
        opinion of W7rd. 
                  The letter to 7ean "rrd has for its purpose the orpor-

        tu-ity for Albert to pa? resident rather th0en no-resident tuitioa.

        If he were supported on a piece of research by a UnIversity of 
        Wisconsin assistantship, he would automatically get the 1bnfit 
        of resident tuition. Sine his employment by Michigan is virtually

        the snae thing as far as resaerch is concerned, I theouat your Dam

        would be willing to write a letter of the kind I sent you, and it

        would save Albert $200 out of his none too large salar, You 
        understand, of course, that he Is supporting himself for the whle

        year out of what he erns this umer. I of course ao not want 
        you to do anything which embarrasses you. Dean Fred tells me, 
        however, that these mxchairqt of courtesy between collges. are not

        Inf requesnt. 
                  I a-.preciate your urging me to go up to Delta in Augst.

        I cant yet tell whether this will be possible. 
                  Your letter to Mr. Bell is very well handled. 
                                      Yours sincerely, 
                                               Aldo Leopold 
                                        Professor of Game U& W weat 

         DR. ,MIJLES D. PIRNIE, Director          Telephone 7-F-4 
      BATTLE CREEK      -   MICHIGAN              HICKORY CORNERS 
                June 20, 1938.                   Freight and Express 
 Prof. Aldo Leopold 
 Madison, Wise. 
 Dear Mr. Leopold: 
           Just to reply to your letters and first 
 of all to say that Al and I were more than well 
 pleased at our "take-off" with Ward at Delta, and we 
 found facilities excellent and propitious. The 
 dopy of my letter to Al (enclosed) will sumnf up the 
 present emphasis on field and lab work for him. Any 
 suggestions? He read me parts of his letter to you, 
 so I feel you have by this time a fair notion of the 
 setting, habitats, etc. 
           As to the letter to Dean Fred: I am rather 
 puzg led as to the letter which would be in order 
 coming from Michigan State. The idea you want put over, 
 if I get you, is that he will be on the job into 
 November, and not working just in regular collepe 
 terms; but actually he will be doing research for 
 which you feel he should heve College credits. But 
 are we at this end in position to enter this discuasion? 
 I do not understand the details of your tuition request. 
           As to the paying out of the expense money and 
Alt' nlary: I have written the College and shall again 
write Levis when I have their reply, sending you a copy 
of my lelter to him. 
           There should be money for your travel to 
Winnipeg in August if you can find time. Better plan 
on it, Al and I agree. 
          I am increasingly impressed by Ward as well 
as by Albert's ability and balance. Evidently it is 
up to us to plan someway to utilize this combination 
in the future-- provided Mr. Bell can see his way to 
aid; or in case he backs out, we should find another 
sponsor. 4e-ehsaee Thr. chance is too good to lose. 
                     Miles D. Pirnie. 
,4 Gift from ,Jlr. Kellogg * This Sanctuary is Now Owned and Operated by
Jlichigan State College, Cast Lansing 

               June 20, 1958. 
Dear Al (Hochbauin): 
     G"a to rport a fine trip aebov   the clouds 
on TLhursday, and ell fine at the Wintergreen Take 
heedq~uartrs  heIn I returned. This morning the 
family left for Rochester, Y, T., and I am busily 
enaged with t'hr typewriter-- Bell, Leopold, et al 
due to hear from me. 
     No new ideas yet; --we did cover so mch ground 
I shoaldnt need any new ones for a while, I suppone 
yoJ thin!. TO suira-.rize, howevers 
     1. Peeonnoiterlng msrshes and ridg(es. 
     2. Dily check at ditch vlong road, end scy. bayos. 
     3. Color sketches of downj youin at 0,t hatchnery 
4. Recording develop, of embryo ducks, also lter 
   plumage devel. and age at which cin fly. 
5. Banding of wild-reared young before flying; 
   also bandinT of any and all ducks, even if flyers. 
6. Attention to predation fncts end theories as 
    affecting 1o:- I rea. 
7. Swi -in:, dancinr, bnd crow shootin  for health; 
     tea drining for recreation., 
     If Pitblp o  receives the color film just save it 
for me; do not here.  -- Find teleahoto shots 
have been -oor in color film. Still ho(e for Iest 
from   ta p1 ture.   All report as soon as heve them. 
Hope you my hove found the scit.ore, etc. Thanks for 
all the chauffeuringr- until hetter -aid. 
                   Good luck 
Miles D. firrIn 

               June 20, 1938 
Mr. James P. B1l 
200 Chamber of Cerce Bldg. 
Denr -r. 13.ell: 
          Aa you my know by this time, Hochbaum 
(the student) and I went to Delta on tne 12th, and 
althouih of couree I had to return here for teeching 
in the    >er J:hool of Alology, he Is now well at 
the waterfowl studies- thanks to your hoplity 
and the hv   from t7!e .ildlife Institte. 
          I am very much impressed by the work .r. 
lard hoe done; and in fret it is not -tretching the 
frcts to say he i1 way out ahead of the so-celled 
*wildlife specieliets' who are so lacking in experience 
that they cannot prop erly evaluate his rork. i 
consiler it a rewl privilege to be a le to leern 
from and to wYrk wit him under so fine a Let-up. 
          Piather than take your time by tryirn to 
write in greeter detail, let me V-rely eSy at this 
tiuie that I sincerely hope you may find a chance to 
be at Delta for a few d&ys when I have returned or 
the month of August. 
          I expect that .r. ioeum will fit in end 
get alorn very nicely at Dlta. He made good in the 
'ation-l 1Parks .ervice and le one of the nost capble 
workers I know- in eadltlon to bern well along as 
a bird artist. 
          Aiain fiuy I express mr týizrks for what you 
are doin to aid our waterfowl nesting studAee, 
                    Sincerely yors, 
                       li. 0, Pirnie 

                                                           424 University
Farm Ple 
                                                           Jun. 20, 1938

Division of Game Manaemnt 
            Dr. F. C. Liacoln 
            Division of Wildlife Research 
            ureau of Biological Survy 
            U. S. Department of Agriculture 
            Washlgton. D. 0. 
            oear Iredrcwk: 
                      Since you bring the matter up, I had no impression

            that you were uninterested in artificial propagtion. My object

            in writing was this. all of u3 think of waterfowl banding as

            your bailiwick and I didn't wvant to start anything in that fiel.

            without letting you know and seeking your guidance and advice.

                      Aioe yam regard our little venture with friendliness,

            I am entirely satioIica and hope you can stop in there this 
            summer to give the boys your ideas. 
                      With beet regard, 
                                         Yours sincerely, 
                                                  Aldo Leopold 
            Vh                             Professor of Game Management 

                           BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 
                                    WASHINGTON, D.C. 
       AND REFER TO 
                                                   June 17, 1938 
        Prof. Aldo Leopold 
               424 University Farm Place 
                      Madison, Wis. 
        Dear Aldo: 
               I have your letter of June 14 and in reply I may say that

        for some reason I seem to be on record as being uninterested in the

        artificial propagation of waterfowl. The truth of the matter is 
        exactly the reverse, provided the birds to be propagated are not

        puddle-duck Mallards. 
               This project of Mr. Bell's at Delta, Manitoba, has been 
        watched by me for several years and I feel that he is really accom-

        plishing something decidedly worth while. He and I have had con-

        siderable correspondence on the subject and his Superintendent, !r.

        Edward Ward, is one of our regular banding cooperators. While I 
        have not had an opportunity to make a careful study of the data re-

        sulting from his operations, it has seemed to me that the birds 
        banded and released at that point migrate and otherwise behave in
        manner that is almost identical to birds raised in the wild. 
               I am enclosing herewith a copy of a recent memorandum to Dr.

        Bell on this same topic. 
               You may be sure that the project, whether private or under
        guidance of the Wildlife Institute, will have my most sincere 
        interest and if I get any kind of an opportunity to make the trip,
        will be delighted to visit the plant at Delta. Men from my section

        working in Canada make this a regular point of call. 
               With cordial regards, I am 
                                             Sincerely yours, 
                                             F. C. Lincoln, In Charge 
                                        Distribution and Migration of Birds

                                           Division of Wildlife Research


                                               May 26, 1938 
                         MORAI1DJM FOR DR. BELL 
 Re: Bell duck propagation project in Llanitoba. 
        Jith reference to the attached correspondence regarding'.the 
 Bell duck propagation project in MJanitoba, I feel that I should go 
 into some little detail, chiefly because in the letter of May 13, 
 1938, from 1r. henry P. Davis, Secretary of the Wildlife Institute, 
 to Prof. Aldo Leopold, of the University of Wisconsin, he states 
 "I am reliably informed that there exists a somewhat difference of

 opinion between Pirnie and Lincoln and this may complicate matters."

 I am not informed concerning any opinion on this subject that may be 
 held by Dr. Pirnie, and to the best of my recollection the subject 
 has never been discussed between us. 
        I believe, however, that you are fully informed of my own ideas 
on this ratter as it has been the subject of several memoranda from 
me to you urging that the Bureau take up similar investigations. As 
a matter of fact, I have always felt that I was at least partially 
responsible for Mr. Williams going to the Bear River Refuge in Utah 
far the purpose of making similar studies. You will recall that en 
route to his new station, 1r. Williams visited the Delta project and 
rendered a report thereon. 
       Briefly, it has been my belief that Mr. Bell was doing a most 
worth while piece of work and one that merited scientific investigation 
in an effort to find out whether or not artificial or controlled 
propagation of game waterfowl other than lallards and Canada Geese 
might not be successfully undertaken within the natural breeding range 
of the respective species. To me the underscored thought is the crux 
of the whole situation, for reasons that are not apparent. It is, 
however, my belief that the only real successful propagation projects 
that are being conducted with these birds are those of Mr. James Bell 
at Delta, Manitoba, and that of the Flanders Club on Long Island. 
       I am attaching hereto some correspondence from the banding 
files that we have had with Mr. Bell and his Superintendent, Mr. Edward 
Ward. In this connection I may add further that Mr. Bell has co- 
operated with us for several years, using our bands on the birds he 
raises and releases. These have yielded data that appear to be in 
every way comparable with similar information resulting from banded 
birds raised in the ,ild. I should like nothinL better than to see 
this project taken over and directed tlhrough the Survey in cooperation 
with the Canadian officials. 
                                     F. C. Lincoln, In Charge 
                                Distribution and Migration of Birds 
                                   Division of Wildlife Research 

                                                          424 University
Farm Place 
                                                          June 14, 1936 
Division of (nme Management 
          Dr. F. C. Lincoln 
          Division of Migratory *uterfyw1 Resarch 
          U. S. Biological Survey 
          Washii ton, D. C. 
          Dear Psrderick 
                    Last winter the Wildlife Institute referred to me as
          maa of tkieir '.echxial Oomidttee some  orrosonienoe wlth Mr. Jame*
          3ell of Minnespolis concerning Institute participation in some
          studies at Delta, Ranitobs. The first proposal dealt with artificial

          propagation and while the committee was friendly toward Mr. BellIs

          efforts, it did not recommend any financial contribution by the
                    Later I learned that Mr. Bell really intended to offer
          property for any kind of research and it courred to we that this
          be a good place to seek a final answer to the whole question of
          value of artificial versus wild dueks which you opened up four
or five 
          Years a. 
                    To make a long story short. Miles Pirnie and one of my
          Albert Hoohbaum, are now on the ground to organize some research
          directed toward this end. The work is supported by the Institute.

                    The purpose of this letter is to bespeak your friendly
          in the enterprise and to inýgegst theft if you are in the
vicinity of Delta 
          this 3u--u-r, you dro-, in a3d give us the benefit of your advice.
          will be there only a short time but fochbaum will remain for the
          so asn. I think you will like him, and I know that he would be
          pleased by a visit from you. If you do not already know Mr. Bell,
I as 
          ur    ou wo uld like him, t". 
                                           Tours sincerely, 
                                           Aide Leopold, hairmpan 
          Vh                                 Institute Technical Cornittee


2,24 UnIvArulty Farm Place 
June 14,, 1935 
Division of Ga. f a t 
Dr. It. C. Huston 
Dean of Applied Sdne, 
Miciga State Collag. 
het Lansing, Michigan 
Dear Dean Hustont 
         As hairrm   of the Tedmic4 C.itte. of the 
Wildlife instaite, I wnt to erwess w &ppie4atiou of 
your rmdiness to contribute the time of Dr. PirnAe to the 
initiatioa of the duel- study In Mantoba. Ans yu probably 
know, Dr. Kui, ociples a rather unique   aition in the 
watorlowl ftil. and it i. a geat help to or antmprise to 
Meo the benefit of his supervisory erv¢ice. 
                          Youars sincerel~y, 
Srt..op In 
Mr. Lepod's absenc 
      Aldo L'pold 
Professor of Game Man.~esnt 
cc Pirnie 

Ron. J. N. Mclkwm 
WizipM, nitoba 
         Prof.  iles '. lirnie, ý!icih n State Col 4, 
hat toll io of :ou.r inaw' curtsetlie to hLj' in hin s rmceat 
CR,      viSit. I am new h  y to tell yo that the 
A-nioan Wt 1  fq Tqstimtti h4s nd  it pssilo for 
Dr. Pirnde to nlvee &a gradute etudet at Oelta. 'r. !iratie 
and Albert hýochýbxu a-e now on the groun. 
          U fm t±ý.ý I~ ;,,id.t ould lik. to hava written

you in advance about this un4rtking, but in ordr to got 
there bf~rthE ýeonCluiiu vf :L e    tin *    n it ws 
n.ossary ti procd in a hurry. D      .pite cur failur, to 
ou-)sulft you In Adypanoe, T tr:iwt that P.ýr. Pirrde's furtheor 
work will be acootable to you and your Department. 
         Dr. Prate or 
bef.orf loýng to r.%t yovr 
lohbaum will doubtloa call on you 
lk&t   ti  ,  t't -t5e IIr )gtrAýes t.  f  tlhý  : etiiy.

Your% aizcore4, 
Thni.l   Co mitt.e 
A&Z-ri@cn Wi ife 2Tastitute 
cc Pirnie 
Division of Ga.e Mnaginzt 
a4ue 4 ntr,i~l      I 

   HERBERT L PRATT                                                      
               FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                 F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board      AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE            
   FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935    T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                                    INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C.

   ALDOC LEOPOLD                                                        
                 HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                                 June 10,
                    Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                    424 University Farm Place 
                    Madison, Wisconsin 
                    Dear Aldo: 
                                I deeply appreciate your letter of June 9th.
I have 
                    written Pirnie asking him for information concerning
the manner 
                    in which he desired payment of the $1,000 we had made
                    A copy of the letter went forward to you yesterday. Just
                    soon as he replies to my letter these funds will be forthcoming.

                                 I'm delighted to know that Pirnie and Hochbaum
                     on their way to Delta and I am confident that their
work on this 
                     project will warrant the expense on the part of the
                                I am writing Hoyes Lloyd as per your suggested
                   As soon as I have a reply from him I will send you a copy
of it. 
                     Incidentally, Gardiner Bump is quite enthusiastic over
                     project--you have already received a copy of his letter
to me 
                     of June 7th. This makes four out of five of our Technical
                     giving this project their approval. We have been unable
to hear 
                     from Dr. Ellis in quite a while. So, we are assuming
that he 
                     is in the field. 
                                We deeply appreciate your interest in this
                     and your maintaining the contact with Mr. Bell, Senator
                     has also written to him informing him of our action
in making 
                     these funds available. 
                                In reference to the postcript on your letter
I think 
                    this will be entirely satisfactory insofar as we're concerned,

                    but in view of the fact that I have already written Pirnie
                    would rather wait until I hear from him directly before
                    him a check. If it becomes necessary for him to have
                    immediately, we can supply it. 
                                With kindest regards and every good wish,
I am 

Copy to Pirnie 
                                                020 University Farm Place

                                                JA=e 9, 1938 
Mr. Henry7 P. Davis 
Mearican Wildlife Institute 
Inmesmeut Kildirni 
Washington, D C. 
Dear Henry: 
          Miles Pirnl is here today and he and Albert Rochbaum, who 
is to be the field student at Delta, leave this afternoon to begin work.

          Mr. Bll is absent from Minneapolls, but he very thoughtfully 
completed arrangements for the reception of Pirne and Rochbaum at Delta.

They will not be able to stop and see him at Hnineapolis as T had hoped,

but thV hope to see him at Delta in the near future. 
          At the present time there appears to be only one possible 
cloud on the horizon, and that is the attitude of the Caneaian authorities.

It appears that Plirle, before he had ny serious idea of Institute 
participation, had asked Hoays Lloyd for scientific permits in oase he 
were able to return to any part of Manitoba for waterfowl studies this 
siner. le has not had a reply. I do not know how to construe this, 
but it certainly adds urgency to my previous r   endation that the 
Institute feel out byes Lloyd on the whole enterprise. I assume yw 
baye not yet done this and I attach a rough draft of a proposed letter to

byes Lloyd. I recommend that you or some other officer of the Institute 
aWres some such letter to Hayss Lloyd as promtly as possible. 
          Would it be too much to exect that you or Senator Walcott or 
some other reresentative of the Institute drop in at Delta some time 
this smner?   It would be a great        a  t to the boys on the ground.

                                 Yours sincerely, 
                                         Aldo Leopold 
enel                               Profsesor of Game Managent 
P.S. As to the mode of disbursment of the Institute fund: Michigan 
State Colleage designates to Pirnie authority to disburse funds for 
special projects on the Kellogg sanctuary. Pirnie tells me that the 
proposal is for the college to likewise delegate to him the disbursement

of the Institute fund. An acountin   will of course be rendered thr.ugh 
the College to you at the expiration of the summer. Is this satisfactory

to the Institute? 
        l  IA.L. 

Copy to Pirnie 
                                                           14")0 iaversity~
Srrm Place 
                                                         J11no 9, 193$ 
Division of Ums1e 
            Mr. Janme F. 3.11 
            200 Chber of Cmero 
            Minnoapolis, Minnseota 
            Doar Mr. Belli 
                      I an hapy to tell y'a that the Tnstitute arpropriatd

            thoe fuuls for the Dl".t work on :Jne 6 aa, Dr. Virnie AM
            Uohba    ae lewivng for Delta by car toda, y  . Pirnte rust be

            baok In Michipan by June.-00, but Jtochbmw will remain luring
            rest of the fiold som-. 
                      In         e with yor letter of Key 27, 1 an viring

            your secretary to please rslfte the necessary instructins. We

            all gretly apnpre     y    d     n   re            these 
            arrw4@inets In advame of you dq~rture. 
                      I am writtie Henry su.aiseting thit he inkse sure 
            of the acceptability of the mm plans to NoynesU. an to the 
                      I hope thatt you yourself will be able to Visit Delta

            before lok. While we have haM to oruise the viole thin    in
            hurry, I myself am *ooutidot that the enterprise will ultimately

            yielA considerable satisfaction to all of us, ar you attitue

            throughout is p,ýartiwula-rly appreointe4 by myself aM4
by the 
                                         Your. sinaerely, 
                                                  x14o, Leope1d 
                                           Professor of Gauie Msuinfm% 

Mr~ byes Lly4 
~epartu.nt of the 
Otau, ~ 
J)ar Mr. ~ay& 
         ~ri~ the p.0 ~ y~rs Ki'~ James 7. 3e11 of Einue.poUs. wb 
y~ -* ~a some bw.~i~ w.~ i ~e1t.. ~ Ms be~ ~ 
~nst1.tute to sooperat. fi*aadi*lly in a res.arh ~terprtse on his ~.sa4s,

         !~e first propesal us for the Institute to utilize his 
pleat ta ~l#ri~ the pssibilitie of watsi~g ~ tion in A~ut 
lu*s bj the use of .wflf1~sSA3. Ii~t, ~ie prepo~l us Mt ~pwwal ~ 
?eMioal Qommittee. It 55 cortain that ~- tion coull be ~u 
but the pro~.0 se~al to o~ ooittee Ieee ~geet then ether neal. for 
          More reo
proposal for work at Delta is accept, 
because it was not until a few daysi 
tf the enterprise. Does itm, eet wit] 
          I realize, of course, that 
basis of a paper record alone. May 
the vicinity thi~s sme, you1 drop ii 
Mr. Belli, And A~lbert Hochba-um, who w: 
sugest that yu infrm D       Soper 4 
drop i n? 
          Leopold end ?trmie, have nv 
ultimately to contribute soea now sol, 
in the pratial oper'ations of gettii 
Mile of these who ew the grund 
heartil~y welcome all the Mdile. they 
staffs and from the Caa~dian coserys 
          It Is evdet of coret 
o  scentific pemits from y    and fi 
Pirnie,  op     nr mself knw the 
year. but I anticipate that the h* 
objectives of the Delta work describf 
rather than more egg-lifting than hai 
          With personal regards, 

     SO X. 1410 a 
              It ý 
     eoo      - 
     fo Zh *VlovI 
     N*Oin sud P 
        ousio beme 
              I O 

  0               UfrflV ITY OF WISCONSIN 
  P               COLRS OF ARICULTURE 
    Y               Madison, Wisconsin 
                                              424 University Farm Place 
                                              June 6# 156 
 Mr, Henry P. Davis 
 Aser   n Wildlife Institute 
 InvestwAnt Building 
 Washingon   D. C. 
 Dear Henryt 
             I am delighted to receive your wire stating that 
 $1,000.00 has been made available for the pplortory work en 
 the Delta projeet In accordanee with my letter and report of 
 My 7. I still feel samewhat disturbed over not hearing fro- 
 Gardiner Buxq and Dr., but I an assminag that if they teok 
 exception to the recommendations of My 7. they wold have let 
 no know by this time, In ether words, I om assing that they 
 are in the fie ld.l 
            The paymet should be ude to Dr. Miles D. Pirmie,, 
We. . ZKllogg Bird Sanctuary, Battle Creek, Michigan. I do not 
know the rules of Michigan State College for handling a cooperative 
project-,' bt I on sending a cepy of this letter to Dr. Pirmie with 
the request that he natify you about any additional details which, 
you need to kow. 
            As to details of organisati, I think it bet nt 
to specify them too closely, It is already ~undrstood that the 
#1.000 is for Dr. Pirnie's expense to visit the area and for the 
emploinent of student assisttants for the remainder of the field 
season. It is also understeod that this first year's work is 
exploratory and that continuation of the projset will be ro mee ded 
only if an. attractive opporturity for duok nesting studies is feund 
to exist, 
            If you need a more fomnal, detailed oooperative agreeset, 
I will draw one, 
            I much appreciate the prompt action of the Imstitute 
in   king the funds available, I an sending a copy of this letter 
to Mr, Bell, 
                                     Yours sincerely, 
                                       (signed) ALDO LEOPJ 
                                       Aldo Loopol d 
                                    Professor of Gao Maagement 

                                        44University Farm Plae. 
                                      June 6. 1938 
tMr. Henry P. Davis 
Amenrcan Wildlife Institute 
Investmenxt Build~ing 
Washylt      ) C. 
Dear TNery: 
          I ar delighted to receive Your wire stating that *1,000 
has been made available for the  ploratory work on the DeltA proJect 
in          ewith   y letter    report of XV7     I still feel somwat 
iisturbed ove not hearing from Gardiner 3a, aind Dr. )nlis, but I an 
assuming that if tbey took exetion to the r1oee   ation of May 7, 
they would have lot . know b,, this time. In other words, I   m assuming

that they are in the fteId. 
          The payment should be m*de to Dr. Miles D. Pirnie, I. K. KelloM

B)ird 5aotuary, Bttle Gree, Michiga. I do nt know the rules of 
Michigan State College for handling a coomerativ, projecot, but? amn sending

a copy of this letter to Dr. Pirnie with the request that he notify yo 
about any additional details wbieh you need to inow, 
          As to details of ergansation, I thik it best not to spesify 
them too closely. It is alresy understood tbht the $1,000 it for Dr. 
Pirnipe's eyuerse to visit the area sad for the employment of studemt 
qssistrnts for the ramaliner of the field season. It In also uderstood 
that this first yeAr's wor is   ploratory and that coxtinuation of the 
project will be recoended. oly if an attractive oinortunity for duc 
nesting studies is found to exist. 
          If you- need a sore foremiq, letalied cooperative agreemont, I.

will draw one. 
          I mch &appreciate the promt action of the Institute in making

the funds available. I ms sending a copy of this letter to Mr. Bell. 
                                  Yours. sincerely, 
                                           Ald.o Leo~pold 
                                    Professor of Game M    mn 
Copies: Pirnie 

   HERBERT L PRATT                                                      
                FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                  F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE           
   FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated In District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935  T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee    INcroTEd  in Ditrc o ASColum Oi , Jl  29
                                    INVESTMENT BUILDING, W(ASHINGTON, D.
   ALDO LEOPOLD                                                         
                  HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                                June 6, 1938

                       Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                       424 University Farm Place 
                       Madison, Wisconsin 
                       Dear Aldot 
                                       Following up your letter of June 3rd,
                      talked to Senator Walcott this morning and he game
me the 
                      green light on proceeding with the James F. Bell Duck

                      Nesting Project at Delta, Manitoba, under the terms
                      your letter of May 19th. 
                                       I wired you today as per copy attached.
                      are assuming that either you or Pirnie have your student

                      picked, or know where you can secure him, and this
                      may act as your authority to proceed with the organization

                      of this project. You are in much better a position
to do 
                      it there at that endj due to your contact with Pirnie
                      Mr. Bell, than we are here. Please advise me of your
                      of procedure at the earliest possible moment and give
                      the information concerning to whom the check should
                      made, and I'll see that it is put in the works immediately.

                                       A waterfowl research project in Canada
                      much needed right now on the part of the Institute
                      even though this work must be continued on a year-to-year

                      basis, I think it is fully warranted in view of your

                                       Ted Doremus is confident that he can
                      the money to finance this project over a term of years.

                      Will you please put the machinery in motion to get
                      survey under way? 
                                       With kindest personal regards and
                      forward to hearing from you in the very near future,
I am 

Same letter to Gardiner Bump 
424 University Yarm Place 
June 3, 1938 
Division of Game Management 
Dr. M. M. Eliii 
De"artment of Phyiology 
Univereity of Missouri 
Qolumbia, Missouri 
Dear Dr. Elliss 
          The duck nesting project on which you were asked 
to vote (my letter to Henry Davis of May 19, copy of whieb 
was sent you) ti being held up pending receipt of your vote. 
          Since Pirnie's summer field plans depen on the 
action of the Xnstitute, I would appreciate either an early 
reply or notice that you are absent and not able to reply. 
          It will save a couple of days If you will send your 
vote direct to Henry Davis with a copy to me. 
                          Yours sincerely, 
                          Ald Leopold, Obairman 
                          Institute Technical Committee, 

                                            424 University Farm Place 
                                            June 3, 193 
Mr. Renry P. Davis 
American Wildlife Institute 
Investmet Buiing 
Washington, D. Q. 
Dear Henry 
          I am mbarrassed to find on w return from the 
field that no votes have been reeived from Gardiner Bum 
or Dr. Xll1s. Stoddard, Hubby and myself have voted 
favorably on the duck nesting project. I have sent a ro- 
ander to Damp and    lis and asked them to send their vote 
directly to you. I suspect, though, that they are both in 
the field and that we may nt be able to get a vote from 
them in the near future. I do not anticipate any objections 
on their part and I am willing to go ahead on the three out 
of five vote if you think it wise. Sorry for the delay. 
                            Tours sincerely, 
                                    Aldo Leopold 
Vh                           Professor of Game Mnagement 

       -               J~une 7, 1938 
Mr. Henry P. Davis 
American Wildlife Institute 
Investment Building 
Washington, D.C. 
Dear Henry: 
            I am in receipt of a note from Aldo Leopold 
asking that I drop you a ine direct with regard to my 
vote for or against the Institute's finanoing the proposed 
Delta duck nesting project. 
            Please record me as voting emphatically in 
favor of this proposal. I have long felt that the artifi- 
cial quantity production of game birds ha. received so much 
attention that efforts to determine and improve the S 
of the birds produced in terms of their reaction under wild 
field conditions have gone entirely unsupported. In a small 
way, you may remember, -,e have been working on this problem 
with grouse, pheasants and certain ducks, particularly black 
duck and mallards, at our Experimental Game Farm here in 
New York State. Present indications are that the ability 
to satisfactorily revert to the wild and to maintain them- 
selves therelb is largely influenced by a host of small 
items which make up the incubation, the rearing and the 
liberation techniques. The past tendency has been to 
place relatively little emphasis on those practices which 
would encourage survival once the bird is liberated, sine* 
they are apt to out the number of birds raised to liberat- 
able age, which to date has been the criterion of -ucoeess 
in this field. The problem, for instance, of raising mal- 
lards is greatly simplified by keeping them tame and by 
feeding them commercial feeds, but the inevitable result is 
to lose the migratory instinct and to develop a bird that is 
too heavy and too unwary to maintain itself once liberated. 
Likewise, the wilder the bird the smaller the number of eggs 
they are likely to lay in captivity. 
             It is to be hoped that Institute support for 
this much needed but little understood phase of game breeding 

Mr. Davis 
will assist-in focusing atteution thereon. 
            Of oourse, too, it mu-t be realized that the 
Delta experiments are in effect out on a scientific iimb, 
much as is our Experimentai fý;me Farm vork, in that, because 
of geoerphioal distribution it is impos lble to tie them 
as olosely to a research center such as is represented by 
most universities, as is desirable. Aldot' suggestion of 
encouraging Canadian researchers to interest themselves in 
this project is,-I believe, one key therefor to future 
sucess at this station. 
            Lat*   as this work develops, it might be that 
some of our work in crossing the black ducks with the 
Flanders strain (now fourth generation,) the development of 
what we hope is an exceptional strain of free-flying wild 
mallards, and of a etrain of black duck- that will reproduce 
satisfactorily in captivity, may be tied in as helping to 
round out this field. 
                       Sincerely yours, 
                       Superintendent, Breau of Game 
o. to Mr, Leopold 

                      SHERWOOD PLANTATION 
                    THOMASVILLE, GEORGIA 
                      Maiy 26,1938 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Wis. 
Dear Aldo; 
       I found your letter copies and the copy of the report on Bell project

at Delta,Manitoba, here upon my return a couple of days ago from a short

field trip. Have gone over this and previous material along this line with
lot of interest* 
     As a member of the Institutes Technical Committee, I certainly approve

the proposed appropropriation for exploratory work on a duck nesting study

in the Canadian breeding grounds,and Delta might well be an ideal place.

If the preliminary investigation  looked good, some long time and 
comprehensive studies might follow* 
     Am very glad to have the copy of Williams report. ( note that you have

marked many things through this reportwhich may be open to question-they

impress me the same way). 
     Am glad that this proposed investigation is not a game farm proposition,

but a study in the wild with the game farm product handy for supplementary

studies. I cannot but feel that it will take a generation or more,with 
a great many game farms and propogators to settle the question of the relative

value of artificially produced birds in restocking the wilds. Certainly this

will be true if quail propagating is in any way paralell. Here we find 
that birds reared by certain methods,and "finished off,* in certain
adapt themselves readily to wild conditions and thrive in fair percentages*

The product of another game farm may be reared on wire to maturity, be as

tame as barnyard pets, know noting of food outside of mashes, and almost

entirely fail when released* But the product of one farm sells for as much

or as little as that of the othei. If the product of one game farm be considered

as typical *artificially propagatedO birds,the method might be considered

as successful. If ones experience has been with liberation of birds from
other type of farm,the result can be put down as failure. I presume that
same will prove to be true of waterfowl propagating. 
     Personally, I cannot warm up to any method which entails the gathering

of first cluih duck eggs in the wild, for artificial propagation purposes.

If duwks were like quail and layed large second and third sets it might be

different. But such evidence as we have indicates that the second clutch

may usually be very much smaller than the firstwhich leaves the duck with

a small set to inc bate and rear if the first is taken* I would much prefer

at the present stage of the game to leave the wild duck with her larger first

stt* And until the game farms demonstrate that they can produce an abundance

of eggs, ind from them high grade birds for restocking, from second and 
third generation birds, they have not gotten very far. About all that it
in my opinion, by the hatching and rearing of wild produced eggs from the

various species, is that they m   be worth further working with. 

       It may interest you to know that Mr. Bell is much interested in 
artificial quail propagation on a place that he is interested in in Mississippi,

and that this place bas taken out a Non-Resident membership in our Association*

Komarek has visited his project twicep though I have not seen it yet. He
seems a, 
man greatly interested in attacking thees problems in a scientific manner.

     I hope that you and the family are all well, cnd that all goes well
with the 
work. There is small liklihood that I will get up that way this sunmer (have

a week or more work in the Missouri Ozarks for second week in June and later,

but hardly believe I can stretch this into a visit to the Rockford-Madison

section). Surely would like to see you down this way sometime;have a lot
I would 
enjoy showing you and discussing with you. 
     Am a poorer archer now than I was three years ago, which is saying a
Am away half the time and rushed the rest, so am out of practice badly. But
interest does not failand hope to shoot some during the summer. 
     With kind regards to you and yours, I am, 
                                     Sincerely yours, 

                                   MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
                                        U. S. A. 
                                May 27, 1938 
   Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
   424 University Farm Place, 
   Madison, Wisconsin. 
   Dear Dr. Leopold: 
   I am going away Tuesday, to be gone about a 
   month. If in the interim anything should de- 
   velop on the Delta proposal and you wish to 
   have Dr. Pirnie or the graduate student go up 
   please communicate with my office here, which 
   will release all the necessary instructions to 
   Delta to insure reception, care, and coopera- 
   Kindest personal regards. 
                                Sincerely yours, 
   JFB B 

                   UNIVERSITY MUSEUMS 
              ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, U. S. A. 
                                        May 23, 1938 
             Prof. Aldo Leopold, 
             424 TTniversity Farm Place, 
             Madison, Wisc., 
             Dear Aldo: 
                   I believe I virtually gave a vote in 
             favor of approving for American Wildlife 
             Institute cooperation, the preliminary 
             research on duck reproduction at Delta. 
             To leave no uncertainty, however, I formally 
             express approval of recommending this 
             project, with the budget as outlined in your 
             letter of May 19 to Mr. Davis. 
                  I agree that the project is desirable 
             because of its bearing on management; because 
             it promises to lead to scientific advances; 
             because it may help the development of 
             wildlife research in Canada, and because it 
             will put the Wildlife Institute in a better 
                                      arl L. Hubbs 

                                                  ~42~4 University WarM ?lac

                                                  Ma~y 20, 1935 
Dr. Miles D. Pimb, Director 
W. K, Kellogg Bird Sanctuary 
Battle Creek, Miohigan 
Dear Idles u 
          I an much gratified by the goo ne of MItiigan State 
Qollegets contribting your time this year. That helps a lot. I haes 
now placed the wole mtt*r before the QeCmittee for final 4deelon, 
and I have word from Henry Davis that the financial prospeets are 
encouraging, although the mone is not now in the beak. 
          In view of the fact that Hemy Ust find these fuze, I would 
llke to keep this year's amunt low, and for this reason I have taken 
the liberty of not inoluding the extra $500 for an additional studt 
and for a trip by myself. I di innlude $100 for local temporary help. 
After all,, we can only hope to open this thing up this year., and by show-

ing its possibilities, we can expand it to fit. 
          While I am frankly admitting that one of the purposes of this 
study is general stimilation of the field, including the work of the 
U.S..B.. in that field, I think we should try from the outset to elist 
their enthusiasm for the job. Wouldn' t it be a good idea for you to 
Invite Lincoln up there sometime during the su-amr to get his advice en 
present and future work? This is just a sugestion and of course should 
await the action of the Institute. It would be a f2iemdly gesture and 
might help geatly later when the time comes for somebo4y to go to 
Washington to analyze the bandIng records which, as you %V, are in 
          I have been much heartened by Williams -and Marshall's nesting

paper in the ourrent Journal. It shows that the yeast of new methods 
is beginning to work from the bottom up in the Surve and will put us on 
our mettle in this project. Don't you think their paper is a good one? 
          In m judgment it would not be wvie to try to interest the 
nstitute in the duck book at this timt, I thoroughly aee with you 
that such a book is en ed. but to introduce proposals for vablications 
at this stage doen't seem to me Eood strate.      rou San, of course, 
count on Albert's interest in furthering the book project. 

2 -. D. Pi$rne 
oaW 20, 1938 
         Toar enthusiastic responve to r efforts is mwc apprcated 
and I look forwsret with mwo oo denf e to the futre. 
         With bet regrd*. 
Yours sincerely, 
   Sine i 
Hr. Leopold'$ &bmeao 
      Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Om. Uaagement 

         DR. IJILES D. PIRNIE, Director          Telephone 7-F-4 
      BATTLE CREEK      -   MICHIGAN              HICKORY CORNERS 
                   May 16, 1958 
                                                 Freight and Express 
  Prof. Aldo Leopold                                 MICHIGAN 
  424 University Farm Place 
  Madison, Wise. 
  Dear Mr. Leopold: 
           On Friday I saw Dean Huston and from him 
 got a tentative 0. K. for absence from the Sanctuary 
 a week in June and for three weeks in August to 
 help in the waterfowl investigations, provided my 
 expenses are met by the Wildlife Institute or others; 
 and they are willing for the College to contribute 
 my time. I shall be anxious to learn the decision; 
 and if necessary, shall try to get funds elsewhere 
 should the Wildlife Institute fail us. Should you 
 learn more about the Ducks Unlimited, (Canada or in 
 U.S., I should like to hear from you in that regard.) 
          Might the Institute be interested in 
 beginning work on a duck identification publication? 
 Right now there is a lack of suitable illustrations 
 and text to cover even what is known on the plumages 
 of waterfowl, age and sex differences, etc. As you 
 know, I have hoped that Albert might prove to be the 
 artist who can adapt himself and apply himself to 
 this task; and of course such effort should be 
 rewarded. Such matters as the aid of the Field 
 Museum in preparing skins of record specimens of 
 young ducks of known age can of course wait until 
 there is approval for the project. Rudyerd Boulton 
 was here last night and spoke very highly of the 
 Golden-eye work of Albert's*I have in the office. 
 I am writing today a reply to his (Albert's) letter 
 of May 7. 
                    Very sincerely yours, 
                            Miles D. Pirnie 
,A Gift from ,Ir. Kellogg * This Sanctuary is Now Owned and Operated by  .Michigan
State College, Cast Lansing 

   DR. M1LES D. PIRNIE, Director           Telephone 7-F-4 
         May  12, 1958                                    0 
                                           Freight and Express 
                   Prrof. Aiao Leopold 
                   College of Agriculture 
                   University of Wisconsin, 
                   Madison, Wisc. 
                   Dear Mr. Leopold: 
                              I am really thrilled with the prospects 
                   of teaming up with you and your group, and bringing 
                   whatever tis place and the Michigan State College 
                   have-into the waterfowl researches in Canada or anywhere.

                   To try to stimulte and aid such studies- as weil as 
                   to partcipate-- seems a proper aim; and I hope a good,

                   long-time program may result. As you seem to be willing

                   to do the steering, I am ready for the job as one 
                   oarsman, marsh-wader, or whatever I can do. 
                              I am in accord with y~ur outline, and think

                   $1,000. should do for the firs try.   L-t might not be

                   enough to put over a very extensive research program,

                   but- more important, almost-- it should most certainly

                   go a long way toward doing what you list at center of

                   page 2 in your Report on the Delta Waterfowl Project!

                   (Items a to e.) " 
                              There is no need at this time to elaborate

                   on the types of waterfowl investigation which might 
                   well be included in the proposed field work at and near

                   the Delta Hatchery at Lake Manitoba. You have listed 
                   enough of the recognized problems and which tie into 
                   Mr. Bell's work. Members of the Manitoba Fish and Game

                   Association end members of the Natural History Society

                   will be very cooperative and helpful, I am confident.

                   (In this connection you may be interested in the enclosed

                   letter from Ralph Fryer, a local naturalist and likely

                   young fellow who might be included in s field crewý

                              Enclosed is a tentative, and I think reasonably

                   accurete budget for this summer's work as you have outlined

                   it. Should funds be available, I should very much like

                   to see the crew enlarged to three men on the work- 
                   Albert; Brewer from D1. S. C., and Fryer, perhpps, from

                   Winnip'eg-- in addition to Mr. Bell's staff who I asie

                   would be on the job as usual. .J                     -

                             Please accept my thanks for t,) e    ~e t Fcý

                   way in which you ere trying for bette/'w¢,/fowl research

,4 Gift from ./Wr. Kellogg * This Sanctuary is Now Owned and Operated by
./ic igan State College, Cast Lansing 
                   and cooperation with Canada. Sincerely, Miles D. Pirnie.


     Tentative Budget for the Delta Waterfowl Project, 
           June to October, 1958.-- M. D. Pirnie. 
Salary and expenses for ornithologist, 
     (Hochbaum suggested) 
     b months ' $125. per mo.               $ 625. 
Travel expenses, M. D. Pirnie, 
     2 trips, total time 1 month              300. 
Misc. supplies or local labor                  75- 
Another $500. would be most useful as follows: 
          For ali tast to(Hochbaum,) 
             salary and expenses for 
             Brewer of Mich. State,        $ 500. 
           N Travel for Leopold 
                 to Winnipeg in August        100. 
           4 silary for 3rd helper            100. 
                                           $ 500. 
Note: Rooms would be available at a duck club nearby, 
and I imagine Bell's man (his name escapes me) would 
take in boarders for one meal a day.  &rsh is not over 
40 miles from good small town, so getting supplies is 
ee sy. 
       As to my salary; I shall try for Kellogg or M. S. C. 
aid for the work, also for student fellowships; and do not 
doubt my time would be contributed by the College. At worst 
I would have to have not the equivalent of my own salary 
but encugh to furnish a worker in my place here while 1 
was absent from the State. Shall see the Dean tomorrow 
and write Sat. or Sun. on this point. Expect the Pres. 
here tomorrow and M may get some answer then. Agree 
with you that we dvuld go for expenses only; and hope 
the officials think so also. // 

                                                424 Univrsi~ty Farm P1U4*

                                              may 19, 1936 
Mr. Howry?, Davis 
luvetmout Nailldindl 
Washi~ton, D. 0. 
Dear h =7 #- 
         I am sendis the 4illiass Report and you~r letter of may 13 
to teo Ueehal Ceomttoo with the reqst tbAt thwe send me their 
votes on mether the Zestitute ehm14d appropriato (if &a   whe ovailiblo)

$1,000 tor exploratory work o a duk anuting stuy at Delta, as per "

proposal of Miy 7. 
as good 
time for 
AMa And 
This asmn   is ceofirmed by a letter irm Pir-nie *ioh brn.s 
new  that Mi*1Rn State Colege is williaS to .atrlbute his 
a mouth this year if the Ingtitutoe Oa meet his expaeae (2 trips 
AU&Ugt). The pproxlmsate det ist 
Stuent, stipen for 
        ea, m. for 
?iraie. w.peses for 
Temporary aosistaam. 
Jun-at~otbew, 5 mo. at $100.... $5WO 
trip ............................t It 
2  rpttlIia .....- 30 
Your* siaerloIy, 
Aldo Leopold ý.aiWmsa 
Institute T.*baloal Coswitto# 
Copies to Committeev 
I - r 

   HERBERT L PRATT                                                      
             FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
               F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board      AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE            
   FREDERIC EWING                   Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935   L.E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                                   INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C.

   ALDO LEOPOLD                                                         
               HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                              May 13, 1938

             Prof. Aldo Leopold 
             424 University Farm Place                                  
             Madison, Wisconsin                                         
        NA V 
             Dear Aldo: 
                              I am particularly interested in your letter
of May 7th 
              concerning the Bell project at Delta, Manitoba. I believe that
              proposition, as it is now presented, offers considerable opportunity

              for the Institute to develop a worthwhile duck restoration
                             I had lunch with Gabe the other day and discussed
             matter with him. He is of the opinion that your suggestion that
             work could ultimately be taken over by the Canadian universities,
             Canadian bureaus, and the Biological Survey is entirely feasible.
             asked him if the obstacle of Government redtape would prevent
his co- 
             operating in this work in Canada, and he assured me that he
did not 
             consider i   such an obstacle insurmountable because he has
had co- 
             operators in Canada right along* 
                             I am taking the liberty of sending copies of
your letter 
             to Senator Walcott, C. K. Davis, J. N. Darling, T. E. Doremus,
and Dr. 
             Gabrielson because of their obvious interest, but will not approach

             Hoyes Lloyd on the matter until you have heard from Pirnie.
I sm reliably 
             informed that there exists a somewhat difference of opinion
between Pirnie 
             and Lincoln and this may complicate matters. On the other hand
it may 
             not be of serious moment* 
                             I discussed the matter briefly with Jay Darling
when he 
             was here this week and he is very much interested in this project.
             would appear to me that if Mr. Bell is willing to furnish and
             the plant and the land, the Institute would find the necessary
             for research--certainly if this phase of the work would cost
only $1,000 
             for this year. 
                             I am sending you five copies of a report on
this project 
             which we secured from Gabe and which was made in February of
this year 
             by Cecil 0. Williams, Assistant Biologist. I am sure that other

             members of the Committee will be interested in seeing copies
of this report. 
             I know that Senator Waloott is extremely interested and I hope
that we 
             can work something concrete out of this matter. Many, many thanks
             your splendid cooperation and I am attaching hereto a check
for $20.00 in 
             payment of your expenses in connection with your visit with
Mr. Bell* 
                             With kindest regards and again in appreciation,
I am 
                                                           Since ely yours,


                   FIRp(RT oN Tial ARTIFICIL PROPAGATIW 
      ArtlficW   p      tion of watrfowl has bee   advocated from 
tj,.,ý to tim as a means of supplinenting the supply of wild birds*

Attqnpte to rear &iaks artificially,, however, have ner4~ always 
resulted in failure to produce birds of equal quality t the 
wild  tocok, I looked fowrA therefore, vith    onsiderble interest 
to my visit in *arch, 193? to the I~lta beach Wild Duck Hatchery 
at Delta,, lianitobs, which had beeun reported as having suirpri.sing 
wesess in propapting both puddle-duoks and divers that had all 
the chracteristics of wild hirds. The following report is en 
outgrvwth of my visit,9 and the data i*.Iuded are the results of 
observations at the hatahery and information obtained from 
nversatis with,, and letters and. report written ~y, Mr Ewrd 
Ward,, r  ger of the hatchery. The dtaowe not original with the 
writer and, therefore rot available for puablicationo 

ftslimiwy bserwatiom of wild du*k nesto. 
      Obserystiona of next it the wild ha  indicatd  m- 
oedures to follw in axtifilal prpagation, N)h   wild ducks 
begin to lay their  go, the nests are usually net *Weteu ly 
fiished until thaev uborf eggs approaches a full clutcsh. Dom 
is laoking at the start and hardly  uoh nesting aterial is 
present to covr the few eggs. This applies to Abe tosts of 
both diving and puddle-wftas, In may instanes the inside bottom* 
of the unfiniw d nests ere qite wet sad the ega imprinted with 
me** of grasses and rushes upor which the eggs have lain. The 
times it takes for these imprints to be amia is aut knowi,, but in- 
dications are that the o are not turned for the first few das 
at loast, although It in known that the attending femal over 
them at Irter1s of an hour or s at a tims   prebably just swfioimt 
to keep them viable witheut initiating inoubatioe. 
      As the elutch grows larger, the nests are built up with vege- 
tation above the wetLess and filled with down. The full olutch size 
varies with the different duek species, but at approimstel eight 
oes the femles ted the nests mo     regularly. Sines the e*s in 
a cluitch batch within a fe hours of each othr, it is evident that 
the first laid eggs take oonsi8erbly lesger to hatth than these that 
are laid irediately before inrubatio  begins# The atmopheri 
eunditioa murronding a wild duck nest se snearly always to he 
one of high humidity, eve though the eggs themselves appear to he 
dry and glossy. They are undoubtedly wetted whenever the attending 
female returns from the water* 

Co@U#@tins 9"s 
      E&gs are collected from nests of wild duaks sd trnnsported 
to1 the hatchery in fibre board oortalners whiich my be strapped 
over the shoulders. Each container oontain six drawer oo~artw 
nts eapable    f holding toty-fiveA gs (Fig, 1).  in the center of 
the box isa coartant in wliioh a hat piece of tile is plased 
on cold mrnings to prevent the collected .gs from 10*om~ag 
chilled (Fig. :). 
      Wheri the ew aivo at the hatchery (a picotur of which is 
shoin in Figure a) they are eandled to eliminate the infertile 
ones. Wild duck e*gg often give off an unpleasat odor after 
several days In the iubtor If they aeo not cleansd first. 
They are therefore wiped with a cloth 4mW with lukeum. wtor# 
and then dried with another oloth. Results of oxper.ats with 
dirty and washed eggs have shown that the washing treastent in 
ro way affets the percentage of batch. As a ph*se of andling 
the eggs are sorted aseoording to their degree of adano~mant 
and then placed In the iubator cmpartme at a temerature 
of 99 degroes F,. This tempernture was found to be the optiumn 
settin, for rumiAg of the iLnubator In order to afford the 
highest peroet hatch, mad to work equally wonl for the incubation 
of egg of the folleoing dusk speolost seavoasbk   redhead,. lesser 
scoup,, mallard, blue-wing tool, pintails speoonbill, g~adall, widgeon, 
and ruddy. The ruddy eggs are the largest and normally the heaviest 
of al1 the ducks* 

      The operation of the incubator is perhaps the vast vital 
 faotor dotemiaing the inec~oey of the hatch. Bseoauseo.f this, 
 the operation of the incubator will be give in soe. detail. 
 uI@ to three oma    tatos are left emty in order to *hock the 
 operating tempeatures from tine, to time and to afford rem 
 to p1.. egg. that are foun pipped. The Machie used is 
 a Jeamoswe and the shutter oo*trols are set open 1/0 Inah 
 at 99 degrees F. and are not altered all dring the hatch* 
 Th body heat of the ducklings or ega ser   as the only shutter 
 osatrol, If mare heat is needed during .old spells or loee 
 heat daring hot weather, it is obtabiad by. changing the water 
 flow, using the temperature In the centrol (wity) ocapartments 
 as so index to the noeeassry maipualations, As the incubator 
 Is nvwr left withwt an attendant, the operator soon learns 
 when ehaniges shold be nede, By keeping the aestrel oosprt- 
 mts at 99 degees. Fthe tespoatures. in other    sm"Arots 
 are autmtieally raised to 105 degrees or whatevr the tmpera- 
 tures the eggs need to hatch. large water pane in the oemarts 
 are kept filled with water by raplaein4 the snot lost throu*k 
      As soon as the eggs haw vbe~   wanmd to ineabating toeratures, 
they are sprayed with distilled water from an atomizer* This is 
dens as often as is doomed nossary in the opinion of the operator,, 
normally six times a day,, but loes often when the reos humidity is high*

Nevr is it done fewer than three times daily. The use of the 
atomizr proved more efficient th   .ther methods tried beeauso it 

permits eve dampis without exessmive, hsaxidlia of the egga. 
After about the sixth day of spraying the eggs regain the 
&loamy appearane that vas last before boiab pleas4 in the 
jamubator, And thug they shod water quite, readily oa the 
sixth day, spraying is continued until th hatok is compete* 
The spraying ofat  s eg s  fe lt to be anIportant ms of re- 
duoiag the eussssivs lose of weight du. te evaporation* In, 
this ommtinsniu an Interesting sass osurred at the hatohery. 
A mallard egg weighing T0 gra hatched out a duckling weighing 
60 &;rms the shell romias weighing9 9/10 ges,     Had sprsyiug 
not beow done it Is logicml to asus that ewsporation would 
haew resulted in  or then 10 1/10 gras of water and probably 
a week or defored &iaklinge 
      Ntr the first two days following their piaseemmt in the 
inuwbator,, the eggs are, turued tuiee daily. If all eggs are 
approximtely equal in their stepo dervblo. thy uy be 
turned sIaultaxwosly by the .pmrtlag mohn"      in ease they ame 
not about equally advauee4, eg"a should he turnd by individual 
oomparttts. Eggs shwald ho     e turnd after they are pippo4o 
Whm turning eggs af different sisms,, difficulty La somtimes 
oxerionood In umakig tbm stay ad for end, Strips of willboard 
the lent of trays and o   different widths may be Inserted in 
the, trys an botmea the eggs toalmlevilate the preblem. 
      ?ipped eggs are placed Ia the .~ty .empartsot  as mase am 
they are notied4. The pipped *Lik should be plaead up and the 

emal end towrd the Inuibator daer In erder that propr spra, 
ing be more easily aeaoplishedo Care mest be taken to keep 
spray out of the pipped area. Oneste o"n egbegius pipping, 
the duakl tag should be out within artw~ight hours* Afate 
the eggs have hatcho4p the ymog ducklings Wme permuitted to 
fluff off In the emipty ooprta   fer at least twnyfm? 
hours before being remove4 to the hmvrs, 
      The t~m of uftfic14.1 lambati.. esem varies with* 
 iffTeret ftok apeeiee., The smleor eggs gemermily hateh Ln 
 teenty-two day#.slthe& *m take a few 4"y mare, Freshly 
 14id eggs of the .anazmsbek and redhead my be expeeted to 
 hatch In tmWoty-or days, but eggs of thein duas haew tskes 
 tmety nine days. An Interestiung aheek em the Isesbatlem tbw 
of the osnvaabak egg was obtained whe n sa"e# squeexod from 
a female *Liah had boon collected for a s*vo hatched emety 
54 days after being placed in the laeubatwo 
      The ineubater room should have a huidity se~neht, equivaea.t 
to that fonAd about natural nests. To attain thiss, the flew of 
the roo. to covered with an iash of smaM whidi is raked sad 
sprinkled tube* daily. Sufficient water La used to saturate the 
sand end sintaien humidity betwom 70 and 80 degises at a rmm 
temperature of 85 to 90 degrees 7..                          1 
W -to 

Omeos of Rg Losses 
      It ine thoubt that the grater nwbo at embyoic (# 
 deaths result from variations In the topnae    to which the 
 owg at difforent ste os at  velopot are subjesteo In the 
 sorting proess, It to ioossible ftor all the e9W to be 
 serted a~sowdin to their oxet stag. of develoment sad 
 pipping oeemrrig first ia the mor adoanoed oP.g Sareasea the 
 oomartmnt temperatures often as high as 106 degr~s P.. Thus$ 
 these *&o whiah are nt prepared for such high t~apraturoo 
 are suabjecetd to thom anywsy# As a result the youn duaklin 
 may U killed by the heat or stlimlated Inte groing me fast 
 that it berets iato the air eell of the e" and leses all pow 
 of Moemns~t se oesaftial to pipping* By using the empty eeqawrJO 
 urnts of the inoubstao' as diesoassed unde pippiaz, the lessee 
 due to this eoms my be mrkedly reodwmi 
      Another sorse of *" loss or rather death of du*15mg in the 
egg was ths  amtural texo   e tomrd pipping at th   wmell 
MA of the a"g. 4vidently pipping; from this and is more diffioult. 
and taes longer,, thus permitting dov whiah creeps through the 
pippixg oraok to dry to the shell andpewif further *gross. 
In Iastaoses of this kind, the eggs should be washed to tree the 
4.wn   Sm   times these eggs hatch but the time involed is so 1 
grat that paralysis of the tees and nook result, A gentle asUop 
of the nosok museles usully alleviates the latter ailment bwt ao 
far ams of tr~eating th tee paralysis have mot been fewnd, Birds 
with this affliction are best killed. The dangers of such defomt- 
W T W 

itWn wy be avoided by brakn     the agg shell suficfienStly to 
permt the bird to inrg.. C~are shou~ld be taen,, howver,, todo 
the breakin  gradully adto avoid ceauig bleedlag. 
      Sow of the eggs which sre brougt to the hatchery are 
rotteno Candling does not always locate suchi eggs, but after 
about rive days In the iaouete~rj the rattan eggs are easily 
fotnd providing they are kept warm. A*hAm e9s heemo oeol they 
loe. their smlo 
      Infertile eg"s do not besom rottenz daring the incubation 
prooses, but aR low temperature recording on the comartment thrt 
  otew is indicative of infertile eggs uine* such eggs do not 
absorb the hoat that good eggs do. He positive nows of locating 
infertile eggs or eggs with weak goras is ,nm   although candling 
after the fifth day in the incubator does help. 'Veins may usually 
be, seen after 24 hours,, but =uWq old eggs do rot shew veins uniltI 
the third day, In on   instance, fourteen eggs In -mheh veins could 
not be notio.4 en the fifth day war* left in the Incubator and 
skewed veins the following day. 
      A batch of 91% has been obtqiaed at the hatchery, but this is 
unsusial, The egg losses f rom all causes may be expected to amout to 
twoty percent of the eggs broght in, Anether 10% less In normally 
due, to wskligs or runt* which dhe or have to be killedj, sand still 
sneother 10% m~y be expected to be lest duoe to auaidants and widetermined

deaths of heaithy birds, Thus the final nuber of birds raised to 
imatmai  vould approxiate 40   of the eggs eolleetod and brought te 
the hatehery* 

R-earng the Zeu-I& Ducklings 
      As has boonindieated the ee  oklis are sufioently fluffof 
off after twty-four hours in the hatehiag 6art         t to p  ee 
dirstly under the hovers. These. .e at the rear of the rearng 
poes as is shovvI Fiur1~e 4,, sad are half-wtort like wooe 
struoturee with the front edges hianged and fringed with rubbr- 
isod )*lth. Youg ducklings may wander from t~hc hover into the 
pok at will. The inaterior of the hover is uwormd by means, of 
Oireuatirg hot. water, piped fvre  a ountral heatlng unit  and 
ciorulation of air ry b  eootrolled by mant of  ir vets 
hinged to the slope of the hor . Rvr bottmsa          ore eovwd 
with w   eth through which tfoal material drop lnte a pit 
which my be cleanmed from *-e bs* of the pen. The tlotws at 
the pens are woode, but, It 1is belloved that oernet woud be 
far -r praotleal. bides of t    pen ax  mostly .hiekm vre 
with a fir-or -ash exUtelg about three feet from the floor, 
The swimiing tank (Fig., 4 and b) holdire, 126 gallons of walor, 
mid the dryin off trouh are leosted lengwwis of the pm and at one sid*. 
A corrugted slope Is placed between the tan and the drying off 
troug  to permit thae ducklings to enter or leave the waer rae 
easily. The tenks are f~lled by means of water pipes entering an 
the side and dmrmd through plugs In the botteno 
      The hover fronts are kept *lased Pt first but as the dulints 
b~een older the fronts are raised aesordingly until they are 
sepbetely open. Ueat is rainteatd in the pipes hovwr, utl 
the birds wre liberated in order to prevent eco oesiv  olletim 

of mosture an the mll *loch uasually resolts. in aattod towthwu 
Bay is pleset ewer the viro-e).th bettes of the hemas to pr~va 
the dangr* of molil log bein brkn %  slipping V=wh* 
   s. Care shu   be tea et.imimtoe wW    s       (u'tnii) 
 from the hays Fl-eetrie lights are brt at night to prammt 
 stw   Idi  The sightest so  or  oiv    in the da,* ften 
 .x4iee the birds, to the poit of fatally injuring or        costtg 
      The yomg an silewod the uslompto ws of th    rearing p 
 ftrM te tiae they We Plasoe VSAd the hveru. The swimtin ta* 
 Is tilld tOw their se sAt food Is kept before thaia sd., Be 
 porimens with foeeMng have shew that the yma birds toed onily 
 whean mosessa endare ant gluttowss Ir the fo"d in siwys 
 aosilablo. Owespelrt in whioh dualiap wove killed wwry 
 ton bo~ nyd exatmined for yolk, showed tbt he y'olk was .~letely 
saberbod afte 6bot 72 hous* BoitIms of wild pm~ dwud that 
Use gssmwds ar an filled 111.Mlo Vw yalk is still unabsovd. 
Thea too& no ditfer.enes omAit be detested betwee Vqg Vi'ds 
*i~oh startod feeding at 4 s" satd these Ihish mont gto fadUtl 
      The toot for the dwsklings oousists for the first three days 
 of ha~rdboiled eggs passed throug a pottOw rior. on the fourth, 
 day grin mash in mixed with the eggs by hand to fern a ermb1y 
 mist mixture* At the end of the first week, feet einaisting of 
 the following Ingrdieant is aiwas before the &a*ling* and oorastitutes

 their diet until they are liberateds 
w 10 f 

                 m i-             lbo...... 
                 Middlins or sr- ....0 lbs 
                 SBran      d    16 lbse 
                 Podee butternilk!.w-w-4 lbs. 
                 Oyte (fineygoa-            u 
                 Bo  meal- - - - m 
                 co.liwer mel..-.m  lbs. 
                 Soenemd moat meal-r--m lbs. 
The oriina) l remll ms boas  up" at kre.d pew t at bree 
the alfalfa, =eal vhich nod up the reminder Ms found to be 
very dirio with ewo. boaer awls pig brsotles, and saml tre     0 
It us elleated, if it is used it not be #croee" th      w 
a Very fine m*.sh 
     This oed, appwmetly prevides tor *evry u~ritionst roeuirmot 
tJst olitr %oe yo  or adult Avde a  eevoiome. Evideuie of 
this say b    eited in that yon 'birds raised en the fo,, ula are   F, 
only abot sven o     ls la gher S at  7f ae than adult bios 
Apim  at 31 days of ag .evrt feathers a"e just apearin  (this 
is fthe em tim tVat the age of )vm ducklins my be told with 
wW doom of a.suwaq') and a wild piutail of this age wiA.W 17 
grm  somared toR 30 rs vol~t at en artifi.alo21 propagated 
pintail of' the sawm aov 
     The. mount of food whI&k th. birds .esmw varies oanodevrbyp 
but onmn averge oes pe6" of drywq     mix ed with water vll bet 
mtffioiomt to feed five d~*s a dey. This *amn with all the 
mine obard that they gem eat haes preinwa meeesul In profein 
five hoa,2th duaso 
so  -1 * 

wintor LAYIAS of Egp 
     bilamrd *rd pirtk1s ke0Pt at the haethew7 as br..4un 
birds haew laid eggs as e0Xly aso jams" 17. All wore 
fertile azr4 the yog bird pr'OPS&&t~ Mrs r4.a.d April 
2S a t the tine that th wild bird# IW~ Just arriviM bwm4 
the south, *1l*Au*4 hot" laid as hLi& as three .lutAhe'S 
a, pr,   The first olutabes laid btring th wi~ .r awtad 
eloewu o*p, while the seazd .lutabes haetod "s U4& seIt 
out at 18 eg5s "M as, Ie sm of 3t Of urAw, The third elutebes 
#howd a tedec tmwrd whit* btzrds,,a   I boliaer we" 
destr*YsE. The 71US  *ah Ifrke pr*&sd In the tae   'UM 
bops th~mselws to laY at Ule atishs Of aW a~ burilng 
ý*ar produeed gsaend clutahse 
      Loss =**"a was had with getting re~hads "nd inws 
 ba*s to laY eggs in eaPtivlty- 't u&Ss aeOWlihed hinwtr 
 dwIr~ 151S. Th pof the ftnvsbeaekwere destroyed by 
 swilards tbaoilg the eggs0 'int  the water, but tm redhad tuinles 
 ~laid go eggs frm v~ich lb yon wore haethed. 
                        Mortality Ans  the Touag 
      Ducks sern to, be relutiv'ly fr*e Of disease '11 *aPtLvi'.y 
 They do,, howver, suoguib to other fastors,, probably the xeat 
 evident 'being the ologging Of the g"Iaeri vith ads sloth, or 
 alfalfa neal, 0)the emsee Of mrtality laslude breaking their 
 lesg in wire moh, wullewiag Pieees Of wires *Ad beiag traq~lod t* 
 death or Jr~wmdmo to spasms Of e11i~ot.lI 

Liberatig Dh* 
     At about fto Meeks of ago the YOM&Of01 al    *1* q o f. 
du*s, sn fly and sir bozdoL  Thoy~   tbeuOw pisood in *rate* 
a"  transprted to take arms ail** ftrm th hatebely tob 
r.1ea4,d Th. mrtes used are S x' :4 x ?** with a seU4 
*nooim bUtbi sad slatted tops and adsi . *   Wa ote* bolts 
four duos, thus permitting Wlo air and raem for "ams 
The birds are uamsliy released on the shoe sa lo1t .aomw 
open water for theislw. beinse the toathu' s tim  Uoomm 
ruvr1o  in transit to the releasin or*an em   noy t .saimotaly 
shed wato., The birds usually join wild floo.s invaately, 
Bandlag rwftms katw shewi that those artif i.Lally propagated 
huas hay. been sht ftm Saoatchin, Otse', and queb.. to 
Moxioe, They haew been r~pote4 take In fifteen states w4 
as far east as th Cheapeaek and as far' seuth as Lou~isixa 
The birds are ~trima apparently rewvet i-modately to the 
                                       February 5,, 1958 
                                       Ceell So IWjll~is 
                                       fiessitant Bi14ost 

nQuotatio fram 1iIm., Feb. 10, 1938 
"I  a &    report on the inthe used b the vIta Ieeuu 
iild Duck Esto.ery in ortif 'ialU   propa.gating duk, I 
*ad* no mention o   the mmbor o    bards ra.Ae   In vimw 
of the fact that perhps information of this owt night 
b ot use at the Wildlfe Cozitm          n s i atinm., I on 
passi   n *bat I emt$.- n I have to, y    rlatieo I 
              4Eg .oe11eate  Ie infetile   Eggs ha4 
  PntAil1        809              9910I 
  Mallard        426             54          3n 
  Ca             571             10          1" 
  Rsiedhee       SYO             1ag          207 
  L. Scuwp       801             141         1*0 
      yiu18 i                     1           11 

                                                 )424I University larmPl
                                                 May 7. 1935 
r,. Henry P. Daviis 
Ameri,-an Wildltfe Instituite 
Investment building 
Dear KeMryf 
          I had a Aepas-nt tn Interestin visit with Mr. Bell yesterday 
and I attach a prelimnary report for your Information. I will dd fiscal 
esticotes after T have hoard from Miles Pirnie. A   ia oe ntative gess, 
however. I think the cost for this year would 'be uder $1000. 
          I am not posted as to vhther the Institte has or can get su 
a SUM, Neither have I   y information as to th. fiscal relationships 
with Mr. Be11, exept the general principle outlined by himt that he will

furnish and opeate the plant and the land if the Institute will do the 
rbeearch.  I take it, however, that you and S tor Walcott would ot  
so actively Interested in the case if there were not at leost a hop. of 
          Thes reprt should, of course, be pased on by the Coittee 
before being acted on by the Institte. It can be sent to thoe Comitim 
as soon as I have the fiscal esticatet from Pirbie. Will you let me kno 
1w)letlhr you are submitting it to the Committee or whether you want me to?

          I think the ultimate ob~jectivip should be to develop a line of

 work which can be taken over by the Canedima universities, the Osmedia~n

 bureaus.,n  the V,.S..S. T tiake It them Qatrf,4ans should be consulted

 before the InstItute makes vq final moe sad I earssm Bqoeo Lloyd's 
 department woul1d be the one best able to speak for the Canadians. May I

 leave It to you or Secator Walcott to take the matter up with the proper

 Oana~ian auithorities? Mr. Be11 told me that Royens Lloyd wne Anuious to

 sew him take on some saeteutific guidance and that the l~ack of this guldanee

 constituted his only doubt about the D~elta operation. I infer. therefore,

 that the work would b ecomne by the Canadians. 
          1here ma be a residual question as to whether the Delta 
 property ise theý best possible bese for Canadian bre*4Ain studies.
 heaviest b~reedlug belt apparently lies to the nrth. Rowover, there would

 be quiAte a-,n Advantqen in a definite fiscal bae. and none other is available

 or in prospect, and Pirni seemed to have no doubts as to Its suitability.

 If there be an weak point here, It will doubtless appeatr before aW long-

 time ooinoitm~ats need by made. You will note that I hnve phrased the 
 report as the tryout of an idea rather tha~n as the ultimnat adoption of


2 - Roary P. DaviuM~ I                                      9 
      C)Ate aside frora the Institute ar1es of this 
gralymr~ny.,)d heoi-1~~e 'th 101r. 3oll. 
question, I 
9W-t b~st earu 
Tours ainoeraly., 
                               ed, LonopQ4ld 
MC If                     Frofessor of Game manesin t 
P.S. if possible, I wu)ld like a desiatlf r*^&Od bY 17U40 in order 
thpt     field work- mV not bm clol*ryPC A.L..,: 
*q I v 1939 

                                                    424 University, arm Place

                                                    May7 * 1930 
W. X. Kellogg Bird Sanctuary 
Battle Crook, Michigan 
          I went to Minneapolis yesterday  ad had a very interstig 
conference with Mr. Be1. I am submitting today a report to the Institute,

copy of whiah is attached. Before going further with this, I w-id like 
to be sure, first, whether the gvneral ides" embodied in the report
with your approval; seconly, I would apreciate your sending me reo 
mendations for this year's cost estimates. 
         The first item in these costs ts your own trip, anM I would 
recommend that you spend at least a month there if you can. Albert tell*

me that you are tied up in summer school. Wuld it be possible for you 
to go up there twice, once before and once after summer school? In any 
event, give yo uour figure for such time as you can spare up to a nonth,

and make It clear whether your figure ti inclusive of travel ex    e. I 
would suest that the simplest set-up in beth your ease and that of the 
student would be a lup sum, you to travel yourself up and back. Mr. Be1 
did not make it clear what the local facilities for board and lodging are

and I hesitated to inquire about such details. If you know anything, 
however, you might tell me, since the question obviously bears on rates of

          The second item of eopese  would be the graduate student. 
Assuming that y   went Albert HRchbaum, he could be up there this year from

June to October inclusive, which would be five months. If he pays his owM

travel to and fro and furnishes his own car, board and lodging, it would

take a little over $100 per month to yield the same not earings as the 
Park Service pays for summer students, namely $70 per month. I understand

these smmer students are furnished board and of course they do not have 
to have a oar. Shall I ask for $100 per month or do you think a slightly

higher rate necessary? Nxt year Albert could spend the entire suemer 
from April to October on the ground. 
          If you feel like it, I would also like to have your corrections

or adAitions to the research appendix attached to the report. I pulled 
this out of thin air simply to give the Institute some realistic idea of

the kind of work to be done. 
          You said something while here to the effect that Mr. Kellog 
might be willing to stake you to a Canadian trip. It occurs to me that 
the work up there might be an extension to the Kellogg Sanctuary and to 
Michigan State College b7 reason of the research data it will yield for 
ultimate publications and for current teaching. Possibly them either Mr.


2 - Mil" D. Pirate 
Kellog or the State Ocllege could furnish al or part of your salay, 
the Institute contribution taking the form of an additional honorarium 
to cover expense, personal trouble, oto. I am, of course, not trying to 
lay down your fiscal policy, 'ut mircly to sugget variouv ways in which 
the fiscal apsects might be handled. If there is to be an contribution 
thro     alary or otherwise from Mr. Kellogg or the State College, please

inform me fully, 
          I would like to see this thing develop a kind of team work 
between your graup an mine. At a later date, when policy questions have 
somehat crystalliSed, I migt want to ask the Institute or somebody for 
a trip up there yself. 'hat I visualise and look forward to is a combin-

ation of your tenical knowledge of waterfowl and my experiee in the 
pelicy field. 1 oan also see at a later date active oooperation by 
$ysiologiets, geneticists, eto., to be hand-picked from both Institutions

and possibly the Canadian institutions. I think the ultimate object 
should be for the Canadian institutions to take over the Job, but I gther

from Mr. Bell that the University of Manitoba is hardly yet in a Position

to do this. I hope you oan stop over here either on your way up or on 
you~r Wy back, 
          If there is an part of this letter that is out of harmony with

your own views and hopes, be sure to let me know. Please also lot it be 
clear that I am not trying to write the ticket. I am merely giving you 
W thoughts for riticism and ooeat. 
          With regards, 
                                  Tour sincerely, 
                                          ro do Leopold 
eval                               Prof essor of Gaae Kanageesat 
MW 7,# 1939 

                                                            7, 1938 
                                   on the 
                          Det   Waterfowl Fr£e.c±U 
                               Aldo Leopold 
. Mr. James 1. Boll of Minneapolis last year offered the Institute 
the use of his land and propaeation plant at Delta, Manitoba, for research

work in artificial propagation of waterfowl. 
     The proposal was act recommended by the TeOhnial Committee, ea the 
grounds that the baning returns from artificialIy propagated waterfowl 
were not sufficiently eAnooraging to make them of prospective value in 
maintaining the supply. The question was considered wholly in terms of 
improvemnt in propagation by means of artificial light. 
N   F2!oja*    It now develops that Mr. Bell Is not interested exclusively

or even mainly in artificial propagation. What he desires is to offer his

plant and his property for aw  research useful to waterfowl conservation.

gie will carry the plant and the land. 
R    re I     A. As has been frequently pointed out by members of the 
Technical Comittee, waterfowl research has lagged far behind upland game,

whereas the r-speotive urgency is in reverse order. The recent work of 
the Biologtcal Surv   on the breeding grounds shows improved vitality, but

only along three linels 
          i. Geralised banding 
          2. Predation studies 
          3. Yood habits and food plants. 

     The present units are doing no considerable amount of waterfowl work,

and only a few are located to do any broeding-ground research. 
     There remain almost untouched a manber of urgently needed kinds of 
waterfowl breedi   ground worki 
          I Intensive lohlsed nesting and surwvival studies. 
          5. reeding pysioloe. 
          6. Final determination of the survival value of artificial 
             birds vs. wild birds. 
     In general, the Biological Survey research in waterfowl in not as 
closely in touch with related sciences as it should be. 
     In v opinion the initiation of some breeding ground work of a sort 
which, for brevity, I will call the 'new kind" would tend tot 
          (a) Stimulate official bureaus in both the U.S. and Canada. 
          (b) Induct the Canadian universities into the problem, so 
              they can ultimately take the lead in solving it. 
           (a) Steer U.S. and other funds for breeding ground improvement

              into good channels. 
           (d) Crystallise the enthusiastic Canadian conservation movement

               into good channels. 
           (e) Open the way for ultimate research oontributions by 
               scientific foundations. 
     In my opinion the Delta property holds out great promise as a location

for needed studies, and as a suitable field-base for others. 
How  o S     . The Canadian institutions so far active in wildlife research

are not near Delta. 
     The American institution most copsetent to *sit up the waterfowl problem

 is Michigan State College (Dr. Miles D. Pirnie). 
     I reconmend to the Technical Comittee, and if they approve, to the 
 Institute, that: 

          1. Dr. Pirnie be sent to Delta this s  eum r to $ise up 
             its possibilities an lay out plans. 
          2. A raduate student be seat for the reiainer of 
             the field season to do such detailed field work 
             as Dr. Pirnie may direct. 
C      t       te. Detailed cost setimates will be submitte4 shortly 
after consultation with Dr. Irnde. 
NThere Is appended a           ore detailed stateent of the research 
possibilities now In eight. This is subJect to revision and extension 
by Dr. Pirnie. 

             NeeedReeachStudio* on the Waterfow r o   i AreM  a 
_rvivaao                   i              A good nmber of banding 
returns on nrtificial depwaters raised at Delta hnve come in, but thq 
are virtually all from b    o  t  y.     There is as yot no evidence 
of whether or where the artificial releases breed. Moreover, birds of the

year means birds from wild egs floods having so far destroyed t o  estings

of artificial birds which would have yielded second-generation artificials.

One obvious thing to be done at Delta is, therefore, the continuation of

Mr. Bell's releases of artificial deepwaters (including second-generation

or truly artificial birds). fhese should be matched against equal numbers

of wild trappings, and the two systematically compared not only for survival,

but for breeding dispersal, migration routes, physical development, sox 
ratio, etc.  (The present Delta tahaanback w      j t    wild ones of 
like age at time of release.) 
     Another experiment whieh Is badly needed especially for mallards is

to match good and *mongrel* artificials against each other, and against wild

trappingg, for comparative survival and behavior. The Institute has a 
chance to carry to a final showdown the value of artificial propagation as
means of replenishing the flights. This need nt all be done at Delta. 
Mongrel releases are obtainable at mW spots. 
     The present prospect is that survival i* a umtter of           F Past

exneriments such as Lincoln's have not taken qaullty into aooount. Pen wild

cnvasbacks vary greatly in weight and perhaps quality. 
     Ultimately standards of quality will have to take into account the 
development of instincts as well as physique. This is clearly foreshadowed

by Long's work (unpublished) at Michigan. Long has found "wild"

Appendix - 2 
of satisfactory exterior but radically detective interiw equipment for wild

Netn    Studie an   .rsagM~~lj, The need. for wild nesting studies 
of the standard type is too obvious to need coent. 
     There are fundamental aspects of nesting, not so far studied at all,

which need to be opened up. 
     Mr. Uell says caiwLsbacks do not nest until two years old. This may

be trae of other depwaters. Simultaneous stady of artificial and wild 
birds is the obvious way to get at these b               of our *raw material.*

Deferred maturity makes an enormous iffeorene in "broding potential,"
this m   account for the relative severity of the effects of drouth and over-

shooting on deepwaters. 
     Phyiologists now doet"t two kinds of breeding cycle in birds, the

'determinate clutch" and *Indeterminate clutch.* Our waterfowl secies
not y"et classified In this respect. Reneeting and egg-lifting depends
on It. 
Theonly my to d.elop the subject is by experimental manipulation (with false

egg) of both wild and artificial nestings. Delta is an obvious place for
such work because It requires repeted annual experiments on the same ground.

     Qanvasbacks at Delta have been seen this year In a collective mating

display analoeous to the booming of prairie chickens. Sine these displays

are now recGnised. as no mere ornitkologicl oddity, but as an esst 
s        to endocrine chawns preparatory to breeding, It is likely that 
discoveries important to breeding-grouad management migt result from mere

continuous ornithological observation of a breoding ground like Delta. 
C              zngtIatM. The excellent pothole study by Turness in the current

number of the Wilson Bulletin is a good Indicator of the readiness of the


Appendix- 3 
Canadians to embark on realy soientifio watefowl wrk. A projet at 
Delta would build up a first-hand acquaintance with Canadwian soientifio

manpower eusential to the ultimate objective of Canadian soentific leadership

in wt.rfowl breeding problems. Research progess ia Canada is held up by 
laek of research funds to an extent hardly credible to those familiar with

the generously financed #9 unite.0 The sere existence of a visi'ble ad 
profetive auck study migt turn loose more generous support of their own 
research by the Canadian* themselves. 

                                                  4.2%1 University Farm Plaee

                                                  April 30, 1936 
Mr. Henry P. Davis 
American Wildlife Institute 
Investment Building 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Henrys 
           I think I made a mistake in the Bell case. I think we 
were right in expreesing lack of financial interest in the arti- 
ficial propagation of ducks, but Pirnie thinks, and I agree with 
him, that Bell's place would make an extremely valuable headquarters 
for banding and other experimental work which is so badly needed in 
the duck breeding belt. I have been corresponding some more with 
Mr. Bell and find that he, too, is interested In this, and I am 
offering to run up to Minneapolis to see him about it. I hope this 
meets with your approval. Do not be surprieed if you hear from me 
further about the Bell case. 
          What I visualize Is an experimental station where his pre- 
existing game farmer does the game farming work if he wants to con- 
tinue it, but where a new spries of banding and other duck experiments 
are to be initiated, supervised in detail by Pirnie, and in a general 
way by myself. Pirnie brings me glowing aoccrnts of the cooperative- 
ness of the Canadians, and I think much local help can be obtained. 
Anyhow I think it is worth going to see ell about. 
          I have no travel funds. Would it be within reason for the 
Institute to carry thie trip? If not, I of course will gladly do it 
                                  Yours sincerely, 
                                           Aldo Leopold 
 Signed In                          Professor of Game Management 
 Mr. Leopold's absence 

                                  MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
JAMES F- BELL                  April 14, 1938 
    Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
    1552 University Avenue, 
    Madison, Wisconsin. 
    Dear Dr. Leopold: 
    Thank you for your very interesting letter of the 
    I am pleased to learn that subsequent developments 
    have shown that the banded returns from artificially 
    raised ducks are satisfactory when the ducks liber- 
    ated are in proper condition. 
    As I told you, my experience has been largely with 
    the diving birds, because at the time I undertook 
    this experiment very little, if anything, had been 
    done with them. The mallards are quite another 
    While I don't share your opinion about artificial 
    game production, provided it can be made a more or 
    less continuous process, nevertheless I appreciate 
    that it is rather a long shot from the standpoint 
    of operating costs. However, as I follow the re- 
    sults of the various shooting clubs which now 
    raise and liberate birds for shooting, I am in- 
    clined to believe that if the cost could be reduced 
    from the present basis more attempts of this charac- 
    ter would be made and there would be some lessening 
    of the pressure against the migratory stock. 
    Now, as to the possibilities of the Canadian plant 
    along the lines you have suggested, we have almost 
    unlimited opportunity for trapping and banding 
    wild birds, and we are also undertaking, with the 
    Department of Biology, some experiments with the 
    homing instinct of birds. This year they are 
    shipping me a number of newly hatched birds to 
    be raised, banded, and liberated, and they are 
    also sending me several hundreds of eggs from the 
    same lot, to see at what point this homing instinct 
    is developed. 
    You suggest that I resubmit the case, with only 
    incidental emphasis on light manipulation and 

with primary emphasis on the comparison of survival 
of wild and artificial birds of as many species as 
possible through a term of years. 
I am distinctly interested in what you tell me 
about your own thoughts in the matter and the 
qualifications of Mr. Hawkins. 
I am off East again Sunday night for some ten days 
or two weeks. On my return I should be very glad 
if you would suggest some means of our getting to- 
gether for a personal talk. 
As to the matter of expense, I shall be very glad 
to undertake any of this in connection with these 
preliminary con siderations. 
                           Sincerely yours, 

                                                   153? University Aveme

                                                   April 13. 193$ 
mr. James i. bell 
?OO0 Chamber of Comeree 
,Miaaeipolis. Mia4eeota 
Doeor Kir. 3ellt 
          .e plblicatioas on whieh I based W itoptesioa that the besAing

reotrns from artifisiaiU reare4 ducks were poer were %bose of Dr. Lincola.

At the moet I a unable to lay my hans on then, but I rember that tbe 
normal first-yoer rate from rild banigs ran from 13 to 20 per cnat while

the first-year reatrs ftro artificola bandits ra froa 3 to 4 por cent. 
          I have na., however, ad &a cane to cheek up with Dr. Pirate
iwhigaa, who tolls me that the Lincoln fti  ose did nt inelude a lot of 
Meiibisa work which showed satisfactory returae from artificial valdar-s
goo stock an poor return from artifiolal allrs of deteriorated stock. 
This dListinotion between goo an poor malla-ds is further aecentuated in

the following plication: "UMig Studie *of SoidoaesýIcsteo mallard

ducks. by Peul L. rringon aMd 0. X. Albert, Jr. lir4-Aading. Vol. VI?, 
So. 2. April. 1936. pp. 6973. 
          It appoears that I wa net up to date oA the retur~s from egoo 
mallards aM the reason fer this is that they bave not bosi ývblished.

Piraie also has the imression that you have some unpublished banding returns

aMd I hoer that yea ca arranze to get them Into print. because this is really

an Importeat question on whic we used all the available evi4z4e. Y 
returns on spocis other than mallard wold be particularly vaablo, sine 
so one elseo he worked on these specie>. that I knwv of. 
          I as etiU of the opinion. that ge farn prouctioa hoeds iiall 
promise as a  mes of augmenting the wild flight boeose costs alone would

opeorte to that eM., but I am nov incline to back water on the 
possibilities of a god Canadian plant where both wild ad &irtb 
cold be baned in cpetition with each other.    I take it that ycer plant

presente eah an opportni tq. If so. I persoaally moul esxcourag  your ro-

msubmitting the case, with only taidnoietaA emphsis on light ranipulati.on
with primary emphasis on the cerison of wil and artificial birds of as 
many species ats possible thrwag a toem of y*Asr. Dr. Pirate has per~ai4Me

as of thoe wrthwhilmees of sech a procedre. and he it especially ipessed.

with the 4oreo of cooperation obt-aiable from the Canaiens. 
          To r-erient yeur proposal slong these lines I woud4 suest tht 
yea need first of all a suitable sean trained not so much int artificial

rearing as in the genoerl ecology of waterfowl aMd in banding studies. 

2 - JVes 1. Doll 
April 13, 1393 
T hzave .ctly suh a m      a is Artbur S. Hkins, but 
up to work for the Ilinaois Natural     istry Survey. 
I would be glad to  ek. Nrthkr iuqutrit. 
he hee alrTad7 signst 
If yo are Xatoerst 
Yor  sincerely, 
Aldko Leslpe, Chalbr 
Institute Tchial Omitee 
so Cowitee 

                                   MINN EAPOLIS$ MINNESOTA 
                               April 8, 1938 
      Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
      College of Agriculture, 
      University of Wisconsin, 
      Madison, Wisconsin. 
      Dear Dr. Leopold: 
      I have been away and I am therefore tardy 
      in answering your letter of March fifth. 
      I quite understand your position with re- 
      spect to the attitude of the committee and 
      I will not bother you further. 
      I am very much interested in the next to 
      the last paragraph of your letter, in which 
      you say you are at a loss to understand why 
      artificial releases do not survive. We have 
      not had this unfortunate experience. Our 
      returns have been equal in percentage to 
      those of trapped and banded wild birds. 
      Maybe this is because of the age and condi- 
      tions under which we release them. We have 
      yet to receive a report that a bird was not 
      in excellent condition. 
      If there is any literature on the non- 
      survival of artificial releases I would 
      like to have it. 
      Thanking you for your consideration, I remain 
                               Sincerely yours, 
      JFB B 

     Copies to Committee 
                                              1532 Unaiversity Avemue 
                                              Aroh 15, 1938 
Mr. James U. Bel 
200 Chanber of Comwaere 
Mnneapolis, Minesota 
Dear Mr. Be~lls 
          I would be much interested to see your place, bt I am afraid 
the question of an Institute contribution ts settled in the negative, 
at least as far as the Technial Comittee is concerned. 
          We found ourselves in unanimus agreement on this pointt that 
the returns from all artificially propagated ducs (i.e. bans from 
birds released to the flight) are so far so discouraging, as aompared with

returns from wild-banded ducklings, as to cast doubt on the value of 
artificial releases as a means of buiilding up the flight. 
          It is the emttee's belief that the stimlatioun of egg pro- 
duction of ligt would be an interesting experimeont, but even if sucessful

would hold out little hope of practical value as a weans of agenting the

crop because the artificial birds do not survive. 
          Incidentally the committee believed, as you do, that egg pro- 
duotion c. h built u    b  lightin,. It has bon done on to many speeies 
as to leave little doubt of success. 
          Just i   artificial releases do not survive is still a total 
witery. When we get light on this we might possibly see your proposal 
in a different light. 
          The comittee is sorry to have to write you unfavorably, but 
the call on Institute funds is so great that we cannot Justif research 
the outcome of which Is not clearly of ultimate utility to conservation.

          Thanking you for your interest, 
                                    Yours sincerely, 
                                    Aldo Leopold, Chairman 
                                    Institute TeNSi     Comittee 

                                  MINNEAPOLIS,M INN ESOTA 
                                        U. S. A. 
                               March 4, 1938 
   Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
   College of A riculture, 
   University oN Wisconsin, 
   Madison, Wisconsin. 
   Dear Dr. Leopold: 
   I have had several telephone conversations re- 
   cently with our mutual friend Senator Walcott. 
   Indeed, I conversed with him last night and 
   among other things he told me of the meeting in 
   Baltimore and of his satisfaction in the pro- 
   He said also that he had talked with you about 
   our proposition in Canada and that you had ex- 
   pressed a desire to see the place and familiarize 
   yourself more with conditions and what we have. 
   I hope this can be arranged. I shall be very 
   glad to consider going up there with you when 
   the season is sufficiently advanced so that we 
   can have the most favorable circumstances. 
   I wonder if you are at all familiar with the 
   work that William Rowan has been doing at the 
   University of Alberta. I think he is a real 
   genius and that he is doing some very constructive 
   research work. 
   Trusting I may hear from you at your convenience, 
                               Sinc ere]ir-ouPa& 
                                 K              / 
  JFB B                               \      / 

                             March 5, 1938. 
         Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
         1532 University Avenue, 
         Mpdison, Wisconsin. 
         My dear Aldo: 
                   I anm delighted to get your letter and the 
         four pamphlets, "Farm Game MJanagement in Silesia," 
         "Naturschutz in Germany," "Notes on Geme Administra-

         tion in Germany," and "Deer and Dpuervald in Germany."

         I shell reed all of these with the greatest interest. 
                   You are doing marvelous work In the field 
         of ne+tural history and suoDlying the backbone of our 
         own progrem, which is going to be the real progrrm for 
         the BloloIcal Survey to follow before we are through 
         with it. We have an outstanding committee, and it is 
         refreshing to hear them telk. 
                   I cannot help but agree with your findings 
         with reference to the tell oroposition. There is no 
         risarticular justification for attempting the artificial 
         reproduction of wild ducks, particulprly the deep-water 
         or diving ducks. I hive raised them end have gotten 
         them to breed in captivity, canvasbacks, redheads and 
         broadbills. It is terribly artificial, however, end 
         even though it cen be done as a stunt, Ps it is done 
         by Hugh Wormold of Norfolk, England, the birds do not 
         compare with the birds repred In the wild state under 
         natural conditions. 
                               Sincerely yours, 
\"- 1- 1 ir 

                                              l532 University Avwie 
                                              Jxaui.ry IL3, 1)30' 
 200 Chanber of Commerce 
 minn' 1oipds. Minnesota 
 Dear ky. 2@11; 
          I an di-sppointtd tV at y-u will not be able to 
moat ith t    ?ý- echnical Oowiittee, as tI am Convinced that 
your pro.4sct is one which cannot wTell be discussed by mail. 
          I would like to run up to Minneapolis but for the 
 fact that I have juat coie b!ac from a iaonthvs hunting trip 
 in MnLco ,-nd it -ill ke  ie Jumpini to get away even for 
 the Qonferenoe. I could some up later in the yevr, but 
 presFuably yo would like to shake this matter down in the 
 Ana- fruture. 
          I am gld to know of Senetor Aalottla interest and 
would especially like to have him sit in on our diseussions. 
Posnibl: he it sufficiently posted on your oertioxe so thrt 
we could talk with him as a starter ,nd later take the matte 
up with you on some occasion ocuvenient to you. 
          Tn orer not to gst wires t-,ý  d, the committep 
will lesvy the entire matt4r in the hands of 1enry Davis, 
th-t is to say, wn wo-ld like hiM to ant for nq until, the 
committee ean actually &at tgethe-r. Hence I ým sedilig him 
copy of Vqis letter. 
                                   Aldo Leopold, Cairman 
cc EL. P. Davis                    Institute Tmehnical omittee 

                                   MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
                                        U.S. A. 
JAMES F. SELL                   December 20, 1937 
  Professor Aldo Leopold, 
  College of Agriculture, 
  University of Wisconsin, 
  Madison, Wisconsin. 
  Dear Professor Leopold: 
  Former Senator F. E. Walcott has been interested in 
  some experimental breeding experiments which I have 
  been carrying out in connection with wild ducks at 
  Delta, Manitoba. He has taken this matter up with 
  Mr. Henry P. Davis of the American Wildlife Insti- 
  tute with the thought that the Institute may become 
  interested in joining with me in these experiments. 
  Mr. Davis has asked me to sit with the Technical 
  Committee between the fourteenth and seventeenth of 
  February but my engagements will not permit this. 
  He suggests that if it is impossible I get in touch 
  with you. I am wondering if you have in contempla- 
  tion a trip to Minneapolis at any time between now 
  and then as I would like very much to have the 
  pleasure of meeting you and going over this subject 
  in detail. 

                                                 1532 Unvirsity Avwme 
                                                 Dseeber 10, 1937 
 Mr. 0. M. Palmer, Jr. 
 .Amerian Wildlife Instiftut 
 Wshington, D. C. 
 Dear Mort: 
          To render a final opinion on the rquost of Mr. JTanes  . Be1 
 for Institute spý,)t of hins wterfow1 propagtion projeot at Delta,

 Manitoba, require mob hcro def4iled information th&n vwe an plaos befor*

 the @.imttqE; by wail. I thersfore sWggst that if you regar   the proposal

 seoriosly, Mr. Bell be asked to nest with the committee at Bltimoe. 
          I will try to *skt for you some of the question* whieh would 
 occur to ae. 
          Mr. 3ell wmnats to maniulste the edocrine syotem of his brheeds

 to prolon the 1aia  season. It wuld seem to me that before investing 
 in sh a vnture, it sh.o1d first be what survival valut the 
 ar  tificially prpatd birds of the various speaeot have. This see be 
 done only by banding. .a as far as I know, the question has never been 
 ansvered. I would therefQre give priority toa baning development mtho 
 than an an4doarue muiimlation. 
          $eeondly, who is to diLrt and operate the planti The questions

1tw3ved sre too lare to be enetrsted to a  but a disiantrsted public,"

administrtion. Tle oorrespo neoe &oes not ovau mention this question
         Approaching the question from the negative side, it would be 
a    to got the public excited about artifitlal pro^gation as a  pplent 
to wild propation, but it would be U        to t o this before we are 
oure that any kind of propagated birds survive in wrth'-wbflo numbers. 
The "as thing is true of pheaumets. We have the -publi all exeitte about

raising *utputs of ame fame but are now begning to realixe that pat 
of the output has no survival valuesn4 It- thýerforr- e. st 
          I an sendiag cpies of this letter to th# oeaittee and also 
ciroulating your letter to the eowtttoe. 
                                rours sincrely, 
                                       Ald Leopold. Chairaa 
vInstitute echnicaml Comitteo 

   HERBERT L. PRATT                                                     
                 FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board        AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE          
   FREDERIC EWING                Incorporated in District of Columbia, July
22, 1935  T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                                     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D.
   ALDO LEOPOLD                                                         
                   HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                              December 7,
                    Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                    1532 University Avenue 
                    Madison, Wisconsin 
                    Dear Aldo: 
                                        I am attaching hereto copy of a letter

                    received from James F. Bell of Minneapolis. He is desirous

                    of having the Institute contribute to the continuance
                    furtherance of this project at Delta, Manitoba. 
                                        We have asked him for a detailed
                    of this project and his proposed work and the attached
                    the answer. It would seem to me that you would want more

                    specific and more detailed information than is contained

                    herein to determine the advisability of the Institute
                    ing $4,000 to this project, of which Senator Walcott
seems to 
                                        If you desire more information, let
us know 
                   and give us an idea of what it is so that he can answer
                   questions fully. If no further information is needed,
                   advise us and we will forward copies to the other members
                   the Technical Committee fbr their consideration. 
                                        With very best regards, I am 
ely your 
                                                                   C. M.
Palmer, Jr. 

            C                               200 Chamber of Corumeroe 
            0                               Minneapolis, Minnesota 
James F. Bell                                        November 30, 1937 
Mr. Henry P. Davis, Secretary 
American Wildlife Institute 
Investment Building 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Davis: 
The Senator wrote me that there might be a chance of our running across each

other when I was in New York but as I didn't hear from you I assumed that

another engagement prevented you from coming. 
As to thd Delta project, possibly a brief review of the history of this enter-

prise will prove informative. 
When I first took the place it was overrun with all kinds of vermin and with

cattle. The first thing I did was to get rid of the crows; 864 of them in

one year. The next was to prevent the cattle from coming over the property

and trampling down the nests. 
Then came the thought that I should put back in the air as many or more birds
I killed during the open season. In this we followed the easiest way, with

mallards, wintering them and giving them ample protection during the nesting

season. The next step was to stimulate the number of eggs laid by actually

robbing nests and incubating the eggs. 
My interest, however, was in the diving birds and we graduated from the mallards

into an attempt at the artificial raising of canvas, redheads, bluebills;
in fact, 
with effort on every variety of duck that frequents our marsh, and we were

successful in doing a scientific job of robbing the nests of wild birds and

incubating the eggs artificially. Our percentage of hatching was high and,
cept for one or two misfortunes, we came through with a large percentage
of mature 
birds. As a matter of fact, we found our five-week old hand-raised birds
released almost twice the size of those born in the natural environment.

From the captive birds we have secured eggs from canvas, redheads, and bluebills.

It took some time to get the canvas to lay and we were unfortunate in two

instances in storms which drove the birds off and chilled the eggs. In the

case of the redheads and bluebills we have succeeded very well. 
About this time I became interested in the work that William Rowan was doing
we tried to stimulate production with the use of artificial lights, including

ultra violet. This worked very well with the mallards but I didn't have the

scientific supervision necessary to carry on the experiments. 
The objective at the present time is to duplicate the environmental changes
a bird goes through in migration and return and to see if we can not increase

the cycle two or three times a year, with breeding in each cycle. This will
quire work in hormones, with artificial stimulation with both light and tempera-

ture And also with feeding. To do this we must engage a scientific staff
establish a laboratory. I have a man in mind who has finished his doctor's
at McGill. I can furnish the necessary housing sad laboratory equipment but
need some assistance in the expenses involved in the services of Dr. Byllingsley.


I suggested the amount of four thousand to Senator Walcott and should have

told him that I would join equally in this experiment. Personally, I believe

that we can do it for less but one must provide against contingencies.  I

think the work is well worth while and I would like to we it carried on if

we can secure the necessary financial assistance in doing so. 
                                               Sincerely yours, 
                                                 (signed) JAMES F. BELL 

                                  MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
                                  December 30, 1939 
        Dr. Aldo Leopold 
        424 University Farm Place 
        Madison, Wisconsin 
        Dear Dr. Leopold: 
        Thank you for the copy of your letter to 
        Pirnie. I apologize for not having acknowledged 
        your brief of the co-operative agreement for 
        the Delta Station, but I assumed I would 
        hear from Palmer. 
        As a matter of fact, a letter from him just 
        comes in, which speaks of some further delay. 
        However, anything you work out is entirely 
        agreeable, and when the Foundation is ready 
        to act, you will find me responsive. 
        It was unfortunate that I was away when you 
        and Hochbaum were here. You apparently have 
        stirred up great interest in the Delta project, 
        as is evidenced by the various museums and 
        colleges which propose to participate. I am 
        afraid you are far too modest when you say 
        this all comes up spontaneously. 
        Give my best to Hochbaum and Joan and extend 
        to them and accept for yourself my very best 
        wishes in the N~ew Year. 
jfb aj 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated In District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
     December 27, 1939 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
             Come to the 
      The Mayflower, Washington, D. C. 
        MARCH is, 19 and 20, 1940 
Prof. lido Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, VZisconsin 
Dear Aldot 
                I am attaching hereto our check in 
the amount of $441.56 to cover Hoohbaum's salary 
for this coming month and his expenses while at 
                So far we are over our share of the 
Delta budget but I am hoping that we'll be able 
to get the thousand from Bell to even us up. 
               Ybe're having a meeting of our Executive 
Cormittee next week on Wednesday and I hope some 
definite action with regard to contacting Mr. Bell 
will be undertaken. 
               7i1th best regards, I am 
C. IA. Palm 

                                             1424 University Farm Place 
                                             December 13, 1939 
Mr. 0. V. Palmer, Jr. 
Amerioan Wildlife Institute 
Investment Building 
Washington, D. 0. 
Dear Morti 
          The budget for Delta tet up $400 for Hochbasutus 
epeases and $200 for travel expenses for Pirnie and wysalf. 
I afterward found that I had failed to take account of Peter 
Ward, and I charged his salary from April to November($240) 
against these expense ftnds. 
          Attached is Hochbamems expense account in the anmot 
of $291.56. Since it has never been clear how we were financed 
at Delta, I am unable to make a flat recommaedation for Hoohbauu'e 
reimbursement in this amount, but hope that enoug balance remains 
to take *are of the aocount. I will leave the matter in your 
                                  Sincerely yours, 
                                        Aldo Leopold 
enM                             Professor of Wildlife Management 

                        3z=Onse Account - H. A. HochbaumI 
                          Delta Dask Station - 1939 
    Maroh -   50 miles at 40 per mile .t........... $ 34.0o 
    April - 290 miles at 4# per mile.. ................     .   11.20 
    May 1 to June 20 - 320 miles at 44 por mile ......... ...  12.80 
    June 20 to July 20 - 6161 miles at 40 per mile.   ...... 32.66 
    July 20 to August 20 - 907 miles at 40 per mile .    .... 36.28 
    August 20 to October 20 - 1196* miles at 40 per mile.  .        54.85

    October 20 to December 3 - 994 miles at 40 per mile . . .   39.16 
8upplies for preparation of speciaens. . . . ..........         1.64 
Wheat .......  ....... .....    ...........................      4.00 
Shells....      ..  ....  ...............      ................ . 16.10 
Banding supplies. ..........    ......................          6.25 
Mouse traps   ..........................                          . 45 
Phone calls .......  ....... ...   ......................... .65 
Shipping speelmens ...........             ...... .  ...         2.40 
latry foe on peolmes.. ......................... 1.50 
Staps   . . . .. .   . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .    . . .   2.o0 
Printing matter.. . .... .........   ....................... 11.50 
Reprints of Trasactionls paper ...........    ............. 13.12 
     Total . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .0. .          0.. ... ..   $ 

4    1'     ~ 
j20 9~9 
, ~6, ~' 
&2~t~ ,,~4 
,/ j~ct {6;~ 
,7g. -2  - LJI 
/I>  1 2- 
r ~ / 
Ir I 
,40ý )ý , 
j g. Pq 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER             AMWILDLIFE                            
           F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN            INSTITUTE         
    FREDERIC EWING                   Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935 T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee    INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C.  
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
          C. M. PALMER, JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
          -A94a Secretary 
                                                             December 11,
                   Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                   424 University Farm Place 
                   Madison, Wisoonsin 
                   Dear Aldos 
                                  I have a copy of your letter of November
                   to Miles Pirnie. 
                                  We had a very hurried meeting of the Executive

                   Committee on November 10th, the day before Senator Walcott

                   sailed for Europe. This meeting was called specifically
                   consider the Conference and affairs of the Federation.
                   else was undertaken. 
                                  I tried to get some action on the Delta
                   but nothing definite was done. Since that time I have
                   to Mr. F. B. Davis, Jr., who, as you knowv, is our vice

                   president, and who is well acquainted with Mr. Bell. At
                   meeting during the brief time we discussed the Delta project,

                   Mr. Davis suggested a counter proposal to Mr. Bell. As
                   matter was left pretty much in the air, I wrote Mr. Davis

                   giving all the information I had, a copy of your correspondence,

                   the agreement, program and budget, and asked that he contact

                   Mr. Bell with the proposal he made at that meeting. 
                                  I have not yet heard from Mr. Davis but
as soon 
                   as I hear anything definite from him I will advise you.
                   certainly hope we can get something done on this project

                   pretty soon. Everyone is extremely interested in the work

                   and eager to see it progress. They favor the taking over
                   the hatchery and Mr. Bell's proposal but it has been very
                   to get any specific action. 
                                  We will have another meeting after the
first of 
                   the year and I hope that we can get the thing settled
at that 
                                  With very best regards, I am 
cn9 exr                                                        Sincerely,

                                                               C. M. Palmer,


  10 A 
A Permanent WorA in Sport and Conservation 
                        505 Commercial Building, 
                        Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
                        December 9, 1939. 
Dr* Aldo Leopold, 
Dept. of Wildlife Management, 
424 University Farm Place, 
MADISON, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 
Dear Dr. Leopold: 
      Mr. Main changed his plans and has gone out to 
the Pacific coast in connection with Ducks Unlimited 
work. This is the reason he did not call on you last 
Thurday as I had led you to believe he would. He 
still intends to have a short holiday in the south 
after Tanuary 1, and will, no doubt, advise you later 
when he will be passing through Madison. 
      Your note and the reprints of Al's paper were 
received yesterday and, as I am leaving for the coast 
myself to-day, I will take one along for Mr. Main to 
read. Al. is certainly doing splendid work at Delta 
and the information is of practical importance in 
management. rseewvs . 
      With kind regards, I am, 
                            Yours very truly, 
                            B.W. Cartwright, 
                            Chief Naturalist. 
To Increase and Perpetuate tAe Supply of Ducks 
I ~ __ 

                                              ~42~4 University Panu Plae0

                                              Deembr 61 1939 
Dr. Miles D. Pirnie, Director 
W. K. Kellogg Birdi Sanctuary 
11atle Grek Michigan 
Dear Musest 
          The attached 1eter to Mr. Bell holds out, I 
think, ooneiderable ecoua.gment for the Delta veature. 
I hope It appeals to you that way. 
          Attached is a letter from Oeorge Sutton. 
see a9' objection to Alber$ts senling him iuneeded 
Do you 
          As for the studeat, we propose to reply that we 
cannot pay his wa but that if they care to he will be welcome. 
Does that most with your approval? Please return the letter 
with your reply. 
          With best regards, 
                               Sincerely yours, 
                                    Aldo Leopold 
enel                       Professor of Wildlife Ma   smaemet 

                                                   24University Ffixm Plaee,

                                                   Deceber 6. 1939 
14r. Jaues F. Bell 
200 Chamber of                   e-seer.e 
Mineapolis, MIAUSote 
Dear Mr. 341; 
         *locbowm an I wo sorry to have missed s.4in you in St. Pau. 
         We nw bay. rfrints of the 1935 report and I hastmn to send you 
a supply. I an. a so siadin some to Dr. Pirnis, Mr. Palme, Mr. Ward, Peter

Ward, and Lyle 411wls. If yo  can us  moe., pleanse lot no kzw. 
         Ile partimlor ppose of this letter Is to reprt to you how the 
Veod'e  et*e ids& of a biological station is worki   out. At the prment

moment the following inAstitutis" are p   lposing sientiefi  wor at
Delta at 
their ova exenses 
         The Minnoota State ikem  (Dr. Br
                                      424 University Farm Place 
                                      November 23, 1939 
Dr. Miles D. Pirnie, Director 
W. K. Kellogg Bird Sanctuary 
Battle Creek, Michigan 
Dear Miles: 
          I have not heard from you or Mort Palmer or Mr. Bell 
about the rough draft of the cooperative agreement for the Delta 
station. I have, however, just received word from Dean 
Christensen that should the other parties be agreeable to such 
a set-up, he heartily approves the venture. I had anticipated 
some possible difficulty because the agreement does not provide 
for handling the funds through the University. This, I fear, 
would not work because of the local expenses for local help. 
Before pushing the matter further though, I would like to be 
sure that the rough draft conforms in general with your own 
picture of the future of Delta. 
          I am sending you half a dozen advance copies of Albert's 
news letter. You will remember approving this proposal while we 
were at Delta last summer. 
          I am sending a copy of this letter to Mr. Bell for his 
information and also to Mort Palmer of the Institute. 
                                   Sincerely yours, 
                                        Aldo Leopold 
                                Professor of Wildlife Management 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER             A   ERCAF. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE           
    FREDERIC EWING                   Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935 T. E. DOREM US 
Chairman Executive Committee    INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C.  
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
          C. M. PALMER, JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
           Acting Secretary 
                                                           November 27, 1939

                         Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                         424 University Farm Place 
                         Madison, Wisconsin 
                         Dear Aldo: 
                                     Thanks for your letter of November l7th

                         checking for us the status of the Delta funds. 
                                     I am enclosing herewith our check in

                         the amount of $60.00 v4hich is required to complete

                         our obligations as of December 31st. 
                                     We had a brief meeting of the Executive

                         Committee in New York last week. It was called in

                         pretty much of a hurry to consider plans for the

                         Conference, Wildlife Week, and the stamp sale. 
                         Little else was accomplished as Senator Walcott

                         was leaving the next day for Europe. 
                                     We are planning another meeting shortly

                         after the first of the year but in the meantime
                         am trying to get some action through Mr. F. B. Davis,

                         Jr. in connection with the Delta project. He has

                         suggested a counter-proposal to Mr. Bell and, in

                         view of the fact that they are good friends, I have

                         asked him to approach Mr. Bell on the subject. I

                         hope we will yet be able to see this matter 
                                    With best regards, I am 
                                                           C. M. Palmer,

                   Distribution of Delta News Letter 
Dr. A. A. Allen, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Dr. George M. Sutton, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Arthur S. Hawkins, Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Illinois 
Prof. Gustav Swanson, University Farm, St. Paul, Minnesota 
Dr. W. J. Breckenridge, University Museum, Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn.

B. W. Cartwright, Ducks Unlimited, 505 Commercial Bldg., Winnipeg, Manitoba

Ed Ward, Delta, Manitoba 
Dr. M. D. Pirnie, W. K. Kellogg Bird Sanctuary, Battle Creek, Michigan 
C. M. Palmer, Jr., American Wildlife Institute, Investment Bldg., Washington,
James F. Bell, 200 Chamber of Commerce, Minneapolis, Minn. 

                                   UNIVERSITY OF WISIOONIsN 
                                   MADISON. WISCONSIN 
arrc, Or A.=O,..rr DIRECTOR                                       November
27, 1939 
               Professor Aldo Leopold 
               Economic Intomology Building 
               My dear Aldo: 
                      Herewith I am returning the cooperative agreement 
               covering the Delta Duck Station which you left with me 
               Friday afternoon. 
                      I have read the agreement and have shown it to 
               Dean Christensen. Both of us agree that it is a very 
               desirable project, and are of the opinion that the methods

               of administration which are provided in the cooperative 
               agreement should meet the needs. We have no suggestions 
               for change in the agreement, and are glad to give our ap-

               proval to your participation in the stud~y to the extent 
               indicated in the agreement. 
                                            Sincerely yours, 
                                            Associate Drco 
                                            Experiment Station 

                                    Delta Duck Station 
                                    Delta , Manitoba 
                                      November 19, 1939 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
        I had not thought of the newg 1pttor as anything 
more than a note for our own bunch and 100 copies will be 
more than plenty.   I do not want to burden you with Delta 
chores and can send them out from here if Vivian will send 
them up. On second thought, though, time is so short before 
leaving that it might be better to hold them and I will 
take care of them when I get back. 
       I will be bringing some specimens across and in order 
to get over the line with out delay will you kindly send a 
letter to the Collector of Customs a! Noyes, Minn. This should 
merely yate that I am an American citizen working with the 
University and that the sp-cimens I carry are to become a 
part of the Collection of the University of Wisconsin. I had 
some difficulty last year but was told this spring that such 
a letter will be enough. You may be sure this will be greatly 
       It is my plan to leave Delta. November 29 and be in 
Mfmm St. Paul for the meetings on Vec.1 and 2. Swanson has 
asked me to give something on the Delta wotk under the title: 
Delta. Duck Studies, 1939,. If you agree, I think I shall 
confine my topic largely to the bag tally considering, 
particularly the relationship of the different types of shooting 
to the sex ratio of the bag. By the way, It was very much 
interested in your note on the jump shooting at La Crosse. It 
looks as though the heavy kill. in females in jump shooting 
is not confined to the breeding marshes. 
        Art writes that he is having good results with the 
cloacal character and that he is using it on trapped birds too. 
I have made a last check-up on the captive birds and there is 
no sign of any important changes in the characters. Wish we had 
a place to keep birds at Madisonfor we should follow this 
through the winter. 
        The fisherment started to fish a few days too early 
this year and many were nearly wiped out with the first south 
         Looking foreward to seeing you soon, 

                                               424 University rarm Plaes

                                               Novmber 25, 1939 
Oollector of astoms 
Dear Sir: 
          On arproximate.y Deoember 1 Mr. H. Albert Hoohbaum 
will roes the border at your station an route from Delta, Manitobs, 
to the Uiversity of Wisconsin at WMason. He will have in his car 
a mwbar of soienitific epmimens of diwks nnd othnr wrterfowl, 
oollented in Hnnitoba under perutt from thoi Canadian gový?rnment.

Those specimens are the property of the University of Wiseonsin aid 
will be usd entirely for scleatific parnosee by this universitv an 
by Miohij--i State oCollge, which is cooeratiz in the projeet. 
          The purvose of this 
use of this uatertal to avoid 
Mr. 'ý1ohbpau re#ohes the line. 
letter it to oexp~n-in tbe origin aid 
difficulty or m5isunderstaMju *en 
    Sineerely voors, 
         Aldo Leoold 
Pofesor of Wildlife Manag       t 

424 University 7arx PMe 
Noveme 17, 1939 
Division of Wildlife Muaagement 
Mr. C. 1. Palmer Jr. 
Amarican Wildlife 1nstitute 
Investment Bulding 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Morts 
          Thnk you for the check for 
Wes leaves the &coumt as followas 
     Carried over from October.    . 
     Reoceived from Institute Nov. 17. 
$280 vhich just arrIved. 
* .             . 
November 1 payroll 
  (ucohbaum $150o Ward $3SY) 
Garriod forward Nov. 17 
Deoember 1 payroll 
Cash on han 
         Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife K    aeenat 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
  Acting Secretary 
                                  November 15, 1i93 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldos 
                Thank you very much for your letter 
of the loth telling us the amount needed for the 
October payroll on the Delta project, which is 
                 Since the enclosed check was made 
up before your letter was received we are sending 
you $280.00 instead. The difference, of course, is 
to be applied on the November payroll. 
                 I would appreciate your letting u s 
know the total amount needed for November. 
                With best regards, I am 
                                    0. M. Palmer,Jr. 

424 Univernity art Plsee 
November 10, 1939 
Division of Wildlife Management 
Mr. C. X. Palmer, Jr. 
Americaa MlAWifo Insititute 
Inveetment h-ildig 
Washingtom, D. 0. 
Dear Mort: 
         Just to let you know 
for Delta it as follos: 
     1. A. Ioohbaeh , 5aa1y. 
     Peter Ward, salary. ... 
that the October pa7roll 
* . S * * 4 * 4 
Carried over from your last check 
(Sowls did not work a full month 
In Setember). . . . .*...      . . . 
Total needed for October.... ..... 
    Sincerely your., 
         Aldo Leopole 
Professor of Wildlife Managemet 

Delta, Manitoba 
Novembe4 4, 1939 
Dear Professor "eopold: 
       I am afraid that I have been a bit lax in answering 
some of your notes in October.   We don't know how to thank you 
for thinking of us on your trip to the south-west. The colleeting 
of thing8 from the Navo#o country has been one of my eerliest 
hobbies and something which you have chosen In your own 
country means more to me than I can say. 
       We hope that you will be able to stay at Delta for 
a longer visit next year and that some of the family can 
come up aeme time.   I hope too that you will be able to make 
a fall visit to Clandeboye. I visited the east side of the 
bay last week and it is wilder than our part of the marsh. 
       The bag tally has been pretty much of an all-day affair 
since the season started, but now with ice I am having a chance 
do do some of the things which must be finished before coming 
down. Swanson wanted me to stop over in Minneapolis to give 
a class lecture or a seminar. I wonder if it would be 
prolonging things too long, however, if T remained here until 
the end of the month in order that I might take in the 
Minnesota conference on the way down. It comes such a short 
time after I would get back and would save the trip right back 
up again. 
       I know that it may seem pointless to remain up here so 
long, but I think I should stay until the ducks go at least 
and there seem to be an endless number of chores to be 
finished up. 
       The cloacal character is still holding up %l&& at this 
date and I am anxious to here from Arthur of any changes during 
the latter part of his season. I wondered, too, if anything 
has been done along this line by the poultry people. The 
poultry expert at the Manitoba Experiment Station had not been 
fam~llar with the Oharacter. I should think that the ground 
work for investigating this in gallinaceous birds could begin 
with domestic ehickens. 
       The marsh has been forzen over for over a week and yet 
ducks are remaining in large numbers on the lake. There are few 
birds being shot, however, exceot on the stubble. 
       Gave a discussion of the Delta work for the Winnipeg 
natural History Society earlier in the week. They are a 
live bunch and are foll&wing the work at Delta with a great 
deal of interest. 
                           Yours sincerely, 

                                     Delta Duck Station 
                                     Delta, Manitoba 
                                     November 4, 19,9 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Profeesor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       Enclosed is a letter form Mr. Merrick of the 
Pennsylvania Committee of Ducks Unlimited. I presume it 
was written in good faith and I have tried to answer it as 
best I could. I do not know what sort of a personnel 
D. U. has in the States, however,and am sending this to 
you for your approval. If it is all right will Vivian please 
send it on. 

            1641 XWridener Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
                    Telephone: LOCust 6421 
October 23, 1939. 
Pihiladelpka Vice-C],airinen-* 
Mr. H. A. Hochbaum, 
American Wildlife Institute, 
Delta, Manitoba, Canada. 
My dear Mr. Hochbaums 
           Ia reading over some of the literature of our 
organization, I note that you and Mr. B. W. Oartwright flew 
approximately 2,000 miles over some of our great duck breeding 
grounds, and I am writing to ask what your impressions were 
of the conservation work that can be done in Canada.   We in 
this country realize that it is a vast territory and we are 
keen to have the opinion of a man not in our organization who 
has had a chance to see things at first hand. 
           I have had a number of very interesting talks with 
Ted Doremus of Wilmington, and understand that you are doing a 
splendid piece of work at Delta. 
With best regards, and hoping to hear from you, I 
Sincerely yours, 

                                          Delta Manitoba 
                                          Octobe? 31, 1939 
Mr.f Aldorepl 
Professor'of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Profetor Leopold: 
       Your draft of the budget had not reached me when 
I sent the first note concerning the hatchery costs nor had 
Ward had a chance to go over his accounts thoroughly at that 
time. I hope that my further account of hatchery costs did 
not make things more complicated. 
        The costs in 1938 for hatching and rearing 800 birds 
and carrying the hatchery through the year were as follows: 
        Supplies ------------------------#541.80 
             (coal, feed,hay,gas etc.) 
        Wards salary for four months 
              a $125     ---------------- $500.00 
        Assistant for Six months 
              S$75- ---    ------------- $450.00 
         Total cost    1---------------    491.00 
         Mr. Wards salary was included because he must 
hire outside help during the hatchery season to take his 
place with the estate. 
        The advisability of appointing a superintendent for 
but six months may te questionedbut the suggestion comes 
from Ward who will continue to take care of the hatchery 
during the winter months. It would be another matter, of course, 
if we were to bring someone from the outside to run the 
hatcherybut as I have understood the matter,it was to 
be turned over to Peter this year. The aid of an assistant 
will be necessary during May and June when the incubstors 
are going. As such the costs of running the hatchery would be: 
         Superintendent   ----------------- $600.00 
                   six months @ $100 
                   Two months o  $75 --------$150.00 
         Supplies -------------------$550.00 

       The cloacal character is still holding up %I00 
and I am anxious to learn how Arthur is finding it. 
       The enclosed was prepared at the request of Ducks 
Unlimited and in view of the short time in which I had 
to prepare it and our policy of cooperation with Ducks 
Unlimited, "let it go without calling it to your attention. 
                          Yours sincerely, 

424 University Fa.m Plaae 
vbei 2, 1939 
Division of V141Wif* Mam  at 
Mr. C. V. Palre, Jr. 
Investment Bu1idin 
Uahington, D. 0. 
DOear korts 
         In order that the Institute my hav, ~soething 
definite to at upo, I an proposing the .1.e4s~ soper.. 
tiv, agroeest for the Doelt& etAtion. Copt" are bei~g 
sent to Mr. Bell and to Dr. Ptwnio for erittiema 
         The proped b4get Is nearly the same an in the 
past eept for $5W whish has been added for a bUaetia. 
I have no u  to  ess where this bulletin fun  is te c* 
fromso I have lft Its ogSinee blank. 
                          Sinc.erely youn, 
** P~irni 
   Ho*hbn V/ 
        A140 Le.i1i 
Profeessr o.f Wildlife U~neomet 

                             C0OP2*A~Tr AGRIVR31 
     Ths aeeent is by an betwee the foing couopratovst 
   AmrcnWildlife institute, investmet Bld., 
        Washingon, D. 0.                            "The, Iastitutot

   Jwaue 7. Dal#, 20 habr ofC 
   Mils D. Piwao, Mihign State olie. 
   Ald Leopold, University of Wisconsin, 
     Tt research* IA wterfowl cservatio, partioWlarly in the 
breeding  bits of wild ducksan the maagneut of duck breeding grounds, 
      To pb ek the finding* o vao re searches. 
      go trai    to appraise ad analye      waterfwl cosnrvation problems.

      To encourage the depment of sai   t   waterfowl  .        1A 
      The Iastitu~t. wil  harish 'aids (se* buge)* 
      Mr. Boll will      the use of his land, duek hatcery, an equipment

0n the Delta saro, Delta Man~itoba, for the Delta Duck Station. Re will 
     Dr. P~irate san  Mr. Loldwill fuirnish supiervision,    ~   i~~~ 
     Thie Delta Duck Stottion, will be admisitoerM by a Board of Advisor
three men. at least one of vhom shall be a Caeswlae, The board will be 
appointe4 by the aosparators. The nsmbers of the board shall receive no 
salary, bu~t thdV shall be reimbursed for expense of onesooeting
year at Delta. 
     The Board f  dvisors shall appoint a Director wh, shall receive salary

sand expeses yearlong, an who shall headqarter at Delta durineg the field

season. The Director shall be in charge of all operatitons of the utationa.


     Th Director ' shall qppilnt a yearlong hatchory suporiantendat, who

shall oerate the Delta hat-hez7 a an w.unct to th    research program. 
    The Director I sall appoint suab field assistant*sn emp~loy wash labor

ewsas are need   for the research progam, up to the limit of available ftns.

    The operation aud maintenane of the Delta proerty (aside from its use

for reseexh) reins the f-otion of Mr. Bel3'6 and is not the functioa of the

Delta Duck Station. 
    The twAds of the Station shall be depoited~ with and disbursed by one,
    advisors, wh sa1.bodsgae by                   -   r 
    All sieentifie collection* shall be hmsd at Delta and reainathe 
property of the Station uless otherwise disposed of by joint consent of the

Cooperators and the Advisory Board. 
    efore the beginnin of oamh calear year the Director will prepare, 
for aproval by the Boarlo 
         1. Akbag*% 
         2. A vrogra.. 
    Upoa sproval by the B     , the Director shall e"czto the pr-,r'm,
t the limitations of the bdget. 
    The budget and program for 19WO are attached., &ad become part of
             consuptld Worr 
    The Director sam udrtk researches, training-"        s or other
*ilh are comsisteat with the puposes of ti~i, Station but aot providedI for
Station fundse, provided funde covering the coste are deposited with the

Treasure, an provied4 the Bar of Advisors has approved a suitable agrmet

for the execution of the wr. 
*- 2 A* 

                       Delta Duc Station 
                   B2u4ct &M Pogram for 1940 
Contribution by the America VAiltife Institute 
Contriloutios b7 James F. 311 
   For reserch operntious       *1,000 
   For hatchery opewatt.o1,5 
   P~rluto  y                   forI$.9stin *ý   I 
TOTAL , , ,ftft* .. , .......                t t4f 4~* 
Director, 4ary.~ 12 no*. at $150 
          &evo*, travel 
 2 *   r &*Bastant$# 3 anO at $100 
          ezpneu, travel to and from Delta 
ehbry superi4ntendeat# 6 see. at 4100 
         assistant- 2 no* at $15 
Inspetion trip by Board of Mwvivar 
Paýelic*tta of hiletin So. 1, Grwth, 
   Doweiant auen 3ovemints, of Delta Duke6 
 *literswitemee aA e haw'leet 1W the resi4et fore*. 
$2 *PO 

I- Csantimtoa Of A66ting study, with attemt to toolat* fatos 
   of Broew, ground squirrels, graxire. 
2. Completion of pluxiU study for malar, pinta., dalasbak an 
   radho, for Dubli.etion in  lletin W. 1. 
3. ontinuation of b  ndg st   . Try th tra enough wild duckMr'gs 
   to matc hatchery re1.ea for age *pl       s, and number, 
.    nti=* predation studies. 
5 Oontie varsU phmoln. atuy. 
6. Publish luletin No. 1, "Growth, nnd Movemnts of 

MvP I'lwin nf      t!Lldlife n*~yit       ~vibw2         9 
Mr. C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
Invwtrt Building 
Washlngto, D. G. 
Der Mort t 
         In ordor thait tuh Istitute may have something 
dtfitO to At upOn, I aa propovin th.e ecosed eee   peam- 
tive ea emmt for the Delta ettien. CelAme are beu 
Pot to Ur. Bll an do to . -- trAne for ariticior. 
         The pro3M badgnt is nearly the cr      as In the 
pnst ezotpt for $51X wMhi  hus boon a.M    for a bulletin. 
I have no W  to gess wrer, tia  bulletin fund is to eom 
from so I h&ve left its origtn blanr. 
                          Sizorey ywirs, 
oe Pi-aie 
        &I.AcO Leopold 
IProfesaor of Ifild~lifn Aain*CMM 
24 ui i iv,:i s i ý,y  L n j,,, c 

Dtvision of Wildlife 1.;t    mnt 
424 University 7Far Pla* 
October 25, 1939 
Mr. H. Albert Hoohbanx 
Delta, unnitoba 
Dear Albetiu 
          Tour note on hatchery costs atte-hed to the news letter 
still has me gessin. You give $1,500 as the total cost for the 
year an  $200 per month as the cost for wages. presumably of tporar7 
labor from Maq   to July 1. You do not tell .e, thoiai, 
thine I nees to know, namely *mt is the~sezlong salary of the 
hatchery r-perintendent. I know, of course, that at present this is 
fused with the car. of the grurs, but uner the imw set-up what 
should it be?  If you will fill in the blank lines in the buet, 
it will all be perfectly clear. 
                                Sincerely yours, 
                                       Aldo Leopold 
                              Professor of Wildlife  "awmett 

                                  Deltrt Duck Stption 
      DeItn i4P, n it obVi 
                                    October 2 lq3P 
Mr. Aldo 1eopold 
Professor of hil 'life Mnaneioent 
University of ""inconsrI 
4"adison, WJisconsin 
Defir Professor Leopold : 
       I wtintpd t"o queistion Mr. C'rti~rir-rt befrore' answrerinp

your note rrdin     the letter to thn Unkiversity of ' nitoba. 
The President i 1r. Sidney F.. qmith and he isindeed, 
very much interested in undertF.kins' a. nropoýition such VA 
you have set forth. In thn openin7 mpetinr of the 'Tnturr)l 
History Society, 11r. Cartwright brois'ht before th membetrs 
the ratter of prairie chicken research in L'Aitoba ann su;,sted 
that the Society supo-ort a coopnrj)ive project with the 
University,with the i1arierstrons to anpointed io carry out the 
work. The Society wes keen on the iden Pnd,r'r I understand it, 
willintr and able to supwort the nroject. Tbh httoh, of ocurse, 
is that there wn s a stronf objection to brincrn.7 soreone from 
the "States to do the work and the Locietv would owly 
consider suplortinf a local,or at least IanF'-fqdfn n!turali~it. 
In the absence of avnone here eqirnted to c     out the workh, 
I believe the matter h-a been d1roo)rd for the )rePFent. 
       From whpt I cin -Rther about Y!r. Pnith, I nm sure 
your letter rill be nell recoived P-d will at lenst wet the 
bell rolling to,'ards makine an openinc, here. Fo7evP.r, I do 
think that it iould be better if the Puý7(stion could come 
from a third party. You ve recall that Ur. Lii is 
particularly iJTtpreted in the Eprmerstrons and in -,tini 
them in Cnnada. It might, be well to write to hNi firbt to rpet 
any suggestions he rpy have on the ainropch. 1c hn onened 
a good many pvrse strinc-s in the IT.,;. rind rmiht be able to 
do so here. 
       You ray recall that it in the hope of the fellor in 
Winnipeg - Pitblrdo, art-rizht eot.- to Vpt a set-us at 
the University similar to the q unit system. Thprn hbs VMnm 
even been correspondence, I understand, with the institute 
for help in getting this started. Thould it not b brpt, then, 
to discuss endinvestifite with Yr. Smith the ropblers of 
establishinw wildlife research as a part of th, ,!nlv~tt~s 
function,of nring your exoprience rmid and aid, srpentin7 
the prairie chicken as the loR-ical problem nd the  amerstroms 
as the msnpower.   Thy not su -talso, thn-t the Delts 
Station might be used as a field headouaftern and laboratory 
for pralr~e chicken tudles end other wildlife problems which 
may be undertt)ken by the Univer .ity. 
        I must be' in '7innine7 next week and I Ph'll try to 
 uncove'r Pnytbinj more that has be,.n done yrand spid about this. 

       I gaive you the cost of hatobery operntions as Pbout 
$1500.oo the other dcy. Now that the lodgre i- closed we 
have gone over the records carefully and find that the actual 
cost in 1978 for hatchinv and rearing F% birds and carrying 
135 through the winter was ý,14'1.00 This included I-r. '7irds 
salary for 4 monthp nt 'tl'-..5.00 (included on bhtchery costs because 
he had to hire outside help to care for his lodze and pxoperty 
duties durin r this period) and an nssistint for 6 months at 
175.00. The cost of feed coal,rasoline ,hay etc. , included 
in the above figure ,wasN541.80. 
       It would serim to me that ,'e Phould keep our opernting 
costs es close to this as possible. It seems only fair to 
pay the superintendent the same at the sunier assistsnts and, as 
you have suu-ýested a twelve-month appointr'ent, this would 
bring the cost to around 175O.O0  . An Ps~iptant 7ill bh necessary 
during "ay and June as the hatchery job is 24 hr- a dny during 
this period. At 4'75.00 a month this would bring the bill to 
       It should be explained that the the detailpd hatchery 
operations involve only the period bntvfen Mrvy I and ffoventberl. 
For the winter months thrre is no necessity for a full-time 
operator. I would sugest that the superindendent be Ronointed 
only for the Six-MTonth period, reducinrr th- oper-ating costs to 
$1oooo. This will lJeave the responslbility for the hatchery 
durinp- the wrinter to Ward and me. Trd is wi~llng to do this 
as he has before during my period in the ftntes. 
       In regards to your second question 1ýr. Wlsd snys th 
Mr. Bell would like to transfer the Uptchery !-gFinninr in 1940. 
       The only criticism of the draft is &n the statetent 
repgrd-in Mr. Bell's contributions. '.rd suirywsets that t 
"buildings" should not bc included Pnd the sentence should road;

"Yr. Bell will furnish the ust- of his landduck bntchery and 
equipm:ent on the Delta !,arsh ---" 
       The seaso, clones November 15 and I would like to 
rem,&u here until that dnte. I am givin, a taper for the 
N-turzKl Historv loniety fariy in '!o-rermbhr Pad beside continuing 
the tally until the end of the Peppon, there seem to be 
endless chores to wind things up for the year. 
                              Yours sincerely, 
     / iQ 

424 Universit7 Ya.m P0a*e 
Octobe 18, 1939 
Mr. H. Al~bert Rochbasu 
Delta, Hftnitob 
Dwr Albwrt 
          Mort Palmer agrees that it would be well to have a 
-oooperatve agreemat resad so that ll the Institute has to do1t 
O.K. and sign. 
     I am ctrpple in tryin  to write such an w9me   t beause 
 nt know (1) whaet It seats to run the katchewy, (2) whether Mr. 
woult like to treasfor the hatcery to us rtrao     tive1y during 
or beginni   in 19W. The   oement as  ow drawnup upposes 
the hatchsxT will not be, transferred tow unatil1 9~40. 
          Can yo toll from 
to these two Questionsl If 
nate plasos in the draft? 
in generl. 
yor eonversation* with him the answers 
so, will yoente th     in the approp- 
Aleso, of couse, t want your oritisisus 
Ian sm~ing a co~py of this to Asles for his critioism. 
                       Sineerely ymrs# 
                            Aldo Leopold 
                    Professor of Wildlife )Ian~eat 
Divis~ion of Wildlife M   wa 

                                Delta Duck Station 
                                Delta Manitoba 
                                October 14, 1939 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife lianagement 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Aeopold: 
       Enclosed is a copy of a letter to Arthur describing 
some characters in the cloaca in waterfowl that appear to 
be an excellent index of age. We have checked this in a 
large number of birds and I feel confident that it is a 
reliable character. 
       You will remember that our idea for sexing ducks 
 in this way was suggested by the poultry industry. If it 
 is a good age character for waterfowl, why wouldnt it hold 
 for gallinaceous birds? During the last week I have had a 
 chance to examine a few sharptailspinnates and ruffed grouse 
 and find that the structures and differences in the cloaca 
 are essentially the same - that adults can be distuinguished 
 from juveniles and males from females. I say this with some 
 hesitation for I have been able to opeb but a few birds and 
 I have no check for age. I think that a cariftl examination 
 of pheasants where one might work with birds of known age and 
 sex might be worthwhile. 
        The enclosed sketches are of mallards but the parts 
 are quite similar in the grousethough the male parts are 
 not as easily found as in the ducks. I am passing on my notes 
 on the ducks to the Hamerstroms in the hopes that they may 
 have a chance to work something out during the open season. 
        The lodge has been full sinee the season opened and 
 we have looked over more than 1000 birds since the season 
 started. Mr. Bell is still here and will remain until the 
 end of this week. 
        I have held the first news letter up until it could 
 include something on the bag tally. It will be along in a 
 few days. 
        Sorry thateyeu are unable to make your hunting trip 
 to Clandeboye this year, for the geese are hanging out there 
                          Sincerely yours, 

                                                         424 University Yrnm
Divisuon of Wildlife M   *mat                            Oobe 4. 193 
      Mr. 0. M. Palmer, Jr. 
      Axe4O=A Wildlife Institute 
      Investment Bildin 
      Washington, D. 0, 
                I awther from the earresp.Meae that Seator Walcot has not

      yet asen Mfr. Bell and that the Institute has not yet not. I an etia5

      of this Lela, which is    .w-.8asin t all ooncea. I now Imiaa that

      Mro Bell Is at Delta for a month, hee I f r that if Senator Wlleott

      does try tot In tah with him, he will, beU    able to do so. 
                What do you think of boiling this whole propositoa do into

      a sliple  ooperative a  mnt sad havi    thAt a   ent all re    to lay

      before the Institute so that al thq' have to do Is sig? I tef that
      wedo not do this.   e thiil drg a forwever. 
                Dy    want me to drft sch an agreement? If so. s, ll I make

      It read as of the beginin of this field season or as of the an of the

      field season? It seems to me that Mr. 3B11's nterests would be etter

      served by having it been last Marsh; then the varous advanes, you have

      made are simpy a   tter of boo.leping to unanOgle what additional fund

        gointo the pat. 
                I lack one figgro which I did not ask for out of delicacy,
      the cost of operating the batohory- On the chauee that you will wat
      to wrie ouch an a   ent, I am sending a    p of this letter to Hochbaum

      to see if he g"a dig out this fipir. for me. 
                                           Your  simao  y, 
                                                Aldo Le".U 
      *a M.D.Ptrwie                    1'Prfessr of  ildlif 0ae 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
              FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                   
                 F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board         AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE         
    FREDERIC EWING                     Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935 T. E. DOREM US 
Chairman Executive Committee     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
                C. M. PALMER, JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                 Acting Secretary 
                                                               October 6,
                          Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                          424 University Farm Place 
                          Madison, Wisconsin 
                          Dear Aldo: 
                                          I have your letter of October 4th.

                                          I feel exactly as you do about
                          and don't know what there is to be done unless

                          Senator Walcott calls a meeting of the Executive

                                          I am writing Mr. Bell per the attached

                          and hope that this will hold things for the moment.

                          In the meantime I think it might be well for you
                          draw up a simple cooperative agreement as of last

                          March covering the entire proposition. We must
                          our Executive Committee approve the three-year
                          of it but I don't think we'll have any difficulty

                          doing this if the Senator will just call the meeting.

                                          I can appreciate your feelings
in this 
                          matter and also Mr. Bell's and I can only sympathize

                          with them one hundred percent because they are
                                         With very best regards, I am 

                                                                C. M. Palmer,
                                                                Acting Secretary


                    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
                                         October 8. 1S99 
         r, Jones F. Boll 
         Delta Duc~k Statiwi 
         Delta* Mitoba, Canada 
         Dear y. 4oii1 
                       I saw Snator Walett the oer 4q 
         ftr a brief period in this office. 
                        I discussed with him ttatively 
         your proposition onorning the work at Delta sd 
         taking over the adinistation of the hatchery. 
         Ea favrs this as heartily as do I but it will be 
         necessary for us to st the approval     ou 
         Exeoutive Cemittee to undertke this proposition 
         on a three-year basis# 
                       The enator has agreed to call a 
         mosting of the Executive Comittee hotly'. Jst 
         as soon as thle has been ated upon w will 
         eomwloato with yu furthe, 
                       With very beet regards, I aw 
                                       SInaerely you s. 
                                       C. M. Palr, Jr. 
                                       Actin Seoretary 

                                                           424 University
Farm Plae, 
Division of Wildlife M    o   t                            October 4, 1939

          Mr. H. Albert Hoehbwms 
          Delta, Mmitobe 
          Dear Albert I 
                    I think you have uncovered something in the differential

          sex ratio* In different kinds of shooting. I would strongly encoursae

          you to develop this further. 
                   Tour directions on Clazdeboye are very explidit and very

          tespting, but I am afraid I have been out on W 8.C.8. trip so long

          that there is no chae this year. Let's call it a date for next
                   On thinking further on the matter of inalmlsnt, I an inelined

          to ngre that it would be better for you to mroll the seceond sester.

          X think it woul be Important that both yvur thesis and yor examination

          take place at a time whea yo are restered. 
                   While I was in the Navajo country I had a chance to pick
up a 
         rug for you and Joan. I did not ship it to Delta beeuse I was afrai

         of mi-ups on duty. ind besides I knew you would hwe more need for
         here than at Delta. Accordingly we are holding it at the house.
         thought I would mention this beoase you are probably worrying ibout

         house furnishings for the winter. 
                   Tis is Just a preliminary note. I will have lots nore
         write to you about later. 
Yawrs as ever. 

                                  Delta, Manitoba 
                                  September 21, 1939 
Mr. Aldo L'eopold 
Proles~,xuA ± wijicuie aa[teuAt 
Uj6LJ.VVb..L4,y tj.L WV5CLIS0J18u 
uvar Professor Leopold: 
       The season opened bioiiaay wiT.±, Li.  aoLJ. a8. a party 
of four at the loaw.e. Shooting has been excellent and 
we have had a chance to look over a large early bag. 
Mr. nell expects to be here for a month which should give 
us a chance to handle more birds than last year. 
       You mignt be interested in the mallard bag. Birds 
shot over decoys or on the lakeshore are mostly old males 
or juvenal males and females. Jump shooting bags are 
composed almost entirely of adult females with soft 
primaries. We are classifying ll the baws this year 
according to the type of shooting and t think there will 
be some interesting notes. 
       I have not had a chance to explore the roadr 
to the east beach at Clandeboye but Mr. Ward says that 
it popsible to get there by car. He suggests, however, 
that it would be better to come in from the ielta road 
end hunt and camp on the west beach. yr. Bell does not 
use this land nor is it hunted by anyone else. The nhicken 
season is October 4-- 14. If you find it possible to plan 
a trip, I shall make arrpngements for a plece on either side of 
the bay, as you wish. 
       In regards to enrollent in the TTnilvrsity, Vivian 
informs me thpt I still must enroll as a non-resident. This 
I can do now , of coirse, But if it would be possible to 
enroll in 'ebruary and take my degree before I left in the 
spring I would rather do it that wny, for I can hardly hope 
to get all this summer's material together by the end of mm 
       Your short visit was a disappointment for we had 
hoped for a longer visit. I hoipe that next year you 
may be able to be h,re lona enough for F re1 stry. 
                         Yours sincerely, 

  Dedicated to all those who believe in the 
Maintenance of our Wild Life, and who are 
ready to be good Manitobans and Good Sports. 
             MY BELIEF 
I believe that- 
  1. The Wild Life of Manitoba is ours to 
maintain rather than to destroy. We hold it 
in trust; the rising generation, as well as this 
one, is entitled to benefit from it. I am one of 
the trustees. 
  2. If the father today exceeds the bag 
limit, his sons tomorrow will be deprived of 
the most enjoyable and most healthful of all 
outdoor sports. 
  3. The conservation of our game supply lies 
very much more in the hands of the sports- 
man than in the hands of the Game Guardians. 
  4. Manitoba's game birds, more than any- 
thing else, have been victims of that paltry 
quibble-"lf we don't get them, the people 
'across the Line' will get them." 
  5. I should remember that though the 
ducks go south, yet they are Manitoba birds. 
With ducks, as with humans, where the house 
is built and the family raised, there is home. 
  6. Manitoba has the greatest duck-breed- 
ing area in North America. Recognized 
authorities, after an exhaustive survey, state 
that this is true of the marshes north of Lake 
           MY RESOLVE 
  1. I will not abuse opportunity. I will not 
be a "game hog" simply because I expect to 
escape detection. 
  2. When I take up my gun I will not lay 
down my claim to being a loyal, law-respect- 
ing citizen. 
  3. I will help preserve to the rising genera- 
tion its rights in our Wild Life. 
           LICENSE FEES 
Game Bird .....      ........ . ........ $ 2.25 
Big Game-Moose, Caribou ..............    5.00 
Big Game-Whitetailed or 
  Jum ping Deer ............ ............ . ... .  2.50 
Trapper ...........................       2.00 
D og T rain er  .........................................  10.00 
F u r  D e a le r  ............................................- 10 .00 
Travelling Agent .........................  10.00 
C o ld  S to ra g e  ........................................  5 .00 
Game or Fur Farm- 
    1 to 15 birds or animals ------------  1.00 
    16 to 50 birds or animals ----......  2.00 
    51 to 100 birds or animals............  5.00 
  101 or more birds or animals -------- 10.00 
Muskrat Ranch License- 
  F irst  160  acres  --------------------------------  5.00 
  Each additional 100 acres or 
    fraction thereof  ... .................. ...  1.00 
Fur Dresser or Tanner. ..................... 10.00 
T ax id erm ist  ....  -----------. --. ------.-.............. 5.00 
Export Permit, Moose, Cariboo 
  or Elk H eads... .................. ..... ...  5.00 
Export Permit, Deer Heads.............    2.00 
Export Permit, Horns or Antlers-_  2.00 
Export Perm it, Hides  -----................ .25 
Export Perm it, Scalps --------------------  .10 
G u id e   ---------------------....-- .-----. --------------..... 2 .0 0

Game Bird (British Subjects) ---------- 10.00 
Gam e B ird (A lien) ............................ 25.00 
Big Game (British Subjects) .......... 25.00 
Big Game (Alien) ......................... 40.00 
Trapper (British Subjects) .........    100.00 
Dog Trainer (25 dogs) ........................  25.00 
  Each additional dog.......................  1.00 
  1939 Game 
  South of the 53rd Parallel 
     A. G. CUNNINGHAM, Director 
AND GEESE -S           T. 18th. TO 
NOV. 15th. 
The Game Branch is Endeavoring to: 
1. Protect wild life. 
2. Produce more game and fur-beaxing ani- 
3. Establish and patrol game preserves and 
     bird sanctuaries. 
4. Provide public hunting grounds. 
5. Develop a public interest. 
6. Urge clean sportsmanship. 
7. Promote respect to the owners or occu- 
     pants of land. 
8. Encourage farmers to assist in increasing 

                   SOUTH OF THE 53RD PARALLEL 
SAG UMrl$---0000, 5 aday: pouaeafon, 15; eoaoel~td. Dook.,12 a day; p..aoeimon
40; . aon, 100. Co.t. and Rail.... 2. day. Wilson or. ok ip  I      I-I'IHl.
     I5ta ay 
Wild Geese, Wild Duck, of any kind, Cot.. Sials 
Wilson or JSk Snipe. 
Moorning Dooe. Little O rooco. Sandhill or Whooping Claom, Swane or C.H.
or r h.1. 
birds of any variety, Wood or Elder Duck, Planor. Woodcock or Yollnudteg.
Cailale, Pheanot, Quail or Wild Turkey. 
Ruffed, Canada, Sharptatlled or Plooctod Gruos and Hinoarlan portidgeo. 
Rag limit and data to be oat by Ordorin.ounoil. 
'Male Caribou. Momo, Doer. 
*Mal Caribou, Mlot, Deer. 
Antelop., Cabri, Elk Or Wapiti. 
    F raeonyemaleu er the  . of .o . .yeart . CarI bot-,e, Mo.a. 
lOtter, Basest, BadoMn,Mde, Rae0.0c., Sbaon (Baufato) 0. Musi.c 
Fisher, Mink. 
Foe or Lima. 
            Per-'1'e of North Latitude. Reopen. N-. 27th De.7th. 
        No,. 27th to 010 2nd-t, that portion of the Procselo  (except game
precrves) lying S0outh 0t the Canadian Pacific RaBlemy, WinnIpIO to Edmonton
line, nd WestO  --f 
            the RSd Billr. 
        NOn. 27th tt D-. 7th-to any other pOrtio :f the ProoIoo (
ganme not Included In the b1.0.. 
tMUSKRATS-lo that porio, of the Prolcnt 1*in, to too South of the 53rd Parallel
Eastc0 Less Wltipnflad to the  oolnRicer. the .SeS.. 1e m. Marr h 20th to
May lth.. 
tOTTER-in the ara lying East of Lak= Winnipo; to the Ontario Soondary and
North of Mhe Wienipeg RIII to the tited Parallel 00 North Latitude. and in
that part c1 the Whitt. 
            shell Forest RaeseI lying to the North co the Whiteshell Game
Prose-ro  the season is from NO,. 1. to April 30th. 
To hunt game on Sunday. 
To hunt between sunset and sunrise. 
To hunt or trap on any person's land without 
To hunt game with an automatic shotgun. 
To use weapons using ball cartridge when 
   hunting ducks and geese. 
To carry or discharge a rifle using ball cart- 
   ridge in any marsh during the open season 
   for game birds. 
To hunt any game birds with a pump gun 
   unless the magazine has been plugged or 
   altered so that it cannot carry more than 
   two shells in the magazine. 
To use swivel gun or gun of any kind of a 
   larger bore than 10 gauge. 
To carry a loaded firearm in or on or dis- 
   charge from any vehicle, aircraft, horse- 
   back or flush or hunt game birds with or 
   from a motor vehicle or aircraft or any 
   boat propelled by steam, gasoline or other 
   nmechanical power. 
To use any contrivance for taking game birds 
  known as monitors, sunken punts, bat- 
  teries or night lights or boats not propelled 
  by hand. 
To have wild ducks in possession after March 
To use snares. 
To use live decoys. 
To buy, sell, deal or, traffic in any game or 
  part thereof. 
To kill any birds other than goshawks, sharp- 
  shinned hawks, Arctic owls, crows, mag- 
  pies, cowbirds, blackbirds (grackles) and 
  house or English sparrows. 
To destroy or take the eggs of any birds pro- 
  tected by the Game and Fisheries Act. 
To hunt, shoot or trap without having a 
  license and such license must be carried 
  on the person. 
For a non-resident to apply for or ob)tain a 
  re-sailent license or permnit to hunt any galnie. 
To export aniy game, skins or pelts of fur- 
  hearing animals without the necessary 
          Published by Authority of 
     Hon. J. S. McDIARMID, Minister. 
To avoid to show sex of big game animal. 
To trap or take big game by means of night 
  lights of any description, traps, nets, snares, 
  baited line or other similar contrivances. 
To ship big game later than seven days after 
  close of season. 
To use or be accompanied by a dog while 
  hunting big game. 
For any person to hunt big game unless 
  clothed in a complete outer suit of some 
  white material. 
To have game of any'kind in any camp used 
  for commercial purposes. 
To act as guide without first obtaining a 
For a guide while employed as such to kill or 
  take game. 
To molest or destroy a den or usual place of 
  habitation of any fur-bearing animal other 
  than wolf, or to destroy any muskrat or 
  beaver houses or beaver dams, or to shoot 
  or spear any muskrat, beaver or otter. 
To use dogs for searching out or hunting 
  muskrats or to allow a dog or dogs in any 
  marsh during the open season. 
To train more than one dog for hunting with- 
  out a license. 
To deal, traffic or export the skins or pelts of 
  fur-bearing animals without a license. 
To purchase or upon any pretence or upon 
  any device sell, trade, barter or in any way 
  whatsoever deal in unprime skins or pelts 
  of fur-bearing animals. 
To have raw pelts in possession ten days after 
  close season without a holding permit. 
To have in possession game or trapper's 
  license thirty days after close of season. 
To purchase or obtain by barter from any 
  Indian the flesh of game. 
To set or use poison in any manner, shape or 
  form for the purpose of taking fur-bearing 
To fail to supply the information asked for 
  on the back of Big Game, Game Bird and 
  Trappers' Licenses. 
           A. G. CUNNINGHAM, 
       Director of Game and Fisheries. 
Fox or Lynx. 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July22, 1935 
(         President 
        F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
        T. E. DOREMUS 
      C. M. PALMER, JR. 
        Acting Secretary 
September 25, 1939 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wi sconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                     I am enclosing herewith our 
check for $280.00 to cover the salaries of Messrs. 
Hoehbaum, Sowls, and Ward for the month of September. 
C.M. Palmer, Jr. 
Acting Secretary 

ADDRESS REPDY TO               is                              PLEASE QUOTE

NATIONAL PARKS BUREAU             ,N,,A                         FILE 
                           MINES AND RESOURCES 
                           LANDS, PARKS AND FORESTS BRANCH 
                                                  September 14th, 1939. 
              Dear Aldo: 
                                     Re - Bird BandinL 
                                Thank you very much for your letter of 
              September 9, 1939, and it is interesting to know that you are

              about to summarize the returns for waterfowl banded at Delta,

                                It happens that the 21 duck "returns"
              mention were from the oldest lot of reports this office had
              hand. The system in use between this office and the United

              States Bureau of Biological Survey is for that Bureau to send

              the original letters reporting returns which concern Canada

              to this office for our use, after which the letters are returned

              to the Survey.   Further, it is believed that before original

              letters are sent to this office by the United States each "return"

              is copied on a Return Card (Form Bi - 137) in that Bureau.
              cards may be sorted into various combinations of data by means

              of electrically operated sorting machines. Any information
              these cards could be obtained from that Bureau. 
                                At the moment we have several thousand letters

              involving returns for hundreds of banding stations dating from

              1936 to date, which have not yet been dealt with. This office

              is dealing with this material as quickly as possible, the main

              difficulty being shortage of clerical assistance. 
                                It is my understanding that the Survey usually

           I advises all banders by means of card notices concerning all
              turns received before sending the original letters here for

                                This being the case, the Delta station should

              now have Biological Survey card advices for returns in the
              we have on hand; we do not know for certain, however. 
                                Since, apparently, both the United States

              Bureau and this office are advising the Delta station concerning

              returns, it would be advisable to watch for duplicates. 
                                            Yours faithfully, 
Professor Aldo Leopold,                                  d-z-           
   Division of Wildlife Management, 
       Department of Agricultural Economics, 4F. H. H. Williamson, 
             424 University Farm Place,           ''     Controller. 
                  Madison, Wisconsin. 

                                                          1424 University
Farm Plaoe 
Divisioa of Wi~llife qaagameut                            Sptmeumber 9, 1939

           Mr. Hoyes Lloyd 
           Depawtaesat of Zaterior 
           Ottaw, Ontario 
           Dear Royes I 
                    During    receant visit to the Delta duck station, 
           I noticed tht banding returns for some 21 ducks had reeenUt 
           been received from your office for dcks killed in 1935. 
                     I realiso, of oourse, the difficulty of findi 
           safficient clerioal help to kee retuas ip to date. On the 
           other han, we are about to mumariso all Delta banding returns

           to eM iwlduAing 1939 aMd would like to know before working on

           this manuscript whether there Is likelihood of other delyedy.

           rqworts which might subequently change the data. Osan you give

           me a general appraisal of whether more deferred reports are 
           still in the offingl 
                    With best re   _a, 
                                          Si   erely yours, 
                                                AUo oLeald 
                                        Professor of Wildlife Mangemnt 
           Co eSohbaiza 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
  Acting Secretary 
September 13, 1939 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Plaoe 
Madison, Wisoonsin 
Dear Aldos 
                  I am attaohing herewith our oheok in the 
amount of $48.05 to cover your expenses to Delta. 
Yours ver truly, 
0. IL. Palmer, Jr., 
Aot Ing Seeretary 

   ~r.. .Pa er Jr, 
     Arioa ?l.VliAe Intitute, 
          "in~s~ ru d L~ 
              Washin~toi* ?. 
 ,,,,,ar re.R Pa rtr 
     I was fortu~ite this  ast. ioth in alna hein 
relie.d of S~etury duties by the T~a~en     that I 
zdht "A'      fielC studies oi terfol an4 to 
contAAt _ochL)ar and tIv trrs at cltk.  a  thie 
yea ProCfeor Leopld and I arrant ed so that we sould 
inet at i~ta to review the work aoeco~lishe   and n 
   oun ~re our hunhes0±   .&yar ak o werero 
usfuI    ts about ducek id~ntification, nesting, flookirg, 
etoc, ar ecewai~a       certainly, ao re read#y for 
publicaton   I refer esweial!y to the i~portai t fiAndln S 
of the see  or el~ht  ear of duck  *thery wo-rk uner 
id :ed revsult from leg-andinc       over 00 pintails, 
      ~*lard, cnvahaA., hea, etcj and1- also anl L tro- 
do0iL to duck d   lop    ad ho  t  tl the sex od 
a'pro   ~tc. as., at least w ether Jurial or adult ,etc, 
     ollui    o ooueofere  at Clt, I etoped in 
 in:a~plIe u  ha  a t e j        -ahle vnit with i r. Jo. 
 I, and reported i or~ly the revult; of the ea 
 work d our eithusias for Coepin on at 5l'ta,   I 
 vro Jorry, w all wr  A in Lositio to iv  r. 'tell 
 a yro~j~t reply to Asi ati.?÷n that thir o.I-titt tke 
 ovr the hato her operation, aW ic he appropriatel- 
 a~ain raises this stlrn, 
     *t the niek of ese Arn to spa out% of turn, I t 
this o~pportunt to report that 1 vory stron~gl r~eo~s~d 
ao~espa ow of . ::el1's offer to c tirue the at~e e 
opert io - solelb for reaseanh u  - on the conition 
that the Institut-e tak e ago withi Peter ard a~d at learnt 
one aasista at the hteer. hox b        ir,  3 el1 ha  offekred 
to ooriti,u to ifae the atoaery to the may extet as 
previauuly, but the N.4ey would be paid to the IL stitut ard 
be  ar of the budfet for lA0.    I an vr   sure you grap 
the izrt~uoe of the hatch ery progran Ls our stay of young 
ducks ard the eed for re -earhes on captive breedii? of the 
ga  seiaes. TI ii by the wa}° is an itez in whih i~r, ell 

it *pOiflaly ntetrested!, a? ore Whi~h I t h. k 1, ver 
    4oresr poV'B rport rill ;eet c tentatie 
oonlu@iore at to the deeir~hillt'oC ea erly, pulliatio  of 
"Psr ' 0?        Po, I Cro the~ m t tuo1 &e >Stlton, tz,r 
and to wildlife worero ,erall. I orfzat y   will aý sove, 
let w ell tatea a sreporý l ln t oe hthervs 
    In closiun, let ýu sk; th'at -u7rs  't eaa   4 
reep :ratlt  for th br  ot the instute a    kr, hIl 
arei    the  terfl studies e to a.'P*y  h 
Pe~ter ½.;rd, and (ref eAret" e u~yt ae rfso 
fir beIf tht he Job ea he a     redit to all of the  o 
operators n   aortant of all 
do 6ao' ýthn  worthwi*3l l, ann~actlabl i wate --rfol ~a 

                    Septbr 9, 1939 
  ,~~& Ckl Per, Jr., 
     Axxriean Wildlife Institute, 
          Investment Buildinp, 
              Washington, D. C. 
Dear 1*r, Palmrs 
     LI letter (attached) tells of the recent Delta 
trip, but in it I could not very well include a new 
slant on the entire usefulnesz of the Delta project 
the outcoe of y visit to the Lover Souris and Des 
Laos refuges earlier in AUgust, C. J. henry, the Lower 
Souris maaer, took me really around and through his 
refuge, and it is a wonder for its chances to study 
photographandand and teach of waterfowl and upland 
same. Lots of, hunkiLes, and pheasants, - 
and 13 breeding duck speciesl And only 240 _-les from 
     I don't ýnow the extent of your dealings with the 
.      . ut (a pipe drea  of mine,  erhaps) could we 
team up with them, both to help our studies at Delta and to 
help coach their men with perhaps a s=;nr course at the 
Souris refuge (?) then we really would be :etting soqmewhere 
fast*  Also, we might arran-e to sa e for specimens ,A-y 
of the ducks Which die at some of the botulism areas. In 
tine the Delta duck oollction could be one of the most 
used as well as the largst collection of ducks in sur1mTjr 
plua'ges and of known aes.  xxx And this all ties to the 
"Delta Project's usefulness and objectives". Even though 
we may not find nwE     proper time to offer help to 
Salyer's or Bell's divisions, I feel I should "spill" 1 
ideas to you* 
     I reached home SeptemKer 2, but almost at once came 
on into Northern ,lichin for a short vacation and trip to 
visit a couple more refuges, as usual, tryin for more 
bird pictures and collecting pondwetd seedst (Just like 
the posta&n on his vacation,) Nence the explanation for 
nw delay in reporting the Delta conference, 
     Tr, Bell aeem ready to help on a 3-5 year proeram, 
an( You should not hsitate to submit tentative budgets 
for 1040, 
                      5inoerey yoursJ 

U. S. Jiologioal Burvey, 
     Deatuent of Interior, 
          Wash into , *  . 
Attentl ion ssers Salyer and Elm.r, 
Dear Sires 
     How luck  for  to  e at the Ta,     Ref   at 
te tie   of your visitj -e went from theve on to t16 
Lower Souris, wer    en  showed us a -o0d sam.le, and 
for good aeure he took us to the Des Laos and Upper 
Souris also. 
      I am "wild" about the qflrty am! lsi     of  h  Souris 
 developmentS. It is vst wonderfully adapted for a wide 
 assort;ent of waterfol, shore birds, and upland -. 
 Wish I  as L   -nry's biologistI 
      I have no adverse oo  nt5. Oly, of course, I 
 am very Raxious that Penry and the rest have better 
 trained Zoologists (inr waterfowl, I i    ),  (We hope 
 our "'elta Projeot" -y ;et studý aterilas and helps 
 in shape for the   h needed idertifloation m uals, etc.) 
 But I an  mazed at the rese(rches already underway while 
 yet so many construction Jobs an otr deeop      t ites are 
 requirin nearly full-tima attention, 
      It look- as if the Wildlife Institute 4y be operati 
 sell's Hatchery at elta next year   If so, -ay we 'Ot soi 
 Widgeon and  adwall e s from your north Dakota refuves, 
 and perhaps Eing-neced IrIek &an Golden    - es fron 
 Gig04ad at Tamarac? 
                        Sinere~ly yours, 
  P.S. Would like to pla  to salvae for spectzns ducks 
  dying fro. botulism, if lare losses occur in the future. 
                                             f :i.p 

1r\At) , 
~YV~ 4~A~ 
I ~ 
to - 
'.1   , f ;f" 

                                                         42 TTivfersi ty
rarm Place 
Division of Wldlfe   M   eat                          s*embo 7. 1939 
         Mr. 0. H, Palmer, Jr. 
         Amerian Wt$dllfe ZIaiteto 
         Investment 1halldig 
         Wash)4ton, D. C. 
         Dear Mort i 
                  Te Delta udgt for this year Inclue4100 ash for 
         Flrnise and me ulf for an inspection trip. I have just retmrasd

         from Dolt&. lrise will ou,btt his account direct to m. The 
         following Is 3W ..oouatl 
              Aug. A   j  . F. 1,. Userstron as my share of auto 
                       e.ease. A'i.sou      ,ta ... ....... . 15.00 
              Ag. 26  2 lodgings em route..            ....... . 2.25 
                       7 msuas at 5o# ................. ......      3-50

              Sept. 1  frAin tare, V wlp4pr"Naoin    ....      21.1

                       Porters and paresa. chck Wiidpg 4 
                       M    an ea routse,  at 7  ................ 
                  Our rport on the trip will rsea you shortly. 
                                        Siaor9l7 yours, 
                                               Aldo Leopold 
                                        Profegor of Wildlife Management 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
  Acting Secretary 
                                    September 6, 1939 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                    I am sending you herewith our 
check in the amount of $280.00 in aocordance 
with Miss Horn's letter of August 29th for 
Hoohbaum, Sowls, and Ward. 
                    Best regards. 
                                    C. MI. Palmer, Jr. 
                                    Acting Secretary 

Division of Wildlife ibnasgmeas 
424 University Far Place 
Auguist 29, 1939 
Mr. C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
Ameriocn Wildlife Institute 
Investment fi1idin 
Washington# D. 0. 
D~ear Mr. Palmer: 
          Wefore he left for Canada Mr. Leopold asked 
loet yu know, toward the eo of the month, the amount 
to most the September 1 payrolli r the Delta project. 
salaries are as followes 
me to 
R. A. Ioohebmm ................ ..$.S 0   o00 
Ly'le owl. ....................... 100.00 
Peter Ward ..... . ......           0 ....... .. 
   Total for August ......... 
Vivian Horn 

424 University ?am Plaee 
September 5, 1939 
Division of Wildlife Nanace.nt 
Dr. Miles D. Pirnio, Director 
W. K. Kellog Bird Sanotuaeq 
Battle Geek, Micbiaa 
Dear Miless 
          Does this report ebody the sense of our con- 
clusions? If so, will you pleas* forward "oplea to Mort 
Palmoe? Mr. Boll, Mr. Ward, and Albert? 
I will be in 
of changes. 
not, please Ohaag it as yom think beet. 
the fleld, so don't bauq it up for w npproval 
I'll stand by whatower ohaange you make. 
Yours in haste, 

1, 1939 
Copies: Hochbaum                                                        
                          Aldo Leopold and Xiles D. Pirnie 
          Io have just spent a wook at the Delta Station. Our joint pinions

     are briefed in the following report, which Is submitted to the Institate
     to Kr. Ze1. 
          We suggest we, et at the Midwest Wildlife Conference at Minneapolis

     (dato not yet known, bat this fall) to reach a decision on tho rooemdation

     bore wade. 
          So attempt so mede to report In detail on the varius projects,
     lock*" will be writig these up during the winter. In gomeral, tho
status is: 
          8i. Abomt 100 notes studied, with and witheut crew control. 
     Good hoadhw  made.  tpertiunts with a&d without ground squirrel
control cut 
     off b1W natural tioappearano of squirrels. 
          Plum     u      teelleat progress, especially i   rn raring eoassutivo

     sertoe of sklns to show ae sand spoolos. Reay for preliminary Vibliastion

     with one more year's work. This includes the developsent of new sex
and age 
     criteria, which have unfolded with uneested spood. 
          !    --1u. Only 100 wild birds baned so far, which Is not ansg
to match 
     the artificial releases, either in sizabor or date. This, however, could
     be helped, booise* the poor hatch of wild ducks made driving of flightless

     birds Impracticable. 
          PrgdltIo Stu   s. 00" headway. Kink shortage ba reduced. volume
     data on that species. 
          So           . Valuable checks obtained on 1935 conclusions 
          if general, the scheduled work for 1939 was executed eactly as

exept for unavoidable upsets by weather, and ezeept for three weeks devoted

to Paintng pictures for Life muselsne. This interruption is not regretted,

bat it mst be taken into account in appraising the 1939 research output.

                            19914 Pblieation 
     Bulletin No.     In addition to the anual progess report to be published

In the Wildlife  onferoneo Tansactions, we are now ready to prepare Bulletin

So. 1 of the Delta Dk Station, which will include: 
     I.                   * A suminr of the accumulated findings by Pirste

and 1ard. 
     2. 0G     and D          of the four main speoies (malla, pintall, 
oanasbck    and redhea s) by Eochbaum &ad Piratle. This will give the
of the plumge study, and of criteria for sex and age. 
     3.    d    R        A summary of all banding. to date, * byochbaus and
     This almletin will be written this winter, bat will probably be held
until next winter so that aps can be pluged during 1940. fablication funds

should be aseared in advance. 
     This bulletin It badly needed by (a) dosens of U.S.B.S. reage mangers.

(b) Dacks Unlimited field force, (a) wildlife schools, (d) ornitholoeists

and studious sportsmen. It has no counterpart in the existing literatause.

     SCo             rt. boeopt for the lurness papers, there are as yet
reports on the duck crop Issued by local observers each year for a local
An annual report for the Delta marsh would have great education as well as

scientifoi value. It should be published yearly in advanae of the shooting

season. It mW not be possible to get into press in advance of the season

this year. 
     IM   Letter. Hochbau- is starting a monthly new letter for the sponsors,

staf, and cooperators. 

-3 - 
      The Delta work has now matured to a poit where we can appraise Its

 value Ad its possible future. It is olear thatj 
           1. We are doiag work not covered, and not likely to be covereod,

              by ay other ageny. 
           2. The results are in derena. 
           3. ?he Jobs extend far itao the fature. 
           It. A personnel has been developed. 
      From now on it seem advisabl, to adopt a definite oraaisation (including

 a none), to delete fouller responaibility to the local force, to unify the

 hatehery and reesrsh operations, and to start to baild up, by publication
 otherwise, the identity of the station. 
      It seems not impossible that t1he station could expand its future operations

without additional eost, for there are certain expansions which can be self-

supporting. That is to say, the station can operate as a consulting laborato.y,

which undertakes jobs which soimebo  is willing to pr for. A list of outh

jobs appears later. 
     All that is needed to 3eunch this new plan is: 
          (a) Definite underwriting of the present ekeleton budget for 3
          (b) A small publication fund by winter of 1940. 
          (o) Assent of the Institute and Mr. Sell. 
     The opeortion of the property and improveesmts should eontime under
N Ward, as heretofore. The station would operate the hatchery, but wholly
research purposes. fte Board of Advisrs should include one Canadian, possibly

Ieoes Lloyd or Dewey Soper. ?be skeleton oranitation would bet 

Board of Advisors 
(Pirnie)     .I 
Field Opera- 
     It sh1ud be ue~rstoo   that aomaers of the board .tMt fetioa in 
research opeations (thus Bultia No. 1 would be the joint product of the 
Staff plus Pirate). 
     The board would meet once a yea at Delta, aad oneo in ooonjuation with

the Wildlife Conference. 
     the skeleton budet woul  be the present budget of $2.,00 plus safficient

funds to oprate the hatchery. Sise we do not know what it takes to earry
hatchery, we are sot able to add that item at this tise. te hatehery tad

should include a sumer hatchery assietant who wu      also make skins, as
present. It is difficult to eperte both field operations sad ateohry with

only one assistant for both. The exact allocation of dutiee between the two

-* 4 - 

- 5- 
assistants would be varied from year to year according to the qualifications

of the men available. 
      The above plan assumes that Mr. W Vard wishes to be relieved of duties

 at the hatchery an, tbat Mr. 3e11 approves. 
     Tbe two assistant positions, in addition to getting work done at Delta,

would of course be a valuable way to train selected students for viterfowl
     With the skeleton organimation here outlined. it would be possible to

 tempor#arily epand the orgasiation for special Jobs for which someene is

 willing to pa. The possible nature of such Jobs is sketched in the following

        Intrctonof Reue Ma&Lr ~an Yild Mon. The ".535          
 34 Ducks 
Unlimited are carrying many young technicians vto 4o inot know one duckling
another, and wbo do not know criteria of sex and age. The information does
exist except at Delta. Such organisations wiht pay    ithoer for orWg ting
field sheoel at Delta, or for the loan of Delta staff to instruet at their

own field schools elsewhere. Dueck Unlimited have already borrowed Eoeobbum

to teach their staff Identification of ducks from the air. 
     Some clubs might be sold the Idea of Installing toebeniian. to analyse

bags, conduct banding operations. and improve wild foods. If so, these mon

would need initial coaching, and possibly periodical Inspection. 
     Some research stations might be willing to detail selected men to Delta

for training in our particular specialties. Thus the Illinois Natural Ristor7

Survey is well advanced In ducks, and might send its men at its own expense.

     Crw R. The author of the best recent crow research (C. T. Black, 
University of Illinois) hapgope to be at the University of Wisconsin for
this year. It might be tat Dacks Unlimited, or the U.S.N.5., could be 

interested in setting him up at Delta for an intensive banding study to deter-

mine the winter range of the duck belt crows. So one knows their wintering

place. The wholesale crow control operations on the winter range should assure

banding returns. 
     Prairie Chi   n       While Delta is primarily a duck station, it might

well work on other species as opportunity offers. Mr. Pittblado believes
the University of ManitoU would find funds if offered the services of Mr.
Mrs.   amwerstrom, who will finish their Wisconsin chicken work in 194O.
extend their study in a region well supplied with chickens would be very
able, and the next logical step in working toward an ultimate monograph on
natural history and management of chickens. 
     STests. Vcks Unlimited have found a correlation between abundozao 
of Daphnia and abundance of nesting duoks. It is possible that Daphnia are
especially fik food for ducklings. They might want this tested under   xopri-

mental conditions, but they lack the hatchery snd. the stock to sake such
ments. Dphnia can be culturodO for feedin purposes; sma      fish hatcheies

produce them in quantity. 
     Collection*. The Delta collection of duck skins is already the best
the country, and the only one accurately aged. If Delta is to become a station,

the collection should be a part of its working equipment. So elaborate buildings

are entailed but some beetle-proof metal eases should be provided. 
     A food collection has also been started. 
     h    1. In nesting studies it is important to tell the age 
of incubated eggs. Hawkins of Illinois has worked out accurate criteria of

incubation stage in Hugarian partridge. The Delta hatchery offers an admirable

chgace to do the save thing for the various duck*. 

     Deveo     t Cves. Weigts are a      importpnt check on pluasge as a

criterion of age in ducklings. the hatchery offers a chance to work out 
development weight curves for the wnrIous species. 
     rmries. *              ochbauu has started to count 25-yard saples,
primaries cast up on the bach. 4 statistical analysis such counts might 
lead to a cosus of the breeding deepw-ters using the lake. We thus

overcome one of the min Uandicaps of Delta as coasred with pothole country:

the 4ifficulty of breeding ceususes. 
                                  Geaor   Discussion 
     fhore is no longer any doubt in our minds that the Delta combination
wild and artificial ducks, and of ornithologial, ecological, and practical

personnel, plus the artistic ability of Uoahbwm and Peter Ward, has a large

potential utility to conservation. The orgniz&tIon here proposed is our

attempt to develop that utility within the limits of the present tawds. 

Day Message 
Day Letter   D. L. 
Night Message N. M. 
Night Letter N. L. 
If none of thesethree symbols 
appears after the check(number 
of words)this is a day message. 
Otherwise its character is indi- 
cated by the symbolappearing 
    after the check. 
7am 0123 
                                    STANDARD TIME 
16     Y H         60      DL 3      EXTRA 
WASHINGTON       DC          VIA    MADISON WIS        AUG 31-39 
       PHONE    CARE ALBERT HOC$BAUM,          DELTA        MAN. 
1509       /          MORT 
Exclusive Connection 
   Cable Service 
   to all the World 
 Money Transferred 
   by Telegraph 

Mr. C. I. Palmer, Jr. 
A~er1can WI1&lif, Ins ti tute 
Wasidugton, D. 0. 
Thouean4. d.oflars suff~ici.nt if Institute COntinues j 
aauowit. Three yeas. basis profei'.ble~ We op.n operal 
funds prQvide4.. 
Si~t. 2, 1939 

Kr. H. Albert Aochbaxm 
Delta, Manitoba 
Dear Albeits 
         In response to vW qestio whether the moae 
for Peter Ward was added to the budget or merely repre- 
*onto a redistribtit$on of itts items Mort Palmer nw 
writes not 'I hayve smply revised the .oriiual budget 
to Inclu4e this aaount," I asue  this meas that there 
is o net adition.    owevor, I think that our exese 
item  caA sta  the sharge. 
                         Sincerel~y yours, 
0C Pin~. 
       Aldo Lo"Ife) 
Professor of Wtldlife Meaupsemen 
Division of WAef* Mameat 
  44Unlywestyj Pare Kee* 
August 16, 1939 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
  Acting Secretary 
                                 August 14, 1939 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                 I have your letter of the llth and 
I am glad you approve the Cadham approach. I 
sincerely hope that we can get him to back this 
project. His reaction seemed quite friendly 
and his willingness to stop off at Delta to see 
it is rather encouraging. I know Al will do his 
job there. 
                 With respect to the additional funds 
for Peter Tvard--I have simply revised the original 
budget to include this amount. I can appreciate 
that the need of proper skins is essential to this 
study and they would occupy a great deal of 
Hochbaum's time which he probably should be spend- 
ing in the field. 
                 With best regards, I am 
                                 Sincerely yours, 
                                 C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
                                 Aoting Secretary 

Divisioa of Wlidlfe     gment                                t 11, 1939 
       Mr. i oter Urd, 
       Delt, Manitoba 
       Dea Petoer 
                 I an glad to send 7ou herewith cock* for $120 to covew your

       part-tix. work on bird skins up to Auguast 1. 1 am sorr I did not
       this to you sooaer. De to Senator Walcott's bsence it was impossible

       for se or ato Institute to arn e the full budet for the year, and

       acord4iugly I lid uot have uatil this isont a  funds to draw on for

       your pa. I hope the delay did not inc   enience you. 
                 Miles  iranio and I ae both vy such pleased with your skins

       and please  to know that you.are makingno    of thei. Te. pl .e studioes

       are going to be en importoat p.-wt of the Delta work, aud without
the skins, 
       fLr peaent referens we coul4 iot xvke such stuie to a      advantae.

       If Albert had to ake all the skins he oeuld not Eet his marsh work
d   . 
       We are luo1e to hw  someone to handle the skia-min  job as onseoien-

       tiuly as you a    badling it. 
                 I am glad to tell you tha~t Mr. Palitor haas actualty addednog

       funs to our bgt to cover your oheck for the balance of the field 
       season. This igans, of cours,, that the Tnstiate, as well a Dr. ?iwmie

       a.  Wool, appreciate your contribution to the projet. 
                 I hope to see you again late this mu. 
                 1ith best rqar   to yr mother ;- father, And bost wishes,

                                        flinoerely yours, 
                                               A14o Lesopold 
        enel                           Pr'ofessor of Wildlife Ma ameinet


4f24 University Yarm Puase 
August 11, 1939 
Division of Wildlife Ma   msa  t 
Mr. H. Albert Roohbaum 
Delta, Manitoba 
Dear Albert i 
          I am mach oonoerned 
hope the thng will iron out. 
Delta might easily prove a bad 
to hear about Id WaTt'. diffiully. 
A less cooperative sam in charge of 
hazailicap for the whole project, 
          You handled the matter with Miles Pirnie just right, 
          Mort Palmer is trying to interest Mr. J. GaeAws of Ganadias 
Industries Ltd., the prinoipal manufactuwer of shotgun els in 
Canada, in helping support the Delta wok. Mr. Cabham will visit 
Delta to look things over some time this fall. I have had previous 
dealings with him in oonnection with the AaItion Institute ad 
like hims very Sc   I know you will take oare of him when he arrive*. 
          I will be interested to hear your thewoes to account for 
the lateness of the duck broods. 
          I ex  t to ome up to Delta J"t as Soon    I Sn gt GOtOl 
Hartman fully launohed on the pheasant Survival ezperiments, whiah beUgn

next wek. 
          I enlose July ohocks for you and L le. 
                                   aouerlor yours, 
                                        Aldo Leopold 
owul                             Professor of Wildlife Namgswt 

                              Delta, "anitoba 
                              August e, 1979 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor" of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       Thank you for your considerstion o? the trip. The plas 
now are to leave ugust 14. Thank you ,too, for maktnq the 
arrangements for Peter. I am sure it will work in all right 
on the expense account and it makes it a lot easier here. 
       With nesting over and the youny ducks in the pens nearly 
grown we are concontrstir on trapning to mgtch the second 
batch of artificials to be released soon. svre been ke-ping 
close match of the creeks at Robertsons, but there are not 
yet enough young ducks gathered to make a drive worthwhile. 
The mpiority of broods in the marsh appear to be under three 
weeks of age and there will be a great many birds this year 
unable to fly by the beginning of the hunting season. 
       Confidentally, things are not running too smoothly 
here. Nothin7 about us, but a numbpr of the lascal 
roustabouts who once worked here have been continually 
threatening Ward and I am afraid he has fears for his life. 
He wants to get away and may ask that the hatchery operations 
be turned over to us if things do not clear up soon. I'LL know 
more about it when you come up. 
       I hope that we can ease Miles' feelings when we 
are all here together. I guess this has been a hard spring 
for him. 
       Plepse feel free to come to Delta any time that is best 
for you. September 1 -10 will be fine. 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER                          WILDLIFE                 
             F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN                INSTITUTE     
    FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935 T. E. DOREM US 
Chairman Executive Committee     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
            C. M. PALMER, JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
             Acting Secretary 
                                                                 August 7.
                    Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                    424 University Farm Place 
                    Madison, Wisconsin 
                    Dear Aldo$ 
                                   I am sorry that absence from the office
                    a couple of weeks has held things up but I am attaching
                    to check in the amount of $320.00 in accordance with
                    letter of July 21st. I am arranging to add to the budget
                    #30.00 for Peter Ward. I am sorry that this has not been

                    going through regularly in the past but please don't
                    I am blaming you. 
                                   I have the copies of your correspondence
                    Al Hochbaum and agree with you that he should accept
                    invitation of Mr. Main to aocompany Mr. Cartwright on
                    air survey of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. He can lose
                    by such a trip and undoubtedly gain considerable experience.

                    From my brief observation of him I do not think he is
                    to say anything or sign anything not in line with Institute

                    policies. Al has impressed me as being a pretty substantial

                    young chap who weighs his words oarefully. 
                                   You may be interested to know that during
                    I wrote Joe Cadham of Canadian Industries Limited telling
                    about the work of the Delta project and suggesting that
                    might like to renew their former contributions to the
                    Wildlife Institute, to be earmarked for the Delta project.

                    Mr. Cadham has just written me in accordance with his
                    copy of which is attached. I am sending a copy of this
                    to Hoohbaum so that he will be prepared to greet him
and show 
                    him what he is doing with this as a background. 
                                   I hope that we can scare up some help
                    these folks and if you have any suggestions I would appreciate

                                                         Sincerely yours,

                                                         C. M. Palmer, Jr.

                                                         Acting Secretary


0                     CAMAIDU  INDUSTRIES LIJMTID 
                                                      Box 10 
                                                   Montreal, Canada 
                                                   27th July 199 
         Mr.C. Me Paler, Jr. 
         Aotin6 Secretary 
         American Wildlife Institute 
         Irvestment Building 
         Yashington, D. C. 
         Dear Mr. Palmers 
                       Thanks for your letter of the 29th of June 
         in whioh you refer direotly to the waterfowl reseach 
         projeot that Mr. James F. Bell is crrying on at Delta, 
         Manitoba in cooperation with the Amerioan Wildlife 
                       You uggest that ie ought to be affiliated 
         in some way with this projeot, We will consider this 
         matter, and for your information, Mr. P. B. Yancey, eneral 
         Manager of the Explouiwes and Anmunition Group of this 
         Copany and I will be making a trip West this Fall, at 
         which time we will visit Delta where we will look into 
         Mr. Bell's projeot and will write you on our return from 
         the West as to our views eoncerning the subject. 
                                        Yours very truly, 
                                     GAEADIAK INUSTRIES LIMXTED 
                                     (signsed) Jo. Cadhsa 
                                       J. Gadham         Manager 
                                     *DOMIWNONs AMMUNITION DfIVI1 

1424 University laose Place 
August 11. 1939 
Divtison of Willife Mangement 
Mr, 0. K. Pa.ler, Jr. 
American Wildlif, Zastitut* 
Invetmet s1atldn 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Morta 
          Thanks very wn  for the August pyroll. Do I uderstand 
that the additional funds for Peter Ward are actally added to the 
previous dge*t or are we merely eathorised to take them out of the 
sargin for expense that had already been allotted? In either evat, 
I appreciate your approval of his partmwtime employment, but Z would 
like to know whether the total is the s-ze as it was. 
          Tour move to Interest Mr. Cadbam sounds to se Ike a veW7 
good one. I remember his pleasantl from ow eploy     t by the 
Auntion Institmte and have written him as per carbea attached. 
Tou m   be assured that Albert will hold up his end at the time at 
his visit.   Maybe Miles and.r will be there also. 
with beat wosavre 
Sincerely yours, 
        Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 

424 Univesity ram Zias 
Augut  1, 1939 
xir. J. C04 
Caadian  nMustries Lited4 
Xonta, Cand 
Dear Mr.~ Cadhmt 
         Mort P-Almer of the Morioaa 'wildle InZstitate 
hs told m  that yo will lo  ever ou Delta proJet 
this fall. I m pleaed to hear this an     rememb  our 
previous meetins with plesure. 
I think yoxt will be intersted In the Delt& 
work, vftsh is directe 
field mna Is, I t hnk, 
wil.l be mu& plmede to 
get th  . It my ev 
be there at the time of 
jointly by Dr. !Ales Piraie.of 
and wself. Ii. A. Hodbau, otr 
patic1ularly competent, and he 
tel you all atout it when ou 
be possible tht Pirnie or I ill 
your visit. 
   Sinoerely your%, 
        Aldo Lopold 
 Professor of Wildlife I~Uwm4ent 
Division of Wildlife Usaeat 

42a4 ~University ?am Pla" 
Axps It 1939 
Mr. L. Albert Nodbb 
Dear Alberts 
          I vmad cetainly advis ymo to go a.1g On the Adrtll 
survq trip with Ur. Cartwrgt.    It winl b. an *=optionl apor 
tunmit for you to got a better metal pictare of Xaatoi &ad 
Saskatcewan  and I do sot think that the Institute woul have &x 
Serious objection to you doing so. It will ,erWtin be worth 
four dap of tine. 
          Aks I unden taad I t, 
   stnm  pulibe~d statement. 
but certainly' so objection to 
V44e U7nlimited will not ask you to 
There misht be objection. to that. 
you  ammepazytm  thoir men on a trp 
          In orde to ask* war  that Milo irn fl and Mor~t Palmer 
ogeeo with as I am soaig tbei eoples of this letter, but I wo~ul 
sot &a~it tiheir O.K. eince I think theq will age. 
         Al do L.9opol 
Professor of Wildlife Ka~ament 
@5 Piratoe 
Division of Wildlife Msjwgemont 

                                     Delta, "anitoba 
                                     July 31, 1939 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       Mr. Main has asked me to accompany Mr. Cartwright on 
the air survey of Manitoba and Saskatchewan next week. I 
feel that I should not accept until you have considered the 
matter.   The trip will take four days and we will cover 
most of the breeding grounds in the two Provinces.   It is not 
a cencus this year but more of a look around. 
       Ducks Unlimited is making it their policy to have observems 
from the outside accompany all of their air surveys and George 
baunders of the Biological Survey is going in the other plane 
to the more northern breeding grounds. The question,of course, 
is of time and whether or not the Institute would want one of 
their men to tag along with Ducks Unlimited 

           DR. MvJILES D. PIRNIE, Director         Telephone 7-F-4 
                     July 2"i  19Y39 
                                                  Freight and Express 
Irol. Aldo Leopold 
Unv. of     sconsin 
-adison,  l-isc. 
Dear Prof. IeorFold: 
      This is to ac'21cnled7e receipt o, carbons of 
letters to Albert and to Palner, relative to the 
Delta bud,'et. Before oonmuertin- on its details, let 
r-o eoxress n; sKnrise that rracdiall-y since a y:ear 
aro- m. status seems to have been thiat of "technical 
advisor" rather than "coorerrtoras we started out. 
True, 1 made no srocific bid for Institute help, but 
was wor]kin- under the assumtic-n all alon7 tl at soi"e 
part of the available funds woeld be used to furtler 
ný,r research- the plu~ama'e studies, etc.- as well es 
that most cf it vio'lc bacl the more nearly full-time 
-anrsh ecoloy studies of Albert. 
    I have all aloni su ýes-ed and approved payin ,:ete 
ard for inakin,, skins; but I do not see ho- i can assurLe 
the role of "advisor", lay 7T oe!m expenses to Dolta, and 
in turn rake any headwa' with the studies I first asked 
for Institute help with a year a-c last April. Please advise 
i-here and how T have slipped, if I have. Also we should 
have a more defini e un'orsban'in :s to just what if 
azyrt inr of Albert's observaitions and s-ecinmens are 
comnlrl this way in teturn for the initial boost end 
continued helps I have trie to give hin. 
    The rush of TPA activities here, plus Sui=rer School 
Teachin- have not helped any as reg-ards ýorrespondence 
with Al eand the hards, or with yourself; but I amr very 
anxious to keep thin-s ironed out as .e -o-- or else 
there can be no "five yrear" cooopration ' na joint 
Delta project. 
                Sincerely yoirs, 
cc to Albert.             D. D. Pirnie. 
a4 Gift from /Ar. Kellogg * This Sanctuary is Now Owned and Operated by _vlichigan
State CollegeCast Lansing 

   DK. ,MILES D. "'I.P VILI, Dizrector           Telephone 7-F-4 
         July 27, 1939                    Freight and Express 
                    Professor Aldo Leonold 
                    LJliv. of vTisconsin 
                    1adison, 7.isc. 
                    Dear Prof. Leopold: 
                             Thanks for yo'ir letter of the 24th, 
                     indicating that you believe the amount of " 100

                     wuill be available in travel expenses if I return 
                     to Delta as planned. But does this mean that 
                     you are squeezing yourself out of a like sum? 
                     Your trip is even more important than nine, and 
                     I do not want to be small in this matter, even 
                     should it mean that I have to give up the trip. 
                             Sorry you cant take the longer auto trips, 
                    but even I do not like them, and count them work 
                    and loss of time except for the roadside scenery 
                    and chances I may -'et to photograph.-- By the way, 
                    I nor; have a Leitz enlarger for the miniature film,

                    and shall be printing many of the Delta shots not 
                    yet seen in any but negative form. You will receive 
                    these for your files where they will be available 
                    to Albert and yourself for any use. 
                             The best time for me to go to Delta is 
                    August 10 to 30, or Sept. 1 at the latest. Surely 
                    must overlap our visits somehow. 
                             Very glad Pete is to get cash from the 
                     Institute. His work is good and it will "set"

                     better at Delta, than otherwise. I want you and 
                     Albert to begin dopin!g out disposition of specimens

                     for as yet you recall there has not been any definite

                     decision as to how best to do this so as to make 
                     material available to all of us. Shippinr, birds 
                     back and forth helps complicate this, a bit. 
                             Trust you do not take offense or misunderstand

                    my last letter in which you may find me a oarently 
                    "peeved" at not being listed as cooperator
instead of 
                    advisor. It is my belief that I have rot pushed my 
                    plumage studies enough; and also I knoir you are very

                    enthused over the good work Albert i 961i  can do. 
                                      Sincerely,4             -7-1 - 
,4 Gift from Mr. Kellogg* This Sanctuary is Now Owned and Operated by .IMichigan
State College, Cast Lansing 

                                                       1424 University Far
Divisiozn of Wildlife Msomeatn 
         Dr. Elo. D. eirnio, Director 
         W. . Kellog Bird SanaWuai 
         BattletI     Mehi 
         Door MilNos 
                   I do not recall the p r whioh referred to you as "advisor*

         instead of ",operato, but I oaA assure you that there is no
         in m  niM about your rel~atioship to the Delta projec. 
                   As to the pumage studes, a Imresson ms that you w* 
         Albert were hoping one dy to got out some joint treatmet of this

         queetion, It being your o$ga.14 idea, boyt Albert having the chano
         do the field wor and the ability to do the dravnga, If I am cofue

         on this let's talk It over on the grenad with Alber. 
                   As t the skns, I had not thougt about their ultmtse 41Us-

         psition. Ift i   s important to &ecide about tem now, I am r
         diselaim ay ownership for this instittion, subjet only to suh use

         as Albert ~   wish to nake of them In other wors, I am entirely

         hspp  to have yu ad Albert settl. the qestion. 
                   If there are eowleia qustionns   h are .w  -rai you, let#s

          talk the over uhen we are togeer at Delta. I am uwre of &o

          c.Mge whatever in m own view of the projeet      tt this year 
          an haadling the toMe ins ted of yvreeif. With nodefinite d~qsit

          am. oowvapdeec to coaftot for a payrol1 chck month r mouth, I 
          ertainly have no desire to ke the job. It sa  very well be that
          have oonducted the neotiation with the ntitte un      llfully,
          you seem to imply that I have hazged my attitude, and this, I ean

          assure you, is wt correct. 
                   I will keep you posted about date as my own schedule develops.

                                        Sincerely yours, 
                                               Aldo Leopold 
                                      Professor of Wildfe Mm     eAz 

                                                          42 UniverstyT Fa
ivision of Wildife H     a                                July 24, 1939 
              Dr. Miles D. Pirno Director 
              W. X. Kellogg Bird Saactu,7 
              Yttle Crook, Michigan 
              Dear Miless 
                        We had $400 set up for Alberts exenses and $200 
               for ourselves. Through oversight I neleotad to take care of

               Peter Ward and when you called my attention to it I had to

               charge this liability against these Oepnse Allotaets. It 
               will rweuoe them by $240. i see no reason, though, why lam

               shouldI not coQ110t expense5, up to the $100 or~igially con!''

                        I am obliged to discontinue making long drives a

              hbime rertfully mst turn down your invitation to go up with

                        My available dates are limited on one and by some

              pheasant e   rments whioh I cant accurately    ate at this

              time but whi   mill probably fall between Augst 15 and 
              Auist 25. On the other end th    are limited by a proviso to

              do some wrk for the Soil Onsuevation Service binnain    about

              Sptember 10. Rogy, then, my trip must fall between 
              August 25 and Setember 10. Even if it should prove ipssible

              for us to be there d~uring extly the same period, it would

              seem that we can probably overlap and. thus excange observations.

                                           Your sinoerely, 
                                                 Aldo Leopold 
                                        Professor of Wildlife Management

cc Hochbaum 

           DR. -IMILES D. PIRNIE, Director          Telephone 7-F4 
        BATTLE CREEK      -    MICHIGAN            HICKORY CORNERS 
                    July 21, 1939 
                                                   Freight and Express 
Professor Aldo Leopold, 
     42M, University Fara Place, 
          - adison, Tisconsin. 
Dear Pro:ýessor Leopold: 
     I have writter Ed Ward to see if it will be 
alreeable with them to have     come either for 
the 15th to the last of Au!7us', or late September 
and early October. 
     Also Dean Fuston will be back from his vacation 
in a couple of days and then I will know what my 
chances are for gretting away in Au'uist for about 
the same period as last year. 
     Is the 400. still set aside for my expenses 
to Delta? 
     I shall !"et in touch with you after I see 
the Dean. 
j P// vh 
                          Piles D. Pirnie, 
A4 Gift from -MZr. Kellogg * This Sanctuary is Now Owned and Operated by
J-Michigan State College,East Lansing 

                                                        424 Universitry~
ftm la 
flafilgj of Wildlfe )Annsews                            Ju4I 2~4, 1939 
              State Office hiAIIn 
                       I am delighted to have a not* from ym. r ho,) 
              that an yor reta   from Ca.liforia you can .onalude tho 
                arrn,7sen with Mr. B.ll In -ear to the Delta set-up. 
              The fact that we have not jashed the matte of his proffered

              contributlo sahtI I fear, by reamrde. tV him as a laak of 
              Interest. I am glad to tell you that the wor on the groun 
              has soin full atm.n ahead na is zwda ox~let progrss, 
              bat the boys will, be enouaged when I am t.on the that tho

              Se-t  provisionall~y adpted at Detroit has aotwa beg. 
                       With boot reafs, 
                                           Your* slnse4l, 
                                         ?rtetsoae of Wildl~ife Mawgmt 
             cc Palmer 

Norfolk, Conn. July 17th, 1939. 
Aldo Leopold, Esq., 
University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wisconsin, 
My dear Aldo, 
   I haive just red. your letter to Dr. Bell dated July 6th 
on the question ofsupervision.   I am delighted thuýt Hicks has 
been visiting the wild life units.   Your letter is very thought 
provoking as most of your correspondence is. 
   I am 4ust back from two weeks fisling in Newfoundland and 
am flying tomorrow to Southern California with the President 
of Carnegie Institute to work on some problems connected with 
the 200 in. telescope. Will be back about the middle of 
ktugust prepared to give a great deal more time than I have 
previously been able to to the affairs of the Institute as I 
have declined to accept another four years appointment to the 
Welfare Commissionershio. Will probably be in Washington late 
in August looking into the affairs of the Institute and calling 
a meeting of the Executive Committee and making some definite 
decisions in connection with policy. 
   Best regards. 
                            7y e 

                                                            )424 University
lawx Pla. 
Division of wildlife manademont                             July 21, 1939

             Mr. H. Albert Hoohbem 
             Delta, Mani toba 
             Dear .lbesrti 
                       You are right that $300 for a taxidermist was included

             in the January 9 bud4get but omitted through oversight in my

             June 1 budgot. The monthly rate of $30 which you mention is,

             however, lower and for a longer period than was originally oon-

             templated. Thirty dollars from April to Novmber would be $4RN,

             Since this has sud psychological importance, we had better 
             simply take it out of the funds for your expense and the smal

             fund set up for o~enses bV Pirnie and wself. I will try to 
             get from Mort Palmer on August I enough to ake up the arrears
             date for Peter. 
                       Ry file oopy of the June I budget dos not indicate

             that a carbon was sent you. On the ohanc that this was acci-

             dentally omitted, I inolose a copy herewith. 
                                           Sincerely yours, 
                                                   Aldo Leopold 
             Onal                          Professor of Wildlife Managment

             cc Pirnie 

                                                   424 Utnlermty Warm place

Division of Wildlife llzJ1                             21, 1939 
           Mr. 0. If. Palmer, Jr. 
           Amerian Wildlife Institute 
           limestamet Buildin 
           Washington, D. C. 
           Deo Mortt 
                   The propoed budget in iw letter of June 1 tdye, 
           tently omted t30 a month for Peter War     from April to Novber.

           Peter Ward Lo makinj the bird .)ns for the project and bobbs 
           tells n oIs doing a   y   weellant aM1 consclentios piee of 
           wor. It ie being eavried part-time on Mr. rell's local pp1ro1l

           but klbert tells me it is pyogically Fimportant that )is 
           work be nt least rec   ized in the Institute   areoa ll. 
                   I do not wanmt a# now monq bu~t wsat to cabrge this 
           *,gpnst the tmpase moneV alreml4 In the budget. On Mpsut 1, 
           however, I wll need e110 aditiona     to make up the arrears In

           Peter 'Ward's pay to that date. The total needed for the Aigust
           Payroll is as follows1 
               Iowlis ' malary for   . .................. *150 
               $-a' smar   for Juy ...... .. *... ..*..*...... * *00 
               Peter lard'   alay, April-Jnly Inclusive.... jg2 
               Cash on                      .....,...., . .*. 
               Rettae needed for August 1 pWroll ....... 
                                       Sjincerely your, 
                                       Professor of Willife Ma innt 
          so Pirnmi 

                                   Delta, kanitoba 
                                   July, 17, 1939 
Mr. Aldo reopold 
Professcr f Wildlife anagement 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear ProfessoT teopold: 
       We realize the difficulties involved in working out 
the budget problems and hope that you will not feel the need 
to push things on our account. 
       In regards to Peter, we discussed a proposed budget 
with Miles in adison"last winter. In considering the 
possibilities of bringing up an assistant this season, we 
felt that it should not be done unless we could allot a 
small part of the budget to cover some of the work that 
eter is doing, for it would be hardly fair to bring someone 
n from the outside to do the same work geter was doing on 
his own. 
       A report of the budget was prepared and a copy sent 
to  r. Palmer and to Mr. Bell, I believe.  I did not get a 
copy of this , but as I remember it,the assistant and Peter, 
were to be put on a similar basis for three summer months, e 
Peter to take care of the bulk of the preparation work and 
the assistant to work with the sex ratio and plumage study 
chores in the duck house. Peter is on Mr. bell's payroll 
but it is only for part-time work cleaning tanks, feeding, 
rusning the incubator OW . in the duckhouse. The proposed 
summer pay for him was to cover the rest of his time with 
us from April until November and would amount to about 
$30.00 a month. 
       While I am afraid that we would have a hard time to 
match the skinning work Peter is doing, I am sure that he 
would be glad to do it for experience alone, and I am sure 
that Mr. ell would be glad to pay him,aside from his 
contributions to the project,for thip work. However J think 
you will see how important it is to Peter and to Mr. "ard 
to have his work included as part of-the project. I know 
that it means a great deal to Mr. Bell to have him carried 
part-time by us, for he is personally very much interested 
in Peter's abilities. 
       I had not brought this up before because I knew that 
there was nothing definite on the budget. But now that Lyle 
is here and knowing of the proposed budget of last winter 
through Mr. Bell, The Wards have been a little hurt that 
there has been no mention of Peter's work 

       August will be fine for your visit to Delta and we 
are gld to know that it will be for more than a week. *ard 
does not think the a shooting season vistt would be out-of- 
plece, and if Miles chooses to come then it will be all 
right. Few deepwater broods are more than a week old now 
and you will probably be here in time for some banding of 
       We have started to release the first pintails and 
mallards this week. I believe that Lyle told you that the 
sex ratios of the casulties ran rather heavily towards males. 
In pintalls the sex ratio of P-l birds we have examined 
so far, including the first releases, was 61 male~to 39 
females.with 128 birds. 
                         Yours sincerely, 

                                                  424 Univeralty 3'aMi Plue

Mr   . M. Palmer, Jr. 
Ameria Wotildi    nttt 
Dearie Morto~t 
          I oan t knov how I c &t for the Insitute In oompleting 
the o.nt  utica trro Bell. Pirnieo an I    talkd from the assmption th 
Ve were the tehnical advison ad t"at the financial delings wold be 
between the Institute an Mr. Bl. i retly. It wEU embearss u 
to assumt the role of financial eotiators. 
          T; only thing I caa sugeat 1a for you W a      to Mr. Bell tt 
the 3eR:tor had hoped to soe him but had been   alled awy before be 
a.ble to ao o; that the worc =ut go on, so wut~a  he, Mr. Bel., be willing

.t set It up for the first year pyae      a fuature greent with the 
Seaator for tVe lozWtima aspacts of tie projet? You      " thena pressat
bwlget whiOh I have alread sent you and show the respective pp     ee  omn-

tribtioas by the lnstt-ate ad by Ur* B.ll. 
         For yr informtion, 1r. 3ell saeationed that one rrno      wich 
ipelle him to 4ont   ut*e $1,00 ws  "hat a gft to the Institute ou 
be eweite  as an income tax u  tion. 
         I a afrid4 that if we 1$ this thole thin lapse until fall the 
prJect w   die on us. 
         T      for sending the July I paroll. 
                                   'Yur sinerely# 
                                 Professor of Wildlife, Ibmgmaeu 

   Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
  F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
July 7, 1939 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Pa.= Place 
Madisou, Wisconsin 
Deer Aldot 
                   I am attaching hereto a belated 
check for Hoohbaum end Sowis. Sorry this wars 
delayed but hope it in not too late. 
                   I have just received the story 
end additional pictures frem Roahboum and will 
do the best I can with Life Magsaine. I hope 
we can make it. 
                  With best regards, I am 
                                        Sincerely yours, 
C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
Acting Secretary 

   HERBERT L PRATT                                                      
                FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                  F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE           
   FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July22, 1935    T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                                   July 5,
                    Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                    424 University Farm Place 
                    Madison, Wisconsin 
                    Dear Aldot 
                                     I have held off on the July 1, 1939
                    hoping to have the agreement signed and future payments
                    in accordance with that agreement. However, I have just

                    received a letter from the Senator saying that he will
                    away for the entire summer and that he will not call
                    meeting of the Exeoutive Committee until after the middle
                    September. That means that the signing of the agreement
                    the Delta project will be considerably delayed, to say
                    least. In the meantime, of course, we will continue tD
                    payments as we have in the past unless you have some
                                     Senator Walcott has not discussed with

                   Mr. Bell his possible contribution to the work at Delta.

                   As a matter of fact he said in a recent letter he understood

                   Mr. Bell is in Europe. 
                                     I am wondering if you would be willing
                    talk to Mr. Bell about this. If you think I should contact

                    him by mail, I will be glad to do so but personally,
I think 
                    it would be much better for you to follow up your original

                                     Please let me know as soon as possible
                   you think about contacting Bell. 
                                     If you can also prod Hoohbaum a bit
to get me 
                   the story for Life Magazine it would be appreciated. I
                   going to New York in a week or so and can take it with
                   We ought to get it into their hands before the duck nesting

                   season is over. 
                                     With best regards, I am 

                   h               "'.--6 L ID                    Acting


Division of W  tillife Mona At

4   University  am Plce
JUly4 13#193

Mr. R. Albert ocohbaum
Dolta, Uwaitobe

Dear Albert:

          a T e attached letter
Walot and Mr. Bel have no

will Indicate to you that Senator
yet gotten together,

          I realise that nothing has beon said about exense
aceeots. I did not want to complieate the situation unatil a
formal set-ap fes completed. I would advise you, however, to
keep track of your mileage an other official expenses, and when
caz g  t a forma  k4det set up we can then submit an account.
          My last letter from Miles indicates that he is thinking
about visiting Delta during the open season. I have some doubts
about either either of us oupt to be shewing up at that time.
Z have tentatively proposed to come up zself during the last
half of August. Would that suit you?


Miles asks bow Peter Ward is being carried. I am a bit
about it, but 2 had asmed that he is on Mr. Sell's
Is there anything about Peter that needs to be untangled?

          I have not amideed the n        not0es fm you and 2se,
but I appreciate yau keeping me posted.

          With beet regrd*,

Yours sincerely,

         Aldo Leopold
Professor of Wildlife Maxageat
                                            Delta, Manitoba 
                                            July 10, 1939 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
424 Univ. Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
    Some interesting things are beginning to show up in the sex ratio 
data from casualties and embryonic deaths which we are able sex. 
The ratio is almost 2 to 1 in favor of the males except'bIn the canvas- 
bhack where it is almost even. All together we have sexed some over 200 
ducklings. At the end of the season the total from all the hatchery 
reared birds will total about 800. This reek we are liberating the 
first pintails and mallards. 
    I have been trying to get enough weights to make a growth uurve 
for every species. I was too late for mallards and pintails and red. 
heads and canvasbacks are too wild to molest by catching. The gadwall 
seems to be about the fasteettgrowing duck on the curve that I have pl 
plotted., however, we have only a very small sample and have to kill 
those for specimens. 
    I started a trapline for small mammals between here and the lodge 
for recreation. A lot of interesting data can perhaps be obtained on 
the mammal populations. 
    I have been too busy trying to keep up with Al and Pete to do 
anything on the rabbit paper. After showing it to Al and others here 
I doubt if I have enough to warrant publication. 
    Please give my best regards to everyone at Riley and Faville Grove 
                                       Very sincerely, 

424 University Pa Place 
JuneTo 1939 
Division of Wildlife Uawtement 
Mr. C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
American Wildlife Institute 
Investment Dlding 
Washington, D. C, 
Dear Morti 
          There it really no rush about the execution of the 
final papers. It is all right to wait until the Iheutive 
Committee has met at the end of June. The only thing that 
worried me was whether to 09M Bowls up, and you have asared 
me that I should. 
          The temporary chcks may continue to be made out to 
me, but when a formal agrement has been reache. the checks 
should be made to the University of Wisconsin. 
          I hope the rWeieed 1u4get Sent you the 
may ma~ke it easier to figure things out. 
other dal 
   Sincerely yours, 
         Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Ranagemnt 

   HERBERT L PRATT                                                      
                 FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE           
   FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,T1935     . E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            

Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                                  June 1,
                    Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                    424 University Farm Place 
                    Madison, Wisconsin 
                    Dear Kldo: 
                                  The only difficulty about the delay in
                    the agreement is that Senator Walcott feels it necessary

                    that he have the authority of the Executive Committee
to do 
                    this. The Executive Committee has not met and probably
                    not meet until after the end of June. 
                                  I have written Senator Walcott to see if
he would 
                    be willing to sign the agreement anyway. In the meantime
                    shall continue to forward to you the necessary funds
as we 
                    have been doing in the past. 
                                 Would you rather that these checks be made
                    to the University or to yourself as we have been doing?

                    Please let me know exactly how you want them made out
                    a change is in order, the exact name of the individual.

                                  By now you will have received my letter
                    the employment of Lyle Bowls. Senator Walcott has instructed

                    me to continue to provide you with the necessary funds
                    this project and I see no objection to sending Bowls
up to 
                    Delta for the summer. 
                                  Senator Walcott is very busy trying to
get his 
                    affairs in Conmeatiout straightened out and he just hasn't

                    had much time to give to Institute matters. I hope he
                    take care of matters in the meantime. 
                                                         Very sincerely yours,

                                                         C. M. Palmer, J

                                                         Acting Secretary


   Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
   Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
  F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
                                             June 5, 1939 
 Prof. Aldo Leopold 
 424 University Farm Place 
 Madison, Wis consin 
 Dear Aldoe 
             Thank you for your letter of the lt. It came 
 like a breath of cool, fresh air in this over-heated Wash- 
 ington gulley. 
             I am delighted to have this definite budget for 
 the Delta project. I have been feeling around in the dark 
 and getting nowhere. Now I can get my feet on solid ground 
 and go some place. 
            I've Just received three black and white sketches 
 from Al Hochbaum, which he has sent to us for use in AMERICAN 
 WILMLIFE. I am not going to use them for AMERICAN WILDLIFE, 
 however, until I can submit them to Life Magasine. I have 
 been working up sowe contacts with these folks end have had 
 some correspondence with Al about a proper presentation. 
 When I can get this lined up properly and can make up the 
 proper contact, I am going to turn over the whole works to 
 them in the hope that we might be able to get some good 
 publicity for the Delta projeot therefrom. It won't hurt 
 Al a bLt and neither will it the Institute. 
            I have asked Hochbaum to write a very brief state- 
ment of the work of the Delta project as illustrated by the 
pictures and I do believe it can be made attractive enough 
for them to publish. My first letter to Mr. Otis Peabody 
Swift of the Executive Offices of Life Magasin. met with an 
immediate unexpectedly interestw response. Any help you 
can give to this idea will be greatly appreciated. 
            I will see that you get the $225 prior to July lst 
for Sowls and Hoohbaum. If you can keep us advised of your 
needs regularly, we will do our best to get them to you regularly. 
With best regards, I am 
Sine rely, 
C. mn P8eor. Jr. 
Acting S ecret;ary 
V01A ý 

                                                        424 University Uan
Division of Wildlife M  ement                           June 1, 1939 
     Mr. 0. M. Palmer, Jr. 
     American Wildlife Institute 
     Investment Builing 
     Washington, D, C. 
     Dear Mortt 
              The Delta budget seems to have gotten itself somewhat tangled,
    I am mkitn  out a new one setting forth my unerstanding of the verbal
    with Mr. Bell, plus the previous action of the Institute trustees. 
    Appropriation by the Institute for 1939-1940....... ..... ........ .......
         (at first $2,000, now $1,#00) 
    Donation to Institute by Mr. Bell. ................                 
    sary, March 15, 1939-March 15, 1940, 12 mos. at $150.......0$,100 
    Sowls salary, June 15, 1939.Sept. 15, 1939, 3 mos. at $l00,..........
    Hochbaum expense, Ma.rh-November, 9 mos. This is to include 
         car mileage, equipment and sWpplie. .. . .... ...... ......... ...

    Sowls expense. No car. To cover trip up and back.........#..... ......
    Inspection trips, Pirnie and    0pld. 
    Received in temporary remittances to date...................,,.,.....
    Ba ance due, ,.  , . . .., ...............,.. . . . . ......... ,...J
              In answer to your last inquiry, I will need $225 to meet the
July 1 
    payroll for Sows and Hochbaua. I have so far paid Hohbasu, no expense,
but he 
    is doubtless keeping track of his expense and can submit his expense
    when things got untangled. 
                                      Sincerely yours, 
                                             Aldo Leopold 
                                    Professor of Wildlife Ma  sement 

   Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
   Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
  F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
May 25, 1939 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldot 
           I have not heard from Senator Walcott regarding 
azr conversations with Mr. Bell but I am writing him again 
to see if these conversations have taken place. As soon 
as I have heard from him I will advise you as to his answer 
and also about the student assistant. I do not think 
there will be any doubt about putting him on but want to 
find out what has developed. This ought to be early next 
           In the meantime I have located in our files your 
report of January 9th, which supplements your report of 
September lit, and calls for $2,500.00 in a financial 
summary as follows 
Ed Ward. Hatchery supervision and trapping.   T, 
    W. Bell. 
Touporary Assistants. Egg collecting, gopher woi 
      be paid by Mr, Bell 
Hochbaum, Maroh-November, 8 moe. at $150     $1 
                             expens * 
Technical assistant, June-September, 3 
      moes. at $I0 
                             expense (no car) 
Taxidermist, 3 mo. at $100 
Inspection. Trips by Pirnie and Leopold 
Equiament and supplies (an electric refrigerator 
      for specimens is needed. Buying a new ore 
      is too costly. Ask Mr. Bell if a used one 
      could be found). For other supplies - 
o be paid by 
rk, etc. To 
             The September lst budget called for #1,800.00. I 
take it that this $2,500.00 budget does not include Mr. Bell's 

Prof. Aldo Leopold 
proposed contribution of $1,000.00. 
            I think it is much better for us to handle the 
funds through the University of Wisconsin than through 
Michigan State College as last year. 
            I will try to keep you supplied with whatever money 
is necessary to carry on until we have our regular meeting 
and I can discuss the matter with Senator Walcott. In the 
meantime if funds are delayed unduly please do not hesitate to 
write me. 
                                    Very sincerely yours, 
                                    C0 M. Palmer, Jr. 
                                    Acting Secretary 
- 2 - 
May 25, 1939 
i:2 t . 01ý 
1--t J-4ýa 
. j Le'ý 

                                      Delta, "anitoba 
                                      May 28, 1939 
Mr. Aldo .eopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor teopold : 
       Thank you for referring the Saskatchewan query to 
me. I have answered it as best I could and apparently to 
their pleasure and satisfaction. I am glad to have this cont- 
act and to have been able to answer questions from here, for 
they seemed pleased that someone in Uanada could help them. 
       I am sorry that my pictures had left Milwaukee before 
you wrote and are scattered too far to get together again 
in a hurry. I would send Mrs. Swigart a note to save you the 
trouble but have only her husbands address. Hope the cranes 
reached you safely. 
       Mallards and pintails are hatching and some of them 
are already in the pens. Some of the wild nests are hatching 
too and we will be looking for young ducks in the marsh. Have 
about fifty nests going and hope to get many more in the next 
two weeks. This week we are concentrating on redheads and 
canvasbacks. The canvasbacks start nesting a week or so 
before the redheads and the redheads drop eggs in the can 
nests before they start to make their own. 
       Drake mallards and pintails are starting to gather 
and many of them are losing their spring plumage already. 
You will be interested to know that everyone here feels 
certain that canvasbacks and redheads are much more abundant 
this year thatVthey have been for the last four or five 
years. Certainly there are many more of them than there 
were mid-June last year. 
       We have a scheme for catching females on the nest, 
marking them and robbing the nest to find out something 
about renesting. We know of several females which can be 
approached rather closely and hope to make a try at it 
at least. 
                   tours sincerely 

424 University Tar, Flaoe 
may 24, 1939 
Division of WilAlife, |meat 
Mr. C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
Arican Wtldlife Institute 
Washington, D. 0. 
Deer Morts 
          I've been thining about the delay in the Delta set-up. 
If the agreement" is a mentl har.le, I'd be agreeable to your 
disburesng the funds yourself. The only disadvantage of so doing 
is that it would deprive Roohbman of the "resldeont rate for tuition

tees--& saying of about $200 per yw. (The university "tends 
resident rates to all students supported by outside grants disbursed 
throuh the university.) 
          Within two weeks It will be time for iobbauuts assistant 
(Lyle Sols) to leave for Delta. Re has been turning down other 
offers of employeut on the strongth of the verbal asurane that 
the budget at Delta would provide for him for the suw. 
          Where in the diffioulty? Is It in the a   nComet with 
Mr. Bell? If you caould give ae some Idea of where the trouble It, 
I might be able, to help. 
Binoerely yours, 
         Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Uaa~msnt 

Divisioa of Wild4if, a  ment 
424 Univrsrity Yarn flae, 
Ma  16, -93 
Mr. H. Albert Hohbu 
D~elta, Manitoba 
Dear Albert: 
          I am glad to have the new. 
          The only reduced priOe on G            an&Ya'ble 
to se is the usual redcton offered to authis for their cn 
persona use. It would hardly be prope for me to order the 
mmber Mr. Main wants uer that arrangemeat, but he sght, get 
a rWetion by wrlting to Saribner's diret. 
          Mr. Palmer's interest in ymr pictures sound$ ga 
to aa, I will keep an eyo on what he Sends ne for review. 
          B11 lehorges' will be interested to hw that tho 
pigeon has been rediscovered in Canaa. 
          I like the reproductions of Peter 8cott and an #endin 
then on to Starker. 
         The enclosed ch*:fr $25 reweesentsh     emnat d 
IM  a* your April Salary. 
                                3iaorerly' your, 
                                     Aldo Leopold 
       Mel                  ~P-reessor of Wildlife M%*S*%t 

                                         Delta, Manitoba 
                                         May 11,1939 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of fildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       Thank you for your letter of May 3 and the check. I am 
quite secure now and, as far as I am concerned, there is no n~ed 
for haste in getting the budget through. 
       I am writing to Dr. 2lton and have asked Mr. Pitblado, 
who is getting the prairie chicken work started, to get in 
touch with the Hamerstroms.. There were three pinnate booming 
grounds within hearing distance of the duck house this spring, 
one of them on a plowed field near where we watched the 
stubble mallards last summer. 
       Thank you for the sug'estion on the scat analyses. We 
will get busy on an outling and will have much more material to 
work with this year. Yesterday we found a horned owls nest am 
with two young at the edge of one of the study areas. They 
have been after the coots already. 
       Dry conditions extend throughout the Prairie region of 
Manitoba this year. There was almost no runoff from the snow 
and the dust was blowing on the wheat fields a few days after 
the snow was gone. We had one rain late in April which helped 
some but many of the sloughs are bone dry. 
       We are getting a fairly good picture of the early nesting 
season, though it had been only a few days since we have been 
able to get far enough east to watch the canvasback. The guides 
have been hunting for a week and, following the schedule 
prepared last summer, we have about 300 eggs, mallard and 
pintail, in the incubatoe. 
       Crows and ground squirrels are being controlled in the 
region of the lodge and an area of similagnature is 
being left untouched in the region of theT°lodge. toot-one nest 
bntthe4'chtrolled area to crows this week. 
       Mr. Main, of Ducks Unlimited, is buying your Game, 
Management for his Canadian offices and field staff, He asked, 
me yesterday if it would be possible to obtain these, twelve or 
fifteen copies, at a reduced price. 
                         Yours sincerely, 

   HERBERT L PRATT                                                      
                  FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE           
   FREDERIC EWING                Incorporated in District of Columbia, July
22, 1935  T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                                     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D.
C.           HENRY P. DAVIS 
   ALDO LEOPOLD                                                         
                    HNYP AI 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                                April 27,
                       Mr. Albert Hoohbaun 
                       College of Agriolxture 
                       Madison. Wisomsin 
                       Dear Mr. Hoohbaumg 
                                        Did you see the last issue of "Life"

                       magazine, in which was included a story of the Robin

                       in color by Roger Peterson? 
                                        The thought occurred to me that we

                       could get some excellent publicity for the Delta 
                       project if we could induce "Life" magazine
to publish 
                       some of your paintings of young ducks. 
                                        Before approaching them I would like
                       get your reaction to the idea. I understand from 
                       Leopold, however, that you have only three such 
                       paintings ready at the present tine. What is your

                       reaction to this idea? 
                                        I would also like to reproduce your

                       paintings in black and white in AMERICAN WILDLIFE
                       in connection with a news story in our regular monthly

                       clipsheet which goes to newspapers all over the entire

                       country. If you could have photographs of those made

                       for us at our expense it would be greatly appreciated.

                                       With best regards, I am 
       ORANZAIO                        FOR    . ......'I    F 

                       SHIP AT THE UNXYVRSZIT 
     The American Wildlife Institute desires to establish for the period

M7 1, 1939, to Ma    , 19140, a research fellowship at the University of

Wisconsin for the purpse of stuying the ecology of brooding waterfowl. 
     Tor this purpse it is mutually agreed between the Ameican Wildlife 
Institute and the Unversi ty of Wisacnsin as folows: 
     (I) The institute aree to plces at th    diposal of the Ragents of 
the University of Wisconsin on May 1, 1939, the sum of $1,600. Voucher is

to be made paable to the UniverIt    of Wisonsin aMn is to be sent by the

donor to the Administration Office, Agricultural xperimet Station. 
     (2) The University of Wisconsin will keep this fund separate and will

engage a competeat research fellow to be known as the American Wildlife Institute

Fellow. This fellow will carry on the stud refrred, to above, detailed plans

for the conduct of which have alread been agreed to. 
     the fund of $1,800 is to cover the salary of the research fellow for
months at $150 per month. 
     (3) the University will furnish laboratory facilities and suoh usual

equipment as is reire for the carryig out of this reearch, insofar as 
the facilties of the University will peit. 
     (4) This study in to be carried out in the Department of Agricultural

eonomics, Division of Wildlife Management, and the University has designed

Aldo Leopold to give the project immediate supervision. At the request of

the University, MKichian State College has designated. Miles D. Pirate to
the project technical consultation. 
     (5) Upon the termination of these studies any equipment, material and

supplies remaining In stock shall become the property of the University of


     (6) 'he University will render at the close of the period to the 
American Wildlife Institute a detailed report of the research carried .A

under this grant, with the unerstanding that the University in accepting

this fun for the fellowship herein created intends that it shall be used

for the promotion of scientific knowledge in the field referred to. that

the results of such research shall be nade public b' the University, 
throh publication or otherwise in jan mamer that it x   tee  des$.able, 
keepinag in mind that the public interest or welfare shall be dominant. 
     'he above memorand6m has been presented to the Board of Regents of the

University of Wisconsin and accepted by them onA           ......_..... and

It declared effective upon the signature of the iutnese Manuar of the 
University and the Director of the Agricaltural kaperimazt Station for the

University of Wisconsin and the proper official for the American Wildlife

                  Data        Business Manazer.nversity of Wisconsin 
Date      Director, VMalrs2tural 1%periuesat Station 
          University of Wisconsin 

Vivtison of Wlif             t                           Ma 16. 1939 
            Mr. 0. M, Palr, Jr, 
            Am  tian Wtldltfo Institute 
            lavestmont Da--ing, 
            Washington., D. C. 
            Dear Mort: 
                      I have received the aditional remittance of $20, 
            which  akes the total in t-mpomra provision for the Delta 
            project $400. From this I ave disw-s.4 as followt 
                        H. A. Hochbau, sWar March 15- 
                          A-..)rrl 1, 1939, at $150 rer m ioth... $75.00

                        H. A. Jfochb~aw, &1airy4krri 1-50...0 
                      T am senaling yo an~ oitra copy of the proposed 
            Wemsent- Tlsis 1i a 2Otins form. un-ler it-al1 cooperative 
            projects in the Collew of Agricultre are bandled.. Last yeart

            as ym rfmsnber, the funds came Vhroug Pirnie a~t MichiganauM

            were disbwrs4. persouall.y by him, butt I thtnk It would, be
            esable this yeatr to haveý the salAry n trongi rega-thr
            ahaanni. The ~epnse ftnI had -plA~d to disburse Woolf 
            in order to avoid fiscal complication. 
                      I assumie that my letter e~laining the proposed, seip-

            up has not been lost and that you have a aony of it, 
                                               Aldo Leopold 
                                       Professor of Wildlife Maagmehbt 

   HERBERT L PRATT                                                      
                   FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                     F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Cha an of the Board          AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE          
   FREDERIC EWING                     Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935       T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                                     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D.
   ALDO LEOPOLD                                                         
                     HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                                    May 11,
                        Prof, Aldo Leopold 
                        424 University Farm Place 
                        Madison, Wisconsin 
                        Dear Aldo: 
                                       I am attaching hereto check in the
                        of $200.00 made out to your order for the Delta Water-

                        fowl Project. 
                                       I discussed with Senator Walcott very

                        briefly the proposed agreement when he was in town

                        recently but he did not sign it at the time nor have
                        heard from him since. I will try to get this matter

                        straightened out as soon as possible. In the meantinm

                        I hope this check will help carry things along. 
                                       With very best regards, I am 
                                                           Sizzerely yours,

                                                           C. M. Palmer,
                                                           Acting Secretary

                        P. S. I wrote Life Magazine recently complimenting
                        on the two-page spread on the robin and told then
                        thing about Hochbaum's work. They nibbled definitely
                        the bait. I don't know whether any~hing will come
out of 
                        it on it but I sincerely hope so. /   4.      ;.
                        ',' ., at "       -.4J 
cA $4A A -A 

                                                         424 Universiwty
axm P3*4 
Division of Wildlife     moat                            MaZ 12, 1939 
              Mr. 0. i. Palmer, Jr. 
              merican Wildlife Institute 
              ZavestManst Buildin 
                 WasingonD. 0. 
              Dear Merit 
                        I taxe it that your letter refers to a dioirepanqo

              in the svzwal budget of $1,600 whih I gaVs you in my lotter

              of Mareh 2 ad ea anaal bu4dget of $2,000 which I have ae*-

              tiou.& ia subsequent correspodence. 
                        This is probably a slip oa mW part. Zather sum will

              be satiefaotory. My conversations with Mr. Bell, however, were

              for~ an i;'dutl'iial $iJOGC)O a4~4 th& suz ;f $~,-,00 Jiustea4
              *3,000 w~gud be* O.K. 
                        The Sauator d41 not say anything abQt Delta whea
              phoaed. Th. Alzusslrt w&I entirely oa tnIrtutlot td Technical

              Oobttte Mttes. 
                        If the onf.sion kitk     you z .maioa arisee abot
              d1isrepwm  a  my own figures mentioned above, then .oult woey

              abot It. It there is some other coa-asion, It is not yet 
              altr to me where it comes in. Write e  Lcrt fully !nAl I will

              do my best to uatsagleo 
                                          Sincerely yours, 
                                                 dor  LeopoU& 
                                         Professor of Wildlife Mazgwnat 

   Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
  F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
May 9, 1939 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                   I have your note on the memorandum 
for a third resolution for the minutes. 
                  The only information I have here is 
the budget submitted with your letter of March 2nd 
of this year, whioh calls for $1800. 
                   I wish you would straighten me out 
on it because I don't want to get these things 
C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
Acting Secretary 
jq  1         /__7ý 

                                                             1424 University
Parm Plac. 
Division of Wildlife Management                              H      31 
   Mr. H. Albert Hoahbaum 
   Delta, Manitoba 
   Dear Albert: 
             I am surprised and disappointed to learn about the low water
   Do you know whether this is representaýtive of ay considerable
             Your observations on the fact that the people in the Carberry
   do not know Seton is, I think, one of the most illuminating details that
   come uv way for -some time. 
             I would be delighted to have you offer to play ball with Ktones

   snowshoe inquiry. I suggest you write him direct, bmt I will be glad to
do so 
   should you prefer it. Lyle might be of help in this connection. 
             this morning I went over Lyle's scat and stomach analyses. He
   sending you a copy. It strikes me that you have here not merely a valuable

   report on food habits, but an equally valuable contribution to food habits
             In order to socurately locate the gaps I would suggest that
you and 
   I~rlo make a rough draft of a paper. This would disclose the gaps and
his work 
   could theo be directod toward filling them. If it is to be a techniques
   it might also be well to Include a number of little line cuts to Illustrate
   differences between downs, feathers, etc. You might be playing with these
   the smmer, 
             I ai pleased that Ed Ward has been recognised by the Game and
   Association. If there is to be a prairie hicken study, might it be possible
   work the Hamerstroms in on it in some capacity? Now that Delta is apparently
   up on a salary basis for a number of years, m ambition is next to set
up the 
   prairie chickon study on some comparable basis and to extend it beyond
   My idea is a *Prairie Chicken Institute which would consist of a liaison
   plus a small fund to chink up Cracks, but the bulk of the "Institute"
would con- 
   sist of the contributed services of persons working on cickens, including
   Teatter, Bartlett, Gus Swanson's crowd, and the Texas crowd. If a Manitoba
   were set up with a man in charge of it, he might be one more of the component

   parts of the institute. Let's talk over more detail when I come up. 
             I have not heard further from Mort Palmer, but I have every
reason to 
   believe the Delta set-up will be all ironed out before long. 
             I enclose a check for $125, which is the residue in the temporary

   deposit made by Mort and which will cover 5/6 of the payment due you for

I will remit balance when the regalar set-up is untangled. 
          With best regards, 
                                  Sinoerely y~ar, 
                                          Aldo Leopolo 
*nal                             Professor of Wtldlif. Management 

                                    Dal ta , Manitoba 
                                    April 29, 1"39 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       The ice is nearly gone from the marsh and the ducks 
are here in large numbers, particularly mallards, pintails 
and lesser scaup. Mallards and pintails have started to 
nest and we are beginning our nesting study observations. 
       Marsh fires have been raging for the past week and 
most of the Phragmites in the region of Delta has been burned 
over. The east marsh has not been touched, however. The lake 
is 18 " below the level of last surmmer,many of the sloughs that 
had twoofeet of water last summer are empty and everything 
is very dry. I am assembling all my notes of the oatt month 
and will send a full account of events. 
       Sunday afternoon we took a trip over to the sandhill 
region at Carberry. It is still very wild end beautiful 
and I hope you may have a chance to visit it this summer. 
Nobody there had ever heard of Seton or Thompson except one 
old fellow who remembered him as a " crazy young fool" who 
spent all his time wandering about in the hills. 
       I have just finished reading Dr. Elton's Annual Report 
of the Bureau of Animal Population . It occurred to me that 
we might odfer to cooperate with him on the snowshoe rabbit 
enquir$,particlarly the reproduction enquiry mentioned on 
page 26. I realize the necessity of not piling up too many 
thingsbut we are in such constant touch with the rabbits 
that we might easily accumulate some valuable material 
for him if he provided an outline of the information he 
desires. The fact that this is more or less an isolated 
range where the rabbits are never shot might interest Dr. 
       Ed Ward has just been appointdd a Director of The 
Man. Fish and Game Assoc. The Association is setting up 
a fund to support a study of prairie chicken in Manitoba 
and as soon as can learn more of the details concerning 
the proposed study I shall pass them on. 
       Mr. Cunningham has a sharp eye. Thank you for making 
the change. 
                         Yours sincerely, 

424 University Farm Plae 
April 14, 1939 
Division of Wildlife      ant 
Mr. R. Albert Hochbau- 
Delta, MAitoba 
Dear Albert: 
     It has been winter here again also, and 
that the same weather has hit you. 
I am not surprised 
     Keep the orane picture as long a you have an opportunity 
to show it. 
     Thanks for the crow map from Kalmbach. I will see that it 
is not published. I have excellent use for it, since six members 
of our 115 class are banding crows for Lincoln this spring. I 
will show it to them. The Kalmbach corresponden"e Is returned. 
     Dr. Obner of the University of Munich has been here and 
we were up at Plainfield with the Hamerstroms and Art Hawkins. 
We had some excellent discussions and all of us were sorry you 
could not be there. 
     With best reards, 
   Sincerely yours, 
         Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Man aWment 

                               Delta, 'anitoba 
                               April 10, 1939 
 Mr. Aldo Leopold 
 Professor of Wildlife Management 
 University of Wisconsin 
 Madison, Wisconsin 
 Dear Professor Leopold, 
        Thank you for your letter of April 5 and the 
check. I am glad that things are going through so nicely 
and thank you for all the trouble and work you have gone 
through to get this accomplished. 
       We are having a sJ~ell of winter again with near zero 
weather and are still spending most of our time scraping 
fat. Nevertheless spring is here and Saturday the snow 
geese passed over flock after flock for almost an hour. No 
more ducks , however. 
       IMay I borrow your picture for another month? The 
Milwaukee - Downer College wishes to have the pictures 
for exhibit and I have asked Meuers to ship them over. I 
certainly appreciate the start you and Mrs. Leopold haven 
given me in getting some pictures out in the'air. 
       You will be interested in the enclosed note from Mr. 
Kalmbach. He seems very much interested in the project 
end I hope he will be able to visit us this year. 
       This is a bit of a lull before the storm of the 
nesting season and we probably will be workinq on nests in 
another two weeks. I hope to make the most intensive study 
between the bays and lake in the region of the lodge and 
7e are mapping that while the sloughsare still frozen. 
Yours sincerely, 

424 Univrsity Yarm Plaoe 
April 5, 1939 
Division of Wildlife Management 
Mr. t. Abert Hochbeaut 
Dear Albert t 
          a elose m chock for $75.00 to cover your Salary 
for ona-half of March at the now rate of $150 per month. 
          Attached is m letter to Mort Palmer proposing the 
fiscal set-up for the coming year. There W   be sligt adjust- 
ments, depending on the date by which the papers are signed. 
                            Tour* sincerely, 
                                   Aldo Leopold 
anal                      Professor of Wildlife Managmnet 

                                                       42--r4 University
Yat ?Plae 
Divisiof   W lidlife tit atrfqMon                i  'od    1l 5. 1939 
         ~{r~C~ I. almer. Jr. 
      Investment Baildin 
      14,4r Mort t 
                I have rfelve-,'our lettor of March 9with the $PO cheek 
      and It will servo to car the Delta. roject unti!l t.. fortal papers

      Are crplated. 
                Mileso 'Irnie Nhas approved zq' oteati In thcat the funds
be hgAnled 
      throuh the University of Wiseonsin t.ia ye.r. in or...  t... t .. o.hbu.
      have the benefit of re~sident tuition.  (The Vniveroityý livas
resident strtus 
      to sunh gradfaate students ns are supovrted by doaatnd funds.) This
      Uoahbmin aboat $100 per ameaeter. 
                I propose that the funds for Roohbsum's salhry be deposited
      and -id by the Ui    ietrt as per standard eeerent attached. I Tro-po

      that the eM~enss fmids (arA salary u~p to Nogy 1) be hwAnled either
by w or 
      by you in a separate acount sot up for thnt purpose. The fiscal orchinero

      of the Ulniversity is not ndato4 for  eans"s Inurred outside the
      and In a *foreign" country. 
               I would pnrefer you hpadle the wlonens  fund iuu lot me submit

      *='=so accounts to You. 
               The roesective awmt* will be (assumine, Mr. Bell and Senator

      t!alcott do -not ahange the figures we discussed with Mr. Bell), 
                  Sa~lary fund (see agesment), 12 months ;At $150-.....1,800

                  lirpose fuand...      . .. . . .. . . . .  . ..190 
                  Advance cm e to carry from March 15 to ý4 1,1939.-2

               Mr. Ball said he wmld 'give the rniatitut@ $1,000 to 'earry
      &Ural  fryt Vitnfull year, but no &-t* w~aspeciflAs to    ahn
the yewi 
      would btgin. I have drawn the ageemont to have It begin Maty 1 and
      till Ma~y 1, 19140, lochbwm= bngau work March 15, which will make 151
      to MVy        bu910, t I think the 13,000 will suffloe for that period.

              T -i~ sfending oopies to and Uoohbsuzm 
                                         Tours sincerely. 
                                               Ald Leopold 
      owol                            Profes sor of Wildlife Managment 

   Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
  F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
                                          April 3, 1939 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                I have your letter of the 30th relative 
to the Delta project and I am delighted that Mr. Bell 
has such a friendly attitude and is willing to 
actually spend some money on it. I hope he and 
Senator Walcott can get together on a really progres- 
sive basis. 
                You can bet your boots I won't forget 
that trip this summer because I plan on getting 
around and seeing what is going on. Incidentally, 
what are the possibilities of getting some photographs 
of a few of Hochbaum's selected paintings of young ducks 
for use in AMERICAN WILDLIFE? These will, of course, 
have to be Aone in black and white as we do not have 
e means nor the funds for color reproductions in 
AMERICAN WILDLIFE at the present. It won't do Hochbaum 
nor the Delta project a bit of harm to give this a 
little publicity. 
                With best regards, I am 
                                     C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
                                     Acting Secretary 

                                        Delta, Manitoba 
                                        April 2, 1939 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife ianagement 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       We were glad to hear of your meetings with Mr. Palmer 
and Mr. Bell. Now that I am here I am in no immediate need 
for funds but certainly am pleased to know that things are 
going along as they are. 
       I am glad that I was able to get up here when I did 
for things will be moving rather rapidly before long. We have 
had time to make a fine office and laboratory and it makes it 
a greatd deal easier to have everything in order.and under one 
roof. I am getting all records ,papers etc. filed and in 
place and hope that this will help'to keep things going in 
a businesslike manner. We are also taking this time to preserve 
the needed specimens of adults of known age and the 1939 
collection is already of-good size. The skins are getting 
better all the time too and a fat duck is no longer the 
chore it used to be. 
       Saw the first ducks March 29, tallards. Canada geese 
have been going over every day since then. The marsh is still 
frozen but there is much surface water on the ice. The rat 
season is on now and the marsh is alive with half-breeds and 
indians, at least two for every house. 
       Crows are abundant. As soon as they got here they had 
a large roost west of melta and there is quite a flight along 
the ridge in the evenings. Shooting is good and the boys are 
bringing in quite a few birds for stomachs and sex ratio, Looks 
as though the early birds are mostly females. 
        I'm glad you revised the footnote for the report. Thenk 
you. Fred insists that "Retrice" should be rectrix on page 
three. I hape there will be a chance to check that before 
the paper is printed. 
        Thanks for the good word on the pictures. The Milwaukee- 
 Downer College asked for them on your recominendation and I 
 am letting them know that they may use them. 
                             Yours sincerely, 

422 Univewst tam P ais 
March 30. 1939 
Divsioa qf Wi.dlife bMaaneat 
Mr. C. V. Palmr, Jr. 
Aseri   Widlife Ititute 
Znestumt uilding 
Washiugton, D. C. 
loDr Mort i 
         Miles P~irate and I met Mr. )ell In ChIaW yeaterdV to talk 
ovrw plans for Delta. 
         We foMd him, tirely in   em   t with the rest of us in 
regardi  the job there as a log rather tha a short tone. He to writing 
Sastor W1*tt SM offnorin to make a suffieotnt contritbion to the 
Inatitute to owY  obuf througb the preat yeAr Insetad of only to 
the end of the ftt4l stoo6 He is also writing the Ristor abot a Joint 
plau for car  n  the project In futre yT   . 
         we tol Mr. Zell th&t $3,000 per year wu be a rsable 
budet, rAn th-At $1,000 added to the prenest year'se apprrintioan of -32,000

would enable us to pat cb~aw on a yewvbong basis from now on. 
         As soon As the Senator *W Mr. Bell bai agee on the mina 
outl.ines, let me know and. ws man fill In the details. 
the3 llelta job. 
t    awI uo m   o    ed e t*his friaily ettitude t wd 
Looks like we weýre all sot to do a rwal job of it. 
         Don't forget you propose Delta trip this un     ; now that we 
nxe really laumihd there will be ues of someone on the PWahington ean 
who has seen the god 
                              Tours sinoerely. 
c . D. Pirate 
R. A. Rochb.azm 
       Aldo L..e1lte 
Professor of Wildlife lssvmegoet 

Division of Wildlife Management 
424 University ?arm Place 
March 30, 1939 
Mr. Hoyey Lloyd 
Department of Interior 
Ottawa, Ontario 
Dear Hoyee: 
          Here is Hochbaum's report on 
It was given at the Detroit Conference 
Transactions. Some additional subject 
report, Hochbaum hopes to place in the 
the 1938 work at Delta. 
and will come out in the 
matter, reserved for later 
Canadian Yield-NaturaliSt. 
          Pirnie and I went over the work yesterday with Mr. Bell. 
All three of us are very appreciative of your friendly help, and 
would like to be sure that this proposed report meets with your 
approval. If you have any comment, will you let me know? 
          We have recently had two exhibits of Hochbaumsts Delta 
paintings here at Madison. They were well received. The Winnipeg 
naturalists are including them in an exhibit there this spring. 
Should you ever want to include them in any Ottawa exhibit, I'm 
sure Hochbaum would be much pleased. 
                               Yours sincerely, 
                                        Aldo Leopold 
enal                           Professor of Wildlife Management 
cc J. P. 3.11 
   M. D. Pirnie 
   C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
   H. A. Hochbaum 

a42-4 U*4nverity Yams Place 
Marsh 30, 1939 
Mr. H. Albert Hooh2a= 
Dear AlIbert 
haste to 
Ailes and I met Mr. boll in chicago yes~terday, and r 
tell yem that he has supplee       the  stitute fun" 
carr you thren'k the present year. 
         We found him entirely roptive to the id4   of re.xing 
the Delta work as a eoAtiuing rather than & teperary venture. ae 
to writing Senator Walcott about Jent support for the ftture. 
         Miles and I s.ntioac4d thze more or lose distinct obJectives: 
monograph on the oanvasbAk, general eoologial study at Delta, and the 
"trainin school" idea. Ur. B.ll had no preference. He leaves the

chice to us. We can be thinkin about it, and talking it over later. 
         The Institute apropriation is still awaiting f-oral approval, 
but I think it is only a formlity. We %y reard the thing as virtuall 
all 0 Ot. 
         Miles showed Mr. 3.11 same of his color photo*. Re 
taken with theue 
                            Yours siuwerelV, 
                                  Aldo Leopold 
Oe V. D. Pirate           Prmoessor of Wildlife MS~amitt 
WAS =a* 
Divsion -f -4,11411re 11wx fS 

   HERBERT L. PRATT                                                     
                    FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                      F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Charmon of the Board         AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE          
   FREDERIC EWING                      Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935       T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                                      INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D.
   AL.DO LEOPOLD                                                        
                      HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                              March 29, 1939

                          Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                          424 University Farm Place 
                          Madison, Wisconsin 
                          Dear Ald o: 
                                           I am attaching hereto a cheek
                          out to your order for $200.00 to cover the immediate

                          needs of the Delta project. As soon as I have an

                          opportunity to get together with Senator Walcott

                          and get things definitely straightened out I will

                          probably be able to send more. This will take care

                          of immediate needs, however, I believe. 
                                           I am not sure whether this is
                          proper way to have this check made out but I felt

                          that this would save time. You can endorse it over

                          to the agency and give us further instructions.
                          last checks I think were sent to Pirnie at Michigan

                          State College. How should we handle this in the

                                           With best regards, I am 
                                                             Sincerely yours,

                                                             C. M. Palmer,

                                                             Acting Secretary


                                      Delta, Manitoba 
                                        1arch"24, 1939 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Prof. of Wildlife Aanagement 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       We arrived at Delta Monday after an easy trip up with very 
little digging. Had a most pleasant visit with the lamerstroms 
on Thursday and Friday. My what a job they have. I never 
realized what difficulties attended chicken trapping. 
       I was surprised to find that spring was h-re ahead of 
us. The redwings and yellowheads have been here for some time, 
and are picking territories with the tops of the reeds just 
sticking out of the snow. The first crows arrived on the 21st 
and are feeding now on fish out on the lake, lings left by 
the fishermen. 
       Ed Ward and I are busy converting one o# the mink houses 
into an office and laboratory. Its going to be a grand place. 
Pete and I have made a good start on the 1939 skin collection -- 
making up birds that died during the winter. I hope that we 
can get a good collection of ducks for tebestudents as well 
as the plumage study colleation. 
       Everything is melting rapidly and everyone expects ducks 
any day now. There should be some open water in the marsh 
within a week. 
       I want to thank you and Mrs. Leopold for the many nice 
things you did for me this winter. The tea. was grand and I 
appreciated it more thanl can say. Thanks, too, for the help 
on the paper . I got a great deal out of going over it with 
       Sorry I couldn't let you know of our arrival before this. 
This is the first mail out since we came. 
Yours Sincerely, 

                                                         424 Viivmity Farm
Division of Wildlife                                      Maant Ma 20, 1939

          Mr. H. Jlbert oc#hbous, 
          Del ta 
          Dear Alberts 
                   I saw kort Palmer at the Itmak Walton League meeting in

          ChQ s  Friwda and he eantirely approv of your d"rbare for
          on schedule. 1f feels rertain that the Institute not only inteas

          to oontinue its support bat that the assistant for this year will

          be provided for. He has not yet beta able to stratgtea ot the o&-

          fuston as to the trustes' action but will do s before long. 
                   Miles and I are meeting Mr. Sell in Mit*.o, Koafty, March
          at which time I hope to get some more 4efinite information about
          tiaity and about future plans. Mort is stro>1y in favor of setting

          up & five-year pr=. Of ourxse his attitude 4do    not comit
          Institute, bat I ws pleased to know of his attitde. I asked him
          visit Delta this suinw in order that some meber of the Institute

          might have first-had knowled4e of the wor there. 
                   Mort tells me that wr report is horter them man  of the

         other papers which he will have to handleo. 
                                        Your% sinoerelr, 
                                                Aldo  eo-old 
                                       Profeasor of Wildlife 1Unagemt 
cc H. D. Pirnie 

44 unlvo,ýAty 13, Plaaa 
DiviuIQw of Wildlife Uargphaent 
Dr. Mi2Grr D. Pirnie 
W. K. Kelog Bir   Saa.tua 
Battle Creek, kMohigp 
     Tou r1il reoAl the diffimulty of mting rlesient 
status for Hochbaua due to the filnancal support from the 
Zustitute fe-4ing to as via IAnsing rrit~r than via& Madison. 
foigid yov be williz  durin  tho oring yýar to hrvv thOs* 
fun4e handlfnd direet!y through our Gradivte School? 
     Tt Yr'14 bi unaerstoo4 th-A thhs in no wise affect* 
thq joint nttxro of the undert1-ng. 1r t    meriy a fisca 
Aedioe to facIlitato Hochbae=is academe relattonahips. 
  Yourn sirncerly, 
        Aldm LopolA 
Profe  r of Wildlife Imng-m$nt 

                                                           424 University
fJa Place 
Division of Wildlife UKW-cat                               March 13, 1939

       Mr. 0. M. Palmer, Jr. 
       American Wildlife Institute 
       Investment Buildin 
       Washing~ton, D. C. 
       Dear Morta 
                 It is hard for me to  nerstand how the trustees should got
       fused between supervision for the Ton Units and operating funds for
       Delta project. Certainly we do not need an additional supervision
       Dqlta. If, however, fiscally speak4in, $3,000 is avallable for both,
       I see no choice but to segregate $2,50 of it for Delta in accordance
       m report of January 9, and use the balance for giving the scientific
       vision idea a brief trial in one or two local spots. I am not sure,
of eourse, 
       that we could get aybody. 
                 This new twist is a little embarrassing for me because I
had alread 
       begun to consult with the Bioogical Survey about possible personnel
for the 
       scientific supervision function. 
                 If we must consider that project as either out or reduced
to very 
       small proportions, I hope yoa can let me know at an early date so
I can reduce 
       our proposals to fit the reduced funds. 
                 I have revised the minutes for pages 3 to 6 of the roug
       sent me. but I have ,revised them to fit my own recollection of what
       If this must be twisted so that the $3,000 covers both Delta and the
       project, then further modification in the minutes will be called for.

                 I oan appreciate your difficulties and I can see that we
       must drop or wholly drop the scientific advisory project. 
                                          Tours sincerely, 
                                                    do Leopold 
                                           Professor of Wildlife Managewet

       P.S. Since writing the above I have received the attched letter from

       habrielson which somewhat ohangethe acceptability to the Biological
       of advisory help. Gabrielson practically limits aceptability to members
       the Technical Coittoe. Under these circumstances it is just
       well to have the allotment out down to a very low point, since I am
not at all 
       our* that wV msmbers of the Technteal COmmittos can spare any time
       advisory servooe. iny retam kabriolson's letter. 

   HERBERT L. PRATT                                                     
                MR C. WALCOrT 
   Chairman of the Board                                                
            Ji j    President 
   ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                    
                  F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE           
   FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935   T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee                                            
                HENRY P. DAVIS 
Chairman Technical Committe                                             
                                                            March 9, 1939

                     Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                     424 University Farm Place 
                     Madison, Wisconsin 
                     Dear Aldo: 
                                     I have deciphered, very unsatisfactorily,

                     the minutes of the meeting of the Trustees meetbV in

                     Detroit. You may remember that that meeting was rather

                     hectic insofar as the writer was concerned and that
                     was in and out of the room frequently. The minutes 
                     were taken by several different peqple,alternately.

                     Some of the notes are very difficult for me to decipher

                     and I am, therefore, asking you to go over certain parts

                     of this and straighten me out and make a better connection

                     between the various subjects of discussion. I would

                     certainly appreciate your doing this as it would be
a great 
                     help to me in getting this matter straightened out.

                                    One thing about which I am especially

                     concerned about--that is, that in talking with Senator

                     Walcott on the phone the other day with respect to the

                     status of the Delta project, he stated that that was
                     taken care of in the $3,000.00 item appropriated for
                     colasultation work at that meeting. This does not at
                     jibe with my recollections nor with the notes of the

                     meeting. I wish you would please check me on this and

                     advise specifically. He says the project has been 
                     officially okayed but I cannot put my finger on the
                                    I will discuss with him shortly your
                     to get Hochbeum started early at Delta. 
                                                      Siner      O 
                                                      C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
                                                      Acting Secretary 

                                                        4   University Fam
                    ~                                   ?ebmru~r 10. 1939

Division, of Wildlife ma emnt                            emr1,19 
        Mr. James . 16l1 
        200 Caber of Commerce 
        Minneapolis, Minnesota 
        Dear Mr. Bell: 
                  I am sorry not to be able to be in CAiaeo Monday. A 
        bunch of osmittee meettings were called in a4vance of the Detroit

        conferene, which forces me to be in Detroit by Sunday noon. 
                  In my wire I su-ested WeAnes4*y evening as an alternativo

        sine* I have to be back here for a olass Thurday mornin. I mow 
        gather from your lettor, howeser, that you will nt be back in hteao

        until the following wek. 
                  Since our nsettn- was ort~inaly pro"ected, Pirnoe
imA I have 
        had a      ehanoe to talk thtin-7 over, !und 'he unsettled questions
are now a 
        little bit diffoernt thpn theV were. 
                  We feel the need of a talk with you, but the question to
        of yrr fture preferanoes for the eevelpuent of the projeot rather

        th^n one of detailvl plans for the coming year. This to somethin
        can be gone over at an time. Let's, therefore, leave it this wy 
        you call vA down to 7hi e at your convenience, preferably within
        next nonth or two. 
                 All the above assumes that the Institute can finance the

        latest revision of the 1939 plans which calls for a total of about

        $2,000. 1 have no Idea how the Institute stands on this but will
        out at Detroit net wee. Shoud there be saw uet, I will, of course.,

        let yoa know. The above also assmes that you have no objeetion to
        of the details of 1939 operations *hieh we he laid out with Mr. TVfr

        and *ih  have been described in the pst erespodene. 
                  One thi  I reet Is that you have not yet seen oh 
        Delta paintings. I really believe we have, something there which
        ultimately equal in valu, the seientifie wor. Kwing your interest

        in that sort of thing, I a anxious to show them to  . Mrs. Leopel4

        ad I are holding an exhibition for  chbb  at our homse sesmte 
        within the next mouth or two. Would there be an  a  e of yer steppine

        off at Madison sometime? If not, I shall bring soe of tbw with me
        Chiago because I want you to see thie. 
                                           Yom  sinoewely, 
                                                  Aldo L~eopold 
                so  . D PimiePrfetssor of Wildlife Vwv~pamt 

                                  MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
                                        U. S. A. 
                                  2 9 39 
         Dr. Aldo Leopold 
         424 University Farm Place 
         Madison, Wisc. 
         Dear Dr. Leopold: 
         I am unduly dilatory in writing you about 
         the possibilities of our getting together 
         with Dr. Pirnie in Chica-o. However, my 
         plans have been so uncertain that I have 
         put off the matter until I could name a 
         definite time. 
         I wired you today that I would be in Chicago 
         Monday. I have a meeting in the early part 
         of the morning, but I can be free by 12:15 
         and I thought we might have lunch at the 
         Chicago Club and then I could remain with you 
         until my train goes at 3:15, or I could arrange 
         to take a later train if necessary. 
         If this is not convenient, I will be returning 
         through Chicago either on the 20th or 21st, 
         but cannot let you know positively which day 
         until some time later. However, I will be 
         glad to accommodate my plans to you. 
                              Yours v r 
         jfb aj 

ma and da 
-.ived at 21 West Main St, Madison, Wins. 
         24 U NIVER S 
9 405P 
                  ;JAMES F BELLS 

                                                            424 University
farm Place 
Division of Wildlife Management 
       Messrs. Jaem* F. Bell, 200 Chamber of Corerce, Mnnepolis, Minnesota

               Henry V. Davis, American Wildlife Institute, Washington, D.
                 Dr. Pirate and I had an unforeseen opportunity to talk over
       Delta project on Januar 9. Our conclusions are sumvarised in the attached

       report. This report deals with organization and finance rather than
       projects. The research projects as outlined in the reort of September
       stand as our current recommendations. Our summer's exprienees have
       had a chane to be digested during the intervening onthe and I think
       report is s*mewhat wore mature than the previous one. 
                 I feel at present that we have need of consultation with
       Institute and with Mr. bell, not so much on either technical or organisation

       details but rather on (1) whether we should aim toward a long or a
short time 
       job, and (2) whether you have any preferences as to the lines along
       Delta should develop. 
                 Both these questions are too intricate to be detailed in
a letter 
       but they should form the principal subject matter of the peanding
       with you. 
                 The unavoidable delay in holding this conference has forced
us to 
       give Ducke slirited a reply to their "feeler" of financial
       Hochbaum has written Gartwright in at nice a way as he could that
there are 
       four cooperator. in the project already and that we are afraid it
would become 
       unwieldy If the ineber increased to five. 
                 Time is now so short that in order to avoid useless travel
       occurs to me that our conferene might well be held in conjunction
with the 
       Detroit meeting. If Mr. bell is ant attending the Detroit meeting,
could we 
       meet at Chicego on February ll1 
                                           Sincerely yours, 
                                                    Aldo Leopold 
       ana                                Professor of Wildlife Management

cc M. D. Pirnie 

Jan. 9, 1939 
                             Delta waterfowl Proect 
     (Jote: This memo is supplementary to our report of September 1. It 
gives the conclusions reached at a meeting of Pibe and Leopold January 9.

We have not yet had a chance to consult Mr. Bell or the Institute as to 
their views and preferences, or as to financial prospects. This memo is 
written "in the dark" as to these points, and subject to amendmont
on those 
     te Outlook. The work has now reached/point where there is more to be

done than one man can do. This pressure of opportinity will of corse grow

greater with time. 
     We think that the Institute and Mr. Be.1 should be reminded at this
          (1) That an early decisiou should be reache4 as to whether to aim

              toward a hand-to-mouth continuane, or at a 5 or 10 year 
          (2) If the former, the program should be narrowed and curtailed

              to quick-dividend short-tine ventures. 
          (3) If the latter, do we need to let any new parties in for the

              sake of assuring fnds?   (U.$.B.S.,for exaple.). 
          (i) If the latter, Hoobbaun at the end of 1939 should be put on

              a salary basis equal to what he would get if he out loose 
              and got a j ob. (He will get his degree after next summer's

              work is reported on.) 
          (5) If the latter, what special kind of achievement interests the

              Institute and Mr. Bell most? 
                 (a) Development of Delta as a place for training waterfowl

                 (b) Development of Delta for output of scientific an 
                     educational publications on waterfowl? 
                 (we can elaborate these alternatives verbally. They are

                 not mutally exclusive, but both can' t receive equal 
     iCrew. Txpressed in terms of jobs rather than projoots, we need in 

At the Racbr    (peak lead Jun. 1-Sept. 1) 
     For care of hatchery birds - Mr. Ward plus assistant. 
     for post-mortems, skins, sexing. banin and releasing, weights a4d 
          plumage notes - a technical assistant. 
For T    I   and _       Wild Dacklinau (peak loAd June 15-aug. 15) 
     For operation of drtives- Mr. Ward. Hoehbaum. aelp of technical 
For Taxidgria. Peter Ward for 3 months. 
For field Crww to hunt nests ad to aeaute erperimoutal gopher control - 
    3 temorary assistants. 
    To run eological experiments in marsh - Heohbaua. 
Rd Ward. Ratehery supervision and trapping.         To be paid by Mr. ell

TerL ossistAnts. *g colloating, gooher work, etc. To be paid by Mr. Bell

Hochbeum, Varch-Sovember, 9 mos. at $150               $1,200 
                          exp ense                         0 

Technical assistant, June-Sentember, 3 a*s. at $100       300 
                          expse (no car)                  100 
Taxiderist, 3 mos. at $100                                           300

Inspection. Trips by Pirnie and Leopold.                             200

B!u and n          is (an electric refrigerator for 
     apsimens Is needed. mTying a new one is too 
     costly. Ask Mr. bell if a used one could be 
     found). For other supplies -                                    100

                                                                  $02, 500

     The estimate in the September 1 report was $1,500. Thi, however. 
figured Rocbbaum at $100 instead of $150 per month and included no technical

assistant. If the $2,500 estimate vet be eat, the technical assistant Should

be eliminated, thus reducing the cost to about $2,000. 

     It is very Important that we know the 1939 buget by April 1, beeaus,

studeets ma*e their sauer plans early sad the best technical assistants are

not aTailable at the eleveth hoeur. 04y the best absistants oar worth 
     It my not be Improper for vs to point out at this tine that the Delta

project is a very eatig ose. 1he very wealth of biologioal opportuities 
and the unbNmnde. cooporativeness of Mr, Sell's loa1 foree areate a 
perpetual temptation to attempt too ich. tyltht begins at 3 a.m. aad 
ends at 10 p.m. Dutles are extreaely varied and Included everytbing from

painting pictures to diggng Asek. Diplomatic relations mot be maintained

with a double set of 1uremas, oonservation orgaaimatlons, nd seoteatists.

A break in contiinity of persomnel would reprosent a huge I*s of seaesilated

Information. It therefore sem 'both fair and wiso to poy the "market*
and to pull rather than push on the reins of supervision 
                                              Aldo Leopold 
                                              mles D. Ptrale 

Jan. 9, 1939 
                             Delta WtrolPro ject 
     (Note: This mamo is supplmexatal7 to our report of Septemb*r 1. It 
gives the conclusions reached at a smeting of Pirate and Leopold January
We have not yet had a chance to consult Mr. Bell or the Institute as to 
their views and preference*, or as to finafcial proespeots. This nemo is

written "in the dark" as to these points, and subjet to amendment
on these 
     h   Outlook.    e work has now re*dhed/point ,here thee is mre to be

done than one vmn can do. ftis prossure of opportunity will of course grow

greater with time. 
     We think teit the Institute and Ur. Bell should be reminded at this
          (1) That an e   Frly decision should be r.oahed as to whether to
              toward a haad-tmo-th ontimuaneo, or at a 5 or 10 year 
          (2) If the former, the program should be narrowed and curtailed

              to qutck-divtdend short-time ventures. 
          (3) If the latter, do we need to let any nen parties in for the

              sake of assuring funAs?  (U.S.B.S.,for exmple.). 
          (4) If the latter, Hoohbanm at the end of 1939 sahOUd be put on

              a salary basis equal to what he would goet if he out loose

              and got a Job. (He will got his degree after next suuier's

              work is reported on.) 
          (5) If the latter, what special kcir of achievment interests the

              Institute and Mr. Bell MaOst 
                 (a) Developmont of Delta as a place for training waterfowl

                 (b) Developsmnt of Dolta for output of scientific and 
                     educationl publications on waterfowl? 
                 (We can elaborate these alternatives verbally. They are

                 not mutually exclusive, but both cn' t receive equal 
     1    Crow.  bprossed in terms of jobs rather tha projects, we need In

199 t 

At the Hacey(Peak lofA June I-Sept. 1) 
     For Oare of hatchery birds - Mr. Ward plus aslsstet. 
     for post-mortsms, skins, s*zing, banding #Ad releasig, weights anV 
          pluxge notes - a t*eshaial assisUnt. 
Ifr TEMif     g Bandg   Wil Dujj ~     (peak load June 15-Aug. 15) 
     for operation of drives. Mr. Ward.   eohbUmU.  eolp of tehateal 
fr T    de   . Peter Ward for 3 months. 
z 111     Crew U to nt nests and to execute ex~primental gopher control -

    3 teorary assistants. 
    To run ecological experiments in marsh - Hochbou. 
U_ W_.    Hatchery supervision and trapping.       To be paid by Mr. 3.11

T!eo      aissistants. Vg collecting, gopher work, e*t. To be paid by Mr.
!!!ckbaua March-Aovesberf, £ no*. at *150             $1,200 
                         expense                        _2- 
To    isl asstat, June-September, 3 m0e. at $100         300 
                         *"ones (no c^r)                 100       
Taxidermist, 3 mot. at $100                                         300 
naspeation. Trips by -Piraie and Leopold.                           ?00 
R         &nd m        (an electric refrigerator for 
     specimens is neoedd. Buyinga new one is too 
     costly. Ak Mr. Bell if a used one could be 
     found). For other supplies -                                   100 
     The estimate in the September 1 report vas $1,500. This, however, 
figured foeehbau at $100 instead of $150 per month and included no techniool

assist"t. If the $2,500 estimate must be out, the technical assistant
be eliminated, thas reducing the cost to about $2,000. 

- 3 - 
     It is very important that we know the 1939 budet by Apri1 1, beauee

students mak. their smer plane early and the beot technical assistats are

not available at the eleventh hour. Only the bet assistants are worth 
     It may not be improper for us to point out at this time that the Delta

project Is a very exating one. VTh very weulth of biological" opportunities

and the unbonded coop erstiveness of N1. 3.11's local force create a 
perpetual temptiton to attempt too much.   tyltigt begins at 3 a.m. and 
ends at 10 p.m. Duties are extremely varied and included everything from

painting pictures to diging muck. Diplomatie relations mst be maintained

with a double set of bureius, conservation organisatione, and setintists.

A broak in continuity of personnel would represent a huge lose of aeeumulated

inforu.tion. It therefore seems both fair and wise to pay the *arket"
and to pull rather than push on the reins of supervision 
                                               A1d. Leopold 
                                               Miles D. Pirtie 

                                              Telephone 7-F-4 
V). K. KELL    O  IBI-Rn 5NNCTU-1AI Y       Hickory Corners, Mich. 
       DR. MILES D. PIRNIE, Director 
                                             Freight and Express 
         BATTLE CRlEEK, JMICH.                 Augusta, Mich. 
              .Ta~mnl'-, 2.  19:59 
                 Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                 424 University Farm Place 
                 Madison, Wisc. 
                 Dear Prof. Leopold: 
                           I am rather ashamed at the accumulation 
                 of letters and carbon copies from you that have 
                 not been acknowledged. I had, of course, been in 
                 part expecting to meet with you and Mr. Bell, so 
                 let Christmas rush and rabbit hunts intertere. 
                           The visit from Al, Hawking, and the three 
                 boys from Lansing for the waterfowl plumage and banding

                 conference was a most enjoyable occasion- to me at 
                 least; and I look forward to more of just that sort 
                 of informal exchange. 
                           I hope the Bell-Leopold-Pirnie conference 
                 can be held before the,9onference; and to that part 
                 of the conference as deals with waterfowl problems 
                 and ecology, technique etc. I most certainly would 
                 think it proper for you to include both Al and Art. 
                 Not knowing Bell, however, I am inclined to think 
                 you and I would be enough for the first, general, 
                 get acquainted phase of the meeting. If I were Bell, 
                 I am sure I would be less free with extra, new persons 
                 present in such a preliminary interview. 
                           I agree that the reply to DWcks Unlimited 
                 is not easy, and should await decisions from Mr. Bell 
                 as well as the Institute. There are of course, several 
                 projects in the air, first: Alts study at Delta; second,

                 my plumage and other waterfowl work, and of course the 
                 need for additional propagation plants in the States, 
                 to say nothing of such field work as Art is trying to 
                 get fitted for in his job with the Natural History Survey.

                 I hope it may be possible to create support for these 
                 as well as the Delta studies. But very easily, Al and I

                 could very well get ourselves lost at Delta or the 
                 Kellogg Sanctuary; and this we hope to avoid. 
                           When is Ala seminar talk? And would you have 
                 time for a visit and conference if I came over for it? 
                 I can bring or send the color slides, if You and Al wish.

                 A relief project to start soon makes soon best for me. 
                                             Sic   el         -" 
A q3ifl Fe'o~rn JA,. Kal arkry fý now n2wrred an  Sir/eT   l D.I 
P '9e 
                                                          D. Pirnie 

P. S.   Sutton seemed very glad to include Al's three 
duckling paintings in the Wilson Club bird art exhibit 
at Ann  Arbor. Both there and at the A. 0. U. meeting 
in Washington I had chances to tell of the Delta work 
and the part the Institute and your department are 
playing. There was a surprising intere    shown by 
many of the staid A. 0. U.-ers.    MDP 

                       1938IX G! 0LUCT ON 
                     Delta Wterfowl Project 
H.A.H. I. Canvasback, mole, captive reared, 11 dVy old 
               6/241/3.   L.204, S. 25, N.T. 27 
H.A.H. 2. Illard, female, aptive reared, 15 hours old 
               7/4/38.    L.15S, 3.15, X.T. 22 
H.A.I. 3. Shoveller, sale, captIve reared, 3 days old 
               715/3s.    L.142, 3.1s. M.T. 20. 
E.A.R. 4. Gadwall, male, captive-reared, 5 days old 
               7/7/33.    L.159, 3.19, N.?. 20 
H.A.H. 5. Redhead, male, aptive-roared, 1 day old 
               7/12/35.   L.194, X.15, M.T. 23 
H.A.E. 6. Gadwall. f#oale, captive-reared, 10 days old 
               7/13/35.   L.153, 3.15, X.?. 20 
E.A.N. 7. Lesser Scaup, female, captive-reared, I day @14 
               7/15/35.   L.141, 1.14, M.?. 22 
H.A.H. 5. Blue-wined Toeal, male, captive-reared, 12 hours old 
               7/17/35.   L.121, B.13, U.5. 15 
R.A.H. 9. Ruddy Duck, female, captive-reowed, 45 hours old 
               7/i3/35.   L.14p, B.20, X.T. 22 
L.A.H. 10. Paddy Duck, female, eaptive-reared, 48 hoars old 
               7/24/35. L.147o,3.20, U.T. 20 
H.A.B 11. Redhead, female, captive-reared, 25 days *14 
               5/5/33.    L. 325, 3.39, N.?. 42, Tar. 33 
H.A.H. 12. Shoveller, female, captive-reared, 19 days old 
               s/6/13.    L.273, 2.44, U.T. 30, Tar. 39 
H.A.-. 13. White-wlanged ooter, female, wild bird found on ridge road 
               able to fly only a few yards, emaciated. Down absnt 
               from breast. Ovaries onlarged. Apparently nested this 
               year. Spleen large and dafk. Fungi on air sacs. 
               Number of #uW 2 mm. broad. Ovary 25xS. Lungs O.K. 
               Gissard very small, empty. 
               9/7/38.    L.503. B.42, M.?. 62, Tar. 149, w. 2p6. 
H.A.H. l4. Ruddy Duck, female, wild bird, shot. Col. 11 a.m. Oadvall Day,

                                        pondweed seods in giusard. 
               5/5/35. L. 212, S. 27--wvidth 16, Tar. 15 
R.A.R. 15. Blue-winged Teal, female, wild bird, Cook's Creek 7:T30 p.m. 
               Oissard--small amount of gravel. Bird was alone. 
               /8//38.   L.349, B.35, Tar. 27, X.?. 35, Vt. 10 Os. 

H.A.N. 16. 
R.A.!. I. 
a.A.R. 16. 
H.A.R. 19. 
R.A.R. 20. 
l.A.H. 21. 
$.A.!. 22. 
H.A. R. 23. 
N.A.R. 24. 
White-winuod Scotor, femle, wild bird *ol. sect. 22, 7:3O p.m. 
    One of a brood of It birds. 
       8/11/38.   L.334, 3.26, Tar. 34, *.T. 52, wt. 14i o,. 
       ovary 16x5 
 White-wingsd Sooter, foal, wild bird *ol. sect. P2, 
   about 3 weoks old. Bill-lead. Syrinx - normal femal, 
       112/13S.   L.279, 3.22. K.T. 35, Tar. 27, Wt. 31 os. 
Shoveller, female, captive-renaz., 6 ***s old 
      5/14/38.    L.4oi, B. 60, M.T. 39, Tar. 33, W. 116 
Ruddy Duck, female, oaptive-rearod, 25 days old, a runt 
      S/16/39. L.162, 3.31, width 16, Tar. 17, M..268 
Redhead, female, oaptive-reared. 60 days old. ores dark 
      yellow ochre 
      6/18/38s. L.141, a. 56# M.?. 62, Tar. 141, W. 195, 
         ovary I2X3 
Redhoead, female, wild bird 
      8/23/36. L.265, X. 27, Tar. 21, M.?. 31, Wt. 51 on. 
Pintail, male, oaptive-reared bird, 6 months old. Bill sage 
   as adlt male, Bursa prevent 
      11/25/36. L.6145, w. 263, 3. 147, it. I lb., 13 os. 
Pintall, female, captive-reared bird, 6 months old, ursa present 
      11/25/36. L.500, . 241, s. 47, wt. 1 lb., 4-3/4 os. 
Mallard, male. captive-reared, 5 months old, Buirsa present 
      11/26/38. t.-59, i. 2714 3.62, Wt. 2 lbs., 1 ons. 
P.. 1.      dwl, male, 1 aptive-reared, 54 days old 
                  6/7/38. L.317, 1.134, M.T.32, Tgr.33 
P.R. 2. Radd1 Duck, male, captive-reowred, 17 days old 
                  6/17/38. L.170, 3.24. .T.3., ?r.20 
P.R. 5. Thite-winged Seater, female, wild bird. 3ill color--dark lead. 
                  9/11/38. L.33. 3.27, Tar.42, K.T.57, Ovary 5Xl5 
P.1. 6. Lessor Scaup, male, wild bird. Bill--slate blue 
                  9/39. L.31, B.3.8, Tar. ý6, M.T.57. Taasus--liot
P.. 7-. Redhead, female, captive-reared, 65 days old 
                  5/15/38. L-3143, B.55, Tar. 141. m.?. 73 
P.W. 8. White-winged Scoter, female, wild bird, found in weakened 
           COndition at Delta Charnel. 
                  6/38. B.45, Tar. 75, ovary L.23 am., largst or= 2 so. 
                  spleeon normal. 

- 3- 
P.W. 9. Broad-w*i1gd hawk, fseal 
              9/28/39. L.421, W.295. 
              Gullet--shrw, wbite-foot.d mouse, frog, grasshopper 
              Stoumac--white-footed mouse, Insects. 
PAW. 10. Amoric BitternPalo 
              3/27/39. L.650. .72S. ..T.105, V. ý93 
P.R. 11. Pinaated Grouse, fowle. Leanroth, Manitoba, 
              10/17/39. r..415, W.225. 
P.1.12. Prairie Sharp-t-tle4 Grouse, male. L&a*Voth, Manitoba 
              10/17/35. L.4o1, W.215 
P.W.13. Iteser Scau, foo-nle, captive-re~red, 411 day old 
              9/31/39. L.455, B.41, U.T.6. Ta. 40 
P.W.14. Whistling Swa, male, juvenile 
             10/15/35. L.1214. V.520, Vt. 15 lbs. 

                        Copy of M. D. Pirnie 
                field Notes of Specimens at Delta 
                            Augst 1936 
  1. Pintail, Aug. 5, 1938. Delta, captive reared, 29 da. 
          Female, L. 370, B. 39, 1.T. 41, Tar. 37 
          1ill unspotted, bill pale lead. (No syrinx blub) 
  2. Redhead ad male, found on Ridge Road, east of Bell1s, 2 .i. 
           wt. 1 lb., 60o., L. 200 B. 46ma. thin 
  3.  eeser Scaup, Aug. 6, 1935, 23 days c.r. (like a week or lo.e old).

           L. 165, 3. 19, M.T. 22 (runt) 
           Iris, light hasel, fwmale 
 4. Lesser Scaup, male, juv. normal 23 days old c.r. 
          L. 295. B. 29, U.T. 46, Tar, 35 
          Iris grey, hasel 
 5. 1red Grebe, female downy, 4 day (?) 
          L. 120#, . 5.5, Tar. 18, V.T. 18 width 33, depth 20 
          "Comb$ & bill flesh, e* tooth white. 
 6. Coot male juV. age (5 weeks?), iris bazel, bill horn-dus'-slightly 
          lighter tip and pale beneath. Bird probably whiter than average.

          Wings not developed, legs Cray outside. Grey-grreen (light) 
          front and inside; greenish at edge of feathers on tibia. 
          L. 270, 3. 26, Tar. 44, K.T. 61 
          11,30 a.m. stem, pondweed fragments 
 T. Redhead Juv. female, wild, 11:30 a.m. August S, 19398, Robertson Creek

          Probably 5 weeokt 14J os. 
          L. 390, B. 35, Tar. 39, K.T. 50, bill uniform lead. 
 5. Ruddy male (Incomplete eolipoe). 
          It. 141 os., thin. 
          L.-380. . 42, Tar. 35, K.?. 56 
          Jill--blue chiefly at base, Iris dark. Leo grey, dark, found Pad

          caught by boys at breakwall. (Wings new) Bursa present (bird 
          probabl7 1 yr. old) Growing both red and gray mantle and some 
          molt on venter & flanks. Gonads 10 m. 0ullet, 7 leeches 1 to
 9. Red-back Mouse male, August 11, 193. 
          L. 115, H.F. 15, T1 31, Aar 12. 
10. Young Snowshoe Rabbit, female, 1* weeks(?), photo, Aug. 11. 1935. 
          L~. 150, T. 10, LI'. 40, 3. 26. 
11. Young Redhead male, wild 
          L. 130, 3. 32, Tar. 33, 9.!T. 37. Gonads i m. Stomach, man 
          sedges and potamogeton seeds, 2 small snails, see color photo 
          with young ruddy In molt. 4 to 5 week*, plumage too advanced 
          for weight (?). 9k os. 

12. Redhead Juv. female, wild, Aug. 12, 1938, ae 3k weks () 
         L. 295, 3. 27, Tar. 29, wt. 35, Ovary 1I m., wt. 6-3/4 oz. 
         Nall light colored yellow down urder wins, stomach, fine 
         seeds and dragon fly (?) fragments. (N) 
13. Rhddy Juv. fougle, shot Aug. 15, 1939, 7 p.m. (*22 bay) 
         L. 365, 3. 3, Tar-. 33, K.T. 54. 
         About 7 weeks if field observations dependable. s*sed on time 
         of first broods.  Wt. 151 os. 1st primaries- 21-60, Tail 66 
         (nearly grown). Stomach, a few sedge and pondveod sesds. Ovary 22
14. Redhead male Juv. c.r., 2 so. 5 days, hatch June 13. 0.R. 
         L. 1477, 3. 4I#, Tar. 143, U.T. 65, Tail worn from captivity, iris

         yellow, wings growing, bird able to fly, 3and 38, 679, 659. 
         Color photo on Aug. 16, Hrsa 20 m. Gonads 10 ma. 
15. Gaenvasback ad male eclipse, wild, caught Aug. 23, 1936. 
         Lofteye yellow, right eye red, 2nd year old or better 
         . 62. T. 4      M.T. 69 
         Rt. iris, yellow 5 minutes after death. See color photo. 
         Penis 73 ma. extended by slight pull. Gonads 1x3. Shot on 
         forehead, left eye Injured, bird thin. 
- 2- 

% me umo 
3AP *X-*T 5 
   377 -'MI 0; SI &li, b AA    m 
 U84   76 £                               A 
 S0  9 8   2 1                0 
kdfi. abe I I     I     I 
at" "Sw 9 6 0%Im1 
On ft   - 01 
An W% 3 1      3335503 65 
dwmowOl13 14 t 1 21 SI 3* 
oa1a1 23 -4 1 3 213t 33T 31 
awouw 20 20 IQ 6 3 26 2     5 
-2 1 14 m AT£3,SM gig 1,15. 

                                          Delta rluk t,tnt on 
                                            Delt,t ý "Lnitoba

                                                Dember 6, 1940 
Ur. Aldo Lpopold 
Depptýof oidllife 1tanngeumeflt 
UniverF~ity of Viieconsiln 
Madtonl, Wirconsin 
Deer Professor Leopoldl 
       The pl""t Mr. Bell VroPOPes for thl hptcbery is a rTther

 inexpeneiveporttble p1.nt wbictri iA -nd I beliave :;r, Pill vol 1d 
 like to h'vri oil thA pl-ce to crry thp c"dittiOnfI lopd et the Lodze

 durinci the fell. The hbtcbeVy if wirpd n~rovdf Pnm tbh only -rpepwn 
 is for the mnchinh itrelf. In mny evpnt it is P rropprty i-prevfmlnt 
 thtt apsrvntly bps concerned Mr. Bell for sove time rn I o't think 
 we could cbthne hie mind. 
        I iknow he -juld likp to use winter ltp'tinl in the duclr liniipe.

 Whether thifý Is to be considered an experi!,elnt or r~Iy pd Ation4

 winter lirtltn the puirpofe is to c:rry th,' birds over the w-iter in 
 good condition. I do not balirPve ti-:t ,i tin n brinr abolt 
 premituTp reproduction with tb crnvrtebpck but we kno-! the bjrF 
 co'e, throuqgh the winter in much betttr condition tith i10bt. 
        I pointed to the rtudli of provth of yoimw becnvee r. br 
 dieu~ped this 1~t um'vernot rtth !rttiflcill liw't but -1tb co itrol>

 daylight. Artificl l liwht would. giv- ur rorp l titudf. 
        Another point re hpv- not dircutrd ocn,upntil V1r. l brou 
 the mnttpr up,it Peevmed out of rrfch. Artifini. li hti'fl  if 
 n-Pcepsry throurbout the iricub-tion -nrAd re~orin i .n io7  tb'i!nt went out i;.r.o. --f  l ightilnr 'h  beefn ued but b 11   been

 eff4-ci-nt end ir mort or lIre of a hewrd,'rticulArlY with -blreI 
 ereponibilitiep d-rin)- tht rummpr. From t'e vtýndpoint of o(,r-tionf

 then, I -rould welcome a plent. 
        I A¶o not know hor fer Yr. Bell w~te to Fro vith Prtificlol

 11ihtF tg. If hb hns in mind studIp bpyoni our mpnr rnd d-,' ire 
 we should ml ke ourr-lvP8 aiepr, but nothtng rp hpve s-id to-cdhte 
 hbs convinced bim thnt winter liphtinF -ou1'3 not briny pbout the 
 ertificiýTl .propra.ation of cnvasback. But pe for the lE-hting plbfit

 iteelf I do not think tccDptinv it reans thrt  rre ror7it oure1v 
 to go beyond our intpr.te or manna   I think it ru1d be        to 
 questiofn the advirabil.ty of in t11inu thr lTnnt. 'Ed n  r. Pnel I T 
 vlwtys workinR together on soire property improver'ent 9nd thip is 
 the job this winter. 
         To um up wy feelinzs; if I thourht thbt nccitinlt teV p1ant 
  committ'cd up to c.rry throuwh q serlps of winter liihting eixperritlntr

  I would not wvnt to sen thp plant Instelled.for this reason alone. 

Beeuse the polnt mrn-tv a renl nerd durl-nw the incuh.tion rnnd renring 
retsonv v11 becwuse ther, nrv other ueei thf p:Tnt sfjl  porvoboth for 
ourpilv(- and for thn Lodge, T do not tVhnk it ndvis abl to question 
Yir. Bello' plan. 
       I know 'hbt I hbve brought ont ; numbpr of pointp I have 
not w-de clenr befor. I b1  vhdve fe Phmi1d h--vP an understp.ndinq on 
the QurPtion of th Imnportrnoe of litht in the Prtificiplpropm.gtion 
of cnvb~ck and our i, Itationn in c.'rryin.7 out thir, work. Buut 
I ti-tnk thip I.tter auestion is our concern, rtether thnn the plant 
it elf. 
                        Yours Pincerely, 
                        (Albert hocbLaupi) 

                                 UNIVERITY OF WIScNIN 
                            COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
                                  MADISON, WISCONSIN 
DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE MANA13EMENT                      424 University Farm
                                                        December 2, 1940

          Mr. Albert Hochbaum 
          Delta Duck Station 
          Delta, Manitoba, Canada 
          Dear Albert: 
          I am a little bit disturbed about M4r. Bell's letter, copies of

          which I am sending to Pirnie and Rowan. I, for one, am ready 
          to debate this departure with Mr. Bell. If, how:'ever, you are

          thoroughly convinced that you want to make some light experiments,

          I will, of course, go with you. 
          It seems to me that there are several good reasons why new ex-

          periments should not be made. The first is that there is; no 
          trained physiologist or endocrinologist on the ground. The second

          is that since Rowan's original work in this field, dozens of workers

          have entered it; the fact that lighting can produce premature re-

          production is well-known and needs no further proof. It is unlikel:-

          that any important new findings will follow except by more detailed

          physiological work than has heretofor been done. 
          Thirdly, if there is additional money, we could make better use
          it by pushing ventures alre'-dy undertaken and in providing a more

          ample travel allotment for you. 
          Of course, if you are really convinced that lighting experiments

          would be valuable in connection with your stud, of latitude, that

          might be a different story. Please let me have your real attitude,

          and send a copy of it to Rowan and Pirnie, after which I would
          to have their vote as to whether or not the advisory board should

          approve this departure.   I am not sending copies of this letter
          anyone except members of the advisory board and yourself. 
          Te dropped the mallard experiment because the program was already

          heavy enough. I doubt if we should load the program further at
                                       Yours sincerely, 
                                       Aldo Leopold 
                                       Professor of Wildlife 14anagement


                                          Delta ,Manitoba 
                                          November 10,1Q40 
Mr. James F. Bell 
200 Chamber of Commerce 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
Dear Mr. Bell: 
       One of the Ruralite wind plants,! believe, would provide 
the most efficient and satisfactory lighting for the duck house. 
Ed's plant has provided excellent servire for more than two years 
and a similar plant could be ri#Red up to meet the lighting needs 
of the duck house. ]d points out that gas as well as wear and 
tear for the lodge plant would,in the long run, require greeter 
running expense than the wind plant. 
       Aside from the importance of followina up your earlier 
experiments with lightingartificisl light in the duck house 
would permit us to study the effects of light on *'he growth of 
young ducks. You will remember our discussion of this with 
Dr. Rowan last summer. There is considerable evidence that birds 
reared in northern latitudes develop more rapidly than those 
reared in iorf, southernly regions. Certainly the young that move 
down from the north in the fell are further advanced than the 
Deltr young of the year. 
       This is ten important ocolopwiol problem and Pomething 
which must be determined if plumage develonment as a ke- to age 
of young birds is to mean anything to field workers. With artificial 
light the naturel periods of summer livhtinw for several letitudes 
could be simulated in t'e duck house. 
       I hfve ron- over your letter with Ed who bolieves the !-ind 
chbrger would be in mtny ways better than briniing up the lodge 
plant for a temporpry period. Aside from this, however,! feel 
in my own mind thattif we are to light the duck house,the wind plant 
woul' be the most satisfastory. 
       Rave had a number of eacellent reports on Peter's work 
with the Natural History aurvey. I do hope it will be possible 
for him to go on to new York after he is finished there. 
                                Sincerely yours 
(Albert Pochbbaum) 

                                   MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
dAMES F. BELL                     November 28, 1940 
     Mr. Albert Hochbaum 
     Delta Duck Station 
     Delta, Manitoba, Canada 
     Dear Al: 
     If we are to conduct experiments in respect to the 
     effect of increasing and decreasing light on ducks, 
     it will be necessary to have an electric plant. 
     There are two ways of accomplishing this: either to 
     put in one of these Ruralite wind plants, or to move 
     up one of the plants from the lower lodge temporarily. 
     I think the latter would be the thing to do. How 
     important do you think this is, and how should we 
     move to accomplish it. 
                           Yours very truly, 
     jfb aj 

                                               DeIt Dhuck St~tion 
                                               D elt', v nItob0 
                                               Yovr'~mber 1V,1o40 
.'4r. Aldo Leopold 
Profeseor of Willl-f- Vn 
Universitv of Nir'conpin 
"Y dif-onr, W'ifconf in 
>Pr Profe~sor Leooold: 
       I m rnkin   this ccouiti  for t- rmonth of October -ýnd for
trin to the- Ber Riv-r irshes in Utrh frorm 'h'or I hrvp just roturned. 
       The trio to Utah  --n pd- by cpr,jtopoin, -t the Lon07 Lake 
Ptrlrno-l 1fu- t loffitt , North DMkott& rnd oDceýrin' fo'o th're
the Br River R        -fu fifteen rfiles -r-et of Brifhtir City, Ut'h.  I
mitp November 4 --nd -rturnrd November 17. The copt of the trio w- P 
follow : 
                         fý end oil        $7?7.C8 
                         r,,l -!o d!yV      11.90 
                         Lodpi'ng-0 d~ys     00 
                         Cost of trip     4109.58 
       I wes without 'uf'ioient perront-l funds to colrnr the trip ,t the

time Pnd withdrew pl27.00 from the D ltp P-tty 1-h fund, Af the trio wp 
frdc lVrdly in t" U.S.A. it wve oceppry to ebvno this money fTom the

Cýnpdiin to the U.S. vt,nd~rd,  'Jith - 10o iop in Pxclnge t'i., brought

the 1i?7.00 o" th:- P-tty Opsh fund to $108.78 . Thp :etty OCph fund,then,

coovrred :ll but ,0.70 of the copt of th- trip. 
       Thr- trip do-n Pn r-turn ;P ,' O miles but p tIi   -, P rnor or 
less tn unexpected trip 'ýnd 7,r     I"Frp no other (%,r ' xpno'
 I nm not 
oubmittinT rxilapor, coptF p we-,hPv for other tr-vd!. 
       The DFltP N ile   for the month of October is Pr follows: 
           rr ,lep 4( 4, -par rle----------------------------- ?4. 
       Ot>'r -xprins for t1- month of Octobnr nre not-d on the encloped

f:>tty Oh fund r,"cord sheet, 
                                       Yourp sincýerety 
.H. A, Fochb"uum 

                                           - 1. t' uc 0t itiM 
                                           D It , Y niiobs 
                                               No- r14,1240 
LIT. Al.* oL si' '1, 
Professor of ilAlife L    cmnt 
Universit- of iisco.rin 
e.,dison, ?Ueco nsin 
De-r Profiessor Leopold: 
       3cck e in ir  t Jeltp-r-turnpd lrst night, Wfnt by c!,r b... us of

th- stopove'r in North D-kotp but it v - loniver trio then I h,6. 
(xr&ectedfour d&ys dorn - d four o -ck writh th- best pert of two
vt Be-'r River.    ( Iorý" through North Dýkotp to the
Long Lake 
Refuge nepTr Bipai-rk wh:r-e they hrf6 less birds(?5)th'n they hpd 
expcted,snd t',en through Mont;np,,cro ,, corner of e1lowstone end 
down to Brigham Utjth n' thf Beir Riv'er ersh. Yellowston5 -S in 
  cloud of Pnow when I p' L sed through 'ut I -'-s i ressed by the fact 
vs stpted in txvýny ri i'qnF tbht pl~FntS'"com onl- known to

biolo4iste !s -,l7e" w-rc corn on in the  eyp-re.  It we quite worth

thl' trito to e hýr6 of p!k,'dith e'r'  reoe ns r-v~ne in en   t tern

IV-ho forest oPsture. 
       Thp Be'r River m-reh is ind6ed ý   gre~t plecebut with Pll
mount in b ck;round ,nd w(eet-r_ 'tt!opphere ,it dit not lit  long to 
dc½cide that D-ltr is much th- finer -re,. The refuee :re- is oren

to Phootinz' re you probably know,hunters checkinq- in Pnd out 't the 
refuý-e et-tion. A grert pl-'ce to shoot but to me it would eee- too

zuch lie throfwii      rty in P ovprnment licuor store -   vurything 
on- could rs' for is there writinx e-sy rprch,but still it doe's not 
se--! thýe ettin- for e shoot. 
       All d6 clek shot on the  -fu  re checked for species end sex. 
T!-- Survn h-F b--n 6oiný' this for ne-rly t-n y7prs,I b,,live,end
b- n t-kin  sex r tios for Pbout four years. As they rmy check out 
thirty or forty or -vpn -or- shoot-r- e dpy,th- number of birds they 
'x-min0 ,ech yer is -u'te lprge. Is I r'c~ll,thv bhd checked out 
oreyr -000 birds Iredy this Ps-e on. Thyv -re not ch-ckin- ge.    One 
of tt> oldtiryerp ,P hpln'r in t1- office is f-mili~r,in port -t 
leset ,with the clopcel charcctere,but I g'thered thrt they ýr- tot
by the stpff in h-ndlin bir's,eit :r in t>-' b>M o" m the lert

numrber o birds theay eYemine during' the botilism serson. ,'illiaui end

Quotrop,the r~s~erch ~stff T -rn'7ýy,but the Sup-rintendent end 
  f,     n  r were very kind to ar nd inter-sted in th, work 'nd 
       I ex>mined. 0O birds,mostlv yint'il end ren-'inid tprl.All 
ere nick'c u, S!Otemnber S PndlO. The sex n ndae rntios of oint,ils 
,,r-          teel end s few shov-:1lrf re -s follows. 

Adult Fe- -e       Juv.   i 
Pint~il    67            62                14             13 
G*AW -1    70            45                21             11 
Shov ller  ii             5                 1               1 
       Th; r tios vlr,- not wh~t I t   them to be. ApnPrpntly mpny 
of the birds of thb velr m-o-, out b-for- th1 outbre"k or nt least 
b-fore this p:rticulrr rio, o& t1-- outbrerk. The Pdult f-,le pintsils

were lr-plr biris theft hed just r-c-ntlv moulted thn primnries but 
:rost o01 tWh 'Ault te-l hans hp d h, rd prinvýries. Th oot-bre~din
influx of Pdult dr-kes .d prob'bly -' lter 7rov ment of birds tbnt 
h~ve moulted in other r-sw hvp f Pd~it pint-il drviks in lte 
sum ;er -nd e-rly fll -t DLelta) cc unts for the he'vy los  in dr f0o7 me. T!ey vre in Pm I1I
  id I .I ,seinv t'-m to sblp thrm to  -dipoi  b r- w-1 can zo over them

this -inter. 
       It s-- ,;o00o to virit t  r   to Ps- 7-h(b-t thv-v "r-r doing,

'nd to undarst nd c -ll the bt -, r thr- irnportrnc'- Pnd v,-lues of our

own oplce. They hpvw up beft in nic o-up truck,s1pbor' tory t:blý's

and inside plumbinr but not much else. 
       Th- ducks -:re zone-left 5' turA5'y vith th  fr 'rz-up. 
       Th  cn ' -or h-rin- tr oict'r , cnt on. I forpoý  t th 
court in- redhe~ds. 
                             Yours S-inc rely, 
Adcult ! 

                                              424 University Paru Place 
                                              November 9. 1940 
Dr. Hoyes Lloyd 
Dept. of Min-s and Resources 
Lands, Prtrk & Forests BrAnch 
Ottawa, Ontirio 
Dear Hayest 
The executive committee of the American Wildlife Institute has 
requested Dr. William Rw4 University of Alberta, to serve on 
the Board of Advisors of the Delta 1)tok Station, Delta, Manitoba, 
and he has accepted the appointment. The other members are Dr. 
Pirnie of Michigan State College and myself. An announcement 
of his appointment will probably run in an early isse of American 
Wildlife, but I am sending this letter to you thinkdng you might 
want to run a brief announcement in the "Canadian Yield Naturalist.

                            Tours sincerely, 
                            Aldo Leopold 
                            Professor of Wildlife Management 

                                               424 University Farm Place

                                               November 9, 1940 
Mr. J. Paul Miller, Secretary 
Amerida Wildlife Irtitute 
Investment Building 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Paul: 
In regard to your various letters of November 5, first of all lot me 
correct your impression that we are trying to study botulism at Delta. 
Our Delta group includes no pathologist, and we are not competent to 
do any such thing. If you will read my letter of October 22 anxrefully, 
you will see that we are merely trying to determine mhether botulism 
has a differential impact on sex and age. Since most Biological Survey 
men do not know how to age ducks, we had to send Hochtaum out to work 
over the pickled speciments. Hence, our activity is in no way a study of

botulism, but merely a follow-up on our own age s tudy in duck populations.

Dr. Bell evidently appreciated this, or else he would not have instructed

his refuge keepers to pickle botulism-killed carcasses. 
As to Bulletin No. 1, Hochbaum is focising all his efforts on its completion

this winter, and you can count on me to let you know in advance when it 
will be ready. I suhgest you tell Mr. Carpentr that we have not forgotten

his generous contribution, and that we will call on him for it when we 
have the mRatrial ready. We are admittedly late in getting it ready, bmt

this is not unal in our kind of work. Something new always comes up. 
As to Dr. Needham, I will regard him as informally a member of the Technical

Committee, and I will continue to keep Dr. M1lis on the list until you 
Inform me of further changes. The material on the roposeod salmon study 
sent me with your letter of October 9 went out with my circular of October

9 to the committee. 
                                   Yours sincerely, 
                                   Aldo Leopold 
                                   Professor of Wildlife Msmageent 
P.S. I am glad that the Executive Committee has formally ratified the 
Rowmappointment to the Board of Advisors. I suggest that all of us send 
Rowan copies of important letters on Delta. I also sugest that you run a

little news story, perhaps with a picture, in *American Wildlife", announcing

his appointment. I am also asking Hoyes Lloyd to run an announcement in 
the f0anadian Field N~it ralist." 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July2 2, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
                               November 8, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                Reference is made to your letter 
of October 22nd enclosing Hochbaum's report 
on lead shot experiments and your comments 
regarding it. 
                Senator Walcott was in the office 
Wednesday and after discussing the broad phases 
of the lead poisoning situation we are more or 
less agreed that, although the work should be 
carried on, it would not serve a very good purpose 
to give it too much publicity at the present time. 
                We, therefore, both of us concur 
in your opinion to leave this matter out of 
print until further verification is made. 
                              Sincerely yours, 
                              J. Paul Miller, 
M: g 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
            FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER                   A    N     l                    
               F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board        AMERICAN     WILDLIFE   INSTITUTE    
    FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935 T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee         INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D.
C.               Treasurer 
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
              J. PAUL MILLER 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
November 8, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                Reference is made to your letter of 
September 28th regarding Hochbaum's salary. 
                I discussed this with the Senator 
on his visit here Wednesday and both of us agreed 
that there should be some adjustment made in this 
matter. We must, however, await the budgetary 
approval and have some idea of our potential income 
for next year before we can commit ourselves on 
this matter.     I will put it on the agenda for the 
next Executive Committee meeting. 
                It might be possible, although I 
think it is very unlikely, that the proposed 
increase could be made up from funds now available 
to the Delta project. This remark is made merely 
to indicate that we are in sympathy with your 
suggestion but at the present time are just a little 
uncertain in our minds as to how to accomplish it 
in the immediate futureo We hope it can be adjusted 
by January 1st, howevero 
                                   Sincerely yours, 
                                   J. Paul Miller, 
Novemer 8  194 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
   Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
                                  November 5, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
               Thanks ever so much for your letter 
of the 22nd of October and the enclosure from 
               As you know, Dr. Shillinger has 
conducted a number of experiments similar to the 
one outlined by Hochbaum in this report. I do not 
believe that the work has been broken down in 
quite the detail that Hochbaum's work program 
indicates. However, I think it is something that 
should be followed up.  I agree with you, however, 
that until more specific information is gathered 
it should not be published. 
                                Very sincerely yours, 
                                J. Paul Miller, 
P. S. I plan to take up the matter of Hochbaum's 
salary this week when Senator Walcott comes to 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
                                  November 5, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                At a special meeting of the 
Executive Committee of the American Wildlife 
Institute on September 24th it was moved, seconded 
and approved that Dr. William Rowan be appointed 
on the Board of Advisers of the Delta duck project. 
                 In compliance with this action of 
the Committee I wrote to Dr. Rowan on October 14th, 
a copy of which is enclosed, and received his reply, 
a copy of which is also enclosed for your information. 
                               Sincerely yours, 
                               J. Paul Miller, 

        Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
                           Noveber 5. 1940 
Dr. 'illisal Rowan 
De.rmt of Zooleo 
Em    -ea Alberta, 
Door Doctor Rin~s 
           Thak you very meh fr your 
letter of Otober 20th sad your gnersity 
In ,eoeting the respslbillty of aesslstig 
as n car Doita duok projest, 
           I -m fwrvrding a sopy of this 
letter to Dr. Leopeld and I so sure that he 
will got in touch with you in a few days. 
           We ar   lso sending you under 
separate oover such litlrture    os he hare 
availabli at this time. 
                          Ver7 sineowrly yomue 
                          J. ?aul Miller, 
Copy to Prof. Aldo Leopold / 

0     Department of Zoology                            Edmonton, Alberta

  P                                                    Canada 
                                                       20. X. 40 
           Mr. J, Paul Miller 
           American Wildlife Institute 
           Investment Building 
           Washington, D. C. 
           Deer Mr. Millers 
                              Please accept my thanks for your 
           invitation of the)4th inst. to serve in the capacity of co- 
           adviser on your Delta Duck Project, a distinction that I greatly

           appreciate. I met Dr. Aldo Leopold many years ago and have 
           a great respect for his work. It will be a pleasure to be 
           associated with him in this manner. 
                              I would be much obliged if you could 
           send me any printed information of the scope end activities 
           of your Wildlife Institute. I am familiar with its activities

           in a general way, of course, but feel that a more intimate 
           acquaintance with its detailed set-up and aims and objects 
           would be of value to me. Anything in this nature that you can

           send me will be much appreciated. 
                                             Yours sincerely, 
                                           (signed) WILLIAM ROWAN 
                                             Wm. Rowan. 

   Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
October 14, 1940 
Dr. William Rowan 
Edmonton, Alberta 
Lear Doctor Rowan: 
               The ixecutive Committee of the American 
Wildlife Institute would greatly appreciate it if 
you will serve in the eapacity of an adviser on 
our Delta duck project in cooperation with Professor 
Aldo Leopold and his associates in this work. 
any details 
will accept 
care of the 
  Your interest in and knowledge of this 
makes it unnecessary for me to go into 
regarding the work at Delta. 
  We would greatly appreciate it if you 
this responsibility and so advise me in 
Washirgton office. 
Sincerely yours, 
J. Paul Miller, 
Copy to: Prof. Aldo Leopold 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER              AM        AN                         
              F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board        AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE          
    FREDERIC  EWING                   Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935  T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee    INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C.  
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
              J. PAUL MILLER 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                            November 5, 1940

                          Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                          424 University Farm Place 
                          Madison, Wisconsin 
                          Dear Aldot 
                                         Reference is made to your letter
                          October 22nd relative to the publication of 
                          material from Delta and your inquiry regarding

                          the contribution of $500.00 promised by Mr. Carpenter

                          of Du Pont. It is our understanding that this 
                          amount is not to be collected until the publication

                          is ready for the press. 
                                         Although there is no immediate need

                          for the detailed information regarding the No.
                          publication, and I plan to leave this entirely
                          your hands, our suggestion was made to get the

                          wheels rolling as soon as possible and to assist

                          you in accomplishing that purpose if we could.

                                         I think that your suggestion of
                          the proceeds as a revolving fund has many desirable

                          features. It may be advisable, however, to 
                          incorporate this in a general revolving fund for

                          all publications. This is something I would have

                          to give further thought to before I would care
                          make a commitment either way on the matter. 
                                                        Very sincerely yours,

                                                        J. Paul Miller, 

                                              npltn Ducký Stption

                                              DKltp, nitoba 
                                                Nove ber ?, 1940 
 Mr. Aldo Leopold 
 Professor of  ildlif½. Mnpernt 
 University of Wi-consin 
 kdison, Wisconsin 
 Deer Professor Leopold: 
       Shooting is still noov and I 7uess Ducks TUnlimit*d is a 
bit on the soot Pfter flowery Pccounts of P qrot incranse. I still 
believe it is e rrmtter of weeth'r, for our mpllprd populption on 
the lekeshor, hes shown no Iecline Pnd thprp hL-P be-n heavy concent,- 
rntions of dc-orrters on tb, lnke. 
       I hpve asked Art to try out the cochin treatmnnt on live 
feomles to see if it is wor~nble under trpnlin conditions. I have 
tried it out on our c(ptiv- birds Pnd they suffer no ill ef÷ecte.

The locpl n-bvsicien wro ir workinr on thi, -,ith me bplivps there 
is no oDrsonpl d-ner in h-ndlinc th- cocrin,p mtt-r rhich bothprpd 
me for r while. 
        : nnrdin- the loaded birds, I h!ve bl b-n bothbe'- -1l elonq 
by the blief that -erhb-e the birds thet die not die - rc not 
f<'t-d becsuse re had slippad up pop-- way in administering the 
doses. The only -y to check this wrs to kill - bird end this 
I did yesterdsy. Tbh bird wps P Juv'nile drake which hpd received 
Z shot August 71,8shot Seotpmber 70 and 10 shot October 18. The bird 
Iws a good hesvy,nerly thre- lb. bird ,ecttve Pnd v-ry fat. The 
-izzzrd contnined   - -hot ,II o-round to Pbout 1/25 or their orizLnrl 
   size. It looks Fs though we rre cl~-r on this   ont. All the 
birds Pre in Pood shape -4tfr the threp- doses axcpr~t the adult fmenl- 
'rho will kick the bucket Pny dey now. 
        Fred suggested the the adults mnvy h-ve -lready a sub-leth-l 
storer ot lead to rhich otly a littlt more --d be )dded to '7nock 
theim do.n,whil- the ju7eniles Ftrrter fro¶ zere. Th- rdults -ere 
birds from the ocns ,however, and   v no ,--y of  .ttin. led in 
any form. P-rhtc ftmmmno )-rhppp not. I have rifty canvasback end 
woulJ like to try them re we havo Pbout twenty Pdults. 
        The trip MPSt  tptrts tomorrow. I sP drpwinq on the Petty 
C-sh Pesount And rill hold my r-oort of monthly Pceounts for this 
fuhd until I return. 
Yours Sincerely 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
                                           October 31, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopolds 
                  I am sending you a copy of our work sheet 
for the Delta Duck Station and also a copy of my letter 
to Mr. Hoohbaim explaining our allocations wherein they 
differ from his. 
                                         Yours very truly, 
                                         Ethel M. Quee, 
                                         Office Manager 
E no. 

                      Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22,1935

                      INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
                                            October 3. 1#4I, 
Mr. R. Albert Isoobawn 
Delta Duck Statin. 
Deltas Ewaltoba. Canada 
Dear Vr. b1bmats 
               I - oeoloelag herewith our bhk for $241, to .eploenih 
petty cash. Your Item of September S oalls tor 09.96. The it.itsot bill 
of Hill's Drug Stores totals $9,75.  That to the reason for the difference

betwee  your total an  our chcOk.  I a- also sending your salary shek for

the month of Ocotobr a   a third chock of 3.S5.4 eovering your oxpenses 
or the mth of September. 
               teferring to your lottr ot Qoeobor 14 rgarding the supplies

acout, I om sending you a eopy at our work sheet so that you may further

shook your recrds.   I tool oure that there toso disroepa     in fis te ounts

but simply a differene in our Interpretation of the Director's travel and

oxpeaso aosumt an   supplies and alloostion of items under these two differ-

oat aOoOuats. 
               Under the heading,, firttor's *1xponoo Aceount* we have 
inoluded only Iteme of travel, that is railroad, *to., hotel and susteoanoe.

               Your smry uder ite* to. 2. Diretor's exponse. S       traTol

aoount under date ot January 1-4h     $0 ahbos an item of 09S.$9 for travel.

You will note frem our work shot that vs have allocated 460.32 to Diroetor's

travel SM exponse SMd the balance of $3.57 to supplies. 
                Under Item I tor Au   t. #.60 of the $5.0 (otftce and hatch-

ory supplios) we have allocated to Director's travel SM expnose which 
bringe the total for August under Item 2 (Director's expose. and travl) to

               You will also sot that we have sot up a petty cas fund but

we do not allocate this until expended.   I em returning your smary, *foolng

that perhaps you may need it to have in frost of you when *hoeking my ialloa-

               At Prof. Leopold's suggestions I em attaehing a statement
 the unexpeadod balanses in each Item of the budget as they stand on our
 at the close of October 51. 

Otber 51. 1v)I$ 
              If thbr. are WW quetion., pleoa. do Ot heasttO t. writ* 
-* wM I will do my boet to o.raightta the out. 
                                        Your#vry t ruly. 
                                        a thel V. QMe. 
Copy to Prof. Aldo Leopold IV-/ 
S. Albrt Hoobomm 

               AMf;lW WILDLO   INST11 
    1.3 Dxwndod D Una*r 
to Dlweotwrt Trawl 
   A EXOS          Buge .11.iOn* 
So Swomo A~sitantsO~ 
                   &Ag0t suoinO 
                   kalmo transferrd 
6. Summo Assstats Travel~~ l~ 
  Upon Bsd~oy bppll#w *Ui 
                   Iz ande 
  a E .a 
  --- a I age 
  - L8. 1.6 
  Ow. UO 
MmtagraphBl in~ w+1b~ B4ip aloao 

(Y7 /- (4-116 
                                 helt, Luck Sta(tion 
             ~ K.~ ~~4iu to blo  Octho tbr 7Ia "'r r 
  "'nv~riy  if iico n Cr 
edisF.on 7 1Tsc,n  rL 
         y-,~so LeopoOld:1            t1.r           i 
shLootinrf 2o)tin.ue poor. T  re hoplib for nortL ;inas end 
c,.ie" of zi. , thor .or the lat three     k  of th' h eaon. 
      I pl n to 7fK my trip to 7e r Riv!r net we-t le;in& 
"Uor& y if po U',i.  not"r report has c rý;'! io froa
a NoIth 
, kthI Iu Vnd I          !hsil visit tbr on n ,'v out. 
      I           y -te your 1 - r to Paul Yiller rerdin the 
Bulletin. I   e frfid of i vnce puplicity;no ,i!ttPr what one 
z:ye it always comes out  Ir ld.    if there le to be &n advance 
buildup, however, I woul5 r   ,tr wait until    cr n 'et together 
in      r    i e doin  r' very bFt to =at the ;wtril in. 
i pe for our , tnt~r t-to~ethl -nd rn f'ure that it will 
be redy 4'or pubioe~tion b~oi th ,int~r is over. 
      I,:ve n~r 'on j on                 1 t6ohniqu' o' ninint vents 
of live f     dmrle duc'Ks hLch the boys rnv '-ent to try out with 
phe%, nt or chicken. A 10D solution of co -In rplied to the cloaea 
will relax the sphinctpr u~le,'41lowin£ ' rFt1er -esy -_ -- t-on 
of th  ram bursa. ThIA IE ýlpplied on    cotton sb    laced gntly

through t'r: anus into the cb  'el cevity. 
       I 10oulci ld'r to -x' ibit t"o of fr rnUd picture I left $ebilld

it th-ý Fil'on club tetinrP next month "nd I wonjor if you 7rould

    ,n of thi boys to t,:o thlm to Yu-,r's for p*&king nd hve 
tI~m shipped to: 
                   Ur, iV-r y 11 -ry 
                 1iO Northrup Auditorium 
                 .1'n i ity of I AnnIsot. 
           1ienclori notes r~ rdin ship rnt r nd will r+t -urn 
pickinc,hppin                   no- I do not keth  core 
0long but Ve lon- , I am not thor- Bruc- or Lylp    ipht be 'rilllng 
to t'ke e,re of them. Tb' on, o- thi t-o young, iuckllnF   rnd the 
r~1', d brooid "ere the pictures T had in rilind. 
                         7ours sinc-r-ly, 

                                                 424 University Yamt Plaee

                                                 October 22, 1940 
Mr. J. Paul Miller' 
merican Wildlife Institute 
Investment uilding 
Iashinton, D. C. 
Door Paul t 
          Senator Walctt, Mr. Bell, and the rest of us had a 
lone discssion on the msbjeot of Delta publications at Delta this 
Sumer , 
          In the first place, Mr. Carpenter of DuPont made a special 
eontrlbution of $500(T) for this purpose. M record of the amount 
has beoe loaned to Professor Rowan. hww*e I mut p by recolleotion. 
I wonder if this was ever collected? 
          It was agreed among us at Delta that there should be a 
Delta Valletin series, each of which wou  include the important 
developments since the last ms published. This being No. 1, it 
would include everything we have r&4 to publiuh by this date. 
Rouhbau will write No. 1 this winter. He canout push it a    faster 
than that because this fall's data must be inoerporated. It you need 
a list of contents, Hoohbaum can farish an approximate one at any 
          There remain a lot of detailed question* such as whether to 
charge for distribution over ad above a picked list, details of make- 
up, etc. Unless it conflicts with your other plans, I would sugest 
eharging and using the proeee as a revolving fund. 
                                Sinerely yours, 
                                     Aldo Leopold 
                            Professor of Wildlife hnegement 
 cc Hoohbauna 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
   Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
                                   October 15, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldos 
            In your report on the Delta Duck Project 
you suggested the desirability of having some 
publications released this fall or winter. 
            I have called this to the attention of 
Senator Walcott and he has asked me to request that 
you push the publicatim of some of the leaflets as 
rapidly as possible; also that you give us some 
estimates on the cost of these items and the type 
of publication you think desirable. If possible it 
might be well to give us the title or at least the 
subject matter on which these bulletins should be 
released so that we can start a build-up prior to 
their actual publication. We could arrange to have 
them printed or perhaps you have some other suggestion. 
                                 Very sincerely yours, 
                                 J. Paul Miller, 

                                                   424 UnivermityIv 7s plnace

                                                   October 22, 19O 
Mr. J. Pau Miller 
AMeroan Wildlife Institute 
Washigton, D. C. 
Dear Paul- 
          Hochbsum has showe4 me Miss sos letter of October I which 
gives the Delta balanss to that 4ate. 
          Senator Walcott has probably tol4 you that while he was at 
Delta, botulism broke out on a nearby marsh. This was a heaven-sat 
opprltuity to test the hypotheeis that the isturbed sex ratio In  uaks 
is due to the differential Impact of botuliem on the hens and youug whiOh

are still In the small ponds at that season, and the drakes whish have 
already reained their feathers and are on big water. Our lcal opidadeo, 
however, soon ie.4 out, hence we wrote the Biolegical Surve to please 
pro**vo botulism-.klled ducks on their refuges so we could sex and ago 
          Yeo understaMd, no doubt, that most of the Survq sen do not 
understand aging by the loeafa. 
          Hohboum now has word that the Bee River Refuge in Utah has 30 
ducks preserved for us, and other refue keepers my report later. To go 
through these birds will require unanticipatod travel. Soobbaum has auk-

aged his ex   se well and would have been in the black, bat I anticipate

that if he ha  to visit m   refe he       m na   dicit. He will advise 
you later about this, and we will make the trip anyhow whether we ea get

wepense for it or Aot, because the oppeilwity is too good to Ms.. 
          With beet regards, 
                                     Sincerely yours,, 
                                           Ald. Leopold 
                                  Professor of Wildlife Mans gemen 
cc Nochbaua 

                                           e~l t , i :"  t trba 
                                           October i:,4 
Unive' ity of 7" 
   iron, isconsin 
DerPrfsorr    Lopold: 
       I just r ive the enclo)ed 1etter from Yr. B'o1.    I wer a 
 bit aurprised.,f'or I hpd eypected thVt they roulr   e dusk  only 
 in nearby ar~ae8  Da - tand Minnesota. Ap'arently not ,howevar nd 
 it look er though Pse      p il thp rýfuges to -v birds. 
       I        t't         dvmnt~v ot tl oo:-ortunity if w- mre 
 to e pet - in-ilrI co7 tprrtion next yParo v2n mTkc   t   t'io by i
+4      2vers, 1Y4rsO Plu 
Xr. J, Paul Millerw 
Washington. 1). 0, 
Dear Pauli 
          Eoehbaw h   not told s. about Ms ld shot 
Ao when   recvod your iquiry of October 101 ha    to 
A copy of his reply, with an extroL for Mr. Dorsus, in 
write his. 
          While he seems to regard t~his as.a rather light-weigt 
side-line, it seems to ne that the discover of a diff erenial a~e 
mowtlltW Is. flra.~olass *ntribution to the vuj~a   of )1..A polsowf 
ing   His inmbo of expsnimotal birds Is, of conree, i4asqat* to 
finally establish the point, but It oertaIanly gives use n clue wicih 
ehowmd probbly 17 b followed up. You will agre, I think, that it 
would b. well to leave this matter out of prnit until further vert- 
fication, has been made. 
                                Sincerely yours# 
                                     Aldo ZLpold 
Mal                         Prof~essor of Wildlife Vaa~gamt 
oe RIohbmim 

                                                     Delta Duok Station 
                                                     Delta, Manitoba 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Menagement 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisoonsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       The mail has just come in with your letters of October 14 and 
copies from Mr. Miller and Dormeus. I mut confess that I am a bit 
sheepisb about the birds with lead poisoning and not havin7 passed 
word along regarding them before this. You will remember that Mr. Bell 
mentioned his interest in lead poisoning when he was here in August 
After you left we had a small residue of mallards which we had kept over

pendind a deoission on the breeding experiment. Havini let these plans 
pass by we were going to band and release the birds when Ed sugaested 
thet we feed them some lead.Just to see what happened* He was interested

in seeing how many shots would kill a bird and I welcomed the chance 
to see if hens might fall off quicker then drakes. 
       On August 71 the following doses of standard # 6 lead shot 
were given to P2 mallards* 
!Ho.kf bid, drhL 'rl .          No.of she% ner bird. 
      fta              Ag"trgjo             e    U 
   1            3      t                  3 
   2            ,4,                                groupI 
   2            on    JU 
   a                   *                4          group 
   1          drake   Adalt                        group 
   2            a      V 
   b hen              Adult               3 
       The shot was given the birds by depressing the tongue and forcing

the shot down the gullett.  They were then allowed to swallow and then 
the tongue agon depremsed.the birds turned upside down and shaken to 
make oertain the shot was with theo for good. All birds were banded. 
They were placed in two of the house pens and giveb the same care end 
food as all the other afm captive birds. 
       Among the juvenilestwo of the hens (both birds with 5 shot) were 
very weak and had lost considerabb weight by September S. One of these 
birds died September 19 and at that date was little more than skin and 
bonesalthough until the last it fed as heartily as the rest of the birds.


The other female recovered and by September 30 had repined normal 
weight. None of the other Juveniles showed any signs of heving been 
affected by the lead. 
       Among the four adults the three drskesotwo with three shot and 
one with two shot. began losing weight within a few dpy after they had 
received the shot. One diedelx days after the dose of two shota second 
died 18 dayeafter a dose of thvee qnd the third 39 days af ter the dose.

All three lost weight until they were nothing but qkin and boneseyet they

all fed well and had had heavy meals before they died. The adult hen 
with three shot remained heavy. Pnd Is still alive. 
       On September 70 all the remaining birdsall in good oondition, 
were given an alditional d6se of shot. light birds werm given 15 # shot 
each and ten were given eikht shot. Todate none of these birds have 
shown any signs of having Seen affected by the second dose. 
       The whole thing began more or less as a Sunday afternoon affair 
and I was aware that similar tests had been conducted elsewhere. I weloemed

the opportunity to see the effects of lead poisoning at first hand and 
believed that perhaps something might come up that might be well worthwhile

talkinw over this winter for future plans. "evertheless I did consider

the whole thing very lightlyalthough everything with the birds has been 
done very carefully, and was waiting to see what happened to the birds 
after the second dose before bringing the matter up. 
       I have no hunches as to why the three adult drakes dropped off one

two three while the rest of the birds took It in good shape. Perhaps 
it is worth thinking about~for I don't b-lIeve anyone has mLrked the effects

of lead on different age classes. I shall keep you in touch any other point

of interest that may develop. 
       Mr. Dell brings his guests to the duck house for one morning each

visit and I am afraid the account of the leaded birds was a bit flowered

on the trip through with Mr. du Pont.   The mov-ment of the wests 
through here is so much a sleight of hand affair that "e seldom know

who ts shooting. Mr. $all had as down for a talk with Mr. Du Pont, 
howevervand I had intended mentioning this for, if I am not wrong,he 
made the donation for the bulletin.. 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                   
             F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE           
    FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22, 1935 T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee      INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C.
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
             J. PAUL MILLER 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                          October 10, 1940

                          Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                          424 University Farm Place 
                          Madison, Wisconsin 
                          Dear Aldo: 
                                     I am enclosing a copy of a letter 
                          which I have received from Mr. Doremus. It is 
                          self-explanatory and I think indicates the 
                          interest of some of our Board of Trustees in the

                          work being conducted at Delta. If you can give

                          him say information as to the progress of hte mrk

                          up there in this particular line in vhich he is

                       I interested, I think that a personal letter from

                          you to him should be in order. 
                                      I am most anxious to visit the Delta

                          Station and hope that I will have the opportunity

                          in the relatively near future. 
              / iSincerely yours, 
                                                         J. Paul Miller,


              Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
  y                                        October 7, 1940 
  Mr. J. Paul miller, Secretary 
  American Wildlife Institute 
  Washington, D. C. 
  Dear Sir: 
                  Mr. Eugene du Pont was in the 
    office this A. M. and reported on a visit he 
    recently made to the Delta Station with Mr. James 
    Bell. Mr. du Pont was quite impressed with the 
    several research activities at the Station. He 
    particularly mentioned the studies being jade of 
    ducks being fed No. 6 shot. Hope sometime before 
    long that we will get a bulletin giving us to date 
    data on findings at Delta. 
                  I like your monthly report idea, it 
    is a step in the right direction. 
                             Yours very truly, 
                             T. E. DdREMUS 

        Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
                             Ootober 14, 1940 
Dr, WailJi~a RoveaA 
Edonton# Alberta 
Dear Do otorEw  w 
          1he  .eoutive Comit.. of the A  orim 
.ldliteb Tnrtilýte wuld creatly appreciate it 
it' )U will se#rve in the oapocity of a  adireeo 
o  our Delta duc projeot k   iopereat  wit 
Professor Ald Lo.old wnd his ass-oots in this 
          Your tuerirest in and kiowled.e of this 
undertakin makes it imnecessary for me to kp     o 
aner deall   the wor* at rt*.1t 
         fwe would great)' opre1iat it It you will 
aeospt this rejoaeibility end o  dvice me in oar* 
of ty'o  dehietm offlee, 
                      gin~eral y ymrs,* 
                      PW Il M1iller, 
CoPY tot Prof* Aldo LAp0od 

                                            424 University Urn Place 
                                            Ootober 14, 1910 
Mr. R. Albert Roohbum 
Delta, Manitoba 
Dear Albertt 
          I was pleased with your letter, particularly your 
description of Mr. Boll's interest in m.rsh wrens. 
          Tanks for the cabinet drawing. Z will go ahead 
with one wd we can look it over while you are down so that your 
next one will be better. 
          Tour schedul sound* sensible to me. &q only worry 
was lest you were Intending to omit your winter oontacts. Have 
you Included in your sohedule the cleaning up of your dtegre? 
                               Sincerely yours, 
                                     Aldo Leopold 
                            Professor ot Aldlife UManageat 

                                           DIt n Duck S1trtitnn 
                                           Sctober   1 1140 
r. Aldo Leopold 
UnivProf toy or ;itIjf-rns 
7- vtron y r~of  iscns 
". Ir r    or L-,ooold: 
       Enclosed tP ;ý 0,tch of the skin c~es P'Yo-in-. tr.v 4r--,nszm,-nt,

EvPrytbhinz h't. ', b-n Pptipf,1ctory Pxipot tbe door. 0ulr 'fits in tbt
tt tbe bottorrm  "'p a et t1h top ivitr t,- ,prino'-rm r chtclkr   
To u 1         i~t~ -thI c Pt ch1,s ,n t h rc e 0ot t r)m T 4 th rk th c--t
trht ! vb  foiý,-d tizi1A b-'                                  I~c
o tk-'-~ ~ '~~ 
thyr h   r-mall bI if circ1  irnui bA better. I wouil rl-~st that 
on0 tn r y r r.iveo a cleer nc4 of 9 or 10 inches for your 1srP-er skinp.

Cther Ise I think the ce: -11 htol l wtbin you h.vP. As P c r f tPn 
tl 1F -k-týth rill shock 'ou but it UV -hit our  rpýnt' r 
1   usnd and 
I think It ,ill tv' you tn id- of ,"'t It L 11!'s. You n~e e'rtPin 
Pu 7P P, tn I e-, n  Pou P-rr eb-h  ro -i'cnr! tl     , en  I Tr anxious

to Fl your- 'Ir it   C_ 0o7plmtr1d "or w p,'Il n"vrd Pt 1,cet on:
rr   h1. 
       I Cu~s I hrv-' xpr'ec1 ov ndi rv 4  r  to rvn, rt lesst a 
porl rt o - -ifter bhre. TIt co re rt4y - f         riri to spend 
t--o or tlh -r  rrout h s,:  7-Ith  t h ep  skl nms   s d ot ~   , t r ÷
  o l o e 
ru4rn,7 te s Po n ýn3 "'hich cIn't    lu  ock Fnd (orrt17.. It
coon  pprtly 
fro r     .r ct to t Ph t th hI tohnrv ir conr i .0   our v  rr-round 
responsitilt . t 7,-, courr V p rf^Ctly -rillinr to trke ovm r O -hil 
7-e C-rp  Pe-y  cnd  Pete-r  nrill  b-  t, cl  ro  thei  Stpt;,P  thir  y-pr
tIe first of Jpnu-ry. Por thin prFent,ho~vor,I r ro~tlv conc-rn~d 
)bout   tn   t14   Iulltin i  r Plhoe. I 7-int to  v  it wrl rounlhd out

ro that -- c-n cc oerr it to'-Y' this -int-r. It iV comin, nlon7 
in good PhE  rind ny qr,Pnt ple4bs ;re to -t  oo,-n,  I did last ypar, 
Pbout thp firpt of Dehcember.  I wo1   li VC  4-n ýt  ictn. for t,'
-Peetingp. 7e Pre olpnninzf to buill r"  np- p~n-' P  soon ) the spsson

is or-r No,-% V7 end I my b, hrId up -n this.unti1  "+l r t%- l-yt 
    -1.,, r'r ~ I~ ot t'ýtnl'  T   (,f ' oot  ,,  ro'-ctl  t-'% 
       T1 nk you ' Thvrinýi I- up youvr ielen 'or the on~oor' et-uo

;ý t-r t bull1-irgc  :,nes  throuF!-.h  Yr~; F-:)iun  o 
         Pp#r-rFeu,,roLnteýd4 r  to-1ot xo-rfe1 Tl A~ ArtVý
r"= h~.virn7  ftttl  tr-oihl "th tlý-- Iv i-;tion  tutoýiti
but I 
  ~I f rr,- 7 =vry ,t, n  ! I  eZ th ro ughr 11l  1 cb t. Pp -ill ý*-
rith Arthur 
orr Oct. lF-Decl. 
       Mild weth-r continu: hre Pnd Phootinq p,-"r,. Mr. Bell 
h-  been up sevmrPl times Iut psant hbd P   P photr vet rnd lnft 
vesterd~y for good. H- too!: r out with hirn everg:l timee to mm 
trmmimm check Pnx comporition of cpn flocks *s they dpcoved but no 
luck. Thb chicken re. eon h1s bf-n Pnotbnr 1torv Fnd e~ervonp eýva
ere rrore brde thln there h.:ve b-Pn in rr:ny yearp. I --P out once 
Fnd it rs 1~:  e'ttin  ir4 P in h~n yard. By the wey, the ptnnstt 

       The spninrr schedule siundp ftms intr tinptn. and my lpt? and 
subject Pre fjnc. 
7 ~ ~ 
/ ( , 
"t e'             I 

                                       )42 Universy Yam Plase 
                                       October 9. 9, 
Mr. H. Albert Hoehbuma 
Delta, 1nitaobs 
Dear Alberts 
          I ee no :reson m   there should not be complete 
fluidity as between sub-allotmemts. The onLy thing that 
worries me is whether you can finish the year without a 
mower* pinch, hmae I have &akd the Institute to gve you 
the bal&ace. as thq stand on their books. I have kept no 
books, leaving it to y  to keep within your totals. 
          After you have Mise Cee's balance I would s_ 
gest you cast up your liabilities and let me know whether 
there is any epecial action necess.ary 
          Arthur wa here yesterd  an  is getting ready 
for bigsc. le duck season wor. The waterfowl season here 
to so far poor due to dryness. 
          With best rpros, 
                            Sincrely your*, 
                                 Alde Leopold 
                         Professor of Wildlife Mnagement 

                                             424 University lam'a Place 
                                             Ootober 9, 1940 
Mr. :- Paul Miller 
American Wildlife Institute 
Invetment ftilding 
Washington, D. 0. 
Dear Paul: 
          I enclose herewith Hochbb 's September xense 
aoo&mat In the amount of $*2.59, also his petty cash acaw$nt. 
          I gther from Miss * letter of October 1 that 
the Delta allotment is running pretty elose to the line. The 
transfer* whih she has mae as between sub-allotments are 
sensible and satisfactory. Mq I ask that she send ochbauw 
a omplete statement of balanse* as ths' stan on her books, 
including salaries so that he can plan the remander of the 
year acordiny? 
                                Sinoaerelj mrs, 
                                      Aldo Leopold 
owl                           Professor of Wildlife Manaument 

                                               Delta Duck Station 
                                               Delta, snitoba 
                                                 °eptember 70, 10,40

Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Mnagement 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Uisconsin 
73eer ProfessOr Leopold: 
       1'e are coming close tb the end o" our expense money and in 
submitting accounts I wTnt to be certain that I do not go over. For 
this reasonI am providing a brief sumrr-ry as I submit the accounts 
for September. 
       Of the $900.CO aet aside for my travel and hatchery running 
expenses,, "?4.44 had been consumed by September let. My expenses for

August, submitted September let were 456.60. These have been received, 
leaving now $8.96 of the originl *900.00   . This is not as bad as 
it sounds, for '010.00 of the J674.44 mentioned above went to the 
Petty Cash fund in August. I have drawn on this ancount during the 
last two months but have also deposited the exchange surplus from 
the July and August expense checks (but not pay checks) with the 
Petty Cash fund. In addition to this Mr. Miller has sent a chech of 
$44.95 to replenisb this fund. This with the exchange from expense 
checks brings the Petty Cash fund to h138.00 after payment of 
September expenses, 
       All September needs for the hAtcheryetc. hav- been paid out 
of the Petty Cash fund. As my figures show that this fund is all 
that remains of the expense money I would. like to ask if travel expense,

which I am submitting Ps usual should not be withdrawn from this 
fund. Thr-re will be another lerge feed billabout $70.oo that must 
be p*d7in ctsh from this fuAd as well as smaller items before the 
year is over. Still, I think it will cover travel and other e-penses 
until the end of the year. 
       I have sent a copy of budget accnunts es I have been able 
to check them to youx end to the office in Washinzton with my 
expense account last month. I have not sent a copy of this letter 
to Mr. Miller for he probably has not had time to go into our accounts 
and I do not want to bother him until we went over it together. 
                                   (Albert Hochbaum) 

                                               Delta Duck Station 
                                               DtIta, Manitoba 
                                                  eptemubr M,0 1940 
Mr. Aide Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Mpnagemnat 
Univerpity of Wisconsin 
Medison, Wisconsin 
Dear professOr LeopoId: 
       We are coming olose tb the end of our expense money and in 
submitting ocounts I want to be certain that I do not go over. For 
this reason I am providing a brief susary as I submit the accounts 
for September. 
       Of the $900.00 net aside for my travel and hatchery running 
expenses,$ 834.44 had been eonsumed b September lst. My expenses for 
August, submitted September lst were 156.60. These have been received, 
leaving nov $8.96 of the Qriginel $900.00  . This is not as bad as 
it sounds, for $10.00 of the $874.44 mentioned above went to the 
Petty Cash fund in August. I have drawn on this aeeount during the 
last two months but have also deposited the exohange surplus from 
the July and August expense ohecks (but not pay checks) with the 
Petty Cash fund. In addition to this Mr. Milleot has sent a ohech of 
$44.95 to replenish this fund. This with the exchange from xpensoe 
checks brings the  etty 0ash fund to 4135.00 after payment of 
September expenses. 
       All September needs for the hatchery.eto. have been paid out 
of the Petty Cash fund. As my figures show that this fund is all 
that remains of the expense money I would like to ask if travel expense.

which I am submitting as usual should not be withdrawn from this 
fund. There will be another larFe feed billlabout *?0.00 that must 
be ptd-in cash from this fuid as well as smeller items before the 
year is over. Still, I think it will cover travel and other e#pnsoes 
until the end of the year. 
        I have sent a copy of budget aeenunts as I have been able 
 to check them to youx and to the office in Washington with my 
 expense account last month. I have not sent a copy of this letter 
 to Mr. Miller for he probably has not had time to go into our aocounts 
 and I do not want to bother him until we went over it together. 
                                   (Albert Roohbaina) 

                                  Delta Dwk Statole 
                                  Dela, VMnitoba 
                                    September 26. 1940 
Mr. J. Paul Milller, eoretary 
The Auertoaa Wildlife bnetitut* 
1nveetzent 81d. 
h Mehintons, D.O 
Dear Mr. Millor: 
      This wvill aokuewle4g  reipt of your ehock for44.ft 
reolve. Sept 27 and depoit~ed in the Plt#a Duck Station 
Petty Cash was. The check for S56.*,A-gust expue1. mey*o    , 
was also rceive. I    .lee ackuowldge reet--  of the July 
pose chock for 0475.6? wepoi    807er In the Muth a well 
assy ewn and Pter Ward's pay chsk for Augpst. 
      The excb~n #  et, at presentA vi e r nearljl1% In cur 
favor,and Z hbve popt.4 the oxLbuag.eurplue      e  ta 
expense checks as well a. the evozango on the $44.95 cheek in 
hehi  tty aeb fund. I am mkiau a mte oý" %ie In my acounts 
which *to aubmitte   at the olose of 04 mnath. 
Albet foohbaue. 

                        Incorporated In District of Columbia, July 22, 1935

                        INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
                                              Otobor 1, 1940 
          Mr. Albert R)ekbaws 
          Delta Dusk Station 
          Delta, Manitoba, Gas 
          Dear Mr. eobawaus 
                         To have set up a wsrk sheet of expenses for the

          Delta fusk Station so that vs may heep aseuate .a..~t of the 
          inom  op       as alm     by th budge tfr the various tsmr  i 
          of expense* 
                         I as~m~    thatM  last expese aioust wvriug 
          the trawl saM expenses o   the isw sinor assistants, is the 
          final paymet on the budget of the $10*.00*a1win for this 
                         Aelording to the budgts #W.00 ba boon allel 
          for spplies. Th    total disbursumsts tor this iten, to date. 
          mountst $S8?.@7. Asmn        that the a~sesut for the sumr 
          asistant is sloso4,     transferring to this item for 
          *Supplies' &P.30. th   umlexpmb4 balanee. of the sumlmr asuist-

          ants, salarties. In th  Trve   and Zxpese asoeut tor the two 
          sumer assistant   (budgt $100.90) the" is an unepende    
          of $1.1 whiek we mr also transferring te th     itemn tor *Supplies'

          thu  inereasiag this fund to *W.SE. ft     balanse te date i. 
          *12.LU after asin   the abov   -tn .djustimeto. 
                         If our roosrde here do not "ars with youlil,
                                                 Your very truly# 
                                                 I thel 1Nw QuMO. 
                                                 Offise INN49W 
Copy tos Prof. Aldo Leopold k-" 

                                                  424 University Sam Plac.

                                                  September 2s, ig9o 
Mr. J. Paul Miller 
Amriocan Wildlife Iustitute 
Investment uilding 
Washington, D. 0. 
Dear Paul 
          In your round of Institute projects I hop, you will oover 
the Delta station. 
          I have two reasons for recomending this. One obvious reason 
Is that Pirnie and I want you to see the Delta work. 
          ,he other is that an adustment in Hoohbaun'e salary Is, I 
think, due. PittRan--Robertson is begining to hire his assistRnts out 
from under him at salaries as high as his own ($1600). 1 consider him 
as good as most U.S.B.S. unit leaders who are getting much more, and 
also moist ittman-iobertson project leaders getting $ý2t4. 
          I purposely recommended a low initial splary for Voohbaun 
because I do not approve of the breau practice of high initial rates, 
followed by no firings and no raises for good work. 
          B the same token I feel obligated to raise Roohblum as soon 
as *Delta Bulletin No. 1" is in press, which will be sometime before

          Fochbaum has low housing expense at Delta, but other living 
costs are high and the necessity of moving south for the winter entails 
          It is conceivable, of course, that we should hold the Delta 
directorship down to 100 and be resigned to frequent shifts. However# 
the available replacements san all get $2400 under Pittman-Robertso, 
so we are really in competition with ourselves. 
          I am not sending copies of this to either Pirnie, Walcott, 
or Mr. Bell, as this might tie your hands. Will await your opinion 
after you have seen the works. 
                                  Sincerely yours, 
                                       Aldo Leopold 
                               Professor of Wildlife MamWaesnt 

P. S. Audubon Society paid my trip to New York. Mr. Dodge bought my 
plaUe ticket back, and I suspect charged it to himself. The ticke 
cost $ý1.25 (see attached). Senator Walcott asked me to rewind the

Institute of this, so that the necessary bookkeeping adjustments 
could be mdoe. 

                                          424 UnIvorsity Yarm Plawe 
                                          Septeaber 26, 1940 
Mr. J. Paul Willer 
Ameriean Wildlife Institate 
Unvestwent _Building 
Washingtou, D. 0. 
Dear Fw&14 
          Here is the Delta payroll for eptambor.  .uder 
the nw prooiur. cheoks are Isued from your office and 
s.t diroctly to Eo.hbaua. 
          ,4th best regards, 
                            Sincer27 -.-ours, 
                                 Aldo Leopold 
MCI                     Professor of Wildlife Management 

I9A0 Budget of The DPelta Duck Stption 
     The Budget provided $7150.00 for the Delta 
payroll to be paid as follows: 
     Director.,.12 monthO$150.0O per month ............... 51800.00 
     Hat chry Superintendent, 
                 6 months a$l0O.00 per month ............. $ 600.00 
     2 Field Agipntauts 
                 3 months 0@100.00 per mntb ............. * 600.00 
      1 Batchery Assistant 
                  3months *$ 75.00 per month ........100 
     The payroll expenditures to dAte have been: 
     Albert Roebbu*-8 monthseJenlet-Sept 1st) 
                           0$10.00 per month.... .1300.00 
     Peter Ward     -5 months(April 1-Sept 1) 
                           9 $100.00 per montb...# 500.00 
     Lyle Ols      - I montbh(June lpt-SDptl) 
                           l  -100.00 ppr uonth... ý300.00 
     ph Vrrill      . 2  /4 montbJunel-Aug.14) 
                           * *100.00 per month...$ 177.80 
     Leonard Hewkinpon-' months (May I-JulyL) 
                           * $75.00 per month .... $ 1§0.00 
  nl~pb Morrill, Lyle Sowle and Leobard Iawkinson 
have completed their work at Delta and will receive 
no more pay after Sept.lst. Peter Werd will be on the 
payroll until the end of F-ptember and Albert Hoobbpu* 
until the end of December. 

        The    get provided W1200.00 for Delta Txpenmes. $20.00 
   of this      provided for inrpectton trips of advisgri and 
   $100.00 for travel to and from Delta oA assistants, leaving 
   $900.00 for D6*t, running expenses as follows: 
                 Director- expense end travel...A100.00 
                 Hatchery sunrlies and cOts ....600.00, 
        The expenses to date have been as follows: 
   Date     .   Director expense end trove.,    Hatohpr  ex~ense       -ilk

Jan, 1-say 1          $97.89                      ........        $91.89

   May                 20.00                       9106.55      $ 126.55

   June                14.08                         40.09         54.1?

   July                §9.49§,                       -I,5?    
    473  2 
                      $188.39                       $521.84      $710.23

        Director-expense and travel- ý188.74 
        Hatohery   xpenes ............ J521.8. 
      Totsl ........................ $?10.23 
 1 Set of Scales purchased for Station through 
 Profespor Leonl1d'e Office         0 24.11 
 Petty Cash Account held at Delta 
for running expenses ............. ..1100300 
Hatchery and Travel expenses from Jan.lst-Bept.lst....$834.44 

                                       Delta, Duck Station 
                                       Delta Ifnit-)ba 
                                       September ?P,1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Profesqor of Wildlif- Msnag-ment 
T7niversity of Wisconsin 
Z4-dison, Wisconsin 
Deer Professor Leopold: 
       The season ornened Monday and you shorild hpve sepn the array 
of poor little ducks end old flightlise females. The weather is 
as warm as July,there are clenr skies and no wind and the mallards 
are feeding under a full moon on the stubble fields. Except a few 
birds out on the lVrger bays most of the birds are on the lake and 
the only birds shot were late-hatched young and flightless fenales 
taken by jumping along the edge of the marsh. We have three more 
good clubs lined up this year and I hope they can line up some ducks 
before the season closes. 
       I was very sorry that Dr. Cole was unable to come up. We must 
try to get him up when you come again. 
       The enclosed is the payroll for the month of September. 
       The lodge ooened with the first day and there have been four 
or vive shooters here all week. Mr. Bell comes Monday and will 
probably be here for several weeks unless this summer weather continues.

Yours sincerely, 

                                         24 Univerity Pari Plae 
                                         Seteber 20, 1" 
Mr. J. Paul Mle 
Ame1ean Wildlife Institute 
invetaeat Buldix, 
Washington, D. Co 
Dear PWalt 
          The Delta budget contains an item of $10 
for the travl expenses of studt assist^nts to ad from 
Delta. We have had two assistants this sumnmer, Lyle $owls 
wid blTpa iorrill. their e   ne acconts, eartifiox1 bT 
Hoehbaua, are attaoh@4. The total to within the, allotmnat. 
I reeommnd that chooko be issued. 
                            Sincerely your, 
                               Aldo Leopold 
eaal                   Professor of Wildlife Mnaeent 

                                  Delta Duck Station 
                                  Delta, Manitob4 
                                    September 12, 1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       Thank you for the papers and the duck pictures. I forgot 
to mention how much I appreciated your notes on the recent meeting. 
Enjoyed the note regarding the banding club but am afraid the 
banner would be ruled out in Canada. 
       Mr. Bell decided to open the lodge inspite of war and 
low water. The season opens Monday and we have a number of 
clubs lined up for examinations. 
       I agree with you regarding the budget. I hope Art can take 
Peter for I do want tim to haye the esperience and I know Art 
would get a good deal out of Peter. 
       Ralph and Lyle have sent in their travel expenses for their 
trios to r.nd from Delta and I am enclosing their accounts, You 
will remember $1oo.00 was set aside in the budget for student 
trevellink exrenses° 
       You received a copy of Mr. W.B.Bell's second letter. 
Seems to make quite a difference who writes and I1' glad 
you sent them your mote. 
                        Yours sincerely, 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Commitee 
    Incorporated In District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                               September 11, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madis on, wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                Enclosed is our check in the 
amount of $65.46 to cover your expenses 
on your recent trip to Delta. 
                I am today sending Hochbaum 
our check to cover his July expense account 
which you enclosed with your letter of August 
                             Sincerely  ours, 
                             C. M. Palmer, Jr. 

                                       44 2 ni,1nrsity Farm place 
                                       September 10, 1940 
Mis Mel M. *soe 
American Wildlife Institute 
Investment ]kidiL4ng 
Washii~ngr , D. 0. 
Dear Miss Opest 
         I transwit herewith the Delta  xpense acnoot 
for the month of Agst as submitted 1W Albert Hochbaum. 
                          YTy tr--U4 
                                Aldo Leopold 
eMoC                    Professo of Wildlife Ungesmmt 

September 10, $194O 
Mr. H. Albert Roohbaun 
Delta. Manitoba 
Dear Albert: 
          I donot like to ask the Institute for additional 
ftads during the year. I think we must establish the 
reputation of opnrating within our budget, unles sonse sat 
of Gd" changes conditions. 
          Arthur is still trying to take Peter on. Some- 
thing uaW come of that. 
          I osa readily appreciate that conditions at Netlq 
changed rapidly. Just our bad luck that you ouldntt tear 
loose during the "visitation.4 
          Vivian is handling your accounts. 
          Rest regards, 
                          Sincerely yours. 
                              Aldo Leopold 
                      Professor of Willife Management 

                                         Delta Duck St:tion 
                                         Delta ,Manitobn 
                                         Sept. 7rd.l?40 
 Yr. Aldo Leorjold 
 Prof. of Wildlife Management 
 University of  1isconsin 
 MAdison, Wisconsin. 
 Dear Professor Leonold: 
           Pe have been up to our ears disinfecting,oleaning the 
 duck houde, pullinq in traps -knd resing the last o' the ducks 
 that I have not been able to qet at this mechine or to town with 
           I had gathered from your earlier correspondenee with Mort 
 Palmer that the payroll was to be sent directly to Washington from 
 now on and did not mean to bn' premature in making this change. I am 
 enclosing the August exnense account and our sccounting of the petty 
 cash fund. 
           As you will see fror the Pnclosed summary of expendit~ree 
 for this yepr 1-, bave underestimated our needs for the rest of the 
 year. Peter's pay ends the last of September. In making ott our budget 
 last ypar. Peter's plan for winter -ork in the Stbaes started Oct.lst 
 and we ha/d not planned to carry him beyond this. Yr. Bell has just 
 writtpn th~the American Yuseum cannot take P-teir this year and with 
 conditions so unsettled it looks as though he will not get away this 
 fýll. I would liko to have him with me on the bag taDlly and with

 his car Pnd mine together it -ould be possible to examine mpny more 
 birds this fall, vnd tie uco the three yper§ bag tally with a good

 finish. Would it be to.- much to ask the Institute for $200.00 for 
 Peter for October §nd November and for ýlO0.00 travel money?
If that 
 sound- too'big wrould $100.00 for October and ý50.'ý0 for
travel be 
 too rmuch?. Oth-rwise he will have to vuide and have little timre for 
 anything else. 
          I hnve been v ry disaooointed with our success with sick 
birds Pt Netley. When we return- the 14th conditions had chang-ed 
with cold weather Fnd th re were almost no recent deaths. Thr birds 
that had died the week before were so hard to find in the vegetatlon 
that 40 ww   the best we could do In the region of the severest out- 
breaks. We stayed three days but were able to look -it few birds. 
          Tom Yain hrd called o-f his crews thnt were coll cting the 
dead birds an, -,e hpd no help th'ere. He is out of money but I urged 
him to find enou7h* t- keepo one ýnn on pýtrol anl if warm
comes again we may have some birds. 

        The enclos d ittler fwm Dr. Bellidoes not offer much in 
th- way of help but I err, writing to Low end Y-neryand may be able 
to do something down th-rP. 
        No rinp rnd water going down every dhy. Can find no Pick 
ducks, however, tiftr- a cnrg'ul seroh ov-r' P good part of the east 
niareh. Seon ocens Saot.leth end -- 'rish v-u rewre here f1or P shoot. 
                                   Yourp Sincerely, 

                                          424 Uaiversity Prm Place 
Mr. 0. M. Palmer, Jr. 
American Wildlif. Iustitute 
Investmont lkildit. 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mort: 
          I notice thit Fonhbaum hns Ient yOU the 
st Proll (se# his lotter Of A.Uzst ?2). It Is 
not quite clear to me whether 7o1 have -pproved this, 
although I have no obj1otion If you are willing, to 
approve, because it is Fohbatm's responsibility to stqv 
within his budget and no one excert temporAry labor ig 
put on the payroll without ,rrvlis sction by the 
advisory 'board. 
          if, however, you wnt my oproval before acting 
on this payroll, this letter constitutes sch approval. 
          Will you please give us definite inetruction 
whether fature payrolls qre to So in directly or via nW 
                            Sincerely yours, 
cc Hoohbauz             Frofeseor of Wildlife Aa4aent 

                                         D-lt,- DOuck St~tion 
                                         D-ýItr ' M~nttobF 
                                           Auguet ?, i-40 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife *Penpqrent 
Univ-rpity of Wisconsin 
Yvdipon, Wisconpin 
T)ppr Profespor "ooold: 
       Hoo- your Tid- horn -s not too bumpy Pnd that you Pew come 
of the Red giver Vll!y through the cloudc. You bent up home,or 
Pt least to -~arespolis,for re took the cross-c-untry route to 
r",tch the burning Ftckp. Every -hept fcrmor in soutbern tnnitoýbn

r,-s burning lnpt night. 
       It w7s quite c time and I'm glnd its over,though we wish 
you could heve stayed on with us for a few dpyv. Thm Pky iA clepr 
this morning Pnd thera is promise of some brisk,clear eerly frll 
weathpr. We Prp clorimn up 9 F ew odds end. ends end will rto 
beck to Nptley tomorrow to divo into some o4 tbopo bpd bpyr -- with 
rubber glover. 
       I think ",p acroomplished vror- in brinqin7 our Proun to onthor

thpn we hrve sincp th,- project pterted Pnd nll of up have new life 
for the progrpm. It mprnn  t 7're-t deFl, to, to know - have 
sommon=' outeide o rpolvpr with the Senptor' int-r=at end Pnthtipci=m 
for the ork. 
       I hpve P-nt r copy of th- enclosed to Vr. 1-pbrilson end 
whil' I do not wiph the 'uckp in North Dekotp Pnj hbrd luck I do 
hop- -P orn get in on >ny outbreeks thrt rpy eccur there. Mr. M½in

will Pve birds in 'EFtern SpPketchbwen and we hf-vo good procoecte 
for ro'Ipnr mrny birds at ietley. 
       Thnnk you for your Eecudille. I lil it. Y!y f inare hve 
no: yet cnueht uo to !r-, plnn for t-em a vyt but bam I hpvp bepn 
at blpck qnd whi    v1. auI r end T hope t1,t come vood one will 
bent ma down this fpll. 
                          Yours sincerely, 

                                          Delta Duck Stption 
                                          Delta, Manitoba 
                                            August ', 1940 
 Dr. Ira . Gabrielson, Director 
 The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
 Washington, Do C. 
 Dear Dr. Oabrielpon: 
       Mr. Aldo Leopold has written to you of our interest in 
examining sex and age ratios of waterfowl losses in outbreaks of 
botulism.    Within the last week there has been one serious outbreak 
in Manitoba and several in Saskatchewan. Mrny birds are dying on 
these areas in spite of rescue efforts and, beoause of the 
simultaneous ocourrence and the spread of the disease over a 
period of weeks, it is quite impossible to study more than one or 
two areas during the period of heaviest losses. 
       In order that we may examine as many birds -s possible I have 
made arrang'ements here and in Saskatchewan to have dead birds peced 
in drums of formalin and held until I con reach the area. At the 
Netley marsh in southern Manitoba we have found tlhis to be very 
setisfactory and the workers have found it little additional labor 
to save the birds for us in this way. We are using 70 and 45 gallon 
gae and oil drums Pnd water barrels, preserving the birds in a 10% 
solution of 40% formalin which is easily obtainable throughout the 
wheat country. A stronger solution, 15 or p00, is destrable where 
decomposition has started before the birds Pre taken. 
       We wish to examine as many birds in as many different areas 
this season and it would be possible to visit areas in northern 
Minnesota and North Dakota.   In the event of any outbreaks of 
disease within the radius of operations of Refuge Managers, I wonder 
if it would be possible to have birds saved for u- in drums of 
formalin. We will visit the areas as soon as possible in September 
and will proprly dispose of the birds after they have been examined. 
Ohould this saving of birds be impracticable, I would appreciate 
being notified of any serious outbreaks in North Dakota in order 
that I may run down from Delta 
       Thankin# you for your interest and cooperation, I am, 
                                Tours sincerely 
H. Albert Hochbeum 

                                  Delta Duck Station 
                                  Delta, MVIniboba 
                                    August 23,1940 
Mr. 0. M. Palmer, Jr. Secretary 
The American Wildlife Institute 
Investment Bldg. 
Washington, D. C. 
#ear Mr. Palmer: 
       I am glad we have decided to send the Delta payroll 
directly to your office, Here ta thp piyroll for the month 
of August: 
       Albert Hochbaum...on* month 9 0150.00 per mo. ... $150.00 
       Peter Ward                     1 N 100.00 " *      100.00 
       Lyle Sowls         "   "       100.00  " ""
       Ralph Morrill     August 1 -- August '4 
                           * *100.00 per month             77.80 
       Lylp $owls end Ralph Morrill clos* their seaison 
at Delta this month end,as they will be in the States by 
early September, I wondor if it will be popriblp to send tbeir 
checks to their homes. Lyle may be roeched at 424 University 
Farm Place, University of Wisconsin, Madieon,Wipconpin. Ralph's 
home is at 1217 Olivia Ave. Ann Arbor, Mich. Peter Wprd is 
with up for another month. 
       senator Wplcott, Mr. Bell and Profespor Leopold visited 
us early this week and we had a very plepaant and profiteble 
meeting. Wish you could have b'-en along. 
                        Yours sincerely, 
                        Albert Hoobbaus 
cc: Mr. Leopold. 

IN REPLY REFER TO                                                    ADDRESS
                                 UNITED STATES 
                        DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                            FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
                                     WASH I NGTON 
                                                      August 30, 1940 
               Wo. No A. Nchlbawi 
                    Dolt. Duk Sttion 
                         Delta# Manitobas Consa" 
               Doer Mrs ?!oahba~un 
                    Aldo Leopold has sdvised us of the work you are doing
               sex ratio in ducks snd states you will see to obtain a larger

               number of speoimens for sisitios thas have been available

               to date if your data is to be of statistical signifioeso.

               Sino* the botulism outbreaks which occur on several federally

               owned refuges offer an une"olled opportuity for obtalning

               specimens which could be used in this connection, Mr. Leopold

               requested the assistance of the Service in colleoting ducks,

               partioularly deep water specimens. for subsequent examination

               by a mmber of the Station staff. 
                    Unfortunately your need for assistnceo in this connection

               somes to our atteation sear the end of the season when ex-

               oeesive losses are likely to occur. Nevertheless we have is-

               structed refuge mgers wh are in a position to coop*rate In

               this venture to preserve dea  spoclne s brought in from the

               marsh without attempting say soloeties of sex or age classes.

               Since Mr. Leopold advises you will need large numbers of ducks,

               no limit has been placod os the quantities to be oolleoted
               wW one refuge. Thus there is a possibility that large numbers

               of several species may be obtained for examination. On the

               basis of previous lessee from botulism, we believe that the

               surfaeo feeding ducs. rther thasn the diviag species will
                    fe have requested each refuge manager cooperating in
               vestur. to advise us at the and of the botulism sesoen of
               number of duoks available for examination. As seos as thes

               reports are received, we will inform your office In order
               you ay arrange for examination of the specimens celloeted.
               event tht an insufficient hber of specimens are obtained dur-

               ing the present season, we mill be gld to oeoperate next 

aftmm and fee   that during the eo~ur of the     t~e months 
seveal thuadbirds eould b mad, for oxaw 
luatimo by *no..! you statff 
                              Very truly your*, 
                                    Meting Dlr~eot 
Cepys Wr. Aldo Leopold 

                                         *4zxat 3o, 194o0 
Prof. William RoW"M 
University of Alberta 
ldmoaton, Alberta 
Dear Professor R*wns 
     ftelosed herewith are eo0e papers on the Delta 
Thcik Station which Professor Leopold has asked me to 
sean you. 
     You will notice that the opy of Mr. Leopold's 
1940 report *A Delta is our file copy, onsequently we 
would like to have it returned. The "cooperative agree- 
ment"V enlosed is a very rough copy, but perhaps you 
will be able to read it. thi was not formaly adopted, 
but Mr. Leopold thought it might have some Iformation 
for you. Also kindly r eturn this. 
     The other materials you need not return. 
                         Bincorely yours, 
                         Vivian loin 
Ol                       Seeretary 

                                  Delta Duel tattion 
                                  Delta, Manttoba 
                                    August 288 1940 
Dr. M. D. Pirmie, Director 
The W,.. Kedlogg Bird Sanctuary 
Battle Cre-k, VichbIgan 
Dear M. D. 
       Profes-or Leopold has sent mo a copy of his notes 
to you on the recent Delta meesting and th-ro it no need for 
me to m into dptail about this. We were all sorry that you could 
not be with us. It wap a very sccessful meetinp Pnd -e 
reached many understandings that will make for a 1tronger 
group. Mr. bell was somewlat concerned over    -nnetts letter 
concerning the cloacal study, but I assures him that it was a thre e 
year work and not in competition with our own efforts. 
       The mallards from the same lot as yours flew at 8 ý weeks 
*nd their wings were hard a week later. The earlier birds 
flew at seven weeks and the only reason I can give for the 
slower development Is that we had to keep them in the house pen 
until they were fully feathered. Several birds of this age 
group were placed in the flying pen with the older birds and 
were so harassed that they are still without feathers. We 
should have built ambmm another outside pen and are planning 
to have more pen facilities next year. 
       In working over the material for the bulletin we would like 
to have the Omn" skin collection of young birds. We spoke 
of thie last sprinp and wonder if it would be possible 'or you 
to have these shippýd up. T an enclosing the filed numbers of 
the specimens we would like. 
       Reve been tryinz to work over the birdg lopt at aetley 
 in the recent outbreak of botulism. The cold spell of the last 
 week has held down the deaths considerably and,*hile I am glad 
 the birds are not dying,' am qutte disapoianted in not being 
 able tn oxamine the age *nd sex ratios of a large number of 
       Ralph left a week early and #aid hb would report to you 
 at the Sanctuary. He did a good job with his skinning and 
 with everything else he was told to do,althougb ,his interests 
 did not mp43 to go far beyond the pkin-inw table.  I sm glad 
 we were able to h1v- him with us and I think he got a vond deal 
 out of being bere. 
        I hope to have the bulletin msttertal in shape by the time 
 I Omm-n*s   move down this fall. I am perticulprly anxious 
 to io over the mvtortal on age and sex identificetion with you, 
 and I wonder if you would -find time to work up a resume of the 
 tail character that I might- quote. You will remember that you 

suggested that you might to this *the review in your tVeý1. boing

rather brief. Ineidentally, this certainly comes In ahndy with 
the dead birds at "s-tley -nd saves muEch bndltng of badly decomposed

       ,1r. Bell hne made the suweestion that Peter spend the 
winter months wict Jaques at the American Museum   He will 
make a donation to the museum mnd they will pay  otor a small 
salary that will be enough to keep him over the winter. I think 
it is a good idea and wisk I could spend a couple of months with hin 
       WateL in very low here but we have ruffered no losses from 
disease at  elta. Runter's will have a hard time gzttitt  to 
th- beet rhootinc points tVis fell and, with fewer shooters because 
of the warwe are looking forward to a such smaller kill this 
Yours sincerely. 

                                        Delta Duck Otpt ion 
                                        Delti, Ianitoba 
                                        Aust 28th,l40 
Mr. James F.Bell 
00 Cbhamb-r of Commerce 
Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
Dear Mr. Bell: 
          It has meant a great deal to have you and Renator Waloott 
with us for a discussion of our work and I want you to know how muob 
we have appreciated your effortR in asking the meeting possible. I 
was glad to have the ppportunity of meeting Dr. %owan and am looking 
forward to future meetings and correspondenre with him in relation 
to our work at Delta. Pbould the opoortunity Dopsent itself we shall 
make a try for crows for him, althouch the outlook at present ts not 
          We are all v-ry much pleased with your suggestions that 
Peter find work as apprentice at the American Museum. I am sure that 
he will fit in well there and that he will win much inatructU6n and 
inspiration from Vr. Jaques and others as well as from younger fellows 
who are following miob the same course no his. 
          I know that you must have been distumbed by the low water 
at Delta. Our pgue has shown a five-mnoh drip sinoe early July and, 
with the loe water,milfoil hap eloaped many of the bays. Too will be 
heartened to know, however, that we havy had little difficulty in 
rapching deep water in the region of Bell's -oint and the tule islands 
to the south and east from Cooke Creek. 
                                    Yours Sincerely, 
Albort Poehbeum 

                                        42 university Farm Pliwe 
Dr. Uiles, U. Pin~doo Director 
1. X. e*eog   Birt Saaotuaq 
Uttle Creeks, Mehiga 
Door Mlest 
          Here are brief notes on Delta disaassions. 
It was a Ver satistfatory occasion and I'm sorx7 you 
couldn't be thee. 
          If any of the proposals souM uzvise to yoU, 
please let me know. 
                          Your sinoerelr 
P.S. The boys are missing the use of 
My undertaning ms you wer* sening 
to thisa? A. L, 
Mazsgs nt 
lrst year's skins. 
tem on. Can you 
eo Hochbaux 
        Aldo Leopold 
?i'of..soi of Wildlife 

                                                            File Copy: 
                                                            cc Hochbaum 

                  MEMO OF DISCUSSIONS - DILTA DUCK STATION     Walcott 
                              Aug- 17-21, 1940                 Bell 
                                Aldo Leopold 
     Senator Walcott in writing a report on the decisions reached 
during these discussions. His report will govern. I am writing this 
supplementary memo to facilitate his report, and to notify Pirnie so 
that he may ratify or comment on the actions taken. 
     Canadian Member of Advisory Board. Professor William Rown of 
the University of Alberta was asked to accept the vacant place on the 
board, and accepted. I am sending him my recent files so he can catch 
up on recent questions. 
     Form of Publication. Neither the Institute nor Mr. Bell have any 
objection to the expense of printing short bulletins which may be necessary

to protect research findings in need of prompt publication. It was finally

agreed, therefore, to publish Delta findings in a Delta Bulletin series,

which will be printed and distributed by the Institute office in Washington.

Bulletin No. 1 will be brought out this fall or winter, and will probably

include (a) the cloacal method, (b) sex and age ratios and movements, 
(c) the Franklin ground squirrel study. 
     Hochbaum should notify the Institute, as soon as he can, of the approx-

imate length and the mmber and kind of illustrations, so that the Institute

can determine the sufficiency of Mr. Carpenter's $500 contribution. 
      The relation of invited workers to the Delta Bulletin is left open,

but it, is understood that if we want their findings of the bulletin, it

will be stipulated that they publish in it. 
     Future Program. It was decided to try spring trapping and banding 
 of canvasbacks at the marsh pen, using hatchery birds as decoys. 

     It was decided to put the deepwater breeders in the marsh pens 
next spring to see if that will make them lay. If this is accomplished, 
Mr. Ward's accumulated techniques on hatchery practice will be completed

and can be published. 
     I did not press for a decision on the mallard deterioration project,

having developed some doubts in my own mind lest this overload the program.

Meanwhile Hawkins in Illinois has a chance to go ahead with it. If there

is no objection, I will encourage hih to do so. An Illinois project will

be all to the good, whether or no Delta eventually tackles the problem. 
Hochbaum proposes that the U.S.B.S. might be able and willing to undertake

the problem, perhaps using Delta as one of a number of stations. 
     Sexing and &     Disease-killed Ducks. The heavy mortality at the

Nettley marsh on Lake Winnipeg gives Hochbaum an exceptional opportunity

to test his hypothesis that disease operates differentially against females

and young of deepwater species. He has decided to spend a week tallying 
disease-killed birds; Tom Main is pickling the dead birds found by his crews;

I have asked Gabrielson to pickle the dead birds from any outbreak which

may occur on his refuges. 
     Disease Research. The existing publications on botulism seem to fall

short of explaining the observed losses. Some further research is badly 
needed, particularly in Canada, but our present staff is not qualified to

do the work. Senator Walcott is taking up this question with Gabrielson.

     Invited Workers. Selected individuals or institutions who wish to do

work which fits into the Delta program are to be invited to work at Delta.

Selections are to be made by or through Hochbaum. Mr. Bell is arranging 
quarters large enough for both our own staff and possible invited workers.

For discussion of publications by invited workers, see "Form of Publication."


                                             WINTERGREEN LAKE 
                                             AUGUSTA. MICHIGAN 
                                                  August 15, 1940 
 Dear Aldo: 
       Ever since I got back from the Delta trip it has been 
 one rush after another, in spite of having only two graduate 
 students on had and no 9%eral summer session. First it was the 
 little ducks from Delta eggs, hatching just before my return. 
 These are now 71 weeks old, and from Albert's report, it is 
 about a tie as to development; perhaps better feeding and less 
 crowding here offsetting *he longer days at Delta. 't is just 
 a small test of the sort we want to do on larger scale, and 
 must do týf the mallard study is to go ahead. 
       With Mort resigning, and Senator Walcott planning on 
 a trip to Delta, I did not file a report; nor have I had time 
 to make prints of the negatives, except the squirrel egg-eating 
 for Lyle. I am sending Mr. Bell a couple of Kodachromes to 
 indicate how I appreciate the bab* ducks.   But I especially 
 gegret being slow in replying as to the Delta August meeting 
 and on the matter of publications. 
       First, as you may have guessed, I cannot finance a trip 
 to Delta, and do not think my presence of paramount importance, 
 as much as I should like to be there and to have a chance to 
 continue discussion of the new researches in mallards, new 
 personnel, etc. Please express my regrets at having to be 
 absent. I feel the Institute should pay your expenses,' 
      Next, the matter of publications: Where it seems urgent, 
as in the case of Albert's article on sex determination in 
young ducks b* the vent examination, I certainly would approve of 
a rush into print, in separqte article; but I do not yet feel 
the Delta report should be scattered UNLESS necessary to do so. 
I like the combined report put out by one ageacy, with due 
attention to uniformity, illustrations, etc.; which of course 
is a better wry of crediting sponsoring individuals or organizations. 
I am quite sure Albert and I can agree on use of material.***** 
Doesdht the Senatorts letter indicate a belief that you refer to 
publishing piece-meal in the Institute's publication rather than 
in various ones? Albert said nothing, that I recall, on the 
matter of giving up the idea of the Delta bulletin or report 
series.    Shall be glad to hear further on this; and in the 
meantime &o not consider my attitude as closed or final. 
      Am much interested a long-time, well-planned mallard study; 
 but do not think the set-up is yet at the point where we can 
 expect to finance a geneticist without handicapping the new 
 program for larger and better rearing and holding of the 
 experimental ducks. Dont think we all agree on what we mean 
 by deterioration or "scrubs". And how meny years do we breed 
 a stock before we call it "pure"? Not less than 10-years 
 will be needed for such a program; but there is much we need yet 
 in the 3 to 5 year lob of marsh investization and 'lumaze a 
etc. Would like long visit with you on this. Hastily, MIW V\1J'/ 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                        August 13, 1940 
 Prof. Aldo Ieopold 
 424 University Farm Place 
 Madison, Wisocnsin 
 Dear Prof. Leopoldt 
                 Enclosed is our check No. 1613 in the 
amount of $70.01 to cover your expenses incurred on 
the Delta inspection trip. 
                                       Very truly yours, 
                                       Ethel M. Quee, 
                                       Office Mana ger 

                                              42~4 University Fae" Pleg

                                              Mms t 9,6 1    944D 
Dr. files V. Piwzto, Direitfor 
1. 1:. Kello~ Bird sanotuawy 
Battle Oek, Michigan 
Dear Milel- 
          ft mul has been happening so fast in oonnectiou with 
Senator Waloott's trip that I have had to depen on sar'bon opise 
to keep you poste.. 
          So doubt ym are worrie4 about the sme thin that I m# 
n   3y reimurseent for ths extra trip. We can't take it out 
of the irdstin Delta fund, for Albert has that bmfdeted dw 
pretty closely. Unless, therefore, Senator Wnloott vobmteors to 
handle It from Wa   nagon, there will probably be no reimbursement. 
          I feel that I should o nevertheless, bet I will hardly 
blaze you If you feel you cant make it. 
          Before I meet Senator Walcott I would like to know your 
attitude on the matter of publioation dsaoussed in nq reprt, alsS 
you  attitude on the possible future mallard projest. If you are 
not there to speak for yourself, I would like to speak for both of 
uo an these matters. 
          With beet rtg--d, 
                               Sincerely yours, 
                                    Aldo Leopold 
                           Prfessor of Wildlife ..Ma  eat 
so Boohbumn 

                                              k;Zr. --tmh.n 
                                              'LA' university ?am ?I&**

                                              Aumt To 1940 
 Der SeatoUT 
         I a delighted that our -ran-aemots ae ow d4otiit.     Z 
have jlst wiwe y as follows: 
              "Have aske Hoehbum to 41 for use %W e Hotel 
              Fort Gerr Wialupo 930 a&.a. 17th. I arrie 
              Gowat borthem £ t5O.0 
         I have also wird HXochou to. make awe that he osn be 
there, bat I have little doubt that he e  for he has ar ey    teo se 
that ho is aitia aus. 
         I hae Us" assumi   that yvA have kept in tow& with Mr.

2e11, bat in oeate to k kran I a snding him a o   of this litter. 
I hav, kept ftruie in touch en a  als.o s5n     him a cp of this 
letter so that it he a joian us he will knw  her  and a besa. 
         Hoahb1m1 will write yva d4iret about a psibleo trip to 
James DW, bAt he did not sema ver7 hopeftl bout the ptiosbility 
of It. 
         I amn wa* Ia hepos that Mr. 111 can be at Delta &Ad that 
we "Am at last have &a oppowtamityr for a fu~ll discussion of both

present modi future operations. 
         With best rsae, 
                               Sineerel yamx, 
                                    Aldo Leopoli 
                            Professor of #11411!. )M..agmat 
*a Hpphbaun 

                                                   424 Universiy Farm Plano

                                                   August 6, 1940 
 Mr. H. Albert Hlohbaoa 
 Delta, Manitoba 
 Dear Alberts 
          I've been to see Leon COle about the maazd .VoexL&t,, and he

 has made some valuable omnts. 
          firt  of all, we mast not think of deterioration as aed 1W 
 environment vs. genetima change, nor of mallards as sharply      b or pare.

          Deterioration is the             Of variants due to withdrawing

natural selection and substituting arti *ial seleetion, conscious or umoo-

scieus.    e practioal qaestion is to determine: 
          1. The         of deterioration in ooanfinant, with and without

          P. The git of detorioration in wild survival (by banding). 
          Our exerimental proeaeue is O.K., 'but Dr. Cole has made some 
elaboreations.  on-migratory mallards should be subjected to endocrie tests

as well as banding tests. lint generation wilds should be subjected to 
ba    g                                      lests Ia wel as at eight weeks.
is to seregte          asval 
          He agrees that a geneticist-endocinologist should be added to the

Delta staff (someone like Niek (hathbert, who is an ornithologist as well),

and that Carngie Institute might be Interested. 
          I urged that he take a look at Delta. Re is just leaving for his

vacation (address Qrdon, Is..) and might drive up to Delta about September
Mrs. Cole and his son Rwsrd will be along. If yea  an quarter them at some

ottage sad if a few Lqs' visit at that time would be soavensiont you might

write him at Gordon. 
          I haven't heard further from Fred Walcott but I an still expecting

to come up with him, and I hope Miles, about Augast 19. aven' t heard from

Miles but   sending him this letter. 
          Beat wishes to all, 
Tours sincrely, 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                     August 2, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm P1 ace 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                Attached is our check No. 1601 in 
the amount of $300.00 to cover the July salaries 
of Peter Ward, Lyle Sowls, and Ralph Morrill. 
                Best regards. 
Sine erel y, 
C. M. Palmer, Jr. 

                                          Delta Duck Station 
                                          Delta, sAnitoba 
                                          August 2, 1940 
'Mr. Aldo "eopold 
Professor of Ornithology 
University of Wisco-sin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor "'eopold: 
       I am qld to hear that Senator Walcott will be able to 
visit Delta and the 18th will be fine for us here. I do hope 
this will not cut into your work too much but it will be 
great to have you with up again. I hevp inquired about the 
geese in James Bay and will let the Senator know about the poppibilib"

of scein£' them Ps soon as I can. It is quite a diptance over there.

however,and more or less off the regular flight lanes and I am 
afraid such a trip would be very expensive. 
       The check for the cash account has come tlhrough and I want 
to thank you for making this pospible. It will solve a lot of 
our troubles. I shall keep accounts as Mort has suggested. I shall 
also deposit all exchange surplus from my expense account with 
this which will take care of that loose end. 
       Spent t-o days rith Cartwright at the Netley marsh where 
am botulism is killing a good many birds, Ee has things well in 
hand th-re,diiecting his efforts towards kepping the birds away 
from the infected areas which are rather restricted. There will be 
considerable loss,however, end rather than burning the birds this 
year as they did last, he is putting them in drums of formalin. 
hk5will let us make our examinations of sge and sex ratios in two 
or three one-day visits. 
                              Yours Sincorely, 

                                        Delta Duck Station 
                                        Delta, &nitobs 
                                          July 71, 1940 
Mips Vivian Horn 
Dept. of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Vivian: 
       The enclosed is the July expnnse account for the 
Delta Duck Station. Thf season's suroly of coel w8s purchased 
in July which brings the account so high,but thip is Fl covered 
by the budget. With the h~tchery closinF down this monthexpenees 
should be small from now until the end of the .Ppson. 
       Thank you for taking care of this. 
                          Yourp cincerely, 

                                        424 Unlversity Farm Plae. 
                                        Aucazss 7, 1940 
Mr. 0. V. Palmer, Jr. 
Aaorioan Wildlife Institute 
Investment Bnildins 
Wahington. D, 0. 
Dear Mort: 
          I enoloso Nochbamu'a July expense aceount, 
which ia high because it includes the supply of coal 
for the season, I suggest this be handle4 by cheek 
made directly to him in accordance with our recent 
is showixg up 
Wf be interested to know that botallm 
at one of the marshes near Delta. 
              Sincerely yours, 
                  Aldo Lepold 
          Professor of Wildlife Management 

                                     Delta Duck Station 
                                     Delta, Manitoba 
                                     July 31, 1940 
Ax2ense Account for the Month of July, 2 
          1283 miles * 40 per mile ..................... 49.32 
Travel (two trips to the Netley Marsh) 
          Two days 8 $1.50 a day for room 
             and board ................................ 
          Two and one-half days 0 $2.50 a day for 
             room and $1.25 a day for meals ........... 
Office Suplies 
Note books .............. 
Stamps .................. 
Phone calls and wires... 
Tags .................... 
Laboratory Supplies 
Corn meal ........ 
Salt ............. 
Wire ............. 
Banding pliers .. 
Cotton .......... 
High-test gas.... 
Netting .......... 
Hatchery Runnin I=enses 
Disinfectant ............................ $ 0.50 
coal oil ..................................   1.00 
2000 lbs of ground corn ................... 50.00 
100 lbs of shorts ................. ........  1.30 
30,050 lbs of coal ........................ 315 
Albeor Hochbaum 
.....°e ....... .. .... 
.. . . .. .. ..o . .. .. .... 

                                    '424 University Pam P1lce, 
                                    Avpa 2, 1914o 
meorca Wildlife Institte 
Washingon, D. 0. 
        Att   d is y        aount for ho D.elta 
bease I was waitin for a r         on mr n rad trip 
t-olkta-$ orde to anks bettor oonnoetLon I wobc 
an a difent line1.. 
                             Aldo Loopoli 
onm4                 Profesor of Wildlife Men-wen 

lw5asa  m   - 29         2igQ MIA - Ald kuum" 
6/24/40 &.m31-trip fare, N  1lon-WSiualpsi (Northwestern)    *29: 0 
       Lower bwI~o   to St. Paul2: 
       Cab to statton, rdap                       .50 
6/25   breafast $0, lunh 85## 41unsr 1.00        2.65 
       seat, St. Paul-Winape                     1.00 
       Parce chck reop                            .60 
       Arr. ViRmlpq 10 p.m. C&Ib                  .40 
6/26   Hotel, Winalpeg 
       Osb*. redaps, phone                       1.00 to Portae la Pwe4l                    so 
  14   Board at Del1ta 6/26-7/4                 10.00 
T/Fare and lower berh to St. Pul 
         via4 Oreat Northam                     17.62 
       Diner 9W radeape 200                      1*1,0 
  7/    reakfast 600, porter 50#, reftap 250     1-35 
       Seat, St. Pa-Madiso0'3 

                                          42~4 University rayn Plase 
 Ur. C. M. ?sluer Jr'. 
 Invetment kti3Adiq 
 Waeshinto.a D. C. 
 Doo bitti 
          I thoroughly age with ym  that it% wwld be 
  suh simpler to mail the choos directly' to Delta.  Iwill 
  oontixe to oort14~ pqwrolls ad expnse aommats to you, 
brt the ehe*. may go tiwet So Uch~w*. 
          It will help a lot to have the patty cash acoount 
andIam - Rdinc your? letter to Rochbms so that he can 
;follw your sgeetions In the matter of &ouating. 
          With lbea et rft 
                           Your* sincerely, 
                               Aldo Leopold 
so Habom               Professor of Wildlife Xawemet 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER              AMERICAN W        IIF INITU          
              F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board        AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSITUTE           
    FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935 T. E. DOREM US 
Chairman Executive Committee     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
             C. M. PALMER, JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                             July 30, 1940

                        Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                        424 University Farm Place 
                        Madison, Wisconsin 
                        Dear Aldo: 
                                         I am attaching herewith two checks--

                        $150.00 of this is Al Hochbaum's salary check for
                        and the other $100.00 is fcr Al to open a petty cash

                        account at Delta to be checked out by him for current

                                         Do you want us to keep mailing these

                        salary checks to you? It seems like an unnecessarily

                        complicated system. We can make these checks payable

                        directly to the individuals concerned and mail them
                        them at Delta without putting you to the trouble
                        handling them in any way. Unless you have some objection

                        to this I wish you would tell us. 
                                         In the matter of the petty cashaccount

                        there need be no complicated system of accounting.
I do 
                        feel, however, that it is desirable for the protection

                        of everyone involved that vouchers for all payments
                        submitted with a simple accounting of expenditures
                        the end of each month. This will enable us to make

                        reimbursements of this account every month as well.

                                         A check to cover the balance of
                        July salaries will be forthcoming shortly. 
                                                           Sincerely yours,

                                                           C. M. Palmer,

                                             424 Uiversity l~am Plaee 
Mr. Jaeps F. 
200   ubamb of Cmose 
Mineapo~lis, ~Minesota 
Dear Mr. Boll: 
         M    to    satisfaction, Senator Va1 ott has set 
Snay, a uWst 15, as the sdate of his arrival In iMinapo~lis, 
whenc we will pro~eee to Delta. I am very muh ina hopes thnt 
you ca be thee during his visit ad that we can Joint      talk 
over Delta uMevtsias anM    3are plans. Iknow it woul4 help 
oahbam, Finei and Woolf a great deal to have the chance o 
a firsthand d~iscussion with both yourself sand the Institute. 
         I gatherwr y~our letter that aw Delta 
you reetly has nt yet uome to your attention. 
asent at the time an it W   have gtte stackoe 
reot senat 
Yo  were 
With best Wragavts 
   Yours sincerely,, 
       MAlo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife MaOMsMat 
cc ioahbom2 

                              200 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 
                                    MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
F. BELL                            July 30, 1940 
         Dr. Aldo Leopold 
         424 University Farm Place 
         Madison, Wisconsin 
         Dear Dr. Leopold: 
         I am sorry I was not here when you came in. 
         I had a letter from Walcott and have written 
         him hoping that he could come, but I have 
         heard nothing further. 
         Hope you found everything all right at 
                             Yours very truly, 
         jfb aj 

                                            Delta Duck Station 
                                            Delta, Manitobs 
                                              July 30, 1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Medison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor 'eopold: 
       Thank you for the reminder on the letter to %ennett. As you 
had recommended me for the job I felt that I should at least 
invstivpte the outlook for th- future of work here under war 
conditions before giving an answer. 
       The R.C.A.F. hpve been herp spvrael times since you left 
and their plans for using the mprph for bombing prpctiap seem 
quite definite.   They will put their targets on the point south 
of the lodge. 
       Last week I loaned Lyle end Peter to Mr. Cprtwright for two 
days to make a survey of nest destruction in heyfields at the Netl*ey 
marsh on Lake Winnipeg. Mr. Cartwright is working with the Government 
in an effort to stop spring burninq end early cutting on marsh 
haylands end as the work he is doing at Netley will have bearing 
on hey permits for all mprshlpnde in initoba I felt juptified 
in cooperating with him on this. He hasp just phoned me this morning 
to say that another outbreak of disease is beginning on the south 
shore of Lake Winnipeg and I am going over for a day or two to out- 
line the job of taking az and sex rptios.end to help with the salvage 
       We had Earl Mitchell with us for t-n dpys. I was very much 
impressed with his interest and abilities and wps sorry that I had 
not become better acquainted with him in Madison. As one of 
SwensonAs students he would like to come up h~re on his own to 
do his thesis work end will if Swpnson is agreeable. 
       Have spent the lest two deye makin7 drives for young ducks 
but find the greatest difficulty ta is to keep the ducks ahead 
of the d&ive and out of the reeds where they hide. We have not 
taken many birds as yet but have learned enough to hope for some 
good catches, 
       Thsnk you for the checks for the boys and for my own expense 
       It is the first of August and we do not hpvp the skins 
from the sanctuary. It is possible that Miles mpy not have understood 
and I am asting for them again. 
                      Yours sincerely, 

                                          Delta Duck Station 
                                          Delta YManitoba 
                                            July 1681940 
Dr. Rudolph Rennitt 
Professor of Zoology 
106 Wildlife Conservation Building 
University of Missouri 
Columbia, Missouri 
Dear Dr. Bonnitt : 
       loet me thank you for your letter concerning the position 
with the University of Missouri. I shall,of course, kep this 
matter in confidenee. 
       It so happens that I am now engaged in developing a 
waterfowl research program at the Delta Varshes in Southern 
Manitoba. Our pr.ojet has been planned to oarry through for 
five years and in fairnese to the sponsers and to myseelf I fl 
obliged to follow this to coupletion. 
       Your letter has come with very unsettled times here for 
the war promises to upset many plans and promreas. Before enswering 
I have gone over rather carefully the outlook tor alien workers 
engaged in such problems as ours. We may expect our work to go on 
as usual,I find,with no promised interruptions except bombing 
practice in our best duck marsh. 
       I will see it through herebut lot me thank you for letting 
me know of this work. Your Missouri organization appeplp to me 
Very much. 
       We have had a number of students working with waterfowl 
problems as visitors this summer end I would like to take this 
opportunity to         know that we would welcome any of your 
group next year. A- 
                           Sincerely yours, 
E. Albert Hoohba~a 

                                                                 App. 1A

                                        Delta Duck Station, 
                                             July 29, 1940. 
Mr. T.C. Main, General Manager, 
Ducks Unlimited (Canada), 
Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
Dear Mr. Main: 
      From July 23rd to July 26th we visited the Libau marsh to try and 
determine what effect local haying operations had upon duck nesting in 
that area. Excellent cooperation was given us by Mr. Art Anderson and 
other local people. (Fig. 1.) 
       During the three days spent in the area an attempt was made to 
 look at all of the nests IvMr, Anderson had found, and to systematically

 strip cruise sample areas of nesting cover of various types usually con-

 sidered good, average and poor nesting cover. A summary of data on the 
 nests examined is given in table 1. A discussion of the techniques, 
 observations and conclusions is here given. 
       It may be impossible in all cases to determine what species of duck

 certain nests represent, if they are too old or badly damaged by haying

 operations or predators. However, none of the 31 nests which we examined

 were beyond the stage of accurate species determination. Methods of 
 species determination are: 
                 1, Use of Known Down Samples. The nesting down of every

 species of duck has certain characteristics which distinguish it from all

 others. This is based mainly on size, shape, color and general appear- 
 ance of down feathers. By comparing the down found in the nest with 
 known down samples collected at the Delta Duck Station most of the nests

 could be identified to species. 
                  2. Size,_Sha.e and Color o    g  Fragments. Since the 
  addition of down to the nest is done during or just before incubation,

  nests with incomplete clutches seldom have much down, Thus the technique

  of down identification in determination of species works only in completed

  clutches. In cases where incompleted clutches were destroyed, the species

  was determined by the color, size and shape of remaining shell fragments.

  2. Distinguishing Between 1940 Nests and Nests of Previous Years 
        In addition to the 31 new nests examined, four nests of previous

  years were found. These nests were distinguished from nests of the year

                  16 l oBung. Spring fires burned over a great deal of 
  the nesting cover in the Libau marshes in 1940. Egg shells and membranes

  of old nests were in most places scorched and easily distinguished from

  those of 'ew nests. 

                 2. Texture of Shells. Exposure causes old shells to 
 become rough and porous in contrast to the brighter, smoother appearance

 of egg shells and shell fragments of newer nests. 
                 3. Y2Letation. In old nests grass tends to grow up 
 through the nesting cavity and the cavity becomes filled with dead vege-

 tation and soil. In new nests at this season of the year there would be

 little or no vegetation growing up through it. 
 3. Nest Destructionb.. Haying Operatiors 
       Of the 31 nests observed, only one was directly destroyed by haying

 operations. That was a teal nest which was tramped on by a horse. 
 (Fig.2.) However, the indirect causes of nest destruction by haying 
 operations are more severe, They can be conveniently classified as 
                 1. Desertion. Of the eight nests mowed over in haying 
 operations, three of them were deserted. The number of nests deserted 
 would be a great deal higher if hayirg operations were earlier because 
 ducks with incomplete clutches desert much more readily than those with

 complete clutches well along in incubation.  In our survoy most of the 
 nesting ducks were teal and shoveller which are maore tolerant of distur-

 bance than are the earlier mallard and pintaill 
                Although desertion anc predators cause failure in most 
cases where going nests were mowed over, in two instances ducks returned

to small islands of vegetation (Fig ,3.) which were left by the hay workers.

These were still incubating at the time of the survey. In one instance 
(Fig.4.) a teal nest was cut over clean and the duck returned to hatch 
all of her eggs. 
                 2. Predator Damage. In most nesting areas there usually

is a high percentage of nests taken by predators, in order to evaluate 
what percentage of predator damage could be directly attributed to haying

operations it is necessary to know when the nest was destroyed. The con-

dition and location of the remaining down and shell fragments gives a clue

to the time and nest was destroyed. By Gomparing the time that the nest 
was destroyed with the time of moving which was given us by Mr. Anderson

and other local people, we were able to determine, in al! cases except one,

whether the nest was taken by precators before or after moviing. 
                In the area studied the crow is by far the most serious 
predator. Of the 31 nests examined 9 of them were taken by crows and 
one was destroyed by a skunk. According to Mr. Anderson skunks are very 
scarce on account of the heavy trapping by the Indians. 
                Although we believe this report to be accurate over the 
small area intensively studied, we are not convinced that it gives suffic-

ient data to be statistically accurate over the whole Netley Marsh, A 
more comprehensive study should be made another season to gain a true pic-

ture of hayfield nesting losses, 
                                        Sincerely yours, 
                              (Signed) Peter Ward, 
                                        Lyle K. Sowls. 

             Summary of Nesting Study conducted by Delta 
WateiLfowl Research Unit on Township 16, Range 5 E.P.M,, July 
23-26, 1940 on haylands after mowing operations started on 
July 10 were completed. Study made by Lyle Sowles (Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin) and Peter Ward (Delta Research Unit) ass- 
isted by A.F. Anderson (Ducks Unlimited Marsh 
Daniel Petznich (Ducks Unlimited Kee-man). 
Ranger) and 
  Location       I 
  Claim number 
of Nesting Cover 
Acreaege Cruised 
Hatched) Mowing 
Crushed by Haying 
Taken     ) nowing 
Predators) Mowing 
Fate Unknown 
Still Incubating 
Total Nests 
1939 Nests 
Sec 8 N.W.*+ 
S.C O17 
Sec .16 
S E 
Sec.o5  ec.7 
_j .E ý L S .E . 4L 
Pxivatý 21 
Poor   IPoor 
  3      20 
  0       0 
29 .0 
19. 3 
1.7 A7. 
q'4AA "I   --'-- "It' 

                                                 I4- UAIVOewItY' lTOI ?I&*#

                                                 Julyi 27, 1940O 
Ds$w Sentors 
         I - delighted that yo a" re.Ilv cniM to Delta. szA 
Aucat 15 is a god   ate for me. I Vill meet Y'G  MIn UA~n"WU if IM 
vil ca whn     I an sendin a cop of you letter *24 Wei letter to 
Xohbom  and Piwuie so they ** let me knwif It is Woble to the. 
         Augat would be too late to s". the neseting, but Just Itt time
see the firet fligts of youn dws the segritiom of flightless malee, 
eeL the 'beimAais of the uheatfield flights. 
         As to outfit, yo will need only vait would be oomfotattbie for 
iW smmer tri.    Veepitos will be largely ove with. A raincoat night 
-e* In      . Trave is by ew so heavy boats mr not desirable. Rubber 
beots aewe nt aeessae7 asethe mter Is      Mr. brd has b&MiW.   Be 
our* to brn binocalarw, of couse. 
         I an plefte. that youapprve of the mete elastic plan for publi-

satia,. &M if Dr. ftrxae Vproes also, we ma eeastdew the matter 
         Thwt for you pro~t attention to the petty Cash matter.     It 
is senUeias quit* a buren on behb.m to *Aow    all fwMS f!Mn his ov 
          I suspect it istee Uo  r  for the blue geeee at kudson's, 2W 
VAt   will lot Ioabo  anwr o on this point. 
         With beet rewrs 
                                       Yours as ove,, 
 .5 lirnie 

                           July 22, 1940 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
My dear Aldo: 
      I am delighted to have your note which arrived 
during my absence from home. I am eager to read your 
report on the Annual Inspection. It has not reached 
me as yet. 
     I think it is possible that Jim Bell will come 
up there with us. I am rather tightly dated up here 
until the 18th of August. I could fly on that date 
to Minneapolit, go direct to Winnipeg, and from there 
get in by the shortest route to Delta. I will close 
the matter up definitely if that is a satisfactory 
date for you, Mr. Hochboum and Mr. Pernie. 
     I am very eager to get up there and also to get 
down to Ohio to see what Hicks is doing. His work 
o~ht to be in a very interesting state at that time 
     Would there b* any chance of getting a hydroplane 
and going over * Hudson Bay. Perhaps it would be too 
early to get those flocks of blue geese that are 
supposed to be on James Bay in great quantities towards 
the end of the summer just before their flight southward. 
     I had a letter from Parnie saying that August 
would be as interesting a time as any. Would I beetoo 
late to see the best of it? Please be quite frank with 
me. I am quite determined to get up to Delta. If it 
would be better to go earlier I sholili do my best to 
change existing dates here. 
                           Sincerely yours, 
P.S. Your 1940 report on Delta Duck Stion ha0 3tst 

      reached me. It is exceedingly interesting and makes 
      my mouth water for a personal inspection. I am sure that 
      it is going to be of great value to the Biological Survey 
      as well at to the authorities in Canada. 
           Will you give me some idea of the climate and what 
      clothes I should take with me. I always travel very 
           I am very interested in what you say about "hangover"

      mallards. I experimented for several years with the 
      propogation of canvasback, some hand bred ones that L.R. 
      Joab brought down . I sent a pair to Norfolk, England 
      to Hugh Wormwold. 
           I like the idea of publishing our own 4oifrnAln 
         our findings as it becomes ready . We have a very 
  eCt,,i'-aluable maa~in Washington who can make good use of 
      the"a- ornals as we go along, and we shall get full 
(---credit for the work we are doing. The bulletin will 
      come later. 
           I think it a good idea that a petty cash fund be 
      given to Mr. Hockboum in order to avoid delays. A fund 
      of $100 will be sent at once. 

                                         424& Unitvoilty Ira= ?1a"

                                         July 25, 1940O 
Mr. 0. N. Palmer, Jr. 
Anqrosa WildlfeI. atit'to 
         Tama  for the ohW   coon the Delta JZu. 
pq"U   aMd exess   for Ib~ n Mha". The JulY Pqv"f 
is twaaintQmittinhrwith. 
         I an &n~o   to hear fro 
In 7 Delta repot for a reguar fiscal 
petty cash fwA. 
M to te poposals 
set-UP, 1"ludins a 
With 'best vvwUs. 
                   Siters.r Y~OW 
                        Aldo Leopol 
                Professor at Widlif M  oausem 

Delta Duck Station 
Delta, Maim toba 
July 15, 190 
Albert Hochbaum 
Peter Ward 
L7le Sowle 
Mlph Morrill 
Payroll for July,, 1940 
1 month at $150.00 per i 
1           100.00  * 
1  *    N   100.00  * 
1 N     5   100.00 
$ 450.00 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
            FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER              A    EA   N WILDLIFE INSTITE         
               F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board        A    EICAN            IINSITUTE      
    FREDERIC EWING                     Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935 T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
              C. M. PALMER, JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                              July 17, 1940

                          Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                          424 University Farm Place 
                          Madison, Wisconsin 
                          Dear Aldos 
                                    I am attaching hereto our belated check

                          to cover the June payroll for Ward, Sowls, Morrill,

                          and Havkinson at Delta. Sorry this has been 
                          delayed--but better late than never. 
                                    I an also attaching hereto Hoehbaum's

                          expense check in the amount of $126.55 for May.

                                    I have okayed Hoohbaum's expense account

                          for June and put it through for payment and will

                          forward the check to you as soon as it comes back

                          from Ted Doremus. 
                                    I appreciate very much your comments
                          your letter of June 21st. It is nice of you to
                          what you did and I appreciate it. It is unnecessary

                          for me to say that such sentiment is entirely 
                          mutual. Please don't count me completely out of
                          picture, however, as I do not intend to lose the

                          pleasant associations I have made in the past twelve

                          or fifteen years. 
                                    Looking forward to continued if unofficial

                          relationships, I am, as usual 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                      July 23, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldot 
                    I am attaching hereto our check 
in the amount of $54.17 to cover the Delta 
June expenses in accordance with your letter of 
July llth. 
Best regards. 
Eno . 

                                      ),.*k UVlvw4sy hi'u Pla 
                                      h'ly 25, 1940 
11. H. Al~bert Sochba 
Dela, Unml obs 
Bea  Albeto 
                        fin0e.el 7ouo, 

                                             44 UnAiverstty Far Place 
                                             July 19, 1940 
Mt. H. Albert Rochbau 
Delta$ Manitoba 
D#Ar Alberti 
          The peaulty for a pleasant field trip Is usually 
Spiled-up dsk upon one's retmrn. It is for this reason 
that I sent you aq Delta report without comnet. I now 
want to sq that I was ver mu    pleased with the way you and 
all the rest of the Delta grou are hanling thing  this year. 
Will you tell all of thea that I greatly apreciate their 
good work? 
          Thanks very snob for the len of the Jaqu  book. 
          Here are the Jue salary oheock for the others and 
you MA expense check. You raised the question of whether I 
should not reit expew e *heeks in the form of Canadin aoaw 
orders because of the favrable excange. I do not see how I 
could do this and still balance my books with the Institute. 
Since the prevailing tates at Delta are 1w, I think it fair 
enu    to continme to p  all tcounts in Aaerican dollars, 
but I &m  ing a cop  of this letter to Mort Palmer so that 
if he wishes to institute some other argemnts he can let 
me kw. I especially hope that he ca" take early action on 
the petty cash fund rwcoin. ed in the report. 
                           Sinere* yors 
                                Aldo L~eopodl 
eol                    Prfessor of Wildlife Maamgment 
cc Palmer 

                                        Delta Duck Statinn 
                                        Delta, Manitoba 
                                          July 17,1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       Wd all like your report end thank you for the time and 
trouble you heve put into this. It will help more than I can 
say in keeping things lined up for the rest pf the year. We will 
make our first release of captive birds this week and are getting 
things in shade for summer banding. Ducks Unlimited will send several 
fellows over during the summerone at a time besides the regular 
banderto become acquainted with age and seig techniquesetc. 
One of Swanson's students has expressed his desire to be here for 
a week in August for the same purpose. 
       !nclosed is the payroll for the month of July. I am a bit 
of an awkward position on this point for the boyp have not b-en paved 
for June. It is not that they are over-anxious about the money 
but they cannot pay their board and with things running on a narrow 
margin as they do here it mpkes it quite hard on Mrp. Ward. Avnin, 
Buster Hwkinson is badly in need of his money. 
        I certainly am glad that you could make the trip in the 
earlier period this year and I hope you can be with us for the 
spring flight next spring. By the waythose scat platforms you 
and Lyle put up are working great end we are getting more yp,for 
they provide the only place we have been able to get scats this year. 
Yours sincerely, 

                                                            File COPY 
                                                            cc Palmer 
                    1940 REPORT ON DELTA DUCX STATION          Pirnie 
                                Aldo Leopold 
     This report is based on a visit at the station June 26 to July 4, 
and at Winnipeg July 5. I did not stop at St. Paul because Mr. Bell was 
out of town. 
                               (A) 1940 Work 
     This year's work is well organized and is noteworthy for the complete

teamwork among all the Delta personnel. 
     Research Projects. All of the research projects show good and some 
exceptional headway. The status of each is as follows: 
          Criteria of Sex and A   in Ducks. The discovery of cloacal 
extrusion as a means of sexing and aging live ducks is our biggest accomplish-

ment so far. The new technique has already spread far and wide. Its relia-

bility and its harmlessness to the bird are fully proved. It should be 
published this winter. 
          EE21oA7 of the Marsh. One more year should be added before publish-

ing this study of the arrival, courtship, nesting, brood behavior, ani summer

and fall movements of Delta ducks. 
          Identification of Dn YonA; Growth Curves. Now complete except 
for greenwing, baldpate, greater scaup, black duck, whistler, bufflehead.

None of these nest at Delta and the cooperators who promised eggs failed
send them. All other gaps in the collection of skins will be filled by the

end of this nesting season. Will be ready for publication in the winter of
          Nesting Study. 130 nests are being followed this year as against
in 1939 and 25 in 1938. This is an excellent showing, especially since the

labor is carried "on the side" by the entire personnel. 

          Ground Squirrel Study. Use of captive squirrels as experimental

stock has greatly speeded this project. Sowls will use it as a thesis and

will also Dublish this winter. 
          Sex and ke Ratios. This year all unhatched eggs from the hatchery

and all incubated eggs found in deserted or predator-nests are being sexed,

as well as all live birds and all deaths from the hatchery. 
               Should there be no shooting at Delta due to the war, the usual

bag tallies will be made on. outside shooting grounds. 
          Banding. Ducks Unlimited has offered to send a man to work at Delta

under the direction of the station. This should make it possible t6 give

undivided attention to trapping, and hence should enlarge the catch. It has

so far been impossible to match the hatchery releases with equal numbers
wild releases. 
                                (B) New Proposals 
     Teaching at University of Manitoba. Professor Wardell of the Zoology

Department has asked Hochbaum, in cooperation with Dr. Cartwright of Ducks

Unlimited, to give a course next winter. 
     I talked this over with Professor Wardell and explained that because
the time liabilities, Hochbaum could not take on the job of a formal course.

It would eat up more than half the year. Professor Wardell accepted the 
alternative proposal of a series of lectures, the purpose of which would
to test the amount of interest in both students and faculty. 
     I told him that his students would be considered for the assistant 
positions at Delta, and that the Delta station is interested in developing

university participation in its work. I told him that if the university 
ultimately developed sufficiently along wildlife lines that it might even

(at some future time) take over the project. 

     Work at Delta 2 Other Institutions. Half a dozen universities made 
overtures to Delta during the past year, indicating their desire to work

there. In many instances, though, the proposed work involved large-scale

collecting or disturbance of the marsh, and did not relate itself to the

Delta program. 
     It is now proposed that Delta select and invite particular men to 
work at Delta on projects supplementary to our own, provided they pay their

own way. 
     As invitation No. 1, it is proposed that Arthur S. Hawkins of the 
Illinois Natural History Survey be invited to work out criteria of incubation

in Delta ducks. He has already done this for several upland game species.

     Mr. Bell has proposed that Carnegie Institute might be willing to do

some kind of fundamental physiological research in conjunction with the 
Delta hatchery. As a first move I suggest that Hochbaum be authorized to

visit the Institute this winter, explain the Delta facilities, and get 
acquainted with the Carnegie program. It seems quite possible that we might

be able to interest Carnegie in one or both of the new projects discussed

in the next caption. 
                                (C) Tuture Projects 
     The hatchery is now being operated chiefly for the studies of young

ducklings (plumage, sex, age). This work will be completed by 1941. 
     Operation of the hatchery is expensive and laborious, but the hatchery

is one of the assets which no other research enterprise possesses. 
     I suggest the following possible future undertakings for consideration

and study. 
     ProAct #1 Domestication of Mallards. It is known that wild mallards


(like turkeys but unlike pheasants) deteriorate in captivity. It is not 
known why, i.e., mhether the deterioration is genetical due to admixture
bad blood, or whether it is environmental and takes place even without 
     It is of great importance, both from the practical and scientific view-

points, to find out why and how deterioration occurs. 
     If deterioration is genetical, then official policies should be revised

to discourage the release of any but pure stocks, and to encourage the 
acquisition of such stocks by game farms. 
     If deterioration is environmental, then it is doubtful whether the 
release of artificially propagated ducks should be encouraged at all. 
     In either case, the extent of contamination of wild stocks should be

     Present piblic policies reflect a lack of information on the nature
deterioration. The U.S.B.S. and the states and provinces permit the release

of anything that quacks, even though Lincoln has shown that banding returns

from poor stock are negligible. On the other hand these same governmental

agencies often place obstacles in the way of propagant6a wishing to acquire

wild stocks. 
     Delta is a perfect location to study the changes that take place in
in domestication. It offers a hatchery plant, wild stocks for comparisons,

and shot birds for comparisons. 
      It also offers "hangover" mallards which fail to migrate,
and which are 
either defective wild or impure wild mallards. Oartwright shipped some south

and they failed to return north. 
     Mallards are clearly the most important species in Ahich to study 
- 4 - 

     There are at least three possible testoof quality in propagated mallards:

          1. Banding returns after release to the wild (the best test). 
          2. Physical measurements (short bill, posture, large legs, etc.).

          3. Psychological tests by the use of the Long machine. 
     The first test has been applied at Delta on a small scale to first-

generation artificials of several species, with returns equal to the standard

for wild birds. The wild controls, however, have been insufficient in number,

due to difficulties of midsummer trapping. This test should be continued
mallards on a larger scale, and the following new lots should be added for

          a. Deteriorated mallards (scrubs) 
          b. Second-generation pure mallards 
          c. Third-generation pure mallards 
          d. Descendants of "hangover" mallards, first generation.

     Physical and psychological tests should be ran on all lots. 
     Personnel and Z      nt. To undertake these tests, Delta will need:

(1) a revision of its hatchery plant to separate the various lots, (2) the

services of a geneticist, and (3) the services of field men to specialize

in trapping wild birds for controls. 
     Hochbaum and Ward are preparing estimates on plant changes. These will

not be expensive, and might possibly be made out of our regular funds. 
     A geneticist may be obtainable from the Carnegie laboratory at Cold
Harbor. He should be an expert in statistical theory. 
     Trappers are already offered by Ducks Unlimited. 
     It is suggested that a parallel series of experiments might be run by

Pirnie at Kellogg Sanctuary, or by some state game farm. 

      Experimental Laout. Most previous attempts to study deterioration have

 been inconclusive because of defective experimental layouts. A good layout

 calls for the simultaneous release of each of the four lots of propagated

 birds (as a,b,c,d) plus wild bandings as controls. There should be several

 hundred birds of each lot released for a series of successive years (perhaps

 three years). 
     To do this requires the accumulation of stocks confined in four tight

pens. Second-generation pures will be available in 1941 (Lot b) and third-

generation in 1942 (Lot c). The four lots can then be maintained continuously,

for the experimental period of three years, by the annual addition of birds

from wild-gathered eggs. 
     Preparations Needed. Mr. Bell and the Institute should first express
approval or disapproval of this project, so that if approved, the necessary

stocks can accumulate, and the necessary alterations in pens made. 
     Hochbaum should then seek criticism of the experimental layout from

geneticists, from the U.S.B.S., from statisticians, and all other sources
     Project #?. Propagating Canvasback. This is a nearly-but-not-quite-

finished piece of work pioneered by Mr. Bell and Mr. Ward. It has heretofore

been proposed that we publish on the cultural methods used, but Hochbaum
very properly raises the question: Should we publish before we have succeeded

in getting eggs and young in captivity? I think not, and I suggest we use
interval of two years which must pass before we can embark on Project #1
finish up the canvasback project. 
     No eggs are being obtained from captive deepwaters, despite seemingly

healthy stock. Eggs were obtained one year when the birds had access to 
natural water. Present exhibitions of mating behavior are confined to the

daily period when water is admitted to the tank. The clue is then that 
either natural water or some food contined in it is  yprarequisite to breeding.

     Completion of a technique for breeding canvasback is important for three

          1. As an addition to game farming techniques 
          2. As a part of the hoped-for ultimate monograph on the canvasback

          3. It is possible that the domestication study in mallard should

             ultimately be repeated in some deepwater species, as canvasback.

     It is therefore recommended that a breeding pen be constructed connecting

with the ditch leading from the bay to the pump house. This need not have

overhead wire, and will cost no large amount. A "sun porch" should
also be 
added to the west wing to give the ducklings natural sun during the period

ordinarily spent indoors. 
     There is a pretty good chance that this slight modification of the present

technique would yield eggs from captive canvasbacks. 
     Let it be clear that this proposal is an empirical cut~aad-try investigation

made to finish up a nearly finished piece of work. It may fail. 
     No really scientific control of all variables is proposed. To do this

would be very costly in time and funds, and wold call for a kind of manpower

we do not have. 
     It is possible, of course, that once we get a physiologist to Delta
further modifications of this work may suggest themselves. 
                                (D) Publications 
     We have t500 for "Bulletin No. 1". Mr. Bell, the Institute,
and Dr. Pirnie 
have all expressed a preference for publishing our own bulletin, rather than

using journals and then assembling reprints as our output. 
     However, since these decisions were made, new conditions have come to
 It is increasingly clear that some of our findings need to be published
at once, 

- -. 
else somebody else will do so. The cloacal sexing and aging of live birds

is an example. 
     Other findings will not be mature as soon as we thought they would be.

Hochbaum's reluctance to publish the hatchery technique is a case in point.

     I am convinced that to wait until we have a large enough "batch"
findings to make a bulletin does not fit our natural scheme of operations.

     Moreover the "Woods Hole" type of station (inviting other
to come and do work) will never fit into the independent bulletin scheme

without irritating delays and troubles over authorship. 
     I therefore propose that unless our advisors or sponsors definitely

disapprove, that we proceed with journal publication of our output as it

becomes ready, using our publication fund to lay up reprints for later 
assembly as a bulletin. 
     When the time comes to assemble these as a bulletin, suitable covering

material, both textual and illustrative, can be added. 
     When the time comes that we have material for a bulletin, or for a book,

there is nothing to prevent our printing it on our own account. 
     Hochbaum must have a definite objective to aim at, else labor will be

wasted. The old objective no longer fits the facts. This is my excuse for

proposing this solution for the problem. 
                                  (E) Fiscal 
     My proposal that Delta funds be deposited in Canada is no longer tenable

for Fd Ward will shortly leave on military service. 
     I therefore propose that the fund be disbursed from the Institute office,

as at present, with this modification: a petty cash fund should be given
Hochbaum so as to avoid long delays on small outlays. An initial patty cash

fund of $100 will do. 

                                       I4A university parm nsom 
                                       Jul7U, 11,  0 
   Er m. Pa lmer# Jr. 
Apejn Wildl ife Ins~i~tuo 
Washinton, D. C. 
Daw Mort a 
         lhlosd is the June 4mse &.miit for the 
DeltaDuck StattoU ia the ms of $5I.17. 
                             SincerimV yours, 
                                 Ald Leop14 
                          Profesor of Wildlife Kaasoment 

              Expenses for the Month of June-1940 
     352 miles 9.04 cents per mile.. $14.08          $14.08 
Office 8upplies. 
     Envelopes ............... .   .......  40 
     Stamps .............................. 25            .655 
Laboratory Supplies. 
     Cotton   ........................ $  1.75 
     Coel oil ........................ $  1.77 
     Mason Jars .....................    .48 
     Shells .........................    . 1 50 
     Sopecmenr Sticks...............     .15 
     Skin Poison ...................... .45 
     Needles .........................   .15 
     Specimen Case .................... $77.73 
Running Expenses 
     2 doz.eggs  (duck feed) ............... 0          .70 

                                       424 Unlveity lam Place 
                                       Juno 2T, 1940 
Prt. Al4o Loopold 
c/o H. Abert Hocbau 
Delta, Maalitobs 
Nar Mr. Leopoldo 
         Her. Is the cock for Alber's Juno sala-y. 
I thought, since you were there, thAt you coul4 ýust 
endorse it and hand it to him. The June che* for 
the other boys will be fortomin shortly, the 
Institeuo uai4. 
         The wire froe Senator Walcott to self- 
                        Yours sincerely, 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated In District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                   June 25, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisoonsin 
Dear Professor Lecpolds 
              Enclosed herewith in our oheok in 
the amount of $150.00 Yhioh oovers the salary 
of Hoohbaum for the month of June, 1940. 
              Our cheok covering the balanoe of 
the Delta June payroll and Hochbaum's expenses 
for May will be forthooming shortly. 
Sinoerely yours, 
Ethel M. Quee, 
Offic e Manager 
- CZCý 

                                      424 Uni~versltj Yrarm P1a 
                                      Juno 22. 194o 
Mr. R. Albet Kochbsm 
Deta, Manitoba 
Dqar Albert$ 
         I mlteo checks for Potte Ward for $200, 
roprsnting his smlai7 for April an MV, and for 
Loona.r Hawkinson, rpresenttn his sý'ýIr7 for Yar. 
                         5inosr.y yurs,, 
                         Vivian HMor 
.aul                     3ow~a3 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                  June 20, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Plaoe 
Madison, Wisoonsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
              I am enclosing herewith our oheck 
in the amount of $275.00 to cover the following: 
Peter Ward, hatohery superintendent, salary 
     fcr April and May at $100 per month .... $200.00 
Leonard Hawkinson, temporary hatchery 
     assistant, salary for May.............. $75.00 
                            Very truly yours, 
                            Ethel M. Quee, 
                            Offi oe Manager 

                                           t424 Unversity Pamu Phos 
Mr. 0. M. aL.lmer, Jr. 
Ameicean Wildlife Intitte 
Investment Bui~lding 
washizto, D. C. 
Doer Mo rt 
          Seator Walcott has written me about your 
intended restgr1ttlonr.  will be very sorry i.4.I4, to 
see you go. I want to thank you persoally for your 
unfailing oourtesy and ooo-erUtlon in our mutual doins. 
I certainly *an't bla.e you for preferring youir fairmz 
          If the Delta 'bug  tos uet settled tA time to 
take oare of June aceounts, may I ask you to tike care 
of the June payroll au4 the May expense, at per aocounts 
                           SLneerely your*, 
                                 A.1.o Leopol 
00l                     Professor of Widlife kanhemont 

Syoenses for the month of May. 
Mileage - 500 miles@.04. ............$2000 
Office Supplies 
          Graph Paper ................    25 
          Stamps .................. .......80 
          Envelopes....................... 10 
Laboratory Supolies 
            Ootton ................... .... ?5 
            Borax ........................ $2.78 
Running Expenses 
0A ~ ~ - 
  Shioment of eggs to Dr.Pirnie $1.78 
- Duck Ferd-200 lb .......... 90.75 
  Hauling Charges for feed.....11O.24 
TOTAL .................................................... F17..55 
$  .o 

Payroll for June 1940 
Albert Hochbaum,..l montb@$150.00 per month .... $150.00 
Peter Ward     ...1 month@ $108.00 per month...$100.00 
Lyle Sowls  ...... 1 month@ $100.00 rpr month.. .$100.00 
Ralph Morrill .....1 month* $100.00 pr month...$100.00 
Leonsrd Fawkinson.1 month@ $ 75.00 per month...$ 75.00 
Total .......................................... $525.00 

                                          42   Univmrsity Tars.   ho 
                                          Jun. 21. 1940 
Mrw- Albert Ieohbinm 
Delta, Maniitoba 
Dear Albertt 
          I ex really worried about your report. but heartily 
Vywpathatic with you. I th~ink Mi Kard can do us some good It 
he will spea out. I am afraid I can do nothing 'beas.s I 
w      there and con't cite details. Tou have my permietion, 
however, to urge ? to lay it on as strornlyas he can. 
          I an glad you had some rains despite the flooded 
          I will b up about July 10 uness SelAtor Walcott 
say he can go in Augus~t but oan't go in July. I think It 
would be worth hile to got hin to Delta. 
          Mort Palmer has resigned and I am reeowoandig SIll 
          Very possibly you. are right as to Inserting moes 
hatchry in the Sell letter. H         Senator Walott has 
alreaysen~t the letter. Should you want a suplmentary 
letter, plese fr, it. 
          I dnnst kw how to advise you abot Dcks Unlimited 
ani     on the Delta mars, but I will bac x   attitdse ym 
figure out. 
          With beet ?gards, 
                                Sincerely yours, 
                                     Ald1o Leopold 
                             Profeseor of Wildlife h~meest 

                                          Delta Duck Station 
                                          Delta, Menitoba 
                                          Juno 1?, 1940 
 Mr. Aldo Leotold 
 Professor of Wildlife enagement 
 University of Wiscobsin 
 Madison, Wisconsin 
 Dear Professor Leopold: 
        Last week Mtr. Cartwright asked if we would be able 
 to cooperate with one of his technicians in bending wnttrfowl. 
 Like up they have had difficultipm with sum'pr traoping and 
 would like to send one of their men h-r- to work on the 
 problem. In all our discussions we have been open minded 
 on this subject end,as I remembpr, were willtnF to cooppr-te 
 with their vrour on any problemd they xiphed to work out 
 with up here. I believe that there is more tbpa the desire 
 to solve a problem,howpver, for Mr. Main has asked COrtwright 
 to band 20,000 ducks tVip year. Their own Big Grass marsh 
 is nearly dry again this vear and this is the best field for 
 operation in kenitobN, They probably would want to keep 
 their own records and I am afraid,oyen with close understandings 
 between the two groups,this might be the beginning of serious 
 complications. I would be perfectly willing to have them 
 come in and work with us on our own banding as a problem to be 
 solved but I wonder if we should encourage them to extend 
 their own trapping operations to our study area. 
       We have gone over the rrocosed letter from Oenator "alcott 
to Mr. bell end wonder if the hatchery shoulO not be mentioned 
in the statement of obj-ctives. Much of the work we are doing 
c nters around this and would be impossible to carry on without 
it. I think it would not be amiss to inclule it,referring specific. 
ally to its importance in studies of waterfowl natural history. 
       I am enclosing the payroll for June. Ralph Morrill 
reported June 7 but rather than breaking up the $loo.oo for 
this month I am asking him to make uo this time before he 
leaves in September. 
                           Yours s!ncrelv, 
cc :Pirnie 
P.S.    Morrill is a v~ry likable chap and fits in very well with 
the crowd. I am having him mpke u    a series of young ducks 
for your office and wond,-r if Iry could not check over the 
collection for anythinn else which you rpall- need . We made 
a case for the "elts collection and I think you will went one 

likP it when you see it. 
       Heavy rnins Tuesdey brought the mersh up but I am 
afraid a good npny n-Ft wiill be flooded. LvIl is checking 
up on thpm this morning. 
       Pirnie's small critictimp of ovrythinq and everyone 
in gpnoral have all of us in poor spririt for they do not 
come in the form of constructive ndvice. The boys begin 
their dey in the hntchery nt 1:70 or 5 AM and with his constant 
harangue it's hard to bear thtouphout thp day. I know that 
he doesn't mean it but I em finding it hard to kP~p a happy 
household that hee been running very smoothly. Ed had a heart-to- 
heart talk with him, lpst night and perhapp things -ill brighten up. 

'C - NI, ý  -  "Awfl .-; 0  @y 
        June II, 1940 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Also: 
      Thank you very much for the check 
enclosed with your letter of June 15. 
I hope that Mr. Hochbaum will find the 
balance very serviceable. 
                   Cordially yours, 
NEW YORK      0        BOSTON 
0        CHICAGO 

                                           424k university ran lia, 
                                           Juno 5t 19~0 
Dr. P.2   tempsttl  -r o det 
1700 Irving ?a* Rod 
Dear l~ullI 
         You n. doubt rwexbe the **als and caryiog cass 
 ordvered a month orto W- for the use of aw Cradate student, 
R. A. Hoahbwa, Dolt&, Xwdtob.. The* asla were rsoetve4 by 
Rochbimu in go  ore and I have no   rooolved shook fro. the 
American Wildlfe Institute to *over the cost of th *sales L2) 
&M an enclosing it herwith. I am *endin this dirwect t~o you 
  beaueI sp~outy have lost you bill, You     card a~nw~C 
ing the orde Wdr    to you  register number (qPa~ftts) 3994, 
and I hap* this will serve to Identify the order. 
004  Oo                  Professor of Wildlife  -A-me 

                 Prof. A. Leopold, Pers. 
INACCOUNTWITH  University of Wisconsin 
                 Wildlife,Management Dept. 
                 424 University Farm Place 
                 Madison, Wisconsin 
   AMOUNT $ 
     DATE        REFERENCE    ORDER NO.            ORDERED BY           
                              ACCOUNT BROUGHT FORWARD 
                         LAST AMOUNT IN 
0611     Statements are rendered monthly to enable you to verify your records
with ours. If not correct, please advise us promptly. THIS COLUMN IS 
                          BALANCE DUE 

                                           )424 University farm Picos 
                                           March 29, ig4o 
Mr. R. A1berwt Hohbelu 
Delta. OwnaLoba 
Daw Albert# 
         The Central Scientifi        411~W il soon shitp 
the scale*, ba~t my friend Dr. Iopset poitats out that 
%her* is a 30 pwer  t cAImport ur~ ftoh can 'b* saved onl 
ty rwoan of temporary us* or eduational use. Dr. E1.pstqg's 
         Since. this duty wmU be quite an. item, I suggst 
that yo got a letter either from Royes Lloy or from the 
University of Manitba. In addition, for your possible use, 
I as attaching a letter to the Oixetons Service. 
                           Sincerely yours, 
      0a4ProfSesor of Wildlife Maasgement 

                                         424& Uu1ivority Ya Place 
                                         March 29, 0 90 
 0astom S~ervc of C~xA"~ 
         The beae of this letter, H. Albrt HoohbaN, 
to doing scinItifio work for the University of V1.OAn 
at Delta, Wmtba . I m a hpping t him from $the Cna   l 
Sceti~fie omay     hop    & ~1 * a * bal.ance and a as% of 
wigt   for ue In laet2aon with tiat work. This equip- 
met Is for tenorsay use in Caaa an will b o 
bak t the Uaiwowlet of' iscosn e xmt wnter. It woulA 
be appreiated If duty can either be v~alve or paid w)j~ect 
to refund on Roa*bm's retun. 
                           Sincerely yours, 
                               MAld Leool 
                       Professor of ViUdlfs I .Manage 

                              424 UniveruitV Farm Place 
                              march 29, 1940 
        contfnt.To scietifi COPo 
1700 Irving Park Roadi 
Dheca, Illinoi 
       Thanks ve   mch for foreseigth ie d4iftm4t 
about Import duty on the sonl. bmlaw.    I hav. sent Roabobm 
a certlfiat* that the saes 411 bo used tpra.rly ande 
for *wuational p.upo.e. 
       nks for your Imitation.      I will o*   yo u 
*a* of these das whe I -n going thrIWb Chicag. 
       With Weost r~wew~t 
                ?"tofo*" of Wi144f o Uiagn.enet 

ESTABLISHED 1889                                                      PHONE:
                    .. . ........... .MANUFACTURERS  OF AND  DEALERS  IN


                                   REAGENT CHEMICALS AND SUPPLIES 
 M. HESS, VICE PRESIOENT                   CHICAGO 
 J.H. KINCAID, SE8......                 March 27,  1940 
        Professor Aldo Leopold 
        424 University Farm Place 
        Madison, Wisconsin 
        Dear Aldo: 
             Thank you very much for your letter of March 22 in which 
        you are ordering a balance and weights with carrying case for 
        a graduate student who is at work on a project in Canada. 
        Shipment will be made just as soon as the case can be con- 
             I have had the question of shipment into Canada looked into,

        thinking' that there might be some difficulty from the standpoint

        of customs. Canadian educational institutions may import goods 
        duty free, but all others must pay duty. Presumably therefore 
        duty will have to be paid on the shipment when it goes into 
        Canada, but if the project is a temporary one the suggestion 
        may be in order that when the shipment is cleared in customs 
        a statement be made that the apparatus is for temporary use and 
        will be taken back to the States within a certain period. It 
        may be that under these circumstances either the duty will be 
        waived or a receipt may be given for duty paid, on which a 
        refund may be obtained when the apparatus is taken out of 
             I still haven't given up hope of seeing you and members of 
        your good family look in on us in Evanston some time. I have an 
        archery "museumv which might afford you some interesting hours.

        With all good wishes, I remain 
                                        P. E. Klopsteg, President 
        P. S. The duty will amount to approximately 307o of the value 
        of the shipment. 
O      CHICAGO      S      TORONTO 

ESTABLISHED 1881                                                        
           JjPDE MARX     CEIMLS              INIICC            MAY 
           tIIGLU.A.F                   MANUFACTURERS OF AND DEALERS IN____________


                                    REAGENT CHEMICALS AND SUPPLIES 
 P. E. KLOPSTEG, PREENT                        H I AG 0 
 M. HESS, VICE PRESIDENT               C 
 JH. KINCAID., SECRETAR                    April  3, 1940 
                Professor Aldo Leopold 
                Dept. of Wildlife Management 
                University of Wisconsin 
                College of Agric. 
                424 University Farm Place 
                Madison, Wisconsin 
                Dear Prof. Leopold: 
                         We have already acknowledged by postal 
                card your order of March 22 addressed to Dr. 
                Klopsteg. Shipment of the balance, weights, 
                and carrying case will be made as soon as 
                possible direct to Mr. H. Albert Hochbaum, 
                Delta, Manitoba, Canada. These items will be 
                billed to you. We understand that you know 
                that the carrying case will have to be made 
                to order. 
                         Thanking you, we remain 
                                     Yours very truly, 
                                     CENTRAL SCIENTIFIC COMPANY 
                                     Educational Sales Manager 
NEW YORK    0      BOSTON 
*      CHICAGO 

                                      424. Universtty Pam Plas 
63wall strett 
Now To r, I Y. 
Dea  8amto Walostti 
         I faeled to reAls. that y wou be tied up 
with the oovain but Iop yon will. find it posrble 
to go through with your Delta trip Inter In th  umr 
         Ut       cam. out, I woul lire         uup 
ther with  o  and stay for at least part of yv  vUAt, 
n o.rtw that 3oahbm ad I ma  give y a firest-an 
acamt of the Delta VeAttm  W  report an the amual 
inayeetioA will reach ym shrty     I wa    r plema.I 
with the war Rim has tak    *1p in haM. 
         ftrtunatO   Mr. Sellw  not In Xime1  e, 
                       Sincerely your, 
                           Ald Leopold 
                    Profeso of Wildlife Mmmgmnt 
a ohbm= 

                                     Delta Duck Station 
                                     Delta, Manitoba 
                                     June 8th, 1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Prof. of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Prof. Leopold: 
          Thank you for the notes on the connection with 
the University and I shall by all means plan my part in 
the program so that it will not draw too heavily on the 
work here. No commitments have been mare r arding this 
on my part. In vip, of our discussion last winter, howevem, 
I felt that I should ro as far se pospible .n workina with 
the Univprsity. We will of course, stress the point thntthis 
course, if it develops,is not to bp considered as advertized 
in any way as offers a training for professional students. 
          Dr. firnie has just arrived and brought with him 
your letter setting forth the discussion of your meeting with 
him. In a previous letter you had asked for suvvestionp reza- 
rding the person for the Canadian repfesentative. I can n~ne 
but two, Mr. Criddle at Treesbank and Prof. R.A.Wardle at the 
          Frof. Wardle is a parasitologist but is the only 
person at the Univrsity who would be qualified. In your second 
letter you have set this aside for a while and we can go over 
this later. 
          In regerds to the artificial propagation of canvasback, 
I think that we should adopt some sort of a policy on this 
question. I can find nothing in the earlier propecals or agreementA 
that imuld Awclude this. We discarded the idea rhen the project 
was started end hve pasred around it ever s"ce. If we do not 
wish to cnvpr this because it is not "scientific" or for any 
other reson lets say so now and make it clearin any pronosals 
or agreements that this is not within our interests. Personally, 
I owuld be inclined to follow with Mr. Bellts interests in this 
matter. This may be only to the oxtent of coorersting with other 
groups interested in the work, cornell or the Carnegie Institutions 
and pooling our efforts rnd facilities. I owuld not want to tefe 
this alonp nor tould I want to put it entirely on Peter'- Ohoulders, 
Both the Carnegie Institution and th Cornell pre interested in 
this as a problem in endrochronology And I believe it is in such 
a problem that interests Mr. Bell. I believe that proped pen 

conditions here would bring about breading in canvasback 
and any study would entril some pbysic9l improvements. 
Regardlees of this, however, we must do e good deal of 
re-building of endosures during the npxt two yoers. 
                               Sincerely yours, 
                               H.Alb,'rt Nochbpum 

Iuae 5, 1940 
Mr. L. Albert Rochba 
Delta. Manitoba 
bea Albert 
         Mileos Prte and 1hve hat a aount-V on Delta mattes, and In 
hs letter * aetveapt to tracsmit for you   Consideration the variou points

         (1)             bth you an dies have the Ipression tha 
. ll my         toroAe the e.Viamentl work In arltfloal prpaaion. 
We thin that yu sold mae up yer mnd whether or no yes wish suc an 
aetivlty to be under ur win. Shoud y net wish it. It Is Ceivable 
that it col bo cet up direotiy uaner Peter War with "rely a ooperaivo

relationship with yin. 
         In sc   evt, however, I wuld feel Impel      to remindt Mr. 4e 
that the wor would necesaily be eupileal rather than Oiliatoife, atA 
Milos lkewise poiatout that the esumptioa of awh wor would entail oene 
physcal Imprveens.   ?leas and finanial estimates *.4l bet maes and 
proeaiot to Mr. Bell before ay desioa is reached. 
         The Wesible, resupion o awe taaming experiments also boars as 
fis) policyloy (ose lAter). 
         (2) 2AWas* you have alreaty ecsittoet yorself to the 
Vuivorsit, the foloing course of action night appeal. io ymat (a) limit 
your peral liabilities to p.iosia letures wich mit be donated at 
Institte s  8t (b) lInvte the University to en picked mas to Delt for 
traini, th   rather than you to later a   ea the blk of the teachin 
uties. While the wut be donated by the Institute, the keV of 
these masn detailed to Deltas hould beset b7 the University. 
         The aboye plen mIgt     limit yr university time liablities .f-

fiaiently to avoid seriou  Interferne with the researc output. If, ex 
the ether heatd, yeus hould aseus groeate liabilities at the univevsity,,

beth the Institute sid Mr. Jell should vMewct~aad that the researh ouitpu

waci be curtialed aecs.dinly. 
         I usderstnd of Course, that Mr. @artiwwlght eatens thic equation,

but that hardly atest the above. 
         (3)               ew *.at w have .ef1oed the this laa gvveosI 
asent a coot on tbad we Could perhaps lot this appointment ride until 

2 Ow MO1 b 
the uw&ve.Wsity dvol  t mWt. ad wo hao a better aotioa of availble 
university powsono. 
             0)~~~~ V-NUA  UM  tik Miles and I have detoot.4 a poosible 
tfacy ia ou wlfoio   s umis lons. Depoit of Zintitute fums in Caaa 
   wol eA   04WI      A2f&       fAapatproidd th      differentia 
0Jh   1Wo rate stl rvie.Cnda          eo     ol also be an adva.ntae 
IA reepeet of local Oeae by the personnl. OAasiA deposit wo.ul be 
a Aisaveantag ina respect of savings by the personnel. that ise, the perseonnel

wmi hwe to pocket a less corresponding to the Lastitute's gaia i  a respect

of a  maWs    e sav    nd a ooto home. 
         If the a   r.ozg in so     , It migt iloatce the M  viselity 
of depositin funs for plant operation In Cana"     but keeping fune
porseeael salaries In the United ftates to 'be cekd out fe he"     
present. It might even be that Mort Palmer could simply koop thoem funds
Washinagton and Issue checks on payrolls submitted 1W you thr~amee Koo ilos.

         Milos will disease with you further details pertaiaing to all the,

above. This letter isa simply a uswramdm of what we talked about, and all

the questions &re for your consideration and decisioa. 
         It you mat some aow plan for hsndUMa fuate, yo vict let as 
know *"nm boom#* it leeks as If the matter of an Weeeeet between the

Institute sad Mr. Bell were abot to be Ironed out, hem.* that the, funis
seen be rea4y fode posit. 
                                       Tm s i. erely, 
                                          Alto Loopold 
                                   Professor of Willife We**o 
*0 1ie 

                             42I4 Univer.sity Yaw Place 
Aomil^ Wildlife Institato@ h  ~iUta  h  8 
letw Movw it4. 
  ymiAft~er honsieable aot 4wp the .es with of, aIOU* 
theo gabtaa*or ththe prwefersto sig nto. .irmn LYOVtwIv 
th5 Doltsj sa-W lasteSt hat wats t.o excangle I~ton have. 
ramofabl wit th presdent~ tof  th y Istitt.  ond the nlsedM. 
      I have noused  of thsi tod ftwamen axM uness~b 
dom.   n Intednrie.r B~elle a f replywice wil*oe 
te substntoth gesn   Iatdarogdrfwic 

(ROM 1!) 
Xr. Jee 17. 341 
200 O~hamr of Commerc 
MinneogoUs, Kiuamesta 
Dear Mr. Bell: 
     I an g. to hav yor letter of Mq 30 expessin your approval f 
the wor at Delta and your intention of GontintIng yvur oontributioa

of $2,350 ualoee uznual conitioAs develop. 
     I wat to "smre you that it is likgwise the intention of the Instito

to aentim. its cotribuitioa of $2,5M, plus sueh special Items as aW be 
neede* during partioular years. 
     It might be well at this time to set down the psps which we have hal

in mind at Delta. 'e hope to *at the steae for & Aw approah to brooedi4

gund studies. We believe that onoe this new m  roah is demonstrated, it 
will be -used an developed by other aencies. Ne hope to end up with an 
uthoitative aonograph on the eoology and. aneiusnt of the local brooing 
specs, or at least of the dvn duck. Inci4detally, the Delta wok will 
train a limited maber of yz   mes as experts in this fiol&. 
     In orde. to make sure that the Delta veature ties in with the Cwze4ianst

I recently a*ed Rto   Lloyd to s.*e with Dr. Piwnie ad Prof. Leopold as 
an advisor to the Delta project. He was unable to accept, bt I hope to got

some othe Caadian to srve i his steed. We will sutmit to yo   every year

a budet and a pra     for the oncomin year. The progam for this field 
season has alreay been seat you. 
     The Institute appreiates the privilege of usin your property for this

research veatro, ad we likise appresiate yoear finanial coopeation. 
                                  Tears esinerely, 
Presieant, Anoelaa ildlife Institute 

                                  MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
                                  May 29, 1940 
       Dr. Aldo Leopold 
       424 University Farm Place 
       Madison, Wisconsin 
       Dear Dr. Leopold: 
       Thank you for your letter of the 25th. I think 
       the objectives mentioned should be specifically 
       stated. I do not think, however, we should 
       limit the ecology and management to the canvas- 
       backs but to all deep-diving ducks. 
       When I say I think they should be specifically 
       stated, I do not mean in the form of an agree- 
       ment. I do not think we want an agreement, 
       but merely an understanding of the objectives 
       which we have in mind and under which the work 
       is to proceed. Any kind of memorandum to me 
       of this character will be entirely satisfactory. 
       After all, it is a matter of good faith between 
       the contracting parties. 
Yours very truly, 
jfb aj 

                                  MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
                                      May 30, 1940 
    Dr. Aldo Leopold 
    424 University Farm Place 
    Madison, Wisconsin 
    Dear Dr. Leopold: 
    I wrote you yesterday, but after looking over the 
    correspondence, I am inclined to have the matter 
    covered in the following way: 
    I will write a letter, such as the attached, to 
    the American Wild Life Institute, and they will 
    in turn write me a letter stating what they 
    propose to do with the funds. 
    If you approve of this and the letter itself, 
    will you have it forwarded, and will you write 
    Mr. Palmer suggesting the type of letter he 
    should write back to me that will cover the 
    subject. I think it should be informal, for, 
    after all, as I said in the other letter, it is 
    a matter of good faith and I am willing to rest 
    in theirs, if they are willing to accept mine. 
                               Yours very truly, 
    Jfb aj 

                                          424 VUniersity hr? Pla.o 
                                          June 1, 1940 
Mr. R. Albert Roohbaua 
Delta# Manitoba 
Dsar Albert: 
         The ataohed copy of Koyes Llyd's letter shows 
that he is unavailblbe for the 3.#r of Advisors, and Mort 
Palmer thiks that the sane rpiaoning would apply to Dewq 
Sper. I thougt possibly with yr new relations with the 
University you Liibt Wint to suggest one of th unvorn 
group. In any event, I ax-tit your further recommendation~. 
                           Sinerel yours, 
                                 Aldo Leopolde 
                        Prof essor of Wildlife Aanegemsat 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
             FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER                AMEICAN \ILDLIFE INTITUT           
                F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board         A   EICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE        
    FREDERIC EWING                     Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935 T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
               C. M. PALMER, JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                              May 28, 1940

                        Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                        424 University Farm Place 
                        Madison, Wisconsin 
                        Dear Aldo: 
                                        I am attaching herewith copy of a

                        letter just received from Hoyes Lloyd which is pretty

                        rmach self-explanatory. 
                                        This restriction will obviously also

                        apply to Dewey Soper. Who, then, is the next best

                        bet north of the border to place on this job? 
                                         I'd like to see old Ted White become

                        more active in this work again but I don't know 
                        whether he is in a position to do so or whether he

                        could fit into this job at all. This is just a passing

                                        I have sent Senator Walcott a copy
                        your letter on the Technical Committee without any

                        recommendations or discussion. I think this merits

                        considerable study and discussion with Gabe as well

                        as others. Any further thoughts you may have on this

                        will be appreciated. 
                                        Best regards. 

Pi g 

   Y                     DEPARM   T OF MTES AND 
                                                  Ottawaa May 21, 1940 
         Dear Freds 
                         Your kind iAnvtation of May 13, 1940, 
         fir me to a5t as eoe of the Board of Advisers to deal with 
         scientifio and releted problems of the Jms F. Bel. 
         exerimet at Delta, Manitoba, has been ra.oved sad given 
         oareful attention, 
                         It is part of the offioial pliq in 
         Canada for eivll iserva-ts to refra.n from any intimte 
         oonnetion with udertakings upon which they might have to 
         advise the Government in an official oapacity. UTnder the 
         eiraeostianes, and greatly to my personal regret, it will 
         not be possible for ne to accept a pla.e on the Dolta herd 
         to undertak the duties specified in your letter. 
                         Needless to say I shall be Zlad to deal 
         with any  nquiries whioh you ay care to address to me ou 
         this subject to the best of my abilityo 
                         With kind regards. 
                                          Yours very truly, 
                                      (signed) HOTEl LWYD 
                                     Wild Life Protection 
         The Honourable Fred4rie Co Waleett, 
         Preident, Amerioan Wildlife Institute, 
           investent Bldg.. Washington, D, C., U, B. A. 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                 May 28, 1940 
Prof. .Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Plaoe 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear gldoz 
               Enclosed herewith is our ocok 
in the amount of $150.00 to cover the salary 
of Hoohbaum for the month of May, 1940. 
               Best regards. 
Sinw ely~ 
C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
E no. 

                                             4124 University ?arm Plsoc 
                                             mar 25, 9~o 
Mr. James F. 'Bell 
200 _amber of Gommroo 
Minmeapolis, Minnesota 
Dear Mr. Belle 
          Shas occurre   to me since writing you that you might 
van  to add to the "objectives' in the agreeents 
               "'To wor toward an iatiato authoritative 
          son the ecolog          an managemant of the 
          oanvasbac. 0 
          This objective wS    mind but you might prefer it to 
be epeifially state. If so. by all aeanas ad it. 
          Tere are other specifie tite we have In mind, but not 
In the paper as it stands. For examle; 
               T  exlore the breeding bysioog2 y of the 104al 
          ol to develop oriteria of sex and ae both 
          i    -ternal and extermal; to produce a aaa  on the 
          plum.ges sand nwults of ducks." 
          I did nt pt these In beams* thqV vere upon *progrs' 
rather than "objectives", out if for w reason you mid rathe 
ave them in. by al meas use them 
                                Tours sincerely, 
                                    Aldo Leopold 
                            Prof essor of Wildlife Mmngment 
cc Hochbaum 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                     May 24, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                  Enclosed herewith is our check in 
the amount of $93.89 which covers Hochbaumts 
expenses for the months of March and April. 
                  I em also enclosing our check 
in the amount of $24.21 for the pair of scales 
for use at Delta. 
                  Best regards. 
C. M. Palmer, Jr. 

                                    424 Un,    ty ,ram Place 
Mwr . M. Palmer, :w. 
Inesmen 3uo ing~m 
, D. C. 
         We baA to m  one      , of equpipst for 
Dlta this sprg. an  se* tr    t as yet no re 
Aqosit of foaa &Ad reaar mehaism tow d1       -xsmse t, 
I -- oblig  to both.e you with this U11. 
         e bill Is for a pair o scalee withu    t whi 
It to Imposible to work at Dete.. Last yeaw I loaned xV 
persona xe*ess, bt this year Ined them. MW I ask 
tat ym sand a ck for $2.21 In the wae wume        as 
you hav. been 1Issin  salary check  the -o to be *dewted 
from Wei year' budget when the deosit ts finally mde 
                         Sinceel yous, 
        Ald Leopold, 
Professowof Wildl4fo Manesumt 
*a ohbwa 

                                       424 U niversity rYm n. 
                                         Mqy 24., 194o0 
Mr. 0. M. 1Plmer, Jr. 
Ameriaa WIdlife ZusLiut* 
Investant Bu idne 
Dor Morts 
         The Ju* 1 payroll for Dta ts as fol.ot 
R. Albet oUohbaus, d4rector, salua   for MWa...... .150.00 
Peter Ward, hatchery perintenet., salay 
     for April nd Key at *100 per   .         200.00 
L~o~ua4 Hawkinason, t~ora47 hatcohrf assistant, 
     sftlea for  MV  ............. ..... . ........... 
                       Sincerely youre, 
                               Aldo L  eopold 
                       Professor of W Aidife Mwgea 

                                           42A University Yam. 11.o 
Mr. R[. Al~b ort locb 
Dot, IMait.o 
flsvr Albert i 
         I an pleseA to know abt the intrest the Univeri' 
of Umaitob. is shwig and4 heatily apprve of the proposed 
cour  provide you an 4a1     t do not bit otf moe than ye 
*an han41e. 
         I would also war aa~int a~vatising the ventar & ae 
shool fe  p   tosional taini at this early stge.  It there 
awe one or two studentsh can work* wi~th you and Oarwrigt long 
aonou to be considered trained, that Is fiat bat there In a £io- 
tinoion  etwoo that 84 rwcrin the n    venture a a   .4 
in    tsh udants. a eltiate, of ours, I hope for 
the   soloent of profs ionl train   in Ga   , but until more 
facuty ties is available. I VhI* it would be uwise to start such 
a Venture. 
         Did yo send a co~py of you letter' to lirnie? If not, 
do you want se to S.84 or W1p 
         You h~e certainly not steppe& on ww of Nweartven    a 
initerest, boeesee he aud I both rear   the Ca~aian prospect a 
not feasible at this tijas 
                       Professo of Widife U  Maesmn 

                                   Delta Duck Station 
                                   May 15, 1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
Univerpity of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
       Yesterday Mr. Cartwright and I met Professor R. A. Wardle. 
head of the Dept. of Zoology at the University, for the purpose 
of discussing the possibilities of bringing about a closer relation- 
ship between the University and our two groups. Professor Wardle 
is keen on the idea of bringing wildlife management into his 
department but, as you know, is handicapped by the lack of funds 
to carry even a small program.   It is his feeling,'however,that 
a start should be made now with all that is available at the 
present time and eventually this will develop into something that 
can carry itself. He is hoping for some sort of a cooperative 
sponsership of a wildlife management departrpent but feels that 
this cannot come about until a start is made from scratch. The 
work should start as soon as possible and he believes the best way 
of making a beginning is to present a course in wildlife management. 
       He must look to the outside for help in this and the 
manpower and material in making this beginning must come from 
our groups. To this end Ducks Unlimited is equipped to offer the 
services of Mr. Cartwright as well as what equipment they have 
on hand that would be of material aid in beginning this work. They 
could not promise funds,but in a close pinch would probably be able 
to be of assistance. 
       For our part I have said that my time would be free for the 
 University during the second term and that the facilities of the 
 Delta Station were at the service of the University for their 
 use as a field and research station. 
        Professor Wardle then proposed that Mr. Oartwright and I present

 a course during the spring term of 1941,the program to be sponsered 
 by the American Wildlife Institute. Mr. Cartwright and I are to draw 
 up a tentative plan outlining the work and objectives. This will 
 be sent to you for your review,additions and revisions and then 
 will be presented by you to the University. Dr. Wardle has said 
 that Mr. Smith, the President of the University is very much 
 interested in this matter and that he anticipates no difficulties 
 in having this course placed in the University curriculum during 
 the spring term of 1941. 
                       and L 
        Mr. Cartwright/are now working up our ideas and will meet at 

Delta next r"eek t* bring them together and the outlin*will 
be submitted to you shortly. 
                        Sincerely yours, 
                        Albert Hochbeum 
co: Mr. Cartwi-ight( 
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                              THE UNIVERSITY OF MNTIOBA 
Department of Zoology                                         Winnipeg, Canada

                                                              24th April,
             Mr. B.W. Cartwright, 
                 Chief Naturalist, 
                    201 Bank of Commerce Bldg., 
             My dear Cartwright: 
                            I am greatly interested in your letter concerning

             Mr. Hochbaumls suggestion as I have felt for a long time that

             this Department should in some way try to co-operate with you.

                            W~e have unfortunately no course here that would

             tend to stimulate the interest of students in Wild Life Manage-

             ment or train them for research work or field work in that subject.

                            Frankly I would like to see such a course put
             regularly here as part of the zoological curriculum, but given,

             if possible, by a representative of Ducks Unlimited, preferably

             you. If the American Wildlife Institute would make a grant 
             sufficient to cover the fee of the lecturer there would be little

             difficulty in fitting such a course into the curriculum. The

             number of students attending it would be small, as I would 
             restrict it to a selected group of senior students, but they
             be keen. 
                             I shall be delighted to meet Mr. Hochbaum and

             yourself at any time or place convenient for you. 
                                               Sincerely yours, 
                                            (Sgd) R.A. Viardle 
Professor of Zoology. 

                                                Delta Duck Stption 
                                                Delta, kanitoba 
                                                May 17, 1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
UnTvrtty of Witconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Professor 6eopold: 
       Thank you for the nell correspondence. The only comnents I have 
are as follows: 
       1) The objectives,as far as the studies go, should be stated 
more clearly in the agreement so that Mr. Bell can understand and 
discuss them and realize the importance of the ends we wish to reach. 
This should also include a place for continued studies of the 
problems involved in bringing about the breeding of canvasback and 
other deepwaters in captivity and is, I believe ,what Mr. Bell is 
driving at when he refers to "fundamental research" At the time
received this correspondence Mr. Bell had sent me several notes concern-

ing the use of a cottage on the property and In these he mentioned his 
interest in continuing breeding experiments at Delta and pointed out 
some of the work being done along this line at the Genetics Laboratory 
of the Carnegie Institution from which he had just returned, I know that

he is very much interested in continuing work along tbh@i line in which 
a beginning was made in 1974 with Dr. Roweb. 
       2) We should keep Mr. Bell more closely in touch with what we 
are doing. I realize that this ip more or less at my end of things,or 
at least reporting more carefully to the Board and to this end I shall 
submit progress reports at definite periods throughout the field 
        I am glad that we are now free to ask Hoyes LLoyd to serve on the

Board and I have no suggestions to make in repgads to the prooosed letter

that has been drawn up. I do wish,though,that ueltp 1,ps the place 
for a leisurely visit of the Board mrmbers rather than the place 
for the formal Board meeting. We wpnt you to have 6* much time with 
the project as possible and we want to get as much time with you on the 
job as pe cohlo. 
       I am enclosing the payroll and hatchery expenses for the Month of

May. Lyle begins work for the Institute funds June let and asked that 
he not be included for May. 
      Had an inch of rain which has brought the marsh up a bit. It uwas 
 so shallow that P canoe could not be floated in some of the bnys. 
                                Yours sincerely 
CC: kýirnie. 

-4  -. 
P.S.       (Thank you for taking care of the exoense account. This 
has not been a mpter of procrastination on my part Ini for I did not 
want to send it through until the matter of money was settled. As for 
the scales I had thought that they mpre to be osid out of offic-P funds 
t o be paid by the -elta account when tl~e money -a through. 
           A copy of my letter reaprdinq the UntverOity mttinz was 
sent to Pirnie but I had feiled to note thip on your letter. 

                                        Delta Duck Station 
                                        Delta Manitoba 
                                          May 17, 1940 
Payroll for June 1,1940 
             Albert Hochbaum '-one month at $150.00 
                               Der month................$150.00 
             Peter Ward-       two monthe,April&May 
                               at 100,O0 per month..... ?00.00 
             Leonard Nawkinson- One month at $75.00 
                                per month...............  75.00 
             Lyle Sowls will be on the payroll for June 
             July and August work and is not to be 
             carried for May end April. 
             Ralph Morrill will not begin work until June 5 
             and is not to be included on this payroll 
                                       Albert Hochbeum 

                                             424 tluitmrvty Ta ?I"*

                                             Mq 17, 190 
200 Ch*wo of Com*o 
De^r M. IOU1t 
         Sas c        that the exnge of letters      estd ia 
yv letter of *  4 is a goo a  to plug te Oink in the form 
a. I yu will state yamr otts. oa I s         a letter, I a 
sure that Roa.$to Walcott and Nert Palmerwil 1ome Uak with the 
roeps that you want. 
         The *   thing that I eontribute to th ecae is a 
posible .tronthuada of "so sections of the Mac     mawu 1*ia a,,o 
ooeare, and I seov     7 attac a we4waft of t  sections on 
*         and    tiutis     to 'e fl     'by a ow section e the 
perid ov bm4    th agomot.    If the mabetitutioa of theme sectionss 
loks d4.erabl* to y. w  I sg   t that yo have the agmnt 
written in your office# ie a the amended woin &M4  $   C the 
reised copy Instead of the old *pio? This sateW~a eeul then 
  asompWyou  letter to the Institute for th.1wr eigturtsw  &M4 Firn 
and I could4 sign later. 
         I an   w uneromething of & an iop in drafting W~mets, 
'bosont I have no detile knowedg of the Inne woriag of* teInstitute, 
end of meaus so £e~d knwledge of yvar weqirments fro the tmamtioa 
stadpint.  I hav simpy had to ask th* best &Les I eomlA. Perap 
the Insitato is In a pei~tion to .%ke an unqulifiud and Uniwib  sgr 
knut for three years, litI ambt It. 
         The westn for emhszn   onsrvtion vad xwamot In the 
sootion on puroses to the probbl   volutawo of Wktra       ooatribatore 
to the Institute to interet theseve in fnat4~ reeac       was*~ . 
We have to mqh&Ixe the end rther W~ the no      . 
         With pomaumi roOAs, 
                               Sincerly Yvan 
                                   Aldo Le" 
       *vwd~Professor of Wildlife X*Aeom$t 
ccPaluer, Firais, Rochbm 

     To conduct scientific researches in the ecology of waterfowl and 
waterfowl breeding grounds, particularly researches bearing on problems 
of waterfowl conservation and management. 
     To publish the findings of such researches in the interest of public

     To train selected students to analyze and appraise waterfowl conser-

vation problems. 
     To encourage the development of waterfowl research and management in

Canada by Canadians. 
     As means to the above ends, the station will operate a duck hatchery

for research purposes, and maintain a field headquarters for the research

     The cooperating parties hereby agree to contribute the following 
moneys and services for the operation of the Delta Duck Station for the 
above purposes for the period March 1, 1940, to March 1, 1941: 
     The Institute: $2,500. Mr. Bell: $1,000 plus the use of his land, 
duck hatchery, and equipment on Delta Marsh. Dr. Pirnie and Mr. Leopold:

supervision of research operations; winter office quarters and laboratory

facilities for the research staff. 
     The cooperating parties hereby agree that it is their intention, if

funds allow, to renew and extend the above contributions, in at least the

above amounts, for a period of three years. 

                                  MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
                                  May 11, 1940 
    Professor Aldo Leopold 
    424 University Farm Place 
    Madison, Wisconsin 
    Dear Professor Leopold: 
    Many thanks for your letter of the 8th. I don't 
    think it is necessary to call in any attorneys in 
    respect to this matter. I think it could be 
    covered by an exchange of letters, wherein I say 
    to the Wild Life Foundation that I am anxious for 
    a continuance of the work carried on at Delta, 
    that with their co-operation I am willing to make 
    an annual donation of so-much per year for so-many 
    years, provided the work can be adequately carried 
    on along certain lines. Then I could get a letter 
    from them saying that they too were interested in 
    the work, and they hoped to have additional funds 
    available for that purpose, and then expressing 
    what they hoped to do. 
    My offer would be contingent upon the work's being 
    carried out, and theirs would be contingent upon 
    whether they got the money from me -- so there you 
    are. What do you think of the idea? 
    Best regards. 
                             Yours very truly, 
jfb aj 

                                               424 Universitty Farm lace

                                               May 114, 1)40 
Mr. R. AlberWt Hochba 
Daleta, Moni toba 
Dear Alber~t 
          As you will see from the attached carbon, I have 
sent your exense aoeunt on to Mort without waitine for the 
budget to be foally sot up. 
          Than you for rintding as of Peter's pay. I would 
also like to knw the exaot time that Lyle startd work. Whe 
does Morrill start, or has he already done t? Will you please 
send me a memoraNsm covertng the itm    that hould  o on the 
June I paqroU, Including names, rates of pay per month, date*, 
for yourself, Peter, I4le and Morrill? 
          In order to keep this bueinese stragteaed out, I 
think it would be a good idea for you to semd me such a eam 
each month, and I will leave it to you to do this without 
reminder from s. 
                                Sincerely yours. 
                                   Aldio Lesopold 
044l                      Prof essor of Wildlife Management 

                                       424 Un1voru1ty ftm PUae* 
Mr. 0. M. Palmr, Jr. 
Invetsmet Buidin 
Dear Mrt                          0 
         55.a. th, redrating or the ~agrot my delay tho 
forma tottingup 7of a Delta fund for a uhilo longer, Ian 
   sa ing abmtexns aamnt for March &M Apri Lin th* 
                                lado Lepold 
040                      Professo of Wildlife Maumagewa 

                              Delta Duck Station 
                              Delta, Manitoba 
                              May llth,1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Prof. of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Prof. Leopold: 
          I am submitting an expense account for March and 
April so that this will be in order when the budget comes 
          Everything is moving along very nicely. Have been 
collecting eggs all week, mallard and pint~il, and have nearly 
completed our settings for these species. Ed has brought the 
guides over for thid week which helped a great d-el for the 
back marsh is dry and river duck nests are few and far between. 
Canvasback and redheads are just beginning to nest and we 
will wait a week before the next collection. This has kept 
me at Delta and r-*ur meeting with the University group is 
later in the month and there is no news on this point. 
          Lyle has been busy with the ground squirrel study 
and has already uncovered a slew of material. We are all busy 
with the hatchery but by deviding the work are finding plenty 
of time for other things. By the way, when the budget comes 
through, Peter's pay should begin withlt. 
          We are in the midst of the worst dust storm I have 
seen yet and a good dpel of the prairie and some of the marsh 
are in the air. The marsh is very dry and over a foot lower 
than last year. In generwl, there are more ducks this year 
with a very remarkable increase in cans. 
                            Yours Sincerely, 
e jh/HAH 

Mr. Jame 7. Bell, 
Doa Mr. 3el11 
  I d6R  I    w the          1*mnti a oo14ierble Yur 
    &MCa eaiy aroits that It doese not eoe rmr 
pa      mse "  ItMtAs. Can Y(M hS you gatt.ISWr Sue 
goe% &arding coverin your contribution 4*hI  will prateel 
You from the tax deLf.eILoa st9point? I can then rebuild 
the wmet of the agreement to fit. 
          It is W Undwstendin that the reason fow the 
Odesioe of pledges Is that the Institute itself has re 
wonw In the bank and therfor* cant stat* aWthig but 
man Intention to Conti=*. 
         I will1 4sf or action until I luw hoard twos Palmer 
         Now tha~t your d~sit has actually7 beos wad w 
the Institu~te's deposit is as#mwo, It given ftohtau the 
4*0*0eU elbow "on to make his ecoismtmeats. 
         With pmrsoeal roars 
                           Simorsly yours 
                               Aldo Leapld 
                       Professor of Wildlife *mea*t 
cc iraisi 

                                  MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
                                  May 4, 1940 
       Dr. Aldo Leopold 
       424 University Farm Place 
       Madison, Wisconsin 
       Dear Dr. Leopold: 
       I received the signed copies of the cooperative 
       agreement from Dr. Pirnie and have answered by 
       a letter, copy of which is attached. SinceE." 
       I have had a wire from Pirnie saying that he 
       felt the changes I suggested could be worked 
       out, I have on this date forwarded to the Ameri- 
       can Wild Life Institute a check in the sum in- 
       dicated for my participation. This is a direct 
       contribution to the American Wild Life Institute. 
       The more I have thought over the matter since I 
       wrote Pirnie, the more I dislike the cooperative 
       agreement. I think there should be a pledge on 
       my part to the American Wild Life Institute to 
       support its work, for such a time. In return, 
       I should have a memo from them that they propose 
       to and will conduct certain work which would bei  ; 
       outlined in the agreement. Similar memoes would 
       be had with you and Pirnie. 
       Naturally I am making these contributions to 
       scientific work and   want to receive such bene- 
       fits of tax deductions as the law permits. I have 
       sent the check because I do not want the work 
       delayed and I have no doubt we can work something 
       out which is satisfactory. 
       Best personal regards. 
                             Yours very truly, 
jfb aj 
-ýf-_  Ame 

Copy of letter 
                                         April 30, 1940 
 Dr. M. D. Pirnie 
 W. K. Kellogg Bird Sanctuary 
 Battle Qreek, Michigan 
 Dear Dr. Pirnie: 
 I have at last before me the Cooperative Agreement 
 respecting the Delta Watetfowl Research Unit. 
 In principle I am entirely agreeable to the proposals 
 here set forth, but there are one or two things about 
 the agreement on which I would like to receive either 
 a change, or an interpretation: 
 1) Dods the character of the agreement void the 
     contribution, from a tax standpoint, as being 
     a contribution for purely scientific puzooses? 
     I know I could give it to the American Wild Life 
     Institute, and the Institute could in turn make 
     tae contribution, but iam not at all sure that 
     i coild get the tax allowance as it is set up. 
2) The purpose of the Delta Station as set forth 
    should, in ny opinion, be more inclusive. The 
    implication is largely that of conservation and 
    management work, with no indication that it permits 
    fundamental researoh. o reference is made in that 
    portion of the agreement in respect to hatchery work 
    or to migration. I have no doubt it was the inten- 
    tion to include these and not to limit the scope of 
    the work. 
3) The budget does not contain any elements for 
    incidentals, which are bound to crop up, and 
    gives very little room in which to turn around. 
I hate to hold up this matter any further, because it 
has already been too long delayed. I am answering your 
letter very promptly because I hope these things can be 
cleared up, so as to avoid as much further delay as 
If you also think these matters can be cleared up, 
I would suggest that I immediately make the contribution 
to the American Wild Life Institute. That will iron 
out the matter of the tax situation definitely, and 
I have no doubt we can arrange about the definitions 
later. I further suggest that, If it meets with your 
approval, you either wire me  r i         s     t we 
can proceed at once. 
                         Xours very truly, 

                                           200 Chamber of Commerce 
                                           Minneapolis, Minnesota 
                                                U. S. A. 
James F. Bell                               may 41, 1940 
Dr. Aldo Leonold 
424 University Pam Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Dr. Leopold: 
I received the signed copies of the cooperative agreement from 
Dr. Pirnie and have answered by a letter, copy of which is attached.. 
Since then I have had a wire from Pirnie saying that he felt the 
changes I suggested could be worked out, I have on this date forwarded 
to the American Wild Lifo Institute a check in the sum indicated for 
zy participation. This is a direct contribution to the American Wild 
Life Institute. 
The more I have thought over the matter since I wrote Pirnie, the more 
I dislike the cooperative agreement. I think there should be a pledte 
on my part to the American Wild Life Institute to support its work, 
for such a time. In return, I should have a aemo from them that they 
propose to and will conduct certain work which would be that outlined 
in the agreement. Similar memoos would be had with you and Pirnie. 
Naturally I am making these contributions to scientific work and I want 
to receive such benefits of tax deductions as the law permits. I have 
sent the check because I do not want the work delayed and I have no 
doubt we can work something out which is satisfactory. 
Best personal regards. 
                                  Yours very truly, 
J. r. Bell 
jfb aj 

                                               444 LUniversity~ Iaw= PU*m

                                               11. 5, 1940 
M  .  .  Palmer, Jr. 
Apria   Widlf    Insti~tut 
Wahington, D. 0. 
Dear Mortsi 
         The two Cadiants mho might hande the Delt tfunds ar 
ward War, superintendent of Delta for Kr.B3ll, aM Boy* Lloyd. 
Hoye* probably has his haMs full an it would not be    raceful for us 
to wish this cowe on him at the outost. Shuld yo disagee, I would 
ot cowwse welcome his *tins as treasurer. 
         N Ward is formerly of the Cianaian Mounted Police aMd hs 
bee Mr. all's o    intandMwt fow years. Duin  this period he has 
handled soh year on his own checin aoomat several thousan      dollars 
of Mr. Dell's mone. he is hi*a  rtesecte in the local oomidty A 
well known to the bank, both oa his ow &*count an as Mr. Bell's a   
         e h     ling of the account wo     be relatively simple, boo 
It would simqay be up to Xochbamu and Mr. Ward to stay within the *Wget,

the items of ihiob are sape ot in the wor program. 
         The atthed letter fwom Mr. Jell metions an absoene of leeu. 
in the bkidgot. This Is of cours quite true, but I had not aske for &V

loem   biernu. I was glad enough to have even the main items taken care *of

I thi k it is a matte  between you and Mr. B.11 to discss provision fr 
eontigeniso Yow this reason I did not attemt to answer his letter en 
this point. 
         At the Conferenc ovioyus e emed to agee that Hoye* Lloy     was

our west bet for. aanadian maber of the board. I suest you get some 
official ot the Institute to invite him to s~e, aM I atts&      ar 
draft of a. letter. 
                                 *incerol yours# 
                                        MAld Leopold 
s   . D. Pnt                   Profefsor of Wildlife Mament 
?'V.8 Perhaps Mr. Drs should know that Eward Wardt is  oobhm's 
fatherin-   , an for this reason the ar  gmet mit be i.aavisable, 
owww, he h     ofton hired members of his wn amily with Mr. Jkells moaq 
ada aeel faet i1       maintain a L ieinterested attitude in qestions of

dosamts. Ad.. 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                      May 1, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldot 
            I have talked to Ted Doremus about 
the method of handling the funds for the Delta 
project and he is very much in favor of 
utilizing a Canadian deposit to be checked out 
by a reliable man in charge. 
             I wish you could give us the name 
of the mam who will do this and something about 
him that I can show my people to satisfy them 
on this score. 
             I was very much concerned about the 
conditions mentioned in your handwritten note. 
I sincerely hope they have improved. Here, we 
have had an abundance of rainfall and could well 
spare a large percentage for Delta. 
             Beat regards. 
Sincerely yours, 
C. M. Palmer, 

C l~Draft) 
11w. Joy.. LIi7I 
D~~toiat f Klaqs A 1..otw.0 
Ottawa, Gaaa~a 
Deaw Royse: 
     !h. 1a.t1tu~te has Just ..*wd~ a *opoWatlV* ~ (espy 
atte*hO~) to opewate the Delta Duck Stat i.on for a porlo4 of hz'.. 7 
     WoailA you be wllltug >*. e~e. with Al4o JieopoU aM Mflas D~ 
ou the Uoaw& of Mwieswe for tble atattoat 
     ~ y~ ~ow, ~ hspe is t~t th* 3o1~ w~tk 411 u4i~at* t~ 
Awelpmest ,t p~n~ aM $A~ IR *. fi.l~t ~ watwfow~ msa 
#fl both 4Aas ef th, b~W~ J~ ouS IS btt5~ q~aUtie~ ~ 
to hslp ~U. ~ -~ uMet~~g, *lAh esuststs, IS a .~I Asp 
Ii the p~~tIa of m 24*... 
     bs astiVe ufl.s, .tha tbaR k.spi~ a ~athet~ ~e o~ 
will enets~ ot ~ a~a.~l R5stt~, a$ D4t, ~ ?WIW ~t ~ 
sal ly t ** I, to b 4su.. 
     Zin4zhep ~ 
                                     -~ ~~lI~* IRStibtO 
cc Pirnie 

                    y 6a 1940 
We Albert Hoohbawm, 
     Delta, Maidtoba, 
Dear Albert& 
     Just a note to advise that an reocipt 
of the Cooperative aome    t Ur. Bell wrote 
and wired me relativ to certain ahanges in 
the hzroewunt.  I replied that I thought 
they could be qreed to by all of usl and on 
Saturday I received a w    "A  sending oheok 
today to Wildlife Institute," I asked Mr. 
lell to let me   ow  hether he also was 
writing you and Professor Leopold as t 
these minor ehaw-es in the statemet of 
                    Sinoerely yours, 
 CC to Leopold:/ 
                         Miles Do Pirnime, 

                    ThV imqo 
0-,                                      P7 "' 
                 X7 s"g 
             "               ,,I: Y3 
        ~~ A~. 
            t ~ tL, 
   ~, ~     ~ A~~JL   q~2o, 

C % *  - t -  j   J_ l  -   

                                    Delta Duck Station 
                                    Delta, Manitoba 
                                    May lst, 1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Prof. o' Wildlife Management 
University df Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Prof. Leopold: 
          It is good to hear that the budget is going through 
and thank you for your troubles in getting the agreement settled. 
          Everything is going nicely, although there are too 
many things happening at once now that it is May. We started the 
incubator for Art~s wood-duck eggs and tbrv ar5 coming along 
nicely. Unfortunately Art will not be able to raise Delta ducks 
this year. 
          The marsh is ooen and most of the duck- Qr- back. 
Mallards and pintail are nesting and we will begin egg' collecting 
May 6th. 
          I have a meeting with the Zoology Dept. of the University 
of Manitoba and it looks ar though we may find a rsy for cooperaticn 
with them. 
          The scples havenarrived and I am awaiting approval from 
Ottawa to bring them in. 
ejh/ HAH 

                                    424 Unifersity Yams Placo 
*r. 0. M. Paler Jr. 
America Wldlil2fe Institat 
Invetmmt Buiding 
Wsigo, D. 0. 
3svW YlOrtl 
         erfor senn         eck for ioohs' 
salr for April. 
         I assue that ansoonas~ the Wesson is 
signed the unxene portion of the ba.t will be 
deposited with ooeseea. I hope you have so* b. 
Dorum  as to his pvetraens vTer4 the question ot 
disusmeat uaahiaw. Doa't forget the little 
"saving* we cam get by depositing in ba.s4a 
         With liet ra     . 
                        Sincerely oeu, 
                           Aldo Lepl 
                    lrofeee.7 of Wtidlfe t 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                        April 26, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Plaoe 
Madison, Wiscasin 
Dear Aldo ? 
              I am enclosing herewith our check in 
the amount of $150.00 to cover Hochbaua's salary 
for April, 1940. 
              Best regards. 
Sincerely yours, 
C. M. Palmer, Jr. 

                                            424 university yam plag 
                                            April 25, 19)46 
*r. roederie C. Walott, President 
American Wildlife Inastitute 
naveetaent Imldtui 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear 3enators 
          I am delighted to hear tfro you and hope that 
the a"  We has eased to give you trouble. 
          Nothing could be bettor news than your porsonal 
intereat in seeing the %ork at Delta. I ax going up some- 
time in July an wish we could go up tethe. I am not 
yet able to set a fixed date, but If you are interested, I 
would like to keep in touh with you ad so* what date 
would be mutually agreeable. I an very proud of the work 
that the boys are doing and wish we couldI give our sponsor 
a closr lok at what is going on. Let me kw whether 
there is ay chane of y'our ging. 
          With best regards, 
                                Aldo Leopod 
                       PrOfessoOe of Wildlife a---enmt 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Commiftee 
   Incorporated In District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                April 15, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Fam Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
               I was thoroughly disappointed at 
missing the Conference this year. From all reports 
I understand it to be the most useful of any of our 
Conferences so far. 
               I have just signed the revised agree- 
ments for the Delta IWaterfowl Station project and 
these are being passed on to you for formal action 
by the other cooperators. 
               I am very anxious to see the field 
activities at Delta and muld like very much to get 
up there some time between now and September. What 
would you suggest will be the best time to look over 
these operations? 
               With very best regards, I am 
                                  Sincerely yours, 
                                  Frederic C. Walcott, 
                                  C. M. Palmer, Jr. 

                                      424 UnIverej,1 Ya,,, Plac 
                                      April 24, ig4o 
Mr. R. Alber Xhbaum 
Dela. ManSioba 
Dear Albert 
         As yo will co. from the attahe carbo.u 
th aeraento are to proess of signatur.I thI* 
you coml4 safely fffwth  asisat.i     to Morrill If 
he is willing to *one up at his ow ik*Posal 
Mar   laner cant act-ally maet the depsit until the 
eeers are r      -nedi. a there ~ht be some dela 
ina Mr. bli'ts office *Um he be out of town. 
         I an lettin the omSitte. knw  M   yo will 
not got d   for your oumattioa peviousto        , 
that yo will take it; next fall, after your v~toar from 
                           81OeWAelT 7our$, 
                       lwotessor of Vilaif, 0 Maam 

                                     Dolte Duck Station 
                                     Delta, Menitoba 
                                     April ?Oth, 1940 
 Mr. Aldo Leopold 
 Prof. of Wildlife Management 
 University of Wisconsin 
 Madison, Wisconsin. 
 Doer Prof. Leopold; 
           I am afraid, now that I am back, that it would 
 be almost next to impossible to get down this June in time 
 to take an examination. Fassett tells me he is leaving Parly, 
 we will have a student to break in and Pettingill porsibly 
 Sutton will be here early in June. Thank you for suggesting 
 the recommendation for the non-resident rcholarship. If they 
 are limited, I would rather let some one else have a try at 
 it, for I can carry myself alright. Otherwise, however, I 
 would aopreciate the chance. 
           In rpgprds to the budget, will you let me know 
-when it is alriwht to offer the assistantship to Morrill, and 
also when we will be Pure of money for the local,aasaistante 
for egg collecting. 
           The ducks have been Douring in thesp last few days, 
 mostly mallards Pnd pintails, and the geese are legion. We 
 will be collecting eggs in less than two weeks. 

                                          42$4 University Yam Place 
           Pt.~~Api 2ile                           1940~i, ret 
Dr. Milo D.1. irue DIirocto 
         I an sedn yo he,,rewith  I qua 4uMplicatoo. the 
Delt& apg.eest, signed by Sentor Walcott &M myself. 
$ties, yo exreas you approval Inya 'ir letter of April 11 
to Albert, I take it you are ready to sign   Mort Palmo 
tells me that he has written Mr. hall, so that in, orde to 
save time I riaot youl forward the agemn      directly to 
Mr. Bell. Since he has zat *ommoutt4 to the cotary, I 
tokm It that the ale~n will =At with his &pproval. 
         Mort ?ala..w uxtu1?ai. *&=at doqosit the ftud 
uatil the sigutues are conplat1 end Albert tobss       po 
his arrngea..ts with Morrill, 5Sowl, ato, and also with 
w" ollestor isztfl he to sure that the futAd are forth- 
eeMi~, hom   *the sooer the bettr. 
         with 'be iGOVAG 
                            Sineoely yomsw, 
                                AI10 Leopold 
      0241Professor of Wildlife MwaemeaS 
00 Palmer 

                    DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                    Bureau of Biological Survey 
                             April 18,i940 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
     424 University Farm Place 
          Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
      In reply to your letter of April 11 I may say that the two 
titles "Do Drakes Outnumber Susies?" and "The Sex Ratio of
Ducks" refer to the same paper which was published only once, namely,

in American Game, Vol. 21, January-February, 1932, PP. 3-4, and 16-17. 
I gave this paper before the A.O.U. at the Detroit meeting on 
October 20, 1931, and it is listed on the program which was published 
in the Auk, Vol. 49, page 58, January 1932. 
     Its appearance in American Game is, however, its only publication. 
     It is my belief that the extensive interest in this subject that 
has been manifest in recent years may be traced directly to this 
paper. Incidentally, when I submitted it to American Game it carried 
the title "The Sex Ratio of Banded Ducks" and I believe you may
my amazement when I first saw it in print under the title of "Do 
Drakes Outnumber Susies?" Seth Gordon was then president of the 
association and I believe responsible for a good part of the editorial 
work on American Game. 
     With best regards, I am 
                                 Sincerely yours, 
                                    F. C. Lincoln, In Charge 
                               Distribution and Migration of Birds 
                                  Division of Wildlife Research 
Hochbaum, Hawkins, Sowls: 
          This clears up the mystery about this publication. 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Commiftee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                    April 12, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
               I have had Senator Vvalcott sign the 
revised agreement in accordance with your request. 
It is attached hereto in quadruplicate. 
               I hope you can have these agreements 
signed and passed on to the other cooperators. 
               I received a letter from Bell acknowledg- 
ing mine in which I informed him that the Executive 
Committee had approved the agreement, and I am 
writing him in rely bringing him up to date. 
               With best regards, I am 
                                 Sincerely yours, 
C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
P.S.As per your request I em returning 
the agreement with the revisions noted 
your file copy of 
in pencil. 

                    April 11, 1940 
V#, Albert Hoohbaumo 
     Delta,, Yanitoba,, Canada, 
Dear Alberti 
     Plase consider this iV offieial approval of your 
appointment of Lyle Sa-ls and Ralph V-rrill to the 
positions as research assistants for the three mionths 
durIng the euswr of 1940. I think it very fortunate 
that Lyle can start work early enouZh to help during 
the first big rush. 
     Thanks for the outline* I shall at least try to 
arrange to make available to you the best of what I         a 
have on the deve lomnt of early pl     -gesa, ohi     lV.C   - 
acquisition and loss of juwnal tail feathers.    I 
doubt tht Bulletin I is the place to go Into pluae 
details. Don't you think this had better be done by 
species In later publications? 
     A physiology and biology teacher with a Masters 
Degree from the University of 1iichigen wishes to oom 
to Michigan State College for work toward a PhD. U 
leans towd a problem in anatom     under Dr rennel, 
Would he be overwlapping or getting in yu way if he 
undertook a problem on seasonal and a-e ohan-es in the 
loaea -the bura and reproductive organs found there? 
He could have eons iderable lYallard and pheas~t material 
from the State 0" Farm and of course we could arrange 
to have certain other species for his study material, 
Am I wrong in assumng that you are primarily Interested 
in you field study and paintiag! or do you plan to do 
more intensive work on the bursa, etc., of the sort this 
student might tackle? ';'hat I wish to know is your re- 
   actions to his taking up such a problem, whether you 
idght have mterial for him or will you be wanting all 
the Delta material for your own researehes and publi. 
*ationse Shall appreciate a prorpt reply as it is high 
tim that this candidate decided on his probleuo 
                     Sincerely yours, 
*- Leopold                         V 
                                Do Pirnie. 

                                          ~424 university rami ll.O 
                                          April 10, 19). 
Mr. ff. Albert Roothba= 
          I ftu11 ace  tha we should &coop% MIlest. 
nonu1ation for the first assistantship. If' you ana ogrwy 
F'l@ In. addition,. so w~oh the better. Llel got back from 
Zl1tlnis the other da ad sve a very Sod semliar on hi. 
Illinois wte'rfovl mwr, whic he di4 on the side as n 
inoilent to the wood dck std. I attach an outline of 
hie se ratio ta   . I. will, of our-s, tell y   abeot it. 
          It is wprising that the flght ie so late. 
WeEything is upeet here, too, the martins arriving only 30 
days later than the bliebirds. 
          2 an wtrnalg the Merrill   rres.poeace. 
                           Sieoorely yours,, 
                                Aldo Leeopold 
      eael              Prote.sor of Wi~ldlife Wasageomm 

                                          Delta Duck Station, 
                                          Delta, Manitoba 
                                          April 7th 1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Prof. of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
Dear Prof. Leopold; 
          In spite of the mild winter here spring is more than 
a week late this year and tbo first geese did not arrive until 
          With the first of April Qonu it is high time we began 
to plan for the summer assistants. I assume that the budget approved 
in Washington is the same as outlined in your "Cooperative Agreement".

This provides 4700 for two assistants,$100 eae-h for a period of 
three months and travelling expenses. For one of these assistantships 
we are counting on Lyle. Arriving early this year, he will be a 
great help for 17e are going to be a bit crowded carrying the hatchery 
by ourselves. 
          Miles has recommended Ralph Morrill for work this summer. 
He is a protege of Van Tyne whose recommendation I am passing along. 
In view of the fact that there is enough to carry Lyle- 4as as 
assistant and because Morrill is Miles"' choice for Delta work I am

inclined to favor his aopointmen*. It may not be entirely within 
our policy to take on a museim man but we will be loaded down this 
year if we do not have someone to take over a good share of this 
work. We might look for someone in our own group to do this work, 
but we have more or less committed ourselves to take someone of 
Miles' choice and I am sure that Van Tyne would not recommend anyone 
but an able person. 
          I have not heard from Ottawa about the rn~les but if 
they are ready to ship they might as well be sent on for I am sure 
we can get them in somehow. 
                                     Sincerely Youre, 

Wmyandug conge.rin Delts Sud~n- ssittu~       for 1940 
       With the Delta budet approved for the 1940 season we are 
free to go ahead witb appointments for student assistants for the 
-    r Season. The budget as set forth in the ' Cooperative Agreement 
allots $700.00 for two assist&mts-lOo. each for a priod of three 
sonthe with $50. .aob for travelling expenses. 
       Of the candidates reoooended for the posit ions the two 
which appear to m0 to b. best fitted for work at-Ihla are  alph 
Vorrill, and Lyle %#wles. 
       Ralph Morrillreommuded by Dr. Pirale, is a protege of Dr. 
Van yne. He hau worked for several year. with Van Tyne who recoad* 
his highly for work at Delta. He is--a student at itohigan State 
Norml College and has bees an assistant is the Bird Division Laboriat- 
ory of the Untv-roity of Niehigas. I an Inolined to favor the app- 
ointment of Morrill for one of the assistantships because of his 
abilities as a prepsrator. He bar been trained in this work by Van 
Tyne and in the course of the past few years has made up over two 
thousand skies. The operation of the hatchery is entirely upon our 
heads this year and if we are to take advantage of *ll of the hatchery 
speotaiarat!rial there will be time for little else. A person with 
orrill's qualification will leave us with more time for the field. 
I understand that his abilities are not ecafued to museum chores 
and that we my rely on hi; to help with the hathoery work and 
experiment, with the oaptive birds. 
       I have not met Mrrill, but Dr. Pirnie knows his personally 
and Van Tyne vouohes for his ability to get along with people under 
adverse coeditiones. The time at wbhih he could report for work at 
Delta, however, would have some bearitn upon bis arnointment. The 
most crowded period of the yeor is betswe. the last week in iay 
and the middle of June. The sumr assistant should be available 
by the first week of June at the latest. 
       Lyle Sowls is returnung to Delta before the end of April, 
and plfns to remain unil early fall working princinally upon his 
study of the -ranklin Ground 9qStrre. Lyleis familiar with the 
batchery routine and as, without the breeds for egg collecting 
this yeart we will need an assistent during the early season, all 
of us at Delta would like to have Lyle back. Lyle ii planning to 
carry himelf pert way on his ow   funds but w-uld not be able to 
oarry himself through the season entirely on his own. 
       Peter and    'Ward are favorably impressed with Morrill and 
Lyle as Candidates. I as satisfied that they will fit into our 
program and an passing their nes o for s 
                                          Albert Hothbos 

                   MINES AND RESOURCES 
                   LAND5,PARKS AND FORESTS BRANCH 
                                 OTTAWA I April 9, 1940. 
Dear Leopold.- 
               It is entirely satisfactory to have 
the Delta findings printed in the form of separate 
bulletins, and I appreciate your advice that this 
is the plan that is now in prospect. 
               When the suggestion comes along of- 
ficially about my acting as a trustee for the Delta 
investigation it will receive immediate attention. 
                With kind regards. 
                           Yours very truly, 
Aldo Leopold, Esq., 
  Professor of Wildlife Management, 
    College of Agriculture, 
      University of Wisconsin, 
        Madison, Wisconsin, U. S. A. 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                    March 29, 1940 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Plaoe 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
               I am attaching herewith oheek for 
Al Hoohbaum in the amount of $150.00 which covers 
his salary for Maroh. 

424 Univorsitr 1orm PIo 
March 217, 194*0 
Mr. 0. U. Palmer, Jr. 
American Wildlife Institute 
Itletueznt Building 
Wahi~ngton, D. C. 
Dear Mortt 
         The April I vtproll for Delta 
Bohbau-'s sealar for Xar-$1O. 
will consist of 
    Sineerely ymrs, 
         Aldo L6.QpOld 
Professor of Wildltift -Aanag nt 

                                      Delta Duck Station 
                                      Delta, Manitoba 
                                      March ?7th 1940 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Prof. of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconnin. 
Dear Prof. Leopold; 
          This will let you know that wd reached Dplta 
alright. Stopoed over to sep Dr. Roberts and Mr. Kilgore 
on the way up as well as Pettingill. Sewall is coming up to 
take colored movies of the hatchery and marsh in June. 
          It is good to know that you werA able to cover 
thr Delta Program so well at the conference and that the 
budget is settled. I believe that I can get the bulletin 
material out as scheduled. I am afraid that you must have 
nut yourself out quite a bit on the pictures and I went to 
thank you for showing them. If you would like to have the 
pictures handy in the office why not keep them with you at 
          There was lots of snow throuwh Minnesota but the 
Portage fields are black and dust is blowing. Water will be 
lower in the marsh this year than last end we will not be 
able to keep the old ducks in the marsh Den. Consequently 
we are building a new pen and water tank at ihe edge of the 
flying pen for the old ducks. 
          Ev-rything is fine h-re and everyone is set for 
the coming season. Ed has a caboose moved in for Lyle and we 
are fixing up one of the little cottages on the ridge near 
the duck house whi(h will be much handier for the hatchery 
work this year. 
          Crows are moving in and it will be but a few 
days before the ducks and geese will be with us sqein. 
                                Sincerely yours, 

                                             44University Yarn a P.e 
                                           March 2?, 194o 
Mr. C. M. Palmr, Jr. 
Auerican Wildlife Institute 
Investment BuIldiag 
Wshington, D, 0. 
Dar Mort : 
          I am returng the Delte agreement for re- 
vision, in aeowdance with your wire recelves today, 
          Zt occrp to me that there should be inserted 
In the revieton v now pamraph, as followss:Pej 
?him ageeempnt eoveys the peiod Jamu !,r 1,1940, 
Deoomber 31, 19I42.1 
          Needles to sa, I " very ruoh Cratified to 
have the Delta  etup reach the stage of a signed docu- 
vent, and I appreciate your efforts In Its behplf. 
          With best reards, 
                            Tours sinorely, 
                                 Aldo Leopold 
Professr of Wildlife Uasgeseat 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
   Incorporated In District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                     March 22, 1940 
Prof. Al do Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
              I am attaching hereto the copies of 
the agreement and budget approved by our Executive 
Committee and signed by Senator Walcott. 
              I have left the budget as you presented 
it, including the $500.00 item which Mr. Carpenter 
agreed to subscribe at our meeting. 
              You can appreciate I am sure with what 
satisfaction I write this letter. 
              As to the period this program is to cover 
I would suggest that the three-year schedule begin 
January 1st, 1940 and include the three calendar years, 
1940, 1941, and 1942. If you have any other ideas on 
this please let me know. 
             With best regards, I am 
                                   Sincerely yours, 
                                   C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
F: g 

              Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
    Kbur*                             U, ?B 
      .mai    .e       r       aI 
    Nimeopo  s  ioote 
              The     o4visi y M u ,t 
    propo    th   Delta pr  *    t   pro 
    budge * preseted by Mr. Leopold to a ver p)*sosat 
                WM0 hodoa has inst bold upsi 
    qmrtime an the pba, I anew    oe rwo will Us 
    nori satisfie nm that vs -no pretty nuk       ow 
    stm   wil on proee4 with full speed sh 
      adI on foradx  thm to Aldo Saopo4.e will 
    t.#WA  tbmI tam t  ot Y". 
       Wil ver best rogrds an         wfisp 
                                0. iS. ?almr, Jr. 

                                       44 Uive.its Faa Place 
                                       March 22, 1,940 
Centra Scietifleo 
1700 Irving Paf Boulevar 
         I wud lke to order the follwine$ 
             trip ualue    m pans 
             1 set of xo. 9tO4-D weights 
             a mSing cse to fit scaes 
         I knw that those seale do nt ooe equipe 
with    y    a&o** but o a cple of acOlos in the 
pst, " you   q remembr, yo hasv arrg   to have a case 
made by the aufnAtuAw and I an wno    if Iyo oma 
4o this agan. A case is quite eesay, sine the s          eales 
will be sd In the fel. 
         These so.Xes are for one of v        te stdents 
wh is worn o a *Ak prject nCana      . T  save tine 
aM bothr, t    ore will you kiny      a1 throe Item 
directly to hine Mr. H. Albert 1oabau, Dolt&, Manitoba, 
st _a. The bill, howver, a" be eat to no. 
                        Sinserely y  ., 
                            Aldo Leopold 
                     Professo of Wildlife Management 

                                             424 University Farm Plae 
                                             Marcoh 22s 19~40 
M~r. G. U. Palmer, Jr. 
Amerioan Wiife Institute 
Investment ftlding 
Washington, D. 0. 
Dear MortaI 
          I have revis  the Deta aereent to inaoude a few 
uggestions by Miles Firnie and a few changes sreeste4 by our 
reoent onferees iu Washington.    hese revisios are Indicated 
In pencil on the fle copy attached. I am not retypin bemause 
it occurred to me yea might in~sert Kr. Carentnr's intit~al, or 
yea might prefer to list his copay rather than Mr. Carpenter 
persoly. There alsomay be other minor revitions dsrable 
from your standpint. I take it you will want to ask Mr. Be11 
a   the Institute to sign a reised cony. Whea there to.a w 
vis4d copy, wi4l yea make   slb for Pirnel, Kocbbms, san 
          With ýbeet regars, 
                              Sincerel ymrs, 
                                    Aee Leopold 
                           Professor of Wildlfe K.s.esat 

Hatchery Program. 
    Sex Ratio Study   Sex ratios of 700 dtcks at hatching. Sample: Mallard

                                                                    267 birds

                                                                    156 birds
   .Me CrLteria       Technique develop$d for examining cloacal age characters

                    (repro.organs& burn  abricil) in living ducks. Constant

                    with all species and good for fall and early winter studies.

                    Checked in 1700 birds at Delta - 6000 birds in Illinois
by ". 
   Plumage Studies    Age criteria established in plumage development of
                      young. 13 species. Species identification in form of

                      drawings & colored plates. 
\ lovement & Survival 233 hatchery birds released bringing total of Delta

   Studies.            artificial releases to more than 6000 birds( 9 species)

                       -Returns received from Mexico, Most States of Atlantis
& Miss. 
                       flyways, and from Ganadian Provinces. 9-17 % returns

                       received first year after release. 
Field Studies. 
Life History 
Seasonal Movements 
of aterfowl. 
Brood Studies & 
Juvenile Mort. 
Beg Tally. 
Canvasback , Redhead, Franklins Gramnd Squirrel. 
Cite flightless period of eclipse - June 15 -- Oct.l 
Influx of non-breeding birds (baldpate) eflux of 
deepwater drakes. 
Important relationship between brood survival and growth- 
rate of youn4. Pintails fly at five weeks and the hen 
remains with the brood until they are fully developed. 
Canvasbacks fly at 11 weeks and are abandoned by the 
female three or four weeks before they are able to fly. 
Sex and age ratios of 1700 birds in hunters bags 
examined. Important relationship noted between type of 
hunting and the sex ratio of the kill. 
Mallard- Decoy shooting brings bags of adult drakes and 
                 Juveniles of Both sexes. Bags heavy in males. 
           Jump shooting brings bags heavy in adult females 
                 recovering from flightless period of eclipse. 
       The following material is mature enough for Publication. 
                              Resume of eight year's observations in the
                         Propagation of wild ducks. 
                              Banding records of 6000 captive-reared birds
                         at Delta since 1932. 
                              Sex and age identification of wild ducks. 
                              Species identification of downy young ducklings.

                              Mid-summer movements of waterfowl in southern
                              Sex and age ratios of hunters bags at Delta,Manitoba.

                              Studies of Juvenile mortality in wild ducks.


                                               4214 UversIV ranft fae 
 Mr. U. Abert             Sdoemm 
 Deaw Albert i 
         Miles and I had a very satisfactory series of cofeentese 
 abmat Delta affairs in Washington. 
         W, fis  talked with Nor% Psalme and foun  that (1) the 
 soopwative ageeumeat is approved, ( 2) the bugt ex~ot for the bulletin 
 ites, Is swrve4, (3) the dela   inse      Mr. Sell m  e 4to t   moato 
 lott' ei   ga hospitaslse  with aa aeoidt     to his Ws. 
         T     w with eWt we ha x  eotin with theTrhe  stoe.  Mr. 
Capenter of Vimiato. w    i, I thin, o  oied with .Dak t. offered 
te isbscibe the $W  v*h ws had  elt foe foe the bllotia. This ues- 
that as sean as Mr. Sl returs,, and aseda     that his coatribution 
et, ,ilises as seftleI, the  aet foe the  iS year ts c      e 
         Mile. and I talked with Mort albut a fissal system which womul 
utilise the favorabe 0amdi     exhange. Mort favored a Canadian depsit 
to be Shosid upo 1 Mr. Ward. %et he will first see Mr. Dowem    of the 
Iststitate te mae vmsWe thisuld be BUsaisttorr to hint. I so sw~in 
Mort a eoM of tWi an a rentade. 
         SMile n I daimssed with Mort the bot shee, f a Canadian 
mmer of the'bo.    N       **ms ee    on em sloyd as tint e.ia, 
with the u     ifewstas i that he miDt dlegte this to Dp. I sg 
gest, th~erefos that as soos as the cooperative agreemet iosettled, y 
broach this matter to Ie L      We shom14, f cours, dter   first 
whether this meets with Mr. Sell's approvl, ama I am wvting bine acordinly

(see aseW taoo) 
         Milos amd I d~iscu~ssed with Mowt the two altemeat~ves plaea for

priatiMS the bulistin. Tho both thogt that we shomul do our ewn printing

If we can afford it, bat that we could resert to the reprint method should

funds be inuffticient for the other aethot. Meanwhle I saw boye Lloyd and

learned that he wm14 be gla  to bamile the reprts throu    the Canadian 
IieUd-halumlist if we mated his to. 
         There is saes question, as to the sufticimqa of the, $500 forw 
indepedet printing, but there Is ale. perhaps soms question whether the 
satire bill vmS tall against the *omit   year. It is wx*resto.S thoat whatever


Sochbaux - I 
ehod f pintig to follwed, It shl opeate on a reolvin fund, the of oe blletin Wgo     1nat the oe.ts of the nx. In an *s* 
, nt thine to d         to go ahead with the tenattive museeipt a per 
        We shwed the Vantng at the Trustees'luncm        and I an vey 
g   w  414. I shippe then baek her, not nowi *the y  wnte4d 
then &t Dta. If Ish        hol  then for you hero, lot se ftow. 
        Shope you bhd a  d trip up,' a&*  thank aaein for takinc the

1kaae clas. 
                               Your. .sincoalY 
00 flALe 
1reeor  of  fs  ea mt 

                                        44Univertgy Fainrm Plas 
                               21, 19.0 
 )t~jMer.  31*11 
 200 O.wne of Oamere 
 Minneapolis, mimatea 
 Dea Mr. *111 
         MU... filmnt aMd I ha a vey satisfactory onertm, 
with the IaIibite o Delta ata,"in,,J bi   the Wildlife  inswoo 
this weeks and we are gl  to rtpo  to you that he t.t Is wm 
aesure and awits only the "101t& of arr      ente between the 
Insti~tute amYusnelf. 
         The last $500 of the Waft*, to be, s#A up for pablicati.a 
of ba loein. wase laeng wen we first a     ved in Washton# 
bt ater hearnig the rpt on the y-.r      woer Mr. Capne of 
tho Duaot Owpu   tffred to subscribe Weisum. This pleased 
vo7 mas and I ~e It will plee* yo. 
         The Istittes a addition to utia     the      .et, 
has aproe the oeoprativ. agoet         This, as you ramber, 
etalls, for the addition of a Camian a the third mebe at the 
Paita beaxt. Waryoeagr~ee that Roes UI4 wold be the !be* 
*.Mts for, a uian memer aaM If he wishes to delegte this 
reeeibilI, D       Soer ouml  t as his r][esmatiwe. 
mm~ Ilk* to mak sure that this Is Agreinble, to yo 'before 
Wrobing the matter to Mt. Lloyd. 
  atr. Piiue and I ske eon* of URebsms ianti~s 
  at theTstoeee mettiag and ther were vuw well reivd 
         With beet ro%", 
                          Prof essor of WI3Alife M&Wmet 
as lirnio 

                                             4~24 University F&= im"?a

                                             March 21,o 19WQ 
Mu'. Hoeo Lloyd 
Dpartment of Mines asil Mosou~es 
Nationl Park*s hwein 
          You will reoe    qW &*king yo inforoll abmtth 
possibility of printin the Delta rspewte throm the 
          It develope laers at a meeting of the Institute 
Truqst*"e that thqy preferred to publish the Delta findings 
4tweatly in the form of bwalltiae, prvide4d the funde suffiee 
for following this method. I thouit I had better lot youko 
about thi. 
          lb. Trustee approva th* eacvs   tation sa1ttt 1W 
Dr. PIr&. and Woolf that the Delta enterpuise 'be conduted 
under the geeal~ rapevIsion of a board of thwe.,to conist of 
"se Caada    mebr Dr. Pirale AM    Woolf   It va voeds wwL 
amel   to ask you to servs as the Canadian meber. 
          Hocbsu.m will take this up formally later on. r an 
simply telling yo about it informally In &dana La the bujpe 
that you will be giving It fawvorble ionsideatios. 
                                 Sincerely res, 
                                       Aldo L~e"Id 
                              1wof ssor of Wildlif * Namag ta 
cs Pivid. 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
   Incorporated In District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
     March 5, 1940 
   F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                                       Come to the 
                                          5th NORTH AMERICAN WILDLIFE CONFERENCE

                                                The Mayflower, Washington,
D. C. 
                                                MARCH 18, 19 and 20, 1940

Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
             I have your letter of the 29th and shall write 
Bell immediately. I've been afraid all along that he 
would lose interest in the proposition, feeling that the 
Institute was letting him down. So, I have been keeping 
in touch with him as much as possible without breaking 
down my own morale from too much alibiing. 
             Now with respect to the bulletin, I'll talk 
with Senator Wal cott about this vkhen he gets here. He 
has promised to come down this week and go over some 
things in advance of the Conference. I appreciate very 
much the importance of Canadian "good will" but certainly 
thirnk..  should publish its own separate report on the 
work of the Delta project. 
             This research work is of no valutwhatso ever 
unless it is properly utilized and that meansapublish the 
results for the use of everyone. That $500.00 item must 
be included in the Delta budget and I think there will be 
no difficulty in having it set up there if you urge# the 
point at our Board meeting. 
              Best regards. 
Sincerely yours, 
C. M. Palmer,Jr. 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
      Mlarch 1, 1940 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                                       Come to the 
                                         5th NORTH AMERICAN WILDLIFE CONFERENCE

                                               The Mayflower. Washington,
D. C. 
                                               MARCH 18, 19 and 20, 1940

Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
              I am attaching hereto our check in the 
amount of 4150.00 to cover the March 1 salary of 
Mr. Hochbaum. 
              I'll try to work out the arrangements 
for the Monday night session of the Technical 
Committee with Senator NValcott7" 
              Best regards. 
                                   Sincerely yours, 
                                   C. M. Palmer, Jr. 

                                           1-)4 Unversitr Yarnm P ea 
                                           Febmaria 25, 19)40 
Mr. C. U. Palmer, Jr. 
Amoercan Wildlfe Ins tttute 
Washington, D. 0. 
Dsea Morts 
         The M     1 paqroll for Delta again oonsst*s only 
of Hochbauuts salar7 for 7.b2vary, 15000. 
                                 Aldo Leopold 
                         Profesor of Wtllfe U        e 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
             FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER               A   EWILDLIFE                       
                F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board        AMERICAN                 INSTITUTE   
    FREDERIC EWING                     Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,,1935 T. E. DOREM US 
Chairman Executive Committee     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
               C. M. PALMER, JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee            February 26# 1940               
   Come to the 
                                                               5th NORTH
Mayflower, Washington, D. C. 
18, 19 and 20, 1940 
                        Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                        424 University Farm Place 
                        Madison, Wisconsin 
                        Dear Aldo: 
                                      I am glad you got your file of AMERICAN

                        GAME and AMERICAN WILDLIFE and if anyone can put
                        to good use you will. 
                                      I am interested in the new proposal
                         the bulletin on the Delta project and will be eager

                         to get the details.  I doubt that we will have much

                         difficulty in having this approved at a later meeting

                         of the Executive Committee. 
                                      I have not written Mr. Bell as yet
                         ing the action of the Executive Committee on the

                         Delta project because I need but one more reply
                         this Committee to make up a complete quorum. When
                         receive that, which ought to be within a couple
                         I will write him stating that the budget has been
                         approved. I hope he has not changed his mind by
                                      With best regards, I am 

                                               4*24 Unversity Yaw Flase 
                                               February 29. 1940 
Mr. C. U. Palmer, Jr. 
America Wid4life Institute 
vestment balding 
fhineton, D. 0. 
Dear Morti 
          I think it would be a good idea for you to write Mr. 
Be.1, stating how the projeot stands, even thoug your letter 
annot be the V ia praaorx1. I au afraid he has gotten the 
impression that the Institute ts nleatiin his offer. Jo, he 
won't th ,iaeg his wind, but I wt1d 1lc for him to kee his high 
opinion of the Institute. 
          The now proposal ior the balletin is not yet offtiial 
becaue Piles Pirne has doubts about it, but I will tell you 
persoaally wha it is. It Is propeoed to publish the Delta findins 
in the C                       and goet a sufficient stoc of re- 
prints to assemble t  per   icaly, bund in a cover, as 'ioessivs 
blletins of the Delta station. These asemblod bulletin  would then 
be sold at oost and the revolving fund used to bV future reprints. 
The gnod will aspects of p*bltshlng in Oanada ar. obvions. I Am our* 
the eche" would be cheaper ta printin our own buletin. 
          Ftrnies doubt is base& on the ampposition thAt the 
Institute and Mr. Bel1 would rather have a separate prInteA publica- 
tion wholly its own. If thq really prefer this, I am agreeablebut 
I doubt ver  uh ihithor Mr. 2.11 really prefers it. I think he 
would rather have the Canadian god will. 
          I am tellig you about this so that you oan think it ver 
and at the Gonference determine the proe ereme of the lavtitabe. 
          With best rse    , 
                                 Sincerely yours, 
                                       Aldo Leopold 
                              Professor of Wildl ife Umans met 

                                          rebrary 26, 1g4o 
Dr. Miles D. hute, Direetor 
W. X. Kell*= Bird na~tuax7 
Battle Ork Michigan 
Dear Milee 
         014a you "a Albert hd sch a &     ooL roun-up, and 
especially 4   to ae the US. taking fLrm. 
         As to the bu11lti,  take it y.r main res   for 
vaaitiC to plisho r own stuff to that it m14 please r. 
3.1l ad the Inasttute. If so, wu2dalt it be well to ask 
them wat wou14 please sho bstt? I doubt if we a 4o this 
by mail, but I wqxt that Albert take his    swooipta to 
Wr. 3e1 as a s  e. eotline the va-iue altentive    a #of 
ub1ishin thoeu aW the ask han veb-all if he bs a 
*eoiee. Do yu   pproea 
         We e14 als   see the ZastiLte peple *h1. in 
Washingtm nx usath and ask them ther *oloo. Does this 
Md ight?     I tak it yo will be thee. 
         The last word frm Mort Palmer is ~tha rar 
riation had beets irtmally approved, but wihout the $5W fo. 
a %mllotin. Re hoped to get that sppuwsi later, bt s not 
                              Yours asheaely, 
                          Profeseeor of Wi]AliL. ieasmem 

                                            4 University Yam    Mlaee 
                                            lebru~ar7 15, 19~40 
Mr. C. M. Palmer, Jr. 
Amerisa Wildlife nsttute, 
Investment Building 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Morts 
          I very particularly appreciate the file of 
               l an havin this bound at one and will 
                 the volume. 
          Siooe sending you the proposed bugdet for the 
forthcoming year, Albert and I have hatched a new sohee 
for the prposed bulletin which my considerably cheapn 
the soot. I have taken It up with MSil. Pirnie and as 
soon as I have hoard from him I will take it up with you. 
I think wner the new   chee $250 would cover. I send it 
to ,-a as adavnee information should the amount involved 
in the $50C item prove to be imortant. 
          In a note from Mr. Bell recently, he said he 
had not heard fom the Institute.   as there by a   he 
beem so ratifioatiton as yet of his *Veenoit with the 
   Sincerely yours, 
         Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wild~life )~As=senet 

    HERBERT L PRATT                                                     
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER             AMEIA         VILDLIF                 
             F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN WILLIFE INSTITUTE            
    FREDERIC EWING                    Incorporated In District of Columbia,
July22, 1935 T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
            C. M. PALMER, JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee             February 120 1940              
Come to the 
                                                             5th NORTH AMERICAN
                                                                  The Mayflower,
Washington, D. C. 
                   Prof. Aldo Leopold                               MARCH
Is. 19 and 20, 1940 
                   424 University Farm Place 
                   Madison, Wisconsin 
                   Dear Aldo: 
                                 I have your letters of the 19th, 26th, and
                   of January. The reason I haven't answered sooner is because

                   this Conference is beginning to beer dowm on me. 
                                 I am sorry that Al Hochbaum von't be at
                   Conference. I was very anxious for him to meet our people

                   and tell them something of the work he is doing. He has
                   happy faculty of instilling a feeling of confidence in
                   he is doing. 
                                 The reason I wrote you as I did about the
                   of the Delta project was simply this: "While Senator
                   signed the agreement, it was done subject to the approval
                   our Executive Committee and I am atteapting to get that
                   mail. As soon as I get the approval of the majority of
                   Committee I will let you know. I feel confident that there

                   will be no hesitancy on the part of anyone. 
                                 I think you can proceed with your plans
as you 
                   stated you were doing in your letter of the 30th. The
                   thing that was disapproved tentatively was the $500.00
                   Bulletin No. 1. However, I feel that we will be able to
                   this approved upon further consideration of the budget.

                                 As Chairman of the Technical Committee of
                   Institute I think you deserve a complete file of AMERICAN

                   GAME and AMERICAN WILDLIFE and under separate cover today
                   are sending you a set of the copies we have. 
                                 With best regards and looking forward to
                   you at the Conference, I am 
                                                             Sincerely yours,

                                                             C. fl. Palmr,

                                              424 University ram place 
                                              Februaar5, 194o 
Dr. Wiles D. ?irti., Diretor 
W. X. Kellogg Bird S5 tArr 
Dest Jiles 
          Albet a&M   have been tali-g about the pposed bulletin 
series for the Delta station. I think e all feel that Delta need 
aM deserves a bulletin. 1, however, have been woried about the 
liabilities In both monae aM time that we wuld take am in printing 
ad distributing such a pblication. 
          Albert has now me a  uneetsion which I think mets, the 
need without icarri   the liabilities. It to thiss ublish the 
bulk of the Delta fidings an joual papes In the 
          a M a          rprints to assemble them periodicll 
under a  et coer as a Delta b         series. 
          The advanat.ei in good will from using *anad~ian Jourmal 
acsa ouroulet are obviosa. 
          Th* eet wuld doubtlee be lower. at least for sa edition 
of limitae eise. aM th  spervision of priatiag would be elimiated. 
It wuld be pssible to isert a brief printed Introductory shoet 
givian the neeesssr oatimaty. Won plates .M sate emat      d be I*- 
         A still bier alvautage would be that our finIM mould 
cane out chronoloically as ed subject beioes.. wipe". Oo-vathor 
ship coull be esiy handel, paer by paer, with mtire elasticity. 
          I don't want to burden you with a Imngth reply to this 
letter. I smaeet only that you and Albert talk it over, and it you 
think well of Ito we should thea see what Mfr. 3411 and Mort Palmer 
think about It, and If thqV cocu we should see what terms we ca" 
eot from Hayes Lloyd. Boys* Lloyd has alread indlbatel that he 
would like to publish the material, but It mght eatall som. exansion 
In his journal. 
         The ssembled "balletians woull presumably be male availatle

free of chare to warw Imediate ooerators, aMd at a nominal price 
to the public. The receipts voull eonstitute a revolving *nM whaich 

would dobtls shw a smal awmal deficLt bt the total 
         I am n   gcopies of ti for Mort Paler &M Mr. Jell 
bu I so holdin them pW~ing ableo a to your attitude, 
                             Profeso of 1114tf t.aassawk 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
    February 5, 1940 
    F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
    T. E. DOREMUS 
  C. M. PALMER, JR. 
                                                      Comr to the 
                                        5th NORTH AMERICAN WILDLIFE CONFERENCE

                                              The Mayflower, Washington,
D. C. 
                                                MARCH 18, 19 and 20, 1940

Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, VAisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
           I am attaching hereto our check number 
1445 in the amount of $150.00 to cover our 
obligation in connection with the Delta project 
for the month of January. 
           Best regards. 

                                           Jamwa% 26, i20 
Mr. C. M. Pamr, Jr. 
American NWllife Zstittat. 
ZInesmet    ilding 
         istis   jst to lot ym kow the amout of th* 
Delta pay,11 for Teobrw%3 1. It onsist* only of oohblma's 
*aw, *15o.oo. 
                             Sincerely yomrs, 
                                 Aldo L"opold 
                         wrof...r of Wildlife kaaa~mont 

February 1, 1940 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Dr. Leopold: 
I have not had anything further from the 
Wild Life Foundation. I assume that in due 
course of time, they will let me know. 
In the meantime, I take it that you are pro- 
ceeding on the basis that the plans as outlined 
will be eventually approved. 
                     Yours very truly, 
jfb aj 
A I 

                                          k42Z Uni~versity Farm Place 
                                          JaM~y 30, 1940 
. 0. K. P    er, Jr. 
Amrcn idife Institute 
Investment k1145*ng 
Dw Mwrt 
         Since we are to onerate the hatchery at Delta this 
year, it will be aseossw7 for Aabert -oohbom to go to Delta 
before the tie of the oseIewe.,. I just wanted to mak  se 
that you aer not couatiAg on his for any pers or to meet with 
the trastees. 
         the !stoe   haye nwre met Albert ad I an sorry to 
main mis the opprtusniaty  havien thb  Io. Miles Pirzdo 
or I will, of cuse, be glaC to report for the projeot. 
         I an beginnig to be under proexure for mmtet that 
£depw  Von the batt for the coming year. Students are makin 
their plans fer the inew. and salees we get eizatly the rigt 
o   we cannmt got the rest ot of our uanq. If the action of 
the I    _intuto an the forthcoming ra's budget ea favorable$, 1t 
All hlp    MeanuhIe. on the strength of y   ent letter. # 
*hall V mhm4 on the ass  tion that there will be a bdget. 
                            Sinoerely yours# 
                        Professor of Wildlife Monsm emt 

                                             424 Universi ty Farm Plae 
                                             Jamam,, i9% i9ao 
Xr. 0. M. -almne Jr,. 
Amorimn Wildlife rImotituto 
lvesteat Buildng 
Washington, D. C. 
Doar Morts 
          I an delighte., of oourse, to bave cope of the 
reports, and you may be sure thEA thr will be permaently 
bound and referred to. Te only thing I oould not promse 
is to rad and oritiolso them curently. 
          Abert and I are delighted ove yo-   belief that 
the Delta projeot is taken oare of. I bad bega to wonder if 
perluaps we were on the skids. Let   know whe  I ean do ay 
thin to help. 
          I forgot to tell you at the time of my ple~surq to 
your permaaemt appointment. 13ow thnt you kn~ow "where 7m aSte 
at," I hope you wil.l take a breathing spell and look around at 
tome of the In~stitute's undertakings, eapeolally Delta. I 
aotu&l]y tink it would be a goo inventme.t for one of the 
officer to be posted at firot hand. VINU you put this on your 
ealendar now for next ewma? 
                                Sincerely yours, 
                                    Adeo Leopol 
                            Profssor ef IMCI fe Mame      t 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
             FREDERIC C. WALCOTT 
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER                                                   
                F. B. DAVIS, Jr. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board        AMERICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE          
    FREDERIC EWING                     Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935 T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
               C. M. PALMER. JR. 
Chairman Technical Committee               January 16 1940              
   Come to the 
                                                               5th NORTH
                                                                    The Mayflower,
Washington, D. C. 
18, 19 end 20, 1940 
                         Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                         424 University Farm Place 
                         Madison, Wisconsin 
                         Dear Aldo: 
                                       Under separate cover I am sending
to you 
                         copies of the November reports of the research projects

                         and returning the October copies. I am doing this

                         simply because of the fact that I have made arrange-

                         ments to have extra copies of these reports made

                         for you. These you may retain in your files if you

                         so desire. They need not be returned to this office

                         as we have copies. 
                                        I agree with you absolutely with
                         to the burdensome nature of monthly reports and
                         believe the folks over at the Survey now feel the

                         same way about it. Future reports are to be made

                         on a quarterly basis. I think this will be much

                         more satisfactory all the way around. 
                                        I think the Delta project is all
                         care of but I will hold off for a few days before

                         saying definitely that it has all been approved
                         our Executive Committee. 
                                                             Sincerely yours,

                                                             C. M. Palmer,

424 University faM P1^0e 
December 16, 1941 
Mrs Albert Hochbauu 
Delta, Mwtoba 
Dear Alberts 
Z am not worried about the isunerstanding of 
unless we are in trouble. 
the balance 
I will also leave it to you to exPlain to Aiss Qo how 
the matter arose. If there o any trouble, let me know 
what ou Mant me to do. 
                           With beet regars, 
  Aldo Leopol 
of WildlifeManagement 
P.S. I have Just r   ived/Dvid M. Newell, Mitor 
      of Yield an Stream, the attaohed check for 
      Peter Wad   Will you sea that he £ets it? 

                                            Delta Duck Stption 
                                            Delta, Manitoba 
                                            December II, 1941 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
bear AL.: 
       .ky belief in an unexpended balance has erisdn because I have 
not had the entire picture of Delta expenses before me. I was unaware 
that the $160.00 carry-over from last year was charged to this year's 
budget or I would have accounted for it at the beginning of the year. 
Perhaps the increase in salary was also taken from the existing budget; 
I assumed that it represented an addition to the budget. 
       I have knowingly overdrawn on the hatchery supplies and 
travel expenses but believed these would be fully covered by 
Peter Wardls unpaid salary for the last three months of the year. 
My monthly expenses at Delta as bpl1anced with the budget for the 
year would still show an unexpended balance,but not, of course 
with the additional e penses which did not sbow on my booke. 
       I feel very badly tbet this mistake has occurred 
                         Yours sincerely, 
Albert Hochbaum 

                        424 Universit Varm PlUe 
                        December 12g 19~41 
mr. J, Paul Miler 
American Wildlife Institute 
Invest ment Buldin 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Pauli 
I attach klbertts acout for tho potty cah twA 
for Novber, 
His  ils"  acount for Nvber Is $14.40 
The only salary chec for November is his own ln the 
usual amount., 
                   TY    sinserrl-7, 
                   Aldo Leopold 
           Professor of Wild~life om~Agemnt 
*a Hochbau 

    HERBERT L. PRATT                                                    
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    M. HARTLEY DODGE                                                    
            F. B. DAVIS, JR. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board       AMERICAN     VILDLIFE INSTITUTE       
    FREDERIC EWING                   Incorporated in District of Columbia,
July 22,1935 T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee     INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
     ALDO LEOPOLD                                                       
            J. PAUL MILLER 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
                                                            Decenber 5, 1941

                     Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                     424 University Farm Place 
                     Madison, Wisconsin 
                     Dear Aldo: 
                                     Thanks for your letter of November 28,
                     to the $300 balance alluded to in your letter of November
                     and in correspondence of mind of later date. 
                                     I have just received the final contribution
                     Mr. Bell which totals $2,461.20 and includes the $111.20
                     electrical equipment. Combining this with the $2,500.00
                     tributed by the Institute makes a grand total for expenditure

                     at Delta for the current fiscal year of $4,961.20 (U.
S. money). 
                                     In my previous correspondence, I pointed
out the 
                     total expenditures of Delta to date and the expenditures
to be 
                     anticipated for the months of November and December.
You under- 
                I stand, of course, thatI have no objections to Albert's
                     new equipment at Delta, provided there are sufficient
funds to 
                     cover everything. I just -want to make sure that there
will be 
                     no overdrawing on the Delta budget during the current
                                      S.LI.... ..taa.t..            . ..
...* . . .... 
                Apparently, Mr. BelA wishes to inIlude nis pur- 
chase of the electrical equipment as a part of his contribution 
and although this is not in accordance with my original under- 
standing of the situation, we must necessarily comply with his 
wishes. That item must therefore be included in the budget for 
1941. In addition, you will note that Mr. Bell's contribution 
has been reduced by approximately $40.00. My recent request 
to Mr. Bell asked for $1,250.00 which would have brought his 
contribution to $2,500.00, exclusive of the electrical equip- 
ment. Mr. Bell sent us $1,100.00. Unfortunately the Institute 
is not in a position to exceed the $2,500.00 previously agreed to. 
                                         Very sincerely yours, 
                                          J. Paul Miller, 
May                                       Secretary 

iA H 
Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
   Incorporated In District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
December 1, 1941 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldo: 
                Thank you very much for the copy of your letter 
to Mr.' Hochbaum, dated November 19. I would like to comment on 
the last paragraph of that letter which would lead me to believe 
that Hochbaum had advised you that he had a $300 unexpended 
                According to the records at this office, after the 
salaries for November have been taken out, there is a balance of 
approximately $298.00o Salaries for December and expenses for 
both November and December must, of course, come from this item. 
In addition to that, this balance includes $160.00 item carried 
over from last year. Therefore, the expenditure of ý298.C)0 
between now and December 31 would amount to $160.00 overrun on 
Mr. Hochbaum's budget for the current year. 
                In view of the situation regarding finances for 
the 1942 period, I think it is advisable to keep all expenditures 
to a minimum for it is entirely possible that the Institute will 
not be able to contribute as much in 1942 as we did in 1941 for 
the carrying on of the work at Delta. 
                At the present time, it looks like there will be 
a one-third reduction in the amount of our contribution to the 
cooperative units. This, of course, is not final and is given 
to you confidentially as Chairman of the Technical Committee. 
Until a final decision has been reached, this information should 
be kept in strictest confidence. 
                                         Very sincerely yours, 
                                         J. Paul Miller, 
A. '~' & 
   F. B. DAVIS, JR. 

A L/ 4 Hkb 2-H    i 
               P.S. Dear Albert: 
                      I have been wanting to ask you for your own appraisal

                      of your military status, and your ideas on how to jump

                      in the event you should be called. 
                      I can't think of any of the good men we have had at

                      Delta who might be available to keep things going 
                      except Bill Elder. All the other good ones are sure

                      to be non-available. In Bill's case, Illinois would

                      of course have a prior claim, but they themselves 
                      might be shrinking and perhaps able to spare him, 
                      especially in the summer. Have you anv ideas? 

                                      424 University Warm Plae 
                                      November 29, 1941 
Mr. Mbbert Kochbaua 
Delta   ck Station 
Delta, Manitoba 
Dear Albert: 
I am muach impressed with the fundamental soundness of your advioe 
on the personal mtter I wrote you about. I think you he hit the 
mail squarely and given me some valuable guidanoe. 
I am glad the Des Moies trip me not unwelcome. I hesitated a little 
lest you regard it an an interruption. It will be, of oourse, but I 
think that trips to Des Moines and Toronto will be worthwhile. I 
like the subjects that you offer            , and I cannot improve on then.

I an writing Paul Miller to clear up the nature of the $300 balance, 
It pleases me that Paul Miller wants you to chair the marsh management. 
My only worry is that )his might operate to out off your own presentation.

The only idea on program which I have read is this: the Conference has 
nemver had the full benefit of the Illinois work. I think krthur should 
be invited to give his g   e pkp4 of the Horsehoe Lake in full and 
without regard to whose      are stepped on. It seems to me that the 
Institute might well askthe arzm  for his release during this brief 
period of three diys because of the national importance of his oontribu-

tion. Paul Miller could get Senator Walcott to present the request. 
In addition, I think Bill Elder, or somebody else able to speak, should 
summarise the Illinois work. I can tip you off confidentially that 
Trison is unable to suinrise it. I don't know about Bellrose's speaking 
ability. Bill could mke it clear and oconvincing. 
It will be a treat to see you at Des Moines. If you can spare the time, 
come on bakk here with me and stay with us while you are in town. If 
you can bring Joan, so much the better. 
                               With best regards, 
Aldo Leopold 

                             1424 University, arm Place 
                             November 28#1, 941 
Mr. J. Paul Miller 
Mricam Willife Institute 
Inves.tment Building 
Wahington# D. 0. 
Dar Paul: 
Te $1300 balane alui4 to In my letter of    ovember 19 
ma  oreat the erroneos impreseion that ~elta has more 
money than it needs. I want to make it clear that this 
arose from Peter Ward's sudden inuction lto the air force. 
Albert has now .amitted to me that he Is urgently in uee4 
of a now typewriter, and  would like, If you think best, 
your specifio athowtsstioa of its purhase. 
Albert has showed me your letter to him of Nvember 15. 
He is please, ad so am I, that you would eatrust him 
with the marsh maaemnt seotio, aM I )mow he will do 
a good job. The only thing that wrries me is that, in 
his modesty, he my con    e this as cutting off his own 
coatribution. I assume that you had in min that this 
would not cut off a oontribution from him. If so, will 
you tell him that someone else will act as chairma vhile 
he gives his stuff. 
                         With best re-swds, 
                         Aldo Lepo3ld 
                         Profwessr of Wildlife Management 

                           1424 ~Tftivmrrtty larm Placey 
                           Novemibe~r 13, 19141 
Mr* J. Paul Miller 
Amerioan Wilaime institute 
Investment Bilding 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Paul: 
Thanks for zendin me Shk1ling.r's eommonts on lead 
poisoning. I have sent them on to Albert. 
I attach Albert's %ccount for the petty cash fund for 
October. Ris milea-e acco-unt for Ootober is $.50. 
The only salairy cheoktf October is his own in the 
umsul amount. 
I have finished the first edith4e of the Delta bulletin, 
and Albert is now going over it for a seoend time. 
I see no reason why we should fail to make good our 
promise to get this into press before spring. 
                      Your* sincerely# 
                      Aldo Leopold 
                      Professor of Wildlife Managemext 

                                          DoItp Dunk qt tion 
                                          DeItn, Lnitoba 
                                          lov'irmbnr 6, 1941 
Vr, Aldo ap Deooold 
Prof,,Pepor of Wililifo L!-nnwrment 
Vnivorrity of 4,inconsin 
VlndiFon, Wisconsin 
Dpar A. L. : 
       I am sorry I esnt tbli" n-stinm che-rter dm-n in such rouvh 
condition; I sucooct son.e of tbre follo-inm chbpters -ill b-' just 
aP rouV'h. I am qfr,-id I b'lonunq tho Np  Xork-r would out it, 
to" the m:zRic of his own wordQ d-pprtment"l for I can't ypt  ,

to cftch th-s- tLings until I £rt po-v- port of ,  rs-,ectivc on thbim

from otside. 
       Ono que-tion r     h-i co,, uD iu tbip cb-rtar -blcb I think 
is not P-ttlod:tm that of t'ýrritory. Thp nest is umm  but rsrly 
1octed within tbe t-rritory d-f-nd'-d bv tV- rle;tbhrm is no trup 
npFt torritory d-fenfad by e ither th' hen o- tb'i drpke. You qu qt .,. 
that t1 trrritory d ' -ndrd bv tbh melp b.- t-rmd tV}  natinq 
territory. Cen P torritory -1'ich dope not include the nt be 
considerpd a tru- npstinp territorv? Cortpinlv it ip diff-rent tbrn 
our cof-lct of tnrritory in nort other  c:Pci- of birds. You 
hv,, a mu-!- brosdcr bh-ckvroun. on tVi then I and if you b-li-ve Te 
onn torm tbo territory of t',b ducks the npptinp territory I nm 
willin;ý. to do so. I bpli-v-, ho-evor, that tbir Plls for a now 
definition; I uped Ppitin tarritorv snd so did Bnnptt. I btv 
tho nht 911 alono that thip is probnblyv n oor torm Pnd wond-r if 
you couldn't null powethi? out of your b. of Pdj-ctiv~rs 'hich mi'ht 
bp morp fitting. 
        ie hrv-, hbd a bit of fhma thaw and thbrc irp Pori Mood bh, of 
 npll;rde beinm teken Pt o-o- holes. Looks as though we will hbve 
 a few mpllards rouUnd until tbh ýnd of thb sepson or pven lpter.

                             ý our saincerely, 

                                       jeltao ivok Station 
                                       Delta %nitoba 
                                       Ootober 15, 1941 
Mr. Jame~s 7, Bell  .. 
200 Obhamber of Ooinierce 
Mi,'neapolia, Minne-ota 
Dear Mr. Bell: 
      I am 1ad yo- vI, b' abl to put in rom mohr- time r ith 
the manuecript. P1ee 1eep it as ion a, yol ol neceasary. 
I am aware, of eouroe, that there are still somre rough !pots mnd 
appreciate your help in ironing thrsPout'. 
      .        -hovld -enti--- that I have not yet tied in the bibltovrphy

with the text. This Phould take cprn of the point you r ired regrd- 
ing certain observationF end work of othere. 
                    Yours sincerely, 
Albert Hochbaum 

                                       elta Duck Stetion 
                                       Delta, Manitoba 
                                         October 15, 1q41 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
kadison, Wisconsin 
Dear A.L.: 
       Thank you for your notes on the manuscript and for the 
very helpful comments on the fi~rres Pnd tables. I am worried about 
your eyes; please take it easy. I think I can work out the rough 
spots but I do want your appraisal of the technical points. Can8t 
you get at these by having one of the students read a bit each day 
as we used to review the journals together. 
       I know you will understand about the manuscrzpt and Mr. Bell. 
Ed told him about it and he. of course wanted to see it. When he 
left he tucked it away in his grip end I have just received the 
enclosed letter.   His chief criticism was acertain  repetitions 
carried over from one chapter to another. I am sure he will give 
an honest and careful review. He likes the color; I am sure that 
he does not wkhsh an# changes in form or arrangement. 
       I have only two copiesyours end Mr. Bell's . Thus I couldn't 
very well send one to Dr. Rowan or to Pirnie. I would rather wait 
until we iron it out before typing up additional copies. Perhaps 
we can count on Mr. Bell to iron out the spots that have evaded me. 
       " eturning to Mr. Bell and the manuscript, I have been a 
little upset in steoping out of routine tmmeaimhtm in giving him 
this before we had a chance to work it out ourselves and I understand 
how you might be somewhat concerned. His crtticisms were the same 
as yours,however,repetition and clarification; when he was here 
he spent some time going over these with me in the first chapters 
and I believe his comments will be clear. 
        I like"What is the Delta Duck Station". My only suggestion

concerns the original idea for the station. The question of 
American shooters here will always be a sore point, hatchery or 
no hatchery at. I think we should try to steer around this 
if possible. I havn't any better ideas right now by way of an 
alternative tut will try to have something by next mail. 
        I like your suggestions for the tables and figures very 
 much and they clear up a good many points for me. I'm still 
 mostly thumbs when it comes to these. 
       With the unexpected guests at the Lodge,we 4ave all been 
 a little pressed these last two weeks but I will try to get the 
 sex and age chapter off as soon as possible 8, well as k'eteI coot 

       fiater is still on the wheat fields and much of the wheat 
has not yet thrashed-never will be now for it is sprouting. This 
should mean that we are on the upgrade for water for the coming 
spring at least. 
       Water on the wheat fields has meant the smallest mallard 
kill in years. Many of the mallards are apoarently using the 
wheatfield puddles instaed ofi the lakeshore. The canvasbeck 
kill continues large , in fact I have looked at more cans than mallards 
this year. Am getting enough birds on the bag tally to mean 
something again this year although there areof course fewer shooters 
on the marsh. 
Yours tincerely. 

                                   MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA 
                                  October 13, 1941 
    Mr. H. Albert Hochbaum 
    Delta Duck Station 
    Delta, Manitoba, Canada 
    Dear Al: 
    I spent some little time on your manuscript, but 
    I would like to put in a little more time on it. 
    Frankly, the repetition must be ironed out, and 
    there is a considerable amount of editing to do 
    before it is in first class shape. The material 
    which you have is too valuable to lose any of its 
    worth through failure in phraseology and arrange- 
    If you are in a hurry to get it back, let me know; 
    otherwise I would like to keep it and do a little 
    work on it for the next couple of weeks. 
                            Yours very truly, 
    Jfb aJ         f"                      /, 

                                           2 University Farm Place 
                                           September 27, I941 
Arlem    Wildlife Institute 
WasMintono D. C. 
Dear Pauli 
I appreciate your lottig me k-w that Senator Wloott likes the trn a 
Deolta, an parti       that he approves Alde's wozr. If he cou1 bahae come

up this suiar, I think his approval would be even stronger. 
Nw as to next year's budget.  EAlr has a remr jb with the Illinois 
Natural eistor7 Rvrvqyl, and he is worin, as at Delta, on the physiology
waterfowl. Iliuots, In short, opeA the Delta psattern.     mew's appointment,

howevero, Is an interim appointment, peding the return of ertain men from
a   , and there is no predictin whether or when they will return. Consequently,

there is no predieting whether it will be possible for us to reen  e his

sorrioes next smr. In any event, he is no longer a graduate student# 'out

a salaried research men. and we could hardly hope to got him for the old
of $100 a mnth. X think It very Imort&nt that he, rather than some other

phsilogist, oonti. the Delta work. I still hope to a        seue glw-aa4-

take sems with Prison. whereby we can get him regularly during the % o 
NeIther   c    o    ano of the Board mts to undertake    a   ventures at

Delta next year, but we do mmt to  ntlme Iler's services. The beet guess

I can make at this time is to set upif possible $200 per month instead of

$100 per month fow a four mouth peiod. This would    t ad *4W0 to the wmwos
Confieatially.     abx   an I ha  a hpe of interetin the Carnegie Institute

at   l Sprins Haror in taking on 9   ser Oan  "sIig him to Dlta.  Should

this transpire, his servioes would, of sourse, cost us nothing. 
Does Senator Walott have a contacts with the Carnegie Institute? What Rooh-

baum and I la  Is an opprtunity to talk to them. W think we have a strong

448.9 I.e., we can offer them an opportunity for work that is rigt down their

alley at Delta, Mr. Boll is a trustee of thes Carnegie Institute, but we
like to accomplish this thing, and tell him about It afterward., rather than
him pull the wires for us. If the Senator could help us, I would be glad
hame a full statemet prepared aMd testify in person., I would also like to

&razie for them to leek at EMdr in person. 
                                     With best rers 
                                     Aldo Leepold 
cc Roohbaum                          Professor of Wildlife Muasgsnt 

    HERBERT L PRATT                                                     
    Chairman of the Board                                               
    ELTINGE F. WARNER               AMERICAN             I              
              F. B. DAVIS, JR. 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board        A   EICAN WILDLIFE INSTITUTE         
    FREDERIC  EWING              Incorporated In District of Columbia, July
22,1935  T. E. DOREMUS 
Chairman Executive Committee    INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C.  
    ALDO LEOPOLD                                                        
              J. PAUL MILLER 
Chairman Technical Committee                                            
19, 1941 
                      Prof. Aldo Leopold 
                      424 University Farm Place 
                      Madison, Wisconsin 
                      Dear Aldot 
                                      Senator Walcott spent a few minutes
                      us here at the office yesterday, and in the course
                      the conversation, he expressed his approval of the
                      being conducted at Delta. The Senator, like myself,
                      particularly impressed by the procedure followed this

                      year in enlisting the services of Elder to investigate

                      the physiological problems. We believe that this is
                      most desirable practice and hope that the Advisory
                      will plan to continue some such arrangement. 
                                      I believe that you have advised me
to the 
                      effect that you anticipate that the Delta budget will
                      about the same for the coming year as for the present,

                      namely something over $5,000.00. If you have reason
                      believe differently now, please advise me promptly
                      I have to make up my budget for the coming year in
                      immediate future. 
                                      Best wishes. 
                                                           Very sincerely
                                                           J. Paul Miller,


                              424 Universiy larm wPla@ 
                              September 19, 1941 
Mr. Albert Rchban 
Dlta, Wzitoba 
Dear Albert: 
I a pleased that you are forging ahead with the 
v-mzeor1pt, and your autlize of its contents sounU 
good to me. 
Menwhile 4qle is ewring his gound squirrel p.per, 
and T think will a.Te a mnch condensed and much improved 
version. Both ho and I undrstand fully the limitations 
an your doing further grouand squirrel wor& this summer. 
I am pleased that Pete's ooot data will be inoluded. 
Did you notic All&n Brookos' coot .tile in Field 
and Stream? 
Tbazim for the invitation to come up. I wb2 I could. 
Miles and Art ave me soe good points on the Kortrigt 
introduction of which a revised copy wAs sent you the 
other day. 
                          With best regrds, 
                          Aldo Leopold 
                          Professor of Wildlife Mwmngemsnt 

                                 424# Vhiversity Farm Place 
                                 September 16, 041 
Mr. J. Pau Miller 
American Wildlife rntitue 
Investment Bulding 
Washingtong D. 0, 
Dear Fault 
I t%,noxt with my approvl bobbum's * aounts as followst 
     An~sttraelGXQA"$3-0  (Plie.. re$*bar.. bocbbwau)' 
$.2 (Plase reimurse WLlliam l                         ,er# 
      Bo 5t arinto, Illinos) 
      AU~ut 3-Patr csh.n hand $13.36* 
                  23.e pm         $150-00 (plus. 
The Elder expese acout cls for        aal elanao. An 
outbreak of btulism m  e   ocrre d o  the btle7 Ma. 
Eat of Delta aM North of Winnep..  It was lxortat to tally 
the sex and ae of the birds wilh de4. bt         himself 
coul4n't get ay so he sent MEder ad Peter Ward. They drove 
loohbbm s ear and the mileage is on      's a    t above. 
Elder, howevrpaid for the tmed bll. ar4 for some mieae        m 
equipment in the sum of $.22* 
Hochaw hs also sent me a r         statement dated Septeaber t of 
the status of his allotments for .~     tuai.. You and Mss %aee 
might waut to look at this just to re         rselves that Roah- 
bmtm tos tseeing a oonveevtive ocurae. 
Setber will be the last mnth when Peter Ward will be on the 
pyroll period. After Otober   , he will be fll time in the aawm, 
lease the winter xpes   ehold be low, Roohbsmis t eing to 
winter at Delta this year. 
I have apprmd his wintering at Delta, but with the a      stion that 
he try to make It to the conference. I think it is high time that 
he and the trstees gt acqainted. 
                            Your sincerely# 
                            AUdo Leopolit 
                            Professor of Wildlife Management 

                                            Delta Duck Station 
                                            Delta, Manitoba 
                                            September 8,1941 
  Mr. Aldo Leopold 
  Professor of Wildlife Management 
  University of Wisconsin 
  Madison, Wisconsin 
  Dear Professor Leopold: 
         Enclosed is an account of the Petty Cash Fund for 
  the month of August. 
         Mileage for the month-was: 
         926 miles * 4# per mile-----......---......-$37.04 
         In early August I asked William Elder and Peter Ward 
  to visit the Netley Marsh to investigate the botulism outbreak 
  there. The mileage for this trip is included in the above.- 
- All other expenses for the trip were paid-by Elder. I am 
  giving these on a separate shp t which is enclosed. As Elder 
  is now in the States and as I am unable to send money back across 
  the line because of present restrictions, I wonder if payment 
  of these expenses could be made direct to Elder at Box 83, 
  Barrington, Illinoiso 
         The Payroll for the month of September will be as follows: 
         Albert Eochbaum-- 1 month 0 $150.00 
         Peter Ward -       1 month 0  100.00 
Yours sincerely, 
Albert Nochbaus 

Sent. 8.1941 
Avg 30. 
Sept q4 
Sept .8 
August 1 
August 31 
MacDonald Bros. 
Mills Drug Store 
Gibb&Zllwood Co. 
G. Mair 
Gibb&lllwood Co. 
August expenses 
Approved by, 
 Duck Feed, High-test gasPhone 
 Laboratory Supplies 
 Wood for trap frame  - 
 Last payment on- sum=: er cottage for 
 boys-. #30.00 paid from Petty cash 
 fund in March, ,making- a-tot&l. 
 of110. 00)   . 
 Swiss Chard for ducklings-60 lbs of c: 
 three-tines-a wepk from JunelO-August 
 Part payment on coal for hatchery 
 Carried over from August *9.42 
 Check received for 
 #165,76                 165.76 
Exchange on albve 
check less 31# 
charge                    16,26 
Printed in the U. S. A 
 -rar  0 

                                                     Delta Duck Station 
                                                     Delta, Manitoba 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Management 
University of Wiscosin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear A.L. 
       I have all but one section of my part of the report typed. Will 
send it to you for review the end of the week. (The hunting season opens

Monday the 22 -- our date of last summer). I have used the same MS we went

over together last winter-- most of it is the same. This is what I would

like to have as the subject matter of th~si first report; My account of 
the Canvasback on the Delta Marsh. Lyle's Ground Squirrel report, The 
review of cloacal sex and age criteria, a short account of of the coot 
by Pete. Pete's short theme concerns reasons for success in the coots in

the face of the same conditions which brought about duck reductions. I 
think you will like it and will be able to round it out into something 
really good. The introduction ,as we decided last summer, will be 
by yourself if you will not be too busy. I will send you an outline of 
dates etc which you will want to have at your elbow when working this over.

       In thinking of the tttle T am afraid I am going around in circles.

For a start I would say now;    Delta Bulletin No 1. 
                        First Progress Re-ort of the Delta Duck Station 
       I like your mapmmk introduction to Kortright's Pe.       Kortright

had nothing regarding the cloacal characters in his first MS. I believe 
Art told him about it. He asked me for the details; I told him I would 
like to wait until the M.paper was complete as there were still some points

to be cleared up this summer. As yet I have not sent him my MS. He 
nevertheless, prepared his account from what he could find in literature,

which wasnSt very much, then sent it to me for review. What he has now 
is this plus my comments. I shall send him my MS when I feel it is 
what I want to say, but I would rather not be quoted until I am sure of 
what I have to say. My point is that the characters cannot be used without

certain reservations. We have found, for instance that in some species 
the oviduct does not open until the second autumn. The bursa is retained

until the second autumn by a few species. I wanted to be sure of these 
points in my MI before giving it out as a statement. It has been just in

the last month that I have been perfectly clear in my own mind on some of

these points. 
       I am affaid that we did not fulfill our promis6 to Lyle in gaining

as much ground squirrel material this year as we had hoped. We particularly

fell down on nesting. I think you will understand with Pete in the Army 
part of the time and the disease on our hands, how this got by us. Lyle said

that in his absence, you were tying up his report. I will send down what

notes we have on this. 
       The hunting season opens bept. 23 for ducks. &Om.Oct.l-15 for

chickens, October 1-30 for huns,and there are more huns than you can 

shake a stick at. The lodge will be closed this year. Mr. Bell may 
come up for a day or sobut he is not planning to open up this year. 
Wonder if you and Starker or your brother might come up. The non-resident

fee is $25.00.   A bit stiff but one gun could be split. The water came up

with a three-day rain and it looks as though we will have some real duck

shooting about the second week in October when the flight usually hits 
       By the way. The Institute just sent me thý check for Mr. Gilroy.

($80.00) I had already paid it out of this months petty cash fund. I have

now deposited this *80,00 check in the petty cash fund. As the payment 
has already been made I believe this $80.00 should be subtracted from the

petty cash replenishment check which the Institute will send me at the 
end of the month. 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
   Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
 F. B. DAVIS, JR. 
                                         September 5, 1941 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Aldoe 
                I am just now working through my pile of corres- 
pondence. I note your letter of August 20 relative to the 
publication of a bulletin on the work being conducted at Delta. 
                 So far as I know, we are at liberty to call on 
Mr. Carpenter for an amount not to exceed $500.00 to cover the 
cost of the publication of such a bulletin. 
                Ultimately, a more complete bulletin should be 
published than is contemplated in the immediate future. I do 
not think that we would be justified on calling on Mr.-arpenter 
for his contribution for the publication of only aDinlehse 
of the work. Therefore, I believe that we should contemplate-e 
raising the money for the publication to be printed in the near 
future from some other source. 
                You can see from the above that I am somewhat 
reluctant to call on Mr. Carpenter until we have a more pre- 
tentious offering to make. 
                If you do not agree with me on this, please 
do not hesitate to advise me and I will, of course, take the 
matter up with Mr. Carpenter. 
Best wishes. 
Very sincerely yours, 
J. Paul Miller, 

Ai / r:. 
    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22,1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, JR. 
                                        September 4, 1941 
Prof. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Dear Alder 
                 I have just received confirmation, by 
telegram, from Senator Walcott relative to the increase 
of Mr. Hoohbaux's salary which you and I discussed on 
our trip. 
                 This increase is effective as of July 1. 
in the amount of $12.50 per month. Mr. Hoohbaum's 
salary cheek for the month of September mill include 
back payments for July and August. 
                 I am enclosing an extra copy ef this 
letter so that you may transmit it to Mr. Eochbaum with 
the above information. 
                                       Very sincerely yours, 
                                       J. Paul Miller, 

/ ~< ~ 
             Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
Dear Seators 
                I e tranaittin& herewithev a py of 
a report iubmitte  by Aldo Leopold o. the progres of 
the work at Delta and the proposed plan of work for 
the enuingU ye~6 
CoThy to  Alo Leopold           p   r 

Name Aldo Leopoldo 42~4 Tlsiv Farm P1# Madison, Wis. 
Date                  Transportation 
         From        To   miles Auto       F Iul BuS 
       '/    ......          A"      Fare man Taxt 
 !12 Muria uw Spr-               - -        -     - - 
 7417reJFprXat -                 -& -, -r    - 
   9/ Kawt) Fals Bandon, Ore.. 
   __/7_    Jswpt orvali, 0  r- - 
 0/   0       ,.w po n ,wort, , 0 .   - 
 8/9 Corvali~s Potad 
       sot                      -                 -ir 
5/10 Arrv,  S, , :Ao. -  -  -   - 
            .... ...-       -"'' .-    -.      _  .7 , 
    I certify that the foregoing expenses were 
incurred and paid by me in the perforiance of 
my duties during the period indicated. 
* See reverse for explanation 
Period Avus 1p.Augmst l0t 19411 
   Subsistence         Miscellaneous* 
iotel I  eals         Paid For     Ant. Total 
      A- .. K on P- .   -nr .g                 -r 
    2,5 ...... Tip                               ... 65.... 
      1.00                                  1___00__ 
      *50.2      .90      Tips     ALo    -   T5 
 1.50   .50 ..0 .50       Tips      .15     3 05 
 2.5o  .60 .6o 1.00                             ..... ................ 
 1-0     -T                        -o -~o                          1 
 12    -50 .35            Tips     .10      21 
 2.50  .45      .90       Tips      ?0      655 
    2.*4                           _           _   _   _ m II 
 -.0  -6   -T    -3 
           13,25~~~~~ 155335500_____ 
     13-2ý1_545 3-45 5-0          3.15  $12'155 ý 
Previous Balance 
Checks Received 
Total to Account For_ __   __  __ 
Less This Report 
Balance on Hand 

    Chairman of the Board 
 Vice-Chairman of the Board 
Chairman Executive Committee 
Chairman Technical Committee 
    Incorporated in District of Columbia, July 22, 1935 
   F. B. DAVIS, JR. 
                                            Auugust 29, 1941 
 Professor Aldo Leopold 
 424 University Farm Place 
 Madison, Wisconsin 
 Dear Professor Leopold: 
                  We are enclosing our checks in the amounts 
of $125.55 for your travel expenses and $100.00 for 
William Elder's Delta salary as requested by Mr. Hochbaum. 
Very truly yours, 
Ethel M. Q4uee, 
Office Manager 

4k~ ~ 
                                 44University Farm ?I&** 
Mr. Albert RoohbomR 
Delta Duick Station 
Delta, Manitoba 
Dear Albert: 
It occurs to me that you might start a file of nas 
who are to roeeve the progress reports, epecially 
the part on cloacal sexing and aging. I promised this 
to the following people out west; 
Mr. :ohn Sobarff 
Saperintendent, Maihnur RehMe 
c/o Fish ad Wildlife Service 
Lakevie, Oregon 
Mr. L~ak55 
c/o Art',hur Xinetrssn 
State College 
Corvallis, OiegoA 
(ýt' elý " 
With best regards, 
Aloo Leopold 
Professor of Wildlife Manageeaent 

                              44Uversttr Yawm Place 
Mr. J, Paul Miller 
American Wildlife nstItute 
Iavestamat Bildina 
Washington, D. C. 
Just one little point In your letter of August 1... 
Senator Walcott end Mr. Bell at the meeting last yftr 
were clearly j   satisfied with reprints, either from 
the Trasaction   or the technical Journal* as an outlet 
for the Delta findngs| hence, it wa decided by the Board 
at that time that 6he entire findings would be publishe 
in a special Institute bulletin. The recent discussion 
pertained to the form an finality of the bulletin, but 
the decision to publish a bulletin Is, I think, final. 
My undertanding is that we will call on Mr. Carpenter 
for the $500 to cover the cost. 
Xf I am off the traek on this# please lot me Mw.* 
                           With boeot roa~rdo,