Visual display of the Aldo Leopold papers : 9/25/10-2 : Organizations, Committees

				
 
 
 
 
I, 
 
 
Mr. U~chard 3Poy6oi 
 
79th Street amd  rt0 P-y* Ist 
Now York 'ý3, Jew Yo,* 
 
  Dea M. Bordon: 
 
 
 
    Youra~rima ofth"e sitb i  ý-> ~t:ý- -~ -ý--cret

 
 
                             81Jre,1ly, 
 
 
XLr~ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB 
 
          CONSERVATION COMMITTEE 
 
               RICHARD BORDEN, CUAIRMAN 
HAROLD R. ANTHONY, VI-CVJmMAN   F. CARRINGTON WEEMS 
 
 
HAROLD JEFFERSION COOLIDGE. JR. ARCHIBALD B. ROOSIEVELT       -I--, 
 
 
                         AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
                           T9OTH SmTNUT AND CUNTRAL PARK WNST 
                                 X9w YORK 24. N. Y. 
 
                                                        Pebruary 20, 19h8

 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
     Your Conservation Committee is glad to be able to make a favorable report

on the Olympic National Park problem, referred to in our Conservation News

Letter of September 24, 1947. The Secretary of the Interior and Newton B.

Drury, Director of the National Park Service, are now opposing any reduction

in the area of the Olympic National Park, and this constitutes almost a 
reversal of their previous attitude in favoring Bills H. R. 2750 and 2751,

,.;hich were regarded by conservationists as only less to be feared than
the 
dangerous legislation proposed in H. J. Res. 84 and H. R. 4053. Their 
change followed hearings held in the Park last Fall before the House Commit-

tee on Public Lands. This opposition on the part of these government offic-

ials was greatly strengthened by the public hearings mentioned. But there

is no doubt that the strong stand taken by conservationists throughout the

country in opposition to the proposed legislative measures, was most effective.

 
     We are also glad to report that the Barrett Bill (H. R. 1330) drawn
to 
abolish the Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming, is dead for this 
Session. It was objected to by five Congressmen, and having been objected
to 
previously, it was stricken from the Calendar of the House. The House action

does not, of course, preclude consideration of an almost identical bill 
(S. 195l) introduced by Senator Robertson (Wyoming), which is before the

Senate Public Lands Committee.   It is generally believed, however, in 
Washington, that this attempt to abolish the Jackson Hole National Honument

will have little chance of success, and here again the determined stand of

conservationists throughout the country has contributed materially to the

defeat of such ill-advised legislative attempts. 
 
     The selection of a big game conservation project worthy of the Club's

active support, is still under consideration by your Conservation Committee,

and its ability to keep informed of current developments has been augmented

recently by the association of its Chairman with the National Wildlife 
Federation, which follows closely all national legislation affecting conser-

vation of natural resources. To any member of the Club, particularly inter-

ested, the Committee will be glad to supply upon request, detailed inform-

ation about pending legislation bearing on conservation. 
 
 
 
 
                                 Richard Borden, 
                                 Chairman 
 
 
/ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                Dommpbwm 6. 19)47 
 
 
 
Mr.  ~~a 
gowroary. 13oa.#no m id ~rA.k~  Club 
"-'5 3lrm-i ',tre 
lli'j Yýoz*. Now York 
 
Dear 11r. $Ve 
 
Kqrl. Frederick tolls mo aw&t C. tQrmath Is 
bon   -pzýpoýos for      nwbormhp linie Boonei 
  ~n roalwtt Club. I )knw P1  G Qtermt well, ,ad 
h#.ve come to hqe~ a v.rv hie  rMr for both his 
drw.rntetr a~I aboitty. Ile in doing a better job 
of runn~nmP the WAdi.41 ,tim%.A  nsiueQ~ 
has ever bee dim.n before, ýA that iia wiW P 
gpod dwxl. I am very glad indeed to join V'Arl 
Fr-,-xarla and 11ao2A Ooolidre inromedn 
hip, to the Az.xtive Qo rt~ttwe. 
 
 
                              Ymirm oinooeraly, 
 
 
Ado Loop-old 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
              KOBBE, THATCHER & FREDERICK 
                      61 BROADWAY 
                      NEW YORK 6 
                                                   CABLE ADDRESS 
                                                     RAKREEB 
                                                     TELEPHONE 
                                                  WHITEHALL 3-8800 
 
 
                                     November 26th, 1947. 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
42LI. University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo:- 
 
           I have proposed C. R. Gutermuth, Vice-President 
of the Wildlife Management Institute, for regular member- 
ship in the Boone and Crockett Club. His name has been 
seconded by Harold Coolidge. I understand that you are 
reasonably well acquainted with him and I am writing to 
ask if you would feel disposed to write a letter to the 
Executive Committee in support of his nomination. If so, 
it will be much appreciated. 
 
 
                            Cordially yours, 
 
 
KTF-B 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                Nlovubfr 10, 19147 
 
 
 
 
 
Mfr. Rlnr Boxd 
   ý3oeand Crokett Club 
25 Broad Gtret 
ll'o York4, No~w York 
 
  Der r. Borden 
 
I nnmc pleased that the Club has takeni a flat 
   st:-n aaistth proposed dimembermen t ofOympic 
"IatLiona1 Pa&..  I =m 100 permt behin your stnd 
 
 
                         'Yourws sincerely, 
 
 
A14* Lpold1 
 
 
i 
 
  

					
				
				
 
BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB 
 
          CONSERVATION COMMITTEE                - 
 
               RICHARD BORDEN, CRAIRBAN 
HAROLD H. ANTHONY, VýcKCn-lwmAxN F. CARRINOTON WEEMS 
 
 
HAROLD JEFFERSON COOLIDGE, JR. ARCHIBALD B. ROOSEVELT /           / 
 
 
                          25 BROAD ST., NEW YORK 4, N.Y. 
                                                      September 24, 1947

 
 
 
 
 Dear Yir.Leopold: 
 
 
      The recently appointed Conservation Committee of the Boone and Crockett

Club has been meeting in New York City this summer in order to formulate
plans 
for the Committee's future activities. It is the opinion of the Committee

that the Club should confine itself primarily to the conservation of big
game, 
rather than tackle the ever-expanding problems of general conservation. Our

purpose can be no better expressed than Paragraph C of the Certificate of

Incorporation of the Boone and Crockett Club, which states "To work
for the 
preservation of the wild animal life of this country, especially big game,

and so far as possible to further legislation for that purpose; to assist
in 
enforcing the existing laws, and to educate the American public in the impor-

tance of proper game preservation." 
 
      The Committee also recommends that the Club should from time to time
go 
on record in favoring or opposing current legislation which would directly

affect any of our North American big game species, and that it should endorse

the stand of other conservation agencies when careful study indicates such
a 
position is warranted. In order that the members may be more familiar with

these current conservation problems which affect big game, the Committee
be- 
lieves that it is its duty to send them, periodically, news letters dealing

with these subjects. It is with this thought in mind that the enclosed article

entitled "Trouble on Olympus" is sent to you. The fact that the
proposed re- 
moval from the Olympic National Park of 33,941 acres of Spruce and Douglas
FIir 
in Bogachiel-Calawah-Hoh area is part of the winter range of the Roosevelt

Elk, clearly indicates that the Club should endorse the stand taken by certain

other conservation agencies opposing removal of these lands. 
 
      The Committee will at some future time recommend to the Club a big
game 
 conservation project, which would be initiated by the Boone and Crockett
Club 
 and in which it can take a very active part. Any thoughts or suggestions
on 
 this subject from members of the Club will be welcomed by your Conservation

 Committee. 
 
 
 
 
 
                                             Richard Borden 
 PR/mnl                                      Chairmanv 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
TO THE MEMBERS OF 
 
 
      THE BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB: 
 
 
    PLEASE BE ADVISED THAT AFTER JANUARY 1. 1948 
THE ADDRESS OF THE SECRETARY WILL BE CHANGED 
FROM 25 BROAD STREET, NEW YORK. N. Y, TO THE 
AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, 79TH 
STREET AND CENTRAL PARK WEST, NEW YORK 24, N. Y. 
 
 
                        DEAN SAGE, SECRETARY. 
 
  

					
				
				
-      ¼ 
 
 
                   November 8. 19~46 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Dean,   e, 3ecretary 
Boone anl Crockett Clb 
49 Wýall Street 
New Yorks New York 
 
bear Mr. Sage: 
 
     The letter about Major Waller was sent you at the 
sigpes~ttn of Carl ue4ericks.   It may be th-t I shoild 
have sent it to Clrl rather than to you. In my evout 
I think you will hear from Ca3l lbter. 
 
 
I am n Spedin 
 
 
Lim your letter  !d a ',y of thi 
 
 
Aide Leomld 
 
 
AL. 
 
 
coe Cli Frederick$ 
 
 
one, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                    October 22, 19h6 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. NDýean  e, Secretary 
B~oom !n~ h'roikett Oliib 
49 Wall Street 
New York 9, 9. Y. 
 
Dear Mr. Sage? 
 
I understand that Major Littleton I. T. Ialer is u- for 
mmbershIr in Drine and Cro"ett Club. I workel very 
closely with him dlrin the period 19)2 - 1933, 1x  as 
a reslt of th3 acqtiantance I wormuld recoLmwnd him to 
you without reservat ion. He i  a :;en ,r rteu   #u 
a deer thinker on conservation questiono. 
 
 
                           ToLrs  iincerely* 
 
 
 
 
                           Aldo Loo   d 
                           ProfeGesor of iildli±'e 
AL: RL 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
              KOBBE, THATCHER & FREDERICK 
                      61 BROADWAY 
                      NEW YORK 6 
                                                   CASLE ADDRESS 
                                                     RAKREEB 
                                                     TELEPHONE 
                                                  WHITEHALL 3-8800 
 
                                  October 18th, 1946. 
 
 
 
 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo:- 
 
           I am proposing Littleton W. T. Waller (Major 
General U.S.M.C.R., Retired) for regular membership in 
the Boone and Crockett Club. I believe that you know 
him quite well, and if you feel disposed to do so, I 
would very much appreciate your writing a letter on his 
behalf to the Executive Committee of the Boone and 
Crockett Club, c/o Dean Sage, Secretary, 49 Wall Street, 
New York 5, N.Y. 
 
           If you wish to do so, I will be glad to have 
you send the letter direct to me and I will turn it in 
with all the other letters at the same time. 
 
                         Sincerely yours, 
 
 
KTF-B 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Cable Address "Museology New York" 
 
 
                THE AMERICAN       MUSEUM     OF NATURAL HISTORY 
                            CENTRAL PARK WEST AT 79TH STREET 
                                   NEW YORK 24, N. Y. 
                                                      September the fifteenth

                                                      Nineteen hundred forty-five

 
 
    Dear Fellow Member of the Boone and Crockett Club: 
 
            The matter has been taken up with the ýxecutive Committee
of the Boone 
    and Crockett Club and at their suggestion I am writing you end all other
mem- 
    bers of the Club in my capacity as Chairman of the Trustee Committee
of the 
    New York State Theodore hoosevelt Memorial at the 1'merican Museum. EMy
purpose 
    is to acquaint you with the plan which is Sradually being achieved of
showing 
    in the býoosevelt Lemorial Building, by pictorial means, which
might be called 
    "The Theodore Roosevelt Period". 
 
            Pert of this plan is to hang in certain rooms portraits of Colonel

     Roosevelt's intimate friends and associat s - those, at least, who were
signif- 
     icant in his life as a naturalist, hunter end conservationist. Mrs.
Roo-evelt 
     and others have been consulted as to those who should properly be considered

     and a copy of the list is attached hereto. Those checked are already
repre- 
     sented in our collection by portraits or good photographs. You will
note that 
     quite a number have been members of the Boone and Crockett and it is
felt that 
     members of the Club might very well be interested in doing something
in this 
     connection. As you know, Theodore Roosevelt was largely responsible
for the 
     founding of the Boone and Crockett annd its present high standing is
in no small 
     measture ow ing to his influence. 
 
            For five or six years we had a very fine portrait of Alexander
Lambert, 
     painted by Vlayman Adams, which was on loan-to the Roosevelt Memorial.
Recently, 
     the owner has removed this painting, leaving a regrettable gap. The
portrait 
     is a particularly fine one, not only as a painting but as a portrait
of Doctor 
     Lambert, and it has occurred to me that the Boone and Crockett, either
collec- 
     tively or by individual subscriptions, might consider purchasing it
for the 
     Museum. 
 
            I have also hoped that there might be enough Interest among Boone
and 
     Crockett members to consider presenting now or in the future some of
Frederic 
     Remington's pictures in black-and-white or oils or possibly some of
his works 
     in bronze. They would fit in most appropriately as part of the pageant
of "The 
     Roosevelt Period". I happen to know that Theodore Roosevelt admired
.ýemlngtonls 
     work - in fact, encouraged and inspired him. 
 
            If you are in a position to donate to the Roosevelt Memorial
any of the 
     listed items or other pictorial material which you think would fit in
with our 
 
 
 
kr. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison 
Wisconsin 
 
 
RE 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold - 9    45 - Pa   2 
 
 
plan, or In any way can assist in obtaining any of the desired pictures,
I 
shall be very glad to heve you Fet In touch wit- me. Perhaps you would like

to inspect the Lemorial and view ot first hand the progress which has been

made. I shall be very glad to arrange with the officers of the Museum to
re- 
ceive you any time at your convenience. 
 
       Hoping that I may hear from you, I am, 
 
                             Very truly yours, 
 
 
 
 
 
                         Frank F. LcCoy, Chairran 
                     New York State Theodore Rookevelt 
                             M'emorial Committee 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY - SetEMr 1, 1945 
 
 
 
 
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt's Intimate Friends and Associates 
   Who Were Significant in His Life as Hunter, Naturalist 
                    and Conservationist 
 
  (Those checked are already represented in our collection 
         at the Museum by portraits or photographs.) 
 
 
 
 
                   Robert Bacon 
                 v Captain Seth Bullock 
                 v Winthrop Chanler 
                   James R. Garfield 
                 v-John Hay 
                   Jules Jusserand 
                   Dr. Alexander Lambert 
                 v Senator Henry Cabot Lodge 
                   Robert Forbes Perkins 
                   Gifford Pinchot 
                   John R. Proctor 
                   Thomas B. Reed 
                   Jacob A. Riis 
                   W. S. Roosevelt 
                 v Elihu Root 
                   Sir Cecil A, Spring-Rice 
                   Herman Speck von Sternberg 
                 v William Austin Wadsworth 
                   Owen Wister 
                 v General Leonard Wood 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                            BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB 
                               ELEVEN BROADWAY 
                                   NEWi~ YORK 
 
 
Obict of tIe Secretary 
 
 
                                              December 6, 1930 
 
 
 
 
 
 
            To the Members of the Boone and Crockett Club: 
 
                       Many members of the Boone and Crockett Club 
            have felt that it would be a most appropriate time to 
            recognize the invaluable services which their President 
            and fellow member, Madison Grant, has rendered in varied 
            fields as Citizen, Zoologist, Anthropologist, Conser- 
            vationist, Creative Administrator, Author, and, above 
            all, as Friend of every good cause. 
 
                       It has therefore been decided that a Loving 
            Cup be tendered to him at the time of the January dinner, 
            January 9th. Tiffany and Company have given much time 
            and effort to a new and original design, and on it both 
            by animal engraving and by inscription, will be brought 
            forth the services of Mr. Grant. The estimated cost 
            guilded on silver finish is $1,000. 
 
                       Members who feel like contributing are asked 
            to send their contribution to Mr. W. Redmond Cross, 
            48 Wall Street, who is the Treasurer of the Club. 
 
                       It is felt that there should be no definite 
            sum set, but something in the neighborhood of ten dollars 
            ($10.00), either up or down, as the individual case may 
            be, is suggested. There are at present upward of 
            175 members, Honorary, Regular and Associate. 
 
                                            KERMIT ROOSEVELT, 
                                                    Secretary 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tr. A 7. ~e o cAroi- 
Trenuirer, loone % Croc:-ett Club 
  '12I AoSreet 
 
D)ear 3ir: 
 
                  Aeferrng to  r. Yooevelt  letter nf 
December 6 to nibero of t'ie    one ad Crockett Cub. 
 
                  I Incloae ay cKhe: for A 5 for the V4dion 
Ar;nt calCp.  I hvc In('v' A  dAe . * ý rk -T  re re-2 h13 
1ublica tlo wth 'credrt Anterprvt. 
 
                            Youri Oincerely, 
 
 
 
 
                               In Chrle, GO   C~rm ' 
 
 
Incl. 0e0k 
 
 
"on- 15, 1790 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
             OFFICERS CF THEj- 
         BOOýE AND CROCKETT CLUB 
   ---------- FOR THE YEAR 1929 --------- 
 
         HONORkRY PRE SILENT FOR LIFE 
 
             George Bird Grinnell 
 
                  PRESIDENT 
 
                Madison Grant 
 
        FIRST 1ICZ-PRESIDEIjTS 
 
ýd. Douglas Burden               J. Coleiman Drayton 
                E. Hubert Litchfield 
 
            VICE-PRESID3NTS 
 
Class of 1929                     Class of 1930 
 
Dr. John C. Phillips              Goelet Gallatin 
A. Phimister Proctor              Marshall Bond 
 
             Class of 1931 
 
          Major Frederick B. Burnham 
          Henry L. Stimson 
 
                 SECRET .RY 
 
          Kermit Roosevelt 
       11 Broadway, Now York City 
          kSSIST CNT SECRET IRY 
 
          William C. Chanler 
       32 Liberty Street, New York City 
 
               TREASURE'R 
 
          William Redmond Cross 
       31 Pine Street, New York City 
 
 
EXECUTIVE COM1ITTEE 
 
 
Class of 1929 
 
George L. Harrison, Jr. 
Childs Frick 
Frederic C. Walcott 
 
 
CIlss cf 1930 
 
F. Trubee Davison 
Charles Stewart Davison 
Dr. Alexander Lambert 
 
 
Class of 1931 
 
DeForest Grant 
Dr. Leonard C. Sanford 
Major Francis T. Colby 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                  ,,  i  t 
 
 
 
 
 
         ,u ou:   . City. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
         A.2,,Potr; ~ ~ :nt~c ......... t.o  n t eresu 
 
 
 
    Of  tfi:-o.o  i , bil, On  Th -i  n 1  tt   cr, 
        ........... " n o oi c ~?.rt Crole ' , .o. . 
    on J (to o7 . t:L! c... f--- 
          ... ... ..... welý: , h,-d at" -. 
 
       I thmP±'.-.tu  rou rJA,.t-   t , " 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    cI 0t' tocC  frtvyou "-h- o. Oi- ., 
 
 
 
 
 
    If.C'~" o y~ou ..." : t- "t, . 2." b" v ...

         1i   *k.A rt~ J!- o 
 
         Lxl' iin, 
 
 
     th ituti) t~ ot~iI cc~ Ct ~~ 
     tOf" cw fu'n ~ c e~i~~il ti  - 
 
 
 
 
 
  0~ 0 1 -0,  a 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I.               n .. . i 12.K .1h i .l I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
(a- 
 
 
                 II BROADWAY 
                   NEW YORK 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                           Ilovember -, 1927. 
 
 
 
 
 
lar. U.do Leopold, 
U. S. Department of k;rjculture 
Forest Service, 
Madison, 4 iscons in. 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                   Thank you for your letter 
 in regard to the McSweeney bill. Mvost of us 
 already kncmv of the introduction of the oili 
 last year, but Ifor one,was not aware that 
 it was to be re-introduced this December. 
 I shall bring it up at the Executive Committee 
 meeting and see that we do whatever vie can 
 in the way of backing, it up. 
 
 
                      Sincerely yours, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                       Forest Produots Laboratory 
                                       Madison, Wis. 
                                       November 9, 1927. 
 
 
 
 
Mr, George Bird Grinnell                        November 9, 1927. 
     238 Eat 15th St. 
          New York Oity, 
Dear Mr. Grinnell: 
          This is to aoknowledge your letter of November' 
1 to Mr. Leopold, wbo is at present spending a vacation In 
New Mexioo. He will write you upon1 his return at the end 
of this month. 
 
                         NVery truly yours, 
 
 
 
                                  EDGAR F. WMITE 
 
  

					
				
				
 
GEO. BIRD GRINNELL 
  238 EAST I1TH STREET 
  NEW YORK, N. Y. 
                                            November Ist,1927. 
 
 
 
Mr. Aldo TMeopold, 
Forest Service, 
Madison, Wis. 
 
My dear Mr.Leopold 
 
                  I am very gla6 to see your writing again on a letter 
 
which Kermit Roosevelt has sent to me with copy of the blacSweeney Bill,

 
H.R.17406 which you sent him, It is very good of you to keep track of 
 
this and to remind us of it. I ouite agree with you that the matter is 
 
worth careful loking after and that the puzrposes of the bill~ae gather-

 
ed from a hasty reading, are altog~ether worthy. 
 
                  I am disposed to agree with you also that the conduct-

 
 ing of these inquiries riay properly be done at the Forest "T.perimenta-

 
 tion stations and it certainly seems extremely desirable that any meas-

 
 ure that will tend to bring together the different bureaus who are work-

 
 ing on the sane subject, is worth while. Je have suffered too much in 
 
 the past from an ambition which has existed in bone of the bureaus to 
 
 crowd each other to one side, each hoping to add to its own fraie. They

 
 have forgotten the cguse for which we are all working and seem to think

 
 only of their own glory. This failing seems no longer to exist. 
 
                  It is kind of you to offer your help to the Boone and 
 
 Crockett Club and we shall be very grateful for anything that you may do.

 
 Kermit Roosevelt will write you and I hope, will keep in close touch 
 
 with you. 
 
 
Yours 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                          BOONE AND CROCKETT 'CLUB 
                               44 BEAVER STREET 
                                  NEW YoRK 
 
 
Office of the Secretary                 May 26, 1926. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
      Forest Products Laboratory, 
      Madison, Wisconsin. 
 
 
      Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                I was very sorry to get your letter and learn 
 
      that you could not represent us at the National Conference 
 
      on State Parks. 
 
                Thank you very much indeed for sending me the 
 
      reprints of the two other articles. I have been extremely 
 
      much interested in reading them. I hope it wont be long 
 
      before I have a chance of seeing you on here. 
 
                             Sincerely yours, 
 
 
L.- 
 
  

					
				
				
A !' x1~T&~- ~ , ~1 j'3~(. 
 
 
                          BOONE AND GOOCKETTC GuB 
                               44 BEAVER STREET 
                                 Nxw YoRx 
 
 
Office of the Secretay                 May 6, 1926. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      Aldo Leopold, Esq.. 
      Forest Products laboratory, 
      Madison, Wisconsin. 
 
 
      Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                 As you know, the National Conference on State 
 
       Parks is to be held at Hot Springs, Arkansas in the 
 
       middle of June. If you are going to be there, the Boone 
 
       and Crockett Club would like to appoint you their repre- 
 
       sentative at the meeting, and Mr. Grinnell has asked me 
 
       to write you on behalf of the Club to this effect. 
 
                 I read with much interest the article you 
 
       wrote for the National Conference on Outdoor Recreation. 
 
       I hope that some time or other you will be able to come 
 
       on to one of the Club's dinners. I used to hear so much 
 
       about you from Bob Ferguson. 
 
                 Trusting that you will be able to represent the 
 
       Club at the National Conference, 
 
                                 Very sincerely yours, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                           THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE 
                                                ON 
 
                                      STATE PARKS 
                                    MEMBER FEDERATED SOCIETIES 
                                      904 UNION TRUST BUILDING 
                                         WASHINGTON. D. C. 
 
                                                           May 22, 1926.

          OFFICERS 
JOHN BARTON PAYNE. CHAIRMAN 
STEPHEN T. MATHER. VICE CHAIRMAN 
BEATRICE M. WARD. SECRETARY-TREASURER 
 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
 
     EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
       JAMES L. GREENLEAF 
       RANSOM KENNICOTT 
       JOHN OLIVER LA GORCE 
       WILBUR A. NELSON 
       ALBERT M. TURNER 
       MAJOR W. A. WELCH 
       THEODORE WIRTH 
 
 
 
 
 
       OBJECTS 
 
  To urge upon our govern- 
ments, local, county, state, 
and national, the acquisition 
of land and water areas suit- 
able for recreation and pres- 
ervation of wild life, as a form 
of the conservation of our 
natural resources, until eventu- 
ally there shall be public parks, 
forests, and preserves within 
easy access of all the people of 
our nation, and also to en- 
courage the interest of non- 
governmental agencies, and in- 
dividuals in acquiring, main- 
taining and dedicating for pub- 
lic use similar areas; and as a 
means of cementing all park 
interests into a harmonious 
whole, to provide for a confer- 
ence and exchange of ideas by 
an annual meeting of such in- 
terests, and the formation of 
facilities for the exchange of 
information and ideas between 
conferences. 
 
 
           Mr. Kermit Roosevelt has just notified me of* your 
appointment to represent the Boone and Crockeet Club at the 
Sixth National Conference on State Parks which will be held 
at Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, June 14, 15, 16, and 
17.    I am writing you not only to give you information re- 
garding the Conference but to strongly urge your attendance 
at the meeting. 
 
           You, of course, are interested in this movement 
for the creation of State recreational areas, which I con- 
sider one of the most important before our country today. 
Undoubtedly your attendance at the Conference would enable 
you to do much to create and stimulate interest In the fur-/ 
ther development of State parks in your State. 
 
           Many speakers of prominence will be on our program, 
including Governor Terral, of Arkansas; ex-Governor Neff, of 
Texas; Hon. Stephen T. Mather, Director of the National Park 
Service; and Mr. John Oliver LaGorce, Vice President of the 
National Geographic Society.   Several sessions will be de- 
voted to general discussions of various problems. Such sub- 
jects as "Power and Parks from the Standpoint of the Park 
Lover", "Power and Parks from the Standpoint of the Engineer",

"State Parks as Adjuncts to Agricultural Districts", and 
"Scenic Advertisement for the Public Welfare", will be dis- 
cussed.    Interesting trips of inspection will be offered, 
including visits to the Petit Jean State Park and the pro- 
posed Ouachita National Park. 
 
           I hope it will be possible for you to attend the 
Conferance. 
 
 
7- 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
Forest Product Laborato ,y.. 
Madison, Wisconsin* 
 
 
A STATE PARK EVERY HUNDRED MILES 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LV Z4, 1926 
 
 
Mr. Kereit Roosevelt, 
       Boone & Crockett Club, 
               44 Beaver Street, 
                       New York City. 
Dear 1r. Roosevelt: 
          In further reference to my letter of Ly 17 and 
the possibility of my representing the Boone and Crockett 
M)ub at the National Conference on State Parks at Hot 
Springs. 
          Since writing you it has developed that I wifl 
have to be in northern Idaho on June 15 and I am afraid 
that this will make it im-posible for me to attend the Hot 
Springs meting. I am very sorry that this is the ease. 
          I forgot to state in my previous letter that I 
appreciated your comment on my artiole on "Wilderness Areas" 
in the proceedings of the Outdoor Recreationza Conference, 
I am inolosing reprints of two other articles on the same 
subject vioh you may not have seen. 
          Your rention of Bob ?erguson recalls to mem 
pleasant houre with him in the Southwest, In fact, it was 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
through our nutual interest in the big gae hunti-z grounds 
at the had of the Qla River near his ranch that we first 
became acquainted. It was in no small measure due to his 
encouragement that the sportsmen o New flexioo got started 
in thei r present game conservation program, 
          With best wishes, 
                         Ver-y sincerely yours, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ur,6 Kermit Roosevelt, 
       Boone & Crockett Club, 
             44 Beaver Street, 
                    New York City* 
 
Dear -, Roosevelt: 
          I would be very much pleased to act for the Club 
 
at the Ilational Conference on State Parks provided I can 
 
arrange my schedule so as to be there, It will take me 
 
about a week to determine whether this can be done and I 
 
will let you IQow finally by 17y 25. 
 
          If it proves possible for me to go, I would like 
to post myself on any points you want carried at the meet- 
 
ing# I will write you further about these after I have 
determined whether it will be possible for me to be there. 
 
                            Very aincerely yours, 
 
 
y17 , 192 6 
 
 
I.?-- r, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
             BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB 
                44 BEAVER STREET, NEW YORK CITY 
 
 
 
                Annual Meeting and Dinner 
 
 
 
                                         December 1st, 1925. 
To the Members of the 
 
        BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB: 
 
    The Annual Dinner of the Boone and Crockett Club will be held at 
the Council Room of the University Club, Fifth Avenue and 54th Street, 
New York City, on Monday Evening, December 21, 1925, at 8 o'clock. 
 
    As a large attendance is expected, there will be no guests except those

invited by the Executive Committee. If any member has some particular 
person whom he wishes to invite for some definite reason, it is asked that

he should write to the Executive Committee as soon as possible, giving 
the name of the guest whom he wishes included. 
    Every member is urged to be present, and an early reply will be 
appreciated. 
 
    The price of the dinner will be $7.50 per plate. 
 
    Please reply, enclosing your check to the order of W. Redmond 
Cross, Treasurer, 31 Pine Street, New York City. 
 
                                      DR. LEwIs R. MORRIS, 
                                      DE FOREST GRANT, 
                                      HEYWARD CUTTING, 
                                                   Committee. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Sixth National Conference on State Tarks 
 
             HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK, ARKANSAS 
 
                          June 14, 15, i6, 1926 
 
 
HE States of the Southwest united in the cordial invitation of Arkansas to
hold the Sixth Na- 
tional Conference on State Parks in the Hot Springs National Park. Arkansas
has one State 
Park, the Petit Jean, a beautiful example of conservation possibilities.
The States of the 
ýwest are now joining in the remarkable State park progress all over
the country and the choice 
 
 
of the place of meeting of the 1926 Conference is in recognition of their
entrance into this field. If 
you are from the North, East, West or Middle West come to Hot Springs and
tell the South and 
Southwest what you are doing; if from the South or Southwest come and tell
the other sections of the 
country of your plans and aspirations. Come to Hot Springs and learn of the
astonishing accomplish- 
ments of the past year in the development of State parks and forests. 
 
                               Hot Springs National Park 
     The Hot Springs National Park has been a National Park for nearly one
hundred years-it was 
the first of our National Parks, created in 1832. The hot springs were probably
visited in 1541 by 
DeSoto, and it is believed the earliest white settlement was made about the
year 1800. The Park 
contains 928 acres and includes Hot Springs Mountain, North Mountain, West
Mountain, Sugar-Loaf 
Mountain and Whittington Lake Park. The hot springs, 46 in number, are grouped
about the base 
of Hot Springs Mountain. The park is becoming more and more a place for recreation
and the 
climate is delightful. 
                                       Headquarters 
     Two hundred feet above sea level, resting against North Mountain, built
in Italian architectural 
design, stands the New Arlington Hotel, the headquarters of the Conference.
The new hotel offers 
many modern conveniences, with an ideal promenade and outdoor lounge and
a main dining room, 
with connecting palm room, on the lobby floor, a roof garden, and all the
desirable accommodations 
for pleasure or business. Business sessions of the Conference will be held
in the convention hall of the 
Hotel. 
                                         Hotel Rates 
     The Manager of the New Arlington has quoted special rates for the Conference,
on the Euro- 
pean plan, as follows: Single rooms, $3.50 and $5.00 per day; Double rooms,
$5.00 and $7.00 per 
day. All double rooms have twin beds. 
                                           Program 
     That the Conference will have the most interesting program it has yet
offered is guaranteed by 
the Program Committee, which consists of Mr. Wilbur A. Nelson, State Geologist
of Virginia, who 
was largely responsible for the passage of the Tennessee State Park and Forest
Commission Bill when 
State Geologist of that State, as Chairman: and Major W. A. Welch, General
Manager of the Palisades 
Interstate Park, New York, and Mr. Richard Lieber, Director of the Department
of Conservation of 
Indiana, who are among the best-known park authorities in the country. Every
tangent of the sub- 
ject of State parks and the recreational uses of State forests will be presented
at the Conference in 
addresses and discussions. 
                                    Trip of Inspection 
     As guests of the Morrilton and Hot Springs Chambers of Commerce delegates
to the Conference 
will visit the Petit Jean State Park, about sixty miles from Hot Springs.
This is one of the most 
attractive and rugged bits of scenery in the hill country of the northwestern
part of the State. It 
comprises eighty acres of cliffs, steep slopes and pine-covered summits.
 Petit Jean Mountain is 
about J,100 feet above sea level and is bounded by steep cliffs rising 700
feet above the valley of 
the Arkansas River. The creek rising on the plateau flows westward over it
for eight miles, and 
suddenly drops about a hundred feet into the gorge, which has been cut back
two miles from the 
west end of the mountain. The stream flows out to the lowlands in a rapid
course, with occasional 
small falls. The gorge is 200 to 500 feet deep and is cut on either side
by branching gullies of 
rugged beauty. 
     The park was acquired in 1923, through the interest of Dr. T. W. Hardison,
of Morrilton, who 
received the inspiration at the Third National Conference on State Parks,
at Turkey Run State Park, 
Indiana, which he attended as a delegate from Arkansas. 
 
                         National Conference on State Parks 
                                     Member Federated Societies 
 
 
904 Union Trust Building, Washington, D. C. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
I~OoNF. AND (1~(~(I~I-'II (~i t'~~ 
 
 
OFFICE OF THE TREASURER 
  31 PINE STREET             December 291 
  NEW YORKD                               1925* 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
         Aldo Leopold, Esq., 
         Forest Products Laboratory, 
         Madison, Wisconsin. 
 
         My dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                  We were very sorry not to have you 
         at the Boone and Crockett Club dinner this 
         year, particularly as we had an extremely in- 
         teresting evening. Among the speakers was a 
         man named Young, who has been shooting big 
         game in Africa with a bow and arrow. You may 
         remember that he went there with Pope and White, 
         and he gave us a most interesting demonstration 
         of the power of his weapon by putting a blunt 
         pointed arrow clean through an inch board. 
 
                  I have read with great interest your 
        pamphlet on the "Wilderness as a Form of Land 
        Use", and I am obliged to you for giving me 
        the opportunity of seeing so excellent a paper. 
        If our grazing friends accomplish what they 
        hope for, there will be no wilderness left for 
        anybody. 
 
 
                            Yours sincerely, 
 
 
 
 
 
        WRC:PG 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Albuquerque, New Mexloo, 
 
 
                                          May 12, 1924. 
i{on. Holm 0. Bursum, 
       hington, D. C. 
 
Dear Senator BurBUM: 
 
     The Boone & Crockett Club are sponsoring a new game 
bill for Alaska whiuh is in charge of Soeiator Norbeck and, 
I believe, known as the lorbeck bill. ýs a member of the 
Club 1 have had an opportunity to learn thet this bill is 
a great improvement and I understand it has the united 
support of the I1ational Game Conservation Associations and 
the Alaskans. I have not had an opportunity to get a 
formral exjression from the New Mexico Game i±rotactive 
Association but I wish tA endorse the bill personally and 
recormmend that you do whatever you can to further its pas- 
sage. 
 
                          Very respectfully yours, 
 
 
Copy sent Mr. Kermit Roosevelt 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
       BOONE and CROCKETT CLUB 
       44 BEAVER STREET      :1   NEW YORK CITY 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dear Sir: 
          The members of the BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB in 
Washington in charge of Senator Norbeck's Alaskan Game Bill 
have succeeded in having it reported out of the Committee 
and it is now before the Senate. There is no opposition to 
the bill and all Conservationists favor it. 
 
          Please write your Senator and any other Senators 
whom you may know, urging the prompt passage of this bill 
and pointing out that there is no opposition and that the bill 
is favored by the Conservationists. 
 
                      Faithfully yours, 
 
                            EXECUTIVE COMM ITTEE, 
 
                                   per Kermit Roosevelt, 
                                                  Secretary 
 
 
May 6, 1924 
 
  

					
				
				
 
'IL ~  ~hd~~tdtOUTDOOR  AMERICA 
 
 
I, 
 
 
/ 
 
 
k~i&I~.aA ii~LIL~ T  T ..L -T-)  r 
 
 
By Executive Committee 
Boone and Crockett Club 
 
 
"NTT ITI- the growth of the recreational spirit among 
        our people and the rapid increase of nunIhel s who 
N'TV    enjoy our game, the problems of methods proposed 
        to save it are today receiving wider and more 
serious attention than ever before. The dangers of further 
decrease of game, in some cases even of its threatened 
extermination, have been so advertised in recent years that 
many interested in the conservation of wild life have been 
startled almost to the verge of panic. From one angle or 
another the alarm is being sounded, not so much because 
game is decreasing, as because the increase of population 
signifies an increase of gunners, and the advance of material 
interests makes possible greater opportunities effectively 
to use the guns. 
  The outlook is indeed ser- 
 
 
       -'ar-1 LrJ 7  (7 
C~!zML UifZLY 
 
 
legislation since 1911 has been similar, and recent proposals 
to save game have advocated nothing, save more drastic 
applications of these methods. They are mainly prohibitive 
or restrictive. They have failed because of neglect to pro- 
vide the right practical applications of some of them, and 
because others are not fundamental. 
  Yet some fundamental game protective policies have been 
enacted in legislation, and applied. The results have been 
immediate and game has either been protected or has in- 
creased. Let us mention some of them. 
  The Yellowstone National Park, created by Congress in 
1872 was a great federal refuge without legislative enact- 
ments to protect its game. In 1876 George Bird Grinnell 
                            first effectively called the at- 
                            tention of Congress to the 
 
 
to have been forgotten that 
the same and even greater 
dangers to   the future of 
game existed several years 
ago. Then, the numbers of 
waterfowl   and   shorebirds       founded the Boone an 
were much reduced and were         it has inade more conse 
steadily decreasing, and deer      has any other body of. 
had   greatly decreased  in 
many eastern States.    Yet 
along with the increase of           To recite only brieft 
gunners and of material ad-        ments would take a b 
vancement, waterfowl and           We hope the members 
shorebirds are now increas-        closely read and study 
ing, and deer in the States 
have  become   much   more         printed herewith. We 
abundant. Such facts should        well afford to give it t1 
cause reflection and a calin       consideration. The st 
study of the causes which          are greatly indebted 
have   produced  this more         Croekett Club and w 
favorable situation. Before 
becoming so much alarmed as        as the years roll on t 
hastily to propose certain         ganization wvill contin 
remedies which in the past         way toward beLtering 
have failed, is it not better 
to seek to understand the            The League consider 
fundamental   problems   of 
game protection and to try         its magazine ofricially 
to apply them now and here-        and Crockett Club 
after, so that our game in         medium to print "'tu 
reasonable numbers may be          of Game Conservatioi 
saved?o 
  The   methods   commonly 
proposed  to  save  game- 
chiefly by legislative enact- 
ments-although practiced in 
this country from early colo- 
nial times, began to receive 
some attention after 1850 and active interest after 1880. 
Reduction of bag limits, limited seasons and closed seasons, 
game refuges, license systems, law enforcement, and several 
other policies were and are the common proposals; yet so 
far as they have been practiced they have never afforded a 
permanent solution of the probien. The game has con- 
tinually decreased. 
   In Bulletin No. 41, published by the Biological Survey 
in 1912, Dr. T. S. Palmer, after much research and sitdy 
gave us: "The Chronology and Index of the more im- 
portant Events in American Ga: ne Protection, 17/6-1911." 
This is his introduction: "Game protection in the United 
States has been gradually developed during a period of 
nearly 300 years and has been marked by an nnnaecse 
volume of letgislation. In no other country in the world 
have laws for the protection of gane been passed in such 
numbers or amended so frequntly. Ainong the character- 
istic featur es of American gane I egislatic:i are the division 
of biirds into three group.--gare birds, onganuo birds, and 
noxiouts spccies; the restrictions on hunting by nouresidents; 
the hnnitations on the quantity of gaine that rnay be hilled 
at certain times; the prohitiou of export and sale; the 
system of enfotrcement by State officers; ard the ni lute- 
nince of this system, largely by receipts front I'in, licens- 
es."  with few    exceptiois, wvvhich w.ill hb  noticed, all 
Your o     ........      i"      you ren        y. v -w' 
 
 
                             tL rI ~aLtIen I  CS. r CL ot ns L  0l  , 
                             this game, and continued to 
                             agitate the subject until final- 
S       O        Tly the public became interest- 
    rE ROOSEJTT              ed. Congress gave heed to 
                             it, and in 1894 the Park 
d Crockett Club and          Protection Act was passed. 
ervation history than        I-Jere was   a  fundamental 
Americansportsmen.           policy which has been ap-. 
                             plied to all National Park 
 v its many achieve-         legislation-tthe complete pro- 
                             tection of game within the 
ook of many pages.           limits of these Parks. Thus 
of this League will          in them the game has per- 
the valuable paper           manently been saved. 
       a ethem they can        In 1894 Mr. Grinnell was 
assure tthe first to advocate the idea 
heir most thoughtful         of nonrale of gaine, and he 
portsmen of 'Aierica         persisted in advocating this 
to the Boone and             policy until the whole public 
have n1O dotbt thtat         had been educated to accept 
                             it, as soon as a method to 
his distinguished or-        apply it was found. This 
ue to point out the          was   another   fundamental 
sports in this country,      problem. 
                               In   1904   Hon.   George 
s it an honor to have        Shiras 3rd, prepared and in- 
                             troduced in the House of 
 chosen by the Boone         Representatives a bill to place 
as being the proper          all migratory birds under fed- 
tdamental Problems           eral control. This principle 
                             was kept alive in Congress 
                             until it was finally enacted in 
     WILL i1. DILG           the Migratory Bird law and 
                             later replaced by the Inter- 
                             n     a t i o n a I Migratory Bird 
                             Treaty. Thus the policy of 
                             federal control of migratory 
                             birds v.as established in law 
 so that all methods of game protection, including nonsale of 
 game, could be immediately applied. The result has been 
 the great and rapid increase of waterfowl and shorebirds. 
 Efforts, continued for years without success, had been made 
 to accomplish similar results through State legislation. And 
 yet some States had passed laws containing regulations 
 amply sufficient to save the game, if only they could have 
 been applied throughout the country and enforce~d. It was 
 the recognition of this policy of federal control, however, 
 that vas fundamental to the problein. 
   Population and industrialisit are increasing faster than 
 game. Is there any fundamental policy whirh, if adopted, 
 will meet such a situation and co:nserve the game? We think 
 that there is-one that needs the endursenment of all who 
 are interested in saving wild life and in outdoor recreation. 
 The policy needed is one which calls for the complete ad- 
 ministration of the ganne together Nvahh the accoirpayin' 
 responsibility. Ileretofor o nost of our lcgislation in behalf 
 of saving game has dealt with tOe priotective side of game 
 conservation. Game protection, rather than game admiai- 
 istration, has been our thou' ht. So long as we continue 
 both in thought and by legislation to hold this attitudo, we 
 cannot make xie laws fast enough.1 to meTet the changiang 
 situations, nor c n wec quickly adopt methodls vahieh will 
 prevent the dCstructiCn cf tie breedin stocl of g-ame. 
   yo~ Co, "jey :,e-- A- Ser~.'1(o"             3,1!9 
 
  

					
				
				
U UTI) UUI 0 '  Al EI 11CA 
 
 
  The Boone and Crockett Club clearly recognized this 
fact in 1912. In its Game Preservation Report of that year 
it declared that the only solution of future game conserva- 
tion lay in legislation recognizing completely the administra- 
tion of game. The Club emphasized this in its report of 
1915, and has since advocated it as the chief object to be 
attained. 
  Administration of game has been the centuries old policy 
in European countries, and game has been maintained in 
abundance and widely sold in the mainrkets while the breed- 
ing stock has not been permitted to decrease below numhenis 
believed to be for the general welfare of the people. But 
all over the world, - wherever, without intelligent administia- 
tiontion, game has been permitted to increase on areas 
being more and more encroached on by civilization, it has 
become depleted either by unwise killing or by death from. 
starvation. 
  What is the significance of Game Administration? 
  The preservation of game is justified for three cardinal 
purposes-aesthetic pleasure; economic use; and recrea- 
tional use for sport, study, and photography. The value of 
game cannot be comparatively measured, but there is general 
agreement that game is an asset of high importance to the 
people. The use of game must be coordinated with all in- 
dustrial uses in such a wN ay that our national life will enjoy 
the maximum benefits of all our resources. Therefore the 
numbers of game to be preserved must be adjusted accord- 
ingly. 
  The administration of game is nothing more than the 
plain common sense management of it so as to insure a 
permanent breeding stock which, will perpetually produce 
a given surplus to be used as completely as possible for all 
three purposes of game conservation. Although vastly more 
complex and difficult, the problem is similar to the simpler 
one of the management of cattle or chicken ranches. 
  Game adminlistration will study the whole problem of 
game in its relation to industrial interests and adjust the 
numbers to be preserved. It will make a complete study 
of the game itself, its habits, food, pathology, distribution, 
and breeding; of the refuges and sanctuaries necessary to 
be made, and the destruction of nattual enemies; in fact, 
of all scientific methods of increasing and preserving it for 
the purposes in view. It will seek to determine all the 
problems connececd with gamne in such a -,ay that cvf y 
action taken in regard to it will be aii intelligent one. 
  Each reader should ask himself if it is not simple common 
sense to believe that game can be better permanently 
preserved under an unconditional system  of active, im- 
mediate administration than by the one, hitherto practiced 
for the most part in this country, which in a somewhat hap- 
hazard way attempts to protect game by passirg rigid, re- 
strictive, laws, inelastic, and so to be changed only by the 
slow process of legislative enactment? 
  How can unconditional Game Administration be realized? 
  The first step toward its active realization will be to 
convince sportsmen's organizations throughout the country 
that it is necessary. No effective legislation in behalf of 
game in this country has been accomplished except through 
the interest and work of sportsmen's organizations. They 
are the main agencies which arouse favorable public judg- 
ment for game 1-gislation, coordinate all the factors to 
promote it, and do the hard work necessary to achieve it. 
When any game legislation is proposed, sportsmen's organ- 
izations are called on to support or oppose it. Without 
sportsmen's organizations we could get no effective support 
for or against game lcgislation, and selfish interests would 
soon overthrow    all game protection. The sportsman's 
organization is so vital to saving game that in his annual 
report for 1922 the Chief Forester of the National Forest 
Service called special attention to the need for the expan- 
sion of such organizations as the principal means of better 
improving the conditions of game. Sportsmen's organiza- 
tions can best be reached through sportsmen's and outdoor 
periodicals. These should fully discuss the need and value 
of game administration. 
  This step taken, we must concentrate on the broadest 
conception of game conservation- -the continuous develop- 
ment of the recreational spirit of the people. The platfoitm 
of the Izaak \Valton League sets forth admirable principles 
of recreation which are printed at the beghin'iing of its 
magazine. 
  A plan is needed--a plan of National eereoatiosn, which 
shall study, define and include on a coordinated basis all 
national, state, and local possibilities. Such a plan can only 
be ibrouglit alout by the Pr1,si-t, and he siotd be e..- 
courmaed to accomplish it. All org-anizations interceted in 
recr~ation of all kinds should join in the effort to bring 
forth such a proiram. 
 
 
350 
 
 
to vote for 1-%,s' - e   tw' s b" 
 
 
    By recognizing the necessity for such administration, 
  granting the power, and definitely fixing the responsibility 
  for the results. This can be accomplished by appointing 
  non-partisan, expert game commissions with long tenure of 
  office and full authority independently and unconditionally 
  to administer the game. A commission having such com- 
  plete administrative authority could immediately, as the con- 
  ditions might demtnd, apply all known methods of game 
  regulation and preservation in any part of or througho.ust 
  the State. It would become expert in dealing with the whole 
  problem of Game Administration and would cooperate with 
  clubs and Federal agencies in control of game. 
    Objections might be made to entrusting such elastic 
  powx ers to a game commission on the ground of politics. 
  Such objections v.ould, of course, have w eight but usually 
  they would not, Nve believe, be wxell founded. Thronbho.t 
  this counitry at present, with rare exceptions, game commis- 
  sions are conposed of those having received poli'ical prefer- 
  ence, yet maniy of themn include excellent 1n1C. who have 
  achieved splendid ,e.ults, sonie cve.ni commanding i ationial 
  attention.  laving only to eniforce laws and advise legisla- 
  tures, such bodies mow have little responsibility. The rnai 
  respoinsibility for gainic laws lie, in thie le is!stLx body 

	
				
OUTDOOR    AMERICA 
 
 
which makes them, and here responsibility is intangible. 
Should a commi-ssion be given full powers to regulate and 
contro0 the game, the responsibility for success or failure 
would be localized on it and on the agency which appointed 
it. And long tenure of office would decrease the political 
dependence of its members. It is common sense to believe 
that a game comnmission thus made fully responsiblc for 
its acts, would be less likely to act with indifference, neglect, 
or viith careless thought of the probable results. We are 
not wholly w.ithout experience in Game Administration, 
and insofar as it has been practiced, the results have coin- 
pletely justified it. Under the present Alaska game law the 
Secretary of Agricultvre has, by the advice of the Alaskans 
themselves, made freiuent use of his administrative author- 
ity to prohibit the killing of game in sections where it has 
been threatened. This has saved the game. Had he pos- 
sessed no administrative power and been obliged to await. 
authority by congressioinai action, the game in these sec- 
tions would have been exterminated. 
  The Migratory Bird Law, for the most part, is one grant- 
ing wide powers of administration. Every year the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture calls togethcr the Advisory Board, com- 
posed of experienced game conservationists from  various 
parts of the country, who reconmn'end changes in the regu- 
lations only after careful study and with as full knowledge as 
can be obtained of the situation. The results bave been a 
steady incmease of wvildfowl and shorebirds. It has been pro- 
posed, with the best of intentions but without careful study 
of conditions, that this Advisory Board should recommend 
drastic cuts in bag limits a)d seasons, not bcc,use waterfowl 
are decreasing (they are increasing), but because population 
is increasing. Such a rmetiod of applyin1g game protective 
remedies is uns.ott.'d becau e it is illogical, haphazard, and re- 
strictive, rather thian ad'ninistratie, based on a study of the 
situation. We many ha-ve complete conficlnce that the Secre- 
tary, having the aPdrministrative authority, will so use it as to 
raintrain tile full an-br--" of waterfovl that th-e food s yppy 
will stpp sft. 
  The evidcnce gathered by the Biological Survey, the 
active admiinistrator of the law, is that wtterfoil are rlpif!y 
increasing to the limits of the fnod supply. Shouldl they 
be pcr--itt,:d to icr as-e b.yonj it, wholc.ale starwition ;dnl 
 
 
death to vast numbers would follow. Because marsshcs and 
feeding grounds have been and are being drained, the food 
supply for waterfowl is decreasing. Should this continue, 
ducks could not be maintained at their present numbers 
and there would be serious danger of great loss. To pre- 
vent such a calamity it has been necessary to have the 
Game Refuge and Public Shooting Grounds bill introduced 
in Congress. Its main purpose is to find a means of preserv- 
ing and adtainistering the feeding areas of wildfowl. It is 
supported by all sportsneni in this country and its enact- 
ment into law is a vital necessity to thle perpetuation of our 
wildfowl. 
  Limited administration of game by state game commis- 
sions is gradually being realized in many gtate laws. It 
has usually taken the form of conditional powers to curtail 
or prohibit the killing of game. Even this is a step in ad- 
vance and the results have been most favorable. But as 
yet no state understands the significance and value of com- 
plete administration of its game, and until the advantages of 
it are clearly recognized we cannot hope for rapid progress 
in accomplishing it. 
  The Izaak Walton League htas caused to be presented in 
Congress a most worthy bill setting aside as a refuge for 
wild life, including plants and fish, the Upper Mississippi 
National Wild Life Refuge, to be administered c-s lusively 
and unconditionally by the Secretaries of Agriculteure and 
of Commerce. This is a project of Game Administration, 
and nothing is more encouraging than the fact that ths 
League of large and wide national meinbership should thus 
recognis:e the nece-sity of the admini ,tration of game. 
  To assist the adniinistration of wild life in this country 
we have thc Biologi cal Survey, a Bureau of the Depnrto ert 
of Agrieulture. Frol the tinie of its estabishinne-t, thirty- 
nine years ago, it has intensively stndied wild Ffe and all 
proble-ns connectedr with it, includinlg- game protective prac- 
tice, adiministration, amd legiElation. It is the highest a;tlhor- 
ity in the countny on all imItters p r.aining to wild H-f. 
It has cooperated   ith every pamne protective organization, 
Federai, State, loc-!, and priva.te. It is the great claring 
house of informiatiot ons these subjects. No othjer con ntry 
ha s a  o,:er,. t bureau of this k id. Wihn ga!up eC adasin- 
istration sblili be ut dcitaken, the advice and expci kao.vl- 
 
 
I51 
 
 
11, 71:1ý ý01-U  u,,1;1 voýl 
 
  

					
				
				
OUTDOOR1.  AMEtRICA 
 
 
edge of this bureau are available. When it shall have ad- 
vanced, the cooperation of the Biological Survcy will be 
invaluable. It has a great force of experienced, technical 
experts in exterminating predatory animals. Its wide out- 
look and knowledge will be of the greatest advantagc in 
assisting the states to coordi- 
nate all their activities in 
dealing  with  game admin-                        - 
istration problems. 
  Along with game adminis-                   "I A, GOC   1 
  tration should be included 
  that of all wild life, birds,         GRtEAT ooat and a 
fish, and fur-bearing animals.           --     i  C 
A discussion of these, how-         York V',r!' hIx  peCo did 
ever, is not within the scope 
of this paper.                      rect thought in America 
   Enough has been said, we         neS3 and            Ttism. 'i' 
 hope, to show the neces-ity        thnroough his cditorials an 
 of game adminhstration and 
 the possibilities of finally       deprived of tlo'nodre'g 
 establishing it. But we must       sweep and size. 
 clearly face the difficulties in-    IM;i intimacleg ran fron 
 volved in accomplishing it.        enceau to th3 ward poli 
 Our present historical game 
 protective policies have be-       were hs daily asociatej 
 come the custom     of our         head Lake with him ha 
 thought, and cannot easily be        In his paýsing lie hit 
 changed. Some state consti-        always able to do, naturs 
 tutions may not permit the         ufacture) wideh sPma to 
 delegation of sufficient au-       tban many which have b 
 thority to game commissions, 
 and states may pause before        history. And in this c-ee 
 they recognize the necessity       of not ben." avpcecryphM'd. 
 of ceding such administra-           Just before lie died hr 
 tion to commissions and to 
 the Forest Service.  Other         and pibt, o-a the sweat 
 difficulties might be men-         am going fidluig.' 
 tioned; and yet, vlhatever the       He never spoke again. 
 obstacles, it is not imroo-ebe 1 1 . If ever a rnan deserved 
 finally to overcome   tterm.   P   Cobb. 
 It is a matter of education. 
 Advanced ideas of gatue con- 
 scrvation have often grown            : 
 slowly, and evecn when under- 
 stood thei practical realiza- 
 tioji has been slow. The very necez~iy for Caame Admn- 
 istration should strinulate all to work for it. But it must 
 come gradually, step by step, each one gained shovwing such 
 advantages that the next will be. reached more rapidly. 
 All magazines devoted to outdoor life and rccreation 
 should substitute the term Game Administration for game 
 protection and serve as propagandists for the idea. They 
 should become the leaders in advaicing it. All sportsmen 
 should study it and reflect on its significance and advaltages. 
 It should be miade a topic of discusson in all racctings and 
 gatberin's held to promote the piTrposes of recreatioli, and 
 every possible means should be taken to gd it into thIY 
thoughts of the people. 
 
 
1C 
Pic 
in 
he 
 
 
 
 
ti 
t 
 
 
en 
 
 
 
la 
 
 
1J"he C-111:0i:i'c' AST-ZA Usf)c 
 
 
N7-ONDERING children, in a rural school at 
  XVl Brand on.  is., ask a qurstion: 
  "The herilage of our graldM'athcr: was VLa 
buffalo and wild pigeon; the heriutlag of o0" 
fri hors is the gax, and duck, the mius!trat and 
the mink. If the animals of today a;e not pro- 
tected and proviJed for, what shall ieiC lcft for 
 
   In the namfs of the nmaflies a nd fathýaýY of 
theose United Slatxts wo answer tthat, qnesiuon: 
   "Nothing shiull be left for you. We wilil (dig 
our drainage ditches tLo ou'.h ý our i.,  ira 
aId s.tajx; and div   , f.u. ot, a 'o eta t-fof  I 
a-~nd youtc hyla. Ow' firta si  al- _3 .cyi' v\os 
 
woodlr'.inds, searin:; the las oP' your song ltir(Ii 
and sco.r'iing ouIt the dons of your fo'sx.' ýu  youzr 
wolves. NWe will cut. the fri~i-'- of y'our timber, 
far in the northland, starvi-rJ" your n"'-e and 
 
 
your elk. As we denude your land we will bale 
dry your pools and your lake3, your rivers and 
brooks. 
   "Your heritage shall be desolation--a land 
swept clear of sheltering trees. As in distant 
China, floods shall come dont upon you, luning 
you by tbou'an'ds,, scatering your bodies over a 
parched countryside. Youe agri ulturt a shall be 
a combat with ins'et horel e l ad, abe lat, they 
will sItlip you h  i   ithout biid:, tabere can 
be no ar'cultu'e and we shall kill your birds. 
These thii¢, sim,1l be your heritage. But with 
them wy will gi-e 70ou steel and bric''s and sterne 
---nian-ina!e tl'ia's on a lard desertLed in the 
rno. v 6f Civiliz-t2Lon and progre-s. 
   "'Ths ae' Nve dealing w ith your patitalotxy 
and, in the rmn.e of prosperity and profit, we 
pvorol'Fa you Ih  - -you, w'Io arc our child-rcn I" 
             An              The~iricfel fiii T1:' AIio eu! , don-'. 
 
 
              to                   i ". '1 u    V ;K'. v ' .'.' - 7o
. - . c : 
ao   ~ -         s ' . ..." ra " .j -.ii               . . . .
..~ 'as J-tr 
 
 
   Finally, there is one fact which should be clearly under- 
 stood and settled affirniatively in the minds of all. We 
 should all have the highest ideals, but game conservation 
 must be regarded not frcm a sentimental but from a supreme- 
 ly practical point of view. With its future full of dangers, 
                              the fate of game must not be 
                              risked to await the fulfillment 
              *    r     '    of every idleal we have nur- 
                              tured  for its preservation. 
  .' H £*BNG"            E    Before they can be realized 
                              the  game    will disappear. 
p'eat nindl passeil wAheIn    What is needed is to advo- 
d. As editor of the NeOW      cate the best action that is 
ore than ny other to di-      practically p o s s i b I e . At 
":to the ch it  's of clear-  present in this Country there 
                              is  a   tendency--apparently 
ose who knew him only         very  wide because of the 
editori',l direction were     publicity given to it, but in 
of his alhcest Elizabethan    reality very limited-to advo- 
                              cate preserving   game   ex- 
                              clusively for aesthetic pur- 
Lloyd George and Clem-        poses. This view   seeks to 
cian. Thoe of us vho          exclude sport as one of the 
nd who had fished Moose-      cardinal purposes of game 
the s'ope of the n        i.conservation.    Such   views, 
    however sincere                             and   well 
pon a phrase (as he was       meaning, not only    cannot 
y, not the result of man-     produce effective results, but 
no to be infinltely better    they harm  and actually re- 
'ome part of the world's      tard the progress of game 
                              conservation. The great ma- 
he remark has the virtue      jority of interested people 
                              work to conserve game so 
raisled himself in his bed    that it may   serve all its 
lie was weaoring said, "I     purposes.  Nearly   all the 
                              actual workers for game con- 
                              servation wish, if possible, 
                              to enjoy sport, but at the 
 full creel it vias Frajk     same time they have due re- 
                              gard for the other purposes 
  RIOLLIN KIRBY               to be served by game. These 
                              are the only persons who 
                              have the power to save the 
                              game   and   perpetuate  its 
                              ::ub.ers, and   -1V   T)o01eV 
 which might tend to discourage their active iirterust would. 
 in the end, have no other result than game destruction. 
   Therefore, a fundamental problem of effective game con- 
 servation is the attainmnent of a practical attitude of mind 
 which squarely faces these facts. If, with such an attitude 
 of mind,, we shall adopt as our goal the conservation of 
 game for all its purposes, with Game Administration as 
 a means of accomplishin2 it, shall seek a policy of National 
 Recreation to increase the recreational spirit of the people, 
 and shall work actively and perseveringly toward these ends, 
 we may feel confident of perpetuating the future supply of 
 our game. 
 
 
r-> 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                    Silver CityN.M. 
                                      February 18, 1924. 
 
Mr Aldo Leopold, 
Forest Service, 
Albuquerque, N.M. 
 
My dear Leopold: 
 
    Thank you very much for the New York League and Colorado 
Bulletins, Such matter helps my education considerably* 
    The Boone and Crockett Policy is a big question. I am not 
going into details as to what I think or why but I will say 
that, with my present knowledge and with special reference to 
conditions in new Mexico, I am in favor of the proposed policy 
provided it can be put into effect through favorable public 
opinion, I will weaken and give you one point only to think 
over: U2der present conditions in New Mexico, which will obtain 
for years to come, no matter how good an organization you have 
in the Game Department and in the Game Associations;no matter 
what your laws are; no matter how much all agencies desire to 
do what is necessary it cannot be done on account of the lack 
of funds. The protection and propagation of big game is the 
most difficult and expensive phase of the question. Relieve the 
states from that and their funds will go far towards handling 
the fish problem and the bird problem. I entered this work with 
an absolutely unprejudiced mind. I have come more and more to 
lean on the Forest Service for practical results. Unconsciouslz 
at first and then consciously I have pressed the importance of' 
the Service and endeavored to take advantage of its organization 
and knowledge to serve our practical problems. I was only 
just now contemplating taking up with you the question of a 
possible survey by the Supervisors of their Forests with the 
idea of establishing a program for game refuges. Under the 
circumstances it is only natural that I should welcome 4he 
publicity of a policy which as my experience broadened was, 
independent of outside influence, forced on me as the logical 
solution of our problems and one which promises action within 
a reasonable time. I do not delude myself as to the difficult- 
ies in the way of adoption. 
 
    Enclosed is the famous Bulletin. It represents thought and 
effort extending over nearly a year of time. I recognize its 
failures and the missteps in our general plan but I have no 
regrets over the efforts I put into it. The greatest good 
has resulted from the favorable influence the whole thing has 
had on public opinion. We will do it again next year.. 
 
                        Yours sincerely, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
GEO. BIRD GRINNELL             . 
  238 EAST 15TH STREET 
  NEW YORK. N.Y. 
 
 
                   fr J 
 
8i, 19£2.> 
 
 
[r. l*s Leopold, 
.&lbutauercue, rtev: ..eu.ico. 
Dear 'Ir. Leoppold,: 
 
      j-.ý interee ti letter - Deceuber 15th ouzht t0 har h'ad an

 
earlIer reply, but f r weeks I have been much occuried. 
 
     Y~ur reference to the rLrer sent )at fort onrz:iderutiorn by th-e 
 
        of t-he club & the "%heldon" polic7 ii. nardly a~ccarate.
It 
 
expreseý. vie   l In held by the club, most    it lb hzvin; peare.
at 
 
different tires in the club's literature.    lio clUb hL -_nsztntlj 
 
been apTealed t. in varitouE wa77s for kQvice on ueEti.)ns of policy, 
 
and to DoLnpile it Sýtatenent+. in comp&ct f£r Coee  likely
to be 
 
helpful t- the cauEes wihich the club repres.ents. . re.221~zions 
 
of the ,x;cutive Comr. ittee as to thiE' policL were unanim-uUi- 
 
affirmed at the club', annuial meeting DecezLter 20th. 
 
     The Olub aLso pEcsid n statement in ýmý protect~io- i;z
renerl, 
 
to be sezt out before lens. Thic statement covers the adjini~tration 
 
of gamie rand for the m..t r~rtpet arer. ai' h A oh r vie,s, ,,ert in th

 
itroprtunt mattei'k )f permitting thl ubegt  teo'vi e &dairiiter tre

 
game in Uatio~na- Vorestz &nid of Ftate c dini-tration under t, e ýaaf

 
_.efuge -- Public chhtino Groundz Bill. 
 
     Yiu cpeak of o po!ti-n. to the '1rolicy" orn the r.-an u "
0tote 
ri-_hts, but it does not arr~r that the policy eu~t *orcive 
 
ealsures. It is all to be left to v .untixy 4ctioln bi Ube tates. 
 
The difference between yutur idlea ana the club's cerr t turn an tne 
 
advisability of advo.ating th4 tates 1Lh1ll final;:; place tneir e 
 
under the administration of the 3¼rest Service. all L7u ,ay .s to
tie 
 
need of enlarging the powers of State C'mrnissions is right, but we 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                             - 2 - 
 
canrot believe that the ctates wi7 act as they sh:ald in time to do 
 
an r good.  >aoy of Dur members have been in the ,vest and on the 
 
;roiun-d ore or less corstantly for forty years, and we are f-orced to 
 
conclude that while occasional]yj a 'Etate may develop the effective gaie

 
administrative methods, in mo-t of them the biz game ,,jill be greatly 
 
reduced before they sccomplist much to.ard betterinri  their Commissions

 
and grantiniq them sufficient powers.  Hven in th  cast,  nere, in some 
 
cases, the excellent work of (eDni  iocis h;s given great encouraemnent,

 
hopes have often been frustrated b,; the reu.mval o. excellent C&mmis
ioneri 
 
for rolilical reaýsons only.  2e have lony felt that tuie 2Drect hervice

 
h      cvi .cnIroll of 2l. the products of tee Vatimnal  oreots an_ adminisOw-

 
in, these Forests with increasing efficiency, saDulc loaicall; administer

 
the game which is ore of the forest priDucts.   -t present it lacks the 
 
authority to do this, yet it ic ready to &asume the management 3f the

 
ga6e.  ne do not believe that the 7tates can accomplish sucL goa results

 
as the Forest Serviee might, and the Porest Service cannot accomplish 
 
the best results without beinr given thl resr!nsibility that should go 
 
-.,ith their work. 
 
     in 7uropean countries thc managemernt of the foretL2 Includes the 
 
m;nagnement of the gse, . That systerr has been successfTul in thait t- :ia

 
has received scientific attention and has been, preserved in forest. f 
 
densely poppalated countries.  Ve believe that the 2tates shoild retain 
 
all revenue anc other material advantages resulting from their game. 
 
     The Frog eLAve action of Tew Iexico as to its big Dae 1hais2 
 
givern u :.uch encouragement, an yet ie recognize that thiL 1ro-..e.s 
 
is due chieflL7 to sour -ork. California to h-_ taken interest in its 
 
game, but elsewhere the situation is not encouraging, th u:-h there is 
 
slow forward movement in one or two States. 
 
     Col. Greeley of Ihe Forest Service is much interested in game 
and may have Some definite ideas on the Nvhole abject.   i am ,i- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
posed to tend your letter to him -- if you are j:illing -- ;ith the 
 
suggestion that he write you if he thirkc best.     I have not iIý-

 
cu<-ed the matter riith hi , but am] told tnat he believes that the 
 
controi of ZarLe on YaUimal ?orestz by his 'ureau       l  .w         ' ar,

 
and any iuriroverLent in administration wvould nat-ral2y b3        , :.,
as 
 
greatly to endanger the continuance of the ga:e supU;.     It is hard tt

 
see how a carditii!.al understanidingv with the Itates oI, ih- lines you

 
eug.gst could, be reached, an%, if reached, h -v, it conid bo carried out

 
'Then, after years, the Etas,,e acLjino':led Ced failure we shoul, be just

 
wihere we are nov ,.-th -- presumobly -- a greatly diminished a-c siuprly.

 
     ?orulation End material advance inicrease muca faster than uame, 
 
 and this calls for a most complete and .ffectivo ad:.Iiitration o. the 
 
 gan;e to be aprlied as quickly us possible. 
 
     There is much to be d a.e before the States shall --rant adi-inLitra-

 
 tive power to their Cnm issions or to the Forest Service, but in the 
 
 meantime e must all of us ,ork hard to Tush these thinriZ6 farward.   If

 
 the alternative of the control of game by the Forest Service is before 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
the "tu>s .--,   as  ncvss-ilit, ancourgied b- irtar ztac     o rl
 --  i 
 
ver> tiini m i ht stiti ml ata  t C- tC re tt a  eatraýte thai2
 u C7 
-A71 not bhe necess~ary. 
 
    after i. the t    -i',J nic; tile Oce&tinl, in t:   ,.. 
 
in the c untrL7, of a tubli ýEitiment favDr&ble to PFacest   
rvie    
   qfm.Ti m.- ten'- to ifduce 'thec 'tu,.es tz --reate mor:e effec-tive 
 
a'e derartientr. 
 
 
                           Y')ur2 s zinc Or e ly 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                            Albuquerque, New Mexico, 
                                  Deoember 11, 1923. 
 
 
Geo. Bird Grinnell, 
     Pres. Boone & Crockett Club, 
          238 East 15th Street, 
               New York City. 
 
Dear Mr. Grinnell: 
 
     I have read Mr. Sheldon's proposed policy with 
great interest,   I agree as to game in the National 
Parks bat do not agree that the Forest Service should 
take over in toto the game on the National Forests. 
 
     The fundamental trouble in the West has been 
the backwardness of States in developing effective 
game departments. ýaith few exceptions these depart- 
ments are still politically controlled, devoid of stable 
constructive policy, lacking in regulatory powers, in- 
adequately finance4, and without organized public sup. 
port.    In only the latter point is much progress 
perce~ptible. 
 
      The only remedy is enforced accountability for 
 results. Blanket transfer of their jurisdiction on 
 the National Forests will lessen rather than increase 
 accountability. 
 
      In my opinion the thing to do is insist that the 
 States handle their game, and to take over the Forest 
 game whenever or wherever they fail to do so. 
      Such a policy would stimulate rather than retard 
 development of State Departments. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Mr. G.B.B. 
 
 
     It would furnish an argument for progress that 
even politicians can understand. 
 
      It would be flexible and would avoid injustice 
to States that are really trying to meet their res- 
ponsibilities. 
 
      It would take the teeth out of opposition on the 
grounds of "States -rights". 
 
      It would i-a no wise prevent the Forest Service 
and Biological Survey cooperating actively with the 
States in the management of game on such Forests 
remaining in State control. 
 
      It would leave the question of ultimate outcome 
 squarely up to the States themselves. If they deliver 
 results, they will keep jurisdiction. If they fall 
 down, they wtll lose the Forest game and can blame 
 nobody but themselves. 
 
      It would benefit game management outiside the 
 Forests.   TZhe Sheldon plan might injure it. 
      The saue idea might be applied to areas pur- 
ahasei by the Federal Government under the Puublic 
Shooting Grounds bill.    If the State is competent, 
let it operate these areas in trust, after the Fed- 
eral Government has bought them. 
      Of course, this hits only the high points. 
 If jyou are interested in further detail, I will 
 try and supplj it. 
 
                    Very sincerely iours, 
 
                           ..               , Secretary, 
 
                    NEi M1ýXICO GAMS PROTLCTIV ASSOC IATON. 
 
P.S. Can you please let me have a dozen extra copies 
      of the Sheldon Policy? 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
GEO. BIRD GRINNELL 
  238 EAST 15TH STREET 
  NEW YORK. N.Y. 
 
                                            -May 9th, 1923. 
 
      Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
      Albuquerque, 
      Now Mexico. 
 
      Dear Mr. 'Leopold: 
 
                I am glad to have your letter of May 4th giving me 
 
      suggestions for some help in your good work. I am gratified 
 
      to know that the resolution passed by the Boone and Crockett 
 
      Club pleases you, and that you believe it may do good. 
 
                I shall write to Governor Hinkel, to Mr. Oestreich and 
 
      to Judge Neblett, and send to each a copy of the resolution. 
 
                The important point to be stressed in all this matter 
 
      is that wild life constitutes a capital which, if properly used, 
 
      will yield to any community a gratifying income.   This income 
 
      may not altogether take the form of money, but it will produce 
 
      some money and other intangible benefits which, to the citizens 
 
      of the state, are worth more than money. 
 
                I shall leave to you the sending out of copies of the 
 
      resolution to the offiaers of the local associations, as you suggest

 
      in your postscript. 
 
                I am enclosing with this copy of the Park Policy adopted

 
      April l7th by the National Parks Committee. If it can be improved 
 
      we want that done, and azW suggestions which are actually constructive

 
      will be welcome.   If you can use any of these circulars let me know.

 
      We do not want to waste them, but we have plenty. 
                                   Yours sincerely, 
 
 
      Enclosure 
 
  

					
				
				
 
BOONE AND 
CR 0 CKE TT 
   CL UB 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   Policies 
 qecommended 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB 
 
         Policies Recommended 
AT THE ANNUAL MEETING of the Boone 
and Crockett Club held in New York 
December 20, 1923, the Club's Execu- 
tive Committee recommended two sub- 
jects to the consideration of the mem- 
bers. These subjects were (a) the pres- 
ervation of big game in Federal areas in 
the West; and (b) the adoption of a plan 
for handling our game which shall touch 
the fundamentals of its conservation and 
call for intelligent and elastic administra- 
tion in place of the clumsy, slow, re- 
pressive prohibitions to which we have so 
long been accustomed. 
  By a unanimous vote the Club ap- 
proved and adopted the Committee's 
recommendations and ordered printed 
and distributed among sportsmen the two 
announcements of policy which follow. 
Of these the second, which deals with game 
administration, has already been pub- 
lished in Outdoor America, the magazine 
of the Izaak Walton League. 
Big Game Conservation in FederalAreas 
  OUR GAME is a national asset of great 
value to the welfare of the people and its 
preservation is, therefore, desirable. Its 
uses are both economic and spiritual, and 
the spiritual value obviously has an 
economic side. 
  Owing to the increasing population, 
constant encroachment on wild areas 
                 (3] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
inhabited by game by economic pressure, 
the extension of roads, motor cars, in 
fact the whole rapid advance of material 
interests, the preservation of the big game 
of the West depends on its proper admin- 
istration in National Game Refuges, 
National Parks, National Forests, and 
National Monuments. 
  National Parks and National Monu- 
ments under the management of the 
National Parks Service should be breeding 
reservoirs where game may be enjoyed for 
aesthetic pleasure and the recreational 
uses of photography and study. The over- 
flow of game outside may provide recrea- 
tional use for sport and food. But sport 
should not be permitted in such federal 
areas. When the game increases beyond 
the food supply, it must be officially re- 
duced and the carcasses disposed of for 
economic use. 
  National Game Refuges and National 
Monuments situated in National Forests 
should be breeding areas where game not 
only serves for exhibition, but also for 
breeding purposes so that, when possible, 
the surplus game may be transierred to 
restock other regions or provide an over- 
flow to adjacent areas. Sport must not 
be permitted on smaller National Game 
Refuges under fence. But, the surplus 
game on other overstocked areas not 
removed by natural drift outside, should 
be reduced under the direction and regula- 
tions of the Secretary of Agriculture by 
any method he believes will best serve 
the purposes of game preservation. 
  By far the greater part of the game 
exists in the National Forests. Here a 
                 [4) 
 
  

					
				
				
 
different and broader problem of adminis- 
tration is presented, and the game can be 
so regulated as to serve most completely all 
the uses which justify its preservation. It is 
one of the major products of the forests. 
  For more than thirty years the Boone 
and Crockett Club has maintained that 
all game in National Forests should be 
administered unconditionally by the For- 
est Service. The Club has full confidence 
that the Forest Service would adminster 
this game with the same efficiency it has 
demonstrated in its administration of 
the other forest resources. 
  The Club recognizes that the National 
Forests were created for the purpose of 
perpetually preserving for the nation the 
maximum use of all their products- 
timber, forage, water, and harmless wild 
life-and that the use of each must be so 
coordinated with that of the others, that 
the people may realize the fullest possible 
benefit. The numbers of game must 
therefore be adjusted accordingly. Any 
policy which might seek to increase game 
at such a sacrifice of other industrial uses, 
that the maximum use of the forest would 
not result, would bring a just public 
reaction which would tend to destroy 
game conservation. 
   Properly to administer the game, the 
Forest Service must have the responsi- 
bility that goes with it. This cannot be 
assumed until the Forest Service shall be 
given independent control of the game. 
The Club hopes that finally all States 
will, as some States have already done, 
cede the control of their game on Na- 
tional Forests to the Forest Service. 
                  5s] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
  Controlling the game, the Forest Ser- 
vice must intelligently decide the num- 
bers to be retained on each national 
forest, and by scientific administration 
perpetuate the breeding stock to main- 
tain those numbers undiminished. Refu- 
ges must be selected in which the game 
shall never be molested; smaller sanctu- 
aries, where game may feed and rest, 
must be established in the areas where 
shooting is permitted; when practical, 
sanctuaries should be made along high- 
ways and near tourist centers for exhi- 
bition. In fact, the Forest Service must 
study and solve all questions connected 
with  the complete administration    of 
game, and regulate the uses of it for all 
purposes. But the numbers should never 
be permitted to increase above those 
which the available food supply can sup- 
port in a state of health and vigor. 
  The Biological Survey has been en- 
trusted with the administration of Na- 
tional Game Refuges and       with  the 
function of studying the problems of game 
conservation and of exterminating the 
natural enemies of game. This section of 
the work of this Bureau has so expanded 
that its advice and cooperation are neces- 
sary to every factor in the country in- 
volved in game preservation practice. 
The Club    believes in the continued 
expansion of this work of the Bureau and 
considers its efficient service inseparable 
from intelligent game conservation. 
   Further, owing to unrestricted over- 
grazing and unregulated use of the Public 
Domain, the forage is greatly reduced 
and much of it is depleted. Such a con- 
                  [6] 
 
  

					
				
				
dition is not only dangerous to the future 
of the live stock industry, but also to the 
game. The Club, therefore, emphasizes 
the need of complete regulation of grazing 
on this Public Domain, so that the pro- 
ductivity of the range may be restored 
and maintained. 
  Finally, the Boone and Crocket Club 
takes a much     broader view   of the 
whole problem of game conservation. It 
believes that this can be encouraged to 
the most successful results only by the 
completest development of all classes of 
recreational opportunities offered by all 
regions under national, State, and local 
control. Recreation in National Parks 
and National Forests should be equally 
encouraged, and complete cooperation to 
that end should obtain between govern- 
ment bureaus themselves, and their rela- 
tions with State and local projects. A 
permanent National Recreation Policy 
with a program is needed. To achieve this 
end the Club believes that the President 
should cause to be made a complete study 
of the question with a view to a definitive 
policy which will finally include a de- 
termination of the areas to be included in 
National Parks, National Monuments, 
and other regions with recreational possi- 
bilities; a cooperative basis for their 
management and regulation; a plan of 
development for the purposes in view; 
in fact, a complete policy to be adopted 
and realized in the future. 
  Only by the establishment of such a 
National Recreational Policy can maxi- 
mum recreational opportunities be given 
to the nation and the numbers of people 
                  17] 
 
  

					
				
				
who will enjoy them increased. It must 
sooner or later be realized that such a 
policy is vital to national welfare. Success- 
ful game conservation lies in the habit of 
mind gained from increasing development 
of recreational spirit among the people 
 
Fundamental Problems of qame Con- 
               servation 
WITH THE GROWTH of the recreational 
spirit among our people and the rapid 
increase of numbers who enjoy our game, 
the problems of methods proposed to 
save it are today receiving wider attention 
than ever before. The dangers of further 
decrease of game, in some cases even of its 
threatened extermination, have been so 
advertised in recent years that many 
interested in the conservation of wild life 
have been startled almost to the verge of 
panic. From one angle or another the 
alarm is being sounded, not so much be- 
cause game is decreasing, as because the 
increase of population signifies an increase 
of gunners, and the advance of material 
interests makes possible greater oppor- 
tunities effectively to use the guns. 
  The outlook is indeed serious. But the 
same and even greater dangers to the 
future of certain game existed several 
years ago. Then the numbers of water- 
fowl and shorebirds were much reduced 
and were steadily decreasing, and deer 
had greatly decreased in many eastern 
States. Yet along with the increase of 
gunners and of material advancement, 
waterfowl and shorebirds are now in- 
creasing, and deer in all States have be- 
                  [8) 
 
  

					
				
				
 
come much more abundant. Such facts 
should cause reflection and a calm study of 
the causes which have produced this more 
favorable situation. Before becoming so 
much alarmed as hastily to propose cer- 
tain remedies which in the past have 
failed, is it not better to seek to under- 
stand the fundamental problems of game 
protection and to try to apply them now 
and hereafter, so that our game in reason- 
able numbers may be saved? 
  The methods commonly proposed to 
save game-chiefly by legislative enact- 
ments-although practiced in this coun- 
try from early colonial times, began to 
receive more attention after i85o and 
active interest after i88o. Reduction of 
bag limits, limited seasons and closed 
seasons, game refuges, license systems, 
law enforcement, and several other poli- 
cies were and are the common proposals; 
yet so far as they have been practiced 
they have never afforded a permanent 
solution of the problem. The game has 
continually decreased. 
  In Bulletin No. 41, published by the 
Biological Survey in 1912, Dr. T. S. 
Palmer, after much research and study 
gave us: "The Chronology and Index of 
the more important Events in American 
Game Protection, 1776-1911." This is his 
introduction: "Game protection in the 
United States has been gradually de- 
veloped during a period of nearly 300 
years and has been marked by an im- 
mense volume of legislation. In no other 
country in the world have laws for the 
protection of game been passed in such 
numbers or amended      so  frequently. 
                  [91 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Among the characteristic features of 
American game legislation are the divi- 
sion of birds into three groups-game 
birds, non-game birds, and noxious species; 
the restrictions on hunting by non-resi- 
dents; the limitations on the quantity of 
game that may be killed at certain times; 
the prohibition of export and sale; the 
system of enforcement by State officers; 
and the maintenance of this system largely 
by receipts from hunting licenses." With 
few exceptions, which will be noticed, all 
legislation since 1911 has been similar, and 
recent proposals to save game have advo- 
cated nothing, except more drastic applica- 
tions of these methods. They are mainly 
prohibitive or restrictive. They have failed 
because of neglect to provide the right 
practical applications of some of them, and 
because others are not fundamental. 
  Yet some fundamental game protective 
policies have been enacted in legislation, 
and applied. The results have been im- 
mediate and game has either been pro- 
tected or has increased. 
  The Yellowstone National Park, cre- 
ated by Congress in 1872, was a great 
federal refuge without legislative enact- 
ments to protect its game. In 1876 George 
Bird Grinnell first effectively called the 
attention of Congress to the threatened 
destructions of this game, and continued 
to agitate the subject until finally the pub- 
lic became interested, Congress gave heed 
to it, and in 1894 the Park Protection Act 
was passed. Here was a fundamental 
policy which has been applied to all 
National Park legislation-the complete 
protection of game within the limits of 
                  (Io] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
these Parks. Thus in them the game has 
permanently been saved. In 1894 Mr. 
Grinnell was the first to advocate the idea 
of non-sale of game, and he persisted in 
advocating this policy until the whole 
public had been educated to accept it, as 
soon as a method to apply it was found. 
This was another fundamental problem. 
  In 1904 Hon. George Shiras, 3rd, pre- 
pared and introduced in the House of 
Representatives a bill to place all migra- 
tory birds under federal control. This 
principle was kept alive in Congress until 
it was finally enacted in the Migratory 
Bird law and later replaced by the Inter- 
national Migratory Bird Treaty. Thus 
the policy of federal control of migratory 
birds was established in law so that all 
methods of game protection, including 
non-sale of game, could be immediately 
applied. The result has been the great 
and rapid increase of waterfowl and shore- 
birds. Efforts, continued for years with- 
out success, had been made to accomplish 
similar results through State legislation. 
And yet some States had passed laws 
containing regulations amply sufficient 
to save the game, if only they could have 
been applied throughout the country and 
enforced. It was the recognition of this 
policy of federal control, however, that 
was fundamental to the problem. 
  Population and industrialism are in- 
creasing faster than game. Is there any 
fundamental policy which, if it can be 
adopted, will meet such a situation and 
conserve the game? We think that there 
is-one that needs the endorsement of all 
who are interested in saving wild life and 
                 I I'] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
in outdoor recreation. The policy needed 
is one which calls for the complete admin- 
istration of the game together with the 
responsibility which goes with it. Here- 
tofore most of our legislation in behalf of 
saving game has dealt with the protective 
side of game conservation. Game pro- 
tection, rather than game administration, 
has been our habit of thought. So long as 
we continue both in thought and by 
legislation to hold this attitude, we cannot 
make wise laws fast enough to meet the 
changing situations, nor can we quickly 
adopt methods which will prevent the 
destruction of the breeding stock of game. 
  The Boone and Crockett Club clearly 
recognized this fact in I912. In its Game 
Preservation Report of that year it declar- 
ed that the only solution of future game 
conservation lay in legislation recognizing 
completely the administration of game. 
The Club emphasized this in its report of 
i9'5, and has since advocated it as the 
chief object to be attained. 
  Administration of game has been the 
centuries old policy in European coun- 
tries, and game has been maintained in 
abundance and widely sold in the markets 
while the breeding stock has not been per- 
mitted to decrease below numbers believed 
to be for the general welfare of the people. 
But all over the world, wherever, without 
intelligent administration, game has been 
permitted to increase on areas being more 
and more encroached on by civilization, it 
has become depleted either by unwise kill- 
ing or by death from starvation. 
  What is the significance of Game Ad- 
ministration? 
                 f 12J 
 
  

					
				
				
 
  The preservation of game is justified 
for three cardinal purposes-aesthetic 
pleasure; economic use; and recreational 
use for sport, study, and photography. 
The value of game cannot be compara- 
tively measured, but there is general 
agreement that game is an asset of high 
importance to the people. The use of game 
must be coordinated with all industrial uses 
in such a way that our national life will 
enjoy the maximum benefits of all our re- 
sources. Therefore the numbers of game to 
be preserved must be adjusted accordingly. 
  The administration of game is nothing 
more than the plain common sense man- 
agement of it so as to insure a permanent 
breeding stock which will perpetually 
produce a given surplus to be used as 
completely as possible for all three pur- 
poses of game conservation. Although 
vastly more complex and difficult, the 
problem is similar to the simpler one of the 
management of cattle or chicken ranches. 
  Game administration will study the 
whole problem of game in its relation to 
industrial interests and adjust the num- 
bers to be preserved. It will make a com- 
plete study of the game itself, its habits, 
food, pathology, distribution, and breed- 
ing; of the refuges and sanctuaries neces- 
sary to be made, and the destruction of 
natural enemies; in fact, of all scientific 
methods of increasing and preserving it 
for the purposes in view. It will seek to 
determine all the problems connected with 
game in such a way that every action taken 
in regard to it will be an intelligent one. 
   Each reader should ask himself if it 
is not simple common sense to believe 
                  £ 131 
 
  

					
				
				
 
that game can be better permanently 
preserved under an unconditional system 
of active, immediate administration than 
by the one, hitherto practiced for the most 
part in this country, which in a somewhat 
haphazard way attempts to protect game 
by passing rigid, restrictive laws, inelastic, 
and so to be changed only by the slow 
process of legislative enactment? 
  How can unconditional Game Adminis- 
tration be realized? 
  The first step toward its active realiza- 
tion will be to convince sportsmen's 
organizations throughout the country that 
it is necessary. No effective legislation 
in behalf of game in this country has been 
accomplished except through the interest 
and work of sportsmen's organizations. 
They are the main agencies which arouse 
favorable public judgment for game 
legislation, coordinate all the factors to 
promote it, and do the hard work neces- 
sary to achieve it. When any game legis- 
lation is proposed, sportsmen's organiza- 
tions are called on to support or oppose it. 
Without sportsmen's organizations we 
could get no effective support for or 
against game legislation, and selfish in- 
terests would soon overthrow all game 
protection. The  sportsmen's organiza- 
tion is so vital to saving game that in its 
annual report for 1922 the Chief Forester 
of the National Forest Service called 
special attention to the need for the 
expansion of such organizations as the 
principal means of better improving the 
conditions of game. Sportsmen's organi- 
zations can best be reached through 
sportsmen's  and   outdoor   periodicals. 
                  1 '41 
 
  

					
				
				
These should fully discuss the need and 
value of game administration. 
  This step taken, we must concentrate 
on the broadest conception of game con- 
servation-the continuous development 
of the recreational spirit of the people. 
The platform    of the   Izaak  Walton 
League sets forth admirable principles of 
recreation which are printed at the be- 
ginning of its magazine. 
  A plan is needed-a plan of National 
Recreation, which shall study, define and 
include on a coordinated basis all na- 
tional, state, and local possibilities. Such 
a plan can only be brought about by the 
President, and he should be encouraged to 
accomplish it. All organizations interested 
in recreation of all kinds should join in the 
effort to bring forth such a program. 
  Is unconditional Game Administra- 
tion practical in this country? 
  The Boone and Crockett Club be- 
lieves that it is, as soon as we see the 
necessity for it and make up our minds to 
accomplish it. Suggestions to this end, 
like those of the Boone and Crockett 
Club, have not aroused a wide interest, 
for the reason that objections have been 
hastily brought forward which indicate 
that most of us reflect not on the adminis- 
tration, but on the restrictive aspect of 
game protection to which we have so 
long been accustomed. 
  It is also asserted that game can be 
administered in European countries where 
most of it is on large landed estates 
wholly subject to regulation by the owners, 
but that in this country where no such sys- 
tem of land tenure prevails, there is no prac- 
                 ('15 
 
  

					
				
				
tical method of game management on a 
large scale. Such objections, however, are 
not based on a study of the situation. 
  For more than thirty years the Boone 
and Crockett Club has maintained that 
all wild life in the National Forests should 
be administered unconditionally by the 
Forest Service. Here is a great Federal 
Bureau having complete control of all the 
products of the National Forests, except 
the game which is one of its major prod- 
ucts. This vast organization patrols and 
guards each forest and administers them 
non-politically and efficiently, wholly for 
the public welfare now and in the future. 
The deer forests of Scotland comprise 
3,000,ooo acres with i5o,ooo deer. Most 
of our big game in the West ranges in the 
National Forests which include I57,- 
ooo,ooo acres of wild areas, occupied, 
according to actual estimate, by 5oo,ooo 
deer and large numbers of all other big 
game, and game birds and waterfowl. 
Give the Forest Service control of this 
game and we shall have complete admin- 
istration of it on a scale never known in 
Europe. This should not be attempted by 
Federal legislation. The individual States 
themselves must finally realize the neces- 
sity for it and as some States have 
already done, must cede the control of this 
game to the Forest Service, at the same 
time reserving to themselves all the net 
revenue to be derived from it. 
   The Alaska Game Law, passed in 19o2, 
contained a clause giving the Secretary 
of Agriculture power, limited to restric- 
tive measures only, to administer all the 
game. It is now admitted by all sports- 
                  [i6] 
 
  

					
				
				
men, by Alaska residents, and by all 
others interested, that, if game in Alaska 
is to be saved, the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture must have complete authority to 
administer the game. With that end in 
view, the Alaska Delegate has presented 
to Congress a bill which grants this 
power to the Secretary who must receive 
the advice of a local game commission 
before he shall make regulations for the 
game. All factions have agreed to this 
bill. Its administrative feature will surely 
receive congressional approval. Here will 
be Game Administration applied on a 
scale greater than ever before anywhere 
in the world. 
  We can find no good estimate of the 
total number of game birds existing on all 
European estates together, but certainly 
they are not superior to those both in all 
National Forests and on lands controlled 
by private clubs in this country. Private 
clubs, once they understand the necessity 
for it, can administer their game subject 
to State and Federal laws. Already some, 
having large land areas under control, are 
making preliminary studies with a viewito 
intensive game management. All clubs, 
however, can more completely administer 
their game as soon as complete adminis- 
tration by the States can be put in effect. 
   But how can States administer their 
game? 
   By recognizing the necessity for such 
administration, granting the power, and 
definitely fixing the responsibility for the 
results. This can be accomplished by 
appointing  non-partisan, expert game 
commissions with long tenure of office and 
                  [ 17 
 
  

					
				
				
full authority independently and uncon- 
ditionally to administer the game. A 
commission having such complete admin- 
istrative authority could immediately, 
as the conditions might demand, apply 
all known methods of game regulations 
and preservation in any part of or 
throughout the State. It would become 
expert in dealing with the whole problem 
of Game Administration and would co- 
operate with clubs and Federal agencies 
in control of game. 
  Objections might be made to entrusting 
such elastic powers to a game commission 
on the ground of politics. Such objections 
would, of course, have weight but usually 
they would not, we believe, be well 
founded. Throughout this country     at 
present, with rare exceptions, game com- 
missions are composed of those having 
received political preference, yet many of 
them include excellent men who have 
achieved splendid results, some even 
commanding national attention. Having 
only to enforce laws and advise legis- 
latures, such bodies now    have little 
responsibility. The main responsibility 
for game laws lies in the legislative body 
which makes them, and here responsi- 
bility is intangible. Should a commission 
be given full powers to regulate and 
control the game, the responsibility for 
success or failure would be localized on it 
and on the agency which appointed it. 
And long tenure of office would decrease 
the political dependence of its members. 
It is common sense to believe that a game 
commission thus made fully responsible 
for its acts, would be less likely to act with 
                  1I8] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
indifference, neglect, or with careless: 
thought of the probable results. We are 
not wholly without experience in Game 
Administration, and in so far as it has been 
practiced, the results have completely 
justified it. Under the present Alaska 
game law the Secretary of Agriculture has, 
by the advice of the Alaskans themselves, 
made frequent use of his administrative 
authority to prohibit the killing of game 
in sections where it has been threatened. 
This has saved the game. Had he pos- 
sessed no administrative power and been 
obliged to await authority by congres- 
sional action, the game in these sections 
would have been exterminated. 
  The Migratory Bird Law, for the most 
part, is one granting wide powers of 
administration. Every year the Secretary 
of Agriculture calls together the Advisory 
Board, composed of experienced game 
conservationists from various parts of the 
country, who recommend changes in the 
regulations only after careful study and as 
full knowledge as can be obtained of the 
situation. The results have been a steady 
increase of wildfowl and shorebirds. It 
has been proposed, with the best of in- 
tentions but without careful study of 
conditions, that this Advisory Board 
should recommend drastic cuts in bag 
limits and seasons, not because waterfowl 
are decreasing (they are increasing), but 
because population is increasing. Such 
a method of applying game protective 
remedies is unsound because it is illogical, 
haphazard, and restrictive, rather than 
administrative, based on a study of the 
situation. We may have complete con- 
                 (19] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
fidence that the Secretary, having the 
administrative authority, will so use it as 
to maintain the full number of waterfowl 
that the food supply will support. 
  The evidence gathered by the Biological 
Survey, the active administrator of the 
law, is that waterfowl are rapidly in- 
creasing to the limits of the food supply. 
Should they be permitted to increase 
beyond it, wholesale starvation and death 
to vast numbers would follow. Because 
marshes and feeding grounds have been 
and are being drained, the food supply for 
waterfowl is decreasing. Should this con- 
tinue, ducks could not be maintained at 
their present numbers and there would be 
serious danger of great loss. To prevent 
such a calamity it has been necessary to 
have the Game Refuge and Public Shoot- 
ing Grounds bill introduced in Congress. 
Its main purpose is to find a means of 
preserving and administering the feeding 
areas of wildfowl. It is supported by all 
sportsmen in this country and its enact- 
ment into law is a vital necessity to the 
perpetuation of our wildfowl. 
  Limited administration of game by 
State game commissions is gradually 
being realized in many State laws. It has 
usually taken the form of conditional 
powers to curtail or prohibit the killing 
of game. Even this is a step in advance 
and the results have been most favorable. 
But as yet no State understands the sig- 
nificance and value of complete adminis- 
tration of its game, and until the advan- 
tages of it are clearly recognized we cannot 
hope for rapid progress in accomplishing it. 
  The Izaak Walton League has caused 
                 1 20] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
to be presented in Congress a most 
worthy bill setting aside as a refuge for 
wild life, including plants and fish, the 
Upper Mississippi National Wild Life 
Refuge, to be administered exclusively 
and unconditionally by the Secretaries of 
Agriculture and of Congress. This is a pro- 
ject of Game Administration, and nothing 
is more encouraging than the fact that this 
League of large and wide national mem- 
bership should thus recognize the neces- 
sity of the administration of game. 
   To assist the administration of wild life 
in this country we have the Biological 
Survey, a Bureau of the Department of 
Agriculture. From the time of its es- 
tablishment, thirty-nine years ago, it has 
intensively studied wild life and all prob- 
lems connected with it, including game 
protective practice, administration, and 
legislation. It is the highest authority 
'in the country on all matters pertaining 
to wild life. It has cooperated with every 
game protective organization, Federal, 
State, local, and private. It is the great 
clearing house o information on these 
subjects. No other country has a Gov- 
ernment Bureau     of this kind. When 
Game Administration shall be under- 
taken, the advice and expert knowledge 
of this Bureau are available. When it 
shall have advanced, the cooperation of 
the Biological Survey will be invaluable. 
It has a great force of experienced, tech- 
nical experts in exterminating predatory 
animals. Its wide outlook and knowledge 
will be of the greatest advantage in assist- 
ing the States to coordinate all their activ- 
ities with game administration problems. 
                  C '21 ] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
  Along   with   Game    Administration 
should be included that of all wild life, 
birds, fish, and fur-bearing animals. A 
discussion of these, however, is not within 
the scope of this paper. 
  Enough has been said, we hope, to 
show the necessity of Game Administra- 
tion and the possibilities of finally es- 
tablishing it. But we must clearly face 
the difficulties involved in accomplishing 
it. Our present historical game protective 
policies have become the custom of our 
thought, and cannot easily be changed. 
Some State constitutions may not permit 
the delegation of sufficient authority to 
game commissions, and States may pause 
before they recognize the necessity of 
ceding such administration to commis- 
sions and to the Forest Service. Other 
difficulties might be mentioned; and yet, 
whatever the obstacles, it is not impossible 
finally to overcome them. It is a matter 
of education. Advanced ideas of game 
conservation have often grown slowly, 
and even when understood their practical 
realization has been   slow. The very 
necessity for Game Administration should 
stimulate all to work for it. But it must 
come gradually, step by step, each one 
gained showing such advantages that the 
next will be reached more rapidly. 
  All magazines devoted to outdoor life 
and   recreation should  substitute the 
term Game Administration for game pro- 
tection and serve as propagandists for 
the idea. They should become the leaders 
in advancing it. All sportsmen should 
study it and reflect on its significance and 
advantages. It should be made a topic of 
                  [ 22] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
discussion in all meetings and gatherings 
held to promote the purposes of recreation, 
and every possible means should be taken 
to get it into the thoughts of the people. 
  Finally, there is one fact which should 
be clearly understood and settled affirma- 
tively in the minds of all. We should all 
have the highest ideals, but game con- 
servation must be regarded not from a 
sentimental but from a supremely prac- 
tical point of view. With its future full of 
dangers, the fate of game must not be 
risked to await the fulfillment of every 
ideal we have nurtured for its preserva- 
tion. Before they can be realized the 
game will disappear. What is needed is to 
advocate the best action that is prac- 
tically possible. At present in this coun- 
try there is a tendency-apparently very 
wide because of the publicity given to it, 
but in reality very limited-to advocate 
preserving game exclusively for aesthetic 
purposes. This view   seeks to exclude 
sport as one of the cardinal purposes of 
game conservation. Such views, however 
sincere and well meaning, not only canhot 
produce effective results, but they harm 
and actually retard the progress of game 
conservation. The great majority of in- 
terested people work to conserve game so 
that it may serve all its purposes. Nearly 
all the actual workers for game conserva- 
tion wish, if possible, to enjoy sport, but 
at the same time they have due regard for 
the other purposes to be served by game. 
These are the only persons who have the 
power to save the game and perpetuate 
its numbers, and any policy which might 
tend to discourage their active interest 
                 ( 23 ] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
would, in the end, have no other result 
than game destruction. 
  Therefore, a fundamental problem of 
effective game conservation is the attain- 
ment of a practical attitude of mind which 
squarely faces these facts. If, with such 
an attitude of mind, we shall adopt as 
our goal the conservation of game for all 
its purposes, with Game Administration 
as a means of accomplishing it, shall seek 
a policy of National Recreation to in- 
crease the recreational spirit of the people, 
and shall work actively and perseveringly 
toward these ends, we may feel confident 
of perpetuating the future supply of our 
game. 
    THE BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB 
             By the Executive Committee. 
 
December 27, 1923. 
 
 
1 24 ] 
 
  

					
				
				
 
A POLICY FOR 
 
 
National" and State Parks 
 
     Forests and Game 
 
             Refuges 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  NATIONAL PARKS COMMITTEE 
  GEORGE BIRD GRINNELL, Chairman 
  Boone and Crockett Club 
  J. HORACE McFARLAND, Vice-Chairman 
  American Civic  Association 
  ROBERT STERLING YARD, Vice-Chairman 
  National Parks Association 
  BARRINGTON MOORE, Secretary 
  Ecological Society of America 
  JOHN B. BURNHAM, Treasurer 
  American Game Protective Association 
  WILLIAM F. BADE, 
  Sierra Club 
  DR. ISAIAH BOWMAN 
  American Geographical Society 
  H. A. CAPARN 
  Architectural League of New York 
  ALLEN CHAMBERLAIN 
  The Society for the Protection 
  of National Parks 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DR. L. V. COLEMAN 
American Association of Museums 
CHARLES STEWART DAVISON 
American Defense Society 
M. 0. ELDRIDGE 
American Automobile Association 
DR. BARTON W. EVERMANN 
California Academy of Sciences 
HERBERT EVISON 
Natural Parks Association 
MADISON GRANT 
New York Zoological Society 
WILLIAM B. GREELEY 
Camp Fire Club of America 
WILLIAM C. GREGG 
National Arts Club 
EDWARD HAGAMAN HALL 
Association for the Protection 
of the Adirondacks 
LEROY JEFFERS 
Associated Mountaineering Clubs 
HARLAN P. KELSEY 
Appalachian Mountain Club 
DR. GEORGE F. KUNZ 
American Scenic and 
Historic Preservation Society 
DR. JOHN C. MERRIAM 
Save the Redwoods League 
FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED 
American Society of 
Landscape Architects 
HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN 
American Museum of Natural History 
WILFRED H. OSGOOD 
Field Museum of Natural History 
T. GILBERT PEARSON 
National Association of 
Audubon Societies 
MRS. JOHN DICKINSON SHERMAN 
General Federation of Women's Clubs 
HON. GEORGE SHIRAS, 3d 
National Geographic Society 
 
 
2 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
A Policy for National and State 
Parks, Forests and Game Refuges. 
Adopted, after submission to all representatives, at the National 
   Parks Committee's meeting of April 17, 1923. Construc- 
   tive suggestions for improving this policy will be welcomed, 
   and should be submitted to the Secretary. 
 
 
 
   GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 
   Any policy dealing with national and state 
 parks, forests and game refuges must be, at 
 bottom, a land policy. To be sound, it must 
 rest upon the use of the entire land in the 
 country for the purposes to which each portion 
 of it is best suited in filling the essential needs 
 of the people. These needs include not only the 
 material measurable ones, food and shelter, but 
 the intangible spiritual ones which come under 
 the head of recreation. Thus we must have not 
 only farm lands to produce food, forest lands to 
 produce wood for houses, for newsprint and for 
 a thousand other indispensable commodities, but 
 also park lands for recreation.   In fact, the 
 recently recognized demand for recreation, par- 
 ticularly outdoor recreation, is increasing so 
 rapidly, as its economic importance comes to be 
 realized, that the lands heretofore set aside as 
                        3 
 
  

					
				
				
 
parks do not suffice, and the need must be met 
by utilizing lands primarily used for forest pro- 
duction.   A   further land requirement is the 
maintenance of a part of the natural flora and 
fauna undisturbed by outside agencies, for edu- 
cation and scientific research. This requires the 
setting aside and preservation of certain areas, 
selected so as to represent the more important 
types of plant and animal life, and so far as 
may be, the maintaining of the balance of 
nature on these areas. 
   The tendency is for land eventually to be 
used for the needs to which it is best suited, but 
this too often comes about only after a long and 
wasteful process of trial and error, during which 
enormous values in natural resources are per- 
manently destroyed. Among the values so de- 
stroyed are not only the natural plants and ani- 
mals so necessary to science and education, but 
recreational features and vast quantities of tim- 
ber and minerals. Hence the need for a sound 
land policy extending to and covering in its 
scope national and state parks, forests and game 
refuges. 
   Whenever a particular area could be put to 
one of several conflicting uses, a decision as to 
which use shall prevail ought obviously be made 
in accordance with a consistent policy based on 
the public interest.  Without such a policy, 
there will be a continuance of the present strug- 
gle between those who wish to develop and 
consume all natural resources as rapidly as pos- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
sible, often regardless of the future, and those 
who want to make parks wherever possible, re- 
gardless of legitimate needs for the resources 
which would thereby be withdrawn from use. 
The former argue that the general welfare re- 
quires the opening up of all regions to their 
fullest economic use; the latter accuse their op- 
ponents of selfish materialism, and claim that the 
public has a right to do as it pleases with its 
lands and resources. There is danger from both 
sides.   The over-rapid exploitation of new 
regions in the past has brought a reaction which 
is reflected in the strong sentiment for parks and 
in an oftentimes vague desire to preserve every- 
thing, regardless of legitimate needs. It is im- 
portant to find a solution which can form the 
basis of a sound public policy. 
                   PARKS. 
                   PURPOSE. 
   The purpose in creating parks is to preserve 
the scenery, the natural and historic objects, and 
the plants and wild life. The objects are the 
enjoyment of the people, and the aiding of edu- 
cation and scientific study by keeping such areas 
unimpaired.    Thereby    certain  portions  of 
nature's handiwork will be kept for recreation, 
for science and for education, both for this and 
for future generations. 
              NATIONAL PARKS. 
Basis for Creating. 
   National Parks should contain features di, 
                      5 
 
  

					
				
				
 
tinctl_ national in interest, and should preferably 
be of considerable magnitude, the size ordinarily 
to be governed by administrative considerations. 
The establishment of a National Park must de- 
pend on the character of the scenic, scientific or 
historic features, not upon the opportunity to 
develop a recreation resort. Herein lies one of 
the distinctions between national and state parks 
(see below). 
Protection and Administration. 
   National Parks should be protected com- 
pletely from any and all utilitarian and com- 
mercial enterprises, save those necessary for and 
subservient to legitimate park uses. The scien- 
tific, health, esthetic and spiritual values of 
National Parks will greatly increase as popu- 
lation multiplies and the country becomes more 
fully settled and more widely appropriated to 
utilitarian purposes. Judge John Barton Payne, 
former Secretary of the Interior, says, "If the 
National Parks may be encroached on for a 
commercial purpose, sooner or later they will 
be destroyed." 
   The National Parks should be so admin- 
istered that they may be used for the purposes 
for which they were created without pecuniary 
profit to private individuals or corporations, 
aside from reasonable compensation for services 
rendered. 
   The parks should be made as accessible as 
possible to persons in every walk of life who 
wish to visit them for what they have to offer of 
                       6 
 
  

					
				
				
 
natural beauty and interest. But they should be 
kept wholly free from extraneous amusement, 
particularly of the so-called "jazz" type, which 
distract their users from an appreciation ot 
nature's wonders, introduce an atmosphere of 
vulgarity, and destroy the enjoyment of nature. 
So also, to serve the uses of all, some parts of 
each National Park should be accessible only 
by trail for the benefit of those who wish to get 
away from the tourist stream of the motor roads 
and enjoy the charm of solitude and of the open 
spaces. 
          NATIONAL MONUMENTS. 
 Basis for Creating. 
   A National Monument is an area, usually 
 comparatively small, set aside by the Federal 
 Government to preserve some feature either of 
 natural, archeological or historic interest, or to 
 commemorate some person, or event of national 
 importance. 
   This class of reservation is of value in itself. 
 and in addition, it sometimes serves as a trans- 
 ition in the creation of a National Park by af- 
 fording  protection  pending  action  in that 
 direction. 
 Protection and Administration. 
    The   degree  of protection   required  by 
 National Monuments depends upon their char- 
 acter and purpose. Natural wonders, such as a 
 grove of primeval forest or a remarkable geo- 
 logical formation, should not be subject to utili- 
 tarian or commercial uses. On the other hand, 
                       7 
 
  

					
				
				
 
areas containing cliff dwellings could be used 
for grazing, mining or other purposes which do 
not injure or prevent public access to the points 
of interest. 
   The administration of National Monuments, 
unless they happen to be located within or near 
an area of Government land already under ad- 
ministration, such as a National Forest, is diffi- 
cult, because of their small size and isolation. 
For this reason many of the National Monu- 
ments are subject to injury and desecration on 
the part of the thoughtless tourist and souvenir 
hunter.   The Departments having jurisdiction 
over National Monuments should make a greater 
effort to protect these places, and urge Con- 
gressional appropriations for this purpose. 
                STATE PARKS. 
Basis for Creating. 
   State parks should contain features of out- 
standing state importance, or be suitable for de- 
velopment as recreation centers for the use of 
urban populations. Size appears to be unim- 
portant aside from administrative considerations. 
More than two-thirds of the states have, or 
are about to have, state parks of one kind or 
another. Some states have also state forests, 
which serve for recreation.   The primary in& 
centive for creating these parks has generally 
been outdoor recreation, to supply public play- 
grounds for the congested populations of the 
cities; often, as in the case of bathing beaches or 
picnic grounds, scenic features are unimportant. 
                      8 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Thus in its primary incentive, the state park 
differs radically from the National Park. Pre- 
servation of points of historic interest has also 
played a prominent part. In some cases it hat 
been possible to preserve tracts, generally small, 
of primeval forest which will be of increasing 
scientific value, as well as beautiful, if some- 
what sad, reminders of the generosity of nature. 
Protection and Administration. 
   State parks should be protected to the cxtent 
required by the purpose for which they were 
created. Since, in the past, the purposes have 
often been all too vague, the degree of protec- 
tion is correspondingly indefinite. Owing to the 
lack of understanding as to the proper aims of 
state parks as compared with state forests (see 
below), areas which ought to be state forests 
have been protected and administered as state 
parks.   State parks should not be confused 
with state forests, which are primarily devoted 
to producing forest products or allied economic 
enterprises, but serve also for outdoor recrea- 
tion.  (See below.) 
 
                  FORESTS. 
                  PURPOSE. 
   The purpose of forests, national and state, 
is to protect and maintain in a permanently pro- 
ductive or useful condition, lands unsuited to 
agriculture, but capable of yielding timber or 
other general public benefits. Forests not only 
produce timber and forage, but protect stream- 
                       9 
 
  

					
				
				
 
flow, and thus play a very, indeed a most im- 
portant part in irrigation and in water for do- 
mestic use and for power, as well as in flood 
prevention and soil preservation. They contain 
economic resources, which in the National Forests 
are very large, but which experience has shown 
would be quickly dissipated if allowed to fall 
into thehands of individuals. Among these re- 
sources may be counted outdoor recreation. All 
the resources of a forest should be developed to 
the greatest possible extent consistent with per- 
manent productivity, under the principle of 
co-ordinated use. Thus in utilizing the timber 
the forest is to be cut in such a way that it will 
perpetuate itself, sources of water are to be safe- 
guarded, and cuttings so located as not to injure 
features of scenic importance. The principle of 
use of resources is the vital distinction between 
forests and parks; the former are conserved 
through wise use, while the use of the latter 
must be restricted to enjoyment and to scientific 
and educational purposes. Forests pay for them- 
selves and bring in revenue; parks, though 
sometimes self-supporting, generally cost money, 
but yield solid though intangible benefits much 
greater than the cost. 
   Public forests serve the additional, and very 
important, purpose of demonstration areas by 
showing neighboring private owners how foiest 
lands may be handled so as to yield a permanent 
income rather than be exploited and abandoned 
as so often happens. 
                       10 
 
  

					
				
				
 
            NATIONAL FORESTS. 
Basis for Creating. 
   The National Forests already contain the 
bulk of the forested land remaining in the public 
domain after the agricultural land had been 
homesteaded and the cream of the forest lands 
taken up under the Timber and Stone Act. But 
in various western states there are still some 
8,000,000 acres which are unreserved and 
should now be included in National Forests. 
Protection and Administration. 
   Since the National Forests are for use, pro- 
tection against economic or utilitarian purposes 
is not required, but only the manner thereof reg- 
ulated.   Resources which are worth m'oney, 
such as timber, forage and water, should yield 
their full value to the public treasury on a strictly 
business basis. Minor exceptions may be made 
in allowing free use, under permit, of small quan- 
tities of wood and forage to some of the local 
settlers who could not be expected to pay. Re- 
sources which cannot be measured in dollars 
and cents, such as watershed protection and 
outdoor recreation, accrue to the public without 
cost, except that of protection and development. 
   Since the National Forests contain much 
beautiful scenery, and offer large opportunities 
for camping, fishing and hunting, they are in- 
cidentally national playgrounds of enormous 
value. The Forest Service is fully aware of this 
and is developing this aspect of the forests so 
                      11 
 
  

					
				
				
 
successfully that last year they were visited by 
between six and seven million persons. 
               STATE FORESTS. 
Basis for Creating. 
   Any land owned by a state and devoted 
primarily to the production of timber and to the 
use of its other resources, should be administeied 
as a state forest. 
   States purchase and set aside lands as state 
forests in order to conserve the forests through 
wise use, to derive a revenue, and to set an 
example in forestry for private owners. The 
last is particularly important because state for- 
ests comprise only a small percentage of the 
total forest land, and though they will doubtless 
increase, can probably never be depended upon 
as a main source of timber supply. 
   State forests will not be selected for scenic 
features; but the forest itself is an attraction to 
all lovers of nature, and furnishes shelter for 
game and other wild life. Hence state forests, 
though serving an economic purpose, can be used 
for hunting, fishing and camping, and therefore 
play an important part in outdoor recreation. 
States which own well-administered forests do 
not need so many state parks as others, so far 
as recreation is concerned. In such states, parks 
will be necessary for preserving natural features 
or historic sites which should be kept intact for 
scientific, educational or other special reasons, 
and for furnishing breathing spaces for the con- 
gested population of cities. 
                       12 
 
  

					
				
				
Protection and Administration. 
   The protection and administration should be 
 similar to that of National Forests (q. v.) only 
 on a smaller scale. The more business-like the 
 administration the better will be the demonstra- 
 tion value of the forest. This does not preclude 
 state expenditures for recreation and other intan- 
 gibles which the individual would not make, but 
 such expenditures should be recorded separately, 
 so that the investment value can be readily seen. 
            GAME REFUGES. 
   The purpose of game refuges is the protection 
and propagation of game and other wild life. 
   Game refuges serve as sources from which 
the surrounding country is stocked with game, 
and also for the preservation of useful and in- 
teresting species which have become unduly 
reduced in numbers. 
   Game refuges are both state and federal, 
but as their purposes are more for local than 
for national benefit, they should be established 
chiefly by states. On the other hand, the 
National Parks and a few other national pre- 
serves in the west are very useful in the pro- 
tection and propagation of such species as can- 
not exist close to civilization. 
   Game refuges should be places where the 
game is unmolested by man, and as far as may be, 
is protected from natural enemies. Pennsylvania 
is an example of a state which has handled game 
refuges most successfully. Other states have 
game preserves on which hunting is permitted, 
                      13 
 
  

					
				
				
 
but where the game is protected during close 
seasons. These are not refuges, though they 
have their uses. 
ACQUISITION         OF    LAND     NEEDED. 
    With increasing population and more inten- 
 sive economic development of the country, the 
 amount of land available for public parks, for- 
 ests and game refuges is steadily diminishing, 
 and the cost of purchasing it is steadily increas- 
 ing. It is advisable, so far as practicable, to 
 use a considerable proportion of available funds 
 in purchasing lands suitable for these purposes, 
 using a smaller proportion for constructing roads 
 and other developments, which can be post- 
 poned without detriment. It is, however, clearly 
 recognized that roads and other facilities must 
 be provided in order to permit the people to 
 have the ufe and enjoyment of these lands, and 
 in order that a more general use may give a 
 wider understanding of the purposes and values 
 of public parks, forests and game refuges, there- 
 by building up public sentiment in favor of fur- 
 ther acquisition and more adequate protection. 
 
 UNRESERVED PUBLIC DOMAIN. 
   From the point of view of a sound public 
land policy, all the remaining unreserved public 
domain should be handled under the principle of 
co-ordinated use, just as the National Forests 
are handled. None of it should be alienated 
except that suited to the raising of farm crops, 
an insignificant proportion. The rest should be 
                      14 
 
  

					
				
				
permanently withdrawn from entry and placed 
under administration, preferably under the De- 
partment of Agriculture. Forage comprises the 
largest part of the resources on these lands, and 
would be greatly increased by scientific manage- 
ment, as has already been demonstrated by the 
experiment carried on by the Department of 
Agriculture on the Jornado Range Reserve in 
New Mexico. 
NATIONAL RECREATION POLICY. 
   Experience during the past year has shown 
that there is a demand for the recreational use of 
lands which do not fall within the class of 
National Parks or National Forests. Where 
such lands belong to a State or to private in- 
dividuals, it is reasonable to expect the state 
to develop or acquire the lands for state forests 
or state parks. Where the lands belong to the 
Federal Government, as in the public domain, 
Indian Reservations, etc., it is logical to expect 
the Federal Government to undertake the de- 
velopment of the recreational opportunities which 
are in demand. This need involve no transfer 
of jurisdiction from one Department to another, 
but merely the working together of all Bureaus 
concerned for the purpose of drawing up a com- 
prehensive plan which all can follow. This 
plan would involve a canvass of recreational op- 
portunities, with the needs for development, and 
a co-ordination of the relation of objectives, and 
of roads, etc., on the different areas, regardless 
of jurisdiction. 
                      15 
 
  

					
				
				
 
              ,CONTENTS 
 
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ...........3 
PARKS   ...........................  5 
   Purpose .......................  5 
   National Parks .................  5 
     Basis for Creating ............... 5 
     Protection and Administration...... 6 
  National Monuments ..............  7 
     Basis for Creating ..............  7 
     Protection and Administration ...... 7 
  State Parks ....................  8 
     Basis for Creating ..............  8 
     Protection and Administration ...... 9 
FORESTS ..........................  9 
  Purpose........................  9 
  National Forests .................   11 
     Basis for Creating .............. I I 
     Protection and Administration ...... 11 
  State Forests ................... 12 
     Basis for Creating ............ ..12 
     Protection and Administration ...... 13 
GAME REFUGES  ..................  13 
ACQUISITION OF LAND NEEDED ...... 14 
UNRESERVED PUBLIC DOMAIN ....... 14 
NATIONAL RECREATION POLICY .......15 
 
 
N6 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
k-L 
To Membtrs of the 
      Boone and Crockett Club 
 j MEETING of the Executive Com- 
       mittee of the Boone and Crockett 
       Club was held on November 26th 
 for the purpose of hearing from Mr. 
 Charles Sheldon his views on a Policy 
 for possible adoption by the Club for the 
 protection of big game in the West. 
    Those who look back for a generation 
 over the development in the West rec- 
 ognize that within the memory of living 
 men the big game has been swept out of 
 existence from the Missouri River to the 
 Pacific Ocean, except ,in the National 
 Parks, National Forests, and in such areas 
 of mountain an4 de sert country as are 
 not susceptible pf cultivation. The Na- 
 tional Forests on the other hand, are 
 fixed and will not be occupied by settle- 
 ments. They will be and, in fact, now 
 are, the only refuges for big game. 
    This Policy is the result of years of 
 study in Washington and of observation 
 in the field. Time and space forbid its 
 amplification, but there are good reasons 
 for every sentence that is written. 
    The Club should use caution in con- 
 sidering the question of supporting any 
 proposed action by Bureaus at Washing- 
 ton without full investigation of all sides 
 of the point at issue. As a body it should 
 not array itself on one side or the other 
 
  

					
				
				
 
of the matter under dispute. It is not 
our function to support one Bureau- as 
against another; instead, the Club should 
decline to act until the-Bureaus at Wash- 
ington agree.   Then we may support 
them. 
      er considerable   discussion and 
  any questions put to the speaker it was 
oved and seconded that the Policy be 
adopted and recommended to the Club; 
that it be printed and a copy sent to 
each member, and that at the Annual 
Meeting the question be submitted to the 
members. 
  This motion was carried unanimously, 
and in accordance therewith the Secre- 
tary is forwarding to every member a 
copy of the Policy. 
   If the Club should'adot this Policy 
and urge'    adJministration ot the game 
by the Forest Service, it must hold that 
Service responsible for the work, and 
also must endeavor to induce the vari- 
ous States to pass over the control of 
their game on the National Forests to the 
Forest Service. 
  It is urged that members of the Club 
study carefully the Policy recommended 
by the Executive Committee, and if any- 
thing is found in it that is not clearly 
understood, that they write the Commit- 
tee for further information, which will 
be gladly given. 
                   Executive Committee 
  November 30th, 1923. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                   Policy 
HE attention of the Boone and Crockett 
       Club has been called to a problem of 
       game administration caused by the in- 
creasing deer herd in the Grand Canyon Na- 
tional Game Preserve, which lies within the 
National Forest on the Kaibab Plateau in north- 
ern Arizona. 
  Some assert that these deer have so increased 
beyond the available food supply to support 
them that they are threatened with starvation, 
and that immediate steps should be taken to 
reduce their numbers; others say that the food 
supply is sufficiently abundant to maintain per- 
petually the increasing herd and that an area 
of this game preserve, a strip about twenty 
miles wide containing most of the deer, should 
be added to the Grand Canyon National Park, 
which borders the preserve on the south. 
   The Boone and Crockett Club believes that 
the facts may be obtained by further investi- 
gation, and that its policy of big game protec- 
tion in federal areas in the West will apply to 
the administration of this deer herd. This pol- 
icy may be briefly stated. 
   It is not the policy of the Club to advocate 
additions to, or the creation of, National Parks, 
where the areas to be included must be de- 
tached from National Forests, until the pro- 
posed lines have received the approval both of 
the National Parks Service and of the Forest 
Service. 
   The preservation of game is justified because 
 of its value to national welfare for three cardi- 
 nal purposes-aesthetic pleasure, economic use 
 
  

					
				
				
 
for food and hides, and recreational use for 
sport, photography, and study of its habits. 
The uses of game for recreation cannot be 
stated in terms of measured or comparative 
value, but there is general agreement that they 
are a national asset of the highest importance 
to the welfare of the people. 
   Owing to the increasing population, constant 
 encroachment on wild areas inhabited by game 
 by economic pressure, the extension of roads, 
 motor cars, in fact the whole rapid advance of 
 material interests, the preservation of the big 
 game of the West depends on its proper admin- 
 istration in National Game Refuges, National 
 Parks, National Forests, and National Monu- 
 ments. 
   National Parks and National Monuments un- 
 der the management of the National Parks 
 Service should be breeding reservoirs where 
 game may be enjoyed for aesthetic pleasure 
 and the recreational uses of photography and 
 study. The overflow of game outside may 
 provide recreational use for sport and food. 
 But sport shoilddnot be permitted in such fed- 
 eral areas. When the, game increases beyond 
 the food siipply, it -must be officially reduced 
 and the carcasses' disposed of for economic use. 
 
   National Game Refuges and National Monu- 
menits situated in National Forests should be 
breeding areas where game not only serves for 
exhibitionh, but also for breeding purposes so 
that, 'when possible, the surplus game may be 
transferred to restock other regions or provide 
an overflow .to adjacent areas. Sport must not 
be permitted on smaller National Game Refuges 
under fence. But, the surplus game on other 
overstocked areas not removed by natural drift 
outside, should be reduced under the direction 
 
  

					
				
				
 
and regulations of the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture by any method he believes will best serve 
the purposes of game preservation. 
   By far the greater part of the game exists 
 in the National Forests. Here a different and 
 broader problem of administration is presented, 
 and the game can be so regulated as to serve 
 most completely all the uses which justify its 
 preservation. It is one of the major products 
 of the forests. 
   For more than thirty years the Boone and 
 Crockett Club has maintained that all game in 
 National Forests should be administered uncon- 
 ditionally by the Forest Service. The Club has 
 full confidence that the Forest Service would 
 administer this game with the same efficiency 
 it has demonstrated in its administration of 
 the other forest resources. 
   The Club recognizes that the National For- 
ests were created for the purpose of perpetu- 
ally preserving for the nation'the maximum use 
of all their products-timber, forage, water, 
and harmless wild life-and that the use of 
each must be so cooirdinated with that of the 
others, that the people may realize the fullest 
possible benefit. The numbers of game must 
therefore be adjusted accordingly. Any policy 
which might seek to increase game at such a sac- 
rifice of other industrial uses, that the maximum 
use of the forest would not result, would bring 
a just public reaction which would tend to de- 
stroy game conservation. 
  Properly to administer the game, the Forest 
Service must have the responsibility that goes 
with it. This cannot be assumed until the 
Forest Service shall be given independent con- 
trol of the game. The Club hopes that finally 
the States will, as some States have already 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
done, cede the control of their game on Na- 
tional Forests to the Forest Service. 
  Controlling the game, the Forest Service 
must intelligently decide the numbers to be re- 
tained on each national forest, and by scien- 
tific administration perpetuate the breeding 
stock to maintain those numbers undiminished. 
Refuges must be selected in which the game 
shall never be molested; smaller sanctuaries, 
where game may feed and rest, must be estab- 
lished in the areas where shooting is permit- 
ted;.when practical, sanctuaries should be made 
along highways and near tourist centers for 
exhibition. In fact, the Forest Service must 
study and solve all questions connected with 
the complete administration of game, and regu- 
late the uses of it for all purposes. But the 
numbers should never be permitted to increase 
above those which the available food supply 
can support in a state of health and vigor. 
  The Biological Survey has been entrusted 
with the administration of National Game 
Refuges and with the function of studying the 
problems of game conservation and of exter- 
minating the natural enemies of game. This 
section of the work of this Bureau has so ex- 
panded that its advice and cooiperation are nec- 
essary to every factor in the country involved 
in game preservation practice. The Club be- 
lieves in the continued expansion of this work 
of the Bureau and considers its efficient serv- 
ice inseparable from intelligent game conserva- 
tion. 
 
   Further, owing to unrestricted overgrazing 
andtunregulated use of the Public Domain, the 
forage is greatly reduced and much of it is 
depleted. Such a condition is not only dan- 
gerous to the future of the live stock indus- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
try, but also to the game. The Club, there- 
fore, emphasizes the need of complete regula- 
tion of grazing on this Public Domain, so that 
the productivity of the range may be restored 
and maintained. 
 
  Finally, the Boone and Crocket Club takes a 
much broader view of the whole problem of 
game conservation. It believes that this can 
be encouraged to the most successful results 
only by the completest development of all 
classes of recreational opportunities offered by 
all regions under national, State, and local con- 
trol. Recreation in National Parks and Na- 
tional Forests should be equally encouraged, 
and complete cob*peration to that end should 
obtain between government bureaus themselves, 
and their relations with State and local proj- 
ects. A permanent National Recreation policy 
with a program is needed. To achieve this 
end the Club believes that the President should 
cause to be made a complete study of the ques- 
tion with a view to a definitive policy which will 
finally include a determination of the areas to 
be included in National Parks, National Monu- 
ments, and other regions with recreational pos- 
sibilities; a coi*perative basis for their manage- 
ment and regulation; a plan of development for 
the purposes in view; in fact, a complete policy 
to be adopted and realized in the future. 
 
   Only by the establishment of such a Na- 
tional Recreational Policy can maximum recre- 
ational opportunities be given to the nation 
and the numbers of people who will enjoy them 
increased. It must sooner or later be realized 
that such a policy is vital to national welfare. 
Successful game conservation lies in the habit 
of mind gained from increasing development of 
recreational spirit among the people. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
              MISSION RIDGE ROAD 
          SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA 
 
 
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BOONE AND GROCKETT CLUB 
   44 Bu.&vxu STREET 
     NEW YORK 
 
 
Ofce of the Secretary 
 
 
'2 Jo  eopold,  s',, oecre ary, 
 
 
 
 
  af :r. Leopold: 
 
        T"3 < 'Or e of oonn seeatl .... 1t. ,I)i7 
 
 
 
            et Ys-d co   Las "exe$ c ' xi c ioues to 
 
secure copies ort -e7-.co                  to 
 
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        i' it is noLt hoe uc- r i 0I " 
 
us s3veral copies of these lays. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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                       BOONE AND CROCKETT CLUB 
                           44 BZAVMR STmtmr 
                             N3w YORKi 
 
 
 
Offce ofthe Secretaryil !9Y                   1 -4. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        ,1.0 Leopold, s., 0cratiry, 
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                     Trustir'r, tlat th ere .  Uy notbiL a;-n  to hinler

 
        your aocertnncep T0 - Ir j 
 
 
 
                                       Very trul- your s, 
 
 
                                            A'c tin,- ý"e r,

 
 
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GEO. BIRD GRINNELL 
238 EAST 15TH STREET 
  NEW YORK. N. Y. 
 
 
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Mr1. G..B 
 
 
                         It would furnish an argument for progress that 
                    even politicia.ns c -o u2-exstand. 
 
                         It would be flexiblo and would avoid injustice 
                    to +tat,, t.ha;t are re,,lly turyin to meet their res-

                    ponsibilities. 
 
                         It wtiLld tL:Oe the teeth out of opposition on the

                    grouxids of "Staites rights". 
 
                         It would Ia no ise. prevent the Joree.t Servico

                    and Biologc.1 2-u.-vey cooprati2ng actively with the

                    Stuato in the manaogement of gae on such Po-ests 
                    reiain~in in 'Steto control. 
 
                         It would leavo the question of ultimate outcomo

                    squarely up to the Stte t th IsCVe m,  I f th0Y, 11 0

                    -o I..,, they 1 will acep juriodi cioi_.o. if thje f,&ll

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Can lblamz 
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                    Forests,   The !heldo-n c..ph' injure it. 
 
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                   Chase! by the , er    ....u"           the rblic

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                                       Very si~n-',,cr>, yours 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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   ROBERT H. M. FERGUSON 
   TYRONE, NEW MEXICO 
 
 
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                                        OUTDOOR  AMERICA 
 
 
 
 
Fiindalmental Problems 
 
 
    By Executive Committee 
    Boone and Crockett Club                       G    f 
 
ITH          the growth of the recreational spirit among 
        our people and the rapid increase of numbers who 
        enjoy our game, the problems of methods proposed 
        to save it are today receiving wider and more 
serious attention than ever before. The dangers of further 
decrease of game, in some cases even of its threatened 
extermination, have been so advertised in r'ecent years that 
many interested in the conservation of wild life have been 
startled almost to the verge of panic. From one angle or 
another the alarm is being sounded, not so much because 
game is decreasing, as because the increase of population 
signifies an increase of gunners, and the advance of material 
interests makes possible greater opportunities effectively 
to use the guns. 
  The outlook is indeed seri- 
ous enough. But it seems 
to have been forgotten that 
the same and even greater 
dangers to the future of 
game existed several years           IN  1887 THEODC 
ago. Then, the numbers of 
waterfowl   and   shorebirds       founded the Boone a 
were much reduced and were         it has made more cons 
steadily decreasing, and deer      has any other body of 
had   greatly  decreased  in 
many eastern States.    Yet 
along with the increase of            To recite only brie 
gunners and of material ad-         ments would take a ! 
vancement, waterfowl and           We hope the member 
shorebirds are now increas-         closely read and stud 
ing, and deer in the States 
have   become   much   more         printed herewith. We 
abundant. Such facts should         wellAfford to give it 1 
cause reflection and a calm         consideration. The 
study of the causes which           are greatly indebtec 
have   produced  this more          Crockett Club and w 
favorable situation.  Before 
becoming so much alarmed as         as the years roll on 
hastily to propose certain          ganization will contii 
remedies which in the past          way towardbettering 
have failed, is it not better 
to seek to understand the             The League consid 
fundamental    problems   of 
game protection and to try          its magazine officiall) 
to apply them now and here-         and Crockett Club 
after, so that our game in          medium to print "Ft 
reasonable numbers may be           of Game Conservatic 
saved? 
   The   methods  commonly 
 proposed  to  save  game- 
 chiefly by legislative enact- 
 
 
this country from early colo- 
nial times, began to receive 
some attention after 1850 and active interest after 1880. 
Reduction of bag limits, limited seasons and closed seasons, 
game refuges, license systems, law enforcement, and ýseveral 
other policies were and are the common proposals- yet so 
far as they have been practiced they have never aforded a 
permanent solution of the problem. The game has con- 
tinually decreased. 
  In Bulletin No. 41, published by the Biological Survey 
in 1912, Dr. T. S. Palmer, after much research and study 
gave us: "The Chronology and Index of the more im- 
portant Events in American Game Protection, 1776-1911." 
This is his introduction: "Game protection in the United 
States has been gradually developed during a period of 
nearly 300 years and has been marked by an immense 
volume of legislation. In no other country in the world 
have laws for the protection of game been passed in such 
numbers or amended so frequently. Among the character- 
istic features of American game legislation are the division 
of birds into three groups-g'ame birds, nongame birds, and 
noxious species; the restrictions on hunting by nonresidents; 
the limitations on the quantity of game that may be killed 
at certain times; the prohibition of export and sale; the 
system of enforcement by State officers; and the mainte- 
nance of this system largely by receipts from hunting licens- 
es."  With few    exceptions, which will be noticed, all 
Your conscience should not let you rest until you writ 
to vote for the League's bill of a 300-mile uppi 
 
 
                              fed eral control of m~igratory 
                              birds was established in law 
  so that all methods of game protection, including nonsale of 
  game, could be immediately applied. The result has been 
  the great and rapid increase of waterfowl and shorebirds. 
  Efforts, continued for years without success, had been made 
  to accomplish similar results through State legislation. And 
  yet some States had passed laws containing regulations 
  amply sufficient to save the game, if only they could have 
  been applied throughout the country and enforced. It was 
  the recognition of this policy of federal control, however, 
  that was fundamental to the problem. 
    Population and industrialism are increasing faster than 
  game. Is there any fundamental policy which, if adopted, 
  will meet such a situation and conserve the game? W think 
  that there is-one that needs the endorsement of all who 
  are interested in saving wild life and in outdoor recreation. 
  The 'policy needed is one which calls for the complete ad- 
  ministration of the game together with the accompanying 
  responsibility. Heretofore most of our legislation in behalf 
  of saving game has dealt with the protective side of game 
  conservation. Game protection, rather than game admin- 
  istration, has been our thought. So long as we continue 
  both in thought and by legislation to hold this attitude, we 
  cannot make wise laws fast enough to meet the changing 
  situations, nor can we quickly adopt methods which will 
  prevent the destruction of the breeding stock of game. 
e your Congressmen and Senators                   349 
 
 
er Mississippi National Preserve. 
 
 
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'r--+    Thus tbe   olic of 
 
 
ime Coonservation 
 
 
legislation since 1911 has been similar, and recent proposals 
to save game have advocated nothing, save more drastic 
applications of these methods. They are mainly prohibitive 
or restrictive. They have failed because of neglect to tro- 
vide the right practical applications of some of them, and 
because others are not fundamental. 
   Yet some fundamental game protective policies have been 
 enacted in legislation, and applied. The results have been 
 immediate and game has either been protected or has in- 
 creased. Let us mention some of them. 
   The Yellowstone National Park, created by Congress in 
 1872 was a great federal refuge without legislative enact- 
 ments to protect its game. In 1876 George Bird Grinnell 
                              first effectively called the at- 
                              tention of Congress to the 
                              threatened  destructions of 
                              this game, and continued to 
                              agitate the subject until final- 
                              ly the public became interest- 
 RE ROOSEVELT                ed. Congress gave heed to 
                              it, and in 1894 the Park 
nd Crockett Club and          Protection Act was passed. 
ervation history than         Here   was  a   fundamental 
American sportsmen.           policy which has been ap- 
                              plied to all National Park 
                              legislation--the complete pro- 
fly its many achieve-         tection of game within the 
book of many pages.           limits of these Parks. Thus 
s of this League will         in them the game has per- 
y the valuable paper          manently been saved. 
                                In 1894 Mr. Grinnell was 
 assure them they can         the first to advocate the idea 
their most thoughtful ..       f nonsale ofgame, and he 
sportsmen of America          persisted in advocating this 
I to the Boone and            policy until the whole public 
e have no doubt that          had been educated to accept 
                              it, as soon as a method to 
this distinguished or-        apply it was found. This 
hiue to point out the         was   another   fundamental 
sports in this country.       problem. 
                                In   1904  Hon.    George 
ýrs it an honor to have       Shiras 3rd, prepared and in- 
                              troduced in the House of 
 chosen by the Boone          Representatives a bill to place 
 as being the proper          all migratory birds under fed- 
indamental Problems           eral control. This principle 
in."                          was kept alive in Congress 
                              until it was finally enacted in 
      WILL H. DILG            the Migratory Bird law and 
                              later replaced by the Inter- 
                              national Migratory Bird 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                         OUTDOOR 
 
  The Boone and Crockett"Club clearly recognized this 
fact in 1912. In its Game Preservation Report of that year 
it declared that the only solution of future game conserva- 
tion lay in legislation recognizing completely the administra- 
tion of game. The Club emphasized this in its report of 
1915, and has since advocated it as the chief object to be 
attained. 
  Administration of game has been the centuries old policy 
in European countries, and game has been maintained in 
abundance and widely sold in the markets while the breed- 
ing stock has not been permitted to decrease below numbers 
believed to be for the general welfare of the people. But 
all over the world,- where'ver, without intelligent administra- 
tiontion, game has been permitted to increase on areas 
being more and more encroached on by civilization, it has 
become depleted either by unwise killing or by death from, 
starvation. 
 
 
  What is the significance of Game Administration? 
  The preservation of game is justified for three 1cadinal 
purposes-aesthetic pleasure; economic use; and recrea- 
tional use for sport, study, and photography. The value of 
game cannot be comparatively measured, but there is general 
agreement that game is an asset of high importance to the 
people. The use of game must be coordinated with all in- 
dustrial uses in such a way that our national life will enjoy 
the maximum benefits of all our resources. Therefore the 
numbers of game to be preserved must be adjusted accord- 
ingly. 
  The administration of game is nothing more than the 
plain common sense management of it so as to insure a 
permanent breeding stock which, will perpetually produce 
a given surplus to be used as completely as possible for -1 
three purposes of game conservation. Although vastly more 
complex and difficult, the problem is similar to the simpler 
one of the management of cattle or chicken ranches. 
  Game administration will study the whole problem of 
game in its relation to industrial interests and adjust the 
numbers to be preserved. It will make a complete study 
of the game itself, its habits, food, pathology, distribution, 
and breeding; of the refuges and sanctuaries necessary to 
be made, and the destruction of natural enemies; in fact, 
of all scientific methods of increasing and preserving it for 
the purposes in view. It will seek to determine all the 
problcms connectcd with game in suchla way that evwey 
action taken in regard to it will be an intelligent one. 
  Each reader should ask himself if it is not simple common 
sense to believe that game can be better permanently 
preserved under an unconditional system of active, im- 
mediate administration than by the one, hitherto practiced 
for the most part in this country, which in a somewhat hap- 
hazard way attempts to protect game by passing rigid, re- 
strictive, laws, inelastic, and so to be changed only by the 
slow process of legislative enactment? 
  How can unconditional Game Administration be realized? 
  The first step toward its active realization will be to 
convince sportsmen's organizations throughout the country 
that it is necessary. No effective legislation in behalf of 
game in this country has been accomplished except through 
the interest and work of sportsmen's organizations. They 
are the main agencies which arouse favorable public judg- 
ment for game legislation, coordinate all the factors to 
promote it, and do the hard work necessary to achieve it. 
When any game legislation is proposed, sportsmen's organ- 
izations are called on to support or oppose it. Without 
sportsmen's organizations we could get no effective support 
for or against game legislation, and selfish interests would 
soon overthrow  all game protection.  The sportsman's 
organization is so vital to saving game that in his annual 
report for 1922 the Chief Forester of the National Forest 
Service called special attention to the need for the expan- 
sion of such organizations as the principal means of better 
improving the conditions of game. Sportsmen's organiza- 
tions can best be reached through sportsmen's and outdoor 
periodicals. These should fully discuss the need and value 
of game administration. 
  This step taken, we must concentrate on the broadest 
conception of game conse~rvation-the continuous develop- 
ment of the recreational spirit of the people. The platform 
of the Izaak Walton League sets forth admirable principles 
of recreation which are printed at the beginning of its 
magazine. 
  A plan is needed-a plan of National Recreation, which 
shall study, define and include on a coordinated basis all 
national, state, and local possibilities. Such a plan can only 
be brought about by the President, and he should be en- 
couraged to accomplish it. All organizations interested in 
recreation of all kinds should join in the effort to bring 
forth such a program. 
 
 
350 
 
 
Your conscence should not let yc 
to vote for the League's bill 
 
 
AMERICA 
 
 
   Is unconditional Game Administration practical in this 
 country? 
   The Boone and Crockett Club believes that finally it is, as 
 soon as we see the necessity for it and make up our minds 
 to accomplish it. Suggestions to this end, like those of the 
 Boone and Crockett Club, have not aroused a wide interest, 
 for the reason that objections have been hastily brought 
 forward which indicate that most of us reflect not on the 
 administration, but on the restrictive aspect of game pro- 
 tection to which we have so long been accustomed. 
   It is also asserted that game can be administered in Euro- 
 pean countries where most of it is on large landed estates 
 wholly subject to regulation by the owners, but that in this 
 country where no such system of land tenure prevails, there 
 is no practical method of game management on a large scale. 
 Such objections, however, are not based on a study of the 
 situation. 
   For more than thirty years the Boone and Crockett Club 
 has maintained that all wild life in the National Forests 
 should be administered unconditionally by the Forest Service. 
 Here is a great Federal Bureau having complete control of 
 all the products of- the National Forests, except the game 
 which is one of its major products. This vast organization 
 patrols and guards each forest and administers them non- 
 politically and efficiently, wholly for the public welfare now 
 and in the future. The deer forests of Scotland comprise 
-3,000,000 acres with 150,000 deer. Most of our big game in 
the West ranges in the National Forests which include 157,- 
000,000 acres of wild areas, occupied, according to actual 
estimate, by 500,000 deer and large numbers of all other 
big game, and game birds and waterfowl. Give the Forest 
Service control of this game and we shall have complete 
administration, of it on a scale never known in Europe. 
This cannot be done by Federal legislation. The individual 
States themselves must finally realize the necessity for it 
and as some States have already done, must cede the con-I 
trol of this game to the Forest Service, at the same time 
reserving to themselves all the net revenue to be derived I 
from it. 
  The Alaska Game Law, passed in 1902, contained a clause 
  giving the Secretary of Agriculture power, limited to re- 
  strictive measures only, to administer all the game. It is 
  now admitted by all sportsmen, by Alaska residents, and 
by all others interested, that, if gai.e in Alaska is to be 
saved, the Secretary of Agriculture must have complete 
authority to administer the game. With that end in view, 
the Alaska Delegate has presented to Congress a bill which 
grants this power to the Secretary who must receive the 
advice of a local game commission before he shall make 
regulations for the game. All factions have agreed to this 
bill. Its administrative feature will surely receive congres- 
sional approval. Here will be Game Administration applied 
on a scale greater than ever before anywhere in the world. 
   I can find no good estimate of the total number of game 
birds existing on all European estates together, but certainly 
they are not superior to those both in all National Forests 
and on lands controlled by private clubs in this country. 
Private clubs, once they understand the necessity for it, can 
administer their game subject to State and Federal laws. 
Already some, having large land areas under control, are 
making preliminary studies with a view to intensive game 
management. All clubs, however, can more completely ad- 
minister their game as soon as complete administration by 
the States can be put in effect. 
  But how can States Administer their game? 
 
 
    By recognizing the necessity for such administration, 
  granting the power, and definitely fixing the responsibility 
  for the results. This can be accomplished by appointing 
  non-partisan, expert game commissions with long tenure of 
  office and full authority independently and unconditionally 
  to administer the game. A commission having such com- 
  plete administrative authority could immediately, as the con- 
  ditions might demand, apply all known methods of game 
  regulation and preservation in any part of or throughout 
  the State. It would become expert in dealing with the whole 
  problem of Game Administration and would cooperate with 
  clubs and Federal agencies in control of game. 
    Objections might be made to entrusting such elastic 
  powers to a game commission on the ground of politics. 
  Such objections would, of course, have weight but usually 
  they would not, we believe, be well founded. Throughout 
  this country at present, with rare exceptions, game commis- 
  sions are composed of those having received political prefer- 
  ence, yet many of them include excellent men who have 
  achieved splendid results, some even commanding national 
  attention. Having only to enforce laws and advise legisla- 
  tures, such bodies now have little responsibility. The main 
  responsibility for game laws lies in the legislative body 
n rest until you write your Congressmen and Senators 
of a 300-mile upper Mississippi National Preserve. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
OUTDOOR                AMERICA 
 
 
which makes them, and here responsibility is intangible,  death to vast numbers
would follow. Because marshes and 
Should a commission be given full powers to regulate and  feeding grounds
have been and are being drained, the food 
control the game, the responsibility for success or failure  supply for waterfowl
is decreasing. Should this continue, 
would be localized on it and on the agency which appointed   ducks could
not be maintained at their present numbers 
it. And long tenure of office would decrease the political   and there would
be serious danger of great loss. To pre- 
dependence of its members. It is common sense to believe  vent such a calamity
it has been necessary to have the 
that a game commission thus made fully responsible for   Game Refuge and
Public Shooting Grounds bill introduced 
its acts, would be less likely to act with indifference, neglect, in Congress.
Its main purpose is to find a means of preserv- 
or with careless thought of the probable results. We are  ing and administering
the feeding areas of wildfowl. It is 
not wholly without experience in Game Administration,    supported by all
sportsmen in this country and its enact- 
and insofar as it has been practiced, the results have corn- ment into law
is a vital necessity to the perpetuation of our 
pletely justified it. Under the present Alaska game law the  wildfowl. 
Secretary of Agriculture has, by the advice of the Alaskans  Limited administration
of game by state game commis- 
themselves, made frequent use of his administrative author-  sions is gradually
being realized in many 9tate laws. It 
ity to prohibit the killing of game in sections where it has has usually
taken the form of conditional powers to curtail 
been threatened. This has saved the game. Had he pos-    or prohibit the
killing of game. Even this is a step in ad- 
sessed no administrative power and been obliged to await  vance and the results
have been most favorable. But as 
authority by congressional action, the game in these sec-  yet no state understands
the significance and value of com- 
tions would have been exterminated.                          plete administration
of its game, and until the advantages of 
  The Migratory Bird Law, for the most part, is one grant-   it are clearly
recognized we cannot hope for rapid progress 
ing wide powers of administration. Every year the Secre-  in accomplishing
it. 
tary of Agriculture calls together the Advisory Board, corn-   The Izaak
Walton League has caused to be presented in 
posed of experienced game conservationists from various  Congress a most
worthy bill setting aside as a refuge for 
parts of the country, who recommend changes in the regu-  wild life, including
plants and fish, the Upper Mississippi 
lations only after careful study and with as full knowledge as  National
Wild Life Refuge, to be administered exclusively 
can be obtained of the situation. The results have been a  and unconditionally
by the Secretaries of Agriculture and 
steady increase of wildfowl and shorebirds. It has been pro- 'of Commerce.
This is a project of Game Administration, 
posed, with the best of intentions but without careful study and nothing
is more encouraging than the fact that this 
of conditions, that this Advisory Board should recommend  League of large
and wide national membership should thus 
drastic cuts in bag limits and seasons, not because waterfowl recognie the
necessity of the administration of game. 
are decreasing (they are increasing), but because population   To assist
the administration of wild life in this country 
is increasing. Such a method of applying game protective  we have the Biological
Survey, a Bureau of the Department 
remedies is unsound because it is illogical, haphazard, and re-  of Agriculture.
From the time of its establishment, thirty- 
strictive, rather than administrative, based on a study of the  nine years
ago, it has intensively studied wild life and all 
situation. We may have complete confidence that the Secre-   problems connected
with it, including game protective prac- 
tary, having the administrative authority, will so use it as to  tice, administration,
and legislation. It is the highest author- 
maintain the full number of waterfowl that the food supply   ity in the country
on all matters pertaining to wild life. 
will support.                                                It has cooperated
with every game protective organization, 
  The evidence gathered by the Biological Survey, the    Federal, State,
local, and private. It is the great clearing 
active administrator of the law, is that waterfowl are rapidly  house of
information on these subjects. No other country 
increasing to the limits of the food supply. Should they ' has a government
bureau of this kind. When game admin- 
be permitted to increase beyond it, wholesale starvation and istration shall
be undertaken, the advice and expert knowl- 
Your conscience should not let you rest until you write your Congressmen
and Senators                  351 
to vote for the League's bill of a 300-mile upper Mississippi National Preserve.

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
OUTDOOR IQ  AMERICA 
 
 
edge of this bureau are available. When it shall have ad- 
vanced, the cooperation of the Biological Survey will be 
invaluable. It has a great force of experienced, technical 
experts in exterminating predatory animals. Its wide out- 
look and knowledge will be of the greatest advantage in 
assisting the states to coordi- 
nate all their activities in 
dealing with   game admin- 
istration problems. 
  Along with game adminis-                "I AM    GOP 
tration should be included 
that of all wild life, birds,       A  GREAT soul and a 
fish, and fur-bearing animals.         Frank Irving Cobb d 
A discussion of these, how-         York World his pen did 
ever, is not within the scope 
of this paper.                      reet thought in America 
  Enough has been said, we          ness and liberalism. T 
hope, to show the necessity         through his editorials ax 
of game administration and          deprived of the knowledg 
the  possibilities of finally 
establishing it. But we must        sweep and size. 
clearly face the difficulties in-    His intimacies ran from 
volved in accomplishing it.         enceau to the ward poli 
Our present historical game         were his daily associates 
protective policies have be- 
come the custom     of our          head Lake with him kne, 
thought, and cannot easily be         In his passing he hit 
changed. Some state consti-         always able to do, naturn 
tutions may not permit the          ufacture) which seems to 
delegation of sufficient au- 
thority to game commissions,        than many which have b 
and states may pause before         history. And in this case 
they recognize the necessity        of not being apocryphal. 
of ceding such administra-           Just before he died hi 
tion to commissions and to          and pulngoff the swea 
the Forest Service.   Other 
difficulties might be men-          am going fishing." 
tioned; and yet, whatever the        He never spoke again. 
obstacles, it is not impossible       If ever a man deserved 
finally to  overcome  them.         Cobb. 
It is a matter of education. 
Advanced ideas of game con- 
servation have often grown 
slowly, and even when under- 
Stood iTheir prarctical eealt~ag 
tion has been slow. The very necessity for Game Admin- 
istration should stimulate all to work for it. But it must 
come gradually, step by step, each one gained showing such 
advantages that the next will be reached more rapidly. 
  All magazines devoted to outdoor life and recreation 
should substitute the term Game Administration for game 
protection and serve as propagandists for the idea. They 
should become the leaders in advancing it. All sportsmen 
should study it and reflect on its significance and advantages. 
It should be made a topic of discussion in all meetings and 
gatherings held to promote the purposes of recreation, and 
every possible means should be taken to get it into the 
thoughts of the people. 
 
 
is 
 
 
in 
'hi 
 
ad 
 
iti 
 
a] 
) 
Lec 
di 
'1 
te( 
 
ti 
 
 
The Children Ask Us 
 
 
WTONDEB ING children, in a rural school at 
  Brandon, Wis., ask a question: 
  "'The heritage of our grandfathers was the 
buffalo and wild pigeon; the heritage of our 
fathers is the goose and duck, the muskrat and 
the mink. If the animals of today are not pro- 
tected and provided for, what shall be left for 
us?" 
   In the names of the mothers and fathers of 
these United States we answer that question: 
  "Nothing shall be left for you. We will dig 
our drainage ditches through your marshlands 
and swamps and drive before us your water-fowl 
and your hyla. Our fires shall sweep over your 
woodlands, searing the last of your song birds 
and scorching out the dens of your foxes and your 
wolves. We will cut the fringes of your timber, 
far in the northland, starving your moose and 
 
 
352 
 
 
your elk. As we denude your land we will bake 
dry your pools and your lakes, your rivers and 
brooks. 
  ."Your heritage shall be desolation-a land 
swept clear of sheltering trees. As in distant 
China, floods shall come down upon you, killing 
you by thousands, scattering your bodies over a 
parched countryside. Your agriculture shall be 
a combat with insect hordes and. at the last, they 
will strip you bare-for, without birds there can 
be no agriculture and we shall kill your birds. 
These things shall be your heritage. But with 
them we will give you steel and bricks and stone 
-man-made things on a land desecrated in the 
name of civilization and progress. 
   "Thus are we dealing with your patrimony 
and, in the name of prosperity and profit, we 
promise you these-you, who are our children I" 
             An Edilorial from The Milwaukee Journal. 
 
 
Your conscience should not let you rest until you write your Congressmen
and Senators 
to vote for the League's bill of a 300-mile upper Mississippi National Preserve.

 
 
   Finally, there is one fact which should be clearly under- 
 stood and settled affirmatively in the minds of all. We 
 should all have the highest ideals, but game conservation 
 must be regarded not from a sentimental but from a supreme- 
 ly practical point of view. With its future full of dangers, 
                              the fate of game must not be 
                              risked to await the fulfillment 
                              of every ideal we have nur- 
                              tured  for its preservation. 
; FISHING"                    Before they can be realized 
                              the  game   will  disappear. 
great mind passed when        What is needed is to advo- 
d. As editor of the New       cate the best action that is 
ore than any other to di-     practically possible. At 
                              present in this country there 
ito the channels of clear-    is  a  tendency--apparently 
se who knew him only          very  wide because of the 
ieditorial direction were     publicity given to it, but in 
of his almost Elizabethan     reality very limited-to advo- 
                              cate preserving  game   ex- 
                              clusively for aesthetic pur- 
Lloyd George and Clem-        poses. This view   seeks to 
cian. Those of us who         exclude sport as one of the 
rd who had fished Moose-      cardinal purposes of game 
the scope of the man.         conservation.  Such  views, 
                              however sincere   and  well 
pon a phrase (as he was       meaning, not only    cannot 
Ly, not the result of man-    produce effective results, but 
me to be infinitely better    they harm  and actually re- 
come part of the world's      tard the progress of game 
                              conservation. The great ma- 
the remark has the virtue     jority of interested people 
                              work to conserve game so 
raised himself in his bed     that it may   serve all its 
he was wearing said, "I       purposes.  Nearly   all the 
                              actual workers for game con- 
                              servation wish, if possible, 
                              to enjoy sport, but at the 
a full creel it was Frank     same time they have due re- 
                              gard for the other purposes 
  ROLLIN KIRBY                to be served by game. These 
                              are the only persons who 
                              have the power to save the 
                              game   and   perpetuate  its 
                              .umbers, and    any   policy 
 which might tend to discourage their active interest would. 
 in the end, have no other result than game destruction. 
   Therefore, a fundamental problem of effective game con- 
 servation is the attainment of a practical attitude of mind 
 which squarely faces these facts. If, with such an attitude 
 of mind,- we shall adopt as our goal the conservation of 
 game for all its purposes, with Game Administration as 
 a means of accomplishing it, shall seek a policy of National 
 Recreation to increase the recreational spirit of the people, 
 and shall work actively and perseveringly toward these ends, 
 we may feel confident of perpetuating the future supply of 
 our game. 
 
 
11111 ,1 111N111, 
 
  

					
				
				
1 
 
 
                          Albuquerqu, New Memo, 
                                   Mlay 22, 1920, 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Goo. Bird GziennO, 
     238 J. 15th Streot, 
          New York City, 
Dear -'r. (Frinneoll 
          Thank you for your kind letter of May 6, 
          I also feel @erta:n that eventually a treat 
nmasures whioh now seem horelese are going      0 be 
forthooming, I hope to send you in the near future 
for your oritioism a plan for a non-.prtisea State 
Game Oommision in whioh I think you would be inter- 
ectede 
          ThawLing you for your encouragement, 
                          Very trul yours, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
* GEO. BIRD GRINNELL 
  238 EAST 1STH STREET                          May 6, 1920. 
    NEw YORK, N. Y. 
 
 
 
 
 
         Mr. Aldo Leopold 
         Albuquerque 
         New Mexico 
 
         Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                    I am glad *to have your letter of the 29th, 
 
         and to offer you my congratulations on the excellent 
 
         article which you had in the last issue of the Bulle- 
 
         tin of the American Game Protective Association. It 
 
         is a good article and I wish that it might reach a wide 
 
         public. 
 
                   All these things which are really good are 
 
         coming after a while, but we have to practice more or 
 
         less patience and wait for the public to grow up to 
 
         its leaders. I have been working in these matters now 
 
         for very many years, and while I used to be tremendous- 
 
         ly pessimistic about them, I have seen so many good 
 
         things happen that now I have swung way over on the 
 
         other side. 
 
                    It is pleasant to hear from you, for I have 
 
          long known your name and the good work you have done 
 
          through reports by Mr. T. B. Burnham. 
 
 
A' 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I 
J 
 
 
Natural History Survy 
 
 
Dear Tedt 
 
 
Iam "a that 
useful to  ou 
dbappoitedo In 
 
 
I am    r   4 
hbim. 
 
 
It to; hard for me to fr*..i 
*awa for thie proposed water, 
?'d like to if I can cut l@i 
 
                      With I 
 
 
 
                      Aldo I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
     DEPARTMENT OF                                           BOARD OF NATURAL
RESOURCES 
REGISTRATION AND EDUCATION                                       AND CONSERVATION

FRANK G. THOMPSON, DIRECTOR                                   FRANK G. THOMPSON.
CHAIRMAN 
      SPRINGFIELD                                            BIOLOGY  - WILLIAM
TRELEASE 
                                                             FORESTRY   
 EZRA J. KRAUS 
                                                             GEOLOGY    EDSON
S. BASTIN 
                                                             ENGINEERING
LOUIS R. HOWSON 
                                                             CHEMISTRY  WILLIAM
A. NOYES 
                                   STATE OF ILLINOIS         UNIVERSITY OF
ILLINOIS- 
                                DWIGHT H. GREEN, GOVERNOR     PRESIDENT ARTHUR
C. WILLARD 
                  STATE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
                              THEODORE H. FRISON. CHIEF 
                                     URBANA                   July 22, 1941

 
                                                                   V-"

      Professor Aldo Leopold 
      Department of Wildlife Management                          .\ 
      424 University Farm Place 
      Madison, Wisconsin 
 
      Dear Aldo: 
 
                Many thanks for your letter of July 15, which came at 
     a most opportune time, as I was in the midst of the problem of 
     trying to get someone to keep our project at Barrington going. 
 
                Enclosed is a copy of the letter I have just written to 
     Dr. Elder in which you will note that Sowls will be leaving about 
     September 1. I am asking Dr. Elder if he is interested in working 
     for the Survey beginning about the middle of August. 
 
                Last Saturday we had a very fine conference at Havana in

     which we went over our migratory waterfowl program to date, and 
     plans for keeping this program rolling the rest of the summer, fall

     and coming winter. Enclosed is a copy of brief notes covering cer- 
     tain phases of this conference. Of course these in no way cover all

     the points discussed at the meeting, or the reviews of the work done

     to date. The notes were taken simply to ensure coordination of 
     preparation of materials needed well in advance and timing of work.

     I mentioned the possibility of getting Elder to take Sowls' place, 
     and three of our staff members who knew Elder were very enthusiastic

     about having him with us, if we can get him. 
 
                Would you be interested in joining us for a conference 
     sometime this fall while our migratory waterfowl program is in full

     swing? We might meet at Barrington and proceed from there to Havana.

     Perhaps I could get Pirnie down at the same time, and other individu-

     als outside our organization who might give us helpful suggestions 
     with reference to our work. 
 
                If everything goes right, I am hoping to get away from 
     Urbana about August 9 and travel north, perhaps to the Quetico country

     north of Ely, Minnesota. I am anxious to do a little fishing once 
     again with my boy, before he grows entirely out from under. 
 
                                     Cordially yours, 
 
 
 
                                     T. H. Frison 
                                     Chief 
     THF:ME 
     Endl. 
 
  

					
				
				
     DEPARTMENT OF                                           BOARD OF NATURAL
RESOURCES 
 REGISTRATION AND EDUCATION                                      AND CONSERVATION

 FRANK G. THOMPSON.                                           FRANK G. THOMPSON.

             DIRECTOR                                                   
 C..HAIRMAN 
       SPRINGFIELD                                           BIOLOGY . -
WILLIAM TRELEASE 
                                                             FORESTRY . _EZA
-J._RAUS 
                                                             GEOLOGY    EDSON
S. BASTIN 
                                                             ENGINEERING
LOUIS R. HOWSON 
                                                             CHEMISTRY  .
 WILLIAM A. NOYES 
                                   STATE OF ILLINOIS         UNIVERSITY OF
ILLINOIS-- 
                     DWIGHT H. GREEN.     . GOVERNOR             PRESIDENT
ARTHUR C. WILLARD 
                   STATE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
                               THEODORE H. FRISON. CHIEF 
                                     URBANA 
                                                             July 22, 1941

 
      Dr. William Elder 
      Delta Duck Station 
      Delta, ,ani toba 
      Canada 
 
      Dear Doctor Elder: 
 
                 I have just received some information indicating that 
      you might be available for employment in connection with the 
      migratory waterfowl studies of the Survey during the next year. 
      As you no doubt know, Mr. Arthur Hawkins, Gamo Technician with 
-     the Survey, was called to military service in May, and we arranged

      for 1r. Lyle K. Sowls to carry on with his work at barrington, 
      Illinois, and at Havana during the fall and winter months. Recently

)     Mr. Sowls was called for exaiination and reports that he expects to

      be called for service in September, as he 'as been put in class 1 A.

                 4uld you be interested in an appointent with the Survey

      as Game Technician for a year, taking over the work started at 
      Barrington and assistinj with our program at Havana? 1'o doubt you

      have yeard from Peter aard, Professor Leopold and others concerning

      our program in the Illinois River valey on migratory waterfowl, 
      and perhaps of the rearing work and studies started at Barrington.

r     A new problem which has arisen at barrington is the study of ways to

      prevent the development of parat:phoid in wc-od ducks which we are

      attempting to raise there in considerable numbers. The same problem

      is also coming up In mallards beirn raised nearby, and I believe that

      the two pýases of the problem could be made into one project
carried 
      on from Barrington. 
 
                 Since Arthlur Hawkins was a fulltime, regular employee of

      the Survey, he was given a year's leave of absence, and we shall hold

      ,is position open until his return, which may or may not be more than

      a year. However, I am very anxious to do everytthing to keep our 
      program rolling along at top speed over a sequence of ye ars, without

      interruption or change in objectives. If you are interested in the

      vacancy here, I believe that an apj.ointment could be arrminged to

      take eff7ect the middle of August, and thus Aive you two weeks work

      with Sowls, so that you could better pick up the continuity of the

      program at Barrington. Since all appointments with the Natural His-

      tory Survey must be approved by the Board of Natural Resources and

      Conservation, upon my recommendation, I sugoest that if you are inter-

      ested you send me immediately a statement of your training and ex-

      perience. fr. Sowls was paid at the rate of 42,200 for a year, with

      expenses when away from regular established field stations and 
      headquarters. 
                                        Very truly yours, 
      THF: rE                           T. Ci. frison 
      ecc Professor Leopold             Chief 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
            Waterfowl and Marsh Restoration Programs 
 
              As Discussed in Havana Staff Meeting& 
 
                           July 19. 1941 
 
 
 
Date and       : July 19, 1941, at the Illinois Natural History 
Survey Laboratory on the Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge near 
 
Havana, Illinois. The meting was formlly called to order at 
 
10:00 a.m. 
 
Attendi&    Dr. Frison, Bellrose, Low, Swla, Hawkins, John Anderson,

 
Harry Anderson,, Lemm, Yeager, Bradley. 
 
Wood Duck Prorn,. 1941-42: 
 
          1. No more boxes needed. 
 
          2. Banding: Get one trap in as soon as possible on 
 
Chautauqua Refuge in a location suitable for catching wood ducks. 
 
Other than this no special banding efforts. Lemm assigned. 
 
          3. Study of flight and flocking movements to begin as soon 
 
as possible. Bradley says concentrations have already begun (July 18, 
 
1941). Notes to be kept as to points where concentrations occur. 
 
"Use of light facilitates flocking study during evening hours,"

 
Bradley. Bellrose and Low assigned. 
 
          4. Feeding study, especially use of cornfields. Bellrose 
 
assigned. 
 
          5. Relocation of boxes for 1942 study. Bradley will remove 
and stack at boat house the 75 Natural History Survey boxes now on 
 
refuge. Repairs and tin predator excluders to be made and attached to 
 
stored boxes by February 15, 1941. Bellrose and Lemu assigned. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
          6. New box sites for 1942 studies to be selected by 
 
February 15, 1942. 
 
          7. Wood duck mariscript to be brought up to date, including 
 
all 1940 data, during winter of 1941-42. Bellrose assigned. 
 
 
 
flarrin~ton Prog~razq, 1942: 
 
          1. Rearrange certain buildings, if possible. 
 
          2. Repeat wood duck and mallard rearing studies, 
 
          3. Broo counts and nesting studies on glacial lakes In 
 
northeast Illinois. 
 
          4. Cover improvements on Barrington area. 
          5. Intensified study of paxtyphoid in ducks, in coopera- 
 
tion with Dr. Graham of the Uiversity of Illinois. 
 
 
 
       General Fall and WLinter Watere wl rog      1941-42 
 
A. Trapping and Banding 
 
          I. Repair duck traps and have all six traps in place by 
 
September 20. Lemm delegated to select trap sites, which are to be 
 
near the 1940 location; also to purchase one roll of wire and rough 
 
lumber for fl1ooing two or three traps. Bradley said lumber would run 
 
about t15.00 per trap. 
 
          2. Grain - m        of 10 bushels per day to be supplied by 
 
Bradley. 
 
          3. Begin banding by October 1. 1941. 
 
          4. Installation of Cimco Farm trap contingent on time 
 
and personnel. 
 
          5, Anderson's system of keeping notes and data to be 
 
followed closely. 
 
 
- 2- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
          6. Print I,000 bird banding forms as per sample attached 
 
by September 15, 1941, on better paper than used in 1940. (Note: 
 
In event a supply already on hand, this point to be canceled.) 
 
          7. Supply of bands. Bradley's responsibility. 
 
          8. Banding crew    Lamn,, Avery, Elder (?), and at times 
 
Low. 
 
          9. Skin making - Elder (?), 
          10. Posters calling attention to bands on ducks killed. 
Distribution one week before season opens. Iemm in charge of dis- 
 
tribution. To list places where posters are left and follow up to 
 
obtain bands. 
 
          11.  Watch out for geese and wood duck bands especially. 
 
B. Census - Bllrose in general charge, 
 
          I. Lem-m or Avery to handle Chris Craft on all trips, 
 
including census. 
 
          2. Systematic census of Illinois Valley and Mississippi 
 
River ducks. 
 
C. ftnting and Feeding Studies -Belrose in Eeneral chare. 
 
          I. Special studies of hunting conditions on public shooting 
 
grounds. 
 
          2. Cornfield feeding. 
 
          3. Kill cards to be given out by boat liverymen. Bellrose 
 
to work up such a card and send in to office for printing. 
 
 
D. Kill and Bag Inspection 
 
          I. Procedure similar to that used in 1940 studies. Low, 
 
Elder (?), Avery tentatively assigned, with such substitution as may 
 
be practical at times. 
 
  

					
				
				
-4- 
 
 
Marsh Restoration Project - FA 17-R: 
 
          1. Harry Anderson, leader; work in collaboration with 
 
Bellrose, Low, and Lynn Hutchens. 
 
          2. Planting studies, using transplants, rootstocks, and 
 
seed. About 10 of most important waterfowl food plants on representa- 
 
tive areas in Illinois Valley, glacial lakes, and certain artificial 
 
lakes. So    attention to be given to the possibilities of horticultu. 
 
ral techniques in aquatic planting studies. Practical planting 
 
methods as well as techniques most certain to insure seed production 
 
to be detennined. 
 
          3. Aquatic plant seed production studies along Illinois and 
 
Mississippi rivers. 
 
          4. Bottom seed sample study to determine amoumt and what 
 
kind of seed left by ducks. 
 
          5. Control of aqaatic vegetation. 
 
          6. General for leader: 
 
     a. Spend last part of July with Bellrose in getting acquainted 
 
with areas and problems. 
 
     b. Work with George Bennett on the selection of desirable ponds 
 
for s iudy. 
 
     e.. Prepare or have prepared a suffic ent number of gage boards 
 
for use in studying effect of water levels on aquatic plants. 
 
 
Geese, 1941: 
 
          I. Studies to be conducted at Barrington, Havana, and at 
 
other points. 
 
          2. Study flocking behavior, family groups, breakup of 
 
groups, etc. 
 
          5. X-ray technique to determine wounding at time of goose 
 
 
trapping in late winter. 
 
  

					
				
				
-5- 
 
 
          4, Obtain band series for geese as well as for ducks. 
 
          5. General studies on fall migration. 
 
          6,     "                    and winter feeding. 
 
          7. Effect of new State of Illinois blind regulation on 
 
goose kill. 
 
 
,uuIrre-Rac     Project, FA 14-R: 
                                    in 
          1. Bron, leader; to work/cooperation with Survey 
 
personnel when both programs are facilitated thereby. 
 
          2.       six or eight lite traps for use on Chautauqua Refuge 
 
in renloving 25 raccoons to State Game Farm. 
 
          3. Continue raccoon scat collection to determine egree 
 
of feeding on ducks. Collections should be made before and after 
 
hunting season, 
 
 
Other 14-R work not listed. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
  4 
Qh~of, #~4 btu~ its tory 3~u~q 
 
 
Poar ~ 
 
 
~. 
 
 
a 
 
 
a 
 
 
     y~ bawa ~$esRt 
 
3. 4as ~$tur. 
 
 
        z w03A. )~oq~ 4 
          ~1. ~s hta 
a J4R ~ ~ 
 
 
AU ~ 
          vu~tg. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
     DEPARTMENT OF                                            BOARD OF NATURAL
RESOURCE 
REGISTRATION AND EDUCATION                                        AND CONSERVATION

JOHN J. HALLIHAN. DIRECTOR *                                   JOHN J. HALLIHAN,
CHAIRMAN 
      SPRINGFIELD                                             BIOLOGY  -
WILLIAM TRELEASE 
                                                       9 ~    FORESTRY 
                                                    1         GEOLOGY   
EDSON S. BASTIN 
                                                              ENGINEERING
LOUIS R. HOWSON 
                                                              CHEMISTRY WILLIAM
A. NOYES 
                                   STATE OF ILLINOIS       UNIVERSITY OF
ILLINOIS- 
                                   JOHN STELLE. GOVERNOR          PRESIDENT
ARTHUR C. WILLARD 
                   STATE NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY DIVISION 
                               THEODORE H. FRISON, CHIEF 
                                     URBANA 
 
                                                          Box 83 
                                                          Barrington, Illinois

 
 
         Mr. Aldo Leopold 
         424 Univ. Farm Place 
         Madison, '7isconsin 
 
         Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
               I believe that the attached correspondence between Mr. Beckhart

 
         and the Fish and Wildlife Service is self explanatory. Mr. Eustice
is 
 
         very much concerned over this. The loss of the permit would greatly

 
         hinder waterfowl research and may even stop it on the Bright Land
Farm 
 
         We do not expect to lose the permit, however. 
 
               Yesterday I recieved a letter fvvm Albert in which he tells
me h 
 
         that Bill has been working on the duck disease and that with the
co- 
 
         operation of the University of Manitoba they have found thtt paratyphl

 
         has been killing their ducks. You will recall that that is exactly

 
         what we found here. We have had another outbreak and it seems extremet

 
         hard to control here where all our pens are designed for a small

 
         number of birds. I have a hunch that the whole place is polluted
with 
 
         the bacteria and that design of pens and location may be the best

 
         preventive measure. I am going to have the men from the state 
 
         department of pathology come up and run agglutination tests among

 
         the stock we have here to determine where it is. I believe that

 
         cap:ive reared ducks who have survived this disease may carry it
into 
 
         the wild and be a menace to wild stock . 
 
                 I recieved my physical examination for the draft monday
and 
 
         recieved an A-l rating. I have been given a 90 day deferment to

 
  

					
				
				
2.... 
 
complete my Naval Reserve enlistment. My educational, character and 
 
citizenship papers have been accepted and I am to get my physical 
 
exam the 14th of July. I expect to be here until about the first of 
 
September. When you go to Delta would you kindly tell Al my plans to 
 
get the ground squirrel bulletin finished before I go into Service. If 
 
the Navy accepts me I am sure there will be no time to write for a long 
 
time and  I want the bulletin finished if we have enough data. Also 
 
give my best regards to the Ward family and the boys. I certainly miss 
 
being at Delta this year and am now certainly thankful for that training.

 
      I want to thank you for the fine time I had at your place last 
 
Friday. My best regards to the family. 
 
 
 
                                      Sincerely, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
         Bright Land Farm lvaterfowl Experimental Station 
 
                      Barrington, Illinois 
 
 
               Re~port 77umrber I. Decemiber _1.- 1940 
 
 
          DuirinF a meetin- held at the Havana Laboratory of the Illi- 
nois Natural History Survey on November 15, 1940, the Bright  and Far 
aterfowl  xeriment Station becwme a reality.   Present at this meet- 
inc were Mr. A. L. Istice, Mr. Carleton 0. Beckhart, Professor Aldo 
Leopold, Dr. iles ). Pirnie and the writer.   This meeting climaxed a 
series of conferences between Mr. Tiustice, owner of the farm, Mtr. 
Bec    rt,   e keepr, ad one or more of the advisory group composed 
of Professor Aldo Leopold, Dr. Pirnie ad tle writer. As early as 
193C Dr. Pirnie pointed out to the writer that an unusual degree of 
interest in waterfowl was being exhibited on the Bri.ht Land Farm of 
Mr. 'ustice. In 1939 I became aware of the excellent banding program 
at the farm and investigated. Not until 1940, however, did the pos- 
sibilities of a waterfowl research station at Mr. Eustice's farm begin 
to take shape. On September 2, 1940, Tr. Eustice, Mr. -Beckhart, 
Professor Leopold ad the writer met at the Bright Land Farm to in- 
spect the waterfowl work being done at the farm and discuss a possible 
enlargement of the waterfowl program. Dr. Pirnie was unable to attend 
this meeting. 
 
          Between the time of the Labor Day meeting and that of the 
iavana meeting, Mr. Eustice removed any chance of doubt concerning ]hIs 
whole-hearted enthusiasm for an enlarged waterfowl program on his farm 
by constructing a dwm to be used in floodlng the experimental pond. 
Hence, the Havana meeting was to discuss ways and means rather than 
ifs and ands. On November 21 and 22, Mr. Peter dard of the Delta 
Duck Station and the author conferred with Mr. B3eckhart and drew up a 
working plan which is presented in this report. 
 
 
Administrat ion 
 
          No formal agreements have been drawn, but the following 
verbal coit.iitments were made at the Havana conference- 
 
     Mr. Eustice agreed to sponsor the waterfowl research program for 
his Bright Land Farm so far as his finances will permit, provided that 
the progrram is progressive and produces results. 
 
     Professor Leopold and Dr. Pirnie agreed to act in an advisory 
capacity. 
 
     The Natural History Survey through the writer agreed, at the 
request of .r. 3ustice to direct the research program of the statio 
and to accept responsibility for any publications whic are forth- 
cming fron the station. Dr. T. 11. Frison, Chief of the Natural 
Histo   Survey, has given his approval to this commitnent. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          Plans are to make this station the Aerican counterpart of 
the 1elta Duck Station of Canada and to act in close cooperation with 
the Delta Duck Station In important problems that can best be solved 
throuh the joint efforts of these two stations 
 
 
             Tentative Outline for Proposed Studies 
                      Re arin_ pe ri~e 
 
7,ood Duck1s 
 
          Life history and management studies of this species lhave 
been conducted over a three year period by the Nlatural history Survey, 
but certain problems remain unsolved. There remains the need to coin- 
plete the embryo series showin- rate of development in the embryo, 
and the need to complete the duckling series showing the development 
rate in young ducks. The rate of developlment in ducklings raised at 
the Bright Land Farm will be compared with those raised at the Delta 
Duck Station to determine the effect, if any, of the longer daylight 
hours in the north. 
 
          Two problems related to ma&naement will be studied at the 
Bright Land Farm:   (1) the feasibility of raising wood ducks in cap- 
tivity for restocki-ng new areas; (2) the behavior of pen reared wood 
duc's following release with the qfuestion  in mind, will young wood 
ducks raised in captivity migrate normally and return to breed the 
following year to the rang-e on which they were raised? The problems 
will be studied through barndin  and through the erection of nesting 
boxes. Di,,rin  the winter months, the wood duck flock now housed at 
the Bright Land Farm will be subjected to artificial lightin7 to 
determine how rapidly the blrd will reach breeding condition. 
 
Mallards 
 
           Thich basic information needed in the sound management of 
 Illinois' most important duck cannot be found in the literature con- 
 cernin, this species. Most of the hand-reared mallards banded and 
 released in the country h-ve demonstrated that pen rearinG of this 
 species is not feasible. Hllowever, similar efforts of the Delta Duck 
 Station in Canada have yielded excellent results (as measured in 
 terms of bandiný returns). The difference in success between these

 two instances very definitely appears to be attributi  to differences 
 in rearLnu tochniques for mallards. Most important seems to be the 
 selection of high class, wild mallard breeding stock rather than mon- 
 grel mallard stock usually used in rearing attempts to date. As a 
 corollary to this central theme is the need to study the rate and 
 mechanics of degeneration in wild allaeeding stock. A morea&j 
 detailed outline of the mallard studies    given            in    s 
 report. It is important tht the semidomestic mallard stock now 
 resident on the farm be thoroughly culled. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
Other Ducks 
 
          To corpare the rate of development in species other than 
mallards aid wood ducks with the rate in those two species and for 
general educational purposes, the Delta Duck Station has agreed to 
provide a setting of eggs from at least five other species, including 
two diving duck species, redUheads and canvasbacks. 
 
Canada Geese 
 
          The present flock on the Bright Land Farm numbers 400. 
These birds show unmistakable signs of degeneration due in a large 
measure perhaps to the fact that they are not permitted to fly. 
This condition will become more serious as the flock increases in 
size; also, there is dangier that disease may enter the flock. 
Danger from disease could be lessened by grevelliný the margin of

the doughrmt-shaped wintering and nestirn pond, and by permitting the 
geese to fly. In our opinion, the benefits derived from perCittinCg 
this flock to fly would far exceed the possible ill-effect of 
occasional poaching. 
 
I1estin4g Survey 
 
           An inventory of duck nesting in the wild on or near the 
 Bright Land F1arim is planned, to supplement infornation gathered at 
 the experiment station. 
 
 Ecliipment NTeeded 
 
           1. Incubators.--The incubators to be used are James Way 
 All Electric Small Flock, capacity 360 egs. These are divided into 
 two units with separate heat controls. Two of these will be needed, 
 capacity for both, 720 eLgs.  Total cost of incubators at list price 
 is $154. These machines may bie purcased at Port Atkinson,      prsconsin.

 
           2. Brooders.--For the large bird house, two Anderson Even 
 Heat Electric Brooders, 54-60 inches each costing at list price, 
 $2.5 can be used. Six smaller units 3.1-35 inches each costing at 
 list price, $'.90 will be needed for the second brooder house. Total 
 cost for brooders will be '112.40. These may be obtained from the 
 Anderson Box Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. 
 
           3. Incubator TlousinL.--Zhe room in which the incubator is 
 to be housed (see fig. 1) is 10 feet wide, 12 feet long and 6 feet 
 high. This building is already available and little work is left to 
 be done in turing it into an incubator room. 
 
           4. Brooder 'iousrnc.--Present on the Eustice larm is a large 
 bird house (see fig. 2). This house is air conditioned, artificially 
 heated, and contains a large swiu   ng pool. Vlhen this pool is cen- 
 trally divided and two large brooders are placed at each end, it will 
 make an excellent buildin- in which to raise wood ducks. The pool is 
 large enough to handle about 250 birds. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
--4 
 
 
          The second "buildlný to be used as a brooder house
(see fig. 
3) is 30 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 3 feet high. It is divided into 
six pens, each of which will hold 20 birds and this building can be 
used for the mallard experiment. A sloping cement floor with a 
swiLmuing pool 10 inches deep and Z feet wide running the entire length 
of the house should be constructed.  Into each of the pens will be 
placed one of the smaller brooder units. 
 
          5. Outdoor R-ane.--Outdoor runways 10 feet long, 5 feet 
wide, and 6 feet high are to be built on brooder house No. 2. These 
will provide the birds with necessary exercise ad sushine.     There 
are already built 3 outdoor pools enclosed by wire netting Which may 
be used if needed, after the ducks becoe old enough to live outside. 
 
          8.  Pens for Tclding Captive Ztok.--ilans have been made 
to build 4 outdoor .~ens (see fig. 4). hese pens are to be 450 feet 
long, 12 feet wide, and 6 feet high, and will hold 20 pairs of breed- 
ing mallards. The total cost of these pens will be $580. The site 
chosen for the pens is a saall lake on the Eustice Farm. It is at 
present dry, but a control dam has been built at the east end. This 
dam will flood the lake at the point where the pens are to be placed 
to a depth of about six inches. 
 
          7. Laboratory.--The building now used for a clicken house 
would make a good laboratory. This buildigr should be equipped with 
runnin. water, a sink, shelves, and work tables. It would b con- 
venient if one end of this b-ilding were arranged for sleeping quarters 
for the man working on the night shift at the incubator and brooder 
houses4 A file, to house the current records of the station, would be 
desirable. A smzll, quick-freeze refrigeration unit and an insect- 
proof case for storing specimens are almost necessities. 
 
 
 
     No.        Item         List rice- Each   Total Lst Price 
 
     2    Incubators              $77.00             .$154.00 
 
     2    Bro    s (large)         29.50              5 . 00 
 
     6 Brooders (small)             8.90              53.40 
 
     4    Outdoor Pens            145.00             530.00     846.40 
 
          Feed                                                  250.00 
 
          Estimated cost for 
          construction and 
          miscellaneous equipment                               500.00 
 
          Total estimated cost (first year) ------------------ $1i96.40 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                "Aiscellafleous Hatcher Teebni ese 
 
          A female wood duck durinr t1e course of a nesting season 
should produce at least 20 eggs. 'Next to the wood duck in productivity 
is t   mallard. 
 
          Incubation dates for several species of ducksa mallards, 
22-24 days; pintail, gadwall, shoveller, teal, 21-22 days; wood duck, 
33 days; canvasback, 24 days. 
 
          0ixt of each hundred ea-s placed in the incubator, 20 in- 
fertile eggs or embryonic deaths may be expected. After htching, 
about 10 deaths per hundred may be expected from various auses. 
 
          bggs should  e sprayed at least four times each day from 
t1 tLi they are p-lced In the incubator until they begin to pip. 
As soon as the sell is broken, spraying should be discontinued. 
Always place the pip mark on the eo, upward. 
 
          \Lhen the eggs are placed in the incubator, the temperature 
is set at 990 F., and is maintained thro-uCiout the entire 'atching 
period. The embryos themselves are allowed to raise the temperature 
within the compart,ents until at the time of hatching the temperature 
will reach about 1050 F. 
 
          The temperature of the incubator room itself is mintained 
at between 05 and 900 F.    his temperature penmits the safe handling 
of eggs, and the openlng of incubator compartments. 
 
           The ducklinLs are left in the incubator 24 hours after 
hatching to dry off. Then they are trnsferred to the brooders, where 
they are left another 12 hours before food is given them. 
 
           For the first two days after feedings is started, duckligs 
 are fed entirely on hard boiled egg. The egg is forced througja a 
 potato ricer which cuts it into very fine particles. After the second 
 day, a little "nash"*is added, and is grdually increased until
by the 
 end of the first week nash becomes their entire diet. Vqhen adding 
 mash to the hard boiled eggs, no moisture is needed; always keep food 
 moist and crumbly but not wet. 
 
           In all species of ducks, food should be placed near the edge 
 of the swimming pool then teachings the ducks to feed. In the case of 
 canbasback, food must be placed close enough to the edge of the pool 
 to enable the birds to eat from the water. Two or three mallards 
 llards placed in with a    roup of young canvasbacks will start them 
 fecdinl, but the mallards must be removed at the end of the first 
 week. 
 
           Pood is left before the young at all times and is changed 
 completely twice each day. 
 
 7ie te    "mash" here refers to the special waterfowl feed mixture,

 the form-la for which is given in this report. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
--6 
 
 
          Yoiung ducks must h ave soeie form of artificia  lighting at 
night.   If this is not given, they will become frifhtened in the 
dark and the resultant stampede will kill many of them. 
 
          The following is formula for the duck food used at the 
Delta Duck Ztation: 
            C r eI                            40 Ibs. 
             .al..... ...................... 42 lbs. 
 
 
             yteran............................. 2 lbs. 
             Powdered 9utte    9Ik ...........  31 lbe. 
             Oyster Shl...........2 1bs,. 
 
             Don~e Mea                            lb. 
 
             Ood Liver Meal..................   3 lbs, 
 
             Alfalfa Meal...... ......... *.,...,, 6 lbs. 
 
 
          This formula is weighed out and then thoroughly mixed. 
The meat meal must be screened to take out particles of hair and 
course bone. About 50 Per cent of the weight will be lost in 
screening, thus 10 pounds of meat meal screened will make 5 pounds 
ready for use. Ordinary window screen has been found to serve 
the purpose very satisfactorily. 
 
          Sand should be used to cover the floors and changed each 
day. Each pen and water tank shuld be thoroughly cleaned and 
dis infected each moring. 
 
          For the first two days it is best to prevent the ducklings 
frwi having full use of the pen. If this is not done, they quite 
often huddle in some corner instead of using the brooder. A small 
pan of water anda another of food may be placed with them, but care 
must be taken to see that these are changed often. 
 
          If possible, ducklings should be kept in lots of 20 or 
less to prevent crowding. There is also less chance of disease among 
them if they are held in small lots. 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
,u.xt 16, 194 
 
 
thrm ODiroz4I.to Vnx *ble v w~itwaU   p 
 
Sto- Offovs A~lt 
tJ~Vam , 10mi 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If tU3g~m £~wat bird or n theml hoth f*14.  it I ma~l 
 
    ttwmldrte, n Vo!nWn aat =  -autho vivWofe 
Ia- nromwa plusM n. litl ammici It tvo t nolhW, 
  on ,. aolo f *the atmor i Intaxwm otWnzi 
of vh 4trout pwacaln 71 bsIv tphin It "M fo  tov 
 
Iti et 7w  Ozl y difi~  to trn~tI from kmwtili 
 
 
 
to wwtamlar    on%,bont1m %wtsmal 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-10- 
 
 
The Upper Brule 
 
 
  State acquisition of nearly 10,000 acres 
to be added to the Brule River State For- 
est in the upper reaches of the Brule river 
in Douglas county, believed by the conser- 
Vation commission to-be one of its most 
important land purchases, now gives the 
state control over much of the area that 
holds the key to the future character of 
the famed trout stream. 
  The new purchase adds to the land in 
the upper valley that had previously been 
state-owned and which was acquired a num- 
ber of years ago for similar purposes as 
shown on the map appearing elsewhere in 
this Bulletin. The vertical lines show the 
lands that were previously owned and the 
parallel lines mark the new purchases. The 
rest of the area is in private ownership. 
  The land was acquired from Douglas 
county for $27,489.16 and involves a total 
of 9,909 acres. The multiple purpose of the 
new acquisition is reflected in the method 
of commission payment, 25 percent of the 
money coming from the forestry fund, 25 
percent from the funds for public hunting 
grounds, and 50 percent from the sum set 
 
 
up for the purchase of cedar swamps im- 
portant as winter yarding areas for deer. 
All objectives in the valley tie in with the 
program of retaining the Brule as an ex- 
cellent trout stream. 
  The new acquisition enhances the possi- 
bility of an overall conservation manage- 
ment. It is planned to reforest all areas 
requiring such treatment and above all is 
the need for protecting the spring sources 
bog area that spells the difference between 
life and death for the famous stream. 
  Investigation has shown that a number 
of factors went into the making of the 
Brule and continue to maintain it as one of 
the best known fishing streams. 
  Commenting on the Brule land purchase, 
State Geologist E. F. Bean says: 
  "The Brule river rises in the marshy 
divide between that stream and the head- 
waters of the St. Croix river and flows 
north-eastward in a mile-wide trench 100 
feet below the level of the barrens. This 
gorge was eroded by the stream which was 
the outlet of a glacial lake. A continuous 
bog now occupies the bottom of the gorge, 
 
 
Brule river headwaters. 
 
 
-A 1A, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-11- 
 
 
because the gradient of the meandering 
stream is but a little over a foot to the 
mile. The barrens are a perfect source of 
water supply because the sand acts as a 
sponge absorbing a high percentage of the 
rainfall and delivering it to the stream in 
numerous springs. The organic matter in 
the bog holds water and slowly releases it 
to the stream during periods of low flow. 
Under natural conditions of shade in the 
bog the temperature of the cold spring 
water was kept low. It is fortunate that 
the conservation commission has purchased 
much of the bog and can maintain it in its 
original condition." 
             Swamp Necessary 
   Prof. N. C. Fassett of the botany de- 
partment of the University of Wisconsin 
declares that rigid protection of the com- 
paratively small swampy area, only about 
a mile wide and 12 miles long, is absolutely 
necessary for the preservation of desirable 
Brule river conditions. 
   "There is but little surface drainage into 
 the upper Brule", Prof. Fassett says. 
 "Water seeps through the sand and enters 
 the river as springs in the swamp. The 
 swamp-and this is probably the most im- 
 
 
portant single factor influencing conditions 
on the upper Brule-functions as a great 
sponge bordering the river and maintains 
a constant water supply; in many places 
the trees shade the stream and help keep 
a low temperature. 
  "Preservation of the swamp is synony- 
mous with protection of the Brule as a 
trout stream. Where the bog border has 
been destroyed and replaced by sedge mea- 
dow or tussock marsh the water is warmed 
and contaminated by organic matter freed 
from the soil. In a number of places the 
trees have been cut and the land burned 
over. If they become too numerous, the 
Brule is doomed." 
  Conservation Commissioner Aldo Leopold 
expressed the belief that the commission 
might well extend its influence beyond its 
holdings in the Brule valley to prevent road 
grading to cottage areas. Many of these 
roads, he contended, could be made service- 
able by merely graveling them without 
grading and he pointed out that much of 
the red clay silting that now afflicts the 
Brule originates from graded roadways. 
   Dr. Edward Schneberger, superintendent 
 of fish management for the conservation 
 department, points out that the land pur- 
 
 
The BruIg, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Sid I 
 
 
3Z 
 
 
17 
 
 
32   33 
 
 
s 
 
 
14. 
 
 
'3 
 
 
23 
 
 
. k 
 
 
04' 
 
 
 
 
 
AIIIIIIRIIOW 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-14- 
 
 
chase is a step toward protecting the habi- 
tat of fishes in order to maintain fishing. 
  "The purchase of the Brule river forest 
is regarded by fishery biologists as well as 
fishermen as one of the most important 
and beneficial moves in respect to fish man- 
agement that has ever been made", Dr. 
Schneberger said. 
              Artistic Stream 
  Gordon MacQuarrie, well-known outdoor 
writer, former Superior resident and long 
familiar with the Brule, says that fishing 
history has been made on the Brule and 
will be again if the Brule problem can be 
solved. 
  "The Brule, edged with cedar and spruce, 
is your artist-fisherman conception of the 
way a trout stream ought to look," Mr. 
MacQuarrie says. "A feature of this river 
not to be overlooked is that it just happens 
to come to that proper size so that fisher- 
men may either boat it or wade it. It is 
big enough to be a real fly rod stream and 
yet small enough to that it has charm and 
variety." 
  The Brule river commands wide attention 
and many people have fished the stream 
 
 
and lived along its course. Leigh P. Jer 
rard, Winnetka, Ill., says that he fished the 
Brule as a boy 40 years ago, has a cottage 
on the river and has spent many vacatior 
days there during the past 25 years. 
   Mr. Jerrard mapped the Brule and has 
followed its history and says that he has 
been reading with interest the stories about 
the river that have been carried in the 
Bulletin. 
  "I am pleased to learn from you that 
the conservation commission has acquired a 
large acreage in the Brule bog area", he 
says. "I hope it includes the springs near 
the head of the east fork. I am also inter- 
ested in hearing more about the census of 
trout caught on the river and the results 
of trapping and tagging fish at Stone's 
Landing." 
  An extensive investigation of conditions 
along the Brule river has been carried on 
under a cooperative program of the conser- 
vation department and the university. The 
investigation looks toward better manage- 
ment procedure along the stream and direct 
control over a greater part of the Brule 
river valley is expected to facilitate such 
management. 
 
 
Nature Quotes 
 
 
  Hobbes clearly proves that every crea- 
ture lives in a state of war by nature- 
SWIFT. 
 
So Naturalists observe a flea 
  Hath smaller fleas that on him prey; 
And these have smailler still to bite 'em; 
  And so proceed ad infinitum.-SWIFT. 
 
  No- man is really happy or safe without 
a hobby, and it makes precious little dif- 
ference what the outside interest may be- 
botany, beetles or butterflies, roses, tulips 
or irises; fishing, mountaineering or anti- 
quities-any thing will do so long ais he 
straddles a hobby and rides it hard.-OSLER. 
 
  Nothing exists from whose nature some 
effect does not follow.-SPINOZA. 
 
Accuse not Nature! She hath done her part; 
  Do thou but thine!-MILTON. 
 
  Let us a little permit Nature to take 
her own way; she better understands her 
own affairs than we.-DEMONTAIGNE. 
 
Come forth into the light of things, 
  Let Nature be your teacher- WoRDs- 
    WORTH. 
 
 
  Nature abhors a vacuum.-SPINOZA. 
 
So Nature deals with us, and takes away 
   Our playthings one by one, and by the 
   hand 
Leads us to rest.-LONGFELLOW. 
 
Diseased Nature oftentimes breaks forth 
  In strange eruptions.-SHAKESPEARE. 
 
In Nature's infinite book of secrecy 
  A little I can read.-SHAKESPEARE. 
 
  Everything in Nature contains all the 
powers of Nature. Everything is made of 
cne hidden stuff.-EMERSoN. 
 
To him who in the love of Nature holds 
  Communion with her visible forms, 
She speaks 
  A various language.-BRYANT. 
 
  All art is but imitation of Nature.- 
SENECA. 
 
  To a person uninstructed in natural his- 
tory, his country or seaside stroll is a walk 
through a gallery filled with wonderful 
works of art, nine-tenths of which have 
their faces turned to the wal!-HuxLEY, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
    F. L e an                                   September 5,  1944 
 E. Leopold 
*dw. Schneberger 
H. L. Russell 
J. D. O0Donnell 
 
Dear Colleaguest 
           The following is a series of observations, comments and 
 memoranda made during my recent visit to the Brule River, Douglas 
 County, August 23-30; 
           That the brown trout is well established is well known to 
 all of us, but the following table, constructed from some of the col- 
 lections made while I was there and added to by other Comparative 
 data, is very illuminating. Moreover, it indicates the small popula- 
 tion of fish in *good' sections of the Brule compared to a station 
 on the Flag and Iron Rivers selected for convenience of contact. 
 These data while not rechecked with original figures, indicate, among 
 other things, that greater fishing pressure on the Brule alone may 
 account for the smaller population of trout. It also emphasizes our 
 conclusions of the past that planting of legal brook and rainbow trout 
 should be continued at a scale which is in keeping with the importance 
 of the stream. Perhaps it might be well to advertise the other streams 
 of that area a little more in an effort to relieve the fishing pres- 
 sure on the Brule. 
      Composition & ouantity of trout in shocker collections 
 
 Station          Area Brown T. Brook T, Rainbow        Total Trout 
                                    in grams         g/sq.ft. lbs,/acre 
 Flag River       8900   l,926      126       958      0.51        48 
 at jct. of forks 
 Iron River       2400   2,872       "14               1.26       117

 road crossing 
 Brule River 
 lay's rip        7500   1,080      150         8      0,29        25 
 C6dar Is,        9600   1,526      105     1,059      0.27        23 
 U12 mi. below) 
 
           Mr. Jacobson and Berube stressed the need for rearing ponds 
 along the Brule on the order of the Cedar Island lakes. This idea 
 has been tried to my knowledge in Colorado, but the results have not 
 been tested experimentally. This might be tested in a future project. 
 
           The survey has verified the contention of local residents 
 that pike and pickerel are plentiful in certain areas of the stream, 
 but that no great increase is evident over the past 30 years. Never- 
 theless the local residents should be encouraged to harvest this crop 
 of fish at a greater level. Perhaps bag size and season limitations 
 could be taken off these fish in the Brule. Such a move might bring 
 law enforcement difficulties too great to surmount. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-2- 
 
 
          We started a memorandum. some time agojon the possible damage 
to spawning beds caused by anglers wading in the streamllk-"ýe
early 
season. It was suggested that areas) with a large number of redds, 
could be posted during the spawning period. Has any action been taken? 
We might discuss this point at our next meeting. 
 
          Since my return I have seen E. F. Bean relative to the 
progress our recoxnendation made to the Highway Commission, that a joint

project be set up with WCD on better methods of county and town road$ 
upkeep in order to cut down erosion from that source. He has heard 
of no action and will take up the matter again with Mr. Law. I was 
reimpressed with the seriousness of the erosion problem in the lower 
Brule when I canoed from linneboujou to Johnison's Bridge. 
 
          6ome of the areas I saw might be much improved by some 
streamside planting, a point stressed by several of the group. We 
can confer with J. Thomson and set up a definite plan. 
          We should discuss the Douglas County league's proposal for an 
electric fish screen, at our next meeting. 
 
          The great abundance of suckers in the Brule continues to pre- 
sent a problem, in my thinkingjabout the role they play in the trout- 
sucker relation. How great can the sucker population get before it 
is injurious to trout? Has that level been reached in the Brule? 
The shocker collections in the Flag and Iron were low in suckers- the 
trout population was greater than in any collections in Brule. is this 
significant? It should be tested in some experimental stream set up. 
Churchill informed me that no suckers have been identified in the many 
stomachs he has examined--this indicates that they are not a great food 
source for the trout. 
 
          John Hansen, Brule Ranger, suggested that the ice jams at the 
mouth of the Brule be blasted to clear the way for migrating rainbows. 
He felt that the value of the migration to the tourist trade was suf- 
ficient to warrant some definite action to assure a yearly run of rain- 
bows. He claimed that more people fished the Brule during the first 
two weeks for any similar period in the summer. 
 
          Churchill gave some of the highlights of the stomach analyses 
of trout. They are, in general: 
     Ants occurred frequently--shows the importance of terrestrial 
          organisms dropping in from bank cover 
     Mayfly naiads were abundant 
     Caddisfly larvae were abundant 
     Diptera larvae were abundant 
     Burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia among others) were common 
     Clams not very important 
     Lampreys were rarely eaten in spite of their great abundance. 
          Churchill claims lampreys are the most abundant fish in river.

 
          We should make arrangements to have J. D. O'Donnell come to 
Madison in the near future for a series of conferences to draft a final 
report. 
                                       Very truly yours, 
 
 
A. D. Hasler 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
BRULE RIVFR SURVEY 
 
 
       Discussion on April 28, 1944 - Brule Ranger Station 
       Persons in attendance: 
 
            Dean Russell             Mr. O'Donnell 
            Commissioner Leopold     Mr. Thomson 
            Professor Bean           Prof. Rusch 
            Dr. Hasler               Dr. Schneberger 
            Mr. Churchill 
      Dean Russell opened the discussion by bringing up the 
 matter of publication procedure and the laying of plans for 
 publication that would follow the Brule River Survey. He 
 pointed out that the results should appear in separate articles 
 because: 
      1. They could be published with greater rapidity by 
          arranging the publication in chapters and would 
          receive more attention by the readers since the 
          articles would be shorter, 
      2. By issuing the results chapter by chapter, more 
          contact with the reports would be mpde, 
      The next item that was discussed was the place of publication. 
 It was agreed that it would be most desirable to have the articles 
 all published in one Journal so that the various bulletins would 
 be of the same size which would facilitate the final binding of the 
 chapters into one volume. The following places of publication were 
 given consideration: 
      1. Conservation Bulletin 
 
      2. Natural History Survey 
      3, Wisconsin Academy of Science 
      Professor Bean is to investigate the Possibility of 
utilization of the Natural History Survey series to this end and 
Dr. Hasler is to inquire of the Wisconsin Academy as to the speed, 
financial arrangements, and such service that could be given should 
this Journal be used. 
     The next item to be considered was the matter of chapters 
that would be issued and the sequence by which the material would 
be released,  The following outline was discussed, but is subject 
to modification, likewise the titles are subject to alterations: 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
-2- 
 
 
     Chapter I    - Origin of the Brule - Bean 
 
             II   - History of the Brule River - O'Donnell 
 
             III  - Changes in Vegetation of the Brule River 
                      Valley from 1856 to 1942 - Fassett 
             IV   - Analysis of Present Day Flora - Thomson 
 
             V    - Quantitative Measurement of Aquatics - Thomson 
             VI   - The Brule River Soil Erosion Problem- 
                      Bean, Zeasman, and Schweers 
            VII   - Fisheries Biology of the Brule River - OtDonnell 
                                                            et.al. 
                      a. Physical and chemical characteristics of 
                          the Brule river 
                      b, The bottom fauna of the Brule river - 
                          a quantitative study 
                      c, The food of fishes of the Drule river 
                      d,  The ichthyo fauna of the Brule river; an 
                          analysis of fish populations 
                      e. The movement of fishes; an analysis of the 
                          results obtained by the use of a two-way 
                          fish weir 
                      f. A four-year creel census on the Brule river 
 
                      g.  A fish management plan for the Brule river 
            VIII   - Some Aspects of Anchor Ice Formation with 
                       Particular Reference to the Brule River - 
                       OtDonnell and Brigham 
 
              IX   - Role of Lampreys in the Brule River - Churchill 
 
     It was the consensus of opinion that the articles dealing 
with fish and fish management would be the most important of the 
series, butof course, the others would be necessary to correlate 
certain findings. Also, some of the articles would be of an 
Introductory nature. 
 
 
 
 
 
ES: JTG 
5-26-44 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
BRULE RIVER SURVEY 
 
 
     Discussion on Erosion Control of the Brule River - 
     Evening of April 27 at the Brule River Ranger Station 
 
     Persons In attendance: 
          Mr. Schweers           Comm. Leopold 
          Prof. Zeasman          Mr. O0Donnell 
          Prof. Bean             Mr. Thomson 
          Dean Russell           Prof. Rusech 
          Dr. Hasler             Dr. Schneberger 
 
     During the day, Messrs. Schweers and Zeasman were taken 
through the Brule River Valley to make an inspection of the 
sources of erosion and silt contribution to the Brule River 
water shed, 
     The discussion in the evening was in the form of a summary 
of the findings of the day. 
     The four contributing factors to the turbidity of the Brule 
River are as follows: 
 
     1. Nebagamon Creek 
 
     2. Clay banks along the river 
 
     3. Highways 
     4. Agricultural land 
 
     During the discussion, it was pointed out that the contribu- 
tion from farms was probably very minor and could be disregarded 
altogether. However, to check on this item, an interview with 
farmers was to take place the following day. Mr. Schweers and 
Mr. O'Donnell make one team, while Mr. Zeasman and Dr. Schneberger 
would be the other team, and definite areas were assigned. 
 
     Upon further discussion of the erosion problem, the matter 
seemed to boll down to two principal items, namely the banks of 
the stream and the highways as being the principal contributors 
to the silt load of the stream, Control and correction measures 
were then discussed and it appears that the only corrective measure 
that could be applied to the places where the stream banks are 
eroding would be that of rip-rapping. The cost of this would be 
approximately $1,000 per area and since there are 27 to 30 such 
areas, it was believed that the cost would be excessive and 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
prohibitive and in addition would not carry sufficient returns 
on the amount of money invested. It was, however, the consensus 
of opinion that considerable improvement could be brought about 
by correcting the erosion from the highway drainage ditches, 
The approach to the problem would be as follows: 
 
     1, Public education of the highway engineers. 
 
     2. Correcting the erosion in highway ditches using other 
         than highway funds. This would be in the nature of 
         experimental and demonstrational Preas. 
 
     3. It was decided thpt Dean Russell and Commissioner Leopold 
         would contact James R. Law, cheirman of the highway 
         commission, for a discuseion on the matter. 
 
     In conclusion, it was agreed that Mr. Schweers, Prof. Zeasman 
and Prof. Bean would make a report on the reconnaissance survey 
on erosion of the Brule River valley. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ES: JTG 
5-26-44 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
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                                         )4C14 uniernity7&mla 
 
 
 
 
 
Ur. MitoAcmhr Rhijchtord 
Dr. R1i P.nnett 
Dr. Fauz1 B. Smv~r 
Pr. Ira N. Gabrilson 
Dr. 11. 1J. Thompson 
 
O~ntlemnsIn 
 
T vms abotit tn wdl out repltie to the lettern uhtah woe of 
you sent me recently whon the following wire w-a rneeiyd fro7 
Jay Dnrli*, in Floridt" 
 
       I rert to reovrt tot Chiutaoun Connerv.tio  ik 
       of, Jul~y 14 hAs b..rn oamepid under cirmuinstances -Aial- 
       Xma istift    "t. ter follows as soon O  I US  b 
 
 
 
       I o~  ~  r~Vj'in~ t   ýa:uiiorintv V~ ich "!L   of Ylu

sen~t w, and I ,a  to tank all of ym for ynr gsnroxAs 
wa-r,*rt of  af eforts.  ýio d4tibt Ja-y Ar~wll ý;-rit, u;.c'.

of ua as to tlA raon for his wifr. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                          iroftcosr of Wildlife ant 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
                                 UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
                            COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
                                  MADISON, WISCONSIN 
 
 
DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT                         424 University
Farm Place 
                                                          March 3, 1941 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
         Dr. Ira N. Gabrielson 
         Fish and Wildlife Service 
         Washington, D. C. 
 
         Dear Gabe: 
 
         I have studied your manuscript carefully and believe it has only

         one fault from a Chautauaua viewpoint: the audience will lack the

         mental images needed to give meaning to the series of generalizations

         you make. 
 
         We can't, of course, supply mental images for all of your points,
but 
         by supplying them for a selected few, we can make it easier for
the 
         audience to follow. 
 
         Take, for example, your point on pp. 9-10 which is, in brief: closed

         virgin forests support less animal life than open ones. Why not
have 
         somebody on your staff work out a diagram, rough idea of which is
con- 
         veyed on attached yellow sheet? Figures needn't be accurate. You

         have your new bulletin on rodents in Douglas Fir to draw on. It's
your 
         personal stamping ground, and therefore appropraite to present in
some 
         detail. Pictures of course would help show what the two forests
look 
         like. 
 
         On p. 12 you speak of faunal changes paralleling the plant succession.

         Perhaps you could have someone diagram a case or two, in some such
style 
         as my "Case 5" and "Case 71" attached. 
 
         On p. 17 your parallel betweea marsh and upland fauna might be diagramed.

         On p. 19 your idea of limited productivity might be expressed as
a chart, 
         diagram, or photograph. 
 
         On p. 20 you discuss the fact that eroded soil can't produce much
wild- 
         life. This is so important that it needs to be hammered home in
some 
         effective way. I have no suggestions as to just how. 
 
                                   Yours sincerely, 
 
 
 
                                   Aldo Leopold 
                                   Professor of Wildlife Management 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                  UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
                            COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
                                  MADISON, WISCONSIN 
 
 
DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT                         424 University
Farm Place 
                                                          March 3, 1941 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
            Dr. Paul B. Sears 
            Botany Deoartment 
            Oberlin College 
            Oberlin, 
 
            Dear Dr. Sears: 
 
            The replies to my circular which have come in so far do not 
            include any new names to handle the subject of water. Moreover,

            they indicate that Rachford, instead of talking about vegetation

            as avhole, is going to talk principally about forestry. I would

            suggest, then, that the logical adjustment is for you to keep
the 
            subject of water and develop it not only from the standpoint
of 
            water as a physical resource, but from the standpoint of water

            and its particular relation with plaints. This would bring the

            subject a little bit closer to your actual specialty than the

            original program indicated. 
 
                                        Yours sincerely,. 
 
 
 
                                        Aldo Leopold 
                                        Professor of Wildlife Management

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                 UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 
                            COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
                                  MADISON, WISCONSIN 
 
 
DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT                        424 University Farm
Place 
                                                         March 3, 194l 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          Mr. Christopher Rachford, Acting Chief 
          United States Forest Service 
          Washington, D. C. 
 
          Dear Chris: 
 
          You have your plans and materials so well organized already that

          there is little I can add by way of suggestions. 
 
                             Field to be Covered 
          As you point out, the content of your Monday program is a little

          bit different than the outline Jay Darling gave me. My outline

          reads, "Relationship of Vegetation to Soil, Water and Wildlife--

          Mr. Christopher Rachford." The outline accompanying your letter,

          on the other hand, deals almost entirely with forestry; that is,

          it omits range management except as incidental to national forests.

 
          Gabe has sent me a rough draft of his opening address, and I notice

          that it deals to a considerable extent with the fundamentals of

          vegetation and animals. 
 
          I would prefer not to inferfere with your scheme of hitting forestry

          hard in your keynote speech. Could this speech say that the same
kind 
          of deterioration that has taken place in forestry has also taken
place 
          in ranges, and that your section meetings will include one on range

          management? It seems to me that this recognition of range management,

          together with wiat Gabe and Hugh Bennett will include, may constitute

          sufficient recognition of that field. Let me know if this adjustment

          is acceptable to you. 
 
                                Keynote Speech 
          The keynote speech has only one defect: it implies that the pronosed

          program will be a success if the average citizen votes"aye".
I can't 
          bring myself to believe this. I suspect a considerable part of
this 
          audience may be skeptical, and I suspect you are, and that you
have 
          omitted one thing by accident. 
 
          The "thing" I refer to is the public conscience. Unless
and until it 
          becomes socially untenable to own a wrecked forest, or to work
on one, 
          or to use or handle the products of wreckage, it will be administratively

          difficult or impossible to make a success of the proposed regulation
plan. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
-2- 
 
 
Mr. Christopoher Rachford                                   March 3, 1941

 
 
This is a teacher audience. Here is your chance to show the teachers' role.

Of course the public conscience must grow with the olan, but it must exist

in some degree at the outset. The degree to which it must exist is perhaps

this: a consciousness that the consumer is party to the present dilemma;
that 
he must change his habits and tolerances before the producer can do much,

even under regulation. 
 
I hesitate to mention the above because it approaches the field of political

belief. If you disagree with me, then ignore the suggestion. If, on the 
other hand you agree, then I would modify the keynote speech to lead un to

this question of nublic education. 
 
                         Section Meetings 
One weakness in your sequence of presentation is that the audience will have

no way to understand w    the alarming statements made in the keynote speech

are true until they attend a section meeting and learn something about the

resource mechanism. I repeat what I said in my first circular; we cannot

assume that this audience knows the resource mechanism. I urge your section

chairmen to prepare diagrams showing how and why "barrens" develon,
and I urge 
your keynote speaker to announce that these "how and why" diagrams
will follow 
his survey of the field. I attach a set of roughly parallel "how and
why" 
diagrams for wildlife. 
 
May I question the suitability of the evening lecture? It would be alright

if prefaced by the explanation: this is how we try to develop an interest
in 
forests among children and uninformed people. Please keep this confidential.

 
                           Miscellaneous 
 
By all means retain the moving pictures. 
 
The keynote speech is an original copy, so I assume you may want it back.
Hence 
I return it to you. If you meant for me to keep it, please return. 
 
With best regards, 
 
                                 Yours sincerely, 
 
 
 
                                 Aldo Leopold 
                                 Professor of Wildlife Management 
 
  

					
				
				
 
IN REPLY REFER TO                                                    ADDRESS
ONLY THE 
                                                                DIRECTOR,
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
                                  UNITED STATES 
                        DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                            FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
                                     WASH INGTON 
 
                                                    February 27, 1941. 
 
 
 
 
         Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
             424 University Farp Place, 
                    University of Wisconsin, 
                         Madison, Wisconsin. 
 
         Dear Leopold: 
 
                I have your note of February 12th regarding the conservation

         work at Chatauqua on July 14th to 19th. Ding has already discussed

         with me the question of getting a coordinator and we agreed that

         you would be the best man we could possibly get. As you undoubedly

         know, I would be delighted to see you accept this job. 
 
                As to your second question, of the three men mentioned I
think 
         that Studebaker would probably do the best job as he has taken more

         real interest in conservation than the other two. But I like still

         better your idea of Robert Cushman Murpjy who has been much more

         active and I believe is much better informed on conservation from

         our standpoint than any one of the three. 
 
                As to how to develop the material, I don' t know, but I have

         drafted some stuff as a start. I am enclosing a copy of this for

         any comment you may wish to make. This is as far as I have gotten

         with it, and it can hardly be dignified by the name of manuscript

         although it was intended as a beginning of the work on my presen-

         tation in a formal lecture period on the morning of Thursday, July

         17th. 
 
                It might be a good idea for Chris Rachford and        et
to- 
         gether and discuss the question and see what we can cook up and
send 
         to you. 
 
                                   Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
                                                   Ira N. Gab elso 
                                                        Director. 
 
 
Enclosure. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
 
 
                              FOREST SERVICE 
 
  ADDRESS REPLY TO 
CHIEF, FOREST SERVICE                                      WASHINGTON 
    AND REFER TO 
 
    I 
    Information                                      February 17, 1941 
    Meetings 
 
 
 
 
    Prof. Aldo Leopold, 
    University of Wisconsin, 
    424 University Farm Place, 
    Madison, Wisconsin. 
 
    Dear Aldo: 
 
            Reference is made to your letter of February 12. 
 
            There is no doubt in our mind but you are the one to take 
     over the role of coordinator for the Chautauqua, July 14-19, and 
     from our knowledge of the way you propose to handle the final 
     Saturday round-up, I should think that John Studebaker would be 
     the best because of his wide experience in this sort of thing. I 
     understand he has participated in a good many forums which were 
     not especially tied into school work. 
 
            Our idea of the general scheme for the Chautauqua is a little

     bit different from that you outlined. Mr. Darling outlined it to me

     as follows: 
 
            1. Chautauqua will be held during the middle of July, 1941, 
     and an entire week devoted to conservation. He proposes to have 
     forestry as the lead-off subject, feeling that forestry has more 
     appeal to the average person than any other subject that could be 
     put on the program. He therefore points out that the Forest Service

     has the best opportunity to start the program on a good, sound, and

     emphatic basis. In other words I think he has in mind that the start

     of the forestry program will be the keynote of the whole Chautauqua.

 
            2. Monday morning will be devoted to a walk through the woods

     with well-known naturalists, breakfast will then be served, and the

     regular meeting will start at 11:00 o'clock. 
 
            3. The meeting at 11:00 o'clock will consist of the keynote 
     speech or address by some good speaker in the Forest Service or outside,

     if that seems to be the better plan. On the platform will be a forum

     consisting of representatives of the Biological Survey, the SCS, a noted

     economist, a sociologist, and possibly one other noted person interested

     in conservation. After the opening meeting adjournment will be made
for 
     lunch, at which time the members of the forum will question the keynoter

     for an hour and a half. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
          4. In the afternoon there will be open technical meeting going

   on, representing the various work of the Forest Service. The technical

   meeting will give each division chief an opportunity to discuss his 
   particular work. 
 
          5. We will have ample space for exhibits. 
 
          6. In the evening the popular lecture with motion pictures and

   slides can be provided. 
 
          7. The general plan of Monday will be followed each of the 
   succeeding days with the exception that Friday and Saturday will be 
   devoted to a discussion by the economists and the sociologists who 
   will attempt to correlate and coordinate everything that has preceded

   into a general set of conclusions. 
 
          Enclosed is a tentative program and also a proposed keynote 
   speech, both of which have been worked up in accordance with Mr. 
   Darling's suggestions, and we were just about to send these to him 
   when your letter arrived. 
 
          You will note the program provides for use of motion pictures 
   to supplement the speeches and avoid the monotony of making too many 
I   alks without a break. However, this motion picture feature can easily

   be omitted if you think best. You should feel perfectly free to suggest

   changes in both the speech and the program, as we want to make our parti-

   cipation fit into the scheme that you finally work out after receiving

   ideas from the other people involved. 
 
 
Ac' 
 
 
Enclosures 
 
 
-2- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                        UNITED STATES 
             DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
                   SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 
                                           Washington, D. C. 
                                              FEB 28 1941 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
Professor of Wildlife Management, 
University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
 
Dear Doctor Leopold: 
 
       This is to cast one solid vote for Aldo Leopold to be coordin- 
ator for the conservation discussions at the Chautauqua School in 
July. It will be a real pleasure to work with you. 
 
       Also, I want to cast a vote for Aldo Leopold to take over the 
Saturday "Roundup". You are eminently 'qualified to handle this
feature 
of the program and I, for one, believe we should look no further. 
 
       I agree with your statement about the need for establishing 
the ecological attributes of resources before launching into discussions

of actual policies and programs. As you point out, there are advan- 
tages in presenting events in sequence. I would like to know more 
about your sample treatment of concrete cases in wildlife. 
 
       Personally, I had in mind developing the chronology of soil 
mistreatment on this continent (particularly the United States) from 
Colonial times to 1941. The causes, or contributing elements, of 
this mistreatment are probably as important as the actual mistreat- 
ment itself. This I propose to bring out, for conservation of soil 
and water depends to a large degree, as you know, on correcting the 
social and economic causes of the trouble. 
 
       I would like to give some considerable attention to soil con- 
servation districts and their value as a practical conservation tool 
in the hands of people throughout the country. 
 
       It is possible I may want to have an exhibit at the Chautauqua, 
but I trust we may postpone decision on this a little longer. 
 
       I'll appreciate any word from you on how the manuscripts should 
be shaped up, so that members of the "team" will play only one
position. 
 
                              Sincerely, 
 
 
 
 
                                       Chief. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                     OBERLIN COLLEGE 
                        OBERLIN. OHIO 
 
February 18, 1941. 
 
 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 
 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
 
I am sorry for the delay in acknowledging your letter 
of February 12th. I have been absent from the office 
for several days recently and correspondence has been 
held up. 
 
Question 1. - Coordinator.  By all means! You have 
not only my vote but my enthusiastic support. 
 
Question 2. - Program. I have met William Beebe and 
like him, but cannot advise you about Andrews, Stude- 
baker, or Murphy. I heard Stuart Chase give a swell 
talk at the organization of the now defunct FRIEN)S 
OF THE SOIL and would also suggest considering   Lewis 
Mumford who understand ecology, having had a start 
under Patrick Geddes. Any of these 6 men should have 
considerable appeal from thestandpoint of reputation. 
 
Question 3. - Developing Material. I agree heartily 
with what you say about ecological analyses in develop- 
ing our topics. I am just working on a chapter for a 
new history of Ohio, dealing with the conservation of 
that state, and I am basing it all on a digest of all 
legislation having to do with forests and vegetation, 
wildlife, fishes, and land-use. Taken in connection 
with studies of population changes, it makes a beauti- 
ful ecological picture. I assume that something like 
this is what you have in mind. 
 
Question 4. - Physical Materials. I shall have to think 
this over - not clear about this. I am no expert on 
water, but believe I could develop its innportance in 
relationships from field experience in various parts of 
the country. If it develops that someone who really knows 
the subject is available, I shall be glad indeed to step 
aside or help in any way possible. 
 
Question 5. - No particular suggestions at this time. 
                                            Sincerely, 
 
 
                                               6L / 'J" 
                                            Paul B. Sears 
   n 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
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1)roosn4 fuiwtiiem of oach of thm thwee, "ws -if prvnatio.s 
 
A# to wavai~ 'ntertatwont", I "o a paxictieur   e4 of evor4llatioa,

 
 
Tho bosnttiag ain of ";vpils  in oearnat"oa          it thA, theyr
wist to ua~rtcr 
Se0  atOnMO Without =,kywin  the attirthtes, or twA th idetit7. Of thte VAu44S,

plant*# o*oils, fte. who awe %I# atow In theA drw 
 
'go ax larg**I, but nqt .atiroI7 bblploss, to 4ypg  this tavovsioa of the
asri utM 
th-e hors*, We rnau within the  almts of trans'rtaloiitys    17ml exhlbits.
If ym 
   mm-late uulAg &V oxhibits, will ym gie w     a r    4. dsrt-A~tion
of tho*? 
 
 
A" wehre *xW othr   acotions *&Lcb ah vii be vniood tat this tt,-*,
or lator.bc, 10 
theyr bear on tho ;ulity of oktr ealleatt*v roafrtuaxo? 
 
an uao   n iM1  a0y of this to Dr. Nestor *boo I 2401erev. 1, wPweweats the

   Chm~m   ast Tntittion$ to v" if this tvtlLxi raises &A 4lu"tion
 i hia rdd. M 
I also at zon4Leg a coM So Jay Dftl4Min L  ~a fl.W , shool4 ho hnew mW canuts

 
                                 Tolrs siaseawe Is 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
JAY N. DARLING 
 
 
                              Written in Captiva, Fla. 
 
 
 
                                Copied at 
                              Des Moines, Iowa 
                              December 24, 1940 
 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
                    Fine and dandy. I anticipate no 
such feelings as you fear on the part of Hugh Bennett 
but I am complying with your request just the same. 
 
                    You will find enclosed a copy of 
my letter to Hugh Bennett, containing suggestions for 
his paper which he had asked for. I hope it meets 
with your approval. Each one of the key speakers has 
been told much the same thought but Bennett wished me 
to write it out for him. 
 
                    By the way, a letter from him just 
received in answer to mine giving the final date for 
the Chautauqua season says he has put down July lJ4 to 
19 on his calendar for it and says so far as he knows 
there is nothing ahead to interfere. Evidently the 
South American junket is not interfering with our show. 
 
                    I have some pretty voluninous notes 
and suggestions which I have set down from time to time 
which may be helpful. I'll send them along as soon as 
I can get time to transcribe them in legible form. 
 
                    You of course must feel perfectly 
free to exercise your own judgment in outlining policies 
and devices which may seem best for the purpose of giv- 
ing the audiences a clear understanding of the inter- 
dependence of water, soil, vegetation and wildlife. 
 
                    I sure will be interested in the 
final result of the Ames project under Errington. No 
I had not forgotten it and knew something of the 
general progress on the work as it went along. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
Leopold    #2 
 
 
                    I'm beginning to get results from 
the relaxation away from the constant pressure of the 
home office. It has been a high pressure year indeed, 
which probably accounts for the recurrence of the old 
stomach ulcer trouble. The latter are not susceptible 
to rapid methods and it will be several months before 
I can hope to have them safely under control but the 
treatment is largely rigid diet and repose, neither 
of which is hard to take. 
 
 
                             Best regards, 
 
 
D:S 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
71ritter. in atv, 
 
 
                                    Copied at 
                                 Des iioine!,  10owV 
                                 December 2ý4,, 1940 
 
 
 
 
Dprat of Arlcutu~e 
Washing tonj, f1)A rC~t 
Dear Dr. Barnett: 
                    0lad to have yo   reassuring letter 
about the Chautauquta prosram July 14 to 19.  1 hla noted 
soaewhere that you were scheduled to take on a Soil Con- 
servaion project in Venezuela soetime soon and feared 
it might be a c flictine interest. 
                    The Chautauqua project is being plan- 
ned on a large scale to brini in L'or the course, In addi- 
tion to the usual Chautauqua asseblage, a general repre- 
sentation from educational institutions, uational. eroaps 
such as Garden Clubs, T     's Federation, 8tate Conserva- 
tion agencies, etc. et. lhe publicity cawpaig begins 
with the first of the year and will be generous In its 
proportions * 
 
                     I have been forced to q-uiet down a 
bit in ty activIties3 "or a whIle., due to an attack of 
wtomach ulcers*.  othing serious; I. 'beea living with 
them more or less intizately for the last twenty-five 
years and a period of repose and rigid nales of diet 
generally gets the deslred result6. 
                    While I a   relax    in the interezt 
of my alAentary eanal, I have askedAo Leopold to 
handle the detasl. of preliainary arrangements for the 
Chautauqua program.   Mhis temporary arrange   t however, 
will not prevent m    rcx keepin6 in touch with  hks 
and I have some notes on what sems to me important in 
the interrelationship of subject mtter of the various 
speakers on the protram. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                    Yar be it f r0 me to S6ugest how 
you should dramatize your subject of soils. There is 
no one in the field of CAservatlon work wh) hes so 
greata capacity to stir an audience and clearly set 
forth your subject as you. 
                    be at I my contribute will onlY 
be a general formula by qch the subject tatter of 
soils, watr, ve;etatio   %L and wildlife may be tied to- 
gether .n the Iinds of the audience. 
 
                    Within a few days I will have these 
notei on the above "foraul  in order aiu will send them 
on to you. 
 
 
Nst regards, 
 
 
Ruh Bentt  02 
 
  

					
				
				
 
JAY N. DARLING 
 
 
                                Des Moines, Iowa 
                                December 6, 1940 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
                    Your letter of December 3rd came 
in after I had just about closed up shop ready to 
leave for the south. Itm glad I caught it because 
it allows me to analyze the job as I had contemplated 
it and to set down some of the things I had in mind 
in the way of preliminary coordination of the various 
topics. 
 
                    Having already personally visited 
with Gabrielson, Hugh Bennett of the Soil Service, 
and Rachford of the Forest Service, who, with their 
staffs, will make up a large part of the program, I 
doubt if any personal travel on your part will be re- 
quired. At least I hadntt intended to do any myself. 
It was my intention to have each one of the keynote 
speakers send in a draft of his address, have copies 
made of them and send them out to each one of the men 
so they could read what the other men were going to 
say and recast his own manuscript so there would be 
as much elimination of duplication as possible and an 
attempt made to dovetail one subject into the other. 
I do not expect this job will be perfectly done be- 
cause there is always the necessity of so dramatizing 
each particular subject so the audience will feel 
fairly rewarded for listening to just one speech even 
tho it is impossible to attend them all. 
 
                    I thought I might take the liberty 
of making some suggestions to each one of the speakers, 
provided his manuscript did not sufficiently contribute 
to the ecological picture.   I have already warned them 
that this process of writing and rewriting might be 
required and each one was anxious to do it because 
there has long been the realization in each onets mind 
that such a unified program should be provided. I do 
not think you will run into any serious hazards in 
that line. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Leopold 
 
 
                     Wooddy Thompson who, you may 
 remember, spoke on the Relationship of Economics 
 to Conservation, in our little Des Moines Symposium, 
 has since that time recast his ideas and I think 
 would do a pretty good job, but Stuart Chase has es- 
 tablished a name for himself and thought along this 
 line considerably. He probably would make a rabble- 
 rouser speech which would please the audience but 
 might not be as thoughtful as Wooddy Thompson. 
 
                     We did have a lot of difficulty 
 pulling the topics together in our Des Moines Short 
 Course School, but it ought to be a much easier job 
 with such men to work with as Hugh Bennett, Gabriel- 
 son, and the Forestry Service. 
 
                     My theory was that, given the out- 
 line of the day's program, the responsibility for the 
 various headliners and secondary forums would be on 
 the shoulders of the man whose subject was headliner 
 for that day. That goes for everything except the 
 lunch forum programs, which ought to be fun and should 
 be a free-for-all, with Land, Water and Wildlife put- 
 ting Forestry on the pan at the Forest Day luncheon, 
 and so on through the week. 
 
                     I do not have much anxiety about 
 the mock trial. Bestor would not be the director of 
 that effort but Bestor's dramatic department (which 
 he thinks is very good indeed) would be responsible 
 for the show, script and all, after the data is fur- 
 nished them on the habits of the crow and the crow's 
 characteristics, good and bad. Gabrielson has 
 promised to tend to that part of it and if you want 
 to chuck the mock trial out of your department I'll 
 be glad to relieve you of that item on the program. 
 I think I can do it by correspondence without much 
 difficulty. I would like to have you examine the 
 script after it is written and correct it for bio- 
 logical facts. 
 
                     To answer your question more 
directly, I see no reason why you can't carry on 
this job by correspondence without any interference 
with your school program, if you feel a real inter- 
est in the project. 
 
                     Of course if the thing doesn't 
appeal to you as being very much worth while, and 
does not enlist your enthusiasm, then I would surely 
advise that you do not make the sacrifice necessary 
to do it, but I had hoped you would gravitate to it 
naturally. 
 
 
#2 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Leopold 
 
 
                    Please don't do -t on my account. 
I'd much rather turn the whole thing down than to 
put any unwelcome or uninteresting job on you and 
it isn't too late to sign off with the Chautauqua 
Institution if we do it soon. 
 
                    Best regards and good luck. 
 
 
                            Yours very truly. 
 
 
D:S 
 
 
#3 
 
  

					
				
				
 
JAY N. DARLING 
 
 
                               Des Moines, Iowa 
                               December 3, 1940 
 
 
 Mr. Aldo Leopold 
 424 University Farm Place 
 Madison, Wisconsin 
 
 Dear Aldo: 
 
                     I am quite encouraged to see 
 that you are even willing to take the Chautauqua 
 proposition into consideration. I had feared 
 that you might have your schedule already so 
 filled that it wouldn't be possible for you to 
 consider it. 
 
                     That outline of the program 
which I sent to you is not necessarily - either 
in personnel or detailed subject matter - a fixed 
program, and if you consent to carry it out you 
may take such liberty with it as you choose. My 
whole thought in setting up this show was to 
avoid the usual procedure whereby either the Forest 
Service or the Wildlife Service or sometimes the 
Soil Conservation Service holds a pow-wow and em- 
phasizes only its branch of conservation without 
mentioning its inter-dependence on all the other 
ecological contributors, and anything you may 
choose to insert into the program which will show 
naturets organism functioning in all its aspects 
and inter-relationships will be welcome. 
 
                     What I held out to the Chau- 
tauqua Institution was the prospect of a conserva- 
tion school which would be comprehensive in scope. 
We had in mind that we would get out invitations 
and special notices to the various organized groups 
interested in conservation. For instance, our Re- 
gional Directors and State Directors of the Federa- 
tion ought to attend. The State Conservation Chair- 
men of the Garden Clubs in the United States should 
be there. There should be a good field for atten- 
dance among the public school teachers, particularly 
in those states where they have a well developed 
educational program. The Chautauqua Institution main- 
tains a very competent publicity department and pub- 
lishes a monthly magazine which is very extensively 
read by the middle-class families who make up the 
main body of the Chautauqua summer attendance. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Leopold    #2 
 
 
It is really one of the finest audiences that I know 
in America and for special features in the main au- 
ditorium they have audiences running from 1500 to 
5,000 people, according to the popularity of the 
lecturer or entertainment. They are giving over the 
entire week to the subject of conservation, with the 
exception of Thursday night, when the Symphony Or- 
chestra opens its series of concerts. That is quite 
a concession and I have an idea that if we are able 
to dramatize the conservation subject as well as it 
is possible, the annual conservation school will be- 
come a permanent fixture in the New York Chautauqua 
Assembly. 
 
                    I am just gathering together my 
odds and ends to migrate to Florida and probably your 
next letter will find me there. It will be forwarded 
from this office, and I do hope, sincerely, for a 
favorable reply. 
 
                    Best regards. 
 
 
                              As e     incerely, 
 
 
D:S 
 
  

					
				
				
 
JAY N. DARLING 
 
 
                                  Des Moines, Iowa 
                                  November 25, 1940 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo: 
                       Gabrielson has been here and 
gone since our last exchange of letters and a very 
important circumstance has made it necessary to alter 
my activities and come to you for help. What I am 
about to suggest has Gabrielsonts enthusiastic endorse- 
ment. 
 
                       An old offender - stomach ulcers - 
which once very nearly put me under the ground, hav-; 
again asserted their authority and refuse to be reason- 
able. For the next six months I have got to let the 
steam pressure down in my boilers. The most serious 
consequence is the effect it will have on my partici- 
pation in setting up the program for Chautauqua Con- 
servation Week which, by the way, has been switched 
from the second week in July to July 14 to 19th.   I 
will analyze that matter later. 
 
                        I realize that to even approach 
you with the suggestion that you take over the manage- 
ment of Conservation Week at the New York Chautauqua 
requires an awful lot of crust on my part, but after 
you have heard me through it may not be so bad. 
 
                        In the first place, as Gabriel- 
son said, there is no one in the country who could do 
it so well as Aldo Leopold, and I thought I detected 
a note of relief in Gabrielson's attitude when he 
thought there was a possibility that you might direct 
the program instead of me. 
 
                        Now I am perfectly aware that 
you could not attempt any such major activity on a 
voluntary contribution basis and I am suggesting as 
an inducement the sum of $2500 as a salary to you, to 
be paid in instalments or in a lump sum, as you may 
desire. There will be an additional $500 available 
for such expenses as may be necessary to put on the 
show. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Leopold    #2 
 
 
                        Fortunately the expense for 
speakers and forum leaders is not much of a problem. 
Gabrielson, Bennett (of the Soil Conservation Service) 
Rachford of the Forest Service and Paul Sears of 
Oberlin have all offered to contribute their own ser- 
vices and those of their staff. I had planned, how- 
ever, that at least Paul Sears' personal expenses and 
any personal costs that reached beyond the regular 
Sovernment per diem allowance would come out of the 
500. Personally I shall be happy to defray any extra 
costs which may come in from unexpected quarters be- 
cause it seems to me this is a chance to return to 
Society some of the rewards with which I have been un- 
duly blessed. 
 
                        To give you some idea of the 
set-up, I am enclosing a copy of the program as roughly 
designed up to date. This program copy is the revised 
version just received from Dr. Arthur Bester of the 
Chautauqua Institution and he has taken some liberties 
in juggling the personnel which were not included in 
my draft. For instance, he has put my name at the top, 
to which I could raise many justified objections. The 
assignment of various subjects also was made without 
careful study.   For instance, Paul Sears is scheduled 
to key-note the subject of Water Resources, for want of 
a better man to do it. I have since learned that Dr. 
Ellis, of the University of Missouri, is letter perfect 
on the subject and does a swell job of dramatizing it. 
Paul Sears is willing to do anything and go any place 
where he can be of the most use and the whole set-up 
as now set forth in this preliminary draft is subject 
to any readjustment that you might think wise. 
 
                       Bennett, Rachford and Gabrielson 
are all nailed down for the program, together with such 
members of their staff as may be needed to put on their 
sectors of the show. 
 
                       The Chautauqua Little Theatre 
Group is headed up by some experienced experts in drama- 
tization, who conduct an all-winter Little Theatre move- 
ment in the Cleveland Playhouse at Cleveland, Ohio. 
They are presumed to be experts and Dr. Bestor has as- 
sured me of their cooperation in staging any dramatic 
entertainment which we might devise to spot-light the 
program. I had in mind a mock trial of Old Jim Crow 
in costume, arrested and brought into court by a game 
warden, on complaint of perhaps a wild duck or a farmer. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Leopold      #3 
 
 
There would be character witnesses for and against the 
Crow, sufficient to bring out the whole story of the 
Crow's place in environmental balance. The prosecuting 
attorney and attorney for the defense would sum up the 
case before the Judge and Jury and the final instruc- 
tions of the Court would be a moral lesson in the treat- 
ment of the Crow. That is just one of the details which 
will not be difficult and Gabrielson has promised to 
furnish the data on the Crow around which the script 
for the trial could be written. Dr. Bestor assures me 
that the directors of their Theatre Group are expert in 
such matters. 
 
                      I shall await word from you with 
considerable anxiety for the reason that if you do not 
find it possible to take over this job, both Gabrielson 
and I agreed that we would have to sign off and let the 
matter drop. 
 
                      On the other hand, if you see in 
this project the same stimulating and challenging oppor- 
tunity which I felt you will not find it an unwelcome 
burden. 
 
 
                                  Sincerely, 
 
 
D:S 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
prgg rarw~ed by Mr, Jay N.D1,   a rlinrg, Ekmrar  Provident Gwiw&1 
               Wildlife Federatio in cooperation with 
     Ohuaqa F3r     "4 Tree Club, ~, ***1n Lk.Iizou, 11rsIdent 
 
         Ch  ,auuqa Xati+Aitias, Othur ,*e*tor,,':resi dent 
 
 
 
 
 
      8Dr. thg t   of Chitmoo 5.11 Casw l~mS Wl._    .~a~ 
 
 
   4et r.l A442f Iedepsi4 one W~dLf              tI     ~o 
 
 
Wisconin* 
     E*. Au1 I.    1*, wCofsor of lat.-y, Oberlin Colleg-., 
     Dr. Im ý,Ga ilzn    Chief hreauý of lioloGI.al 'ýre,
United 
States Do-,rtrt of 4-riuatlt-ir.. 
     Dr/ R.,. Th    *sn 1,iversity of Ir. w          a 
     Dr. Vudlph- Senst t~nlvarzty of 111ixnols. 
     Dr. !Lo  ,,ad  tiveroitty o-t Illinois. 
     Dr. .  S'alyer, Uhted Latoe. IDepx~n~t of the Interlor. 
     Wýs. Gladys Fry, Ameriou  ustm of 1tawt  1 r etQ 
 
     Dr. Jo)m :;akar, AA~hbm  Liooitr t, TI'w York 
     .Jr. A. A. Alloug Oa l 11ivormity 
     Dr* . ?,ilb.r  Farson, IF~re-lilnt Enoritua, A ~     eoi 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     barly bird hie =dr6ede& 8t      10 inpat 
 
     9 A.M. Hkr4 Club breakfast tw hibor*,TI&&rv          !,all~1

 
   20#48   L~awe Swriesq A~pithaatr 
 
   U160    bt us ) hem, Alai )ihall w1't& forum pwl ansu.b~eet ofmong

 
   tile    SBsehl of Conservation, Smith ,WLlkee bli 
 
   Wse Motion pictures, playu or lesturesg, Amphitheater 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
      V 
N 
 
 
2St..   tat e*R1%inbpo  #et.  oS)I,"L~   n  71 
 
 
Pazel Ur. al-fr 
 
 
ut3 P14  ? -l D .)A0U"  ~r0 
 
 
WsR     I- *     las"I Foretr sad Vo~~iot -drlaerhpo 
 
 
 
 
UnI     Domztiont of Parsty Serviaeo eithr ntion piotw*, leetu 
or Onmt Ploy.     in du   o .t Raer , 
 
 
IDS"5   106two. bIatiomahi 
 
 
of..vgeaticunet 
 
 
545s 
 
 
sad Seare, 
 
 
~et~~,  ~    niSld wid Tv Club, 
 
 
Smth Wilk** aill. 
 
 
4.U 
511 
 
 
-s- 
 
 
or Soil to tho Proooemw 
Dr# 11%4h Bennette 
 
 
U*30    Forum Panel* Dr, Patul SON". MAirmaja,  Panol. 
Utehfard, GabrIelson, Lsoyald, Thoopw= and 5alyer, 
 
 
PopuW leaturia an '-'Foliae Wtion platwvv lectxwo or p&Le&-A* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
41- 
 
 
Its Reltlonaadp to Soil# Uroetati    and'A 
 
 
v3     P l   D 
 
 
glib   ,bm4 C~s)oa (F1) FihadAqai Mttov()Fod 
 
 
#03A 
 
 
(~J 
j~t' 
 
 
" e .Mttr 
 
 
   Sa-*,3mtt. Thopso * John Bkr 
 
 
Ills  EThe, las  =~ Fish I rds.  hmI41cooguas   n fo~ 
 
 
Salwi~ -m1 m ort OCbtauqz S~*  ý,oh-estrg 
 
 
"t 
 
 
Pknel. Voaxrx soars, 
 
 
bramt1o Pwfcrr&-.*** Itook Trial of the Crowe 
 
 
10145  L*etw-*, Relationship of nýld Lift to Vegertations Soils 
Pro 4tbrieUovio 
 
 
8115 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21u      The   aao. 
POSItiepatio of Ioe±4ty 
 
 
Smo as. of     a related 't hr 
 
 
$01 
 
 
Sarly bird4 biks~ dua loawgo 6 to 10 in pat 
 
9.00   3I4 Club bre.kfact for hikers. Te Room A~lwmi !*11. 
 
20800  Final 4m1 Discussio 
11.00  CO04t Ohm~qm S~m           rhsr&boadoet by 1faional Rmdoamtin

 
 
 
1.50   M~rmo bg   mo fb1 * oUtg* Dr. kq Cbpm    Md.,rwwmi 'Ar..or Anron 
       xMufiewo fthwum1 Jfatwy, 
 
 
2240     F"01 MOSUSSIOD, Dr, L*Opold ChIrr*n. 
Gabriolean, 3ftn4rttv PAt*Uord and rhompsan, 
 
 
PM91, Messrs. Sears,, 
 
 
     Popular lecture an water#. ymizw 
                                 , picture$ 0, 
and *,""tjo p3Ants,                           i,,mtr:, ýý&ter
rowl 
 
 
FTýIDAT 
 
 
10145    toatwo* Ulatimad-Ap of Natural 91080uraos to ftist,, 
and fhw*n 13161faro* Dar, S~,m or Dr, the"M.           11,000 rr"Parit
y 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                             424 University Parm Pl.ee 
                                             Novembe~r 15, 19 0. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
M~r. Jay S. Darling 
a/* Rister-ribuno 
Des Moines, Iowa 
 
Dear Jay t 
 
I Oan appreoiate Your prediocaent in the matter of tfiding a 
speaker on water. I entirely agree with you that the Bydr-bio.logioal 
Conference did not diselose aus timber. Th* best oAe I have found 
is Kennoth Rood of the Isaak Walton Lwigue. Of eourse he is weak 
on the technical end, but ths may not be a very grave deoet for 
present purposes. 
 
I have reserved the second week in July for you. 
 
The ýAdwest Wildlife Conference at Urbana last week attempted the

same kind of ,na inclusive omnd-up as you attempted at Dos Moines, 
and I think we did a better job. Rudolf Bennitt of Missouri helped 
me with it. 
 
With beot regards, 
 
                               Yours as 4wer, 
 
 
 
                               A1do Leopold 
                               Professor of Wildlife Management 
 
  

					
				
				
 
JAY N. DARLING 
 
 
                              Des Moines, Iowa 
                              November 13, 1940 
 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
                    Thanks for sending me a 
copy of your review of "tThis is our Land". You 
spoke more highly of the text than I had feared 
it deserved; altho I realized it had a lot of 
excellent material in it I thought it was a 
pretty stogy production for a subject which has 
so many dramatic aspects. 
 
                    The Chautauqua Conservation 
Week is again up for discussion. They want to 
allocate the second week in July and carry out 
the program a good deal as I outlined it to you 
last year. I've already got the promise of 
Bennett, Gabrielson and the Forest Service to put 
on a day's show for each one of their subjects 
but Itm still stumped to know where to turn to get 
the right keynoter on the subject of water, its 
management and its relationship to soil, vegeta- 
tion and wildlife. I had hoped that I might pick 
out one from the speakers at the Hydrobiological 
Conference at Madison last summer but I failed to 
be impressed with anyone who looked like a head- 
liner for a big audience such as we hope to have 
at Chautauqua. 
 
                    I want you to pin down the 
Second Week in July without fail. We couldn't put 
on the show without you and if you do the things 
I have tentatively allotted to you, you'll have 
about the busiest week you ever spent in your life 
but it will be all old stuff to you and will require 
very little preliminary preparation. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Leopold     #2 
 
 
                      As for me, IVve got stomach 
ulcers and am expecting a visitation from old man 
bronchitis as soon as the wintry blasts begin to 
blow. I really ought not to take on this Conserva- 
tion School for the New York Chautauqua program but 
I canTt see any way to duck it. 
 
 
 
                                Bes. ar2s   - 
 
 
D:S 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                    JAY N. DARLING 
 
 
 
 
                                Des Moines, Iowa 
                                March 29, 1940 
 
                              (Dictated at Captiva, Fla.) 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
                   For a number of reasons, we have had 
to cancel the Conservation Week program originally 
scheduled for the summer of 1940 at the Chautauqua as- 
sembly at Chautauqua, New York, but in canceling this 
yearts plans we have secured a better opportunity for 
1941, with more time to prepare the program and a hundred 
percent prospect of getting the key speakers with which 
to top line what we hope will be the most complete sympo- 
sium of conservation presentation ever undertaken. 
 
                   Word has just come to me that this new 
arrangement has received the confirmation of the program 
committee for the New York Chautauqua assembly. Put it 
down in your date book that some time between the first 
of July and the middle of August, 1941, there will be one 
of the most representative and largest audiences in the 
United States available for the presentation of a compre- 
hensive conservation discussion. 
 
                   It is my judgment that we can accom- 
plish the most for our cause by showing the inter-relation- 
ship between soil conservation, forestry conservation, 
water conservation and wildlife conservation, rather than 
by placing too much emphasis on the importance of any one 
of the segments of the conservation field alone. 
 
                   It has been the habit in the past for 
soil conservation experts to talk to those who would lis- 
ten to that branch of the subject; forestry exponents 
have had for their audience those who were tree conscious; 
water conservationists (if any) have been limited to such 
audiences as power, irrigation and navigation groups; 
wildlife conservationists have had for their audience 
largely the sportsmen and bird fanciers. It seems to me 
quite the general rule that the groups who have listened 
to one specialty have not generally bothered to acquaint 
themselves with the equally important other branches of 
natural resources. 
 
 
I* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
Leopold 
 
 
                   I hope that we can so pattern our pro- 
gram that the interdependence of these various branches 
of conservation may be made convincingly apparent. I would 
like, also, to include in the program the relationship of 
Government to Conservation, Economics to Conservation and 
Sociology to Conservation. 
 
                   I am going to ask each one of you to 
give some thought to the best way of accomplishing the 
above purpose and to let me know in the near future how 
your particular field can be best presented so that the 
audience will not only be vitally interested but convin- 
cingly instructed. What features have you to suggest which 
contribute to your particular branch of the conservation 
field? And above all, give me the names of men who are 
able to dramatize (and at the same time adhere to scien- 
tific principles) the topics which are suggested by the 
above outline. 
 
                   I do not want to be the determining 
factor in the framing of the above program but the respon- 
sibility is put upon me to organize the program and I now 
call upon you for concrete suggestions. 
 
                   Following the receipt of your letters 
I will make it a point to visit each one of you and lay 
before you the preliminary draft of the program pattern 
for your criticism and amendments. I want this preliminary 
work completed in sufficient time so that we will not again 
experience the disappointment which occurred when contem- 
plating the program this summer, when only one of the seven 
key speakers approached was able to fit his time to the ap- 
pointed date. By starting out early we ought to avoid that 
difficulty. 
 
                   With best wishes, I am 
 
 
                                Yours very truly, 
 
 
 
                                )JA DAR~LING 
 
P.S..This same letter goes to a limited group of con- 
     servation leaders who, in my judgment, will be 
     found coagenial to each other. It is necessary 
     to avoid anything which might smack of politics 
     in framing this program. 
                              J.N.D. 
 
 
D:S 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nra'ch 31. -19146 
 
 
   It. A.Wllijar "Mimth 
1To& York gio.dal oaciety 
 
 
 
 
 
Yaur letter cor-yjXonc -r that y-i oand lo1ok 
alike    the imtter of title of 7ill Vogtts 
book, )1ovefr, as loe4 ,vi! 3  oesn1 t feel 
sun resed. in the matter I upopa   e eha4 
bettor forget abrit it, '  ev  the Win 
thltn is wat i i-silde, n-1 *at Ai outul(. 
 
I    s atill hopinc to n thc 1" meetirg. 
 
 
~1do Le@po~d 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
               ZOOLOGICAL PARK      -  THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION   -   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH  -  CONSERVATION 
 
                                                   -AQ4D4GIGAr-.PARK 
 
 
                          March 12, 1948 
 
 
 
    Dr. Aldo Leopold 
    University of Wisconsin 
    Madison, Wisconsin 
 
    Dear Dr. Leopold: 
 
    I was very glad indeed to receive your letter of March 
    9 to the effect that you might very probably be able 
    to attend our meeting early in May. This would be a 
    real pleasure. 
 
    I have just come back from the Wildlife Conference with 
    Fairfield Osborn. He met your daughter. Unfortunately, 
    I missed her. It was a grand meeting. I wish that you 
    could have been there. 
 
    Frankly, I simply donlt know what got into the Book-of- 
    the-Month Club changing Bill Vogt's title. I can only 
    feel that the sales force, who in any publishing house 
    seem to be guided by some curiousand conventional rules, 
    rebelled at the negatives. Somebody at a sales conven- 
    tion, or in a college course, must have told them that 
    negatives in a title kill the salel ROAD TO SURVIVAL 
    sounds as if it ought to feature Bob Hope and Bing Crosby. 
 
    Bill was in fine form in St. Louis. 
 
                            Yours sincereJ.ý 
 
 
 
                            A. Wi)A-ii Smith 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   1x*A111hlrim 3mith 
Goan.-,Ao D Z4#1ioa1 o1 
 
11ev To* 22, Nm, yort 
 
Dmi Mr. Suith: 
 
I Mw no prosnt, obutaol-,        7 I -5 maiW~, 
  bu f acnr-e I hnvmn to   At v*4  ooaditlon 
  prvalat thmt time. t )ae r--t down the, 4atem 
:nnd will try to kwp Viam clsaWi. I think It to 
hil~ily probablc thzkt I All mikIt, lýt 11itil 
m, eye is dfJtal)? evor with, I ,mud4 a 
f~oolsh to rromie.  tbi~  or wrting~. 
 
Yen, I was dolijoitod to ligyr abnxit Bill V ýtA 
wool., but I can't undvj~nta  "VseI 
title.  14ao "1Io Loaves j ?*e       -ho h wvv 
for bor of the A4cmth 1b 
 
 
                             Yuan SIA00rely, 
 
 
A~~z~~ ý1do 4pl 
 
 
V'rqm 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
               ZOOLOGICAL PARK      -  THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION   -   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH  -  CONSERVATION 
 
 
 
 
 
                         February 27, 1948 
 
 
 
 
    Dr. Aldo Leopold 
    University of Wisconsin 
    Department of Wildlife Management 
    Madison, Wisconsin 
 
    Dear Dr. Leopold: 
 
              I wrote to you on February 17 in connection 
    with the proposed meeting of the Advisory Council. We 
    are all very conscious of the desirability of coming 
    together at as early a date as possible. A quick can- 
    vass, however, indicated that we cannot possibly get 
    together more than two or three members of the Council 
    until Friday and Saturday, 7, 8, May, and we have fixed 
    definitely on these dates. Would you be good enough, 
    therefore, to make a note of taem and do your very best 
    to arrange to keep them for this meeting. I should also 
    be grateful for your confirmation that these dates are 
    in fact convenient for you. 
 
              You will, of course, have heard the news that 
    Bill Vogt's book is the June choice of the Book-of-the- 
    Month Club. It is to be published under the title of 
    ROAD TO SURVIVAL. Itts selection should ensure a really 
    good sale and, consequently, a far wider understanding 
    of the issues before us. 
 
                            Yours sincerely, 
 
 
 
                            A. Willam-emlth 
 
 
AWS:Y 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                                                                 ( 
 
 
                                                          I 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. A. Willitam :Swmith 
'onsmeption Divistio 
Ncnw york o lýa     Society 
122 ýhst 58th Street 
rew 0Yor 22, New Yor 
 
Dar , r. Smitht 
 
I an naid I have to 4,o out of the -.I-ne 
meet1n;. i T   3wat !!ettinf ovr - op ,tion 
on nY eyeq, and this Ws -:t 7e qo -ch. in 
iuaer in teqin that I hiw no bumiueea 
mOiuv triýps wntil the s-,e ter to voer. If 
3i1l Vo:t is abbe to be there i will be -Ld 
to hve him srpak for ~e   I an sorry to 
disappoint you, but for t0h -rannet I have to 
W    cars of r  eye first. Yf*i migt tell 
14r. Osboxm thAt I am            w."psin the 
wilflife confencre at St. 'TO  ; I Mektton 
this sIitply to show that I do not lJltly 
.,abnon Ry hone wo Join inL the- snrinp me.-ting. 
 
 
                           T  o~ inearely, 
 
 
A~dpn Aid XLocoId 
 
 
kL:pm 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
               ZOOLOGICAL PARK      -  THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION       SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH   CONSERVATION 
 
                                                    -Z~ee)E06eAL-P9%f* 
 
                         February 17, 19483 
 
 
 
 
    Dr. Aldo Leopold 
    University of Wisconsin 
    Madison, Wisconsin 
 
    Dear Dr.Leopold: 
 
    We have found it necessary to postpone our projected 
    meeting with our Advisory Council which had been 
    arranged to take place on Friday and Saturday, the 
    27th and 28th of February, as the majority of the 
    members of the Advisory Council are unable to attend 
    at that time. 
 
    We are, therefore, trying to find dates for the meet- 
    ing which would be suitable for as many as possible. 
    It appears that the end of the third week in April 
    (Friday and Saturday, April 16th and 17th) would be 
    convenient for some members of the Council. Would 
    you be good enough to let me know as soon as possible 
    whether these days would be convenient to you and, 
    if this is the case, please reserve them, at least 
    tentatively. 
 
    If these dates are not convenient, I should be most 
    grateful for alternative suggestions. We feel that 
    an early meeting is essential and that it should have 
    the benefit of as large an attendance as possible. 
 
                          Yours sincerely, 
 
 
 
                          A:-1    =a Smith 
 
 
AWS:Y 
 
  

					
				
				
 
kL SOCIETY 
AQUARIUM 
0     CONSERVATION 
 
 
           k  VN..-ATL7 -~ i ~2l\iUN' 
       122 E, 3th St. New York 22, N. Y.  ?ARM 
             PLaza 9-6934    -Pod t  NOWVOA rol.-k 
 
 
           February 12, 1948 
 
 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Dr. Leopold: 
 
I know you will be delighted to receive 
the news of the British award of the 
King's Medal for Service in the cause 
of Freedom to Dr. oCaryl P. Haskins, a 
member of the Advisory Council of the 
Conservation Foundation. 
 
Caryl Haskins work during the war was 
shrouded in mystery. We know enough, 
however, to say that this honor has 
been more than fully earned. 
 
             Tours sincerely, 
 
                  7~*&JtL:Z 
 
 
A . WillIsurSlith 
 
 
  NEWT 
 
 
EDUCATIO. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Er. )rfi4d Osborne 
..'m York Zoologioal, .Q1octy 
 
w Yoi: 20, New York 
 
ir 7"Afeldl 
 
At h  nmot I )vvo te ua, of on1y one eye, 
i v a'CI 10h ld for rn Iditio ltýo.     Z 
Ia..4 SO- lioeapls of 14t- so~I oon kni ý to -U1t 
-t in the alcktr by thoi -)n of robrury, bu~t I 
h-ve no) ausunuwf of it.. T-horo'fore, the b-est t 
cal wV at this time is thAt I will o if 1   1an. 
I;i v verz sor In  -. LI- )o be obli3.nd t1 he1 e 
on this natte. 
 
Ath peronrl retrds, 
 
 
                           Yours si~ erel, 
 
 
Aldo Leopold 
 
 
j,=a,7     ig4a 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
 
               ZOOLOGICAL PARK  - THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION   -   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH - CONSERVATION 
 
 
                                                     OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY

                                                  630 Fifth Avenue, New York
20, N. Y. 
                                                         Circle 5-5750 
                                                      January 13, 1948 
 
 
 
 
 Dear 
 
 Since the printed statement of Purpose and Program of the Conservation 
 Foundation was sent to you a number of developments have taken place. 
 Some of these will have a bearing upon the Foundation's international 
activities, as well as upon other elements in our program. 
 
Decisions in this formative period will naturally have a lasting in- 
fluence upon the Foundation's work in the years that lie ahead. We 
feel in genuine need of the collective wisdom and advice of the 
members of our Advisory Council. Further, we want to bring you up to 
date with what has been happening since we last met. 
 
Consequently we wish to call a meeting in New York on Friday, February 
27th, running over to Saturday, the 28th, and greatly hope that you 
can plan to be present at this meeting. Naturally the Foundation will 
wish to pay the travel expenses of those who live outside of the City. 
We greatly hope that you will be free to come to New York for this 
 
conference and I ahall appreciate hearing from you concerning this. 
 
With warmest regards, 
 
 
Sincere, vours 
 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
Department of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
'Madison, Wisconsin 
 
 
FO:RES 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
               ZOOLOGICAL PARK      -  THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION       SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH  CONSERVATION 
 
                                                OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY 
                                              630 Fifth Avenue, New York
20, N. Y. 
                                                     CIrde 5-5750 
                                                 December 31, 1947 
 
 
 
 
 
      Dear Aldo: 
 
      Thank you very much for yours of the 17th giving your 
      further observations on the need for "inspection" of 
      projects. This is most helpful and certainly we must 
      keep this problem greatly in mind as we get into action 
      on specific programs. 
 
      We are hoping to have a meeting of the Advisory Council 
      within the next month or two and I shall be communicating 
      with you as to your coming on for it. We certainly would 
      not wish to hold it without you. 
 
      With best wishes for the New Year, 
 
                                  Yours ever, 
 
 
 
                                                Preside it 
 
 
 
 
 
       Dr. Aldo Leopold 
       University of Wisconsin 
       424 University Farm Place 
       Madison 6, Wisconsin 
 
 
FO : RES 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
(I 
 
 
                  Docem-beýr 17# v147 
 
MIr. Falrfield O~born 
]-w ~oAi Zo~o! oal7C' Society 
630 Fift" Xvemaf 
Niew Yo~k Q, 0,   Yo± 
 
Dea ýIrfin!ld: 
 
en tne 1iOtiOnOy to a             Um.A r , it al*ost inevitably 
vo'vr thie riustion of -n~ortion", to find. out frc  ti!e 
to ti  how thi  mny is b~n usod. T     ten Uite 8    bli-he 
    denxr oby thris  nd;Idlf Slc     arez od   xa1 
of m, t n e of at least t    of the mon° thFh tAek of Inpoea- 
tion. 0n te otfer h~ui    it i  bios that too     o i*eo- 
tion or Inspection of th'e w~ kiiA ni~t be oonstnied as 
lofoc of eonfidenceN 
 
 
Insti~t goj~ve ne finids for rosoe." in half a dozen coll1e 
ad ! a1 d the lob of mi      su'e tho funds were bir   weU 
used. Thne roble cos don tc' t~s. Te ineoetr r,ýzt be 
u1 in~irtkon to the reol fonts her than a poltloer. 
4.i in turn i1 a Imestion of -mrionlht7 end of tehial 
'o ld c. c Ca sew this A ro . fac!n yo   in tre frturo, 
d   II I in(1ded Ws to ot ýt  t  fl ht the 'roblm exists. 
 
I hve the strone imoesion thot   lieorag mer will be 
strg fro-- the ins i.tion -V       Joust hiw to j~t r oo' 
suCtion fron thr te*,hnical nnt fro¶ se-h a wide diverity 
of entorprises in  a hard on% for ¾ich X do nt    4ew the 
auw Ir, It mi~t be woi d t   whether the er,7tion 
of thc. tti onl emn reh tonnAil on the teh! Cl  nd vwud 
be an asset. 
 
i do not i   hly  at any of te  be is -A  news to yc.   I 
idontl'v failed to msa)v Clear -      I wT   driving it. 
 
I :r iorin to say that 31i1 Yot has had to abandon his 
trip to 14huton on acomt of illness in hi. family. I 
still hiom  to see him brieflr in hýCeA o, and to tal  over 
our affaira. 
 
With best 0hristmas wishes, 
 
 
Your* an eovew, 
 
,Ido Leopld 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
               ZOOLOGICAL PARK      -  THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION       SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH  CONSERVATION 
 
                                                OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY 
                                              630 Fifth Avenue, New York
20, N. Y. 
                                                     Circle 5-5750 
 
                                                 December 12, 1947 
 
 
 
 
 
   Dear Aldo: 
 
   Thank you greatly for your letter of December 8th. I am 
   wondering whether I can burden you to elaborate somewhat 
   on your suggestion regarding the inspection system. I am 
   sure that I am dull about it but I do not quite understand 
   what you have in mind and would therefore deeply appreciate 
   some clarification. 
 
   So glad to learn that you are feeling so very much better* 
   Keep aM its , 0+ 
 
                                 Sincerely yours., 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Dr. Aldo Leopold 
    Department of Wildlife Management 
    University of Wisconsin 
    Madison 6, Wisconsin 
 
 
FO:.RES 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ar. ftirtield Otbom 
Alw York Zoo1chica Soclioy 
 
Mw York -21, N" af 
 
 
 
It Lurn ch p1w-ao  thai the propocta  is in print, 
and I have Glvim it we huxvied r~andin without 
t1Mincin .Aqti,,4 to       tltll @x3int, and with 
stron 4prem    of Uthe job a* a who1e. 
 
1ýaoly Q U24 0iatl  mt   I cn'ý iazse xt this 
MO.MontRi totoMT  ge%1zthe1~       'If the 
 
inmmt that gmate are w~s. I ha4d snms -1"t 
pain~ful mcp~ri.onoe with ILz.imtnaequata . soto 
qiuia of the "Wti4Ulfo Malta" ..estýblished 
4eea.4e ago by the Wi~ldlfe lntltu4te. It Is of 
ooitrio a poin~t of *vmt kind. as v.34 its how awi 
  fida quetiozi of stilaating, without interfenring. 
  Zios thwtt are, of omire, not ae" to you~ or 
Mr* 73rawer, Va~t ~r Impr.*siin of thiw3 u1,t be of 
sone £7351 use in. dalir; withý ooatribtors. 
 
I An pretty wall bawl- on. r  f-oet. IPleas  coaaWe 
  'Un   -,N rearda to 'Mr. Brvr 
 
 
                           Your* slncare4-, 
 
 
A~g~Aldo Leopold 
 
 
Doembiv 9, 1947 
 
 
Allq= 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
                   ZOOLOGICAL PARK     -   THE AQUARIUM 
 
              EDUCATION  -   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH   CONSERVATION 
 
                                                     OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY

                                                  630 Fifth Avenue, New York
20, N. Y. 
                                                          Cirde 5-5750 
 
 
                                                   ITovember 21, 1947 
 
 
    Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
    University of Wisconsin, 
    Mpdison, Wisconsin. 
 
    Dear Aldo: 
 
            There is forwarded to you herewith the statement of the 
    Conservation Foundation's purnoses and near-term -orogram of ac- 
    tivities. I shall be greatly interested to get your reactions 
    to this report. 
 
            There is also enclosed a statement indicating the nro- 
    jected administrative budget, as well as sum-imary of the cost of 
    projects which it is honed the Forndation can undertake during 
    the yet r 1948. 
 
            Our next move is to secure financial sunnort which will 
    assure the work of the Fomundation for at least a three-year 
    period, namely for the years 1948 to 1950 inclusive. We are now 
    engaged in an effort to raise the necessary funds and, needless 
    to say, will report to you later as to how we are progressing. 
    In due course we shall plan a meeting of the United States mem- 
    bers of the Advisory Council and at a later time hone to be in 
    a position to arrarve for a joint meeting w4th the foreign mem- 
    bers. 
 
            Looking forward to hearing from you, 
 
                                           Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
                                                  Sre sident 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
           *05a~lAWý62,ý 00            Wi,00  0 -MM 
 
N"                              5#000   580050  5.000 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          Liull'"T              45W      9cm    10 
 
?rxa (Stat)                     -50000  5#000   50000 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        aeaft Fnd50000                  se00    58,000 
 
 
TbtP4"                                  6,9 0 W 30*00 
 
 
 
               AdtrAMveS~ Ad0:1"NS..a 
 
 
ARMAMUT.19 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
Pacqium 13UPU? SWWA3T 
 
 
cUomervation ',.*aibit at the Now Twrk Zoological Pawk 
 
 
 
 
 
StW! Iniuatigatioa of Goernin      dction at the 
      School and College Lov4 
 
 
N-blicatiofl Projet 
 
 
Partialpatton in the Jaris f'wfeec to be Called by 
        UN,0ý; for the Czteation of an Internationa  ibioa 
      for Natur  Potcto 
 
 
 Now Yoi CofrneIn 1948s gor ý;rps keube        of 
 
 
 
 W,ýorld-lde Surmy of the Izuziderm of So~4 Loslon 
 
 
 Rehabilitation of the International Off-le for the 
      Protection of Nature 
 
 
      Staf nvstiatonof Ground W'ater       inbl the 
 
 
 
 Survey o" 1Assearch Opportumnities in the Field of 
       soil and Nutritio 
 
 
 'Investigation of Means of Bodn     h   aso 
       rvblio 1ntem.t and of Assurin~g N-blt. kation 
 
 
Total 
 
 
  **$275,000 already appropriated by State of Now York 
 
 
W3,500 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  9,00 
 
 
  7,500 
 
 
  3,000 
 
 
 
  10,000 
 
 
 
  15,000 
 
 
 
$137,000 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
 
THE   CONSERVATION        FOUNDATION 
 
 
 
 
            A Statement of Purpose 
 
              and the Proposed 
 
                Program for 
 
                  1948 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 
 
 
                 NEW YORK 
                 November 
                   1947 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
What the Conservation Foundation Is 
 
 
T HE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION is the first enterprise of its 
        kind organized on an international plane to advance un- 
        derstanding of the need for conserving the earth's living 
resources and to encourage intelligent use of these resources. It is 
a non-profit organization operating under its own charter, spon- 
sored by the New York Zoological Society. 
  The purposes of the Foundation are expressed in the second 
Article of its certificate of incorporation, which reads as follows: 
   The objects and purposes for which the corporation is formed are 
   to promote conservation of the earth's life-supporting resources - 
   animal life, forests and other plant life, water sources and productive

   soils - and to advance, improve and encourage knowledge and un- 
   derstanding of such resources, their natural distribution and wise 
   use and their essential relationship to each other and to the sus- 
   tenance and enrichment of all life. 
PREPARATORY WORK 
   Early in 1947 the Zoological Society established a staff for the 
purpose of making a general survey of work now being done in 
the field of conservation, not only in the United States but in 
other countries. In order to reach a determination as to the scope 
of the Foundation's activities, as well as to organize its initial 
work program presented in the attached report, a large number 
of meetings and personal consultations have been held with men 
in related sciences, government officials both here and abroad, 
educators and others whose experience would be valuable. It has 
been found that there is unanimity regarding the great need for 
the Foundation's work and general approval of the sort of pro- 
gram that is here proposed. Further, it is an accepted fact that 
no such independent agency now exists either in this country or 
                               3 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
abroad and that the potentialities of productive accomplishment 
are very real. 
  One of the results of the planning and survey period has been 
the selection of an Advisory Council whose present members are: 
  MR. HAROLD COOLIDGE, Executive Secretary, Pacific Science Board, 
       National Research Council 
   MR. CHARLES SUTHERLAND ELTON, Director of Bureau of Animal 
       Population, Oxford University 
  DR. CARYL P. HASKINS, research scientist in biology and related 
       bio-physical fields, New York 
  DR. G. EVELYN HUTCHINSON, Osborn Zoological Laboratory, Yale 
       University 
   DR. ALDO LEOPOLD, Department of Wildlife Management, Univer- 
       sity of Wisconsin 
   MR. WILLIAM VOGT, Chief of the Conservation Section of the Pan 
       American Union 
   DR. ALEXANDER WETMORE, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
Invitations to the Council are being extended to: 
   DR. HARRY GODWIN, Fellow of Clare College, Lecturer in Botany, 
       Cambridge University 
   DR. A. V. HILL, Honorary Professor of Physiology, Biophysics Re- 
       search Unit, University College, London 
   DR. V. VAN STRAELEN, Director of the Royal Museum of Natural 
       History, Brussels, and President of the Institute of National 
       Parks of the Belgian Congo 
   Those already on the Council and those now being invited 
have been consulted at length regarding the establishment of 
the Foundation and are fully in accord with its purposes. Dur- 
ing the next few months it is proposed that others, including 
those with an industrial viewpoint, who may be expected to aid 
actively in the Foundation's development, will be added to the 
Council, or alternatively, to the Board of Trustees. 
 
 
4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Table of Contents 
 
 
                                                            Page 
INTRODUCTION                                              7 
 
  I. BASIC RESOURCES SURVEYS AND PROJECTS                 9 
         1. World-wide Survey of the Incidence of 
               Soil Erosion                                    11 
         2. Staff Investigation of Ground Water Problems 
               in the United States                            16 
         3. Survey of Research Opportunities in the Field of 
               Soil and Nutrition                              19 
         4. Rehabilitation of the International Office 
               for the Protection of Nature                    22 
 
 II. CONSERVATION EDUCATION                                    27 
          1. Staff Investigation of Conservation Education 
               at the School and College Level                 29 
          2. Publication Project                               34 
               (a) Book Publication 
               (b) Articles in Educational Journals 
          3. Motion Picture Project                            39 
          4. Conservation Exhibit at the New York 
               Zoological Park                                 43 
 
III. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES                                 47 
          1. Participation in the Paris Conference to be Called 
               by UNESCO for the Creation of an Interna- 
               tional Union for Nature Protection              49 
          2. New York Conference in 1948 for European 
               Members of the Advisory Council                 53 
 
 IV. ORGANIZATION PLANNING                                     55 
          1. Investigation of Means of Broadening the Base of 
               Public Interest and of Assuring Public Action   57 
                                5 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Introduction 
 
 
TMHE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION is being formed upon one 
        basic concept, namely, that the well-being and even the 
        survival not only of the United States but of civilization as 
a whole - let us call it the human enterprise - is, in the last 
analysis, dependent upon the preservation and intelligent use of 
the life-supporting resources of this and other countries. We 
recognize the fact that as matters stand today our own country's 
welfare is directly influenced, for better or for worse, by condi- 
tions prevailing in other parts of the world. For this reason, 
principally, it is planned that the Conservation Foundation shall 
be international in scope. 
   The term "life-supporting resources," as here used, refers to

forests and other natural vegetation, animal life, productive soils 
and water sources. The degree to which these basic elements 
are being misused, or, in turn, the velocity with which they are 
being actually destroyed, is only beginning to be recognized as 
one of the principal causes for the alarming social and political 
unrest throughout the-world today. The new science of conser- 
vation clearly proves that these primary resources of the earth 
are interdependent and inter-related, but because conservation 
is a new science, this fact is not generally recognized by leaders 
of governments, of education, of industry, or by the public as 
a whole. 
   It is safe to predict that civilization will be faced with a series 
of mounting crises unless a powerful movement counteracts pres- 
ent trends and impels intelligent use of those natural resources 
upon which human life depends. 
  We recognize that population growth and population pressures 
lie at the core of the conservation problem. The Foundation can- 
not exclude this factor from its consideration. 
                               7 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
  We are fully conscious that our effort is ambitious in the ex- 
treme. We further recognize the possibility of failure in the sense 
that it is not rational to expect that any objective will be fully 
reached. Human effort is rarely, if ever, more than partial in its 
accomplishment. The Conservation Foundation is certain, how- 
ever, to accomplish some of the tasks to which it will direct its 
energies. Time alone will tell to what degree it may be success- 
ful in reaching its ultimate objectives, for there is no previous 
standard of achievement; no similar or comparable enterprise has 
been created either in the United States or elsewhere. 
   For our part, we feel that we cannot run away from what is 
both an obligation and an opportunity. We are prepared to strive 
with all the energy and intelligence we possess, with the hope 
that we may aid in resolving one of the most critical problems 
that face civilization today. 
   There is attached a list of projects which the Foundation de- 
 sires to undertake during the coming year. A few of them are 
 already well started. All are based upon the assumption that the 
 value of the Foundation's work will depend upon its ability to 
 accomplish results in two closely correlated fields of effort - fact- 
 finding and research on the one hand, education and the dis- 
 semination of information on the other. 
                                            FAIRFIELD OSBORN 
 Staff Collaborators: 
   GEORGE E. BREWER, JR. 
   SAMUEL H. ORDWAY, JR. 
   A. WILLIAM SMITH 
   ROBERT GORDON SNIDER 
 New York, November 1947 
 
 
8 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                               I 
         Basic Resources Surveys and Projects 
 
T HE STRENGTH of the Foundation in the future will depend, 
 
        in the main, upon the amount and correctness of the in- 
        formation which it has on hand. Consequently, the de- 
velopment of a well-organized fact-finding research division is 
considered to be of primary importance. 
  The gradual establishment of the Foundation as a center of 
information regarding productive resources may be expected; it 
is our opinion that in the meantime the Foundation can do im- 
mediate and effective work in certain special research fields which 
are of basic importance and concerning which knowledge is either 
lacking or not adequately correlated. With this in view, specific 
projects have been selected for the coming year, the majority of 
which would establish bases for work in succeeding years. They 
are of prime significance and, successfully prosecuted, will help 
to establish the Foundation's reputation as a source-center of 
information on certain vital situations that lie at the very heart 
of the conservation problem. 
  We consider work directed toward the protection of all forms 
of wildlife as of compelling importance, not only for ethical and 
aesthetic reasons but because animal life plays an essential part 
in the economy of nature. Two projects in this field are already 
formulated and it is expected that others will be undertaken in 
the near future. 
 
 
9 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
World-wide Survey of the Incidence of Soil Erosion 
 
 
SUMMARY AND PROPOSAL 
  Man has so misused the earth that serious soil erosion exists 
in many parts of the world, constituting a grave danger to human 
welfare. While there are many evidences that this erosion is 
widespread and continuing rapidly, there is no specific informa- 
tion on its extent. No measurement of world-wide man-caused 
erosion has ever been made. 
  The Foundation proposes, in collaboration with several organ- 
izations and agencies aware of this condition, to make a survey 
of the incidence, extent, character and rate of increase of man- 
accelerated soil erosion wherever it occurs. These participating 
agencies include the United Nations Food and Agriculture Or- 
ganization, the Pan American Union and various bureaus of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, all of which have aided in the 
planning of this project and are prepared to cooperate actively. 
   The objective of the survey is a comprehensive report supple- 
mented by authoritative maps. This information would identify 
critical man-made erosion areas, and could be used to focus 
national and international attention on the need for action. 
 
ANTICIPATED RESULTS 
   The report would include: 
 1. A world map of soil erosion on a scale of 1:20-40 million. 
 2. A series of continental maps of soil erosion on a scale of 1:5-10 mil-

   lion or 1:15-20 million. 
 3. Statistical tables presenting information on the extent of areas sub-

   ject to various classes of erosion under present conditions of use. 
 4. Photographs illustrating erosion. 
 5. A report providing by country or similar significant sub-continental

                               11 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
  unit (a) a descriptive summary of the extent and character of soil 
  erosion; (b) generalized statements on the rate of soil loss as in- 
  dicated by data of soil type, rainfall, climate, character of land use

  and by personal observation; (c) general descriptions of loss of soil 
  fertility due to other causes. 
  The minimum land unit presented cartographically and de- 
scribed statistically would be one of approximately 1,000 square 
miles. Classification of these areas would be in terms of the pre- 
dominant land condition and its critical nature. 
   The amount of detail depends in part on the adequacy of the 
information available. Authorities agree unanimously that the 
survey should be undertaken if only to coordinate existing infor- 
mation, and that this alone justifies the project. At the very least, 
we would be able to compile a guide for an extensive field survey 
project to be made later. At best, we might produce a document 
which would shock the consciousness of the world. 
 
USE OF THE RESULTS 
   Since no such information on the scale or of the precision de- 
scribed above is available for the world, full appreciation of the 
gravity of the problem is not possible until such a survey is made, 
and no well-planned, coordinated action program on a regional, 
national or international level can be accomplished. 
   The survey would make it possible to compare the gravity of 
the erosion problem in various regions. It should be distributed 
through FAO, the Pan American Union, UNESCO and similar 
organizations to member governments, and by the Foundation 
to key individuals here and abroad. It should be made available 
to press associations and individual publications throughout the 
world. It should serve as the basis for articles by a variety of 
publicists. It should be given world-wide distribution through 
direct sale. Thus, it could focus national and international atten- 
tion on the extent of man-made erosion. It would identify regions 
requiring remedial action. It could initiate a series of Foundation 
studies of less sensational but equally significant nature on soil 
fertility and productivity on a world-wide scale. This and sub- 
sequent studies could be used to attract the attention of thought- 
ful and influential groups able to undertake local action. This 
                               12 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
action should take the form of more detailed regional surveys and 
the application of proper conservation practices. 
   If data require substantial field validation, the initial survey 
would serve to direct and guide the field observers. 
 
METHOD OF CONDUCTING THE SURVEY 
   The survey will concentrate on man-made erosion as opposed 
to geologic or natural erosion. The degree of detail will depend 
on the availability of data, and the availability of personnel skilled 
in its assembly and evaluation and qualified by experience with 
the regions involved. 
   The first approach will be to assemble data on actual soil erosion. 
Where these are non-existent, data on soil types, weather, terrain 
and known land use will permit us to deduce working conclusions 
about erosion. These data will appear in cartographic, statistical, 
descriptive and photographic form, and in expert comment. 
   On the basis of expert knowledge and the array of data, land 
classification standards such as the following can be established: 
1. Land having little or no significant erosion. 
2. Land where some erosion exists (moderate damage to productivity). 
3. Land where erosion is severe and where loss has seriously reduced 
   or eliminated productivity. 
   This type of classification is necessarily absolute. Through ex- 
panded legends on maps and particularly through the descrip- 
tive report, rates of erosion, erosiveness of land, land potential in 
relation to erosion, and current land use practices should be noted. 
   The data should be further analyzed to determine the regions 
of the world where (a) no erosion is likely, (b) where erosion 
is known to exist, (c) where careful examination of data, par- 
ticularly aerial photographs, is necessary to identify little-recog- 
nized instances of erosion. By assembly and evaluation of the 
data, careful study of aerial photographs held by the Allied Mili- 
tary Forces and reference to expert knowledge of specialists in 
critical areas, the information should be translated into carto- 
graphic terms and generalized description by significant sub- 
continental units. 
   The judgment of the technical staff and the Foundation in 
 respect to the adequacy of the results should be confirmed by a 
                                13 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
group of independent experts. If extensive field investigation is 
required, a new project proposal should be submitted. 
   The final stage of the study should include obtaining plano- 
metric data from maps for tables, preparation of the text and 
preparation of maps for the lithographer. 
 
ORGANIZATION OF THE PROJECT 
   It is planned that the study shall be a fully cooperative venture 
of the Conservation Foundation and the United Nations Food 
and Agriculture Organization. The Foundation should have the 
responsibility for general direction, general administration and 
financing. FAO should have the responsibility for technical di- 
rection, office and routine operating facilities. Both organizations 
should bear the responsibility for publication and distribution. 
   The headquarters of the study should be established in Wash- 
ington, close to the chief concentration of information on this 
subject in the world. 
  Personnel for the study should be obtained from technical 
agencies within and outside the government, on essentially full- 
time loan for the period required. Payment should be made at 
the normal rate of compensation for full-time service. Specialists 
on particular problems or specific areas should be called on for 
short-term consultation. 
  The Foundation would be responsible for liaison with Allied 
Military Forces supplying aerial photographic material, liaison 
with financial sources and with private organizations which may 
assist in finished cartography and publication, and initial liaison 
with various agencies from whom technical personnel may be 
borrowed. 
 
COST OF CONDUCTING THE SURVEY 
  It is estimated that the survey can be completed within nine 
months. It would require three to ten technicians at various 
stages. Technical personnel costs will depend in part on the 
identity of available experts. A technical director, a cartographer, 
three assemblers and evaluators of information, several short-term 
specialists, a statistician, several short-term translators and two 
secretaries will be required for varying periods. Total personnel 
                              14 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
cost is estimated not to exceed $39,050 for preparation of the 
report and maps. 
  Necessary travel by the technical experts should not cost more 
than $5,000. Administrative, office and routine operating costs 
are excluded since they should be assumed by the cooperating 
organizations. Lithographic, printing and distribution costs are 
estimated at $6,500 for an issue of 2,500 pamphlets and map sets. 
  Total cost for the nine-month survey is estimated at $50,550. 
 
 
15 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                  Staff Investigation of 
    Ground Water Problems in the United States 
 
 
BACKGROUND 
  Ground water, largely the result of infiltration of surface water, 
is stored not in lakes and surface reservoirs but in the ground itself. 
Ground water provides a large part of the available water supply. 
  Various agricultural and forestry practices, as well as industrial 
practices, adversely affect the available quantity and quality of 
ground water in any given region. 
  The full development of ground water storage capacity through 
proper land use practices is a means of conserving both soil and 
water resources, and of improving crop and forest yields. These 
practices are known in general, and their detailed application 
under specific conditions is being studied by the United States 
Department of Agriculture and other agencies. 
  Capacity for ground water storage and the extent of depletion 
of ground water reserves require intensive investigation. Nu- 
merous instances of alarming water shortages indicate the present 
critical nature of the problem. The subject is complicated by 
many highly technical questions of geology, agriculture, forestry, 
industrial processes, legal and social customs and governmental 
policies. 
 
PROPOSAL 
   It is proposed that a staff investigation of the ground water 
problem in the United States be made. It is expected that this 
would deal largely with information on water table levels and 
their changes in relation to past, present and prospective use. It 
should also recognize the problem of water quality. 
 
NEED FOR THE INVESTIGATION 
   Civilizations have fallen for lack of water. Continued water 
 
 
16 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
supply is primarily dependent on human practices. Superficially 
it appears that except in regions of low annual rainfall, water 
shortages should be no problem, and that even in these excepted 
areas proper practices could be adopted for conservation. How- 
ever, rapid urban development, combined with mismanagement 
of forests, grass and croplands as water sources, is creating situa- 
tions in almost every region of the nation where quantity and 
quality of the water is a critical factor in the communities' exist- 
ence and development. There is no reason to believe that con- 
tinuation of present water use practices will not produce many 
more critical situations in the future. 
 
ANTICIPATED RESULTS 
   The result of the investigation should be an internal report 
aiming at the identification of areas where there is now, or in 
prospect, a ground water supply problem. It should indicate 
the nature of the problem. It should outline the steps to be taken 
to investigate and develop remedial practices. 
 
USE OF THE RESULTS 
   The internal report would provide the basis for a full-scale 
technical investigation of critical problems. Because of technical 
complexities, a variety of authorities must be consulted, to point 
future investigations in the most effective and profitable direction. 
Subsequent reports would recommend action to remedy ground 
water shortages, based on interpretation of established facts. In- 
dustry, agriculture, urban areas, public health bodies and others 
will certainly use the results of the final studies. 
METHOD OF CONDUCTING THE 
INVESTIGATION 
  The investigation would be conducted largely by interviews 
and correspondence with authorities on ground water problems. 
Cooperation of such organizations as the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, the American Water Works Association, the 
American Public Health Association, and certain agencies in the 
federal, state and local governments should be enlisted to identify 
critical areas and to indicate the nature of the problem. 
                              17 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
   Finally, consultants should be retained for a brief period to 
insure the technical adequacy of proposals for formal investiga- 
tion. The character of these investigations and the staff to con- 
duct them should be determined in detail. 
 
COST 
   It is estimated that the investigation will not exceed $8,000 for 
travel, research assistance and consultants' fees. This investiga- 
tion should be completed in less than one year. 
 
 
18 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
           Survey of Research Opportunities 
           In the Field of Soil and Nutrition 
 
 
BACKGROUND 
  There is an extraordinary similarity between elements in the 
bodies of animals, including human beings, and those of plants. 
Recognition of this parallelism is of relatively recent origin. The 
relationship between health and the nutrients that come from 
the soil represents a new and highly complex field of scientific 
inquiry. While of late much has been learned, there are still 
innumerable opportunities for work of high importance by medi- 
cine and biology. 
  Knowledge gained only within the last two or three decades 
about the chemistry of plants and animals supports the belief that 
man's well-being and even his survival depend upon the preserva- 
tion of the health of the earth - which today is already substan- 
tially impaired by the violent and blind treatment man is in- 
flicting upon it. 
 
THE NEED 
   It was a bright day when the science of bacteriology made 
known the causes of communicable diseases. The marvelous 
progress of the medical sciences in coping with infectious diseases 
has in large measure removed the terrors of plagues and pesti- 
lences that once took such a heavy toll of human life. At the end 
of the last century it looked as if mankind was about to enter a 
new era of health and happiness. But while the life-span has 
increased in many countries, even in these there are many evi- 
dences of deterioration of some phases of human health. There 
is a dearth of knowledge about the inter-relationship of land and 
of human and animal health. We need to know more about the 
bearing of this inter-relationship upon a whole series of "new"

illnesses, commonly referred to as degenerative diseases. 
                              19 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
  Civilization has brought with it many conditions of living that 
are anything but healthy. It would, however, be a reckless gen- 
eralization to state that any physical degeneration of people in our 
own country and elsewhere is being caused solely by qualitative 
nutritional deficiencies. Nevertheless, it would be of considerable 
interest to investigate the extent to which the apparent increase of 
degenerative diseases, including psychological and neurological 
illnesses, is related to the known deterioration and wastage of top- 
soil, the "precious, senisitive, living earth-cover through which 
life flows." 
 
PROPOSAL 
   The Conservation Foundation believes that it would be delin- 
quent if it did not include among its initial activities a program 
for advancing knowledge of this subject. We fully recognize that 
various groups in the fields of biology and medicine are presently 
engaged in such studies. Here, again, the Foundation's best op- 
portunities for effective results may lie in its ability to activate 
research in areas of inquiry where other workers are not now 
engaged. Further, it should endeavor to disseminate information, 
both technical and popular, on this vital subject. 
   In order to proceed effectively in this field, the Foundation 
must inform itself with thoroughness about existing research, 
competent personalities and available publications. It is believed 
that the better part, if not all, of 1948 would have to be dedicated 
to this purpose. With the basic information in hand, a more 
active program could be launched the following year. 
 
COST AND METHOD 
   It is therefore proposed that a fund of $10,000 be made avail- 
able to permit the Foundation to engage the services of one or 
more competent technicians, to provide for typing and recording 
expenses, and to meet such modest travel expenses as might need 
to be incurred. In this connection, it is significant that the Foun- 
dation can draw upon the advice and counsel of eminent men 
who are either already on its Advisory Council or profoundly 
interested in its program and who have expressed themselves as 
prepared to aid its development. Among them are Dr. G. Evelyn 
                              20 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Hutchinson, Professor of Zoology, Yale University; Dr. A. V. Hill, 
Honorary Professor of Physiology, University College, London; 
Dr. Harry Godwin, Fellow of Clare College, Lecturer in Botany, 
Cambridge University; and Dr. William A. Albrecht, Department 
of Soils, College of Agriculture, University of Missouri. Collabora- 
tion could unquestionably be expected from many others. 
 
 
21 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                   Rehabilitation of the 
   International Office for the Protection of Nature 
 
 
 
BACKGROUND 
  The International Office for the Protection of Nature has its 
headquarters in Amsterdam. Its president is Dr. P. G. van Tien- 
hoven who is generally conceded to be the leading conservationist 
in Holland. Its vice-president is Dr. V. van Straelen, Director of 
the Royal Museum of Natural History in Brussels. Its executive 
secretary is Dr. H. J. Westermann of the Netherlands. 
  Dr. van Tienhoven has recently expressed his intention of re- 
tiring and Dr. van Straelen has agreed to assume the responsibility 
of President when asked to do so by the Board of Directors. It 
can be taken as a foregone conclusion that the Board will make 
this request. 
  The Office was founded at Brussels in 1910 and it passed 
through the First World War and many subsequent vicissitudes, 
surviving in difficult times because there was a real need for it. 
In 1935 it was reorganized. The general management was en- 
trusted to Mrs. Dr. Tordis Graim, under whose effective direction 
it grew and prospered. 
  War again intervened and Mrs. Graim was forced to return to 
Norway. The headquarters of the Office was transferred from 
Brussels to Amsterdam and placed under the direction of Dr. Ing. 
W.A.J.M. van Waterschoot van der Gracht. The work was virtually 
closed down after the invasion of Holland, and Dr. van Water- 
schoot died in 1943. The daily routine was carried out by the 
librarian, Miss Johanknegt, until December 1945. A year later 
the Office resumed its activities - though they were notably 
curtailed from the old days - under the provisional direction of 
Dr. J. H. Westermann. The Office is now domiciled in the private 
home of Dr. van Tienhoven. 
                             22 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
   The activities of the Office are briefly described by the first 
five paragraphs of Article 2 of its By-laws: 
1. By centralizing, by classifying, by publishing and by distributing to

   governments, institutions and persons interested in nature protec- 
   tion, documents, legislative texts, scientific studies, information and

   data of any kind regarding nature protection and especially the 
   preservation of the fauna, flora and natural scenery in a primitive 
   state. 
2. By encouraging and facilitating international cooperation between 
   institutions and persons interested in the above-mentioned questions.

3. By making studies and technical investigations in the domain of 
   nature protection. 
4. By organizing the propaganda for nature protection especially from 
   an international standpoint. 
5. By working by any other legal means to attain its objective. 
   The library contains some 8,000 books and bound periodicals 
and 80,000 documents related to the following subjects, arranged 
according to country: 
   General data on nature protection - Nature protection legislation 
   for land, flora and fauna - National parks and reserves for flora, 
   fauna and geological features - General data concerning fauna 
   (mammals, birds, fishes and reptiles) and flora calling for protec- 
   tion - Ethnographic data about primitive tribes liable to disappear 
   - Nature protection and education - Nature protection from an 
   historical viewpoint. 
   Unfortunately the collection has not been systematically in- 
creased since 1940 owing to the interruption of the Office's work 
by the German invasion. The first task will be to bring the 
library up to date, which will necessitate re-establishing many 
old contacts and establishing new ones with institutions and 
bureaus of governments created since 1940. 
   The officers of the Office believe that again they may be able 
to secure the services of Mrs. Graim, who was the person chiefly 
responsible for creating the catalog of the library during its heyday. 
   Few people outside the personnel of the Office know the exact 
contents of its library and archives. According to Mr. Harold 
Coolidge the collection is "unique" and of very great scientific

importance. The Foundation's representative last summer made 
a cursory examination of it which appeared to bear out Mr. 
Coolidge's estimate. 
                                23 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
   It is felt, however, that before granting a subsidy to the Office, 
a thorough examination of the library should be made by a com- 
petent scientist and a careful appraisal of its value given to the 
Foundation. Mr. Charles S. Elton has been asked to carry out 
this task. Mr. Elton's report will unquestionably suggest how 
much time, money and labor will be necessary to bring the collec- 
tion up to date and put it in working order for scientific use. He 
has also been asked to advise the Foundation whether a printed 
catalog of the library should be made, once the collection has been 
brought up to date. Both Dr. van Straelen and Dr. Westermann 
believe this should be done. 
   The finances of the Office are in bad shape; indeed, they are 
in such condition that unless the Office receives contributions 
from outside sources it will probably have to be dissolved entirely 
in 1948. In the spring of 1947 the American Committee for 
International Wildlife Protection made a grant-in-aid to the Office 
of $1,000, which gave temporary relief during the past summer. 
Certain other small contributions were received. 
   Particular emphasis has been given here to the value of the 
library, but the Office is prepared, and indeed plans, to carry on 
its usual activities apart from specific research and subsequent 
collection of documents. It proposes to publish annually a peri- 
odical entitled "The Review of Bibliographies of the International 
Protection of Nature" containing articles, reviews, excerpts from 
publications and legislation, news of private organizations and 
associations, etc. It plans to organize a world-wide inquiry into 
the present status of all endangered species of fauna and flora, 
both in and outside national parks and nature reserves. Further- 
more, since the Office is vitally interested in all new legislation 
affecting nature and wildlife protection, it intends to call public 
attention to these matters. 
   In estimating future requirements, Dr. van Straelen and Dr. 
van Tienhoven believe that the working staff would consist of 
Dr. Westermann, a trained assistant, a librarian, and two secre- 
taries - a total of five. Office space would have to be secured 
either in Amsterdam or Brussels. If the latter city were selected, 
Dr. van Straelen believes that the library itself could be housed 
in the Museum of Natural History and made available for public 
                               24 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
use. The estimates of total annual expenses ranged from Dr. 
Westermann's figure of $10,000 annually, to Dr. van Straelen's 
figure of $12,000. 
PROPOSAL 
  It is proposed that if Mr. Elton's report is favorable, the Foun- 
dation make an outright grant-in-aid to the Office in the sum of 
$7,500 for 1948, and that if its work during that time appears to 
justify our hopes, the Foundation be prepared to extend a similar 
grant-in-aid for 1949., 
NEED      FOR THIS PROJECT 
  Without a grant-in-aid the presumably unique and valuable 
collection now in the possession of the Office cannot be brought 
up to date and maintained for the general benefit of scientists 
and for the particular benefit of those institutions and individuals 
primarily concerned with conservation. Further, scientists and 
institutions would be greatly aided in their own research if the 
library and the archives of the Office could be cataloged in 
printed form and this catalog were distributed throughout the 
scientific world. 
ANTICIPATED           RESULTS 
  Although a grant-in-aid of the size recommended will not en- 
tirely satisfy the requirements of the Office, it will insure its con- 
tinued existence and probably will serve to stimulate other gifts 
which, together with the small funds already available, will suffice 
for a full year's program. We may also expect that the Foundation 
can in some measure direct the research activities of the Office 
and thereby advance one of its own charter purposes at a very 
low cost to itself. Finally, the Foundation will undoubtedly gain 
most favorable comment in Europe by its support of a needed 
scientific organization. 
POSSIBLE USES OF THE RESULTS 
  An illustration is the service already rendered Dr. Francis 
Harper in the preparation of his volume, "Extinct and Vanishing 
Mammals of the Old World," a special publication of the Amer- 
ican Committee for International Wildlife Protection. This work 
                             25 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
is based in a large measure on data put at Dr. Harper's disposal 
by the Office. There is every reason to believe that the Office 
would continue to render important service of this kind. 
   Certainly a world survey of species of flora and fauna now in 
danger of extinction, conducted by the Office, would be of very 
great value to zoologists in universities and in private institutions 
all over the world. 
 
COST 
   A grant-in-aid for 1948, in the sum of $7,500. 
 
 
26 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                               II 
                  Conservation Education 
 
 
 
 I T IS AN extraordinary fact that, with certain few exceptions, 
     the principles of conservation are not yet generally integrated 
     into the curricula of our schools and colleges. One need not 
go far to find the reason for this. It is only within the last two or 
three decades that we, as a nation, have been approaching the 
crisis of our natural living resources. The formal processes of 
education are rooted in the past and are slow to evolve. Whatever 
the reasons, as matters now stand the youth of our country are 
not being adequately instructed concerning a situation that affects 
the future well-being of every student in every school and in 
every college. 
   A well-organized movement to introduce conservation teach- 
ing is especially necessary in view of the fact that almost 60% 
of our population is urbanized. In. this direction lies perhaps the 
greatest opportunity with which the new Foundation is presented. 
   A comprehension of the principles of conservation would give 
added meaning to practically every subject - biology, geography, 
chemistry, economics, engineering, history. Even the teaching of 
philosophy would be illuminated by an exploration of the under- 
lying truth that nature and man are all of one essence, that the 
principles of nature are enduring and that to survive man must 
learn to cooperate with nature. 
   During the many recent months that have been used to inves- 
tigate the directions in which the Foundation may most effectively 
work, we have been greatly struck by the urgent manner in which 
many educators have expressed their hope that our enterprise 
would be able to aid them in formulating plans and procedures 
which would lead to this integration of conservation teaching 
with formal education. 
                              27 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
   We believe the situation is so critical that an active program 
for arousing public opinion must also be undertaken, using all 
available media. Experienced observers feel that at this very 
moment we are faced with the strongest threats to the life- 
supporting resources of our country that have occurred since the 
conservation movement got under way some forty years ago. No 
one acquainted with the facts can fail to be alarmed at present 
trends such as the incursion into the National Forests, the move- 
ment to break up the public lands in the western states, the serious 
injury to great river systems and the lowering of water tables in 
many regions. Only a handful of people are out in the open fight- 
ing these threats. We believe the Foundation can make substan- 
tial contributions by directing public attention to what is going on. 
 
 
28 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Staff Investigation of Conservation Education 
            At the School and College Level 
 
 
BACKGROUND 
   A basic objective of the Foundation is to stimulate in schools 
and colleges the teaching of the importance of natural resources, 
the dangers inherent in their misuse, and ways of using them 
more wisely. 
   Despite the wide variety of experiments now being carried on 
in the field of conservation teaching, there is little agreement 
among educators as to objectives or methods. 
   The American Council on Education has emphasized the im- 
portance of a program of education in the schools to insure "the 
intelligent conservation and utilization of the nation's resources, 
both human and natural." 
  A National Committee on Policies in Conservation Education, 
consisting of representatives from a large number of civic organi- 
zations concerned with conservation, representatives of govern- 
ment agencies and educators from different parts of the country, 
has formulated a tentative statement of objectives of conservation 
teaching. However, the members of this committee are not in 
agreement with each other, as revealed by the following excerpts 
from their statements: 
  "The greatest bottleneck is the lack of training in the philosophy
of 
  conservation in all schools from the university on down." 
  "The greatest need is for a handbook in methods and materials for

  teaching conservation." 
  "The first need is for a teacher-training program." 
  "Of first importance is planning before teaching conservation."

  "The important thing is to ascertain the effectiveness of any program

  of teaching conservation education." 
  George T. Renner of Columbia University, in one of the best 
discussions of an educational approach to the problem of con- 
servation, states: 
 
 
29 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
  "Opinion has been and is divided as to the advisability of having

  general textbooks in conservation." 
  A large number of textbooks for isolated courses in conserva- 
tion addressed to various levels of study, from primary and inter- 
mediate grades of elementary schools through normal schools, 
colleges and universities, are available. There is also available 
much reference material for teachers and students, including 
voluminous reports from the National Resources Planning Board 
and from the several departments of the federal government and 
state governments concerned with conservation planning. In 
addition, there are available many visual aids, including maps, 
charts, films and pictures related to conservation. These vary 
greatly in approach, accuracy and method. 
   A considerable number of teacher-training laboratories and 
summer workshops, sponsored in many states by universities and 
by civic and professional organizations, have sprung up. The 
laboratory organized by Professor George Free at Pennsylvania 
State College is one of the better-known examples. Unfortunately, 
as Professor Free has stated, there have been no follow-ups to 
ascertain what the teachers completing his laboratory courses have 
done to translate their knowledge into teaching at local levels. 
   The conservation education initiated in Cook County, Illinois, 
 and also that of the extinct Allegany State Park Commission proj- 
 ect have been cited as other examples of recommended procedure. 
   William Vogt of the Pan American Union has emphasized that 
 the greatest progress in conservation education can be made by 
 incorporating in the teaching of all of the common disciplines 
 the importance of natural resources and their wise use. 
   Renner points out that the essence of history is the story of 
 human use and misuse of resources which has led to the rise and 
 fall of civilizations and is today a major cause of pressure for 
 expansion and wars. "Any history teaching which does not con- 
 stantly teach this essential truth is unreal to say the least." So

 also: "Conservation is applied geography. Any geography of the 
 United States which is not organized and taught about the con- 
 servation motif is, therefore, very feeble and ineffectual stuff."

 And again: "From the standpoint of civics resources waste and 
 misuse are obviously everybody's business since they bear directly 
                               30 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
upon the national welfare. . ... All this is simply to ask for an 
entirely new spirit and orientation in the teaching of the social 
studies in our schools." 
   Dr. Aldo Leopold of the University of Wisconsin has said: 
   The so-called "conservation education" now going on varies widely

   from the really pioneering and good to the absolutely worthless and, 
   in fact, harmful. It must be recognized that every Tom, Dick and 
   Harry is using the term "conservation education." We have to
make 
   it clear that that is not our "education."... I believe that
the Founda- 
   tion should ascertain which efforts now being made are really worth- 
   while and push them, rather than try to develop new efforts of its own.

 
 PROPOSAL AND METHOD 
   It is proposed that in 1948 the members of the Foundation's 
 staff undertake a preliminary investigation which will include: 
 1. Interviews with a limited number of educators and scientists most 
   conversant with present practices and experiments in conservation 
   teaching, and with the directors of the educational endeavors of our 
   government services concerned with conservation, to obtain their 
   considered statements as to sound objectives of teaching, the best 
   means of approaching these objectives at various levels, and the best

   existing examples of their application. 
2. Visits to those institutions employing the recommended methods, 
   to obtain from teachers and by observation detailed descriptions of 
   the methods used and the problems involved. 
3. Interviews with recent graduates of these institutions, to obtain their

   evaluation of both objective and method. 
4. Analysis of all these data to identify the objectives of the teaching

   at various levels, and then to interpret the methods of instruction in

   terms of the conditions under which they were employed. 
5. Submission of this analysis to a committee of educational and scien- 
   tific advisors of the Foundation with a request for comments on the 
   adequacy of the evidence, opinion whether further research is de- 
   sirable, and advice whether the evidence should be presented as a 
   report for distribution either through the National Education Asso- 
   ciation or directly by the Foundation to teachers and school ad- 
   ministrators. 
   The problems connected with initiating a major training pro- 
gram for conservation technicians and teachers at Vassar and 
Dartmouth, where interest has been expressed, or elsewhere, 
should also be considered. 
 
 
31 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
THE NEED 
   Because the majority of mankind does not understand the re- 
lationship of life to environment or the need for planned social 
action to conserve and manage resources wisely, scientists and 
leaders of thought agree that the educational programs of the 
several nations should be expanded to include basic instruction 
in this field. William Vogt says: 
   The history of conservation throughout the world has clearly demon- 
   strated that a conservation policy cannot be made to stick until the 
   people of the country are in back of it, and that they are not likely

   to get in back of it until they understand it.... One of the greatest

   difficulties of education, from the time of Aristotle to the present,

   has been a general neglect in teaching children and young people 
   that they cannot exist apart from their physical environment, that 
   their survival and that of the State depend on an adequate supply 
   of water, soil, forests, grasslands, plants and animals. 
   Because there is no general agreement among the scientists and 
educators themselves as to proper objectives of teaching at various 
levels, or as to the best methods of teaching, or even as to basic 
philosophical approaches, the analysis here proposed appears to 
be prerequisite to the formulation and prosecution of the edu- 
cational program of the Foundation. 
 
USE OF RESULTS 
   It is expected that some of the fundamental issues causing con- 
fusion - particularly mixed objectives and incoherent methodolo- 
gies - can be isolated by this inquiry and the best opinion as to 
definition and method brought together in a single report. It 
should disclose whether specific research projects are presently 
desirable, and whether current experiments are sufficiently suc- 
cessful to be attempted elsewhere. 
   It should be a valuable guide to institutions planning to inaugu- 
rate, expand or modify conservation teaching programs. 
   The report would make possible a logical development of the 
Foundation's educational program and reveal whether we should 
consider establishing an educational advisory service. 
 
COSTS 
   This preliminary investigation should not exceed $2,000 for 
                               32 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
travel and an appropriation for honorariums to commentators and 
analysts in the sum of $2,500. Any unexpended funds from the 
honorarium allowance should be returnable to the Projects Ac- 
count of the Foundation. The total cost of the project is esti- 
mated at $4,500. 
 
 
33 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Publication Project 
 
 
                   (A) Book Publication 
 
BACKGROUND 
  Books clearly constitute one of the most important features of 
an educational program. We feel that the Foundation should 
foster the publication of books as part of its regular activities. 
  We are under no illusions in regard to the difficulties. Pub- 
lishing is a highly technical profession and we should not wish 
to engage in it actively, even if we were competent to do so. 
Moreover, suitable as well as marketable books are the objects of 
constant search by all publishing houses and the supply is never 
equal to the demand. 
   On the other hand, the problem is far from insoluble. We are 
in touch with authoritative potential authors and we are more 
aware of the acute subjects than a publishing house is likely to be. 
There is a very definite place for us as "bringers together" of

author and subject, and of author and publisher. 
PROPOSAL 
   That the staff investigate and prepare a publishing program 
during the year. 
THE NEED 
   As far as we know, there is at this moment no popular book on 
 conservation equivalent, for example, to the writings of Sir James 
 Jeans on astronomy. In the schoolbook field the offerings are, with 
 few exceptions, indifferent. There is no question of the need for 
 suitable books in both the formal and the informal fields of 
 education. 
 RESULT 
   It is impossible, even for the professional publisher, to forecast 
 the effect of any individual book. It is, however, unnecessary to 
                              34 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
emphasize the importance of a steady flow of books on conser- 
vation at all levels. 
 
METHOD 
   The sorts of books whose publication we might promote would 
fall into four categories. In each case, the details of the handling 
of the project would differ, although the principle would remain 
the same. 
   Generally, the idea would be to bring a specified subject to an 
author and then to put book and author in contact with a pub- 
lisher. In probably the majority of cases the book would be offered 
in no more than synopsis form and the author would be in need 
of an advance on royalties to provide him with the necessary 
financial stimulation. It would be unusual for a publisher to give 
a new author an advance for a projected work of this kind. It 
would be the function of the Foundation to provide it, if necessary. 
   We should expect to make arrangements with one publishing 
house in order to insure continuity. The publisher would have 
to agree, of course, to place the imprimatur of the Conservation 
Foundation on the title page, together with his own. 
   This proposal has already been discussed tentatively with 
various publishers. There is a real interest among them in being 
included in such a scheme. If we can find the books and the 
authors, there will be no difficulty in selecting a suitable publisher. 
   The broad classes of books to which the Foundation might give 
publication assistance are: 
 
Trade Books 
   This is the description applied by the publisher to popular books 
published for sale in book stores to the general public (as opposed 
to legal, technical, scientific, text, etc.). For financial, if for no 
other reasons, we would not wish to be associated with any book 
in this class lacking a chance of commercial success. We are not 
competent to judge the commercial potentiality of any manu- 
script which might come into our hand. In this field, we should 
have to rely on the professional judgment of the publishing house 
acting as our chosen instrument. This type of book would prob- 
ably not involve any particular financial outlay in the shape of 
                              35 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
advances, and might well result in a profit. It is unlikely, how- 
ever, that we could hope to be associated with many such books. 
Best selling authors are always at a premium. Authoritative au- 
thors, moreover, are seldom best sellers and best sellers in any case 
are relatively seldom written. 
Scientific Works 
   Here we should expect to rely on the judgment of our Advisory 
Council in regard to subjects and authors and in the assessment 
of the merit of any particular work. In the case of scientific works, 
it is possible that the publisher might require fairly substantial 
financial guarantees to insure him against eventual loss, particu- 
larly if the work in question, while receiving the wholehearted 
approval of our advisors, had not stirred the publisher to any 
particular enthusiasm. 
Textbooks 
   At least two of the publishers with whom we have dis- 
cussed this project have well-established educational departments. 
Neither, as yet, has published a textbook in connection with con- 
servation. 
   Acceptable conservation texts are rare. We should probably 
select the writers and dictate the subjects. We should, ordinarily, 
expect to accept as final the judgment of a publisher's educational 
department. 
   In the case of books of this nature, advances to authors are 
usually on a very modest scale, if granted at all. 
Long-term Books 
   There is always a class of books whose sales are spread over a 
long term of years because they are regarded as standard works. 
The publisher is generally cautious in regard to these because a 
text may not retain currency long enough for him to recoup his 
original investment plus interest and profit. 
   In this field, some form of guarantee may be necessary to the 
publisher. 
COST 
   The above might seem to indicate a much more ambitious 
 
                              36 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
program than is actually in mind. If, during the year 1948, we 
are able to sponsor proposals for as many as four books and make 
arrangements for their publication, we shall feel that we have 
done very well. Various titles and authors are already under 
consideration. 
  It is impossible at this stage to make any estimate of the pos- 
sible cost of this project. Should we be successful in bringing 
together book, author and publisher, and if an advance to the 
author or a financial guarantee to the publisher proves necessary, 
we shall make an application for a special grant-in-aid. 
  No provision, therefore, is made in the budget for this project. 
 
            (B) Articles in Educational Journals 
 
BACKGROUND AND PROPOSAL 
  There are many journals in the professional education field. 
Authors supplying articles for these are seldom paid more than 
merely nominal sums. Too often, however, the honor of publi- 
cation is considered its own reward. These trade journals are 
widely read by educators. It is therefore proposed that the Foun- 
dation subsidize a number of articles discussing the place of con- 
servation in education. 
RESULT 
  A steady flow of authoritative articles devoted to all aspects of 
conservation education would undoubtedly stimulate increasing 
interest in the subject in educational circles. It might lead to the 
more general acceptance of conservation emphasis in texts on 
various subjects. Further, it would serve to establish the stature 
of the Foundation in the formal education field, thus helping to 
lay the groundwork for our major educational activities at a 
later date. 
METHOD 
  Consultation with educators and other advisors will easily pro- 
duce a list of articles which should be written. Examples might be: 
  The Place of Conservation in Formal Education 
  Introduction of Conservation Problems in the Teaching of Arithmetic 
  Experiences in Conservation Education 
                              37 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
  Conservation in Civics Courses 
  Conservation in the Natural Sciences Curriculum 
  A Conservation Syllabus for the Social Sciences 
  A School Superintendent Looks at Conservation in Education 
  Techniques for Teaching Conservation in Urban Schools 
  We believe that authors of this kind of article would not be 
difficult to find, and that they would be prepared to write with 
slight stimulation from the Foundation - $25 might well prove 
enough inducement while $50 would probably be a top price. 
We should, of course, leave it to the author to get what payment 
he could from the journal on his own account. 
  There would be an element of risk in that any given article 
might not be accepted by the technical journals. This, however, 
is a risk common to any project of this nature. 
 
COST 
   In view of the small amounts involved, a sum of $900 should 
provide a fair number of articles for the technical journals. 
 
 
88 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motion Picture Project 
 
 
BACKGROUND 
   The Foundation's planning staff recognizes that motion pic- 
tures constitute an effective means of informing the public of 
the importance of our life-supporting resources and their use. 
Demand in the schools for scientific pictures directed to specific 
age levels and integrated with the curricula makes this medium 
significant also in formal education. 
   Early in 1947 the planning staff held many conferences with 
educators and with commercial producers of documentary and 
educational films, exploring methods and costs of production and 
distribution. While these exploratory efforts were under way 
circumstances made immediately available to the Foundation the 
services of one of the outstanding scientific and artistic photog- 
raphers in this country - John B. Storer. Although no long-range 
plan for motion picture education had been developed, Mr. 
Storer's experience and service were secured to assist in the de- 
velopment of such a program, and to prepare a brief series of 
experimental films which would serve to test educational tech- 
niques, disclose the cost and effectiveness of private production 
of conservation films, and indicate methods of distribution. 
   A limited fund was procured for these 1947 experiments. Five 
preliminary scripts were prepared under the direction of George 
Brewer, a staff member, and John Gibbs, part-time consultant. 
One documentary film addressed to adults suggests the precarious 
condition of the earth's life-supporting resources, their inter- 
dependence and essential importance to human life, the causes 
of their rapid dissipation and the known methods of reversing 
the trend of depletion. Four basic educational films on soil struc- 
tures and uses are addressed to the secondary school level. 
                              39 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
  After extended photographic planning based on these scripts, 
Mr. Storer went into the field in the summer of 1947 and has 
taken 7,000 feet of superb colored pictures of the condition of 
America's natural resources - soils, forests, wildlife and water 
sources. These films are now being edited and assembled, ani- 
mation and sound-track are being prepared. With the advice of 
our Educational Advisory Committee and professional film ex- 
perts these first five experimental films will, we hope, be ready 
for release and distribution by the close of the year. 
   Experience gained in making these films has substantially ad- 
vanced the planning of our long-range motion picture program. 
We have developed a team of technicians and advisors able next 
year to produce educational pictures, scientific in presentation and 
containing rare beauty, which will effectively drive home the 
lessons of conservation. 
 
OBJECTIVE 
   The Foundation's films will aim to create an understanding of 
ecological patterns upon which our productive resources depend, 
their perishable nature, the dangers to which they are exposed 
by ignorance and by careless and foolish exploitation, and the 
means by which present practices can be improved. The object 
will be to create a realization of the present dangerous condition 
of these resources, and to provide the public with the knowledge, 
vision and interest to exercise its civic responsibilities. 
 
PROPOSAL 
   It is proposed that the Foundation carry forward in 1948 the 
experiments initiated in 1947 by: 
1. Retaining for another year the full-time service of John B. Storer and

   the part-time services of John Gibbs to complete the development of 
   a long-range program of educational film production addressed to 
   various age levels, integrated with school curricula. 
2. Continuing conferences with scientific and educational advisory 
   committees to enable the production team to develop satisfactory 
   scripts and obtain necessary photography for six educational films 
   along these lines: 
   (a) Forest generation, cycles, growth, uses, management, waste 
       and rehabilitation. 
                               40 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
   (b) Water sources - origins, use and distribution. 
   (c) Wildlife cycles and wildlife participation in the ecological 
       process. 
   (d) Final phases of the 1947 soil series: the application of modern 
       techniques of rebuilding, refertilizing and conserving soils of 
       various types under varying conditions. 
 3. Intensive prosecution of distribution studies and experimentation 
   with various means of distributing the 1947 films. 
METHOD OF PRODUCTION 
   First stage  Once the scope and methods of presentation for 
appropriate age levels have been identified, with the advice of 
educational and scientific advisory committees, the motion pic- 
ture staff will proceed to prepare the scripts, carry out necessary 
research, and determine the exact locations where filming should 
be done and the months of the year when the most desirable shots 
can be taken. (No subject will be developed in this way without 
a thorough search of all existing and available films on related 
subjects, to avoid duplication.) 
   Second stage * A field schedule will be prepared and Mr. 
Storer will carry out the actual photography. 
   Third stage * When the material is all in hand (presumably 
September 1948), the necessary cutting will be done and final 
editing of the scripts will be completed. The films will then be 
turned over to a laboratory for assembly and sound-tracking. 
 
METHOD OF DEVELOPING 
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 
   A number of commercial distributors, including Encyclopaedia 
Britannica Films, Castle Films, and Brandon Films, have already 
presented proposals and estimates of their ability to distribute 
these films widely in schools throughout this country and abroad. 
The royalty bases vary, but each offers prospects of substantial 
return, over the years, of funds invested in production. Until 
these first films are ready for release and we have made further 
investigation of the problems of distribution, no final plan can 
be presented. Intensive distribution studies are needed, includ- 
ing careful analysis of the ability of each of the several educational 
                              41 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
film distributors to compass their potential markets. Experi- 
mentally some of the 1947 films will be placed in such professional 
hands for distribution. This will constitute the first but only one 
approach to the study of distribution. In addition the possibility 
of obtaining the backing of one or more of the large picture pro- 
ducing companies for commercial distribution of conservation 
films should be thoroughly explored. 
   Direct promotion of sales and rental of films to schools and 
civic groups will also be considered, although there is present 
indication that the development of contacts and distribution facili- 
ties of our own would be less effective and less remunerative than 
the use of existing channels. 
 
COSTS 
  The estimated cost of carrying forward this film program, in- 
cluding the production of six films as described, is $37,750. 
 
 
42 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
               Conservation Exhibit Area 
            at the New York Zoological Park 
 
 
BACKGROUND 
  An area of approximately twelve acres has been set aside in 
the New York Zoological Park for a Conservation Exhibit and 
Demonstration Area. The project will be developed by the New 
York Zoological Society in collaboration with the Department 
of Conservation of the State of New York and the Park Depart- 
ment of New York City. The State has provided most of the 
funds for setting up the exhibit. Logically, the detailed planning 
of the exhibit area has fallen to the Foundation. 
  The broad purpose of the Conservation Exhibit is to show the 
destruction that may come through the wantonness of man. It 
will show how nature struggles to repair the damage and how 
man by wise means may extend the processes of nature. 
  The Conservation Exhibit is probably the first of its kind. It will 
serve as a pattern for similar exhibits elsewhere and will provide 
a means to awaken the public to an understanding of and an 
interest in these most vital problems. 
   It is planned as a self-supporting project. To become so it 
must attract a very large number of paying visitors - at least 
enough to provide an income of about $45,000 to meet the annual 
operating budget. To be attractive to so large a number the les- 
sons taught must be simple and direct. They must, moreover, 
avoid undue austerity. Too restrained an attitude might defeat 
the end by keeping the public away. 
   The exhibit will show that conservation, in addition to involv- 
ing ethics and aesthetics, is essentially a matter of the proper use 
of the earth's productive resources - forests, fertile soils, animal 
life and water sources. These in effect are the capital assets that 
provide a renewable income within which mankind must live. 
                              43 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
The present trend that is exhausting these capital assets can lead 
only to eventual physical and social bankruptcy. 
 
THE NEED 
   At the moment there is no popular means of approach to the 
public mind. The exhibit will provide, in simple and direct fashion, 
explanations of the many questions that occur to people about 
conservation. 
   While the exhibit will be aimed at the adult mind, it will also 
offer an approach to conservation education in the school systems 
of New York and neighboring communities. 
 
RESULT 
   Any better understanding by the public of questions of conser- 
vation must inevitably be reflected in a variety of ways. Apart, 
however, from its service to the general public, it is hoped that 
the Conservation Exhibit may be actually used in formal educa- 
tion. With this end in view, a conference of the leading educators 
of New York and vicinity has been held to discuss the means by 
which the exhibit could best be of service to the schools. The 
response to this first meeting was so enthusiastic that several others 
have been planned. 
  These conferences represent a public relations effort with wide 
implications. They have given us an opportunity to discuss con- 
servation teaching in the local schools. If conservation could be 
developed in the curricula of New York and Westchester County, 
the example would have widespread effects. 
 
METHODS 
  Briefly, the Conservation Exhibit will consist of an introductory 
building with exhibits so arranged as to prepare the visitor for 
what he will see in the main area outside. 
  The main area will show examples of disastrous erosion, waste- 
ful land use, bad farming practices, water pollution, destructive 
forestry, etc. Thence the visitor will be taken through examples 
of natural recovery, reforestation, good farming practices (contour 
plowing, etc.) and clean water. 
  The outside area will include exhibits of various birds and mam- 
                              44 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
mals of New York State and a fish exhibit (trout, bass, etc.) in 
which the visitor is taken below ground level in order that he 
may see a stream bottom on a level with his eye. 
   The description given above is only a broad outline. Details 
remain to be worked out. 
   The method of approach by the Foundation's staff will be as 
follows: 
1. Preliminary Planning 
   (a) Preparation of a story or script establishing the broad basis of 
       the lessons to be taught. 
   (b) Projection of known Zoological Park attendances as a means of 
       estimating peak loads and periodic attendances. 
   (c) An estimation of audience types. 
2. Specification of the ideal exhibit without reference to cost or space.

3. Designing the Exhibit within the financial and space limits. 
4. Execution of the project. 
 
COST 
   The capital cost of the Conservation Exhibit will be borne by 
the State of New York. Planning and other work in connection 
with it is expected to absorb about half the time and energies of 
one member of the staff and of a secretary. No attempt has been 
made to allocate salary or administrative expenses for this purpose. 
 
 
45 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                              III 
                International Conferences 
 
 
 
   Conservation is a world-wide issue. Man's problem in his 
earliest, dimmest, most far-away days was obtaining a living from 
the earth. The wheel of human destiny seems to turn, but the 
basic facts of life remain constant. Man's initial problem is still 
with him - but there are new factors. The population of the earth 
has more than quadrupled within the last three centuries and 
doubled even within the last century. Human civilization has now 
permeated virtually every area of the earth's surface. Vast fertile 
regions have been injured by man, many of them so ruined that 
they have become deserts and uninhabitable. The question now is 
-can the existing productive resources of the earth be protected 
and be placed upon a sustained-yield basis? Today this is an 
international problem. 
  We wish to encourage international cooperation not only be- 
cause our own country's well-being is directly influenced, for 
better or for worse, by conditions prevailing in other parts of the 
world, but also because collaboration with government officials, 
educators, scientists, industrialists and technicians in other coun- 
tries is sure to prove of mutual value. We Americans have much 
to learn from abroad. In several respects, for instance, conserva- 
tion practices are far more advanced in northwestern Europe than 
in our own country. In turn, the Foundation aims to become a 
source of information for other countries. Expressed in simplest 
terms, we look upon this as a collaborative effort, having in mind 
the potentialities of a well-organized independent agency where 
none such now exists. 
 
 
47 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          Participation in the Paris Conference 
   to be Called by UNESCO for the Creation of an 
       International Union for Nature Protection 
 
 
BACKGROUND 
  An international meeting was held in Brunnen, Switzerland, 
from June 27 through July 3, 1947, which was sponsored by the 
Swiss League for the Protection of Nature. The purpose of this 
conference was to create a new organization to be known as the 
INTERNATIONAL UNION for the PROTECTION of NATURE. 
The conference was attended by delegates from twenty-one 
nations, some of them official government representatives, others 
representing private conservation organizations. Eight interna- 
tional organizations also sent delegates to the conference. 
  The following resolution was finally adopted by unanimous 
vote on July 3: 
                               I. 
     The draft of a provisional Constitution for the International Pro- 
   tection of Nature has been approved unanimously by the delegates 
   to the Brunnen Conference. 
                              II. 
     It is desired by the delegates that the Swiss League for the Pro- 
   tection of Nature continue to act as the agent for our provisional 
   organization and carry out all necessary business as provided for by 
   the Provisional Constitution on our behalf. The delegates will 
   attempt to reimburse the Swiss League for all expenses incurred by 
   them for this purpose. 
                              III. 
     The League shall immediately send the Draft Constitution to 
   UNESCO, asking for it to be transmitted to all Governments, invit- 
   ing them to communicate to UNESCO whether they can accept the 
   Draft Constitution with or without amendments. 
                              IV. 
     UNESCO is requested to convene a congress at Paris, in July 
   1948, to discuss and finally adopt a constitution based upon the 
                              49 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
   Draft Constitution agreed upon by the delegates at Brunnen. 
   On August 8, 1947, the Swiss League in conformity with para- 
graph II above, prepared and forwarded to all delegates a com- 
plete transcript of the minutes of the Brunnen Conference. These 
minutes, which are extremely voluminous, include the draft con- 
stitution referred to in paragraph I above, together with a reason- 
ably complete report of the proceedings of the conference. 
   The New York Zoological Society was represented at this con- 
ference by its own delegate. 
 
PROPOSAL 
   The proposal is made that the Foundation send two delegates 
to the Paris Conference if it is officially called by UNESCO. 
   It is further proposed that the Foundation's delegates spend at 
least two additional weeks in following up contacts established 
this past summer with scientists and government officials in Eng- 
land and on the continent. 
NEED FOR ACTION 
   As a result of the Brunnen Conference, a world organization 
for the protection of nature has been conceived and, if given 
enthusiastic support by the Foundation, may emerge from the 
forthcoming Paris Conference as the first permanent inter-gov- 
ernmental organization of this sort. 
   There is no question as to the earnestness with which the con- 
ference in Brunnen was conducted nor as to the immense poten- 
tialities for the cause of conservation inherent in the Paris 
Conference. It is not too much to say that the Paris Conference 
cannot succeed without active and enthusiastic American par- 
ticipation. Inasmuch as the New York Zoological Society, repre- 
senting the Foundation, took a strong hand in the work at Brunnen 
and as its delegate was a member of the drafting committee for 
the constitution, our failure to take an active part in the subsequent 
conference would distinctly threaten its success. 
  Although the constitution, as finally adopted, defines the in- 
terests and functions of the International Union for the Protection 
of Nature more narrowly than the Zoological Society's delegate 
wished, these interests and functions are subject to redefinition 
                              50 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
in the future. One of the most important decisions which the 
Foundation's delegates must make will be whether or not they 
should take the lead in redefining them at the Paris Conference. 
ANTICIPATED RESULTS 
  It is difficult to anticipate the results of the Foundation's par- 
ticipation in the proposed conference owing to the fact that it will 
be attended probably by more than a hundred, and possibly by 
as many as two hundred, delegates with varying and even con- 
flicting views. However, it can be stated with reasonable assur- 
ance that the Foundation can play an extremely important role 
in this conference and may readily exert a dominating influence 
upon its destiny. 
  Participation as proposed represents a golden opportunity to 
the Foundation to make its influence felt over the whole field of 
its conservation effort. Failure to attend would be tantamount to 
a refusal to accept the leadership expected of it. If the Inter- 
national Union for the Protection of Nature emerges as a full- 
fledged international organization next July, it must exert wide 
influence. Many hazards lie ahead and the entire enterprise will 
be stillborn unless it is vigorously and intelligently supported. 
There are still a number of important individuals and organiza- 
tions not yet fully convinced that the organization can succeed. 
We do not yet know what the reaction of various governments 
will be nor how seriously they will attempt to make the forth- 
coming conference a success. Much will depend upon the Amer- 
ican stand. 
USE OF THE RESULTS 
   Providing the conference is a success and the IUPN comes into 
full vigor, its usefulness will be considerable. We may hope that 
new international conventions for the protection of nature will 
be adopted, treaties drawn up and put into effect, local, national 
and international conservation laws altered and improved, edu- 
cation in the fields of conservation vigorously prosecuted, and 
many other similar results achieved. 
METHOD 
   A large amount of work will have to be done during the next 
                              51 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
six months if we participate in this coiLference. The Foundation's 
delegates must in first instance get in touch with the interested 
United States government agencies and discuss policy with them. 
   In second instance, they must decide exactly how they will 
cooperate with other private organizations in this country so that 
the American delegation can be selected and instructed in con- 
formity with a simple, clear-cut policy. 
   In third instance, the Foundation will be obliged to carry on 
an extended correspondence with British delegates, and with 
delegates of various other European countries, in order to pre- 
pare a tentative agenda for the Paris Conference. Agreement in 
advance will do much to insure the success of the conference. 
  These matters will require about a third of the time of one 
member of our staff this winter. 
 
COST 
   Two round trip tickets to Europe. .........    $1,200. 
   Thirty days in Europe at $25 a day per person .  1,500. 
   Travel expenses, approximately. ..........       400. 
 
                                                        $3,100. 
 
 
52 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
             New York Conference in 1948 
   for European Members of the Advisory Council 
 
 
 
PROPOSAL 
  It is proposed herewith that five leading European scientists be 
invited by the Foundation to attend a one-week conference in 
New York City in March or April 1948. 
  During the recent trip to Europe of a staff member, he dis- 
cussed with a number of Europeans the possibility of their serv- 
ing as members of the Advisory Council to the Foundation. In 
each case, the men approached indicated their willingness to 
serve in this capacity, and three of them definitely agreed to come 
to New York. These acceptances were from Charles Sutherland 
Elton, Zoologist, Director of Bureau of Animal Population, Oxford; 
Dr. V. van Straelen, President, Institute of the National Parks of 
the Belgian Congo, Brussels; and Dr. Nils Dahlbeck, Botanist, 
Executive Secretary of the Swedish League for the Protection of 
Nature, Stockholm. 
 
NEED FOR ACTION 
  The Foundation has already created an Advisory Council con- 
sisting of men of outstanding reputation and skill. Upon several 
occasions in 1947 American members of this group met and con- 
ferred with the Foundation. Their advice was of inestimable 
value to us. 
  If we are to operate truly on an international scale it is abun- 
dantly clear that we must have scientists and others from abroad 
serving the Foundation in an advisory capacity. One of the major 
purposes of the New York Conference would be to provide an 
opportunity for our most active partners in Europe to meet their 
American colleagues and to discuss with them and with ourselves 
the problems confronting the Foundation. It is a matter of great 
                             53 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
practical importance that our European advisors should take an 
active part at the earliest possible moment in our affairs, because 
much depends upon the degree and depth of interest engendered 
by them among their own associates. 
 
ANTICIPATED RESULTS 
   The European delegates will return to their respective countries 
with an infinitely clearer conception of the Foundation's scope, 
purposes and objectives than they could derive in any other 
fashion. 
   The Foundation itself will undoubtedly receive great stimula- 
tion from European attendance and will also gain a much clearer 
picture of the means of accomplishing its international ends than 
would otherwise be the case. 
  Conservation problems in the New World and the Old World 
are the same - and yet with differences. A mingling of experi- 
ence cannot help but be fruitful to all of us. We expect that 
the Foundation's program and its future policies will be altered 
as a result of our growing experience, changing conditions, and 
new and progressive thinking. Our European colleagues, too, 
may take new heart from their realization of what we are at- 
tempting. 
 
PREPARATION 
  It is proposed that the three men mentioned above be invited, 
together with Dr. A. Vivian Hill, Physiologist, University of 
London, former Secretary of the Royal Society, and that another 
selection be made from among scientists of equal stature. 
 
COST 
  Five round-trip tickets............$3,000. 
  Per diem expenses: five men for seven days each, 
       at $20 per day.     ..............              700. 
   American travel and entertainment. .........1,000. 
 
      Total..................                        $4,700. 
 
 
54 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                              IV 
                  Organization Planning 
 
 
 
  No organization, especially one engaged in such a pressing 
field as conservation, can exist in a vacuum. Small, tightly-knit 
groups can exert immense influence if their ideas are obviously 
sound, but it is a basic tenet of a democracy that the people - all 
the people - are concerned in public affairs, and the surest and 
soundest way to attain goals in the public interest is to inform 
the people and inspire them to take action in their own name. 
  The means of reaching the public and persuasively informing 
it, depends in large measure on the agencies lying between the 
source of facts and the public. 
  The Conservation Foundation does not want to stand alone; 
it could not, even if it would. It is fully prepared to find the 
facts and to report them. 
  How to make the best use of popular knowledge and enthu- 
siasm? An appraisal of this problem is required at an early stage. 
 
 
55 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                Investigation of Means of 
         Broadening the Base of Public Interest 
             and of Assuring Public Action 
 
 
BACKGROUND 
  The Conservation Foundation has been conceived as an in- 
stitution of dignity and high professional integrity, with an inter- 
national outlook. As a matter of policy we feel that it should 
stand apart from direct agitation in behalf of causes in which it 
may be, nevertheless, vitally interested. We believe there is a 
universal need for objective fact-finding in every one of the dis- 
puted fields of conservation, and therefore that its primary func- 
tion should be that of providing others with the most complete, 
accurate, and disinterested facts obtainable. As a consequence, 
education, both formal and popular, should be the Foundation's 
major concern, and this should be buttressed by a series of studies 
and research projects directed toward specific ends. 
   It is assumed that the financial support of the Foundation will 
come from a relatively small number of givers. At the same time, 
it is recognized that effective action on the conservation front re- 
quires the very broadest public interest and public support; peo- 
ple must become aroused to the point of demanding action on 
issues of such moment. 
   At the moment there are many leagues and associations de- 
voted to conservation in one or another of its aspects. These 
existing organizations are frequently highly specialized. Often 
they make an emotional approach to their problems. Almost 
invariably their budgets are inadequate. No single group, con- 
sequently, attracts sufficiently wide support to achieve the total 
objective of conservation. Similarly, none wields the power or 
commands the revenue that would allow operations on a large 
scale. 
   With these premises in mind, the Foundation may well find it 
                              57 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
desirable to direct some portion of its endeavor to broadening the 
base of public interest that is now lacking. At the least it will 
need to know what are the most effective instruments available 
for translating ideas into action. The problem is one of major 
importance and the solution will do much to determine the future 
effectiveness of the Foundation. 
PROPOSAL 
   We are of the opinion that the Foundation should undertake 
an investigation of various possibilities. They may be summarized 
as follows: 
1. Can our ends be achieved by the use of existing organizations? We 
   believe that we might stimulate existing organizations to successful 
   action without infringing on their independence in any way. 
2. Would it be preferable to set up our own action organization, within 
   the Foundation itself? This would entail a drive for public sub- 
   scriptions on a large scale and might compromise the objectivity of 
   the Foundation. Further, the activities of the Foundation as we 
   conceive them today might be completely overshadowed. 
3. Would it be advantageous to sponsor a new instrument in the form 
   of a quite separate Conservation League of America which should 
   seek a very large membership (for argument's sake, bigger than the 
   combined memberships of other conservation organizations), spread 
   geographically over the whole United States? 
4. If any one of these three propositions is accepted, how should it be 
   implemented - stimulated, financed, controlled? 
   An investigation of these possibilities would be extremely tech- 
nical in character and should be attempted only under the very 
best public relations guidance. 
RESULTS 
   Broadly, the information to be sought can be summarized as: 
1. A detailed analysis and assessment of the scope of all organizations 
   in the United States interested in conservation. (This information 
   will prove valuable regardless of the conclusions that may be drawn 
   from the investigation). 
2. An estimate of the effects an attempt to enlist wide public support 
   for the Foundation might have on the Foundation's work and 
   policies. 
3. An appreciation of the practicability of launching a new large-scale 
   Conservation League. An analysis not only of the ways of bringing 
   it about, but also of its possible effects on the Foundation's future.

                                58 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
4. Analysis of the experience of other large organizations seeking to 
   produce concrete results in fields analogous to our own. 
5. Professional recommendations concerning the steps to be taken to 
   achieve our objectives. 
METHOD 
  Although this problem has received careful consideration we 
do not feel competent at this time to suggest the exact methods 
to be followed in the investigation. Discussions with public rela- 
tions counsel and with experts in nation-wide campaigns will be 
required to develop detailed plans. 
  We can, nevertheless, make some general observations about 
the line the investigation should take. We can assume full and 
frank discussions between officers of the Foundation and execu- 
tives of large civic organizations. This preparatory phase is one 
which should not be turned over to public relations counsel, al- 
though their advice would be sought from the outset. 
  At this early stage, we should study the experiences of other 
bodies that have attempted great civic movements. We are con- 
cerned with how they have met their problems of recruitment 
and maintenance of membership, financing, organization of local 
chapters, procurement and direction of staff, planning and control 
of activities, publications, informational and educational services, 
and relations with the press and with other organizations. 
  We know that the limitations of action by civic groups are 
largely fiscal and organizational. We want to know whether a 
program of grants-in-aid to existing groups would advance the 
cause of conservation at less continuing cost than the sponsorship 
and maintenance of a separate League of our own. 
   Once the facts have been marshaled with the constant guid- 
ance and advice of public relations counsel, the second phase 
calls for surveys and analyses by the public relations experts, and 
preparation of a report and recommendations. 
COST 
   This investigation will be difficult to make. We believe, how- 
ever, that it is of such importance that it should be started at an 
early date. We are asking for the sum of $15,000 to cover pro- 
fessional fees, expenses, traveling, etc. This figure is an estimate 
worked out with the assistance of a public relations firm. 
                               59 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
- LA. 
 
 
                .p$.1 28t, 19$47 
 
 
 
 
Mr. F-airfield Osborne 
Now York Zoologica Society 
630o Fih Avete 
New York 20, NL T. 
 
Dear Fairfield: 
 
I had to wire youm imqtbility to atten the 
may 16 meetin. That week conMans the fnl 
exam on m yeolog ocoure, evemrl ays of 
making exam papers, a meeting of the Cmoservation 
Commssion (2 ays), and two days of student 
intervim  preparatory to wi4ndng up the semostes. 
None of these dates Gay be hifte, d or Oca  I 
wish them on ay other person. 
 
I' sorr   to disappolnt you. I oan msen that 
you probably need some outside testioin". 
I hope the meetings go well. 
 
                             Your*s eer, 
 
 
Ald4o Leopold 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
           *Pril 1'4, 11947 
 
 
 
 
I 
	
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
 
                ZOOLOGICAL PARK  - THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION   -   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH - CONSERVATION 
 
 
                                                        OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY

                                                     630 Fifth Avenue, New
York 20, N. Y. 
                                                            Circle 5-5750

                                                        April 9, 1947 
 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
Thanks greatly for yours of the 3rd. I will take care of your Albrecht 
material, which I am grateful that you are forwarding to me, and will 
return to you as soon as I am through with it, which should be within 
two or three weeks. 
 
I have the Sir Albert Howard book and could not swallow it all, and so 
I am glad to hear your comments concerning its tendencies to bias. 
 
I have just finished a brief write-up on Australia but feel that the 
rabbit end of it is not treated quite as fully as it should be and would

therefore be glad if you would mail me as soon as you can the pamphlet 
by David G. Stead. I can return it to you within a few days. 
 
I got back from Washington last night, having heard Bill Vogt speak on 
conditions in Venezuela and Salvador the evening before; also had a 
most interesting talk with Fred Renner concerning his survey of Greece, 
as well as with Walter Lowdermilk concerning various things in our alley.

 
I have just had a letter from Starker this morning wanting more informa-

tion concerning our Foundation. 
Activities are piling along and I think we are making progress. Will be 
writing again soon, 
 
                                     Yours ever, 
 
 
1,( 
 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
The University, of Wisconsin 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
 
FO: RES 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                        April 16, 1947 
 
 
Mr. George 1. reve#, :r. 
New Yor Zoological Society 
Conservation Division 
122 M. 58th St. 
New York 22, W. T. 
 
Dear George: 
 
Your letter of April 5 rasles, an Y= know, Many questions too large 
to be handled by letter, and also many on which T have no views. 
 
Off han, I am skeptical of a videly publioiseA international centeren"m

as early as 1948.  1 would proosee quietly for a longer jeriod, to 
give your organisation a ohanoe to feel out its Job. Several meetings 
of the Advisory Omittee should precede a     publioised conference. 
 
If you do go ahead on a 1%48 Confrenoce, bettor got untangled first 
with Bill Vogt who has an inter-American Conference in 1948. 
 
An to a CannAdan Advisor, three names come to mindt !rfessor Ian 
gc        GCowan, University of British Columbia; Dr. Harrison Lewis, 
National Parke Branah, Ottawa: Dr. William Rowan, Unidvert-lty of 
Alberta, Mmonton. I would poll some Canadian opinion before making 
a   mmitmnt. Ask Albert Hochbam, Delta Waterfowl bRsearh Station, 
Delta, Manitoba. 
 
Y.e, I approve the 10ropeaf trip by Fairfteld and yoarself. 
 
As to the charter, I haVe misgivings about 2c, It sounds too much like 
a "developnent0 program. I don't think you meant it to be. 
 
Also I have misgivings about *to produce" in  I1 (4). If we bcome a

producer of educational materials we may bog down, 
 
This ts a fragmentary reply.  I lack time to do a real job. 
 
                                              Yours ever, 
 
 
 
                                              Aldo Leopold 
00 Vogt 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
   NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
 
                   ZOOLOGICAL PARK      -  THE AQUARIUM 
              EDUCATION       SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH - CONSERVATION 
                                   CONSFtRVATI(;N DIVISION 
                                   122 E. 58th St. Nbew York 22, N. Y.  Z."ef
t 
                                        P~aza 9-6934 
 
 
                                             5 April 1947 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo I 
 
          I am enclosing with this note a draft of proposed powers 
and purposes for our "Certificattem of Incorporation# which was 
prepared by Sam Ordway. Sam intends to submit this to our counsel, 
Alfred Ily, for his consideration and we hope to proceed with in- 
corporation soon. 
 
          He is most antious to have your advice and the benefit 
of any comments on the document that you would care to make. Naturally 
it is of importance that our charter be phrased with the greatest care 
and that it omit none of the objectives or ideals which we believe the 
Foundation should advance. 
 
           I am also asking for your advice and counsel on another 
matter; namely, the proposed international conference which we hope 
to sponsor in the spring of 1948. There are two main points for our 
consideration at the moment. The first of these is concerned with 
persons or delegates who should be invite& to attend the conference:

the second is concerned with the proposed agenda for the conference. 
 
           In considering the selection of delegates we should bear 
 in mind the circumstance that some of them, Charles Sutherland Xlton, 
 for example, will probably be invited to become Trustees of the Foun. 
 dation and that others will probably be invited to serve as members 
 of an Advisory Council to the Foundation. 
 
           If I may digress for a moment, I am not inclined to favor, 
 initially, a large Advisory Council. We do need, however, five, six 
 or seven councillors who will be available to guide and assist us 
 during the active planning stage upon which we are now embarked and 
 which will surely not be concluded for a year and may not be concluded 
 for two years to come. You and Bill Vogt have already most kindly 
 agreed to act in this capacity. Most of the other members of the 
 Advisory Council, should, it seems to me, be within reasonable 
 "shooting distance" so that we can, if need be, go to them or
they 
 come to us for conference. 
 
           Again, as I see it, after the International Conference has 
 been held.- and certain Trustees appointed, we shall want to expand 
 the Advisory Council considerably and include among its personnel 
 councillors from many foreign countries. 
 
  

					
				
				
                                      /q 
 
 
          I am wondering if we should/ot now consider inviting a few 
other people to join the Advisory Co oil and that if we do so decide 
if we should not include one Canadian and possibly Mr. Elton, I would 
greatly like to have your views on this subject and particularly your 
suggestions of the individuals you might favor for selection. 
 
          To return to the earlier subject of the Conference* My own 
view is that the holding of the Conference might properly be the first 
major public act of the New Foundation; - the launching of the ship. 
Outstanding ecologists from Europe, South and Central America, Canada, 
Africa, Russia and China should be invited to attend - but the members 
should, I feel, not be too numerous. The work the Conference should 
undertake cannot be accomplished by a large delegation. Essential, far 
reaching, philosophic principles will have to be agreed upon and an 
"Atlantic Charter" of conservation written and underwritten by
the con.- 
ferees. Wide publicity should be given this feature of the work and I 
hope that the President of United States can be persuaded to attend the 
final session and personally endorse the policies arrived at. 
 
          Our present feeling is that Fairfield Osborn and I should this

summer undertake a two-month trip to Europe (including Moscow) to inter.

view personally the chief delegates to be selected and to ask them to 
assist at once in preparing the agenda for the conference. 
 
          Considerable funds will have to be raised to meet the expenses

of the Conference and a budget prepared. I am hopeful these funds can 
be procured. 
 
          I should very much like to have your thoughts on my views and 
also your best thought on the men or women who should be chosen as 
delegates. 
 
          Further will you send me any views you may now have as to the 
agenda which should be adopted. 
 
           I certainly shall understand if it takes you some time to for-

mulate your replies to the hnmerous and involved qubtions this letter 
raises but we should like your views on our proposed charter provisions 
in the meantime. 
 
           You will be interested to learn that certain changes have 
 occurred in our little staff: Mr. Hoyt is not going to continue with 
 us; his place is to be taken by Robert Snider who has agreed to work 
 with us, at least until January, 1948. He has an outstanding record 
 of achievement in research and we are very happy and I believe very 
 fortunate to have him with us. Colonel William Smith has also joined 
 us on the same basis as Mr. Snider and will probably be most active in 
 the educational program we are working on. 
 
           I was hoping I might see you at the recent Isaak Walton Con.-

 vention at Chicago. I shall try to keep you posted from time to time 
 on major developments. 
 
           Please forgive the undue length of this letter. With my 
 very kindest regards, 
                                               Faithfully, 
 
 GEB/s                                         George E. 'rewer, Jr. 
 Enc. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
MMORANDX RSCA11Ct f.ICLRI 
 
 
      Tfi name of his corporation shall be. "T  CW12MArI~TI FOUWDNTATIOR".

 
 
 
      *Tho mr-oses of this Founciatig  are; 
 
      I. To e-tavfrv,* tor' the lm-,.ftt -ý! mmikin truIcý
the 'Virld4 
 
knolodga #     w! no.rst~nelng of ý,,, oarth's nst~ur~l -,re living
rPIC~rc6 and 
 
thtdr essential r.1.timt to* vtdi other rmt to t'~            qrnrI(chmt

 
 
 
 
  T~ wdmainlt'ýmk 
 
 
              (~) Te 4t~~' -'n "u Oxtfmt of tk" ea~rth- r,,~~ 
 of 
 
 
 
 
 
            do)ýwdont an: Art. vital- to tbe- *hjI,-- c an  iI % 
 
 
 
 
 
            md OtI~ #ýxtent of c~ir-rtnt exitr.ýt-,re o  q
 vl. 
 
            teýy:w3" kU~tur0*' Jostr o! xI2 
 
 
 
      :4rd b7 enouraginr the *idaet.  ofpmuch knowef seo and 
 
wQ.thsOdV W proi te j>Ubb1c             fit f~eat4' '-C . ý: 7c;

 
      '3. To tti-O2&t.. t 0 ciI 4'Aý t.c'ticr, Inor *,t¶'r
-n h!oso-hy 
 
whiaok s ploqtso th tir a2  wet-arg ýf mn.ut rvl t!.tn to RzIN4tro
and Aih~a 
 
 
nee, 1 e' rsý'r Grcte m' ii e C~4 pit I: r"Al~     man~ riand

 
 
  hia . ýisedt *I' life &a it, it, orw~ ,4In te4--u 'f the  .satz
 deglirs and 
 
 
 
        4 T O btT-u-' ~ný. ~ ; tl~h.to            tho, Pr. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
cenmer7 for purposes of d#monstrioR oT fwie lsnd uee, pubuce 
 
adution    d thoe en.ri et o' life; 
 
       +   To  ork with Pr- aýsgvt Lndividunl, oroaaixed group,, 
 
.vrnt4 .          e   , e any state or nhtia, and tematioui agici.es 
 
to nouVr&   und assure effeetive application of s       rnervation 
 
khavwlod~ro, practices sand motho4.. 
 
 
 
       To thiaý sa t'ne foun~iat'ion; is aut),orisuc &nd ennovereet

 
       1. To slicit, receive, hold snd m-sintaia faad. n d to    pply 
 
om-ch func;& or t4he ineos* therefror, Int wuch -rAnrnf.r as In~~~~~n
 of 
 
its traOteva WiaU best ".ry out. the pur.sep of the F*     ato 
 
       S . ';4   To stialaot and enourage study,, resertt,  catcn.r uder

 
  stiiaiedv ket~ion thruo!tat tkta world thrlugt. IeeisueCineding 
 
the previWin sand award of Kransi n.4.d, oclasruhi-,ps, ±Amcl and
prize* 
 
te t-ho end thst boapu neock oozc demaais,, Pc the regentrutirig power of

 
nait~aro umAY Lv brought mar. aisarly into h#amony. 
 
        -3. To osagae in re,ehrch sne enonuct etudies of nyiturrl xd 11yiag

 
reeo-*urces w their reiativbip to s.ao other end to huma neor, ond deands,

 
,at; to publioh or subsicize ?bictatian of eiguiflc tt f~in      ennd re~rt*

 
of  scetiie, pictoriul or lit.rary nrtire., 
 
        4. To enco-arage 'ýtradur.ton of, to produce And to mski Avnifplah

 
at 41   octisasl levels, aceurvte san stAiIing mat*ri*i* iltudig 
 
filas,         s, bns,- leetree, rsdo procrs   and teloviwa broadcast* 
 
relating to origins, distributionand5 interdqepondene of naturs4 roseures

 
.ad relating to effective metIh.4 for Vtoir moervetion ud use, 
 
        5, To proide the osbinery lor enforanc he    d ro-n ltaet   aong

 
advisor~y,   arohýbc, plsanning, rivi.,pe ee11,       *..tiwaal sad

 
ment~al agoaaie. which mry be ctoncemedJ with., or help in, the cot~rz--Vaticn

 
of natur4l &nd livinp resouruer, so thpt wapteful. duplication of effort

 
may be raiaimised -.nai new lieldrs 'ort coiiatructiv# researoi sand action
a 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
b~ moro clearly 4tinw. 
     6. o aat a. a Clearing huee for th *oU10ion, *vlai , 
 
d.ivneiatinu or intechkaug of ±eaforwation w Ubib1grftphi~and o1 ther

 
 
 
X,. 
 
     01e  r f  te*. talbl U not, leaI tthen twnty-n entor 
 
more tho trty-.eyo, ew o ;, ot l .eb thJx- hi~f shi  e w.1i; e eI of the

 
that Tri.-ttEer of v1*v leirk yolorei4 S roty. One4 ird o' the 
 
 
 
te re.ittv  ttetv~p of   tht ~*e t tit. Ornd ,it no.e tbiln t whe ich 
 
  ~~~i bR e r,,d- jo ctr C   Onb~1 orA ah 1ot~ jý .1 t o~ r 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      Tih ~ueathra.Lne! It to ef T     ata. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
a st fc-pertuattng of  Te fuo t oti cf mayeer         re d 
 
 
    NT~~~   ~~       ol~~ u~~d2yb ts0 t~i, &ndtkna relrins open. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A 3ri, 7 !1*7 
 
 
Mr. T1"UrflIeld Osborne 
1ew Yozc Zoolog1,o~a $ooilety 
630 Fifth Ave*nue 
siew YorL d(, )ie York 
 
 
 
I    Ixm  u1; -ou Cr com2llo'e ooleotion Of the Albreoht 
reo-lis, ind do i few rela t     ts whith I thou- t 
 
 
you  C'. ti'ouh h it. :.btJows yo:   -vn in mid1 t'he 
OV-:dionn ~dil  foJg :ve us ,C× ,t t:r fi:lty of th 
 
 
 
 
t~b'eh rj ~   a 
tLf to your lioryn'. 
     o uale. 4. . 19~4~5. .-' ; " . it L 
 
ij%   i3.oo. 
 
 
 
              ~~~~~~~~f ai'~t17 ulad~~d3 
study of organic #ricuLturo.   Doven- c¶ r Go., 'hr Yo:. 
 
I haye a god deal of resteot for    ile'z hoO but 
1iua'd' view i8 biase, nand n' to be c meeto aS 
scentifie f's, andr in ingt,
	
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
                ZOOLOGICAL PARK  - THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH  -  CONSERVATION 
 
 
                                                               OFFICE'O THE
SOCIETY 
                                                            630 Fifth Avenue,
New York 20, N. Y. 
                                                                    CIrcle
5-5750 
                                                                 March 20,
1947 
 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
This comes as a reminder that I would immensely appreciate your forwarding
to me as 
soon as you can any papers (probably especially those by Albrecht) that bear
on the 
relationship of land health, or rather, good soil conditions, to human health.
I 
am very eager to get a good chapter on this subject into my book* I quite
realize 
there is not too much data that has beln developed on this but I presume
there is 
enough reliable material which would permit of definite indication, if not
proof, 
that as soil conditions decline human energy and health decline. Also I want
to 
try to dispel the present illusion in the public's mind that vitamin pills
"do 
the trick"; in other words, would wish to attempt to show, among other
things, 
that vitamin pills are merely activators and are not substitutes that will
give 
energy and health to human beings in lieu of poor land products from depleted
soils. 
(I realize this vitamin end of it is a little tricky and has to be handled
with 
care.) All in all I think you know what i am after and, as I say, would very

deeply appreciate your forwarding to me any material that you know of that
would 
help. 
 
Also, I am afraid I am burdening you further by asking you to send on such
strik- 
ing examples as may occur to you of the value of animal life in the ecological

scene -- when I speak of animals I am of course not thinking merely of mammals

but all the way down the scale - especially perhaps striking examples of
actual 
cases where the whole economy of nature is broken down because of destruction
or 
non-protection of certain forms of animal life. I am going to attempt to
also 
write a chapter in my book on this subject. As you know, the book is a brief

effort or an argument rather than a treatise and therefore all I need for
its pur- 
poses is the citIng of certain special and striking cases to support the
general 
expression of the thesis that animal life in all its forms must be recognized
as 
an integral part of "land health." 
 
I will be deeply grateful for your sending to me any material along the above
lines 
that would fit this bill. 
Since you left here we have made a lot of progress already, of which we will
keep 
 
you informed in detail as time goes on. 
 
Wi th warmest personal regards, 
 
                                              Sincerely yours, 
 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold                                              Pre *dent 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
 
FO: RES 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
March 18, 1947 
 
 
mr. Fairfield Osborn, President 
New York Zooogial Society 
630 Fifth Avenue 
New York 20, N. Y. 
Dear ftirfieldt 
 
Thanks for your good letter. 
One of the deprossing aspects of the present situation ts the small pro-oportion

of traine men who have a broad grasp of the world situation in respect of

conservation, There mst be more of them than I know personally, but I can

onl draw on my own acquaintance. 
                    Gre A.    (Men in their thirties) 
          JO*2i. HckeF. Patuxent Laboratory, Bowle, Maryland. Probably 
          obligj-ated ba G  eih  m. I am trying to get him here. 
          S    er Le   d. Musem Yertebrate Zoolog, Berkeley, Olifornia. 
          1   Il   obligated to finish his book on Mexico. 
                   Grade B. (Men in their thirties) 
 
          Frederick N. Naaerstrom, Jr. % George Reserve. Pickney, Mich. 
          Pehapes not obligated. 
          Arthur S, Hawkins. Fish andW ildltfe Service. Present address 
          424 Vair rsityF arm Place, Madison, Yfis, Perhaps obligated.. 
          Charles Schwartz. % Board of Agr~culture and Forestry, P.O. Box
3319, 
          Honolulu 1. Haaii. Soon footloose. 
 
          Lw1e K, Bowls. % Delta Waterfowl Research Station, Delta, Manitoba.

                    Older Men 
 
          mest 0.1 HEot. % Soil Conservation Servioe, Washington, D. 0. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
2. 
 
 
I find in trying to write such a list that the job it so large as to befog

the mind, i.e.: I am not sure of my own Judgement.    ,very one of these
men 
is good, bat I am not sure there are not many others Just as good, especially

as good as list B. 
Some of these man have their aim on a research creer, and you 4ght find it

easier to borrow them for a year or two than to employ them for indefinitely

long poriods. 
 
  With personal regards. 
                                                     Yours over, 
 
 
Aldo Leopold 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
 
                ZOOLOGICAL PARK  - THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION   - SCIENTTIFIC RE1SEARCHT  CANM.IflVA TTCNh. 
 
 
                                                      OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY

                                                   630 Fifth Avenue, New
York 20, N. Y. 
                                                           CIrce 5-5750 
                                                       March 13, 1947 
 
 
 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
Your letter of the tenth is at hand and we are immediately forwarding 
check in reimbursement of your expenses under separate cover. Our 
debt to you is very great, even granting we are all working for the 
same purposes. Your coming on at substantial sacrifice to yourself, 
in the sense of the long trip and the time away from yotir own work, 
is profoundly appreciated and it is beyond me to tell you how great a 
contribution, and even a permanent one, you made to our planning. 
 
I wonder if you are in a position to answer the following inquiry. We 
all feel at this time that it would be a very great advantage to add to 
our staff a man with training in biology, ecology and conservation. 
While there is no immediate hurry, it is obvious that our group wouli be

better equipped if such an individual was associated with our proposed 
enterorise. 
 
Your son made a very deep and favorable impression on George Brewer. 
Could you give me some kini of a reaction as to whether you think he 
might be available. We should like to get to know him better and dis- 
cover whether his point of view and ours would be compatible for the 
work into which we are entering. I think you will agree our enterprise 
presents a unique opportunity for the creation of an outstanding career,

Will you let me know your reactions? 
 
With warmest regards, 
 
                                   Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
                                                   Pres dn 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
The University of Wisconsin 
Department of Wildlife Management 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
FO: RES 
 
 
Y 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
..4anca 10, 19k47 
 
 
Mr. Pairfield 09 born*z 
New York Zoological Society 
630 ?ifth Ave',nu 
New lork 20, Now Tork 
 
Dear Faibrfield 
 
The trip to New York wa- gratifying to me and X 
anreciate your u    m~tn it wossible. It vai a deep 
satisfaction to learn that your gWoun is willin to 
jwp the grooves of tho-ught which have hretofore 
limited the ooinseration mov.ment, 
 
I anpwiate your hoscitality, both nysical wa 
intellectual. With reronal bost wishes. 
 
 
 
 
                           ALDO LUPOLD 
 
 
P.S. I will end soon the material I promised 
George Brewer, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
r-penso amoint for trip to Now York 
 
 
                 Conservation meatin of March 7-9, 1947 
 
                            Aldo Leopold 
 
3/7      Plsa  ticket to New York, round trip              $ 93.26 
         Cab to airnort, Madisont                             1.00 
         Limousine from Newark Airport to New Tork            1.15 
         Cab, ýoorter-5 
39       3rafast 
         Cab to Univ. Club                                     5 
  3/9    Btrakf ast.6 
         Cab to and from Univ. Club                           1.00 
         Hotel bill 3/7 - 3/9                                17.72 
3/10     Cab from Airport, Madison                            1.0o 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
/ 
 
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
 
               ZOOLOGICAL PARK    THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION   -   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH - CONSERVATION 
 
 
                                                      OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY

                                                   630 Fifth Avenue, New
York 20, N. Y. 
                                                          Circle 5-5750 
 
 
                                                   1 March 1947 
 
 
 
 
 Mr. Aldo Leopold 
 University of Wisconsin 
 Madison, Wisconsin 
 
 Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
             I am enclosing with this letter a preliminary 
 estimate of the problem which we are going to discuss during 
 the series of conferences on Marth 7th and 8th. I am also 
 enclosing a ten-point research proposal. 
 
             All of us feel, in spite of the tentative 
 nature of these drafts, that you should read them before 
 the conferences begin on Friday morning and we are most 
 anxious to have your views on the various questions raised. 
 
             We are holding our first conference at the 
Park in the Bronx and Mr. Osborn and I will be at the 
University Club, One West 54th Street, at nine o'clock 
Friday morning. I suggest that we all meet there at 
that time and motor up to the Bronx. 
 
             I can hardly tell you how greatly we anticipate 
your arrival and the help we know you are going to be able 
to give us and we all deeply appreciate the personal sacri- 
fice you're making in coming on to New York at this parti- 
cular time. 
 
             With kindest regards, 
 
                                       Faithfully yours, 
 
 
 
GEB/s                                  George E. Brewer, Jr. 
Enc. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATIONt 
 
 
A PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF THE PROBLEM 
 
 
 
 
 
            Premise 
 
            Obj ectives 
 
            Approach 
 
               Research 
 
               Education 
 
               Organization 
 
               Political 
 
            Plans 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                   Natural Resources Conservations 
 
                A Preliminary Estimate of the. robem 
 
 
Premise: 
 
        The world's natural and living resources of soil, water, 
 
plant and animal life (and certain essential minerals which sustain 
 
life) are being rapidly and dangerously depleted because man's 
 
present demands upon Nature exceed her present power of replenishment. 
 
In the past thirty years the trend of dissipation has rapidly increased 
 
and points toward increasing destitution& toward widespread starvation

 
within IOC years and possibly the eventual extinction of human life. 
 
        The problem is a world-wide problem which cuts across all 
 
geographical and racial lines. It is a problem which involves the 
 
interdependence of all natural resources so that separate efforts 
 
to conserve or restore water resources, or soil resources, or wild 
 
life, or to prevent pollution, or restore a balance of bird and 
 
insect lifo, are not alone sufficient to combat the trend, however 
 
useful such individual efforts may be. 
 
 
Ultimate Objective: 
 
        The ultimate objective is to reverse the destructive trend 
 
and to reestablish the regenerating power of Nature in sufficient 
 
measure to sustain continued human survival and a civilised standard 
 
of life on Earth. 
 
 
Intrmedigte ObJoetives: 
 
        Firsts To bring public opinion, which means all citizens 
 
of the world, to a thorough understanding of the dangers inherent 
 
in dissipation of resources; and the vital necessity for restraint, 
 
and for concerted action of public and private interests to 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
achieve specific and over-all conservation. 
 
         Seconds To gain acceptance as fundamental policy, by 
 
 private enterprise now using natural resources for profit, of the 
 
 long range view that it is in their own interest, as well as in that 
 
 of the public, to carry on their activities in such a way that all 
 
 renewable resources will be used on a sustained yield basis. 
 
         Thirds To assure that all of the agencies of governments 
 
concerned with any of the phases of conservation in every area 
 
have an integrated, enlightened policy and adequate programs for 
 
the study, dissemination and application of conservation techniques, 
 
with adequate staff, adequate appropriations and authority to 
 
accomplish their aims with the least possible interference with 
 
private enterprise. 
 
        Political, social and religious implications of any 
 
practical effort to approach accomplishment of these objectives 
 
are manifold and need to be examined most carefully in the 
 
development of our planning, 
 
 
 
 
        Approaches to the accomplishment of our objectives lie 
 
in the fields of research, education, organization and political 
 
action. 
 
I. Of Research, 
 
        Basic to all other approaches is the ascertainment of 
 
accurate facts concerning resources existence, use and dissipation 
 
in all parts of the world. It will be necessary at the outset to 
 
define the nature of the facts which will be needed in this endeavor, 
 
and to define the form in which such facts should be made available 
 
everywhere. In the compiling of data it will be necessary to have 
 
                             - 2- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
common points of reference and uniform understanding of terms and 
 
statistical method. The problem of procuring uniformity in the 
 
marshalling and dissemihation of needed information will be a huge 
 
problem in itself and the ways and means of gradually assuring the 
 
production and use of such data deserve consideration at this time,, 
 
        Sponsorship and encouragement of research studios loading 
 
to the production of uniform basic data may well constitute an 
 
attractive opportunity for possible donors of grants in aid. 
 
From such research studies should flow material of immediate use 
 
in education and program planning. 
 
        There is appended hereto a statement prepared by Mr. Hoyt 
 
proposing a ton-point program of research which should also be 
 
discussed at length at this time, 
 
 
II. Of Educationt 
 
        Education is a very broad term and the targets and instru- 
 
ments of education are many. 
 
        Organized, formalized education in the schools and colleges 
 
throughout the world presents our broadest opportunity to reach the 
 
largest number of individuals who will be the leaders of thought 
 
and action in the years to come. Such education is therefore a 
 
vital medium for long range instruction concerning the facts which 
 
premise our endeavor as well as for instruction in technical and scientific

 
methods available in mn's effort to conserve resources. 
 
        Concurrently, and of equal present importance, the targets 
 
of education-planning includes private enterprises and individuals 
 
who are now dissipating natural resources for profit or from ig- 
 
norance; elected and appointed officials of government Ao can 
 
spread knowledge of the facts, encourage self-help and authorize 
 
                            -3- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
and enforce necessary controls as an alternative to self-help; the 
 
adult public, from whose understanding and will action springs; 
 
and finally, all those organized groups of citizens who, by joint 
 
endeavor to influence thought and action, whether for an ideal or 
 
for gain or both, powerfully influence action in the world. 
 
        If education in this cause is to prevail in time, the mani- 
 
fold media of education will need to be molded and pointed to the 
 
Foundation's aim. It will be necessary to procure and assure the 
 
fullest use of such pointed media. 
 
        This imports the preparation of proper texts for use in 
 
all curricula at all levels of education, and a long struggle to 
 
got such texts adopted and properly used in the educational systems 
 
of all states and nations. 
 
        So also, audio-visual educational media will need to be 
 
developed and employed, 
 
        Other media include literary and artistic works, technical 
 
and non-technical magazine articles, bookes press releases, 
 
exhibits and demonstration projects, and a wide network of con- 
 
potent lectures and radio education. 
 
        Which of these media should be developed at any time or 
 
place, and by what moans, and how their use may be assured most 
 
economically and effectively in different hands under different 
 
conditions, dre basic problems of planning and selection. 
 
        The way by which our projected Foundation should employ the 
 
educational approach as part of its long range program should be 
 
determined at an early stage of our planning.   Whether primary 
 
emphasis should be placed upon the sponsoring or stimulation of 
 
local educational activities, or whether the Foundation itself 
 
should embark upon particular forms of educational activity and 
 
                           --4-" 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
the desirable extent and timing thereof, should be considered at 
 
the outset. 
 
 
III. Of Organislatto: 
 
        Another apparent approach to our objectives is through 
 
organized public action in all parts of the world. 
 
        The hope of developing effective action through the enlist- 
 
ment of existing or now local action groups, instead of developing 
 
a decentralized organization of the Foundation itself, nay well be 
 
the only hope of economical achievement of our intermediate objectives, 
 
        It is not reasonable to expect that education alone will 
 
automatically generate sufficient, effective action to achieve 
 
soon enough our objectives in the field. The belief that action 
 
automatically flows from knowledge is illusory. Action has to 
 
be planned, stimulated, and fostered. 
 
        But very thorough plans will be required to stimulate useful 
 
local action throughout the world. The addition of conservation 
 
education and conservation action to the programs of such groups 
 
as Rotary, 4-H, Boy Scouts, Chambers of Commerce, #omen's Federa- 
 
tions, etc., and the use of such organizations for public pressure 
 
locally, is not altogether impractical; but it is an end sought 
 
by many other national organizations with many other important 
 
civic aims. National and local organizations all have their own 
 
preferred axes to grind, with already inadequate budgets, and 
 
are never anxious to be diverted from their major purpose. Com- 
 
petition in this field is great. Therefore, such effort will 
 
have to be better conceived and more thoroughly pressed than are 
 
the programs of competing endeavors, - not to the exclusion of 
 
other worthwhile causes, but to attain the objective of this. 
                               *5". 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
        It will not be sufficient alone to concentrate the 
 
Foundation's effort on national headquarters or policy committees 
 
of large national or international organizations, hoping that the 
 
indoctrination will reach down through national headquarters to 
 
the grass roots. Experience, confirmed by Pan-American Union and 
 
Rockefeller Foundation Reports, indicates that this does not 
 
happen effectively. 
 
        If such approach to the enlistment of support of existing 
 
organizations is eventually to be undertaken, it will be necessary 
 
to hold planned gatherings of civic leaders and groups, either 
 
severally or combined, at the grass roots level and, after in- 
 
spiring those present at such gatherings, call immediately for 
 
organization of local cooperating committees, call for the desig- 
 
nation of an Acting Chairman, and then provide for a Rid See- 
 
retarZ and initial oDeratigg budset. Sometimes local enthusiasm 
 
can be persuaded to produce the money forthwith for such a budget. 
 
More often, however, it will be necessary for the Foundation to 
 
provide the Secretary and some financial help, at least for the 
 
first year, until the local organization can be put en a self- 
 
supporting basis. It is due to lack of such support of local 
 
enthusiasm, lack of a detailed action program, and lack of follow- 
 
up that most efforts of this type collapse* 
 
        It is premature, at this time, to project any detailed 
 
outline of such local action program methods. Each local program 
 
will have to be based on thorough study of local conditions, 
 
needs, personalities, and the political situation. Nevertheless, 
 
those responsible for planning can and should devise a pattern 
 
for launching such local efforts in all sorts of areas, and for 
 
the establishment of such efforts on a self-sustaining basis0 
 
                            - 6* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
         Such a pattern may well embrace four local action aims 
 
and may well require the development of Field Teoas, fully 
 
trained in the method of launching such local effort.    There 
 
might be needed on such team one highly competent local organizer, 
 
to deal with local school and college authorities and educational 
 
associations, who would launch the program addressed to the educa- 
 
tional system; one highly competent in dealing with governmental 
 
authorities, and conversant with local political psychology and 
 
limitations, to plan and direct the governmental program; one 
 
highly competent in organiizug local civic support and raising 
 
funds to make the local effort self-supporting; and one able to 
 
develop locally means of winning the understanding and support 
 
of leaders of self-interest groups and individuals using natural 
 
resources for private profit* 
 
        Any endeavor to launch such four-barrelled programs at 
 
the local level would require a field director, and continuing 
 
team direction paid for by the Foundation until local people are 
 
able to carrt on and finance their efforts locally. The Foundation 
 
should take no credit for launching such local programs; local 
 
sponsors should receive full credit for accomplishment. 
 
        While it is too early, at this stage, to discuss fruitfully 
 
the details of any such organizational approach, careful considera- 
 
tion should be given, at this time, to the question of whether any 
 
such effort is likely to be required in the future; for the 
 
projected scope of the Foundation's eventual activity will substan- 
 
tially affect present plans for its own organization and financing. 
 
 
IV. 0fooitica Astions 
 
        The power of government to compile and analyze necessary 
 
factual information, desseminate public information, establish 
                               -7- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
local self-help programs Rind furnish technical advice in the 
 
field, as well as ultimately to regulate and control the use of 
 
resources, provides one of the most important approaches to the 
 
more rapid twcomplishment of our objectives. The Foundation 
 
may need to direct a large part of its effort towards implementing 
 
the most effective use of the power of government everywhere. 
 
        It may well be found desirable, through the type of local 
 
organization described above, to seek to keep constantly before 
 
elected and appointed officials the importance of local and world- 
 
wide resources waste, as well as to offset the propaganda of adverse 
 
pressure groups. Powerful public opinion will be needed and will have 
 
to be stimulated to support wise and oppose unwise proposals and 
 
policies at public hearings. There will need to be prepared ques- 
 
tionnaires for candidates for public office. Their position on conser- 
 
vation issues will have to be ascertained and made known to voters. 
 
There will have to be planned, integrated addresses to be delivered 
 
before join sessions of legislative bodies. In short, the approach 
 
to political action begins with the effort to educate those who are 
 
responsible for government action. 
 
        The battle for adequate appropriations for agencies engaged 
 
in conservation work will be continuing. The battle for technically 
 
competent and incorruptible staffing of pablic agencies will be con- 
 
tinuing. The battle to achieve coordinated action by national and 
 
local governments and international groups will be continuing. 
 
Governmental action everywhere to disseminate education for self- 
 
help of small as well as large landowners, timber owners, cattlewien, 
 
farmers, sportsmen, miners and manufacturers, will have to be greatly 
 
increased and made effective and the timing and extent of governnental 
 
control of the use of resources will require coordinated decision and 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
  pressure at the grass roots level. How best can the Foundation plan 
  to use this vital approach to accomplishment of its objectives? 
 
          It ia, of course, to be hoped that the Foundation's world- 
 
 wide effort can be effectively integrated with activities of the 
 
 Pan-American Union, the World Food and Agricultural Organizatioh, 
 
 UNESCO and the United Nations, and it appears possible that one 
 
 or more of these organizationu may eventually be able to take over 
 
 a largo measure, If not the full scope, of the Foundation's work. 
 
         Again, the scope and method of our endeavor to utilize the 
 
 power of government for our objective requires immediate and long 
 
 range consideration in our planning. 
 
 
 
         Obviously, the foregoing thoughts are very general in some 
 
 respects and too boldly detailed in others. They are submitted 
 
 primarily to indicate the scope of the problems we face. They 
 
 are offered, in part perhaps, to allay any notion that a small 
 
 organization or small plans will make substantial impress en the 
 
 present world-wide trend, 
 
 
 The Foundation's Own OrganisatEio, 
 
        It is apparent that for the first year or more we shall be 
 
in the fact-finding and planning stage, and that any elaborate 
 
organization which may eventually be needed can only grow out 
 
of such preliminary work. 
 
        There is attached hereto, as a kind of shot in the darkp 
 
an organization chart (labelled Chart I1) indicating what might 
 
be the ultimate scope of organization of such a Foundation if 
 
plans mature and it is desired to embark on an action program 
 
beyond stimulation of research and education. Such chart is 
 
offered for the purpose of emphasizing the importance of moving 
                             - 9-* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
slowly in our first yearts planning. 
 
        There are more immediate decisions to be Made. 
 
 
        Within the limitation of funds presently available, it is 
 
necessary to decide what is the beat method of utilizing those funds 
 
this year. 
 
        It appears that there is already opportunity to participate 
 
in the preparation and supervision of production of at least three 
 
films in the coming year, and there appears also the possibility 
 
of develeping, for immediate use, radio scripts. Regardless of 
 
the ultimate value of such immediate effort on our part, (for other 
 
agencies are already supporting similar educational activity along 
 
somewhat narrower lines), the production and dissemination of these 
 
films and the sponsorship of such radio broadcasts should be useful 
 
means of implementing a present effort to raise more substantial funds. 
 
        Furthermore, an essential of any future development is 
 
attendance at continuing conferences on conservation matters in many 
 
places, and the further developmont of acquaintanceship with those 
 
working in the field. 
 
        It also appears desirable to arrange conferences with and 
 
invite the assistance of a number of outstanding leaders whose 
 
advice will be of the greatest benefit in the development of our 
 
thinking and whose interest should be enlisted at the outset of 
 
planning. 
 
        It also appears desirable to build up, at the outset, a 
 
strong international Advisory Committee to aid us in understanding 
 
conditions abroad and to aid us in meeting and planning with all 
 
individuals interested in or active in this field abroad. Some of 
 
such advisors may well become members of the Board of Trustees of 
 
                                - 10li 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
any Foundation to be formed. 
 
         Initial fact-finding and research work should be outlined and 
 
 started shortly; for information is basic to the development of our 
 
 plane, our educational endeavor, and any act ion program eventually 
 
 undertaken. 
 
         It appears desirable that we first consider with competent 
 
advisors the form of information we are to seek this year. The 
 
ten-point Hoyt Program of research attached can be discussed at 
 
length. It is my belief that, even with a sizable staff of research 
 
assistants, it is not probable that all of the data called for in the 
 
ton-point program can be obtained and developed, in one year, into 
 
a well presented, comprehensive report on the United States and other 
 
countries and world mzongies.   It is hardly possible that comparable 
 
data is available in all countries; and there will undoubtedly be 
 
large gaps in the data desired for various portions of the United 
 
states alone. 
 
        We should consider perhaps whether one of our first aims 
 
should not be to ascertain the kind of facts and information which 
 
will be needed in our work from all countries and prepare a formalized 
 
statement of comeon terms, points of reference, statistical method 
 
and coverage in a report entitled, porhaps, *Uniform Data Needed for 
 
International Conservation Planning *. The United States Government 
 
or the Pan-American Union, or some group in the League of Nations or 
 
the United Nations has undoubtedly thought about the need for such 
 
uniform compilation of data, and much work may already have boon 
 
done upon it.   However, we shall need to know just what data we 
 
shall want for our own purposes. Work already done in this direction 
 
may or may not be sufficient. 
 
 
- 11 - 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
         In connection with this preliminary project, we shall 
 
 ascertain details concerning the data on resources existence and 
 
 use which is currently available in the United States, and learn 
 
 the extent of its world coverage, which will aid in arriving at 
 
 intelligible definitions of minimum uniform data required in places 
 
 whore it does not exist today. 
 
         Such study might directly lead to the development of an 
 
 additional project. That is, the preparation, by the conclusion 
 
 of the first twelve months, of a well presented report upon the 
 
 "Information Now Available Concerning Natural Resources in the 
 
 United States -- Their Distribution, Use and Dissipation". The 
 
 object here would be to collect and analyse data available not only 
 
 in Washington but regionally as well throughout the United States, 
 
 and present facts and conclusions in graphic form which should be 
 
 a startling basis for the appeal for long range funds. It seems 
 
 probable that at least two or three graduate students might have to 
 
 be given grants in aid and assigned to several regions of the United 
 
 States to compile available material for such presentation. Their 
 
 studies would have to be carefully planned, coordinated, and directed 
 
 by a mature Director. Contacts and openings would have to be made for 
 
 them and there would need to be close follow-up of the time on the ac- 
 
 tivity and program of each. 
 
         A third desirable project, in view of the sponsorship of the 
 
Zoological Society and the wide interest among philanthropists in the 
 
wild life aspects of conservation, would seem to be to analyse all 
 
that has been written with reference to the relationship of wild life 
 
to other forms of resources conservation, and perhaps issue a 
 
separate report, well illustrated, concerning the affect on animal life 
 
of the facts disclosed in the proposed report on U. S. resources, use 
 
and dissipation. 
                             - 12- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
         These three projects involve a combination of planning, compi- 
 
 lation, analysis, supervision, direction and editorial effort. They 
 
 are not easy projects, but may well be the simplest which would produce

 
 valuable results in the first year. We should discuss all alternate 
 
 suggestions fully as soon as possible. 
 
         Along with these projects, work should go forward on studies 
 
 of the longer range programs including methods of organization for 
 
 education, research, and use of data throughout the world, 
 
         If the Society's present consultants are to be most useful to 
 
 the Foundation in the future, they will need to spend much time this 
 
 year beconing familiar with the problems involved in conservation work,

 
 the people engaged therein, and the history and literature of the move-

 
 ment. They should not be too heavily loaded down with ieodiate pro- 
 
 duction responsibilities# 
 
        There is accordingly presented here, a chart suggesting minimum 
 
interim organization required to initiate the limited type of research, 
 
planning and education activities discussed above. It is not to be 
 
expected that such an organization would carry on field operations 
 
designed to make any notable impress on present trends or produce any 
 
very novel contributions to either scholarship or progress. Such a 
 
limited organization, however, provided with a small office and 
 
necessary resoaroh matorials, sould inaugurate activity capable of 
 
expansion as plans and program evolve and additional funds become 
 
available. 
 
 
 
        Staffing, even at this stage, is of maximum importance; no 
 
individual should be retained for vital planning work simply because 
 
he is *highly recommended'; objective investigation and evaluation 
 
of experience, reputation and capacity should be a prerequisite of 
 
even interim employment* 
                                - 13 
 
  

					
				
				
 
CHART I (planning Stage) 
 
 
Bce rd 
   Of 
Trus tees 
 
 
EjotaJt 
 
 
I 
 
 
  Advisory 
  Council 
  (World 
articipat ion) 
 
 
Con sultant 
    on 
 Research 
Fact Finding 
    and 
  Ana nays is 
  Development 
     of 
 In fo rma t ion 
   Center 
 
 
  Pres iden t 
     of 
  Foundation 
(also President 
  of N.Y.Z.S.) 
 
 
  Consultant 
      on 
  Education 
Arranges for and 
participates in 
preparation and 
use of Films, 
Scripts, Texts, 
Lectures, etc. 
School, College 
and Civic Group 
Con ta ct s 
 
 
  Consult an t 
      on 
Program-Planning 
     and 
 Staff Services 
 Long range planning 
 for the launching 
 of Local Self- 
 Sustaining Act ion 
 Programs 
 Budget, Personnel 
 Fiscal and Offlie 
3fnagemen t 
Government, Civic 
an d Commero Jal 
Contacts 
 
 
-                                                                       
                B 
 
 
as lsta J 
 
 
|Assistant      Ibnageo c -Ofn 
     l__           and 
                Secretari 
                Pool 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
CHART lI (Operating stage) 
 
 
  I  res iden t  IDirector 
ýBoard of Trwsteeý               of 
                             Foundat i 
                 V.r  F      _      - 
 
 
iField Operting 
    Teams 
 
 
Director 
    Of 
On era t Ion 
 
 
  J Advisor  ConoI 
"(sord Re-reentat onji 
 
 
 
    Research 
    Division1 
    Fact Finding 
    Aknalysi   -- 
    -w - - - 
    nf omat Ion 
      Center 
      Libry 
 
 
  Plann in 
  Division 
School & College 
   sect ion 
   Oover;nmn t 
   Seot ion 
Civic section 
Commero la & 
  Self-Het 
  aeotioa 
 
 
so ient Ifl I 
Division 
Soil Tech- 
  niqu 
viild Life 
Teohln iq u es 
Fc etry - 
 
0a1 -t on 
Graz in g 
 
 
--9 
 
 
       I       - 
ield operating 
    Teams     I 
 
 
Sduoatien 
Divis ion 
idm; , 
 
M- a S M 
1adio 
Le~tures 
--e- 
 
 
Administrativ* 
Services DPivivie 
Budget ieR rat loin 
Personnel Sect ion 
FisOal Oontrols 
" 
 
 
  Training 
  Division 
Organ iz~t 1on and 
  -ob jeeat ves 
  Relat Ion sh ips 
  Operating 
  Technique 
 
 
Field Op  ating 
 
Team Director 
*1 e- - ft WOe 
Aoademio operative 
Govenment Operat £v 
Civic Operative 
Commerclal Operative 
 
 
I 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
q 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONSERVATION INSTITUTE 
Research Division 
Suggestions 
January 20, 1947 
 
 
RESEARCH DIVISION INITIAL FROGRAM 
 
 
Sherman ki. Hoyt 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                  CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                  Research Division 
                                                  Division Program 
                                                  January 20, 1947     -I-

 
                RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM 
 
 
        The general purpose of this Division has already been 
 
described as keeping the Institute advised of all matters and 
 
activities of a non-political nature with regard to Conservation, 
 
and conducting research when necessary* 
 
        More specifically, the first objective of Resear~ch shall 
 
be definitely to establish the urgency of the need for an intensive 
 
educational program in Conservation. 
 
        Are we in, or are we only threatened with, a Natural Emergency? 
 
What are the causes of the present situation? Whatt and how rapid, 
 
are the trends of Natural Resources qnd their Production? How 
 
immediate and broad are the needs of c orrective methods? What 
 
has been done along Conservation lines, and mhat is planned? 
 
         The foregoing questions, and many more of a related nature, 
 
must be answered before the Institute's active program can be 
 
formulated, or its overall strategy determined. This is the 
 
first objective of Research* 
 
         Until this first objective has been attained, the Research 
 
 Division cannot lay down any further definite program, Its 
 
 general plan will be, however, to maintain close relations with 
 
 all active Departments, Agencies, and Organizations in fields 
 
 allied with Conservation and Natural Production; to maintain an 
 
 authentic, progressive and continuous information service; to 
 
 undertake, when necessary, independent investigation and research; 
 
 and, as a result of constant analysis of information received from 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                  CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                  Research Division 
                                                  Division Program 
                                                  January 20, 1947    -2w

 
 
                RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM 
 
 
all sources, to integrate all these components into whatever form 
 
will best serve the purposes of the Institute. 
 
        The Division's initial tasks in attaining its first objective 
 
will be to determine: 
 
        l* Government Departments and Agencies, and other 
 
            Organizations in fields of Conservation and 
 
            Natural Production* 
 
        2. Products (specifying key products) covered by the 
 
            above agencies. 
 
        3.  Production data on above products as far back as 
 
            available. 
 
        4. Population data as far back as available. 
 
        5. Per Capita Production data. 
 
        6. Per Capita Requirements. 
 
        7. Earthts surface usage data, as far back as available. 
 
        8. Conservation activities, findings, and recommendations 
 
             to date by existing organizations. 
 
        9. Conservation programs by existing organizations. 
 
        10. Report by Research Division, based on above findings, 
 
             summarizing the urgency of applied Conservation* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947    -3-

 
 
          RESEARCH DIVISION WROGRAX& INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
I. Determine Government Departments and Agencies, and Other 
 
    Organizations concerned with: 
 
               A. Conservation in 
 
                    1. United States 
 
                    2. Other Countries 
 
                    3. World Agencies 
 
               B. Production of Necessary Products in 
 
                    1. United States 
 
                    2. Other Countries 
 
                    3. World Agencies 
 
               C, Make listing for each organization, showing 
 
                   Product Types and Individual Products with 
 
                   which it is concerned, Type of Activity 
 
                   conducted, Key Personnel, and record. 
 
               D. Index as followst 
 
                    i. Alphabetically 
 
                    2. By Countries 
 
                    3. By Product Types: 
 
                         a,  Farm 
 
                         b. Forest 
 
                         c. Marine 
 
                         d. Mineral 
 
    Purpose. This listing is to be a basic and perpetual index 
 
    to All Organizations in any fields related to the Science of 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947     -4-

 
 
 
          RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAMs INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
 
I. Conservation, together with their objectives, field and type 
 
    of activity, key personnel, and record of accomplishment. 
 
    This listing should be kept up to date continuously. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947    -5.

 
 
           RESEARqCH DIVISION PROGRAMs INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
II, List Natural Products Necessary for the Support and 
 
     Enrichment of Human Life, and covered by the above 
 
     listed agencies. 
 
 
A. Make listing for each item, showings 
 
     1. Type of Product 
 
          a. Farm 
 
          b. Forest 
 
          c. Marine 
 
          d. Mineral 
 
          Indicate Key Products in each type. 
 
     2. Function 
 
          a. Food 
 
          b. Clothing 
 
          Co Housing 
 
          d. Industrial 
 
          e. Other 
 
     3. Occurrence 
 
           a. Country and State 
 
           b. Topographical 
 
     4. Department or Agency concerned 
 
     5. Date all entries 
 
 B. File Listings 
 
      1. Alphabetically 
 
      2. Typically 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947    **-

 
 
             RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM& INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
II.                 3. Functionally 
 
                    4. Departmentally 
 
     Purpose. This listing is to be a basic and perpetual 
 
     index to All Natural Products whose control comes 
 
     within the scope of Conservation; it should be 
 
     continuously kept up to date. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947    -7-

 
 
          RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM: INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
III. List and Plot Production of Necessary Products (listed in II) 
 
      a6s far back as records are available, as follows& 
 
          A. Production in 
 
               1. United States 
 
               2, Other Countries individually 
 
               3. World total 
 
          B. Combine Plots in A in Product Type Plots: 
 
               1. Farm 
 
               2. Forest 
 
               3. Marine 
 
               4. Yineral 
 
          C. Combine Plots in B in Overall Plots for: 
 
               1. United States 
 
               2. Other Countries individually 
 
               3o   Yorld total 
 
      Purpose. These Plots are of primary importance in 
 
      determining and controlling the program of Conservation. 
 
      Their purpose is to indicate the production and rate of 
 
      change of production of the Necessary Products, and to 
 
      suggest future trends. 
 
      They should be brought up to date annually. 
 
 
      Note. Plots should be made in standard units and also 
 
      on a percentage basis* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                  CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                  Research Division 
                                                  Division Program 
                                                  January 20, 194T    -8-

 
 
           RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM: INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
 
IV. List and Plot Population as far back as records are 
 
     available , for: 
 
               A. United States 
 
               B. Other Countries individually 
 
               C. World Total 
 
 
     Purpose. These Plots are of primary importance in 
 
     determining and controlling the program of Conservation. 
 
     Their purpose is to indicate populations and their 
 
     rate of change, and to suggest future trends* 
 
     These plots should be kept up to date whenever new 
 
     data is available. 
 
 
     Note. Plots should be in on a numerical basis and also 
 
     in percentage. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                  CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                  Research Division 
                                                  Division Program 
                                                  January 20p 1947    -9.

 
 
          RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM: INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
V. List and Plot Per Capita Production as far back as records 
 
    are available, by combining production and population plots, 
 
    as follows: 
 
               A. Combine IIIA and IV to show per capita pro- 
 
                   duction of individual products in 
 
                   1. United States 
 
                   2. Other Countries individually 
 
                   3. World Total 
 
               B. Combine IIT and IV to show per capita pro- 
 
                   duction of Product Types in 
 
                   1. United Statess 
 
                         a&  Farm 
 
                         b. Forest 
 
                         c. Marine 
 
                         d. Mineral 
 
                    2o Other Countries Individually: 
 
                         a. Farm 
 
                         b. Forest 
 
                         c. Marine 
 
                         d. Mineral 
 
                    3. World Total: 
 
                         a. Farm 
 
                         b. Forest 
 
                         co Marine 
 
                         d. Mineral 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947    -10-

 
 
          RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAMs INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
 
Vo             C. Combine plots III and IV to show total per 
 
                   capita production fort 
 
                   1, United States 
 
                   2. Other Countries individually 
 
                   3. World Total 
 
 
    Purpose. The purpose of these plots is to show the 
 
    variations in production on a per capita basisc 
 
    Since a declining plot indicates a trend toward famine 
 
    with respect to the product or products concerned$ and 
 
    the degree of decline shows the imminence of the famine, 
 
    it is obvious that these plots are of the utmost import- 
 
    ance in determining the relative urgency of applied 
 
    Conservation in regard to the various Products and 
 
    Product Types. 
 
    These plots should be kept up to date annually, 
 
 
    Note, All plots should be in the usual units and also 
 
    on a percentage basise 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                  CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                  Research Division 
                                                  Division Program 
                                                  January 20, 1947    -w1-

 
 
 
           RESEARCH DIVISION PkOGRAM: INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
 
VI. Determine the Per Capita Minimum Adequate Requirements 
 
     for the products listed in II in: 
 
               A. United States 
 
               B. Other Countries individually 
 
               C. World Total 
 
 
     Purpose. The purpose of this information is to provide 
 
     a measure for use in determining the adequacy of pro- 
 
     duction of Necessary Products* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947    -.42-

 
 
            RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM::INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
VII. Determine the Earth's Surface Usage data as follows: 
 
               A. List and Plot, as far back as records are avail-, 
 
                   able, the areas devoted to the products listed 
 
                   in IIl in: 
 
                     1, United States 
 
                     2. Other Countries 
 
                     3. WVorld Total 
 
               B. Combine the data in A to show areas devoted to 
 
                    Product Types* in: 
 
                    1. United States 
 
                    2. Other Countries 
 
                    3. W7orld Total 
 
                C. Combine data in B to show areas devoted to 
 
                    Total production in& 
 
                    1. United States 
 
                    2. Other Countries 
 
                    3. World Total 
 
                D. Combine above data with Population data in IV to 
 
                    show the ?er Capita usages in% 
 
                    1. United States 
 
                    2. Other Countries 
 
                    3. World Total 
 
     Note. For preliminary analysis these may be limited to 
 
       Key Products. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947    -3it

 
 
            RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM: INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
 
VII, Purpose.   The purpose of this data is to whow the past 
 
      and present utilization of the Earth's surface, and to 
 
      suggest future trends. 
 
      The per capita data here presented may well give the 
 
      best overall view of present conditions, future trends, 
 
      and the urgency of applied Conservation. 
 
 
      Note. All plots should be both in standard units qad 
 
      on a percentage basis9 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                  CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                  Research Division 
                                                  Division Program 
                                                  January 20, 1947    -14-

 
 
           RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM& INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
VIII.  Determine the Conservation activities, findings, and 
 
       recommendations to date of existing organizations (listed 
 
       in I) as follows- 
 
               A. List the following for products ?covered by 
 
                   each organization: 
 
                   1. Present status 
 
                   2.    Causes for present status 
 
                   3. Corrective activities 
 
               B. Combine the above data in A to give Product 
 
                   Type * pictures. 
 
               C. List recommendations by products and product types. 
 
 
     Note. For preliminary analyses Key Products will suffice* 
 
 
       Purpose. The purpose of the above information is to get 
 
       an experienced definition conditions, explanation of causes, 
 
       and enumeration of measures taken to date of a curative 
 
       nature. This is to establish the complete picture of what 
 
       Conservation has found out and accomplished; to define the 
 
       foundation on which the Institute will build its program, 
 
 
       The recommendations in C above, in conjunction with 
 
       analyses of the findings in sections II - VII, will serve 
 
       as the blueprint from which to build on this foundation* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947    -15-

 
 
            RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM: INITIAL OBJ2CTIVE 
 
 
IX. Determine Conservation and Related Programs of Existing 
 
     Organizati ons. 
 
               A. Classify as to: 
 
                    1. Type: 
 
                         ao Educational 
 
                         b. Applied 
 
                    2. Field: 
 
                         a. Soil 
 
                         b. Irrigation 
 
                         c. Crops 
 
                         d.  Livestock 
 
                         e. Forest 
 
                         f. Wildlife 
 
                         g, 'aste control 
 
                         h, Pollution 
 
                         i. Etc. 
 
                    3, Objective 
 
                    4, Locality 
 
               B. Maintain contact with progress of all outside 
 
                   programs* 
 
 
     Purpose. The purpose of this listing and classification is to 
 
     guide the Institute 's planning so as to avoid duplication of 
 
     effort, correlate all parallel or related activities, and 
 
     establish a continuous tributary source of data for the 
 
 
Institute's information service* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                                                   CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                   Research Division 
                                                   Division Program 
                                                   January 20, 1947    -16-

 
 
            RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM: INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
X. A Review and Analysis of the urgency of applied Conservation, 
 
    and definition of the present status of related activities# 
 
             The trends of production of Natural Products and of 
 
       Population Variation have been determined; their relation- 
 
       ship to each other has been expressed on a per capita basis 
 
       and compared with established minimum adequate requirements. 
 
       The World's productive areas have been analyzed in a similar 
 
       manner, and the productive land per capita defined as to 
 
       amount and trend. The activities, findings, and recommenda- 
 
       tions of existing organizations have been ascertained. 
 
             We are now in possession of those facts which define 
 
       the present state of the Natural Emergency and point in 
 
       unmistakable terms to its future trends, as well as high- 
 
       lighting its most dangerous and imminent aspects. 
 
             The Institute is now in a position to plan its long 
 
       range program in the most effective manner, since it has 
 
       adequate knowledge of past history, present conditions, 
 
       causes, and activitiest future needs and trends, and the 
 
       relative urgency of Conservation's objectives. 
 
 
 
             This concludes the Initial Objective of the Research 
 
       Division. Its future program will involve the continuation 
 
       of all the above described fact finding activities, the 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                    CONSERVATION INSTITUTE

                                                    Research Division 
                                                    Division Program 
                                                    January 20, 1947    -1'

 
 
 
             RESEARCH DIVISION PROGRAM- INITIAL OBJECTIVE 
 
 
 
X*      conducting ef independent research and investigation, 
 
        the correlation and analysis of all findings, maintaining 
 
        the closest cooperation with all other divisions of the 
 
        Institute and outside organizations, and the pursuit of 
 
        its general and specific purposes in whatever form will 
 
        best serve the expanding activities of the Conservation 
 
        Institute. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
 
 
ZOOLOGICAL PARK 
 
 
                                              OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY 
                                           630 Fifth Avenue, New York 20,
N. Y. 
                                                  Circle 5-5750 
                                               February 24, 1947 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dear Dr. Leopold: 
 
In response to yours of February 21st, we have made a hotel 
reservation for you for the nights of March 6, 7, and 8, at 
the Hotel Seymour, 50 West 45 Street. 
 
We are all delighted that you are able to get in here to New 
York on Thursday P.M. I will call you at your hotel about 
8:30 on Friday morning, so we can make our plans for the day. 
We look forward with keenest anticipation to seeing you and 
are deeply pleased that you have arranged matters so that 
you can be with us. 
 
 
Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
                 Pi sident 
 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
Department of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
College of Agriculture 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
 
FO: EES 
 
 
EDUCATION 
 
 
THE AQUARIUM 
 
 
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH  - 
 
 
CONSERVATION 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ftbsiary' 21, 19147 
 
 
Mr. haizr*eld 0sborne 
New Torir Zoological Society 
630 Afth Ahvn 
New York Cty, Now Yor 
  Ur, Osbrnet 
 
I -tlred yo% several dq ao tbAt T have been able to arn 
to fly to Now Tok arrving, If oil ties, at 9:O0 7', Tkrzayo 
March 6. Acmowrdiily, I an at yrmr disposal beginnin Friday, 
tho seventh. I will iot hav to retr iintil Suay, the ninth. 
 
I would a,)-oiate it if your secretary could =3o* a hotel 
resoemtion for me at some point nonvenit to yor office for 
tho niL-hts of M"arh 6,7. T   and   If this o   be don  I woud 
air>eiato your sesartary writing  where the rserations are 
3o that I my vased aaorirtytly. 
 
I -, 1ookine forward to our 41 s-isseoa. 
 
With nermonal regards, I am 
 
 
 
                               Tours sinaerely, 
 
 
                               ALD)O I2PLD 
A~i PM 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
 
 
ZOOLOGICAL PARK - 
 
 
-   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 
 
 
IE AQUARIUM 
   -   CONSERVATION 
 
 
                                               OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY 
                                            630 Fifth Avenue, New York 20,
N. Y. 
                                                   Circle 5-5750 
                                               February 18, 1947 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dear Dr. Leopold: 
 
We are deeply gratified to learn that you will come on 
for our conference on March 8th - in fact, I find it 
difficult to express to you how much we appreciate your 
planning to do this. I look forward to your letter which 
will give me some idea of what time you expect to arrive 
so that we may all be ready for you. 
 
Upon receipt of your telegram I at once called Bill Vogt 
in Washington and he is planning to be with us. I think 
there are real grounds for belief that we should be able 
to accomplish a great deal. 
 
Looking forward keenly to seeing you then, 
 
                           Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
                                              - ident 
 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
 
FO: RES 
 
 
EDUCATION 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
robruary 14,o 194? 
 
 
N'm York 20, . NJ. 
 
Dour Mr. Bpfower 
 
I apoite 7QW writing me# but I Iaste, to assur you 
  thtym nee have no regres about ou hurried axorw 
at SanAtonio. We both had t      Wa lot ainashort 'U 
and I omaw   with the frioniost go4 wisehs tmw-Lr 
the big enterprse *lh ym aksdhe4   I would 1li ohn 
better Chun to talk this ove tuathpr with yo and M'r. 
sbom and Mr. Or~    but I has itnte to re7mmulWna 
u~W   the trip 41l the wa *ut lie  tor the pmpoe 
   Threi a fair possbility that the Wlens       oit 
will holdI nn eastern motLg Ln June *md It the.ýt do I 
will attend. Thi~s woul4 mnk pns~ible a umetlng with y" 
grop at so. nor* coy~n povint. It you will -Ip 
me a line late I should be ýtl to toll vok v~nhew thiw 
  orsm other meeting will W" ne east. I nho,,ld L-io 
 
 
  Ivalue thm privilee of mi briefwuitnnadhp 
that we shall son eah other mor oftam in the huo 
 
        With parsonal -~d,  yor   ineey 
 
 
                            Ald Leopol 
 
  

					
				
				
 
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
 
                ZOOLOGICAL PARK  - THE AQUARIUM 
          EDUCATION   -   SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH - CONSERVATION 
 
 
                                                       OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY

                                                    630 Fifth Avenue, New
York 20, N. Y. 
                                                            Circle 5-5750

 
                                                    8 February 1947 
 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopolds 
 
         I want to thank you most heartily for your kindness 
to me last week during the conference in San Antonio. 
 
         I fear that I gave a most inadequate account of the 
current planning which my colleagues and I in the Zoological 
Society are doing. In a comparatively short time, say three 
or four weeks, I think it will be possible to send you a fairly 
concrete outline of vhat we hope to accomplish during the next 
year, and it would be of the utmost value to us if you could 
find time to read it through and then let us have the benefit 
of your reactions. As you will have gathered from my brief 
talk with you, the undertaking is of such scope that an exchange 
of letters on the subject would hardly provide an adequate sub- 
stitute for a personal discussion. I therefore should like to 
plan for some sort of meeting in the spring, at which Mr. Osborn 
and I, and possibly Mr. Samuel H. Ordway, could go over our prob- 
lems with you. The thought occurred to me that you might possibly 
be coming East some time between now and May, and that if this 
should prove to be the case we might be able to arrange for 
such meeting at some point nearer New York than Madison. However, 
if you are not planning to come East, I feel quite certain that 
we could arrange to come out and see you there. 
 
         I regret I was unable to stay at the conference later 
 than Tuesday and was thus obliged to miss hearing the summary 
 which you gave on Wednesday. However, I expect I shall receive 
 a re-print of it shortly. Thank you again for Your kindness to 
 me and thank you also forln'dezrstanding, and *Ke encouragement 
 which I received from your comments. I shall be dining with 
 Ellen Garrison this coming week and I shall most certainly give 
 her your kind regards at that time. 
 
                                            Faithfully yours, 
 
 
GEB/s                                       George E. Brewer, Jr. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
~. 
 
 
A 
 
 
Is 
 
 
~. 
 
 
0l 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
Comments on the Proposed Researeh Projeet on Animal Soieaties 
        Under Ntural Conditions at Jakson Hole, Wyoming, 
             from the Wildlife Reseenrh Point of View 
 
                John Xmlen, Univ. Wisconsin, 2/1/4? 
 
     B      g  I have never visited Jackson Role but am familiar 
in a general way with the fauna of the region and with the published 
literature on local forms and wildlife conditions. The committee ts 
doubtless aware that some excellent studies of the behavlor of game 
and predatory species have been made by competent naturalists In 
te Xellowstone and Jackson Hole country. These studies will pro- 
vide a backgrund on which more detailed studies and eyperimente 
may be built. I particularly commend the following: 
     Rush, Wm. X. 1932. Northern Yellowstone elk study. Mntana 
          Fish and Game Comm. 1932. 
     Skinner, M. P. 1925. Migration routes of elk in Yellow- 
          stone National Park. Journ. Iamwal. § (3). (Also 
          other excellent papers by Skinner on elk population*.) 
     furie, 0. J. 1932. Elk ealls. Journ. Kxal. a: 331-336. 
     Xurle, A.   940O. Zoology of the coyote In the Yelloetone. 
          Fauna of the National Parks of the U. s. #4$, 19O. 
     For a recent sumaary of the elk situation: 
     iurie, 0. J. 1944. Our big game In winter. Trans. 9th 
            . mer. Wildlife Conf., 1944: 173-1?6. 
     The committee it alse aware, undoubtedly, that 0. J. Murie, 
an exceptionally skillful and competent observer of wildlife, lives 
in Jackson. His eooper~tion and counsel would be invaluable to the 
project. 
     fisae  i 2rtuniest Headquarters at Jackson Hole would 
permit aecees to a wide variety of habitats and species. The fol- 
 
lowing species of mammals and birds would appear to offer special 
 
  

					
				
				
 
2. 
 
 
oportu   tes for studies of social behavior in the Jaokson Hole 
region: 
 
     - Herd      rganazation, leadership by females, sex relations, 
          family relations, effects of udernourishment on behavior, 
          etc. 
     9    - Herd organization, leadership, seasonal cycles, social 
          Interrelations of two closely related species (White-tail 
          and Mule)). 
     ,4iiti    heei 
 
     n- (Of course the local herds are not strictly Wundor 
          natural condtions".) 
        krat~o gg!(if they occur loeally) - one of the fev gro 
          garious rodents. 
     B      - Family relations. 
 
        J gliRjbbtj(little known but sure to yield. Interesting In- 
          formation on sociality at low level of organization). 
     C      - Apparent idependence, family relations, aggressive 
          displays, packs. 
     :Sa~e Gguee - (if t; oceurs locally) eex relaitions and or 
          ganization, seasoal changes (ref. J. W. Scott). 
 
     U    n   L   o   sition and ortaniaation of feeding flocks, 
         Raleq  )factors which inueflocking. 
     broetE  1aogbIrI- Relations within and between breeding 
 
          colonies. 
     Field g-oerajLgion Committee members who have had experlence 
with behavior studies of wild animals under natural condition  are, 
 
of course, awae of the great amount of time required for pre- 
liinary work and preparations. Zxeept perhaps with certain small 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                                                  3. 
and sedentary species, very little can be aeeoalished in the course 
of a few      1r months. Most studles with the larger game specles 
will require a vast amount of preparation and of baokground knowledge, 
which can only be gained through prolonged residence and study. Pro- 
parations such as selecting the site for a particular study, trapping 
and marking the aninals and planning the field procedure could be 
done, at least In part, by the resident staff preparatory to the ar- 
rival of summer researchers. Skill In finding, tracking and obser- 
inE alert and timid wild animals, on the other hand, must be per-. 
sonally acquired through extensive practice and experience In the 
field. 
     It seeme to the writer that succews of the proJect will depend 
largely on selecting a thoroughly competent and well trained permanent 
staff eontaining at least one or two men with extensive field ex- 
perience. The continuity which to essential to success of the project 
will depend on the ability of these men to follow animals thrott   the 
entire year. The social behavior of wild animals In temperate regions 
passes through profound seasonal changes which mst be thoroughly under- 
stood If s    er observations are to be propeprly Interpreted. Such 
studies of seasonal cycles of behavior would eonstit"te a particularly

valuable jase of the project by providing the data for analyzing 
environmental influences (external and Internal) on a single genetc 
background. 
     The plan of Inviting guest researchers and advanced students for 
 special work Is certainly excellent. It could assist tremendously 
 
 the program of the permanent staff and Drovide a valuable stimulus 
 through cooperative work and distussion. Xt would also provide an 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                                               4. 
 
excsellet onportunity for aneotalista and grad~uate stu~dents to get 
field experience and to disaous their work with others having similar 
Interesta and training. University profe#@#rg woul4 welcome such 
 
an opnort!uity for their graduate students. 
     It would be desirable for the projeot if guent researchers were 
encouraged to come during winter, spring nrd fail, as well as sumer. 
Such vists might not be praotliable for professional in, but; her 
 
would doubtless be h.D. candidates from tims to time who would 
be interested In opportunities rnd faoilit tes for winter or for the 
year' round. field. research at the station. 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONSTITUTION 
 
 
 
       9f the 
 
 
 
     Cooper 
 
  Ornithological 
 
      Club 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      1912 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nace Printing Co. a      San Jose, Cal. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        CONSTITUTION OF THE 
   COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
 
                ARTICLE I. 
            Name and Objects 
  Sec. 1. This society shall be known as the 
COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB. 
  Sec. 2. The objects of this Club shall be the 
study and advancement of Ornithology, with 
special reference to western North America. 
 
                ARTICLE II. 
          Divisions and Chapters 
  Sec. 1. This Club shall consist of two co- 
ordinate bodies known as the Northern and 
Southern Division respectively. The Northern 
Division shall hold its meetings at such places 
as it may determine upon in the cities about 
San Francisco Bay, and the Southern Division 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
CONSTITUTION OF THE 
 
 
shall hold its meetings at such places as it may 
determine upon in the cities of Los Angeles 
County. 
  Sec. 2. Local chapters outside the territory 
described as the home of the two Divisions may 
be instituted on application made by five or 
more members so located by residence as to 
render such chapter meetings a convenience. 
Such application shall be transmitted in writ- 
ing to either Division, and the same shall be 
acted upon by both Divisions in the same 
manner as upon applications for membership 
as hereinafter provided for. The powers and 
privileges of such chapters shall be as sub- 
sequently defined. 
 
                ARTICLE III. 
                  Members 
  Sec. 1.  There shall be three classes of 
members of this Club, active, life, and honorary. 
  Sec. 2. Any person interested in the study 
of birds and of not less than sixteen years of 
age shall be eligible to active membership. 
  Sec. 3. Any active member may become a 
life member by paying into the treasury of the 
Club the sum of fifty dollars and notifying the 
secretary of his Division that he desires to be 
enrolled as a life member. 
  Sec. 4. All applications for active or life 
membership shall be in writing, signed by the 
applicant and by the member proposing him, 
 
 
4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
 
 
and shall state the name and permanent post- 
office address of the applicant. Such applica- 
tions shall be forwarded to the Secretary of 
either Division, and he shall immediately upon 
receipt of same forward a copy to the Secretary 
of the other Division. Such applications shall 
be read at the first subsequent meeting of both 
Divisions, and shall be acted upon at the second 
subsequent meeting of each Division. A two- 
thirds vote by ballot of the members present 
atoa regular meeting of each Division shall be 
necessary to elect an applicant to active mem- 
bership. 
  Sec. 5. Every application for active member- 
ship shall be accompanied by the suni of two 
dollars ($2.00), as dues for the calendar year, 
in consideration of which the member shall be 
entitled to all publications of the Club, for such 
calendar year, and to all benefits accruing to 
active members of the Club. This fee shall be 
transmitted to the Business-manager of the 
Club. In event of rejection said fee shall be 
refunded to applicant. 
  Sec. 6. Any person who shall, in the opinion 
of the Club, have rendered sufficiently valuable 
service in the advancement of western Ornith- 
ology, shall be eligible to honorary membership 
in the Club. ' 
  Sec. 7. All propositions for conferring hon- 
orary membership shall be in writing and 
signed by at least four active members of the 
Club and filed with the Secretary of either 
 
 
5 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
CONSTITUTION OF THE 
 
 
Division. Such a proposition shall be acted 
upon at a regular meeting of the Division in 
which it is introduced, when it shall be sent to 
the other Division for similar action. A unan- 
imous vote at a regular meeting of each Division 
shall be necessary to confer the degree of hon- 
orary membership. Honorary members shall 
be exempt from all dues of either Division of 
the Club, and shall be entitled to all the rights 
and privileges of active members. 
 
                ARTICLE IV. 
                   Officers 
  Sec. 1. The officers of each Division shall 
consist of a President, Vice-president, and Sec- 
retary. There shall also be an Editor and one 
or more Business-managers of THE CONDOR 
chosen from the active members of the Club, 
who shall be nominated by the officers of both 
Divisions acting as a committee of the whole, 
such nominations to be submitted for the ap- 
proval of the two Divisions at the February 
meeting of each year, and, in order to stand, 
shall receive the approval by ballot of two- 
thirds of the members present at such meet- 
ings. 
  Sec. 2. In case of public meetings, or general 
meetings at which both Divisions shall be rep- 
resented, such meeting shall be presided over 
by the President of the Division nearest whose 
home, as indicated above, such meeting shall 
 
 
6 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
 
 
be held, and the Secretary of the other Division 
shall act as recording officer. In case of in- 
ability for any reason of either of these officers 
to act, then their vice-officer shall be the 
like officer of the other Division. 
  Sec. 3. The Secretary of each Division shall 
keep a record of the meetings of the Club; shall 
give notice of the time and place of meetings at 
least one week in advance to members who re- 
quest it and so signify in writing; shall notify 
those members-elect whose application first 
came to him of their enrollment as members in 
good standing; shall conduct the correspond- 
ence of the Division, and perform such other 
duties as properly devolve on this office. 
  Sec. 4. The Business-manager shall have 
control of the finances of the Club; shall re- 
ceive all dues from members, subscriptions to 
official organ and donations, and shall receipt 
for same; shall expend the funds of the Club in 
the payment of debts authorized by the Club; 
shall supervise the raising of special funds, by 
private subscription or otherwise, and expend 
same as directed by the Club; and shall render 
a report to each Division in January of each 
year, and at such other times as may be re- 
quired. The Business-manager may appoint 
one or more assistants. 
  Sec. 5. The Editor of THE CONDOR shall 
decide upon all matters usually pertaining to 
the conduct of a periodical, providing that 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
CONSTITUTION OF THE 
 
 
nothing thereby conflicts with the purposes or 
exceeds the resources of the Club. 
  Sec. 6. Vacancies occurring in any office 
shall be filled until the next annual election by 
a majority vote of the members present at a 
regular meeting of the    Division in which 
vacancy may occur, except that where vacan- 
cies occur in offices regularly requiring election 
by both Divisions, new officers to fill such 
vacancies shall be re-nominated and re-elected 
in the regular way at the first meeting follow- 
ing such vacancy. 
 
                 ARTICLRE v. 
 
                 Elections 
  Sec. 1. The nominations for officers in each 
Division shall be made at the last meeting in 
each year. 
  Sec. 2. The election of officers in each 
Division shall occur in January in each year, 
and the term of office shall begin immediately 
after election and extend until their successors 
are elected and qualified. 
  Sec. 3. The election of all officers shall be 
separately and by ballot, a majority vote of the 
members present being necessary to election. 
 
                 ARTICLTE VI. 
 
                 Meetings 
  Sec. 1. Stated and special meetings of the 
 
 
8 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
 
 
Divisions of the Club may be provided for as 
deemed expedient by each Division, provided 
that not more than two months shall elapse 
between any two stated meetings, unless by 
postponement for unusual cause. 
  Sec. 2. Special meetings may be called in 
either Division by the President thereof, pro- 
vided that due notice be given by the Secretary 
to the members of such Division. 
  Sec. 3. Seven active members shall consti- 
tute a quorum for the transaction of business at 
any meeting of either Division. 
  See. 4. The regular meetings of the Club 
shall be open to the public, except when 
deemed inexpedient for special reasons. 
 
                ARTICE VII. 
 
       Resignations and Expulsions 
  Sec. 1. All resignations shall be in writing, 
addressed to the Secretary of either Division, 
and may be accepted by a majority of those 
present at the next regular meeting, provided 
all dues and assessments of such resigning 
member shall be paid to the date of filing of 
resignation. 
  Sec. 2. Any member may be expelled from 
the Club on satisfactory evidence that such 
member is an improper person to be connected 
with the Club. Such expulsion must be by 
motion in writing, signed by two active mem- 
bers in good standing, and introduced at a 
 
 
9 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
CONSTITUTION OF THE 
 
 
regular meeting of either Division.    Such 
motion shall specify the grounds alleged to 
render such   member an improper person. 
Upon the introduction of such motion the Sec- 
retary shall at once notify the member of such 
motion and transmit a copy thereof to him. 
Evidence may be produced at the next regular 
meeting in support of the motion, and the 
member shall be allowed to be present and to 
present such evidence in rebuttal as he may 
have. After such evidence has been presented, 
the President of the Division shall submit the 
question to the members and a two-thirds vote 
by ballot of the members present shall be neces- 
sary in order to pass such motion; provided, 
however, that the action of a Division in the 
expulsion of a member shall be ratified by the 
other Division before such member shall be 
deemed to have been expelled. 
 
                ARTICLE VIII. 
 
                Powers Defined 
  Sec. 1. Each Division shall, in the manner 
provided by this Constitution, have the power 
to elect new members to the Club subject to the 
approval of the other Division, to elect its own 
officers, levy such assessments as it sees fit, 
frame, adopt and amend such By-Laws for its 
own government as may not conflict with this 
Constitution, and perform such other functions 
as may come within its province. In case of 
 
 
10 
 
  

					
				
				
 
COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
 
 
disagreement between the Northern and South- 
ern Divisions upon any matter appertaining to 
the Club as a whole, such matter shall be 
balloted upon by each Division at a regular 
meeting within two months of the time of such 
disagreement; such ballots shall be counted in 
open meeting of the Division in which cast; 
the Secretary of the Southern Division shall 
immediately forward the result in his Division 
to the Secretary of the Northern Division and 
the matter shall be decided by the majority of 
the total number of votes cast, for or against, 
by the two Divisions. In case of a tie the 
matter shall be brought up in the same manner 
at the next regular meeting of each Division, 
and votes canvassed as above. 
 
 
  Sec. 2. Each Chapter shall be amenable to 
the two Divisions of the Club, and shall be 
entitled to elect such officers as are necessary to 
its organization and operation. The Secretary 
of a Chapter shall make reports including 
transcript of minutes promptly following each 
meeting to the Secretary of both Divisions. A 
Chapter may levy assessments upon its own 
members, but shall not incur any indebtedness 
in the name of the Club. Each Chapter may 
elect its members in the manner provided in 
this Constitution, such action to be acted upon 
bv both Divisions at the first revular meetin- 
 
 
following. Any pzp    ;d bzfcrz an; Chaptar 
imeeting shall be transmitted it" .. ditzl. 
 
 
11 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
CONSTITUTION OF THE 
 
 
h      e     =to thae Iditor I IHE CON DOýRt 
-_hldl' by 1hi,, f.r tIhe Gihb. 
   Sec. 3. Whenever any public or other in- 
 stitution shall present a request to either 
 Division for its co-operation or supervision in 
 connection with the establishment and mainte- 
 nance of any museum or other enterprise look- 
 ing to the promotion of ornithological study and 
 research, then such Division shall be empow- 
 ered to undertake such co-operation or super- 
 vision on approval by a majority vote of the 
 members present at any regular meeting and 
 ratification at the next regular meeting of the 
 other Division, and to appoint in the usual way 
 proper committee or representative for such 
 purposes, and such committee or representative 
 duly appointed shall have power to act in the 
 name of the Cooper Ornithological Club, pro- 
 vided that neither Division nor its representa- 
 tives shall have the power to incur any indebt- 
 edness in the name of the Club, except when 
 duly authorized by a two-thirds vote of the 
 members present at a regular meeting of each 
 Division. 
                  ARTICLE IX. 
                  Finances 
   Sec. 1. The dues of an active member shall 
 be two dollars ($2.00) per annum, payable to 
 the Business-manager in January of each year. 
   Sec. 2. Life members shall pay the sum of 
 fifty dollars ($50.00) in full of all dues. 
 
 
12 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
 
 
  Sec. 3. All bills for current expense of either 
Division shall be paid by the Business-manager 
of the Club out of the general fund, including 
expense incurred for the publication of THE 
CONDOR, special publications, and necessary ex- 
penses of the Secretary of either Division. 
All other bills shall be first authorized by the 
Division for whose benefit the said expense is 
incurred before they shall be paid by the Busi- 
ness-manager. 
  Sec. 4. Any active member who shall fail to 
pay any dues charged against hiiu within four 
months after being notified of his delinquency 
may be subject to suspension from the Club. 
 
                 ARTICLE X. 
 
            Scientific Publicalions 
 
  Sec. 1. The official organ of the Club shall 
be "THE CONDOR", a bi-monthly periodical 
published by the Club. 
  Sec. 2. The proceedings of each meeting of 
each Division shall be briefly reported in THE 
CONDOR, together with such other matter as 
the Editor may deem advisable. 
  Sec. 3. The Editor may, at his discretion, 
appoint one or more associates to serve through 
the current year. 
  Sec. 4. All publications of the Club shall be 
mailed to all active members in good standing, 
and to all honorary members. 
 
 
13 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
14           CONSTITUTION OF THE 
 
  Sec. 5. The Club shall have the power to 
publish such reports, proceedings, memoirs, or 
other works on Ornithology as may be author- 
ized at any regular or special meeting of either 
Division, and ratified at the succeeding meet- 
ing of the other Division, and to supervise and 
direct their distribution as it may see fit. The 
Editor of THE CONDOR shall act also as Editor, 
with such associates as he may appoint, of any 
other publications of the Club. 
                ARTICLE XI. 
                Amendments 
  Sec. 1. This Constitution may be amended 
At the pleasure of the Club; such amendments 
shall be in writing, and must be proposed at a 
regular meeting of one Division, action to be 
taken at the next regular meeting. Amend- 
ments must be passed by a majority vote of the 
members present, and ratified similarly by the 
other Division. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB 
       APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP 
 
 
PUBLICATIONS 
  THE CONDOR: A Bi-monthly Journal 
  Established 1899 
  PACIFIC COAST AVIFAUNA: Devoted to 
  Papers of Unusual Length 
  Established 1900 
MEETINGS 
  Monthly at Berkeley and Los Angeles 
  Annual for Entire Club 
 
 
OBJECTIVES 
The observation and co-operative study of 
   birds; 
 The spread of interest in bird study; 
 The conservation of birds and wildlife in 
   general; 
 The publication of Ornithological Knowledge. 
 
 
To THE SECRETARY OF COOPER ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB: 
                         active 
   I wish to become an             member of the Cooper Ornithological Club,
and I enclose 
                       .... sustaining 
$.................... in payment of dues and Condor subscription for the
year beginning January, 195.... 
 
 
      NAME (in full) ------------------------------------------------------------------------

 
      ADDRESS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

          A D PE S............................................................................................................

 
 
Proposed   by --- - .....                        .................. D ate
...................................... 
             Active membership, $4.00 per year           Members outside
U. S. A. 
             Sustaining membership, $5.00 per year. 
             Life membership,   0                        add 25c for extra
postage. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                     December 27, 1929. 
 
 
 
   TO MEMBERS OF THE COOPER CRNIT-C'L0GT "AT CLUB: 
 
            At its April, 1929, meeting the Northern Division of the Club

  passed resolutions authorizing an investigation of the problems of bird

  conservation in California. (See page 139 of volume 31 of The Condor.)

  President Tyler appointed a committee to carry on this inves-tigbon and

  a preliminary survey was then made of conditions in the state. 
 
            In general, the inquiry disclosed an abundance of facts which

  provide opportunities for worth--while work in bird conservation in Cali-

  fornia. Also it indicated that Club members do not, as a rule, keep 
  themselves well informed as to the most pressing needs in bird preservation.

  Nor is any appreciable effort bei ng made in resnonse to the opportunities

  which present themselves for bird conservation "ror:. 
 
           A report on this investigation was read at a meeting of the 
 Northern Division on December 7, 1929, and considerable interest was 
 shown by the members present, in the group of projects submitted for 
 consideratinn. It was the general opinion at this meeting that each 
 member of the Club favorably inclined shculd undertake some active work

 in bird conservation in California. In order to test further the opinions

 of Club menTer7 on this problem and to give those persons, not present at

 the December meeting in Berkeley, an opportunity to indicate their willing-

 ness to work in connection with some of the projects needing attention,
the 
 enclosed ballot is being mailed to members of thu Club resident in California.

 It is aimed here to avoid undertaking any activity that will duplicate or

 interfere with carrying out any of the sug 'ostions contained in the report

 submitted to the Southern Division by 11r. George Ifillett. 
 
           The original bird conservation committee of the Northern Division

was enlarged so that now its members are, in addition to the Chairman, 
Joseph Dixon, C. B. Lastretc, Donald D. McLean, and Tracy I. Storer. The

function of this committee is to correlate the activities of those members

who indicate a desire to help in any projects for bird preservation. 
 
          The 6ommittee would appreciate it if you would indicate your 
response to the suggestions just outlined, on the enclosed ballct and, if

possible, before January 10, 1930, mail it to Jean M. Linsdale, Chairman,

Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of CaliforAia, Berkeley, 
California. 
 
 
Berkeley, California 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
      Specifio Frcjects Prcporsed for Consideration by the 
      Northern Division of the Cooper Ornithological Club 
                      December 7, 1929 
 
 
 
 
                                              should 
I believe that the Cooper Ornithological Club should not undertake 
active work in bird conservation in California. 
 
 
 
 
 
I am willing to contribute energy to help the club carry on work 
in connection with the projects checked below: 
 
         Sage Hen case 
         Tule Lake waterfowl refuge 
         Eagle Lake drainage project 
         Mountain lakes in northeastern California 
         State parks survey 
         Biological Survey waterfowl refuges 
         State game refuges and public shooting grounds 
         Pomona Valley hawk shooting 
         Regulation of grazing in game refuges 
         Examination of wilderness areas 
         Protection of white pelican 
         Census of depleted species 
         Distribution of important facts to selected persons 
         Watch for notices of bird-killing campaigns 
         Report on proposed land-development schemes 
         Salinas Valley to coast road. 
         Inform ourselves on subject of predatory animals 
         Assist Deputy Fish and Game Commissioners 
 
 
Member C. 0. C. 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1AeA 
 
 
17,&-z6 
 
 
-'2 
 
 
J 
 
 
-YI,4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
  THE EXECUTIVE GROUP 
  S. C. KENDEIGH, Chairman 
     University of IUinois 
 Vivarium Building, Champaign, Ill. 
      A. 0. WEESE, 
Chairman Committee on Preservation 
of Natural Conditions: United States 
    University of Oklahoma 
       Norman, Okla. 
       J. R. DYMOND, 
Chairman Committee on Preservation 
  of Natural Conditions: Canada 
    Royal Ontario Museum 
      Toronto, Ontario 
      H. C. HANSON, 
  Chairman Committee on Applied 
        Ecology 
 North Dakota Agricultural College 
     Fargo, North Dakota 
 
 
   A nature sanctuary with its original wild animals, 
           for each biotic formation 
 
 ECOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA 
    COMMITTEE FOR THE STUDY 
                  OF 
 PLANT AND ANIMAL COMMUNITIES 
Devoted to the Preservation and Study of Natural Communities 
            ESTABLISHED IN 1931 
 
 
   THE ADV SORY BOARD 
is composed of forty members, se- 
lected because of their knowledge of 
special fields or of communities of 
special regions. 
 
   R. E. YEATTER, Secretary 
      Game Specialist 
    Natural History Survey 
       Urbana, Ill. 
 
 
                                       January 18, 1943 
 
 
 
 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
College of Agriculture 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
 
Enclosed you will find the correspondence that you kindly sent me 
last November 10th. I was very much interested in looking It over. 
 
Concerning the sub-committee to tackle the problem as to over- 
utilization of natural areas by deer and other larger ungulates 
about which I wrote you early in November, I finally asked Mr. 
Costley to serve as chairman. As you know, he is very much inter. 
ested in this work and has the energy and enthusiasm to make a 
good job of it. He has consented to serve. 
 
 
I am now arranging for the complete membership of this committee 
and I would very much like you to be a member of it. I am sure 
your advice and aid will be very welcome and valuable to Mr.   O 
Costley and myself. I hope you will agree to serve in this oapa- 
city. 
 
 
BCK:cfn 
eno. 
 
 
z 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                   UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
                             FOREST SERVICE 
 
 
  ADDRESS REPLY TO 
CHIEF. FOREEST SERVICE 
    AND fRW=E TO 
 
 
       General                                       January 16, 1942 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
       Professor Aldo Leopoold 
       Coll. e- e o. A"ricu trre 
       university of kisconsin 
       a° ..... oisconsin 
 
       DeIr -ido: 
 
       I agnreciate your letter of December 18 aiu your thoar: ,-rovoking

       rouect statement concerning a. "Deer Irruptien Stuay."'

 
       The Forest Service, as you hno Er, ba s been working x it the deer

       -razing )ro, -e.r on t e national f'orc ' ts for a ý..ood many
years. 
       It is true that it hasn't 0een )ossible, becac'se of lack of auth-

       oriued funds an f9acilities, to o into this roble 7as deely 
       a" w.e ould like to, or as it vHawrrats. Hoever, our various

       surveys, obqervwtions, and IdKrnistrative studies, such as those 
       -)nducted on the ?,sibab eave helped a great deal in outliningr 
       the broad a.- ects of tie Droblem. All of >i;ese observations end

       exi)criances indicate -that a serlous impediuent to the solution 
       of the deer problem on t'e natioal2 orests is the lack of control

       of the breedingr hcerds. Kemova of oucka only there deer are plenti-

       ful simply is not the solution to the problem. A proportionate 
       amount of ferle deer as vela as males need to be removed to keep 
       number of der in balance -vith vwi  Tble fora{, e supply, as is te

       case in   ann rns'e livestoc u anuelent. 
 
       Unfortunate!-, it has not been oossible until the last vear or so

       to -'et many oU the states to effect any sort of control of deer 
       nerds. Tree iicersinr for tue huntin" of does, as vxs done in
Utah 
       this isst season, if sufficient nu._bers are actually removed, will

       ueip greatly in eliminating the pressure on the nov' oversoopulated

       deer r.- es in that state. 
 
       Even thoui h the control of the deer breeding herius by the removal

       of excess numbers each year to ksee iumbers ane fora&ce in balance

             es to be tie reaL Key to the problem, we ore also a'are of 
        tbe urgent need for critical study of the deer raný-e probleic
to 
        determine the basic relationships existiny. on the ground, parti-

        cularly as they telarte to the use of the range by both domestic

 
  

					
				
				
 
2-Professor Aldo heopold-January 16, 1942 
 
 
livestocic and deer. This is a real 2roblerm, much larger than a 
one-man setup. It will necessitate thorouvh-oing resea'rch on 
an adeciuate basis to ferret out and properly xeigh and analyze 
the various highly complex factors involved. !'e already have a 
good deal of generalized information and much survey material 
regarding irruptive herds, out except for a few instances, we are 
ltcking in the more fundamental asnects of the problem. 
 
From time to time we have prepared statements regfarding the neces- 
sity for such studies. In some cases, such as is being cone in 
Utah in cooperation with the Fish and Wildlife Service and the 
State Game Commission and Agricultural Ex-erirent Station, we 
have gone ahead on a limited basis on one or two aspects of the 
problem. But there is a limit to )Ahit can be done without spe- 
cific provisions of funds for the work. 
 
It is impossible to divert anywhere near the amount of funds and 
facilities from our regular work that would be necessary to proper- 
ly approach this problem. There are impending cuts of more than 
two million dollars in the funds for the Forest Service. Great 
losses in man power and equipment are resulting from curtailment 
of the varicus relief programs. While this curtailment in funds 
and facilities is taking place, there is a tremendous increase 
in the vork load which the Forest Service must carry. 
 
It is not possible under present conditions to start any project 
such as you suggest. I appreciate your deep interest in this 
matter and I hope it may be possible to go ahead with the needed 
deer range studies in the future. 
 
 
Acting Chief, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                       D3U ZWMITIOJ STUDY 
 
                           Ald Leopold 
 
  Prwwo.Irrptions of door f.Md *lk) a" becoming a problem in all 
 
forest rgieon.  Studies Of trruptions have beo      so far aiueL to 
 
allevtate the trouble rath thea to find out h  it occrs an  how 
 
to prevent it.   e  eseach situatio pamlleeu  that of fire reseosre 
 
 
P    *. It is propose& that the Fish and Wildlife Service and the 
 
Io"S* SorIv   ae ask  a joiat attomt to dig Mmper iato the prblem. 
 
     Ste: 1942.          u   Test a sulected fielt worker by havi 
                            the htstory of a typical Irruption, 
                   4icnss e it, on preot plas. for a widepread 
 
            1943-45. h        Oether the sa" histeries of iLreptioaS

                   nt       ted States. Can  , a&M MexLeo. Do= 
                   slee1  . , .e*, lo for       deno minator*. 
                   Compre Iwrrpting hard# with nral ones. 
             19             s.Strt serew      tal vrfication of 
                   ltests of preventive treatments. 
 
ftmIrptive population b           vior most arise from abmaties 
In the reprofetive rste or the mertality rate. Ther my tb      ao.nw 
 
mompllsatioas in abUswuaj sex ratio*, abnormal sex wavival, or 
 
nutritionl phonomm.    It In certain. tbat pedation, as well as biatniag,

affect, the mtality rate. 
 
     Motality &aa pzedation cannot be studie4 in confined     "e
   ntal 
 
leer. ht4ition aea. bep.o-tive rate and sex ratios ia&, *=pt as 
 
they a" affeoted by predation sad nutrition in-th&-wild. It is clear,

 
theu* that the problem uast be Psbaken dtow to one or more simple 
hypotheses before experim tal verificatioas *s begiA. This is the 
 
*o. of the sure. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
2 
 
 
     13 the folowin capttions, the fr- ont of *leiaSM  w avai aUle 
 
,re dieueed. 
 
?     j    .n Iwmptine (to "et immediately fellow renoal of preitors.

 
Tus in Pes2Rylvaia, prodAtore were reev*4 in the 1700's, ut irptions 
 
414 not bstin until the 1920'S. 
 
     Abeesene of ffective predators myj, however, predispose a rag to 
 
Imption. I know of no irruptlons in the presence of proeation. I 
 
kiev of deose hsrds In Mexico whi hbye volves adt Ueso, ^A do 
 
Irrupt. 
 
     What are effeetive predatos? Prosumby wovsee an   leos. Were 
 
aV door ranes orignally devoid of either?  This is & critical point.

 
?*Ars of the Northwest may have osa,. 
 
     What was the original door-prsoator ratlet b1ay ;oumnlo show 
 
Sa Satonishing scarcity of deor la parts of Utah, Axisona, an along th 
 
umpor Coluabia. Some of this rane is now irruptive. Is it postbile 
 
that prodatbs   onstltte an offective eheck only at low prey deity 
 
levels?  If so, then the awormwl &*or herd met have been very spar-e,

 
and all "good populations* are abnormal. The gmnral deteri~oration of

 
deer rag** in   ropa mght be construe to support this view. 
 
     The present cooperative predtor-.atrol operations offer *AW 
 
 chances for 5#erimeantl work which, as far as I knew, are nS tIutl.ize 
 
 What are the asch"Ies of lin oonaectnc  tlra  on incipient irrptioes,

 
 L.e., hig spots? Frem what distancos  they conso What *e*m" a aesT

 
 Does such concentration leave a vawma elseswbhr? bAing, if pmaticable, 
 
 wouldI throw light on these questions. 
 
     What selectivity In prey hold for lion sox ent age class*? One 
 
 hoars that only old week-toothod lions attack sheep. Wuld It be possible

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
to toga population an  tbus vri   or discard this puey empirieca 
 
onclusion?   If it is true, then the Impat of lions on d40r might be 
 
strengthened. and that eo sh"p w, by seleotive control. If 
 
this study should, in the enl, indiate the advisability of predator 
 
xaa      t for deer oontrol, *heR adv&wo informtion on these critical

 
questioas miht be of great value. Ia sany evet, suoh inforumtioa hs 
 
osologicsl value. 
 
Srowee fttrition snd &W.     here are may indiations tht an ov 
 
browsedr n   my, aring the prooess of Irruption. yi  browse food 
 
of uperior mtritiomal quality. By mtritlio   is aesat  alitativ* 
 
(mineral, vitamai) as well as quantitative amritiot. hs Wa effeet 
 
reproductive rate, or peraps even sex ratio. It may accout for the 
 
self-aewavating behavior of excess ppultloas. Aerimental verift- 
 
ection of ths critieal point is perhps possiblne w*. It 1i t8     ortant

 
to livestock a well as to deer. I know of no stud.s directe  to this 
 
 
 
     One of the striking peculiarities of recent Irapties in Utah and 
 
the Xaibab is the high percentage of palatables it the woody veg    tton

 
available to doer. Palatable *pool** comprse the bulk oef th winter 
 
range, whereas in the Laek States, the Arixou Wershfields, California, 
 
Or.s, ada Pensylvania they comprise but a semil tractioa.  Is this 
 
liherent or inued?   Io a 'pre rane. one upset, more liabl, to 
 
violent ups, ad downs than a dil-ate. reung  offering afnfeor *buffer* 
 
foods?  Presuably yes, especially if overbrewsing enhanses quAlity. 
 
     Do browse plantts attan a sufficient ae0 to be analse for irrup- 
 
tio&-history by rig widths? The assuaptiea that irruptions are all 
 
recent night thus be tested. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
     Itf there ar li   e wlfles doer r    e  of high quality irp- 
 
tions (food cycles) presmbly always occurre there. Rin-a        yis 
 
might discos~e their history. Naturally only plants higher than the 
 
plinsoll line would survive to recori the story    Ag-classes in brewse 
 
reprodcion, might also reeerd the sto.. 
 
     D preset -a.e studies and range policies take acount of brows. 
 
reprodutioa as well as browse prution?   O  the Xbab they cearly 4o 
 
not. The policy to to increase the herd becauso the surviving~ brows 
 
skoft woevesry. The brow * killed during the irruption, but not yet 
 
roplaeel b reproctio, bas been forgtten. 
 
ftr*Ohtive bUtt. and Sex Patios.  On the Kaibab, the faw cro rose 
 
,with veyromwing.  Is this true of other iuptions? Is this tied 
 
in with the possible         t of mtitiomn. 'valvoe dusia m browstl 
 
     Is the rpted inowtse in famle fans         n overbwomsed Pennsylvaia

 
1age asod by the oveabrotweia, or by some other fatr? 
 
I. ts ver brief sketch shoews that the prpsed svey                 t 
 
delve in history as ell as appraise the present.   It show  that o 
 
ipertant resesr-keo are ripe for action now; others will take for 
 
later. The survey then. should servo as liaison between (aMd advisor of)

 
field  gnies a    istitutions. This, of course, does not iMply 
 
afnistwative authority. It also shw       that the field worker    t have

 
espetewe in and sypat h with the entire pmt of bioelgiaAl oensem- 
 
tion activities, ffm pure ooiOa on the one hand to practical mw 
 
agmeuwnt on the other. 
 
r          H   t    s  . 3we forage is long-lived  Palatable browse 
 
iimbtedj aemumLtel in hug     reserves en r     kept nearly doorless 
 
  

					
				
				
 
5 
 
 
'b prdation.  (It has recently a.valato& In huge reo*TY      o5 a 
 
kept do.rles. by bunting). 
 
     ftah imoundes appoach instable equilibriua In respect of door, 
 
Jast as alluvitag waersheds approach iutable equilibrium in respet 
 
of eroslon. The first accdental relamtion of pw.4datz'-presvure brings 
 
*a the irruption: exhaustinms ioff sequence recently illustrated on 
 
the Laibab. Just so combinatonas of drouth an ramnfall precipitated the 
 
erosion cycle In vuln. able          S of soil. 
 
     In preosttlemnut times such behavior was sporadic, i.s*, at any on*

 
 time a  glllibU fration of the potantial irruptions were active. Just 
 
 so a negligble fraction of the watersheds were active. In both. aetlv 
 
 periods wer .elf-tormnatizg. both *e*apo detectioan i hiestouial 
 
 2Wort.. Soe. soil i   u    ad e had sufferel no activity since gtlaIa 
 
 tines (Utah Canons). Soms browse Io        ts may have continued indef-

 
 $.itoly. All such bees.. increasiaglyw lnerable. 
 
      Some browse ipudets were increased (male more vulnerable) by 
 
 lumbering an fire, which left uitform and favorable sub-climax stages of

 
 the plant succession over large     (Pennsylvania, Lake Statez). 
 
      Then came oyerpaslug by livestock (in the West) followed by removal

 
 of prdators, oroatton. of reftges, and better law enforcement. These 
 
 act*  in various combinations as the ltri.er'pII' to activate all ,ul- 
 
 amble deer ra.s almost aimaltaueusly. Hence the present "rashO of 
 
 irraptive her  from Oregon to Caroaa, ?Pensylvals to Oaliforaia. 
 
      The same overgraing palled the trier on the vulnerable watershe 
 
 of the West. BI apimlture d±1 the same in the 1aet and Soth. 
 
      These man-idueet cycles are not self-terminating, either In &eer
or 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                                      6 
 
 
la erosion. Predatr control ctius today on vry irrupting dor 
 
na.. I hav soon. Livestok vergrazicont ues oa m       an prrating. 
 
 
    Iz the cose of eroesin, the preaux. of livstok an farming hs tbm 
 
lifted in only a few ca*, bnt it has been~ eased in =q. 
 
    Bya   la rge, the, we are slidin down & tboga o                 
 , 
 
Srat, a     torexultio6 mU sO4y Is   H a ouh for bw. or Lvrsios 
 
In~ the doer toboggan. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                      Ladysmith, Wiso ons in 
                                          Dec. 9, 1941 
 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold, 
University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
          The attaohed comments are briefly some of my 
thoughts on the subject of deer and eruptions and I think 
are pretty much in harnozr with yours. I looked over your 
rough draft thoroughly and, in general, thought it was all 
right as you have set it up and a good proposal. 
          You will notice that the comments and the corresponding 
portions of the draft are numbered, but these comments are not 
intended for additions or deletions unless they suggest some 
change that you wish to make. 
 
                                      With best regards, 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                      W. S. Feeney 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Coments on "Deer Irruption Study" 
 
 
          From our present limited historical knowledge, we 
assume that in the past in northern Wisconsin before deer irruptions 
were thought of, there was less summer browse, fewer deer, and more 
predators.   1here unrestricted hunting became a factor there was 
supposedly a downward irruption followed by over-oontrol and poor 
land use ( logging exploits) which caused an upward irruption. The 
one natural check left is about to cause a steep downward slide in 
the deer population, but as yet there is no leveling off in sight. 
 
          There is no doubt that a study and compilation of the history 
of the deer herds in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota would be 
enlightening and might give us a key to ýhe real causes of irruptions

in the Lake States. 
          "Irruptions", we suppose, are caused by upset natural
balance 
and lack of adequate substitute controls. It is a mystery if they can 
be prevented unless we change our whole system of mismanagement, and up 
till now this has not appeared likely.    L%./,I/4/) 
          It seems that xmong the known quantities we must have deer 
predators, less indiscriminate logging, fewer deer refuges now, better 
land use- and more undisturbed wilderness. 
          For several reasons we can hardly expect much real improvement

by control of causes in less than a half a century. 
 
(1) Very good. 
(2) possibly it could. The experiment might be worth enough to fence 
     a to    ip wolf-tight and deer-tight and see how they get along 
     together. Also, I have been thinking of Madeline or Stockton 
     Islands- both still O.K. but on their way to trouble. 
(3) Perhaps predators are just one of several natural regulators which 
     double check against abnormalities. Maybe a dearth of predators 
     alone, especially as revealed by crude measuring, would not cause 
     an obvious irruption until paralleled by change of cover by logging

     and fires, etc. A visible irruption might be likened to a case of 
     double pneumonia. 
     One thing certain, the irruption begins before it is seen. Some 
     people don't know yet that there is an irruption in the deer herd 
     of Wisconsin. 
 (4) I presume the other environmental factors are also not much disturbedl

 (5) There are indications that predators are very effective in keeping 
     a balance up to a certain stage but I wonder about their regulating

     efficiency when the growth of the prey species is unduly stimulated

     by abnormal changes in food and cover. 
 (6) Good theoretically   but seemingly impractical to either tag wolves

      or lions or to control their age classes. However, the sheep 
      mausadering individuals might be selectively eliminated regardless

      of their age class, etc. 
 (7) A phase of study untouched. 
 (8) Untouched. Since we don't have any reliable norm it is unlikely 
      that aul returns could be had in less than 10 years. I think 
      it should be tried but there is some doubt if an experiment could 
      be set up which would yield certain conclusions. 
      It is time to begin but I doubt if our "Chemistry of Wildlife"
is 
      advanced enough yet to isolate and study the parts and then know 
      the relationship to the whole and how the catalysts not examined 
      affect them. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
(9) If I recall correctly the K ibab irruption, in the presence of 
      palatables, was hit by dis ase whereas the Lake States irruption, 
      with shrinking of palatables, results in starvation. 
(10) In the Lake States there is little doubt that an increased deer 
      population and overbrowsing has caused a decided decrease in 
      ratio of palatables to deer in wide areas. Cedar for example is 
      almost completely browsed out and balsam is now being heavily 
      browsed. 
(11) Apparently this is a safe presumption but the dps and downs may 
      be far apart. I think a completely browsed out winter range 
      followed by an extreme low in the deer cycle could not irrupt up 
      for a long time where deer depend on winter yards. 
 
 
This reminds me of a possibility I have been thinking of.. Could 
it be that if we didn't try to check the ocmpounding upward 
irruption of Wisconsin deer, both the deer and the forest would 
be better off? If the herd were mare suddenly reduced to near 
zero by an extremely hard winter when the population was at a 
peak it might be better than a prolonged struggle of mediooraca 
which could result from far lagging artificial controls pre-climaxly 
applied. In other words, is there a   ossibility of a deer herd 
remaining just large enough to eat all of the conifer reproduction 
until the seed trees have fallen? If so, we could lose both the 
vulnerable forest and the deer in the northern belt- imaginative 
to be sure but chances are it is a tendency worth some speculation. 
Of course we would like to try management, especially unhampered 
and well thought out management- and there is still plenty of 
thinking to do. 
 
 
(12)   I don't think it would work. Deer tfect trees' growth for not 
       more than 20 years of the trees early life. Early age rings are 
       hard to read. Many other factors effect tree growth. Often 
       nearly all trees of a certain species and certain age class will 
       be killed by browsing and leave no records. Also trees 25 years 
       old and older and above the browse line, when subjected to heavy 
       browsing would not likely be set back in growth of rings and 
       therefore tell no story. 
 
       I'm going to check some 10-15 year old balsam that I know were 
       browse-killed last winter and see if there is a tapering off in 
       ring widths. This then could be checked against ring wldths for 
       the same years in older unbrowsed trees. We should not overlook 
       the fact that this particular intrusion was sudden. Deer did 
       not touch the balsam until the cedar and more palatables were 
       exhausted, then suddenly faced with starvation turned on the 
       balsam and stripped them in a hurry- probably within three significant

       years with by far the heaviest browsing in the last year. 
(13)   Possibility as a check. 
(14)   Yes in our range studies we attach more significance to browse 
       reproduction than to browse production. Administrative policies 
       usually have overlooked it except in the Forest Service. 
(15)   It is quite possible but I'd like to see the proof. I doubt if 
       anyone knows what the norm of a fawn crop is and even if they did
it 
       is doubtful if the Kaibab men or anyone else ever yet measured 
       the variations in the reproductive rate accurately. 
 
 
Good 
Good 
 
 
Good 
Very true and significant. 
 
 
(21) Good 
(22) Correct 
(23) Very good. 
 
(24) Poor brakes would burn out 
      if a leveling off is too remote. 
 
                   W. S- F. 
                   12/3/41 
 
 
(18) 
(17) 
(18) 
(19) 
(20) 
 
 
C / 
 
  

					
				
				
 
~4~fr*4~AJ 4M.A~~P. 
 
 
a, x &24A 
 
 
cr2u44/ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                                              December 7, 194! 
                                              102 C Vivarium 
                                              Wright and Healy 
                                              Champaign, Illinois 
 
 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Professor Leopold; 
 
     Reference is made to Miss Harper's note of November 26th. 
 
     I have read your preliminary draft of "Deer Irruptions" 
with considerable interest and enthusiasm, and have delayed 
answering in hope that I could muster enough time to actively 
study it and possibly add some further contributions. My 
work here is, however, piling up in such staggering propor- 
tions and, because I'm leaving for the Marine Station at Beau- 
fort, North Carolina in a few days, I have decided to return 
your story with only the notes and comments I made in my first 
reading of it. Personally, I think that what is to be said 
has been quite adequately stated. Naturally, I was particu- 
larly pleased in your statement to the effect that the field 
investigator "must have competence in and sympathy with the 
entire gamut of biological conservation activities, from pure 
ecology on the one hand to practical range management on the 
other". Far too many of our practices in Wildlife Adminis- 
tration have stemmed from "investigation" by individuals and 
agencies with an axe to grind or a policy to uphold. 
 
     If you have further ideas or opinions on which you would 
like my reaction, I will be more than glad to give it. I am 
sure (and certainly hope) however, that the story as it will 
be presented will make a favorable impression on Doctor's 
Gabrielsen and Shantz and Mr. Clapp. Incidentnlly, the more 
I think of the various possibilites connected with the pro- 
ject, the more I believe that a government financed job would 
work the smoothest. 
 
     I am enclosing, for what intetest it may prove to be, a 
copy of the "prospectus" I submitted last fall to the head of 
the Zoology department here at Urbana. This was necessary in 
order to line up an acceptable thesis problem. Dr. Shelford 
has approved it with the understanding that any reasonable 
alteration would be alright. Incidentally, he further stated 
that if any of these alterations were approved by Dr. D. I. 
Rasmussen, he would automatically accept them. 
 
     I imagine that when you present the problem to the gen- 
tlemen at Toronto, they will want to know about the quali- 
 
  

					
				
				
-2- 
 
 
fication of the individual you have in mind for the job. I 
realize that you have a fairly comprehensive personal case 
history of me as presented in my ill-fated fellowship appli- 
cation of last spring.- However, in a short summarization, 
and with this above prospect in mind, I feel that the follow- 
ing particularly qualifies me for the work: I 
 
     1. Was born and almost entirely raised on a livestock 
        ranch in Idaho. 
     2. Spent my high school years on a State Game Depart- 
        ment Fish Hatchery in Idaho. While there, I worked 
        at odd jobs for the state during summers and vacat- 
        ions, and absorbed   good deal of the problems and 
        attitudes of the average state conservation depart- 
        ment. 
      3. Graduated with a major in Biology from a small wes- 
        tern land grant college. While there, I had courses 
        in Range and Wildlife Management in the school of 
        Forestry and Conservation. (Under Becreft and Ras- 
        mussen). 
     4. Had experience in Field investigative work with the 
        Utah Agricultural Experiment Station and the U. S. 
        Bureau of Fisheries. 
     5. Hnd six years experience with the Forest Service dur- 
        ing which I was Chief-or-Party of a Grazing Survey 
        being carried out over areas on which both the deer 
        and elk herds had outgrown their ranges (Manti For- 
        est in Central Utah). I was also a District Ranger 
        on the Logan Canyon district, and my interest and 
        accomplishments in Wildlife and Range Work on that 
        job earned for me a promotion to my present posit- 
        ion (December-1-1939) as assistant to Orange Olsen 
        in the Regional O,.fice at Ogden. In this latter po- 
        sition, I have had an active part in studying all of 
        the irrupting herds in Region 4. I have also been 
        personally accountable for a good share of the For- 
        est Service's participation in the series of deer 
        feeding studies being carried out in the large en- 
        closure at Filmore on the Fishlake National Forest. 
     6. Have my M.S. in Animal Ecology (with a Minor in Plant 
        Ecology) under Shelford here at Illinois. I took 
        leave without pay to return to school to better pre- 
        pare myself for more effective investigative activi- 
        ties. 
     7. I am sincerely interested in the project and only 
        wish that I had more time to devote to it now. 
 
     I want you to understand that the above is no attempt 
to "toot my horn" to you, but rather an effort to concisely 
state my cualifications for the Toronto Conference. 
 
                                             Yours   ry truly, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          ;ý7. MI;     ýA 
LMW.ýKmm-&              1ý114 
 
 
                       Ali 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
. TeU IV 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3a,,,oo4O  val-qa 
 
*0l*       mta.' 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
tyM t of Ut * vqieotwa forokD. InALX 1U  at tb 
 
 
a. 
 
 
  - in~s &U wiJMr pvabl    p* most OOWSU P 
$9 0 ao o te   oa ot~i e 0     e til U O QUAAM O 
 
 
suc em and b" bet p omM . 1r h O   Ut  M 
2mAs suppotIM a how et big am/m~m pusol hav o~ beW~~ 
-wU&  s..sof. IM loo of ae  In 1kbU 1atuw 1Isem 1a 
wkinl boomu Ut 00 1t at a st~stekUM Of Utb &GM Ot 010 
-ove tbat Mw puw bmd smn Smeftl1r aOV 4*.h Tb* 10* 
s1av.f lusIUtm    at U  y bW  l  Um 
   V~~fUMMO*$oftb hor and th eapI0W blotio InftnMO 
Of"VC 116 10 t Ut"%~t 
 
 
,1u. IA W"U" rw t            M Ot'o 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        of Its vwaM WA U dWW d1*d tinVt Mt **AI 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  th vio SM4 tho X~w %V" am to all OUVr  yte~noin 
 
    haximy ~ wb 4wbuIM ofm to 1'o boor* This wtm is repwUa 
It54t 4s a   iUbO t int 1A UM ,*an  foeW kido ftoS2y 
 
OO~fe    ViM1,0 MUa    uta be Oettss4 a nsh 4oe  bws, 
 
Ot the dem4t. tlot oainhpo     uwmlt t     Frma 
  xxtbe mkUlnedaa  Me oo$p at mqpwm an ozmswK to *1*pim 
 
  SV9hi OL1 tMS. I belew ~tht, Wm the" 5 istftMO~alk.4aa to 
  Obw bo msto a aftin a (M bwa 04 b   up  wor It *JU be PO 
  stgto 40tr~e h ~~  pop.tim 10.w at whg a. bolm abO14 bo 
 
  min~ned.Th5sr* a Itstoa rUa1a  *0 iat   ~an m  sw11ablo and 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     ItI 5weU katto U siteawto fthe" pmbem r  tbmt V 
 
wU sub 5*tts Thaw to*A equa t awearn., th*be  that$, exo  o 
 
th   i awtcroy .bsevott$ by wil. ownn but not too m~ Wlm 
 
   U4v1u*sOths o in mowo bad So be vwAqb befn p~uba *%to" 
 
   t u aftuo to the exten that myv approl45*rw ot4 . was 
b*tal", 1s4.   a rou41k nery &U1o it w beet lfm~e  rg" 
 
  %40 t4U ba pr"e b~s bomotle &   h Peaki ~po4ft~io 
 
  p~emm m renbsdau U4e in1u Lmmis#4a bo~~at *0 4.*IsaIs ft 
 
IO1 tht frm ths ftibab ObeSOMUMSi ~we *inm 0aftat with SW 
UOUtI of a h* or la 4m emi Its babita0t ftlwi Its hain 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    4c, avq It mt beWA0It4 quite I~nat of the blotle "lM4ion 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  ApparD 1*t tho im an It was beftr sh VuwWS*rAiot 
 
    at~ b-RI 4K eM tVAte 
 
a Cosm #~ ot Vvlift histort" w ewlgMm #4 #4emop of the 
%bit, wi b~sa~I. de eM o the CA Isrl m~o dvW. ThV bo nt 
 
 
 
 
     Mw V~mb Q*opsmiv nosom tkt ha bowsay1w We# anml# 
 
 
htmamLs W4 It PIAU tha thisIs no t an Oft~r to 44AOS Mi 
 
ot Iav vo*, nor ~to voela, ot s~ir hos. 
       51* %o w1jr~e of 1934-3  be" beenspedn mi of at  M t1 In 
 
as 3t1WLv -k at Me ~ e cmth rnw  o UtahI md Zdshs My 
     qwoo a  ~ it  a 0tý,wte poiy*M be  to Mte dtM 
 
Iahnftesto to be u.m In wrvivt at a swoossfu ew~Alr  of WOane a 
  wAIt* lW.0fmkMlPWO1144 ItMIe4t~sms " b 
 
Ott* 0641t4.ft he" is Wo *110 ut. m, tug is 1  I hav h" emO 
   potIly to m~stom ad of oban"U*40 t~t WW hel In obtaialM 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In th mawft my f life. I w: r b-tI amni.oa"rht b 
 
 
tit T,,me It to antletpute tbat I will atu to tbo job I mm baw md 
 
so a~ ro~f tho additional tftinM b te Ina sttm. to 
 
      Ittointtat.bVhiLrst deimbe bst to amte ap  R ~.*5- voll 
 
  W Ziv ats foltgcal w~rt to to *u1bo w7  ubo very deiitl a sos 
 
     moamhi* aea s ary pamotv of all arose treaety  th*s 
 
  *pol$aspoilew to emenmy  stet~ Us   4 of yWbs th~ere At~ 
 
 
 
IntetivmLa rw~, a Owee4s bee mpe6. 1% is In rirhoft 
 
  13h n -s kwmas the 3tme-uvy (or GLa~ile  b.Im ai 
 
OU oth rup, Is 410UA wwayo Ue 'itanor VM11 00t 
 
ibhs =it Is #U~ha voyvl deftm "tolt island MA~ prm 
 
 
It is fet that th ao epoe or i04s Im~fltIMto *xAI be lo 
 
  *m th4iw hat a Lie blaia voIztloasps and     *5tfl~yumV 
 
 
lotion uwmuIc** Iti s believed that the t$iwa0 tow. wMl be perlima 
 
to the prba immo by tb ohe t wpi hed um of so n 
 
  'emtom he" intoe 148. 
      As pVri"1V Asia, Uso WIbm Is moU  - m m  *a n ra1 
 
has buwell OWIo gj the peaki nww wissr*m   Wdo 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     botcmhe j~atýotU"aMa this o" viii bo r  intmrstFlg

 
 
 
 
 
 
     jwt~~~~~~           .tt of# th otfs awo w 4t I*)m. It Is abot 30 
 
  alle  *fZ1  04 At l~ko city (76 u54.4 tm GA) RAM ?c 044 nil". Ot 
 
 
mo0n*r th laaL-         aMt lwml i           )Qvi 
 
 
 
            'MA t*5iat is about S3MR O s og ~4n 10 uiies*R vi 
 
 
I~t I I r~lty aill "na ,ýw isiaMt 1 i rane.~ For all 
 
    a*%%~ ~ -latr..devv  o n ia of ýwtrn Utah rod Vvada  Its msnt,

 
Le abftp with SVM~I r*" Ov R,000 fto and with th hihs late 
 
ý'mut,vV.eln hu Oa1vatia c: 101'm fot. ',I V*UY flow*On 
 
tb* sait and tb wst ftv"%. botuw 4.K0 and 50QO ft.t Mwv 
 
bow or tb* no (about 70,O ..in is wiU Us n atiarm foe 
 
god to kcm as the 3ateviU~ 4ivisio, of Va a 5chl.tiona Zm~at. 
 
        3w Uogm  s to S ;;It boiaM mdvymgoD*peno 
 
 *Uwp 4ope arA jutting mfa iM  06m- s .t~mt on-hido thefv 
 
 Is i.*wimeba to liwstock, *,atw isb~ &amm m4ewaly disti1u*4v 
 
   'Alw ~~ miUnraoIlkst to ugitly iI..*stav m4orat4 by & fr mt b44 
 
 ofnt** Lave depe*ts anpom ~to* a esintoubl extet 4lon 
 
 th#   0*" 4$ t# r"*t% Ss bouv4M a tber~l W tr Om Shl~t 
 
 
6 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Laf (it wo a, pejsa meaciAT Into old )~ks botwie) %.Ui ft 
 
the meat b~y tbo sU  4Awot of 'Iul JRU t to mou,0 tvm tho 
 
Omn,  dvrrr"ran tin o the w  thbeV re~nivwly low 10aml 
 
  No. t to bo~n onts*t h7 Ruk" Ar4 Tfol val  bert of 
 
 
      Inth m4oy IUQ'es th tlwo of Tool au1y took mr the ~t 
 
if. a i ý'vt 1nnz"t bov. Aw locnX mul4. rmA the 'oil1 OoAz- 
 
"Vt*I 5vr4.c ao: ý ObsomtI. Mare~t of mbmt IAO.O S& 
 
 
 
 
alw but the cý-lztru tos ver   .med*WorVa tor~lii the4  a 
 
 
 
 
 
tr~ a the xv mtirit flat. eM *m A *cvt boA,,v fw abu 6I im. 3 
 
 
  Ze4e .    fbot"c "h. We suar      mee P eMi Si 
 
ft te uuira let.t Mika au   aSt Laelt .th mote ol*  sItowl 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   ar amn e   4~mkl ASt         ho wuay up the eM wtmM 
 
      tMA WQ m*=1"au t~d r P (ma U4.       Wt 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  f~tvthOtP 04lt VASJ. Pofu W~i p in~  as a fom~j shu 
 
  Suhof hero .,a fw% cm J. m. laerI.A   to as ftw ut*h nS It eus 
  AUQAWStrng LU o itetnst about this "m apposms  IIm~ 
 
to Us totlI k of azy oý braa  so *am= ontet 
          "u iaa.us of th ,wbut a als 1wakI toO 
 
    W~t  Te ~ebavo cvwof Whin intm4Iate vun Is wou 
 
untl of -m0 w11Wm 
 
 
 
 
 
 
~alpn fir C'A                       )iýASJ~jt%5&aAwiht" t
p1ao 
 
 
 
 
     Irpteal~~ toIt Ith  ý4!m  ra  i~rea 
 
 
 
 
  Uf~trl b U vutamuo htm al to thearn "01 
 
mewt. rqmo, ifw wolv wwo cw or .h.a thyavnow bow e 
 
 
  kwmto wmibL tew ý,jon Lazaos  b~ok 11 kr* heRI llamedu 
 
 
,1o" of coytes thht Z*!"ieutra r~~"i b,4j  t 
 
deser ft." *To IV wbt ruo~is .-. "r w 1. %1w *u.0 o 
 
  W fusm at V4 otal". 'al %b ZIStVw 'Ard o Pre an w1U no U 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
dWtm  gmus asM aoeiwshv bwat no44 
    'r~mt Sa 1@ceM-t~ of q~k UO~.A Mawd (5OOU,4-0QX 
hoM) tha huv in swv4q Abi L~ ;,%a ft"wsao bo to "pt" It 
 
a -an *.miav to a awo of *wa oUl thewot 
 
 
 
 
 
-1l aUobLh M~ th for"      "  so utwanlI tho vu.*p Vt'e 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IS t go -. i Otf tzw    " b eat L- 1208. ThIS lvS row 
ftWI ka st. *a ama LnIn a~ arm "s wes until th I4fr 
 
 
aMbainaticavom  o 
 
 
            De         -   1,=L 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   yalhtTue      .w1-M, *00VOM1   -AM"* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
   mbio  m-onvehorvaoff   arnsn  Cate ao 
 
mq@ 3 inlw  stl imti  IG -#tbg Rum  tCS 8atl O~k4 jvt :jp 
 
 
to41 ente   le  us l, ettl  lb. I* aw how or 
 
pf,,AS  2rt11.8,vle  1ame=t*"te  a.Made  9 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  saalt  Ittawt~ lbvas re!24N I.-  oio vL 
 
 
 
 
    -411f    to to  oftr-w 1-41 -r:2t= U c t; o r ithe wat 
 
  aw" ~    e~    ato~~    o~ ~$ 
 
              ýtar  rsTv atvi 0,OMU~,lwkl*O  h 
 
    "P4wt~r ~ M                tI 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
         -ins  uR* liýT1 U.tb 
 
 
 
 
 
 * .v on a N t(,o hot~jt* x t QV.-ý PC UM   M 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
.1uov. i .a   ert.1ý- t-  iv efIa4 1940 u IM 
 
      1~ Sb. ware tvvi otr 1940~i f'llwl  4v 14a 
 
 
oq- c"   nMfho   t1W. i-A em~ 0,M gI*ho  40ti ~ 
 
(11 with   a cre lu furt? an r-b m w1rtvr. *on- 
 
 
 
 
 
,h Ot b* vwv Sb.    toW wl-o I R  4vwl tbýtth 
 
vmlw17y ,4U-ju zo   .avor1.a cm ,, n- r flesh~ Ooltor .IfIst4 
 
vath~"ts of t( h 1'. 14, Timm tm  JSV0 IO)V b.3M V-0 O&V 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   y~~~h ~ 094e GUM t1=1 I4li llmlt joeue  rd t~e III 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     an =Pon* SeeM Sth wxx of ~e        tto of att? 
 
 
 
 
 
 t1c W113 be dot up        of, ~14t?~t ot4~w 
 
 thO ht MA UO herd 
 
 
 mw mm anka$  Ml th tvw rovtted ltSoý, h ftmpt ý,mVvee he*

 
 duhie, WOem  (1041i eA une rTjoint SPO"1810n bWn cry 
 ft a WyLt awl meumowW rOMUW4 or Stb p"10-W co 
 Ze rost tf W will be fm Ultmelw mp ot tw 
      SM                a' StUtv,0" 
"dalatable tl ofs4 Ow cald1U. eswt. of      _______ hevy-nto 
 
 
 
      rurý. w~bI 4*viso iLan~ efro to 0t as beitt !Aet  & StA

 "17,v Ute on the muta  I no hav zbot 3WP veoddoeNlr 
 that Aill 4vv Wntn~  m- srn'em w   uae   70" t~r,t 
 
 smvaio c~aitat, :0 fmw tamý iwo*%* nvete  Vwr 
 
 Wpwl-wmo Aftt Mstcr. ý (The.. owv  he~ i rbs 
Dade by? th  "Owo al e)wZaw elaa7 ndjma~t  tvbt 'em or *1*t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prprdbý h aro ýiav  ~, 7afl 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    vwon beaUo ttwtInte m 
    bav T~r"4 o~mqjete 00matlv m.* Im~a  out it# 
 
 
 
 
 In aumrl~ w    ItmstL  0,4t!ei 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Photo No.       GRAZING SURVEY WILDLIFE RECORD 
 
 
Wasatch Nationa  F rest 
 
 
Date 
Natural Unit 
 
 
Sec.   , Twp.     Rge.___ 
District 
 
 
         Designat ion 
oAppro.. Area 
                     Calc'd 
Dist.... traveled in typoe 
                       Mi.Ch. 
Time of day 
 
 
Observer 
 
Elev. 
      Los 
E XQos. 
 
 
     Name 
 
wer Upper General 
 
 
S    W    N    E    S~ 
 
 
            Start. Finish Time 
Dist. to water 
               Mi.Cho 
Weather            , 
 
 
ulear    -Lt. Clouds 
 
 
Heavy Clouds 
 
 
                         OBSERVAT IONS 
            Deer      Live Animals Seen 
        ......Deer..ttle3oyot         obat Snk PorcWeasel, 
Bucks oes awns ncl.Total 
 
 
Approximate number of deer missed 
 
      ________DEAD DlEER SREEN 
Approx. date                    Cause  _____ __-__"  _______ 
of death       Group Acci- Coy.-- Othe-.rPoach--"Uniden-  Re- 
              ____   dent  otes .Pred. .inE - tified  marks 
Died.this     Buks 
sumier        Does 
 
 
              Fawns 
              Uncl. 
 
 
Died. before  Bucks 
twinter       Does .... 
 
 
 
              Un-ci.__ 
 last winter iDoes ..... ....     ..., 
 
 
 
      T lead 
Dee r L if e Hts to ry Notes. 
 
 
Storm 
 
 
No.0 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
AftI 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Range Conditions,,_______ 
               Poor  Fair Good 
 
 Current"Utilization   .... 
                  Over Proper Under 
 
Utilization by speci.  .                   Percent of 
  So e~ies J...     Percent Current Use     Total 
                                            Cover. 
P. tr.err.. uloi...   __"___ s...__..__"_ 
                         ~b 4. ~  'so    100O 
P. melanocarra            "__ 
                  10    30N  50  70    go. 
 SY horicaroos s.-                        " 
                0    20.  4.60      so .. 
  C.lediifolius 
 
C. montanuis 
          .. ......o ...." 20 o 60o ... 80 ..... 0o 
 
                  30.-30    .50.70     90, 
_j utahensisij 
                    0 0   .46 J..    0   100 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                            * ,     so ... .. 
   , tri.entat'a 
                  ~10   3900       7 
P. tridentaia.'    *,,.___ 
                   0 20        600 90 0  100 
C.s stansburiana                A 
                  10    30,  50"''7-   90 
 
 
 
 
Gene-ral-Remarks:     .--1W 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
D sigaation 
 
 
GRAZING SURVEY 77ILDLIFE RECORD 
   Vasatch National Forest 
      compi)ation Sheot 
 
 
Sheet No. 
           Dist.        Dist.        Total Area                         
                       kpprozimatO. 
Ro.   Date from   Elev. tra-  Area     Acres                 Live Animals
Seen              __  Live 
           waor   (ft.) ye d  Chocked ApproxCalc. Cattle CyotdBobcat 3  
rC.ao ol     Deer       Deer   Totao No. 
                                                                   *    
          B!D F~ n -Tot. Missed , e r 
   Inm- IA.ch.      -  mi. _c (acros)l                                  
                                DeerI  . 
 
 
 
 
                       _  _-* ii                                        
                   -       _- 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                   -         -_                                  _ -'   
                    -           __ 
                                                                        
           TEE 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 . -- ce f orward__                                                     
                    - 
Grand total (to date,) 
             .  .                                   o ,  V 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                       ad Deer Seen ____..    . 
No. Rang    Current  Mle d Thi#  Died Last  Died Before  Buried 
   Condtions  Utiliza'n  summer   Winter  La t  7 tter  flIer 
 _..     ..G~QU~          ADPU  P 11 - Seen            $             . KS

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
       - - -  - - - -- -? - - .....- -                       .. ....... .
. . -___ __ ___ __ ___ _- 
       p       IU B 1  I U IB DI. Fl U' D 1P. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          sbee+" -  -      - - - -     -                      *   .---

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Baanhce forward-    --       - - - - - - 
Grand total (to            - a -    -  - 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
a 
 
 
K 
 
 
A 
 
 
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X        I 
 
 
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J    U 
 
 
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L   L 
 
 
sovi.AIf 
LakeJJ 
 
 
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Foh*O v 
 
 
M 0 HO A VKE 
 
 
1130 
 
 
E  TI 
 
 
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  * A 
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A 9  1 
 
 
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ýHZIGT AL K) K A 
   PA 
A ( 
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1K~ *' 
  \' $ 
     II 
 
 
MILES 
50 
 
 
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0N  0 I 
 
                    1939 
 
 
g* n                     W A( T Eemrer R ' - 
 
 
 
 
     -  - - - -l -,- 
 1 C R! 
 
 
 
 
 
                                  41' 
 
 
 
 
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    -.-.               I - ,,  ,- 1IT  < 
A    I   Lk4'..            0 F A T 
 
W    . A      SA if-_ 
          IE  N4o E'~ 
 
 
      ~'40N EE Z.r           U I 
  N \E %                 WICOn -' 
 
 
.3           1   * '.   iM~RC1 
          S09'                     37* 
 
 
 )N. A*~    V J'- %.Pcf 1- E   N 
 
      1110     it 00   lo o1080 
 
 
0 
 
 
  I R  0K' 
 
 
 
 
A   I   /N o, 
St Goo 
 
 
I 
 
 
11 
 
 
40 
 
 
1       '                                                 " 
 
 
I              * 
 
 
0 
 
 
BASE BY U.S.GS. 
 
 
.... " 7t.'l 
 
 
%*- 
 
 
r .   A 
 
 
hi 
 
 
  9- 
 
 
T "0 
 
 
! 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                   Rough Draft 
                                                   12-7-41 
 
 
 
 
 
             A STUDY OF DEER IRRUPTIONS 
 
                    ALDO LEOPOLD 
 
 
PREM I SE. 
 
     Abnormal irruptions of deer (and elk), like forest fires, 
 
are rapidly becoming an almost universal conservation problem. 
 
As yet, the limited studies of irruptions have been local and 
 
their objectives have been definitely empirical, i.e., they 
 
are aimed at alleviating the trouble rather than at finding 
 
out why it occurs and how to prevent it. The current sit- 
 
uation parallels the one regarding Fire in 1918. 
 
PROPOSAL. 
 
     It is proposed that the Fish and Wildlife Service and 
 
the Forest Service join resources in attempting to probe more 
 
deeply into the problem, and it is further suggested that 
 
this study be carried out with some third party that has not 
 
been involved in past controversies, commitments, or history. 
 
The proposed steps are: 
 
     1942: Testing of Methods and Field Worker 
 
                At least a year should be spent on some de- 
 
           finite problem area in the intensive development of 
 
           the story of a representative irrupting unit, and 
 
           in so doing, to experiment with and finally adopt 
 
           a set of plans and methods to be used in the ensu- 
 
           ing survey. This preliminary work will also give 
 
           an excellent opportunity for testing and training 
 
  

					
				
				
 
              a selected field worker. 
 
     1943-45: The Survey 
 
                   This will involve the study and prepara- 
 
              tion of P detailed case hist-ry of all known 
 
              areas of irruption in North America. Simul- 
 
              taneously, an equally detailed study will be 
 
              made of a number of normal (providing such can 
 
              be located) deer ranges on which irruptions 
 
              have not occurred. A careful analysis and com- 
 
              parison of these data will culminate in a num- 
 
              ber of "leads" (denominators common to all of 
 
              the irrupting ranges and lacking on the normal 
 
              ones) which will be the investigative problems 
 
              to be examined in the experimental work to fol- 
 
              low. 
 
        194b: Experimental Work 
 
                   The investigative phase will begin with 
 
              the initiation of controlled experiments in 
 
              order to verify, or discount, the leads as 
 
              deduced from the Survey and Case histories. It 
 
              follows, of course, that any such investigative 
 
              work will carry through to the testing and adop- 
 
              tion of corrective measures for the "leads" vpri-

 
              fled. 
 
PLAN OF ATTACK 
 
     It is apparent that a population behavior such as is char- 
 
acterized by "irruptions" must arise from abnormalities in 
 
either the reproductive rate or the mortality rate. These may 
 
have secondary but contributing complications such as abnormal 
 
sex ratios, abnormal sex survival, or nutritional disturbances. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
It is certain that predation, as well as hunting pressure, is 
 
reflected in the rate of mortality. 
 
     It is evident that mortality and predation cannot be ade- 
 
quately studied on confined experimental deer, but the compli- 
 
cations of nutritional disturbances probably can. It is also 
 
expected that the sex ratios and reproductive rates, except 
 
as affected by natural predation and nutrition in the wild, 
 
can also be investigated on an experimental bpsis. It is 
 
readily apparent, therefore, that the problem must be "shaken 
 
down" to one or more simple hypotheses before experimental 
 
verification can begin. This is the purpose of the survey. 
 
DISCUSSION OF THE CURRENTLY AVAILABLE LEADS. 
 
     Predation: 
 
          What records are evailable, indicate that irrup- 
 
     tions do not always immediately follow the removal of 
 
     predators. It is known, for example, that the bulk of 
 
     the predators were extirpated from Pennsylvania in the 
 
     eighteenth century, and that it was 1920 before disastr- 
 
     ous irruptions began to occur among the deer in that 
 
     area. 
 
          Absence of effective predators may, however, pre- 
 
     dispose a range to irruption. I know of no irruption 
 
     in the presence of predation. I do know, however, 
 
     dense herds in Mexico which have wolves and lion, but 
     do not irrupt. 
 
          We have no published information to show just what 
 
     animals are effective predators. We have more or less 
 
     taken it for granted that cougars and wolves fall into 
 
     this category. We do not know whether any deer ranges 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
were ever devoid of these species. If our survey indicates 
 
that certain areas never did support large resident populations 
 
of the predators (and indications are that such wps the case 
 
in the Pacific Northwest) a critical pointwill have presented 
 
itself. 
 
     On P.rens where it is certain the predators were abundant, 
 
we do not know the original ratio between them and the deer. 
 
Early journals show that on areas in Utah, Arizona, and along 
 
the Upper Columbia that are now carrying irrupting herds, or- 
 
iginally showed an astonishing scarcity of deer. 
 
     The present cooperative predator-control operations offer 
 
many chances for experimental work which, as far as I know, 
 
are not utilized. What are the mechanics of lion concentra- 
 
tion on incipient irruption, i.e., high spots? From what 
 
distance do they come? What sexes and ages are present? 
 
Does such concentration of cougars leave a scarcity elsewhere? 
 
A tagging program could throw some worthwhile light on these 
 
quest ions. 
 
     We do not know what selectivity in prey choice is held 
 
by the different sexes and age classes of the lions. We 
 
often hear that only the old weak-toothed~attsck sheep. A 
 
tagged lion population would verify or discard this purely em- 
 
pirical conclusion. If it were true, then the impact of lions 
 
on deer might be strengthened, and that on sheep weakened, by 
 
selective control. If this study should, in the end, indicate 
 
the advisability of predator management for deer control, then 
 
advance information onthese critical ouestions would be of 
 
great value. In any event, such information has immense eco- 
 
logical implications. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
     Browse Nutrition and Range. 
 
     There are many indications that an over-browsed range 
 
may, during the process of irruption, yield browse food of 
 
superior nutritionwl quality. By this is meant qualitative 
 
(mineral, vitamin) as well as quantitative nutrition. This 
 
may affect the reproductive rate, and perhaps even the sex 
 
ratio. It may also account for the self-aggravating behav- 
 
ior of excess populations. Experimental verification of 
 
this critical point is now possible, and should not be de- 
 
layed. This information is basically important to livestock 
 
management as well as to the proper handling of deer. I 
 
know of no studies directed to this end. 
 
     One of the striking peculiarities of recent irruptions 
 
 in Utah and the Kaibb is the high percentage of palatable 
 
 species in the woody vegetation available to deer. These 
 
 species comprise the bulk of the winter range, whereas in 
 
 the Lake States, the Arizona brushfields, California, Oregon, 
 
 and Pennsylvania, they comprise but a small fraction. Is 
 
 such a condition inherent or induced?  Is a "pure" range, 
 
 once upset, more liable to violent ups and downs than a 
 
 "dilute" range offering inferior "buffer" foods? Presume-

 
 ably this is true, especially if overbrowsing enhances qual- 
 ity. 
 
      We do not know whether browse plants attain a suffic- 
 
 ient age to be analyzed for irruption-history by ring widths? 
 
 If so, the assumption that irruptions are all recent might 
 
 thus be tested. 
 
      If there are lionless and wolfless deer ranges of high 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
quality, irruptions (food cycles) presumeacly have always 
 
occurred there. An intensive ring-analysis of forage browse 
 
might disclose their history. Naturally, only plants high- 
                2 
er than the plimsoll line would survive to record the story. 
 
An investigption of age-classes in browse reproduction might 
 
also produce P record of the secuence. 
 
      It is doubtful that present range studies and range 
 
policies give proper consideration to browse reproduction as 
 
well as to browse production. On the Kaibab clearly they 
 
have not. The policy there is an effort to increase the 
 
herd because the surviving browse shows recovery. The browse 
 
killed during the irruption, but not yet replaced by repro- 
 
duction, has been forgotten. 
 
      Reproductive Rates and Sex Ratios. 
 
      On the Kaibab, the fawn crop rose with overbrowsing. It 
 
 is not known if this hold true in other irruptions, or whether 
 
 this is correlated with the possible enhancement of nutrition- 
 
 al value incident to overbrowsing. 
 
      I wonder if the reported increase in fem'ale fawns on kt 
 
overbrowsed Pennsylvania range is caused by the overuse, or 
 
by some other factor? 
 
      General. 
 
      This very brief sketch shows that the proposed survey 
 
 must delve into history as well as appraise current condit- 
 
 ions. It shows that some important researches are ripe for 
 
 action now, and that others will take form as the survey pro- 
 
 gresses. The study should then, serve as liaison between 
 
 (and advisor of) field agencies and institutions. This, of 
 
 course, does not imply administrative authority. It also 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
shows that the field worker must have competence in and sym- 
 
pathy with the entire gpmut of biological conservation activ- 
 
ities, from pure ecology and the academic approach on the one 
 
hand to practical range man-gement and conservwtion depart- 
 
ment administration on the other. 
 
     Preliminary Hypotheses. 
 
     Most woody forage is long-lived, and as a result, pala- 
 
table browse undouotedly accumulated in huge reserves on 
 
ranges kept relatively deerless by predation. (It has re- 
 
cently accumulated in huge reserves on ranges kept deerless 
 
by hunting). 
 
      Such impoundments approach unstable ec'uilibrium in re- 
 
spect to deer, just as alluviating watershed approach un- 
 
stable equilibrium in respect to erosion. The first acci- 
 
dental relaxation of predator-pressure probably bring on the 
 
irruption: exhaustion: die-off sequence recently illustrated 
 
on the Kaibpb. Similar combinations of drouth and rainfall 
 
have precipitated the erosion cycle in many vulnerable im- 
 
poundments of soil. 
 
      In presettlement times, such behavior was sporadic, i.e., 
 
 at any one time a negligible fraction of the potential ir- 
 
 ruptions were active. In a like manner, a negligible frac- 
 
 tion of the water sheds were active. In the case of both im- 
 
 poundments, periods of active dissapation were self-termi- 
 
 nating, and escaped detection in historical records. Some 
 
 soil impoundments have suffered no activity since glacial 
 
 times (Utah Canyons), and similarly, some browse impound- 
 
 ments m~iy h~ve continued to build up indefinitely. In so doing, 
 
 each has become increasingly more vulnerable. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
     Some browse impoundments have been rapidly increased 
 
(made more vulnerable) as the result of lumbering and fire, 
 
which left uniform and favorable sub-climax stages of the 
 
plant succession over large areas (Pennsylvania, Lake States). 
 
     In secuence, came overgrazing by livestock (in the West) 
 
followed by removal of predators, the creation of refuges, and 
 
better law enforcement. These Pcted in various combinations 
 
as the "trigger-pull" to activate most of the vulnerable deer 
 
ranges almost simultaneously. This is reflected in the pre- 
 
sent "rash" of irruptive herds from Oregon to Carolina, and 
 
Pennsylvania to California. 
 
     Overgrazing"pulled the trigger" on the vulnerable water- 
 
sheds of the West, and improper agriculture did it in the East 
 
and South. 
 
     These man-induced cycles in deer irruptions and erosion 
 
are not self-terminating, and as a whole, man has not done 
 
much to improve conditions. In fact, non-selective predator 
 
control still continues on every irrupting deer range I have 
 
ever seen. Livestock overgrazing continues on many irrup- 
 
ting western ranges. 
 
      In the instance of erosion, the pressure of livestock 
 
and farming has been eased in many cases; it has been lifted 
 
in only a few. 
 
      By and large, then, we are sliding down a toboggan of 
 
unknown length, gradient and destination. This study is a 
 
search for brakes or diversions in the deer toboggan. 
 
  

					
				
				
Rough draft 
November 24, 1941 
 
 
DEER IREJPTION STUDY 
 
    Aldo Leopold 
 
 
Premise. Irruptions of deer (and elk) are becoming a universal problem, 
 
like forest fire, Studies of irruptions have been so far local and 
 
empirical, i.e., they aim to alleviate the trouble rither than to 
 
find out why it occurs and how to prevent it. The situation parallels 
 
that of fire in 1919. 
 
Proposal. That the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Forest Service 
 
make a Joint attempt to dig deeper into the problem, in cooperation 
 
with some third party not involved in past controversies, commitments, 
 
or history. 
 
     Steps: 1942. Feel-out. Test a selected field worker by having 
                   him gather the history of a typical irruption. 
 
            193-45. Survey.    Gather the history of irruptions in 
                   the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Deduce 
                   "leads", i.e., look for common denominators.

 
            1946. Ixperiments. Start experimental verification of 
                   leads, and tests of preventative treatments. 
 
Strategy. Irruptive population behavior must arise from abnormalities 
 
in the reproductive rate or the mortality rate. There may be secondary 
 
complications in abnormal sex ratios, abnormal sex survival, or 
 
nutritional phenomena. It is certain that predation, as well as 
 
hunting, affects the mortality rate. 
 
     Mortality and predation cannot be studied in confined experimental 
 
deer. Natrition can. Reproductive rate and sex ratios can, except 
 
as they are affected by predation ai nutrition in-the-wild. It is 
 
clear, then, that the problem mest be "shaken down" to one or more

 
simple hypotheses before experimental verifications can begin. This 
 
is the purpose of the survey. 
 
 
J / 
 
  

					
				
				
2 
 
 
      In the following captions, the fragments of *leads* now available 
 
 are discussed. 
 
 Predation. Irruptions do not immediately follow removal of predators. 
 
 Thus in Pennsylvania predators were removed in the 1700's , but irruptions

 
 did not begin until the 19201s. 
 
      Absence of effective predators may, however, predispose a range to

 
 irruption. I know of no irruptions in the presence of predation. I 
 
 know of dense herds in Mexico which have wolves and lions, and do not 
 
 irrupt. 
 
      What are effective predators? Presumeably wolves and lions. Were 
 
any deer ranges originally devoid of either? This is a critical point. 
 
Parts of the Northwest may have been. 
 
      What was the original deer-predator rat~s? harly Journals show 
 
an astonishing scarcity of deer in parts of Utah, Arizona, and along the

 
upper Columbia. Some of this range is now irruptive. 
 
      The present cooperative predator-control operations offer many 
 
chances for experimental work which, as far as I know, are not utilized.

 
What are the mechanics of lion concentration on incipient irruptions, 
 
i.e., high spots? From what distance do they come? What sexes and ages? 
 
Does such concentration leave a vacuam elsewhere? Tagging could throw 
 
light on these questions. 
 
     What selectivity in prey holds for lion sex and age classes? One 
 
hears that only old weak-toothed lions attack sheep. A tagged lion 
 
population might verify or sharpen this purely empirical conclusion. 
 
If it is true, then the impact of lions on deer might be strengthened, 
 
and that on sheep weakened, by selective control. If this study should, 
 
in the end, indicate the advisability of predator management for deer 
 
control, then advance information on these critical questions might be of

 
great value. In any event, such information has ecological value. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
3 
 
 
Browse Nutrition and Rnge. There are many indications that an over- 
 
browsed range may, during the process of irruption, yield browse food 
 
of superior nutritional quality. By nutrition is meant qualitative 
 
(mineral, vitamin) as well as quantitative nutrition. This may affect 
 
teproductive rate, or perhaps even sex ratio. It may account for the 
 
self-aggravating behavior of excess populations. Eperimental verification

 
of this critical point is possible now, and should not be M.ayed. It is 
 
important to livestock as well as deer. I know of no studies directed 
 
to this end. 
 
     One of the striking peculiarities of recent irruptions in Utah 
 
and the Kaibab is the high percentage of palatables in the woody vegetation

 
available to deer. Palatable species comprise the bulk of the winter 
 
range, whereas in the Lake States, the Arizona brushfields, California, 
 
Oregon, and Pennsylvania they comprise a small fractiono Is this inherent

 
or induced? Is a Nlpure" range, onee upset, more liable to violent ups

 
and downs than a "dilute" range offering inferior "bufferm
foods? Presumeably 
 
yes, especially if overbrowsing enhances quality. 
 
     Do browse plants attain a sufficient age to be analyzed for irruption-

 
history by ring widths? The assumption that irruptions are all recent 
 
might thus be tested. 
 
     If there are lionless wolfless deer ranges of high quality, irruptions

 
(food cycles) presumeably always occurred there. Ring-analysis might 
 
disclose their history. Naturally only plants higher than the plimsoll 
 
line would survive to record the story. Age-classes in browse reproduction

 
might also record the story. 
 
     Do present range studies and range policies take account of browse 
 
reproduction as well as browse production? On the Kaibab they clearly do

 
not. The policy is to increase the herd because the surviving browse 
 
shows recovery. The browse killed during the irruption, but not yet 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
replaced by reproduction, has been forgotten. 
 
Reproductive Rtes and Sex Patios. On the Kaibab, the fawn crop 
 
rose with overbrowsing. Is this true of other irruptions?   Is this tied

 
in with the possible enhancement of nutritional value during overbrowsing?

 
     Is the reported increase in female fawns on overbrowsed Pennsylvania

 
range caused by the overbrowsing, or by some other factor? 
 
General. This very brief sketch shows that the proposed survey mast 
 
delve in history as well as appraise the present. It shows that some 
 
important researches are u% for action now; others will take form later.

 
The survey then, should serve as liailon between(and advisor of) field 
 
agencies and institutions.   This, of course, Aoes not imply administrative

 
authority. It also shows that the field worker must have competence 
 
in and sympathy with the entire gamut of biological conservation activities,

 
from pure ecology on the one hand to practical range management on the 
 
other. 
 
Preliminary Hypothess. Browse forage is lone-lived. Palatable browse 
 
undoubtedly accumulated in huge reserves on ranges kept nearly deerless 
 
by predation. (It has recently accumulated in huge reserves on ranges 
 
kept deerless by hunting). 
 
      Such impoundments approach unstable equilibrium in respect of deer,

 
 just as alluviating watersheds approach unstable equilibrium in respect

 
 of erosion. The first accidental relaxation of predator-pressure brings

 
 on the irruption: exhaustion: die-off sequence recently illustrat*&
 on 
 
 the Kaibab. Just so combination of drouth and rainfall precipitated the

 
 erosion cycle in vulnerable impoundments of soil. 
 
      In presettlement times such behavior was sporadic, i.e., at any one

 
 time a negligible fraction of the potential irruptions Zma active. Just

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                                                  5 
 
so a negligible fraction of the watersheds w active. In both, active 
 
periods were self-terminating. Both escaped detection in historical 
 
records. Some soil impoundments had suffered no activity since glacial 
 
times (Utah Canyons). Some browse impoundments may have continued 
 
indefinitely. All such became increasingly vulnerable. 
 
     Some browse impoundments wete increased (made more vulnerable) by 
 
lumbering and fire, which left unnform and favorable stages of the 
 
plant succession over large areas (Pennsylvania, Lake States). 
 
      Then came overgrazing by livestock (in the West) followed by removal

 
 of predators, creation of refuges, and better law enforcement. These 
 
 acted in various combinations as the *trigger-pull" to activate all
vulner- 
 
 able deer ranges almost simultaneously. Hence the present "rashm of
irruptive 
 
 herds from Oregon to Carolina, Pennsylvania to California. 
 
      The same overgrazing pulled the trigger on the vulnerable watersheds

 
 of the West. Bad agriculture did the same in the Bst and South. 
 
      These man-induced cycles are not self-terminating, either in deer or

 
 in erosion. Predator control continues today on every irrupting deer 
 
 range I have seen. Livestock overgrazing continues on many irrupting western

 
 ranges, 
 
       In the case of erosion, the pressure of livestock and farming has
been 
 
  lifted in only a few cases, but it has been eased in many, 
 
       By and large, then, we are sliding down a toboggan of unknown length,

 
  gradient, and termination. This studr is a search for brakes or diversions

 
  in the deer toboggan* 
 
                  -        ' I - ,.                                     
.. . . 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                             424 Untivnrity Farm PlacO 
                             Novmber 13- 194~1 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. A. B. Hatch 
600 Weatherly At1l41Dg 
Portland, Oregon 
 
Dear Hatch: 
 
You are the first on. to reply to n note in the 
Wildlife News, ad I a= Ve17 matoful to yao for 
your good information. 
 
I1 of course, have long known of your interest 
in the subject of over-populated ranges, an if 
I ever get set up to do any organised work on the 
question, I shall certainly take advantage of 
your offer of help. Meanwhile, I am keening your 
letter for further reference. 
 
                     With best regards, 
 
 
                     Aldo Leopold 
               Professor of Wildlife Mawgement 
 
 
CO Gostleo 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I4~ * fr.4 I, bohusoa 
?~U% Offte ~U41~ 
A1~vqu, Jew ~x~o 
 
~ar Ww.4s 
 
 
                                 eotL~, I 
aa hafl~ ,1L4*e ma4e of the 4w 
aspen 5pw@uti~ 
 
I Qe~tai~y ~e with y~i ~ha~t .~ ~ ;~ 
of Caew pe~i~.t~ons with .peoW. ~r.f.r.no. to 
p~e4atio~ ~e~44 to be ~4e. I have b..~ t~1~g ~ 
1~t.we.i ~. 5h~tt eM QaW1.l~o~ ~ ~h a 
pwJ~S. !~ case ~htoh ~ cite 1* v~ 1q~*~" 
 
 
I i~h enjoyed. ~r trip toC.tbew, and. part1~lar2~ 
apprelate y~r ooui~g all the w~ ~ there to 
enable us to hay, a visit, 
 
                Tours sincer.l~~ 
 
 
                AI4 1~*p.U 
                ftotessor of Wildlife ~xa~snt 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
                             FOREST SERVICE 
                             SOUTHWESTERN REGION 
 
  ADDRESS REPLY TO 
REGIONAL FORESTER                                         POST OFFICE BUILDING,

   AND REFER TO                                            ALBUQUERQUE. NEW
MEXICO 
 
                                                         October 18, 1941

 
 
 
  Mr. Aldo Leopold 
  Professor of Game Management 
  University of Wisconsin 
  Madison, Wis. 
 
  Dear Leopold: 
 
  nclosed are a few photos taken during your recent visit on the 
  Kaibab (North). Leo Couch suggested that you would like to have 
  them. 
 
  You will be interested to know that we have a bumper fawn crop on the 
  Kaibab (North) - the best ever reported. Late September counts show 
  that fawns make up 34% of all deer counted. On a theoretical basis 
  of 12,000 deer in the herd, this means an increase of 4300 deer. 
 
  In 1939, when we first started the summer trapping work, our September

  fawn counts represented 28% of the deer seen. This is an increase of 
  9% in the fawn crop since the summer trapping work started. This year,

  over 270 coyotes have been taken so far. So even if fawns do not 
  show up in coyote stomachs or scats and they take only an occasional 
  fawn, it is believed that several hundred coyotes can be very effect- 
  ive. 
 
  Since our deer have shown an increase in body weight and our fawn crops

  appear to be increasing not only in number but in size of fawns, it is

  hard for me to see where there is anything wrong with the breeding 
  potential that would indicate cyclic behavior. I am inclined to believe

  that carnivore are far more effective than ordinarily believed. I 
  should like very much to see an all-out carnivor-deer relationship study

  11 started in order to get some qualitative and quantitative measurements

  made on this relationship. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2-Al do Leopold--lO/IS/41 
 
 
We all enjoyed having you visit the Kalbab abd feel that you 
contributed much to our work. Look us up when you come West again. 
 
                               Very sincerely yours 
 
 
 
 
                                     FRED W. JOHNSON 
                                     Range Examiner 
 
Enclosures 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                 SU~dversity T Place 
                                 October 15, 1941 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. H. L. 51~ntm 
Chief. Division of Wildlife 
Fuer~al Building 
?uTosoa, Alrixoa 
 
Dear " M-nt z 
 
T-.lks for your note  beut the der irruption projet. 
I az still boplag to talk~ this over with ym u inperson 
ramther than by letter, but I woul4 like to ask you one 
question abot your stAterent, "I'm not so ore that 
anyone ould, bp the further amlysi   of the data on 
han, help mwuh in explaiaing deer IrriAptions." Has 
anyone ever tuutlyzed all the data on Yaz to look for 
soe c       denomimtor?   If ouch a @romon denominator 
exists, it might give us presurptive evidewe of cusation. 
 
All of the cmes I know kbout (and they zust be much 
less mixmrous than the ones you know about) have the 
coomon denominator of previous predator control, either 
at the time of irruptions or before. Conversel, all 
the normal herds I knw hnve normi prkdator presire. 
 
I a,-, of course, not Jur1w at the conolusion that 
pre&dtor control auses irruptions. I am merely trying 
to explain wfat I mean by a study of the data. 
 
                          With porsonl reards, 
 
 
 
                          Aldo Leopold 
                    Professor of Wildlife H  nsmnt 
 
ea Gabrielson 
   Costley 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
                             FOREST SERVICE 
                         CORONADO NATIONAL FOREST 
 
 ADDRESS RKPLY TO 
FOREST SUPERVISOR                                           FEDERAL DUILDING,

   AND REFER TO                                                TUCSON. ARIZONA

 
 
                                                           October 9, 1941

 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Leopold: 
 
I had hoped to see you at one of the meetings and that is my reason 
for not having answered your letter relative to Mr. Costley's work. 
I had previously talked with Costley and still think he should get in on
a 
deer herd that has not already exceeded its food supply. Too many 
research men insist that research work be done on over-used ranges 
and insist that nothing be done until they have more facts. This 
happened to us again and again. It's as if the cause of a fire must 
first be determined before the fire department is allowed to move out. 
 
Yes, I thin4 we need to know a lot more about many phases and especially

the behavior of a herd which is just starting to increase. In this 
respect, Costley is wise since he knows that there is still feed avail- 
able for the herd he proposes to study. In other words, in most cases, 
we have passed over the important stages and concentrated on the few years

of decline, and I'm not so sure that anyone could,by the further analysis

of the data on handhelp much in explaining deer eruptions. Dften,&S on

the Kaibab exact informntion is lacking and we infer much from a few 
scattered observations. Costley proposes to start with a herd in bal- 
ance or one that has not yet reached the optimum population. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                      424 University Farm Place 
                                      September 13, 1941 
 
 
 
 Mr. Richard :. Costley 
 203 Vivarium 
 Wright and Healey Streets 
 Cha"aign, Illinois 
 
 Dear Dick: 
 This letter is to summarise my opinion about the need for Spanish 
 in the execution of your research on irruptions of doer. 
 
 Tour research is an attempt to deduce the nature of the mechanism 
 behind deer rrptioby c      ang unhealthy herds with healthy ones. 
 By "healthy" I of course mean that capacity for self-adjustment
in 
 a population which insures aainst both over-population and unezr- 
 population. 
 
 M trip through the West this wumeer further convinced me of a fact 
 which I have long suspected: there are no really healthy deer 
 herds left in the United States. You can find on this side of the 
 border examples of almost any kind of ecological distortion, but I 
 cannot think of any herd which I could conscientiously call normal. 
 
 On the other hand, I know from my own experience that the un&m 
 settled parts of Northern Mexico contain mmerous healthy herds. 
 On these ranges all of the natural predators are still present in 
 practically their original numbers. There are plenty of deer but 
 never too many, and the deer stand up under a rather heavy kill 
 without lose of density or distortion of sex ratio or deterioration 
 of weight or antlers. I never heard of episootio diseases or an 
 considerable degree of parasitism. 
 
 No one has ever censused such a normal herd nor described its make-up 
 in terms of sex and age classes or its mechanism of population replace-

 ment. In v opinion your study cannot be complete in any scientific 
 senseenor can it achieve its full value as a guide to conservation 
 policies.,until you have studied these Mexican deer herds at first 
 hand. 
 
No corresponding opportunity exists in Canada because the deer belt 
in Caada is very narrow except on the coast, and the cover conditions 
make censusing very difficult. 
 
 
, f t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Richard J. Costley 
September 13, 1941 
Page 2 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anyone doing biolorical work in the Uck country of Mexico must 
kow Spanish, not only to extract information from local residents, 
but also to search the literature for historical eyidenoe on past 
conitions. 
 
I therefore hope that the University will permit you to substitute 
Spanish for French as one of the laui 8aes required for your 
doctorate. 
 
                               Yours sineorely, 
 
 
                               Aldo Leopold 
                               Professor of Wildlife Manaeowmt 
 
 
ALsah 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                            September 9, 1941 
                                            Champaign, Illinois 
 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Professor Leopold: 
        I am now settled in Champaign-Urbana, and am be- 
ginning to get my clutches into what I hope to be a success- 
ful school year. 
        I have discussed thesis problems with Shelford, 
and he is satisfied with a proposal for a study of the 
"population dynamics" of our native big game animals. So, 
it now seems that I am, at least partially, on my way. In 
view of your statement that probably the best check area 
would be in northern Mexico, Shelford will also support 
my petition to the Dean that I be permitted to substitute 
Spanish for French as one of the languages required prepara- 
tory to the granting of the Ph.D. 
          am informed that such a petition has to be very 
strong to have any chance of approval. If you believe it 
worth while, I would appreciate it very-much if you would write 
a letter to me (enclosing an extra copy) covering the desira- 
bility and possibility of our proposed Itudy, and includel 
a statement as to how a knowledge of Spanish would greatly 
facilitate the investigation. 
        I realize that this will find you at one of the busi- 
est timesof the school year, but if I could get this petition 
out of the way within the next ten days, it would facilitate 
things on this end. 
 
        Thanking you for your trouble, I remain 
 
 
203 Vivarium 
Wright and Healey Streets 
Champaign, Illinois 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                -424 University Fars Place 
                                Auigust 15, 19)41 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Ira T. Gabrielson 
Fish and Wildlife ServiOe 
Washington, D. C. 
 
Dear Gab.t 
 
While I was in Utah, I had a pipe dream. Basmnssen, 
Paul Miller, and Leo Couch helped formlte it. This 
letter is by wmay of advance notice that I would like 
to talk it over with you either at Toronto or at some 
earlier occasion if you can name a date and place where 
I could meet you. Why don't you stop over here on your 
return from the Alaskan trip? You have a standing invi- 
tation to go out with me to my farm and cogitate on 
such matters. 
 
I wrote this letter to Dr. Shants because he happened 
to write me, and naturally he is a party to the,question 
of irruption. 
 
Will you let me know when and where I may see you to 
talk over the whole thing? I am a little mistrustful 
of talking of such things at Toronto because you will 
be too busy. 
 
With personal regards, 
 
                          Tours sincerely, 
 
 
 
                          Aldo Leopold 
                          Professor of Wildlife Mamagement 
 
 
cc Costley 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                  424 University arm Flaee 
                                  Auegust 15, 1;41 
 
 
 
 Dr, Homer L. Shntz 
 2415 Twentieth Stroet, N.W. 
 Washington, D. C. 
 
 Dear Dr. Shants 
 
 I especially apreeiate your good word for "Wilderness As A 
 14va Laboratoz7'. I enclose a reprint in case you have any 
 use for it, 
 
 I fully share your regret that you and I have never been in 
 the field together. The same thought occurred to me 4urie, a 
 recent trip through Utah and the Kaibab where you wer frequent- 
 ly quoted. 
 I take it tht you are e1     qu  nted with  . J. Costley, t 
 have the following pipe dres lay hisml on sone kind of 
 *impartil" funds to employ Costl.e to   k a roundup of the 
 whole subject of deer and elk Irruptions, try to d      auses, 
 and lay out research work to further verify nd explore the 
 whole subject. 
 
 My wn hypothesis as to the cause of Irptionis stated in 
 the attaehed extract from ry report on the Utah and Oren 
 units. My ges, of coursme,    y be wrong, but whatever the 
 case, the question is of such fuidamental m.portaace that it 
 deserves the attention of esme brainy yowa man who can throw 
 himself into it and dig to the bottom. These irruptions are, 
 in rV opinion, a worse threat to the future of the national 
 forests than ny other one thing, saye only fire. 
 
 Costley, as you probably knw, is unAer Shelford at the 
 University of Illinois, and this ought to equip him with the 
 Shelford viewpoint. fie is already equipped with the forestry 
 and rang, a    a  t viewpoIt. If he could then be given 
 a Job under some kind of impartial, non-bureau eomittee, he 
 might turn up something worthwhile. 
 
 If you think well of this idea, I'd like to go into a huddle 
 on it with you and Gabe at Toronto. 
 
 With best reUrds, 
                             Yours sincerely, 
 
 
 
                             A.1do Leopold 
                             Professor of Wildlife 
 
cc Costley 
   Oabrielson 
 
  

					
				
				
 
HOMER LE RoY SHANTZ 
2415 TWENTIETH STREET N.W. 
  WASHINGTON Df C. 
 
 
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'hn 1trf'l taik ýt tha Wicon~in eftIon of Co- 
 
  t~t~t~t~1 fr~  ro-rort t;At T amno~ T-,r( 
     o~~~, t Alw  ýrna tn Pr  einrrtar4 
 IhQ~  T rvt  -zm o'nýrtornlty  t,) In  e  ~1  ~ 
 i to It T t~ eh yyfi. 
 
 
 
 
,TT        Joe J. riokTy 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I 
 
 
342 e6fCadison ,qvenue 
WNel, York Z7, N. Y. 
 
 
                 May 31, 1950 
 
 
 
 
Dr. J. J. Hickey 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Dr. Hickey: 
 
          A clipping from the April 27th Wausau Record- 
Herald reports an interesting talk by you at the annual 
meeting of the Wisconsin Federation of Conservation 
Clubs. 
 
          I wonder whether you spoke from a manuscript, 
or from notes? If you did speak from manuscript I would 
be very happy to receive the loan of a copy from which I 
believe a story might be written which would be quite 
interesting to the readers of our Quarterly magazine. 
 
          If you did not speak from manuscript, have you 
or anyone in your department written anything which 
covers the same material. We are continually on the 
look-out for information which would be of interest to 
duck shooters, and apparently your studies of banding have 
disclosed some information which would be exceedingly 
interesting not only within Wisconsin, but in the country 
as a whole. 
 
          Thanking you in advance for any courtesy which 
you can extend us, I remain 
 
 
                              Very truly yours, 
 
 
                              Wendell A.Teague 
                              Public Relations Director 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
IN REPLY REFER TO 
 
 
                   UNITED STATES 
            DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
               FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
 
                                      Press, Ot,* 5 14 
 
 
 
 ~OVMLý' wit! .3tan Beteam 
 
 Buntra, are n_ i the fieldnad mazas of mniitobe afttr tk air qtAr of 
 birds ed the e pnte on the seson are still beln, rgister. 1st 
 mec!03 so 1,an tva~~uto  rcea1ted in aý I a -nsl beiN,ý reeoived
by 
 the writer. Q-a of the mot   at     lettra received n fro,- 1:. Al- 
 bs.ert toc1ibaumu oth Dflta Wptewfwl Researwchi stao , icie is c-,,ns-nrd

 bk t nited    VJt 141ife  mt   ttute 
 
The lettr is r d  as bl  1 
 
Deer Stan: 
 
        ~Ulit ~Or~W  151Ontl~~ tOdi~uG yQoO1wE1 T., - at 2' it Is,"

   neverbelaa,  extrvsmc Tntly Imir that I .-ant 1. 1lasngao3 
few c t t 
 
Firal e" orJ ni  youl left out a- 'varn sijý'tifC~nt zal~ ou
 utto 
of Chale Johnonj Minap   ýi Sr stat~cjrnt !; tte Zr.It repds a 
follows: 'in i- bon, mcbny Trime 4iitnv, 'Utnr     toAy fror , is 
lntez l  Iion of trhe ,,tob h.tunt with te p      tion that 
       Caodnn  reupina~movr t~i a rt ao~n~de~13 limitl' 
 
Your colwon aim ly oleres on tis  P in  ' in     1& vn ta ri'vew 
f eel in. -wv i (;1,  s ur wc yo u, ex 13ti iný but a ev j -inOds
in  i_- rea rion, 
dot1 yýoa -ad ir, atobinm-n c-ponrentl. arc etttin  tofa  few ca 
ol 
into ,.- of    cl 
 
Touc-orry f: benrvg -'11Wnea -- ainokýt a  reniytn!uixtkeio  biol-

Ogiat_ in "aner-a. In rnplyý I ctan only,  tiy tAt tlj 1 all
J-1 thef: tenD yfmars 
  I nva stu"died d7UCia; at Dltf 1, have nel etred 1f o co- ef%1 :-on!

exe, -Ail on za~j~t a euse   oaei  tO~r~i    but*etainly 
the nmbeis there we~o und3et no Or ision to abide by id=aev  I eeA, 
 
In re'  to kDll, Vf-                     1bnoy, t era fn ebod t 4,j 
tht tha   :76 11l, eýV(-4 -Cow orniný  vty wFi nre ert 1pouion.

    Jine en~asek nr ite i kio  I in ~ef di. rbut io.n I _-el t itin o~a 
t"o bvixai t is- fe.ct v. tCa tgiou 4j  Wia wiýllif weij-%at.1l
fl 
tonA~io a. t ceb~rtvny, Tlio vo1  lerT  o ,o!ýa m~utv       ir 
 
wha ,t is in, sýtorer 1r        L;:o.i izCaainu ~1~ i.  vt a  nrl
Y_ 
   V a 1p  l  fot in  non -usr ý,. rr_ n,   on ýiaua",,

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
IN REPLY REFER TO 
 
 
                UNITED STATES 
           DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
             FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
 
 
you w uxn tt , '- ue A   .ri 'p< "'n I -.i~ bioloý.-ý
+rtý '' 
  bee ~~c~  mn&id  n ~ 1z; ~n! it :n: t~#   uecco~rto 
 
tbhs ettin tao % itxPin s-uc ooo erion, nd of , ~f Oi five, th~ree 
sre Uedinni. 
 
I ~e~2i' se% ) e 4 t one reet ti in at duoe see Th the co iern, 
  Se)t uC dU  tjt ha n* thw4 te vriouo nv  le~ies i' done 
 
 
 
 
 
 
tions here njt dow to the  llxm at 17 ioi', ducks. 
      v y,              *1" vili 
 
 
ut, e t ror the {therins of stuble birds, the drtc is sed, Ieýhn 
 
But xen - cor r trci l sioi 
 
 
It is Ixnforlu~ete nbrsn~db rlei i 
clnely It Ou will e00 t-   0 04 you wiý  f d eut of tre- 
 
 
 
isoe~w theyk ors p ser i~o~ Uni  t u un they e new yr bore ytI s, 
cri i r         oo,        -tond c   F 
 
 
 
 
 
   0iu', 0 ud wlmo Pu   t you ow   hrn _Ab iofhpst' r i  fft, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
IN REPLY REFER TO 
 
                           UNITED STATES 
                   DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                       FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE                   0 
 
 
                                              From Winnipeg Free 
                                              Press, Sept. 27, 1947 
 
      OUTDOORS with Stan Bentham 
 
      Manitoba duck hunters have been sold down the river. They 
      have two of the three greatest duck breeding marshes in 
      North America in their province and they have received the 
      poorest set of season limits on the continent. 
 
      The sister provinces have received a better deal from the 
      dominion authorities. They have an errlier season and in 
      some cases more birds. Hunters in Saskatchewan and Alberta 
      are banging their birds now. American hunters were able to 
      choose their seasons to get the most birds. Manitoba sports 
      men are still waiting their chqnces and watching the weather. 
      .we've another week to go until sho-ting opens. 
 
      In Manitoba the hunter is allowed 3b birds for the month't 
      shoot. Alberta has a season from Sept. 20 to inov. 11 while 
      z-askatchewan opened Sept. 22 and the hunter riay shoot urtil 
      October 61. Here the season- opens Oct. 1 and closes at the 
      end of the month. 
 
      Hunters of fhe United States have four birds a day with eight 
      in possession but they may legally shoot 120 birds for the 
      season. Mexico has practically no limit and the Cubans 
      are shooting as they have done in the -ast. Who's to blame? 
 
 
        Thatts the million dollar question. Many are blaming 
        the Manitoba Federation of Game and Fish associations. 
        The bag limits ;re ýat were asked for at the Clear Lake 
        convention in June. The hu ters, who are laying the 
        blame at the door of this association, are those who 
        never a teInd a meeting or even pay membership. 
 
 
      Charles Johnson, of the Minneapolis Stpr, sizes up the 
      situation this way. 
 
      "Canadian game officials never again will pay any attention 
      to so-called authoritative information on ducks that United 
      States experts pass onto them... 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
IN REPLY REFER TO 
 
 
                      UNITED STATES 
              DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
"Because of the mid-summer scare created by U.S. wildlife 
experts, Manitoba isn't opening up hunting in the Delta 
marshes u til Oct. 10. That means that the Canadians will 
get no more than two weeks of shooting this fall before the 
freeze-up. They can work the fields from Oct. 1 on, but 
all the birds are in the sloughs and marshes and probably 
will stay there until they migrate. In Manitoba, they 
have a seasonlB limit of 35 which means that Americans 
can shoot more than twice as many ducks as they can." 
 
Johnson may have come close to the truth. Throughout the 
marshes of Manitoba seven American biologists have been 
studying our ducks. One provincial employee of the game 
department has been working with them. We have listened 
to the wrong side of the story. 
 
At the Clear Lake convention B. W. Cartwright, chief 
naturalist of Ducks Unlimited and chairman of the game and 
fish waterfowl committee, read his repgwt. The delegates 
listened to Hockbaum and recommended the season. 
 
 
   We took something that started at the Wildlife 
   conference in Mexico last winter when Mr. Hoahbaum 
   stated that Canadians took more canvasbacks on the 
   opening day than were raised on the Delta marsh last 
   year. We listened to the wrong party and ended up 
   with a poor dea. 
 
The game and fish will not be caught again another year. 
They have, at Mr. Cartwrigh Is suiggestion, streamlined 
their waterfowl committee. Now they are willing to let 
Amerlcan biologists make a report, Ducks Unlimited another, 
and the fish and game clubs a third. The three independed6 
surveys should come close to the truth. 
 
We're not hammering for a slaughter. We want conservation 
and will continue work'ng for it but we don't like other people 
getting ducks and the gravy while wel'e going to be short on 
gravy. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
IN REPLY REFER TO 
 
 
                     UNITED STATES 
             DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
 
 
This year duck season Gan close With a Snow storm before 
it starts, Let's get more of bur own biologists and 
follow their reports. 
 
Ottawa has been hammering for years for more oonservat ion 
and through the Manitoba Federation of Game and Fish 
associations they have it. Ottawa has its own federal 
migratory bards officer stationed in Winnipeg and if the 
duck season is a federal matter they should use the inform- 
ation of federal biologists not that of men from another 
nation. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
           eptembet2 12 l)I7 
 
 
 
IAr. Bert It. krtwi;ht 
 
3Q0 u  of Oomm.eroe Chwbera 
iJi~ulpet, Initoba 
 
~eaD Bert; 
 
I iih apr    te your coeirtts in eep ne on 
the xili   list. This   extordirary favor 
njI T irnw it. 
1}j daxh~tert hd li'ea told hIe about ireetiiy 
ad I am veIry 4d indeed ti-ut they had a chn=e to, 
Your ren~rc abot understanii eab othem view 
points contains, I t hin, a lot of -erit.    I a= not 
sure that letters are   -,o go  in this ecnnetion. 
I am by now more tha ever c +rnvinced that% x wh 
drawal fr- JU was rifýt, 1,t I anm not at aIl eon- 
vined that I he                         rces:.'l, conVeed zI(,nts. 
With personal gerde+. 
 
 
                           Your sincerely, 
 
 
Aldo Leo-told 
 
 
AL jpý.ý 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
DUCK S/## 
 
                             %   & n &Z(CA NA DA) 
                      A Permanent Work in Sport and Conservation 
 
                                       201 Bank of Commerce Cmhabers, 
                                       Winnipeg, Manitoba* 
                                       August 11th, 1947. 
 
 
 
 
 
                 Prof* Aldo Leopold, 
                 The University of Wisconsin, 
                 College of Agriculture, 
                 Madison, Wisconsin. 
                 Dear Aldo: 
                 Referring to yours of August lst, first I would state 
                 that your name is being retained on the mailing list 
                 to receive all Ducks Unlimited publications. There 
                 will be no charge. 
                 I have been following the interchange of correspondence

                 between Mort Smith and yourself with a great deal of 
                 interest and I believe it is leading to a better 
                 understanding of each other's view point. 
                 In two days I shall be leaving on the aerial survey 
                 and will write to you again on matters of mutual 
                 interest when I return. 
                 I was out to Delta yesterday and had the pleasure of 
                 meeting Mrs. Elder whom I had met before and your younger

                 daughter, Stella, whom I met for the first time. They 
                 both seemed very well and enjoying their stay at Delta.

                 Stella has gotten such a tan that she is almost as brown

                 as an Indian. 
                 With kind personal regards, 
 
                                         Yours truly, 
 
 
 
 
                                         B. W. Cartwright, 
                                         Chief Naturalist, 
 
                B1C/FVH 
         To Increase and Perpetuate the Supply of Ducks 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DUC KS7                                          (CANADA) 
 
 
                     A Permanent Work in Sport and Conservation 
 
                                        201 Bank of Commerce Chambers, 
                                        Winnipeg, Manitoba. 
                                        August 27th, 1947. 
 
 
 
             01, 
 
 
Prof. Aldo Leopold, 
The University of Wisconsin, 
College of Agriculture, 
TA T)Tvr T W ./'4 IhJ-,D4AI. 
 
 
Dear Aldo: 
Just in the office for a couple of days between 
flights on the aerial survey and note your recent 
letter requesting copies of the duck chart and 
comments. The chart and comments were published in 
the Quarterly but the subsequent comments dated May 14th 
have not been. No general distribution has been made 
of either. I will be pleased to have your comments on 
the whole thing in due course. 
With kind personal regards, 
 
                          Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
 
 
                          B. W. Cartwright, 
                          Chief Naturalist. 
 
BWC/PVH 
 
 
Tb Increase and Perpetuate Lie Supply of Ducks 
 
  

					
				
				
                                                                       I
tbrarr 
 
                                                         May 14, 1947. 
       CO    TS Olt THE DISAPPLARANCE OF 1ILLIONS OF WATJ RFOL FROY ONE 
             TO                     ACCOT     FOR BY LWAL KILL 
 Leopold et al -4as shown that the life span of the pheasant is three to
four 
                 years and that the juvenile component of a fall population
is 
                 about 70%. 
 Roy N. Bach .-has confirmed these results in North Dakota and derived certain

                 principles which I believe are applicable to waterfowl for
the 
                 following reasonesa 
 Ducks Unlimited's banding studies of waterfowl indicate a similar life 
 expectancy for ducks, namely tee to four years. 
 Ducks Unlimited's brood countd'0averare six per female, hence post breeding

 population. are coýposed of about 70,'     eniles, 
      Bach's principles are therefore as valid for waterfowl as for pheasants.

 They are quoted (in part) below. 
 
      1. "These 'ercentages vary seasonally and will depend largely
upon the 
 nestinL successos for any particular nesting season." 
 
      2. "Any given population (of North Dakota pheasants) Nould not
last much 
 longer than three years, if not replenished by new broods." 
 
      3   "Natural die-off is much higher than we uight at first expect
and th, 
 rate of natural die-off is proportional to the size of the population."

 
     4. "The natural rate die-off, however, is not constant over the
three 
major years in pestion. The rate (in bird lose per day) is highest durinG

the first yar.- 
 
     5. "Any factors which might seriously affect nesting successes
for a 
period of two years would seriously and drastically reduce our pheasant 
population no matter what that population had been to start with," 
 
     6. "The pheasant population in North Dakota depends almost entirely

upon the success of the nestinG season each year." 
 
     7. "The overall picture is one of a very short-lived or traasient

comodity, It appears to be a resource that cannot be saved for very loug.

If this study points to one major principle it is thist Provided that the

population is not too low, the largest harvest practicable should be made
of 
our pheasant during the fall imnediately followIng a successful nesting 
season*" 
 
     The basic facts from which these princippls are derived have been 
established for waterfowl and, in ir opinion, are equally applicable to them.

     Reference to the attached chart of waterfowl populations reveal that

1941 and 1942 showed a tremendouE upsurge in numbers (F. & W.S. estimates),

folloyd in 1942 and 1943 by similar upsurges in D.U. post breedinG estimates.

This reflected a healthy return of breeding stock, successful breeding seasons

and reduced hunting pressure. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
     Applyin, the foregoing principles we can see that the 1943 breeding
stock 
would be largely composed of one and two year old birds from the 1ý41
and 1942 
hatch. Only a small residue of the 1940 hatch would be left alive. 
Consequently, a large percentage of the population was due to pass out of
the 
picture in 1943 and 194. In consequence, the 1944 increment, which incident-

ally, was relatively small oupared with the previous two years, in spite
of 
the fact that 19L4 gave us one of the best brood averages in our experience

(6.50 per fenmale for Surface feeding ducks and 6.68 for Divinng ducks).
This 
increment would have been much greater if it had not been largely offset
by 
the die-off due to take place from the 1942 hatch. In 1945, the residue from

1942 hatch and a large part of the 1943 would pass out of the picture. 
Superimposed was a partial hatch failure in 1945. No increase was shown in

1945 as compared with 1944 by D.U. All the ingredients for a population 
collapse are there and is exactly what took place. 
     Unfortunately, these events, so little understood, have induced panic

and confusion among administrators and sportsmen alike, causing them to doubt

their own findings and experience. This is quite unjustified. One of the

unfortunate results was to cause the Fish and Wildlife Service to change
their 
method of estimating the post-hunting breeding population, resulting in a
low 
of 54 million (January, 1947), which, I believe, is artificial and certainly

not comparable with their 1945 (January, 1946) estimates. Another unfortunr.te

result was to cause D.U. to abandon their brood counts in 14% - because w

thought we had established a constant bf six - and furthor investigation
was 
redundant. That us the very year in which the brood average (from small 
seleoted areas) fell to 4.3 and probably pertained over the entire breeding

range except Alaska. However, D.U. continued the same method in computing

the post-breeding population estimate so their 1946 total of 106 million
is 
strictly comparable with their previous estimates. 
     The published kill (legal) 1946 hunting season - 23 million - which
also 
includes the estimated drippling loss, is small compared with the indicated

loss as shown by the attached table. 
      There can be no doubt that the loss of birds from one spring return
to 
the next is terrific and legal kill and crippling loss is not the major 
factor, Normal die-off of three and four year old birds is probably the 
major factor but as ducks are oapable of living much longer than this, it

shows that the combination of haiards, after the birds fly south from Canada,

take a larger toll of birds of all ages than does the legal hunter. 
     Research on these losses would seem to be overdue. 
 
 
 
                                            BW, Cartwright, 
 
 
1. Leopold, Aldo, Theodore M. Sperry, William S. Feeney and John A. Catenhusen

       191 -Population turnover on a Wisconsin pheasant refuge. 
       Journ. Wildlife Management (7) 4, 383-34 
 
2. Bach, Roy 1, 
       1944-Population fluctuations of the North Dakota pheasant 1938-1943-.

       N.D. Outdoors, Jan. 194ts 8-10. Fish & Game Dept., Bismark, N.D.

 
3. Cartwright, B.Wo 
       19ý4--Waterfowl Brood Counts in Manitoba, Saskatche-o.n and
Alberta - 1935, 
       1938-10. Journ. Wildlife lanagement (8) 79-80. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
Memo re Conference at Dr. Cottam's Office - 1 May, 1947. 
 
 
Presents Dr. Clarence Cottem Dr.              Mr. Crouch. 
          Mr. LH. Barhausen, Frank T. Clarke. 
 
During the metinZ conducted by the Fish & Wildlife Service in Chicago
on 
April 30, Mr. arikhausen had questioned the figures of 19 million legally

killed and 5 million crippled and lost given out by the Service. This meetiag

was held to discuss the mater.. 
 
According to YMr Barkhausen the figures did not balance if the total losses

were shown as P4 million on the Department' s ovm winter survey estimates
for 
19146 and 1947. 
 
Dr. Cotatn replied that the 5 million figure only referred to the crippling

loss from the legal kill and that there were many other losses which would

have to be taken into consideration. 
 
Dr. Saam4&e enlarged on the "Other Losses" by making a hypothetical
case of 
what might have happened to the 80 million birds e.stimated by the Srvioe
in 
their vinter survey of 1946. 
 
                               Dr. ~d    ~   4Sviwjarys 
 
 
19L6 winter survy ,,,,***** 
 
Dr. Q   =     e:tjtixated that with winter aand 
spring migration losses there would only be 
25 million breeding females 
25 million females would produce 
 
Total to be aooounted fort 
 
Legal kill estimated by Service 1946-47 
 
Crippling losses estimated by Service 
 
1947 winter survey estimate by Service 
 
 
Losses not accounted for 
 
 
80,000,0000 
 
 
 
 
 
130,000",000 
 
19,000,000 
 
19,000,000 
 
 
 
 
78,000,000 
 
 
529.000,000 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Barkhausen took strong exception to the estimated legal kill of 19 
million by the Service, Ie pointed out that Ducks Unlimited had infoniation

from the majorty of the State Game Departents that the legal kill would 
not exceed 5C/4 of the kill of te previous year which had been estimated
by 
the Service at 23 Million, The total legal kill should therefore not exceed

ll-4ý million. 
 
Frank Clarke pointed out: according to th  Servico's own figurs a total 
loss of 52 mllion birds had not been acoounted for in compaIrso   to the

Servicets estimated legal kill of 19 million. In spite of their own estima-

ted figures all their publicity stressed the legcl kill instead of keeping

it in their own perspeotive of 19 million to a total loss of 76 million.

 
Dr. Cottam agreed that probably too much publicity was being given to the

legal kill in coiparison to the total losses but this -as the only loss over

which the Federal Government had any immediate remedy. He proised that the

whole picture would be presented to the future motings being held by the

Service in the various States a scheduled. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
may 12, 1947 
 
 
                         Ma.1 Slak. and Alt 
 
 
Species                 Female With Broods    Total Youzg    Averaje 
Mallard                       2,12               1.673         6.98 
Black Duck                     -... 
Pintail    '9240                                 6,019         6.4o 
Shovoller 1                     359              2,2142        5.93 
Baldpate                         99                592          5.97 
adwall                          198              1,186          5.99 
D.Yi. Tal                       369              2,338         6.33 
GW. Teal                        221              1,188          5.37 
Teal (UrtdentLified)            2                !             5.86 
 
   Total                      4,551             2,9680         6.50 
 
Redhead                          72                522          7.15 
Canvasback                      A34              1,839          5.50 
Ring-nock                       --                  - 
Lesser SQaup                    597              4,66(         7.82 
Am. Goldec-eye                   60                327          5.45 
Bufflehead                       28                167         6.Oo 
Sopters                          93                423         4.55 
Ruddy                                                           50 6.6877

 
                              1,a215             81066 
 
   GIIZJ'LD TOýTAL            21ýE-37-80                  
     6_L5 
 
  

					
				
				
 
May 7, 1947. 
 
 
                            BROOD COUNT 
 
 
 
 
Speoies                Female With Brood  Total You     Average Brood 
 
Mallard                     3m578          20,939            5.85 
Black Duck                     17              73            4.3 
Pintail                     1,360           8s{             5.91 
Shoveller                     812           4,188            5,15 
Baldpate                      358           2,033            5.67 
-adwll                       125             719            5-75 
B.W. Teal                     681           4,281            6.28 
GeV;. Teal                    2514          10588            6.25 
Teal (Unidentified)                                          50.2247L 
 
                                           144,112           5.81 
 
 
 
Redhead                       140             7142           5.3 
Canvasback                    384           2,197            5-72 
Ring-neck                     -               --              -- 
Lesser Seaup                  809           5,497            6.79 
Am. Goldeneye                 89              5278           6.149 
Buflehead                     70              41o            5.85 
Bcotrs                        6o              L2             7.05 
Ruddy                          5316                          6_.3 
 
                            1.602          10,163            6.34 
 
 
 
GRAIMl TOTAL                _  __ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   ?         9 
            4L4 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2-4           A4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
~1 
 
 
I." 
 
 
! 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-   r 
 
 
A-4* 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I h A4 
 
 
(3/ (/ 
 
 
,4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
MINNEAPOLIS 11, 1114A4. 
 
 
Ai +- L I .L A 4- 1 Ir 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
                Thanks kindly for your letter of 
August 13th which I have read carefully and with 
interest. 
 
                I can assure you that Ducks Unlimited 
will only publish statements based on conditions as 
we find them and if conditions are bad or poor we 
will not hesitate to publish that information. 
                 If you can help me to a better under- 
standing of the conditions affecting the duck situation 
at anytime, I shall be most happy to hear from you. 
 
                I beg to r main 
 
 
                      Yo        y  incerely, 
 
                           M. W. :mith  I-res 
                           Ducks Unlimited Inc. 
 
 
MWS : L 
 
  

					
				
				
 
~kQ~ Ltý 
 
 
I 
(~tV4 4L4'LUd 
 
 
           I      Ij       V 
 
           / ,, 
    --+4 +,L S i- o   P-+ : 4---. 
 
 
  *v ~ -t A" C       tý~ 
 
 
  &  *tAA +4A 4/+ TC   t+ 
++,..&*  4++-4 £+L  Lt+ ++.p.++++:¢L+ +,d ++++.,+  &+

	
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  .4~4 L1A, c' r . 1- 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  444  Gfr"k cAelwr t* ko 4~ t-ý 4,4, 41   f 
 
 
r4 Lt CC~ c, ct a ý, l i fLLr t JU./~5 1f~ 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
~LL~L 4j44 V-i 4L 4(4 
 
    fle /o Ofl 4   - 
 4ý fetP A 
 
 p A.44       i 
 
  

					
				
				
 
MINNEAPOLIS 13, MINN. 
 
 
July 29th, 1947 
 
 
Yr. Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place, 
IMadison, 'Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                I appreciate your letter of July 24th and your 
several cormients. As to "DU's sights being too low as to what 
is a good duck crop" could be debatable but you may recall in 
1944 when it appeared that the crop that year in Canada 
promised 140 to 150 million, the Fish and Wildlife Service 
were worried about the capacity of the wintering grounds to 
carry those numbers and the further fact there had been 
complaints from Colorado and California that year about damage 
being done to their crops by ducks evidently influenced the 
Service to increase the daily take and to continue the eighty 
day season. Certainly the rank and file of DU members were 
not in favor of any increase in the daily bag limit in 1944. 
 
                I have been trying for the past year and a 
half to find out what studies that may have been made to 
determine just what the carrying capacity is of the wintering 
grounds and what changes have taken place to reduce that 
capacity. I have been unable to secure any information which 
leads me to believe there has been no study made over the years. 
Do you know of any such studies? In my opinion that study 
necessarily must be riade before anyone can say what the danger 
line is to our duck population. 
 
                As to your statement that "DU has persuaded 
the public that the gun is not the cause of the shortage "and 
with that you do not agree. In my opinion the destruction of 
the nesting grounds by agricultural encroachments on the 
breeding areas and adverse changes in wintering grounds are 
primarily the basis of the disappearance of waterfowl. You 
doubtless must base your conclusions as to the hunter's take 
being dangerous to our duck population on careful study. A 
large percentage of gun clubs have kept a daily and annual 
record of the hunter's take and also a record of bands taken 
and returned should give some basis for study which might 
determine the extent that the gun has influenced a shortage in 
our duck population. It would indeed be enlightening if you 
would outline what studies have been made by yourself or others 
which might be used as a basis to determine the seriousness of 
the hunter's kill as affecting the waterfowl population. It 
is not my intent to be argumentative but I am sincerely seeking 
 
  

					
				
				
 
MINNEAPOLIS l15 MINN. 
 
 
Aldo Leopold   7/29/47  Fage :2 
 
 
information based on sound study. If you can help enlijiten 
me on these two questions cited above I shall be most appreciative 
of that information. 'We all have opinions but to be worth 
while they should be based on facts. 
 
                As to your statement that DU would gain by 
showing the sportsmen of this country the danger to our 
waterfowl population. That thought we have constantly tried 
to impress on the sportsmen of this country and is primarily 
the reason why we have had increasing support in numbers and 
contributions for carrying on the work program which was 
planned for in the nesting areas in Canada. We have tried to 
tell the public the facts as we saw thei and have stressed 
the iiMportance of being conservative in our statements. In 
comparison the DU census figures since 1937 reflect favorably 
that intent as compared with the Fish and Jildlife figures 
with the exception of 1945 and 1946,which we consider 
que sti onable. 
 
                'ie have high regard for the integrity and 
ability of Bert Cartwright, our naturalist, anid we have confidence 
that the coverage of the three provinces thru personal observa- 
tions of our staff and kee-men throughout the year give us a 
sound basis of facts on which to base conclusions. Naturally 
we resent any statements of ulterior motives. Our ultimate 
goal is just the saie as the scientists and the Fish and dildlife 
Service which is safe-6uarding our waterfowvl population and we 
are honestly endeavoring to do our part thru the stabilizing 
and improving of nesting areas in the three provinces in 
Canada. That we intend conscientiously to give the facts as 
we find them as was well stated by Bert Cartwright in his 
letter of July llth to you - "I shall continue to record the 
facts as they come to me from all sources and as I see them 
myself, balancin; the good with the bad and arriving at an 
overall conclusion wihich will represent the truth to the best 
of my la-owledge and belief." 
 
                 I do koiow there should be close and friendly 
co-operation between Ducks Unlimited, scientists and the Fish 
and 'dildlife Service. Working together we can more easily and 
quickly obtain our coruon goal. Constructive criticism is 
always desirable but to be sound must be based on facts. I 
shall be grateful to you for a better understanding of the basis 
of your opinion as to the danger line in our duck population 
 
  

					
				
				
 
MINNEAPOLIS 15, MINN. 
 
 
11r. Aldo Leopold     7/29/47    Page 3  
 
 
and also such studies as you may have relative to the 
importance of the hunter's kill as compared with the total 
annual disappearance thru other causes which we know are 
taking place. Keep in mind that I an solely seeking 
inf ormati on. 
 
                  I remain 
 
 
IrrS :L 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anvat 1. 194T 
 
 
Mrw. B. W Cartwe-d-t 
Tf .e1s Untlmited (Qanada) 
a01  of o0 t nerhe OMianbaTr 
 
 
D-iaa Bert* 
 
I aýippOtate  i roetesy !i $flir4ea   tnis e-,4. 
in y: )1--art r t Ins v 1tiss aricmi; -bout the 
 
 
 
Ir   I  1 d 1 1 it o e tr 1 hau I ctpi hope 
Un1oi1~ed It.        ~ou his fa 'Ivx 
 
 
 
ýA-t'3 vaide to  oxu Qig  I wn Xjll   I Lzae 
  ~ ho   Vttht ýunv~to :rbn-i~u~x' 
 
  ~ oitto   o~ c~ f    1pbied1on-'±n  t 
 
 
  I w~il. 31~U t,,  t~a~  1i. aoý¶-' b t I  IIIi hOD)O  to 
 
-70vf TrA to YAve be~i wnrol, I W11", bo 'wick. ýAhoMld 
it pil othiwse, I r.  ll in hops ttn 
polikiee wil)L o e. 
 
With n l roerrds,1 
 
 
Aldo Leopold 
 
 
-AL WH 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                 A Permanent Work in Sport and Conservation 
                                 201 Bank of Ccameroe Chambers, 
                                 Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
                                 July 23, 1947. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold, 
Dept. of Wildlife Management, 
University of Wisconsin, 
124 University Farm Place, 
MADISON, Wis. 
 
Dear Aldo: 
Replying to your letter of July 15, I regret that we are not able to 
fill all your requests for Quarterlies and Duokologicals. 
The Quarterlies sent to you under separate cover are all that we have 
here, but we have none of the Duokologioals requested. 
 
There is no charge. With kind personal regards, 
 
 
                                     Yours truly, 
 
 
                                     B.W. Cartwright, 
                                     Chief Naturalist. 
 
 
 
 
BWC/BM 
 
 
To Inerease and ~erpeauate fhe Supply of Duce" 
 
 
,(CANADA). 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
taks Unlimite4 (Ca,adn) 
203Bank of Gomnwrce Qeambers 
WI.,uipeg, PmaitobA 
 
Dear eBarwts 
 
I wat to asure you that tho withda wal of th e onftmee fmu      w  a 
serious w tth r  ith me, partienare in view of the cordial prsonl rela- 
tions whi& bai' al   Ifweto exitted betweh us. 
 
I suspect that at boitn or  differenc  is ono of b   h marks or plains of

rferena . xoou yIt be tr      tht the prospetive 19147 cop    s e ne   ra

better tan 194;. Ls this :?=j        Ix lob gatting optimiatit,'i It  as
so 
bad t ht    it wmv1d. tfte c     ye)rf  t "ttax to 4uStief  ayWOptimiew,
fro. 
my point of iw 
 
There are mar  alltU  en i beti~e -vA  A" i Uhe Mxý_c~ dogr 
  to which these 
middle men an      U 4  tv'et tes   kt hn f:"= !_=t lt_'i yu nse 
so*~ic* is -_a1&0nZ1y' iJwrwte xi..~ ~ icQ~~       ie 210, byr X 
Neal nder the hri    i    h 
b   yasinss Is bas n0.   by aid you Lo fee so omfox es aather of the 
in4rmsIod nthA Vt*re is no deolln ih 5rie" uo 
 
Rya are ndssiroak.i !-n askniwý *,hat _AýoýLbet   1.3h
tho o4       _ uroe of 
my irmp asve aui. 1%, of ocours,  ],.j Qii uI    ::  :ridea ane IL hs skil
asn 
Ia fPPraiser of      153 n , but bxt I 1tavc 3 1 t "ar othor 
Iefomints who rot uwbl, li: inrow       ý,  A who iý:Ivo z'
the  1f=ta1 store 
that I,* does. Iiox-.ivir I zam like rt otlier lnuvm~ býelng, in~fluewod
bjr what 
I see with Mr o-w.,n; eyss  I can aasuz.e yoi thiAt biso41zg &Lci:Z i~n.
',:1oonsin are 
nearly oxtinict. We-ý liave invested in. aix fii'sIn th  rst1to  
 of rws,.r, 
but tbay r.re          e-trly.zty,, but fo- -"tiý  We nolu14
IotA ~o~byjaztifyý them 
as "Dack Vatories'. If we took the oa4 hag n thesoe -irshes zoui divided

It by thai~r crityxt in recent yýýra it -'7,Ad womo to  :I1,o
~~a     er duck. 
Can youra.oa1      el~.cet me uner tho    i~ioto ý,oqiiusce, cheerfully

in propiza~ncl- -h-i&- tells thepb~ic that overythiag is prety od 
 
I haye sent you for the last two yearsa a swzxa7r of my own htckc wanting.
On~ a 
marsh -here anV _,ood hInter could kill his limit In the mvjrly 1.9401u,
I have 
(lurin~g the last three years, in the courso of six or eight Diominir in
the blind, 
each year killed one duck, and that me a WoodAy. Last ,ýsar iii the
course of .i~it 
hunts, I did not even [ýt a shot and the total ducl see warn. hax~ly
m~ore than 
one could4 have bnt-,gd hailf a dozen ycat --a Such -, record for a 74ingle
year 
would, of course, mean nothing, but Aicn It ro'ep-ts year af1ter -yerr under
good 
water conditions wýhat do you want mes to believe? 
 
 
&ly 24, 1 )AT 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
-a2 
 
 
I an still in hope. that IXI will tU a new loýf and tell the Aodc

hunter wiat he is rmfy up ainst. lie refane   to think that DU met fod 
him with false optinism in order to CaIn his sport. I cannot forget 
that it is only two yeas Ao thAt so   of yor state hatiran -ere 5nriouciy

talkine live dewy*, I cannot help but conclude that you ar basin y 
appraldals an the best cone itrations, both in winter and in swuir, mM that

you ar u       of the f~act that Jek Munting is a thing of the -ast for th

average wil(Ilifer~. I rould like to see 31! uAM also the rish and Wildlife
Serviae 
tam rn siare aroumd   -iaxe-b~  on ta ftyn-yeav plan to bring about not a
mew. 
increase izu &J4~, bu~t an increas u-- to the point whiere the famwe
squeals. The 
earl.y stM,  of -v,& w ai nrense iruat be bzi-nv*t -abct by outrtaflinp
te  . 
Later we xwny be -a~l to subý;titute a for Y-.rt of this cur-A2lriont.
but, 
to asmao that the u-ola thii cn,% bj, dtrme by rge    is dnou e       illusory.

 
                                          yott r sincO-eAY, 
 
 
AL:?M ~1d.o locpold 
 
 
AP 
 
  

					
				
				
 
'(CANADA) 
 
 
                  A Permanent Work in Sport and Conservation 
                                   201 Bank of Cconerce Chambers, 
                                   Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
                                   July 11, 1947. 
 
 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold, 
Director Of Wildlife Management, 
University of Wisconsin, 
MADISON, Wisconsin, 
 
Dear Aldos 
 
I received copies of the correspondence which has passed between you 
and Mort Smith, and to say that I am astonished at your reaction to 
the June Duokological, is to put it mildly. I feel deeply wounded at 
your statement, "Your staff continues its incredibly expert job of 
taking a given set of facts and so twisting the emphasis as to create 
an overall impression that is false." I am responsible for the state-

ments in the June Puckologioal. Your statement not only impugns my 
honesty but debits me with a cleverness to twist facts for some 
ulterior motive of which I am wholly unconscious. 
 
Your second statement, "The overall impression one gets from the June

Duckological is that things are not so bad after all, and that by 
opening day we may again expect a pretty good flight." This is 
exactly right, Remember we are reporting on current duck conditions 
in western Canada. The July Duokological was completed and in the 
press before your correspondence was received, and strikes an even 
more optimistic note. 
 
I not only have the information from our own Kee-men, biologists and 
fieldmen, but also copies of the preliminary reports of the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife biologists. Bob Smith's summary of the duck population 
in the three prairie provinces is, "Averaging the three provinces 
together, if that can be done, we arrive at a 'no change' status." 
How on earth can this statement be reconciled with a collapse to 54 
million from 80 million in 19h6? Mort Smith has already quoted Fred 
C. Lincoln's release of July 8. 
 
The plain fact is that things are not so black as they have been 
painted and to say the shortage of breeding ducks with the exception 
of Alberta, is almost catastrophic, is sheer nonsense. I say this 
with a wealth of experience of duck populations over the past nine years.

 
We have such an abundance of surface water on the prairies this year 
that even if 150 million ducks had returned it would still give the 
appearance of being occupied much below capacity. 
 
 
To Increase and Perpetuate the Supply of Ducks 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
Prof. Aldo Leopold                 -2-               July 11, ±vY4.

 
A very fine duck crop is being produced on these western plains this 
year and I confidently expect that - barring a major oatastroph1'e 
between now and opening day - the duck population will show a very 
satisfactory omae-baok. 
 
I do not intend to wallow in the slough of despond which Al Hoohbaum 
has created for himself at Delta. He seems to be unduly influenced 
by local conditions. He seem so bogged down in dispair that one dare 
not record any encouraging facts without incurring his wrath. 
 
You know how quickly the waterfowl can recover given a favourable 
breeding season or two. Well, they are demonstrating that this year 
and I shall continue to record the facts as they come to me from all 
sources and as I see them myself, balancing the good with the bad and 
arriving at an overall conclusion which will represent the truth to 
the best of my knowledge and belief. 
 
To see you waver in your confidence in me is what really hurts. 
 
 
 
                                        Yours sincerely, 
 
 
 
                                        B.W. Cartwright, 
                                        Chief Naturalist. 
 
 
 
 
 
 BWC/BM 
 c.c. Mort Smith 
       S, Johnson 
       C.A. Gross. 
 
  

					
				
				
7/) 
 
 
   I ~~44 Lfvtt. tt*. L k~.i t~A 
 
 
 
 
 
 
t    u:t L 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    2t ýNle~  I~ 
  , 4A 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      A  C4AC4 
 
      e . 
           7 
 
  QC~  i~JA   ~t 2 ~iC.4%  Q4J  I~I  / 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1204 Flour Exchange Bldg. 
ITiinneapol s, 15, Hinn. 
 
 
                                                   July 19, 1947 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Ne dison, Wisconsin. 
 
Dear Jr. Leopold: 
 
              Thanks kindly for your letter of Ju-ly 15th and your further

confirmation that you are a believer in the overall olans of Ducks 
Unlimited. I regret that you feel our administration is wrong. 
Fun damentally, it is ny firm belief tnat the chief trouble is 
tnat the organizations sincerely interested in the waterfowl problems 
lack the close friendly contacts that shoIld exist between organiza- 
tions interested in the sa-me goal. 
 
              Personally I nave been interested in ducks all my life 
and since havinh an active interest in te D.U.0rga ization, I nave 
been seeking i-aformation -Nich mIEigt enable me to a better under- 
standing of VV terfowl conservation problems. So far as I rave any 
knowledge there h. as been no close study miade of cLang s which have 
ta en place and affectJin' he waterfowl wintering areas nor has 
sufficient study been made of banding records. I nave been unable 
to Find any soind basis for determin .ng losses through hiunters' kill, 
legal and illegal, criopling, drouth, disease and predation as tney 
nay affect duck population. Failing to receive such infoimation 
leads me to the conaclusion that tnese studies have not been made. 
 
              Dr.Griscom receitly published a bulletin emnh sizing 
 Gnat wintering and b eed-in[ areas are of basic importance in tne 
 survival of waterfowl. TIis seems to be proof of ýLe necessity for

 restoration of tne Canadian breeding areas narticulaly in Yhanitoba, 
 Sas atchewan and Alberta. Do you   now of any i lfox ation that will 
 enlighten i's acout the condition of wintering grounds as comrared 
 to previous years? Unfortunately the trouble seenis to be tnat 
 thce Fish & 5gildlife Service ccnsiders Ducks Unlimited as upstarts

 and some other organizations classify us as killers. I do know 
 
 
we aave friends in tLe Service and also amonr st scientist 
t~ere also seems to be a great deal of persnal prejudicE 
tUe reason for wich is nard to understand. 
 
              I covered about 5000 miIe s b- auto throuch 
game areas of Northwestern Sta,-es and Provinces - No-ltl E 
South Dakota, Wyoming, bontana, Saskatcnewan and llanitobE 
and was dumb-founded at the scarcity of w.lldlife other ti 
waterfowl seen. Upland name hias Lad protection f r-al the 
                 -_          -   _--        - _- -- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
-2- 
 
 
Vce~& 74Cmire~ 
 
 
Professor_" Aldo Leopold                                   July 19,1947.

 
 
hlu lter but th~ae fact remains that therehas been no overall improvement,

which leads me to the conclusion tat tnle hunter is not chiefly re- 
sDonsible for the loss of our wildlife. I eas raised cn 'ne orairie 
and ai old el ough to re etber ra'*.e populations in tne late 801s. 
Agricultural ooerations in my ooinion a-le largely respooisible for 
6c-e loss of our game birds. If D.T,. does nothing more than affect 
thie oreservation of substantial areas in Canada against unprofitable 
drainage and encroachmeihts by impractical farm operations, it will 
nave served a very worthkvnile purpose. 
 
        In answer to your itýquiry relative to publicity ,iven the

black duck study in the 1",aritime Provinces, I refer you to the D.U.

Sep-e ber 1946 Quarterly, Volume 9, Page 7, rou will find an article 
coverinc, the Bruce ;lright D.U. Canada Report, showing his findings 
of a decrease in the black duck in the areas you refer to. I am 
asking our INew York o0fice to send you a copy of that quarte.,ly 
for Your files. 
 
        Your critcism of D.U. appears to be directed towavc, ds our 
publicized reports waich you say distorts facts.  I know we are telling 
conditions as we find Ghem and I can assure you no aueup is lade to 
influence the re orts of our field staff. Tie reports are not all good 
but indicate beuter co-nditions than we were led to believe -y previouisly

oublished cofiýti. ns and ooinions. This is the first year the U.S.

Fish & Wildlife Service nave attempted an extensive coverage an the 
tnree Canadian provinces and fro, ivnat reoorts I aave seen, statements 
reg. -ding conditions as we find them apparently check fairly close. 
It is generally agreed that 1945 was a bad breeding season and that 
1946 wrr.le better was not quite good enough. to permit a large increment.

Water conditions are .ood this season, tne number of ducks in Saskatche-

wan and Alberta and elseviuere do not verify the gloomy estimates we 
Lave been receiving fron wintering grounds surveys. In addition the 
broods now seen are well over avera~ e in numbers. For tnese 
 
 
reasons I believe D.L'. 
tic picture. 
 
        I am hooeful tl 
-idat be mistaken, we 
support. 
        I beg to remai  
 
 
    LTWS----- 
 
 
-         ~- --~=- - 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    ~ el Irk 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
        t- 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  ~~A~~~&44 hý& Fi.A (t~V 4' 4 ~ LC c~ 
 
 
 
           I 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
      tCt 
      k(     I t 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CC         / J.4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                FOR                   C. A. qross, 3tate
CLairman 
                                FOR10 i1. Ada=s Street 
 
 
                                       July 17, 1947 
 
 
 
Doctor Aldo Leopold 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Doctor: 
 
Your letter to Mort Smith did not come as a complete surprise to 
me. You had previously informed me of your dissatisfaction and 
your intention of resigning a year or two ago. However it is 
difficult for me to understand how a man in your position can 
condemn Ducks Unlimited. Ducks Unlimited is doing a very inportant 
and necessary job and making a substantial contribution to the re- 
storation of our migratory waterfowl. You state that you are very 
deeply concerned and that the maintenance of waterfowl on this 
continent is very close to your heart. Can you suggest a better 
plan than the Ducks Unlimited program? You state that the staff of 
Ducks Unlimited are giving out many false statements. I know this 
is not true and I have every confidence in the reports issued 
from Canada and I am sorry to state that I feel that your statement 
as to the dangerous position of our waterfowl is grossly exagerated. 
 
Understand I am not taking a position of being an expert, but there 
are a few things that I am familiar with that I would like to call 
to your attention. For two years or more the Wisccn sin Conservation 
Department and yourself have stated that our duck population is way 
down. We will take your statement of early 1945 which appeared in 
the Milwaukee Journal. Following this statement according to the 
Wisconsin Conservation Department's own figures, Wisconsin had one 
of the largest kills in history. Last year was the same. I naturally 
could not understand this as I watch the flights very closely and 
I am in the marshes most of the time myself. We had a very substantial 
increase of birds on Green Bay last Fall and throughout the state. 
When the Department issued the statement showing how the kill was 
down they did not take into consideration the fact that the season had 
been cut from 80 to 45 days and that the kill per day was larger than 
in 1945. 
 
This Spring one of the men from the Conservation Department made the 
statement in Green Bay that there were hardly any cicks left in 
Wisconsin. Needless to say most of the duck hunters in the audience 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                               FOR                    C. ,A. Gross, 3tate
Ghairman 
                                                         13o 11. Adams Street

 
 
 
                              -2- 
 
who saw the flights last year were wondering where this man 
could have obtained his information.   Later another man from 
the Department told an audience in reply to a question of how 
the Department was going to help the duck situation that there 
was a millon dollars of P R funds in Washington and that the 
Department was going to try to get a part of this. He was very 
much suppkised after the meeting when I informed him that this 
fund was in excess of fifteen millon. He offered the excuse that 
he was in the service and had not been very well informed. Mr. 
Walter Scott admitted to the Green Bay Press-Gazette that his 
figures were not correct and that he was in a hurry at the time. 
 
It seems to me that as a member of the Conservation Commission it 
might be well for you to devote some of your time to straightening 
out your own department. 
 
During the seven years that I have been chairman of the Wisconsin 
Ducks Unlimited Committee I have never criticized your Department. 
In fact I have always praised the work and asked the public to 
cooperate. Your own men can substantiate this. But I now feel it 
my duty, especially to the thousands of men who are contributirgto 
Ducks Unlimited in this state, to state my views. I would like to 
know what the 6onservation Department is doing, if anything, in the 
way of waterfowl restoration. I think it is high time that these 
questions are brought before the public. It will create a healthier 
situation. I would also like to suggest that you give the press the 
letter you wrote to Mort Smith so that the public will know where 
you stand. I would also like your permission to read this letter 
to groups. This will at least stop the whispering campaign in the 
Department. At the present time some of the men are saying that 
Leopold quit Ducks Unlimited. They are making capital out of this 
and hurting Ducks Unlimited. 
 
I have always known that the Department was not very friendly to 
Ducks Unlimited. If you will recall, last year Wisconsin was host 
to the National Trustee's Meeting. The Department did not see fit 
to as much as put a notice in the conservation bul-L tin. Certainly 
if there was any friendly feeling this would have been done. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
     FOR 
Wisconsin 
 
 
C. A. jross, State CAaivman 
    130 n. Adams Street 
    Green Bayi, Wis. 
 
 
                                   -3- 
 
 
 
A. copy of this ke tter is being sent to Governor Rennebohn. 
 
I plan on being in Madison in the near future and I will call 
you up in the hopes that we might have lunch together. 
 
                                   Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
 
                                   C. A. Gros s 
                                   Wisconsin State Chairman 
                                   Ducks Unlimited Committee 
 
 
CAG: HE 
 
Copy to Governor Rennebohn 
         Bert Cartwright 
         Stan Johnson 
 
  

					
				
				
 
IN REPLY REFER TO                                                    ADDRESS
ONLY THE 
                                                                DIRECTOR.
FISH AND WILDLIFE 9ERVICE 
 
                                  UNITED STATES                         
  ýýV4 
                        DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                            FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
                                     WASH INGTON 
                                         July 21, 1947 
 
 
 
 
 
 
         Prof. Ald.o Leopold, 
              424 University Yarm Place, 
                   Madison 5, Wisconsin. 
 
         Dear Aldoo: 
 
              I was pleased to receive the copy of your letter of July 8

         written to Mort Smith and advising him of your resignation from

         Ducks Unlimited. I think you have taken a courageous and worth-

         while position. This year of all times when we are struggling to

         get the widest possible public support for reductions in the kill

         of birds, their recent publicity giving the American public the

         opinion that everything is rosy makes our jobs just that much more

         difficult. The boys who detest restraints have already seized upon

         the Ducks Unlimited propaganda as an excuse for further criticism

         of the Service and for doubts about the information on which we
are 
         basing our judgment this year. I too had hoped that the situation

         would clear up with Tom Main's resignation, but I am beginning to

         get a bit discouraged and I know that several of our boys in the

         field who are working with the problem intimately feel that there

         has been very little improvement. 
 
                                          Sincerely, 
 
 
                                              4K 
                                              Albert M. Day, 
                                              Director. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
IRA N. GABRIELSON                                                 C. STEWART
COMEAUX 
    President                                                          Treasurer

 C. R. GUTERMUTH    WILDLIFE                NINSTITUTE              ETEL
M. QUEE 
 Vice-President               MANAGEMENT                               Secretary

                               Dedicated to Wildlife Restoration 
                          INVESTMENT BUILDING, WASHINGTON 5. D. C. 
 
                                               Y'redericton, IT.T . 
 
                                                 July igth, !947. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     Dear Professor, 
 
                     I am attaching a cony of  my reply t tele gram from

Dr. Cottam re the status of v;terfowl in this area. I tm sorry I could 
not be rore specific for him, but it is no use guessing. Wi.en my census

fiures are in I can quote them, but till then it can only be an inte]kient

estirmte. 
                     I will be interested to hear what DU have to say about

 irhy m report ias never mentioned in the Duckcological. Joseph HaGar has

 been here mnmpinC me for all his w.iorth for the last few days and I have

 told him that all he wants to know- about this area is contained in my repott

 to DT,and he is going to irrite and ask when it wrill be available. Cart"wrijt

 rrote and. acknow~led.ed the receipt of my latest report and said they -vere

 Uconsiderin- -!hat step they should take about its publication2 In Texas
he 
 and B'rtley both told me it would be pulished in ITem York this summer.

 Hoiwever, as it contains more bad news, they are now pondering. 
                    The census is noy in r 'ull swing. a saw four moose,

ti.o nice bulls and t,o cow7s, a beaver, a deer favai, and 109 ducks yester-

day in about 25 ,iles of canoeing. 
 
 
                           .Jith best wishes, in haste, 
 
 
il 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
       WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE 
                 Dedicated to Wildlife Restoration 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                              frederitons 14v Brunmlk 
                              19 JlY )-%7 
 
 
 
 
Dr. cixemC, Cottem 
 
-ez     ae -t .eali 
 
 
 
  Dor --,r CQottan 
 
            býi reply to your t4lý,ru of yesterday re the 
eoo     th uutc     qoiu1.tlgL of teis aea$ it, Is not 
  posbeto, -ive a direct zwarie.1oqaienwthls 
yur a the       will not be osmpleted until   17th. 
.our study area it the estuary of the         t. JoM Rivwe 
et      n      s    a decrasee of a          in5 breadn 
     ti= btweow 1945 and 1946,    ,11 eberations sie* the 
   fibtarivl  =tis pig miae    t   thmeo is a tte 
 decrese this year, but It 4,w not ww apea    to be ac 
 
 the    herill be =U1 the oeas Is completed Awust 17tt. 
            'he study rer ao o st.s of 3250 ace of 
the best section of the lowands of the At. Xohu, and It has 
beos badly 4nesokdwth brooders for the post two 
5sea~s. The available~ habitat woul appe*r to be caa~ble 
of carrying at lomst twic. the popUlation now resident on It, 
Thi*6 underitockiw, is- )Lrtly aocuatol for by the praotlse, 
so woll described bLy ALoctun at Son lmtonio, of buri~g 
out the nviwsh b-y ea'ly 6eaon idooting before migrants have 
arrived to d'ilute the local 'breedtng stock, esd partly by 
the ganertd cvr1oto   f the flywajy. 
             111ia eondition cooss to be rather loea in 
echaracter here, an o& the At. Xa,.ence the Vres-t majority 
of the shotiA&, Is A-ne ou wlxtin- birds from the whole 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
        WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE 
                   Dedicated to Wildlife Restoration 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                     a oxhe it 411i be iaayyeaýr'. before 
they bx   to ate a    ermse. Te h       q 
ezea orii ch ht                   bwiG ot. sems to be a 
little better oft for bee0*n thaxt we are t4his year, but a 
deerees.e   alo noted thr last fall 
 
            ~a' tady artv in the only bre,ýdnkis xondIu 
to) týe in 'It Cage.n 'ubsr aufficiait ae~iled oboera~tioua 
 
possible any uot of' dtailw- sualysia of vot Is taking plat** 
)erefore, I feIt that while we ma be affeote by se fx 
 
 
 
 
r -d   1k      u   k5 W     have 4easosd slightl~y tra 
last yeawr, ai4 they are nolese tcazn valf the 1945 Puation,. 
The msxLh tUig-kiecked -u" hatch iv coini, otf at ths writi, 
but so far we eem to hav* ew  - lee# than t ywr, Gold 
ey    e, an -ýcn-Wlg Teal seem about the same*, 
 
          :ýocx losav, of first clutches of all tarrestial 
neatif&- sp-~eal. wer -widespreadUo.tu ýAtr    oanti 
' he reuctio         in se  of the seca4 alutch reolts In 
a radct4cin I the       o   frr tLe be  n   .  -vienee of 
tiitin of bwods in rathew wo     mred tm usoau   ths 
year* 
          I am s      copes of this letter to the belw 
noted interesto partie -*at of whom have ased for the so* 
intrm~tIo    Tbu bA'v my p  sulo to ýqte this ltts6r 
 
                                  Yours sincerely 
 
 
 
 ce. ; Dr. ;aijrelson             Director 
     D r. Lewis 
     :WTo. 44*o Lepold 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jt-_ 15, 1947 
 
 
Mr. Bert W. Cartwr1igt 
Woks Unlimite (Canada) 
201 Bank of Comrew Bl. 
wjn~ipeg Ceanad 
 
Dear Bert: 
I am anxous to oomplete an bn Mr sets of th 
Du&,* Unlitdted 4v  -,atery a of the o* 
 
)y set in. short of the followig issues of the 
, rterlys    Volme 1, mvmbew, 3 an nmber 14. 1938 
Volum  2. number. 2 an 4, 1939; Volume .4, mbers 
2 and 3, 19141; volume 6, mmbews 2, 3, and 4, 19143; 
and Volume 3, nmuber 14, 194#5. 
 
It is short of the followin DIco)logioalas YVo1umes 
1, 2, and 3, and Volune 4, no. 1-7. IHowver, we 
do have June 1939 an Jay, Ast, 3etfober -m 
October 19140, which ares xuzabered& 
 
Some of these of course my hamve never been Issued, 
buzt I would like to fill in from purchase of your 
stock, whiatever you can spare. Will you asee what 
you oan dto aMd *and me the bill? 
 
With best regaz'i, 
 
                             Yours sinczerely. 
 
ALtPM                        Aldo. Leopold 
 
                             absence to avolid deWa. 
 
  

					
				
				
7/ 14/ 47. 
 
 
DUCKS UNLIMITED PUBLICATIONS 
 
 
Ducks Unlimited 
 
 
We have 
 
 
v. 1 no. 1 
           2 
   2      1 
           3 
   3      1 
           2 
 
   14     1 
   14      14 
   5      1 
          .2 
          3 
          14 
   6      1 
   7      1 
           2 
 
 
Ap, 1938 
July, 1938 
   Jan.   1939 
   July, 1959 
   Jan.   1940 
   Ap. 
   July 
   Oct. 
   Jan.   1941 
   Oct. 
   Jan.   1942 
   Ap. 
   July 
   October 
   Jan.    194 
           19 
 
 
DuTckologcal 
June,,1939 
July, 1940 
Aug.- 
Sept. 
Oct. 
 
 
(no vol. or no. 
 
 
The DulkoLo:gcal 
 
 
v. 4 no., 
   5     1 
           2 
 
 
           5 
           6 
           7 
           8 
   6      1 
           2 
 
 
           5 
           6 
           7 
           8 
 
 
Feb. 12, 1943 
May 3, 1943 
June 30 
July 1 
August 1 
Sept. 1 
Oct. 6 
Nov. 6 
Mar. 15, 19414 
May 6, 1944 
June 1 
July' 1 
 
 
(small size) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(small size) 
 
 
August 1 
Sept. 1 
Oct 2 
Nov. 1 
Feb. 10, 19145  (small size) 
 
 
v. 7 no. 1 
         2 
         3 
         14 
         5 
         6 
         7 
         8 
 
         2 
         3 
         14 
         5 
         6 
         7 
         8 
   9     1 
          2 
 
 
May 1, 19145 
June 1 
July 2 
Adg.1 
Sept. 7 
Oct. 12 
Nov. 6 
March 15, 1946 
May 7, 1946 
June 9 
July g 
Aug . 13 
Sept. 10 
Oct 12 
Oct 31 
Dec. 5 
May 5, 1947 
June 12, 19147 
 
 
' Missing 
 
 
v. 14, nos. 1-7 
v. 1, 2, and 3 
 
 
T V. 
 
 
1 no. 3 
       14 
2     2 
       14 
4     2 
       3 
6     2 
       3 
       4 
    $  4 
 
 
1939 
 
1939 
 
19141 
 
1943 
 
 
1945 
 
 
8      1 
        2 
        3 
 9      1 
        2 
        3 
        4 
10      1 
        2 
 
 
1945 
 
1946 
 
 
1947 
 
 
We have 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aly 15, 1,144 
 
 
Mr. L4 if.SOt 
 
 
 
 
Dmr tt~. %A1th 
 
7%=k vm& for Ltw lo. I14o not th~':thr      oaz   s   ~ytj4 thI*qeet

 
IV attiud 1, not 4w    oaf4r%     I an  t 1a*. in a pol   o141  iue 
wi* th thso o ; - ,r V iuA U yo, will ywA W otrckoal        l 
 
  wntwfow 1#'mt! t!:ft " w * M SriUR      Thor nre foritw~nvA~ alba

 
 
WW~ I *Wst, Mw. b~ib. "t Mai mttar -n- bam no I-X        ia L, ym  rgj

uatioat~k e~ rel inenWIni" .1s ,v no v.vnr% tAt Vm,          doin Itt.

Your surf uwwlul slft. th. f~t.c. L-t me Pon      ut jut     amipe 
 
to 4,ro tYh,1at coul u14Ar~dl.-. smeaxt  s blzm* duck St.4y. 'ý4'
 Ven 
*145 miA ,b '-- fowM A tro-mvoc# Yas-u tis  fro ma ofyi 
%taýft "rn bosu -vbll4o  Ii. AthLer tle ý,-t-rly or mj~p
      If it, 
 
 
 
),,y* bsawe. vmd"ý4g VAG lvjncotia a lftlAr' .Inoe th b4irl of
th"   Atn 
an I it   bnli-,  1,mv  kt i t !ha. ;ma -,oo ie o fjji rM  nrw~itýt
 -  mm 
   ,ýrs * lowo of It If I mn coret  wem vro~ %m ix-r atr 
 
 
Otht T %nvbesu too tol-4nt,       -"Ahpt tha-t r  ut-*wvr'44 c~m  I
m 
still a firr toqAvir in the w1nra    VJAIIA~dt Am~i  . 
not beý ýt~x % Výý% I'c~t I       i~ed~ ou VA
th Pe fiast ,o -,e vlJh 
lhmtinxto ,ýeIs It. I still V4* W    a j-ck IfllrAtte Im nx -no 
 
I an mkrw tw hamru         vx spp-t iLauie I an sut viwVýofthi   
L 
is wt lstVImeI tho us 
 
 
 
 
                                   -Ud ',Apld 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
S 
 
 
Season    a- Limit 
 
30 days      x 10 
 
45  "       xx 10 
45  "       xx 10 
 
60          xx 10 
 
60  "      xxx 10 
 
70  "      xxx I0 
 
70  "      xxx 10 
30  "        .j[I0 
80             10 
 
45              7 
 
 
DU Sumt, er Esto. Wildlife Service Stamp Sale 
                  Winter Ests, 
 40,000,000     36-49,0000C- 03,623 
 
 50,000,000    a48-58,000,000       893,039 
 
 62,000,000        65,000,000     1,002,715 
 
 69,000,000        70,000,000     1,111,561 
 
 75,000,000     a 100,000,000     1,260,810 
 
 97,000,000     a 119,600,000     1,439,967 
 
 125,000,000      125,350,000      1,9629 
 
 140,000,000    a p05,500,000     1,1C4°19 
 
 140*000,000       79,000,000     1,47),455 
 
 106,000,000       54,000,000     1,725,505 
 
 
Annual 
go t ;ITabl -a 
 
 
I' 
 
 
'I 
'I 
 
 
1937 
 
1938 
 
1939 
 
1940 
 
1941 
 
1942 
 
1943 
 
1944 
 
1945 
 
1946 
 
 
      a Not including Mexico and other countries South of UoS. border. kcrippiing
1OssJ 
      x  Canvasback, redhead, ruddy, bufflehead and wood duck protected.

      xx Only 3 canvasback, redhead, ruddy or bufflehead ducks. 
    xxx  Only 3 redheads and buffleheadso 
      #  Limit 15 for mallard, pintail, widgeon. 
 
 "The estimate of .,ildlife Service of 80,000,000 waterfowl made in
January, 1946, covers all 
 waterfowl that migrate from or into the United States. In other words, the
estimate 
 include all of the waterfowl in the North American continent plus the few
that migrate 
 to South America." 
Note: Wildlife Service Winter estimates are made each January following the
shooting season. 
 
 
169000,000 
715,000,000 
 
20,000,000 
 
23,000,000 
 
19,000,000 
   & 
   5,000,000 
 
  

					
				
				
 
July 9th, 1947 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
Department of Wildlife Management, 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                I am very imuch disappointed in your letter of 
July 8th, especially so in your statement "Your staff continues 
its incredibly expert job of taking a given set of facts and so 
twisting the emphasis as to create an overall impression that 
is false." I do not believe that the record will bear out any 
such statement. 
 
                I am enclosing a comparative statement of the 
estimates given by Ducks Unlimited and the figures quoted by 
the United States Fish and 'iildlife aService and I believe you 
must agree that with the exception of 1945 and 1946, Ducks 
Unlimited's figures were much on the conservative side when 
you consider that the Wildlife Service figures taken in 
January after the season's kill and included the count of 
ducks hatched in this country ;,-hich, of course, would not be 
included in our figures. Definitely the unfavorable turn came 
in 1945 and continued in 1946 because of fewer birds returning 
from the nesting grounds because of the reduced duck population 
in 1945. 
 
                 This year Ducks Unlimited has made careful 
survey thru their kee-men in the three provinces - Alberta, 
Saskatchewan and IManitoba - and a number of our Trustees and 
other contributing members have spent up to several weeks 
covering a substantial portion of the nesting areas in the 
three provinces and from what they report and what I personally 
have seen this year, I am satisfied that the overall picture 
is much better than has been forecast since January of this year 
and yesterday's release given by Frederick C. Lincoln is 
credited with the statement "t}±at eight fish and wildlife 
biologists in the Canadian waterfowl breeding areas and two 
in the Alaska sector have reported a slight but encouraging 
increase in bird population over last year." 
 
                  Consequently I am very dubious and much 
surprised as to the correctness of the reports which you 
indicate having received on the Canadian waterfowl situation. 
I know of your interest as a scientist and a student of con- 
 
 
IIIDIINt;ArVLI5 IJ, "L&ýA. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
MINNEAPOLIS "3, MINN. 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold      7/9/47     Page 112 
 
servation but your interest in ducks and conservation is no 
greater than the vaiters and other 11>embers of our organization. 
Je are and have been trying to do somaething beneficial for 
conservation and that interest is far from selfish. If the 
facts indicated a critical situation, I am satisfied that the 
vast majority of our members would favor a closed season. 
 
              So far as 1 have kno-vvledge Ducks Unlimited and the 
United States Fish and iildlife Service are the only organizations 
which have attempted to give coverage to the nesting situation 
this season in the three provinces. If you have any factual 
records of broad coverage as of the present nesting season it 
will be interesting to have such records to check against Ducks 
Unlimited's reports. In a large area such as contained in the 
three provinces there is bound to be areas which are not satis- 
factory and this year Manitoba and portions of Central and 
Northern Saskatchewan and Alberta are in that classification. 
 
               I do regret the attitude as expressed in your 
letter as one in your position could and should work with and 
be helpful to an organization such as ours. I remain 
 
 
Ducks Unlirmited inc. 
 
 
M&:S :L 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
or M. X6 
 
 
  u, tb t f- 
 
 
 
  14-106.  ~wt 1~m 
 
  loor oe K~th 
 
      A-*pwt knw*  *m  'Wý flt acdty A4  'AA *; I~o  f~tIeO4 
    ta A~hr*of'Atcab .M,1 ntmq~olno 
 
 
ýft Te zlkdd u po o w kWtt*A 
 
 
J'4e~a mmOmim A m#1 hAM ýOr Ot'Uw t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELTA WATERFOWL RESEAR, 
           Delta, Manitoba, Canada 
 
 
                                        June 25,1947 
 
Dear A.L.: 
       Here is something to think about. The enclosed 
duckologicA, in which D.U. is 'pleased" with the duck situi tion, 
shows the area of hbthnst duck concentrPtions as black &n 
their r'ap of the Prairie Pro-t nces. On the basis of the fignires 
coming in regsrding the number of breeding birds per squerp mile of 
the best duck country of Saskatchewan and Alberta, guess bow much 
aren would have to be block to accorrmodate 54 million ducks. If 
there are 54 million ducks they rould require an gll of Minnesota, 
g]I of ihrth and South Drkotas, all of Yontana, all of Zanitoba, 
8satchewanAlberta and British Columbia all of Yukon Territory and 
ll of Alekalk mmummmmamd as their breedingr grounds. In other 
words, to hold 54 million breeding ducks in concentrations such 
as are found in the beet of E3hsktchewan this year, all of these 
areas --mountainxlake.,mmhal spruce forest, citie",desert end all--

would have to have the same densities of breeding ducks as the 
black now shown on the Uuckological. 1811 bet there hare not 
been that many ducks in the last 40 yesrs. 
       D.U. tried to put across theor optimism at the recent game 
and fisb meetings here. It didn~t go across because most people 
here know they are not telling the t ruth. But the AmericRn 
sportsmen are still vulnerable to their unchanged publicity policy. 
 
                             Yours, 
 
 
 
 
 
 Cý. 
    & iiv2           4 A 'V       4 
 
 
SPONSORED BY THE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                                                    201 Bank of Commerce
Chambers 
                                                    June 17, 1947. 
 
 
        Mr. F.F. Montague, 
        Secretary-Treasurer, 
        Manitoba Federation of Game & Fish Assns., 
        204-348 Main St., 
        WIfINI PEG, Manitoba. 
 
        Dear Sir: 
 
        Through the courtesy of Ducks Unlimited (Canada) I am able to present
a 
        comprehensive report on waterfowl conditions in the provinces of
Manitoba, 
        Saskatchewan and Alberta, and supply each delegate with a copy. 
 
        A majority of the observers' reports were received prior to the occur-

        rence of general rains which started on June 2 and continued on and
off 
        until June 10. Danger of drought losses has been removed from a huge
area 
        of southern Saskatchewan and southern Alberta, where duck nesting
this year 
        is much heavier than usual. 
 
        On the other hand, we have received a number of reports commenting
on the 
        frequency of ducks' nests on stubble and summerfallow which are destroyed

        by farm operations. Many of these ducks will renest in safer territory

        but the broods will be late and many encounter a mid-stmmzer drought.

 
        The heavy north gale of June 9-10 in Manitoba, piled water back into
the 
        Netley-Libau Marshes and destroyed the first clutches of Redhead
and 
        Canvasback nests. Art Anderson of Libau reports that seven nests
- 5 
        Redhead and 2 Canvasback - that he had under observation were all
destroyed 
        and he believes none of the over-water nesters escaped. He states,

        however, that a heavy breeding population is occupying sloughs and
pot- 
      ((holes on the southern fringes of the marsh and these were not affected
by 
        the flood, in fact, broods are appearing in good numbers and are
large. 
 
        Wile this report shows that Manitoba is the poorest of the three

        provinces in nesting waterfowl this year, this does not mean that
there 
      i is an alarming shortage of ducks in the province. There is a deficiency

Sin south-western Manitoba but north of No. 1 Highway to the Riding 
        Mountains, increases outnumber decreases. 
 
        If the duck population at present breeding in western Canada represents

        the "low" in the current duck recession, then, in my opinion,
there is no 
        cause for lsiism            Conditions right now are favorable and
a good 
        hatch is showing up. There is still a long way to go before the hatch
is 
        safely on the wing but prospects at the moment are definitely good.

 
 
 
                                                   Yours truly, 
 
 
 
 
                                                   B.W. Cartwright, Chairman,

                                                   Waterfowl Committee. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                      Del ta, Manit obs 
                                      June 16,1947 
 
 
Dear A.L. :- 
       Thanks for yours of the 4th. Nina and Bill are settled 
down and seem to like it here. We enjoyed your brfther's 
visit/. All in all there are twelve fellows here with a 
steady stream of itinerepts so that the place has taken on some 
of the aspects of a dude ranch. 
 
      I am glad that Schwartz is helping you with the 
illustrations. The book Pete and I are doing for duck 
hunters calls for a cut facing evry page, which is quite a 
bit. Should you be caugEht short on your pictures I would 
be glad to help; but it still prevails that thnre isn't much 
more time for anvtbing except what has to be uune and finished 
at once, 
 
      Not much painting for lack of materials. 
 
      Glad to hear about Joe Hickey. Your dept is replly 
growing. 
 
      The advertsing and bounties must be hard to take. Ecept 
for the duck comnercialism, things are pretty good up here. 
 
      Since your name is mentioned frequently bmdtom by the 
D.U. personnel I presume that you see some hope for them and 
are still trying to help them along. We see very little of them 
any more; but what we do see ueiham heae makes it clearer than 
ever that the fraud and clumsy misstatements continue bigger 
and betterm,nstrengthened now by the silencing of any who might 
be able to say something about it. What we see when comparing 
ducks and Ducks Unlimited propag.anda is simply impossible to 
believe. 
       Lyle estimates( on the basis of eight aerial counts) 
that there are all of 30 pairs of Canvasbacks breeding on the 
Delta Marsh. If they pick up a little this year they will 
be almost aan abundant as Marsh fIawki in a few years*. 
 
       We can't figure out your ground squirrels. Ours bhat 
you by a month' 
                           Yours, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ducko 
 
gy DUCKS UNLI 
 
 
             SUMMARY 
  1. More ducks are breeding on    the 
southern prairies of Alberta and Saskatche- 
wan than last year. Fewer ducks are 
breeding in Manitoba. 
  2. -The spring flight in Alberta was down 
about 20% so the increased breeding stock 
in the southern sections is probably at the 
expense of the more northern areas. 
  3. The increase in the breeding popula- 
tion in southern Saskatchewan is phenom- 
enal--estimated at 50-75%o more than last 
year  particularly in the western section 
of the province. The ducks thin   out 
gradually east of Regina and into Manitoba 
where the nesting population is less than 
last year. 
  4. Spring opened very late in Manitoba 
and eastern Saskatchewan, about two to 
three weeks behind southwestern Saskatche- 
wan and southern Alberta. In the northern 
areas of all three provinces the season was 
 
 
J 
 
 
SUMMARY OF KEE-MEN REPORTS UP TO JUNE 6, 1947 
 
 
    Province 
Manitoba ........... 
Saskatchewan ...... 
Alberta ................ 
      Totals ........ 
 
 
          No. of Dist. 
          Reported on 
              73 
      ....... 146 
......... ....... ....  1 2 7 
     .........  346 
 
 
   Ducks Breeding             Water Levels               Prospects 
More    Less    Same      High    Low     Dry      Good    Poor   Avge. 
20       34      16        42      24      4        35      17      18 
76       39      21       103      35      8        75      19      44 
65       45      15        78      37      2        59      21      37 
161     118      52       223      96      14      169      57      99 
 
 
SUMMARY OF KEE-MEN REPORTS BY SPECIES 
              SURFACE FEEDING DUCKS 
 
 
    Province 
M anitoba .......... 
Saskatchewan. 
Alberta ...... 
 
 
    Province 
Manitoba........... 
Saskatchewan.... 
A lberta .............. 
      Totals ..... 
 
    Province 
Manitoba ........... 
Saskatchewan.... 
Alberta ............. 
      Toti1 
 
 
  Mallards        Gadwall       Baldpate       G.W. Teal 
  I.  D.   S.   I.   DL  S.   I.     .s.     I. 1 .    S. 
  24  24   22    4       21    2   '4   24   13 -1     30 
  64  39   35   17    "8 28    19       28   23        38 
  57  38   28   10   20' 19    14   1' 25    21        37 
145  101   85  31   46   68   35   4    77   57 (87   105 
 
 
       Redhead 
          I.  S. 
          6    26 
........ 1.10  t 3,7 
      9        19 
 
 
      Buffiehead 
      I   D    S. 
      4        18 
   .... 7      25 
   ... 12      27 
     23   32  7n 
 
 
DIVING DUCKS 
      Canvasback 
      I. D.   S. 
      9       27 
      27      39 
      15 24   26 
      51 69i 92 
 
 
I. 
0 
4 
4 
 
 
Scoters 
 
 
S. 
13 
10 
24 
 
 
e '-i1~ A7 
 
 
I. 
5 
9 
11 
 
 
  B.W. Teal 
I. ,  2   S. 
11        28 
29        39 
17        38 
57  x    105 
 
 
Scaup 
 
 
S. 
21 
23 
32 
 
 
25   39   76 
   Ruddy 
I.4       S. 
4L        14 
2         17 
4         15 
 
 
  Shoveller 
1. 4      S. 
7         26 
36        37 
22        35 
65   64   98 
 
 
  Ringnecks 
 
  3       19 
  3       17 
 
  8 (L9   47 
Canada Goose 
I.        S. 
4         25 
15 A      28 
25   13   23 
AA ý,ftZ 1 70. 
 
 
    Pintail 
 I19  2   S22. 
 71        31 
 56   23   18 
14 (70 71 
 
 
 
  Golden-eye 
  I.      S. 
  2        17 
  5        24 
  10       20 
  17       61 
     Coot 
 I.   D    S. 
 12        25 
 26        25 
 24        38 
 1    Gt~') '7 QQ 
 
 
                                            We are pleased to announce that
the Federation executive has appointed 
                                        F. F. (Ray) Montague as secretary
of the Manitoba Game and Fish Associa- 
          RAY     MONTAGUE              tion succeeding Gil Law who resigned
early in the year. We are particularly 
                                        fortunate to name a man of Ray Montague's
business ability and knowledge 
               NW ~de'ati Scf~tfjlof game and fish matters in this key position.
He is fully experienced in 
                                        Federation affairs having served
as the organization's first president and 
                                        therefore had a large share in its
launching. Complete story next issue. 
GAMI& AND FISH. Jdjoe,          We   don't     place     lduqh   faith
    in   the     KEANr~p           ,rts;     11 
 
     ann apparent yu            doesn~t either. In all but two of the above
there 
 are    more     declines       than    increases.          I  item     6
 is   the   beginning        of   an 
 assault       upcn     the   F&7W,18   figures.                    
                                      I(ver) 
 
 
MITED CANADA 
 
 
slow and ice remained in the lakes until 
well into May.     These conditions are 
reflected in the distribution of breeding 
ducks. 
   5. Surface water conditions on  the 
 southern prairies are excellent.  Heavy 
 rains have been general during the period 
 June 2-10 inclusive, halting the deteriora- 
 tion of sloughs and potholes. Cloudbursts 
 east and north of Regina, Sask. may have 
 caused some flood losses. 
   6. The overall picture of the spring flight 
 and breeding population is that many more 
 ducks returned than we had any reason to 
 expect from the official Winter populatioh 
 -e-sti-mate of fifty-four millions. 
   7. Breeding conditions are favorable and 
 the broods, which are appearing in increas- 
 ing numbers daily, are average or a little 
 better. Prospects right now are encour- 
 aging. 
   Ducks Unlimited spring questionnaire to 
 
 
J 
 
 
more than 800 Kee-men was sent out on 
May 17 with the request that returns be 
made by June 10 so that the information .S 
could be made available by June 15. Up 
to June 6, 346 reports had been received 
and are summarized below. The number is 
sufficient to indicate current conditions, 
keeping in mind that surface waters have 
improved since a majority of the reports 
were received. 
   Pintails dominate the breeding popula-     " 
 tion with Mallards a close second. The 
 reverse has been our experience in the past. 
 All other species except Shovellers show 
 more decreases than increases. Redheads 
 and Ruddy ducks, prairie breeders, con- 
 tinue to show  recessions. Ring-necks, 
 Golden-eyes and Buffleheads are birds of 
 passage through the prairies, and the same 
 is true of the bulk of the Scaup (Bluebill). 
 Consequently, the Kee-men observations on 
 these species may not be as significant as 
 on species of dominantly prairie habitat.  j 
 
   We are pleased that we can repirt favor- 
 a51h-oflditions at this-time, both as regards 
Sand breeding conditions. 
P            definitely good but much can 
happen between now and when the bulk of 
the hatch is safely on the wing. The 
weather between now and the end of July 
will be the deciding factor. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
* Feathers AN                                            FinsD 
 
                  Contributed by Research Committee 
 
 
  Today is the Tomorrow we were going to 
do such a hell of a lot about Yesterday. 
 
  "The finest things in life are those 
  A bursting buucf[bird that sings, 
     A glowing western sky. 
   And friends to love-these are indeed 
     Well worth their weight in gold. 
   And may you know the gladness which 
     Such things forever hold." 
 
"Give me a friend apd I'll worry along; 
My vision may vanish, my dreams may 
     go wrong; 
 My wealth I may lose, or my money may 
     spend; 
 But I'll worry along, if you give me a 
     friend. 
 
"Give me a friend, and my youth may 
     depart, 
 But still I'll be young in the house of my 
     heart, 
 Yes, I'll go laughing right on to the end, 
 Whatever the years, if you give me a 
     friend." 
 
  A man should never be ashamed to say 
he has been in the wrong, which is but say- 
ing in other words that he is wiser today 
than he was yesterday.-(Alexander Pope) 
 
"The trout by nature mark'd with many a 
     crimson spot, 
 As though she curious were in him above 
     the rest, 
 And to fresh-water fish, did note him for 
     the best."--(Michael Drayton). 
 
             FISHING 
On the cooling bank 
Patiently musing, all intent I stand 
To hook the scaly glutton. See! down sinks 
My cork, that faithful monitor; his weight 
My taper angle bends; surprised, amazed, 
He glitters in the sun, and struggling, pants 
For liberty, till in the purer air 
He breathes no more. 
                  -(William Somerville). 
 
         GRIST AND ECHOES 
  Insects are reckoned to cause annual loss 
of about 10% of all food and fibre crops. 
 
  The Mississippi River, which charts one 
of the great migratory bird flyways, collects 
drainage from about 40% of the United 
States. 
 
  In New England, 600,000,000 pounds of 
seafood are caught by fishermen each year. 
 
  The turkey is the one pheasant native 
to the New World. The name arose 
erroneously about the year 1524 when 
ascribed to the bird by a Swiss biologist. 
He overlooked that this famous bird of the 
festive board had been acquired by Turkey 
from western traders. 
 
 
  Cattail floss is a substance of many uses. 
It is a good heat insulator and suitable for 
filling cushions. Indians used it widely. 
 
  Pigeons were used as messengers by that 
man renowned for wisdom, King Solomon. 
The Persians are credited with employing 
pigeons as long ago as 560 B.C. In 43 B.C. 
these feathered messengers conveyed prompt 
news of winners in the Olympic Games. 
 
  Most animals in their native haunts are 
vegetarians, living on leaves, stalks, seeds, 
fruits and berries. 
 
  Drops of moisture on the leaf tips of 
grasses in early morning are there as a 
result of root pressure. When the sun 
comes the water evaporates. Only aquatic 
plants seem capable of securing moisture 
supply through their leaves. 
 
  Roots of plants require air. It is very 
interesting to study the various devices 
the water plants have developed to supply 
needed air to the roots. 
 
  Annual rings, which characterize cross 
sections of stems of our common trees are 
due to the tubes which convey sap being 
relatively large in spring, when growth is 
rapid, but more compact and smaller in 
autumn   when   growth   processes have 
 
 
  A solitary pocket gopher has been re- 
ported to dig an underground tunnel more 
than 600 feet long in 48 hours time. 
 
  Bird song brings charm and delight to 
woodland, moor and meadow. . It is for the 
purpose of announcing preemptive claim to 
the area in which it is dispersed. A 
parallel is found in that common domestic- 
the barnyard rooster. Obviously a bird's 
song is not for the intent of beguiling his 
lady love, as some of the finest and most 
enthusiastic melody is wafted into the 
spicy springtime air before his mate has 
returned home in migration. Of course, 
home is where the nest is built. 
 
  Poison Ivy, that troublesome small mem- 
ber of the sumac family that does a fiendish 
job on many people, by promoting itchy 
blisters, is common in some of our woods. 
"If leaves three, let it be." About one 
person in three is nearly insensitive to it. 
Perspiring humans are particularly suscept- 
ible. If resistance is once broken down, 
thereafter the individual is likely to be 
poisoned by the slightest contact. When 
exposed, wash the skin with a strong 
laundry soap. Dissolve ferrous sulphate in 
half water and half alcohol to make a 5% 
solution of the salt. Apply a coating to the 
skin and allow to dry. The iron salt forms 
an invisible deposit and neutralizes the 
alkaloid in the poisonous juice before it 
can work its misery. The solution is also 
approved for treatment. 
 
 
  To stock American waters with six to 
seven billion fish each year, the Federal 
Government of the United States operates 
ninety-nine fish hatcheries. 
 
  Otters and badgers seldom experience a 
food shortage as their diet is so diversified. 
They eat, among other things, snakes, 
honey, roots, worms, frogs, eggs and fruit. 
 
  Muskrats have curved teeth which grow 
continuously. They must be worn down 
and sharpened. Nature has endowed them 
with the ability to swing the lower jaw for- 
ward. Thus the lower teeth can be sharp- 
ened against the upper and the upper 
against the lower. 
 
  Algae, or green slime, can be checked in a 
small pool by addition of potassium per- 
manganate. In garden pools a teaspoonful 
of a saturated solution of the salt for each 
gallon of water involved will be harmless 
to fish and water lilies. 
 
  Early Norse boats were steered with an 
oar placed on the right side. Thus that 
side became known as the steering-board, 
and later the term was shortened to star- 
board. 
 
  Mother Nature is not a nudist by choice. 
If left to her own ways, she would clothe 
herself in a leafy smock of forest trees, or at 
least in a sarong of weeds and prairie grasses. 
 
  In making that kettle of camp coffee it 
is timely to recall that coffee beans are 15% 
fat  Grounds sould not.be in the water 
more than five minutes. Have the water 
boiling:- Keep coffee in storage air-tight 
and cool. High temperatures tend to 
chemical change, with decomposition of 
fats and loss of the aromatic oils that 
impart the fine flavors. Coffee in open 
containers may absorb moisture and foreign 
odors. 
 
  Heaviest bird mortality is usually within 
two days after the young leave the nest. 
Losses in some situations are estimated as 
high as 50%. 
 
  Deer were kept away from a forest 
ranger's garden by spreading moth balls. 
These graceful creatures of the glen have 
sensitive nostrils and the napthalene odor 
was offensive. 
 
 
 
Ever Been Fishin' There - Co.t'd 
it. I couldn't figure out what I had on. 
I knew it wasn't either a Great Northern or 
a Walleye, no matter what size, since they 
do not act like that. Then out he shot 
about 18 inches and shook his head, trying 
to free himself. I knew then, as I had 
caught hundreds of the species, that it was 
a small mouth bass. But it had been so 
long ago that I had forgotten their action. 
On landing him I found he wasn't as big 
as the Great Northern Pike, being only 
31/2 lbs., but a mighty nice bass in any man's 
country. So remember, folks, fish are right 
where you find them. 
 
 
12 Owrote this rýPort. TT henwe asked him              GAME AND FISH.
June, 19I47 
     fartwright                                                         
                     the many rePorts 
     od decreases called for more caution he said:"'When I think the

     situation i   cserious  will say S'.... 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
)kq 13* 1-ý)? 
 
 
!A* OwtwMVIO anliatds4w in a ,at. V 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
td~ndw *.a A, toaihIA 1"dV ,Aofva 
 
 
    r4OXIMA UR         a t-a ~#t 
 
 
       Inviatia " orn Axý- 10ý, r it 
 
 
  istat 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELTA WATERFOWL RESEARC 
           Delia, Manitoba, Canada 
 
 
  Dear A.L.:- 
 
       Art tells rg.. n  .ou ha-rý hi a bucy Trinter. Brtt1,,r coyr-
on up thin 
sumcmer while BI' and Nino arn here. 
 
       Eniclosod is eoncthinr -"+ich -4-.1 intrest you in t-1, U it
Is" th, 
first local vport srnviis proposition that stvei birds for romiplqcr rlse

as well as at home. Tbe only end small o'jf,.vtion by mnv mrnbors of' the

local group whon tlis vlir Torkpd up was tb)t what vrq th ure of saving 
ducks here when they wfre going to   nt bell b)nved out of th-m soyneplace

else anyway. And the objection was ovirp-ruled by thV philosophy that 
comnebo]y hos aot to 7nt the bcnll rolling mnd Vf yoI savf( duchk at hormn

you can't help but save theem for someone else an well. 
 
      Incidentally, the fel.orsr in Portagi got this up on their own; I only

s~t in on it5 This has much more than local bearing. There are lots of 
other arenas with tle eam problem df transients -- the Fish vnd Wildlife

S:- r i, --Rfuges by Pnd larte serve transients the spme, way, and in some

places I dare say rih the samn effects. 
 
      The plni hps b>en drawn up with an attempt at non-s-r,,ntion. 
In as'inU the non-resid-rits to hold off until tho l1th, the local 
res~idnts nre cuttinq 19 dayse o" t+eir own seavon. And it t- not ei-ied

at any sroeial group of non-resi&dnts although it will, of course, hit

the commercial cpmps. 
                                                                   will 
	
				
 
 
 
        Hspvrr  Vo i.)  seýen  C prt-vrri g~ht 's'  crashý
 d ýýclin.e"   tl-, ory_  4'c,  du cks?  Th  Is 
 IF   d! -r-l"O.'! p*IIlorhlr pvrtcul½,-Pl whsn not upoor-.t
1 by substant a1 
 frcws afnd gr4en Iven as 8 positive rtit-m'nt to s lay ,r-oup. It t o-Ic

 . th.o.gh tb.y ar going to ul saience       r, P(oalk now to Drojct thIr

 idra.s  I ar afraid: it wlln bn vyars besfore t  wo7rk 0,4 tb, I,. ý,n
fsvI 
 y,ýar- of D.U. rix-iupr will Ft out of the bloodstreaim, for rli-bl,
'ork.s 
 -1ho know no bvtt nre uri-ni  th- fnclss in"fo-rntion  b olottcs  fact.

 Bert points I., Ludlow lr.&lcom and E.-g!-.,.-ton af otheft s w1'o hare
ar'-ived at 
 the sarpe ,c oncl litons, yet their fticts -'A... beý'- thP sme ts
Bert's. .7 am 
Sglpd 3ruce got out from. uni1er it, -nd on ,r,,rv r~½b! sources I
know tbnit 
the OCnndin e~nd of D.tT. 8t, lpaSt, hiss undermone no fundf-trl chainge.

?owev~r, rnon~v "t 12 tatks, and grood n-w,' it b',ttr then bad news.

       ARt -,  ' t,   'tt1ed do,7n HInd A-t. h P  a much  . ttf r s IuIn
tion 
 with only !Puitoba to eomr. W   - a  lonlikn.7 fo.r-rd to hsvimn Bill qnd

 Nina here for tb- FUrer. 
 
          P~e~r9 er~~-b'u w to y4rs. Loopold. 
 
 
t , 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
V1 
 
 
(CANADA) 
 
 
A Permanent Work in Sport and Conservation 
 
 
                 THE DUCKOLOGICAL 
Number 2, Vol. 9              Winnipeg, Canada               12 June, 1947

 
  SUm'aRY 
  1. More ducks are breeding on the southern prairies of Alberta and 
      Saskatchewan than last year. Fewer ducks are breeding in Manitoba.

  2. The spring flight in Alberta was down about 20% so the increased 
      breeding stock in the southern sections is probably at the expense

      of the more northern areas. 
  3.  The increase in the breeding population in southern Saskatchewan is

      phenomenal - estimated at 50-75% more than last year - particularly

      in the western section of the province. The ducks thin out gradu- 
      ally east of Regina and into Manitoba where the nesting population

      is less than last year. 
  4-. Spring opened very late in Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan, about

      two to three weeks behind south-western Saskatchewan and southern 
      Alberta. In the northern areas of all three provinces the season 
      was slow and ice remained in the lakes until well into May. These 
      conditions are reflected in the distribution of breeding ducks. 
  5.  Surface water conditions on the southern prairies are excellent. 
      Heavy rains have been general during the period June 2 - 10 inclu-

      sive, halting the deterioration of sloughs and potholes. Cloudbursts

      east and north of Regina, Sask. may have caused some flood losses.

  6. The overall picture of the spring flight and breeding population is

      that many more ducks returned than we had any reason to expect from

      the official winter population estimate of 54 millions. 
  7. Breeding conditions are favorable and the broods, which are appearing

      in increasing numbers daily, are average or a little better. Pros-

      pects right now are encouraging. 
 
 
   /AL8XRrA  -f~--------- 
 
/                       Q    X             MANITOBA 
                      , SA5IATCHEWAN I 
 
 
    I 
 / 
,, DUCK CONDITION,. 
 
 
t/     GOOD 
 
 
      o FAIR 
\\. o 
 
 
          POOR 
 
 
  PA I .~jN 
 
 
S       __               . .*.-..-. I'4.L1* 
 
 
.W. lJ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
DU's Spring Questionnaire to more than 800 Kee-men was sent out on May 17
with the. 
request that returns be made by June 10 so that the information could be
made avail- 
able by June 15. Up to June 6, 346. reports had been received and are summarized
below. 
The number is: sufficient to indicate current conditions; keeping in mind
that surface 
waters have improved since a majority of the reports were received. 
 
 
                     Summary of Kee-men Reports up to June 6, 1947. 
 
 
          No. of Dist. 
Province Reported on 
 
Manitoba       73 
Saskatchewan 146 
Alberta       127 
 
Totals        346 
 
 
Ducks Breeding 
More Less Same 
 
  20   34   16 
  76   39   21 
  65   45   15 
 
'161 118    52 
 
 
Water Levels 
High Low Dry 
 
42    24 4 
103   35 8 
78    3.7 2 
 
223 -96 14 
 
 
    Prospects 
Good Poor Average 
 
35    17    18 
75    19    44 
5.9   21    37 
 
169   57    99 
 
 
Summary of Kee-men Reports by Species 
 
 
                              Surface Feeding Ducks 
 
  Mallards       Gadwall   Baldpate   G. . Teal. 
Inc. Dec. Same  I. D    S I    D   S  I    D    S 
 
 
ian.   24   24   22 
Sask. 64    39   35 
Alta. 57    38   28 
 
      145 101    85 
 
 
4    8 21 
17 18 28 
10 20 19 
 
31 46 68 
 
 
   Redhead 
Inc. Dec. Same 
 
6.    12   26 
10    19   37 
9     15   19 
 
25    46   82 
 
 
 
  Bufflehe ad 
  I   D    S 
 
  4    7   18 
  7   12   25 
12    13   27 
 
23    32   70 
 
 
2    9 21 
19 22 28 
14  17 25 
 
35 48 77 
 
 
Canvasback 
I   D    S 
9 15 27 
 
27 30 39 
15 24 26 
 
51 69 92 
 
 
 
  Scoters 
  I  D   S 
 
  0  8  13 
  4 18  10 
  4  5 24 
 
  8 31 47 
 
 
13  18   30 
23 36    38 
21 33    37 
 
57 87   105 
 
 
Diving Ducks 
 
    Scaup 
    I D   S 
 
 
5   9 21 
9 18 23 
11 12 32 
 
25 39 76 
 
 
 
  Ruddy 
  I D S 
 
  4 6 14 
  2 12 17 
  4 7 15 
 
10 25 46 
 
 
B. W. Teal 
I   D   S 
 
11 16 28 
29 28 39 
17 35 38 
 
57 79 105 
 
 
Ring-necks 
I   D   S 
 
2    8 11 
     S719 
 3   4' 17 
 
 8  19 47 
 
 
 Canada 
   Goose 
 I D    S 
 
 4  18 25 
 15 20 28 
 25 13,23 
 
 44' 51 76 
 
 
Shoveller 
I   D   S 
 
7 17 26 
36 22 37 
22 25 35 
 
65  64 98 
 
 
Pintail 
I D S, 
 
19 21 22 
71 26. 31 
56. 23 18 
 
146 70 71 
 
 
Goldemn-eye 
I   D    S 
 
2    7 17 
5    8 24 
10  10 20 
 
17 25   61 
 
 
 
   Coot 
I   D    S 
 
12 16 25 
26 36 25 
24  18 38 
 
62  70 88 
 
 
Pintails dominate the breeding population with Mallards a close second. The
reverse 
has been our experience in the past. All other species except Shovellers
show more 
decreases than increases. Redheads and Ruddy ducks.- prairie breeders - continue
to 
show recessions. Ring-necks, Golden-eyesýand Buffleheads are birds
of passage through 
the prairies, and the same is true of the bulk of the Scaup (Bluebill). Consequently,

the Kee-men observations on these species may not be as significant as on
species of 
dominantly prairie habitat. 
 
We are pleased that we can report favorable conditions at this time, both
as regards 
duck numbers and breedinr. conditions. Prospects are definitely good but.much
can 
happen between now and when the bulk of the- hatch is safely on the wing.
The weather 
between now and the end of July will be the deciding factor. 
 
 
                                                B. -. " Cartwright,

                                                Chief Naturalist. 
 
 
Man. 
Sask'. 
Alta. 
 
 
ian. 
Sask. 
Alt a. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                    Wishing You 
                                    Peace, Plenty and 
                                    Good Hunting ... 
 
                                    this year, and in 
                                    the years to come. 
 
                                    DUCKS UNLIMITED 
                                             (CANADA) 
 
 
Within is told about the Lesser Scaup-chunky little diving duck known 
to hunters over much of North America as "The Bluebill". 
"Bluebills" (along with other species of waterfowl) have increased
in 
recent years. This increase is the result, largely, of work do h7Ducks 
Unlimited, Government agencies, private organizations and conservation- 
minded people all over the duck range. 
At the same time, the number of hunters has increased. More and more 
people will want to enjoy the benefits of duck hunting in the years ahead.

To meet this need, more waterfowl must be on the wing each year. 
To establish and maintain waterfowl population at climax numbers, all 
conservation workers must continue, expand and integrate their work, in 
close co-operation. The vital work of Ducks Unlimited, in increasing 
waterfowl production, must go ahead. The need of increasing and improving

nesting grounds-and curbing duck destruction by predators, drought, 
floods, fires (and other natural and man-made factors) is a challenge to
every 
North American, who wants better hunting as part of a better world. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
      LESSER SCAUP DUCK (Aythya affinis) 
Common Names: Bluebill, Broadbill, Fall duck, Raft duck, 
    Blackhead. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Description: A medium-sized black and white duck with bright 
     blue bill. Found only in North America. 
Adult Male in Flight: Medium size; short neck, tufty head. 
     Black head, neck and chest; white underbody. Dark wings 
     with broad white wing patch on trailing half of wing. 
On Water: Medium size; tufty black head and neck with bright 
     blue bill. Shows large amount of white on sides and back 
     not apparent in flight. Purplish lustre on head. 
Adult Female in Flight: Medium size; general brownish color; 
     blue bill with white patch on face at base of bill. Whitish 
     underbody and white wing patch. 
On Water: Medium size. Brownish head, neck and back. Blue 
     bill with conspicuous white patch around base of bill. 
               NORTHWARD MIGRATION 
  Arrives in southern prairie provinces in mid-April and spreads 
northwards as rapidly as waters open up. Principal nesting areas 
are in parklands between agricultural belt and pre-cambrian 
shield. Arrives in waves and first arrivals are paired birds. Sex 
ratio 67:33 (Av. of 4 years Hochbaum). 
               COURTSHIP AND NESTING 
  Spectacular courting flights with several males in pursuit of a 
female are carried out with dizzy speed and dazzling changes in 
height and direction. On the water, the usual head bobbing; 
neck stretching and love notes are given by rival males and 
responded to, on occasion, by the female. The male, after pairing 
 
 
has taken place and territory 
chosen, is very aggressive in 
chasing away intruding males, 
but, curiously, mated pairs often 
tolerate a sexually non-active 
male which consorts with the 
pair on amicable terms. 
  The Lesser Scaup is a late 
nester, rarely starting before 
May 20. Nests With fresh eggs 
are frequently found in early 
August-- probably second 
attempts. 
  The nests are well concealed 
cavities near marshes, sloughs 
and ponds-often in wet places 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
but more often on dry land near water-lined with fine grasses 
and well supplied with down from the female's breast. The 
clutch of eggs is usually ten or twelve, but varies from six to 
fifteen. Eggs measure 2.25 x 1.56 inches (average) and are 
dark, olive-buff in color. Incubation period, 22-23 days. 
 
                           FOOD 
   Stomach analysis of 1,051 specimens taken in all months of the 
year, revealed that 59.55% of the food was vegetable matter. 
Pondweeds, grasses (inc. wild rice), sedges, wild celery, 
musk grass, coontail and smartweeds were preferred foods. The 
balance of 40% (approx.) animal matter was made up of Mol- 
luscs, 25%; Insects, 12%; Crustaceans, 1.34% and miscellaneous 
2.13%. 
                   WEIGHT OF ADULTS 
  Male: Average of 112, 1 lb. 14 oz. Extremes, 1 lb. 6 ozs. 
to 2 lb. 5 ozs. 
   Female: Average of 118, 1 lb. 12 ozs. Extremes, 1 lb. 3 ozs. 
to 2 lbs. 2 ozs. 
               SOUTHWARD MIGRATION 
  This late maturing species gathers in large numbers in the 
parkland lakes north of the agricultural belt where they find an 
abundance of food. In August, great concentrations can be seen 
from the air in favored locations. They are made up largely of 
flightless (moulting) adults and maturing juveniles. The south- 
ward migration starts early in October and mass exodus does not 
take place until freeze-up, usually about the first week in 
November. 
                      DISTRIBUTION 
  Breeds from the north-central states, south-eastern Ontario, 
north through the prairie provinces of Canada and southern 
British Columbia, to the west coast of Hudson Bay and eastern 
Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta. Winters from southern British 
Columbia south along the Pacific slope to Panama and from New 
Jersey along the Atlantic slope to Florida and the West Indies. 
In the interior, from Colorado, Illinois and Arkansas, south 
through Mexico and the Central American Republics. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hr. *qr~m   A. 4 
~arlotllw mtor  1M   ie 
No yae city X Y. 
 
    Bw UIrtW~SU 
 
 
 
 
 
    A ~ ~  ~   1  IAim  Uae aaa  me you  o$*k,'  f'kms   Ates,)tafw 
 
  a      4Ltyioe 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Iti tsryCL  ow'fýte1%   ~ cýTste  K ýUyo 
 
  

					
				
				
 
MINNEAPOLIS 15, MINN. 
 
 
November 22nd, 1946 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, .4isconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                  Thanks kindly for your letter of 
November 20th expressing your thoughts relative to 
a more comprehensive waterfowl restoration program. 
 
                 We are in hopes that the coming year 
will see more materials available so that a larger 
number of projects can be completed in Canada. 'We 
have been badly handicapped in recent years not only 
by materials but also during war years by labor. 
 
                  I am sure that there are areas in 
the Northern states South of the border that can be 
restored of which several of them are in Minnesota. 
Large tracts which were ditched and drained twenty- 
five or thirty years ago destroyed large wonderful 
nesting areas particularly in the Northern part of 
this state. 
 
                 It would appear, however, that our 
organization should necessarily confine their operations 
to Canada. In this country and particularly in Minnesota 
it is a matter of co-operation between the Fish & 
Wildlife Service, Minnesota Conservation Department and 
numerous local duck hunters' organizations. Undoubtedly 
co-operation between all organizations is of first 
importance. 
 
                 Mr. Arthur Bartley will probably be in 
the city sometime shortly and will call his attention 
to your letter. Again thanks, I remain 
 
 
M7IS : L 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                      November 21, 1946 
 
 
 
 
Mr. 0. A. Gross, State Chairman 
130 N. Adam street 
Green Bqa, . Tionsin 
 
Dear Snick: 
 
     The detail behind my letter to Mort Sith is simply thist 
For   long time I have feared that D.U. by  xaggeratiag the 
effects of its work for the "Ducks* was creating 8 false pub- 
lie confidence and underminin its own reputation for truth- 
fU  reprting. I have also realized that if this is tru, 
the remedy must come from inside D.U, because if it caem 
from the outside, it might break up the organization* 
 
     The Smith-Zawkins report seemed to be a good starting 
point for reform from the inside, and subsequent events 
have justified this belief. I am now hopefal that D.U. 
Oan get off to a now start* 
 
     Yes, I share your couifidence in lAort Suith, TO be 
blunt, I think he has saved the organization by lettin   Tom 
Main out. 
 
                                        Yours sincerely, 
 
 
 
                                        Aldo Leopold 
 
 
A". RL 
 
  

					
				
				
 
     FOR 
wiVSCOnlSinf 
 
 
C. ,A. Qross, State Chairman 
    130 I. Adams Street 
    Gcreeu bayj W~is. 
 
 
                                       November 12, 1946 
 
 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
% College of Agriculture 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
I apprecialge your sending me a copy of your letter to Mort Smith, 
and I would appreciate your sending me the detail behind this. 
Naturally in my position I like to get all the information I can. 
 
We all have the greatest confidence in Morb and I um sure you will 
find him always willing to cooperate. 
 
                                       Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
                                       C. A. Gross 
 
 
CAG:HE 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
November 21, 19146 
 
 
Mr. Albert K, Da 
United Statet Deprment of the Interior 
Fish and Wildlife Service 
Merchandise Hrt 
Ohicago 54, Illinnis 
 
Dear Albert i 
 
     I appreciate yoir taki  the tronble to write 
with Mort Smith, I attach a recent letter to him. 
as you will of coarse perceive is to mke him feel 
cooperation in any genuin effort to revise D.U.s 
 
 
me about the corresponzdence 
ky turpose in this letter 
that he will have friendly 
reliciesý. 
 
 
     Yes, I k-ioT about the Bartley speech, ,md I also caL see no Improvemet

in the last Duk-loaical, but I au-ooae we have to aive them t;0 to  a 
selves ara&. 
 
     I h'-ve been zmwh   uriwad by the recent trend of events in Fish ara

Wildlife Service, esaectally in the waterfowl field. I am  eini to be 
convinced that the time is ripe for a revision o; the waterfowl program.
It 
to taking --ie ayhow, Lt the -blc eht to be told about it. If we fall 
to do this, the disappointusut with the duck 21-ight this fall is in 4taner

of ex-nressil  tsel in unsounl iw.0,ars.rv 1 am~ uýptcIlly Lzaprr,,3ed
-ith 
the ne4 of "eetorlmn breediýn stoek esmth of the bord.r, 'u ldn't
you call 
a small group togethtr to thr,"h out tlis ,    hLinos7   I krow y-,u
ha3e 
alread7 started to thrasu it out within the li, but mAt        grouns 
need to Iciow what is in the wid.  !ll You be at  olumbia? If either you

or Clarence are there, I wmld lHli to talk this over. 
 
 
     Thans wgin for your       acknmoved4T nt of rV feeble 
you to know that I feel a stron confidence in the trend of 
w7ith versowul reg:ards 
 
 
4Cort~o I wt 
your amn stration. 
 
 
Yours sincerely# 
 
 
 
Aldo LAmpold 
 
 
AL.' RT: 
001 Albert Rochban 
 
  

					
				
				
 
IN REPLY REFER TO                                                    ADDRESS
ONLY THE 
                                                                DIRECTOR,
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
                                  UNITED STATES 
                        DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                            FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
                                     WASH I NGTON 
                                           November 13, 1946 
 
 
 
 
       Prof. AldoLeopolcd, 
            424 University Parm Place, 
                 Madison 5, Wisconsin. 
 
       Dear Aldo: 
 
            I have just seen a copy of your letter of November 5 to President

       Mort Smith of Ducks Unlimited, and I want to tell you how much I 
       appreciate the stand you are taking. I thought for a while that our

       position on their exaggerated claims might do some good. I was also

       hopeful that they would accept the Smith-Hawkins report as a basis

       for making some necessary adjustments, but this is a rather discourag-

       ing and perhaps a vain hope. Your critical analysis as a member of

       the Ducks Unlimited Advisory Board may eventually turn the trick where

       outsiders fail. Apparently the high command in Ducks Unlimited have

       resented the frank statements in the report and misconstrued the 
       motives rather than taking the statements as a basis for honest 
       corrections. I recently received a letter from Arthur Hawkins to-

       gether with a newspaper account of a meeting in Minneapolis attended

       by Mr. Bartley where the same type of propaganda that we have previous-

       ly criticized was still much in evidence. I am sending you a copy
of 
       Hawkins' letter and of the newspaper statement. 
 
            I hope you will keep me informed of any developments. 
 
                                          Sincerely 
 
 
 
                                                Albert M. Day, 
                                                  Director. 
       Enclosure 
 
  

					
				
				
 
     ADDRESS ONLY THE 
DIRECTOR, FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE                                     
IN REPLY REFER TO 
 
                                 UNITED STATES 
                       DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                           FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE                    
  vU 
                                  CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 
 
 
 
                                                       Novembr 21, 1946.

 
 
     Mr. 8. A. Oross, 
          Chairman, Ducks Unlimited, 
              Green Boy, Wiscoasia, 
 
     Deer Mr. Gross: 
 
          I have r"eeiie a letter from Arthur Bartlqy tellin~g as that
you are 
     not satisfied with the psition of the Fish and   tidlife Seice inrsofar

     as the statemants of our Flyway Biologist, Bob Sith, ar, once.red, I

     roer to the rmarU    aitb xade in the ourse of queatioin   following
a 
     talk at Iilwaulte about a math ag, mr. Brtley tells me that you feel

     that Mr. Smithts etatanant injured the Ducoks Unlimited progra in Wiscsansin,

     and that -esolgieyou an enswer which would more clearly and definitely

                 showthevalu  ofDuck Unimied i thwatrfolestioration porm

 
          I   pleased to repeat--ae I have on many occaons.--that the creation

     of Iets that will imprve the nesti          enL d       *reqs for water-

     fowl ere important eind helpful in the over-all prgreno Such efforts
so 
       ac-aUn~ laited can put forth to croate new marsh area", or to
stabilize 
     waters which would otherwise disappear. are helpful. Also the control

     of lands to eliminate grazing aar the shore lines in order to provide

     zesting cover, and proteatiex from fires, is helpful. The education
and 
     publieit- program of D*s Umliuted, both in the United States sa Canada,

     have made many people Ionectous of the feet that there ust be restoration

     of environmeat if the waterfowl restoration program is to suceed. 
 
         I object etrmuously, however, to the methods by vhich your orgaiza-

     tion raise. funds to do the work you are doing. It this I nean the extr~erly

     gorated satemts that         iasnte fos sore of the leeders of Ducks
Un- 
     'limited, particularly Tom Main. I think that this propaganda wi*. I

     criticied at Now Toft-and which many others have eriticized since then-

     can do mors harm than the restoraIon progrm in Canada can do pod. You

     people are iving the honest and sincere sportsmou who eontribute to
Wok 
     Unlimited, as well as many others who do not, a sense of false 9seority,

     and unlesui this Is stopiled it will be disastrous to the whole wviterfowl

     managsanot pogram. 
 
 VICTORY   refer particularly to the press release of October 4 quoting Tom

    A& Ib as saying that the birds this year woi4 be only slightly les,
tVýa 
    '.45, 45.This is based upon a purported envq of the wrterfowl p     
  e 
         areas in the Canadian provinces, and stat  that broods were only

         fy fewer then a year eg. Thif                directly contraxy to

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
Information obtained by qualified end competent observers that this 
Service bad in Canada this sumer* Their obseorvtions are wpportsed by 
those of k    others 'ho are in ýositlon to know. Certtinly the flight,

So far, fr   'the Rcke   east, has ubbtentiated the ftndiagi of the 
field  en of this Service, a   has been completly contrary to the opti- 
intisto report of Duks Unlimited. 
 
     We we hopoful that the report resulting from the observatiens of 
Bb Sith and Art Hawins     oula be used by DIaks Unilmited to correot 
some of the basic publicity ftterial, partiularly in so far as the Farss

improved are concerned. The reason we wanted this type of prpaganda 
improved is that, aKain, the sportsmen of this country are lulled Into 
a fAlse security when thq find statemsnt_ such as appeared In   om Mein'ta

article in an isaue of Wtr tern Outdoor Sports Guide which resetly came 
over my desk. The stories told that 1,300,000 acres of leand had been imi

proved as nesting habitat. According to the finding6 of our biologists, 
this is en exas&ser-tion of large proportions. 
 
     I am willing to grant a certain amount of build-up and over-statement

for any organization that   st secure itý fundo by public contribution.

This, of course, cannot apply to such agencies as the Fish and Wildlife 
Service, where funds are sacured through Congrnssional action, and where

we are obliged to stick as closely to the truth As is hu7nly possible. 
I repeat that gross eaaggerAtion and   alsead1iag information not only ham

a          .h.t t oni the waterfowl managmqnt program at present, but in

my opinion it will eventually catch up with Ducks Unlimited, and the 
resuits may not be pleasant for your organization. 
 
     I promited Mr. Bartley and Glenn Martin that copies of the reports 
prepared by Smith and Hawkins would not be released by the Fish and Wild-

life Service, but wer to be used for such infomation as would be helpful

to Ducks Unlimited. I cannot expect nq men to ,.upport the ezaggeortated

claims of  cks Unlimited, ken. the imow that they are not true. I have, 
kowever, instructed our people to avoid any public controversy, and our 
entire orgenizetion is attempting to work along this line. 
 
     I always hesitate to write a letter such Ps this, because things 
that we could sit dov  ind discuis across the t able oftentimes look cold-

bloo&de upon the typewritten sheet. I have taken the liberty, however,

of speaking frankly to you about this subject because I can sea so little

inovement in Ducks Ualiited's propaganda since I called this to public 
at4fention in New York last spring. Perhaps you ýma soe of the other

sincere workers for the ecuse can see that this is eventually corrected.

 
                                   Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
                                       Albert M. Deyo 
                                         Director. 
 
 
2 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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j,* rill rfome  ymw  nI t-A.~ton  .W ,41. AM IF41  rg5v  t 
bo to I=  hqm  :'A ?t&**. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  I -ae4to b~ar tht ()1~sJat*10)4W, rttmt aL tn1tea = bol= 
IutAl a, % ofme trýml olw 4Wifort~m tho Ioaa ars * 
 
    bu111%Ax4havro#  haa4  otObosur  tho amed Pyr  iro w -4r Ia vt l ým
tA t 
 
 
 
In W &jtI,ý mlý- n1 7),U pavm 00I~*~~% 
 
 
 
vf-0ka tho nrb if  71wo t4, at  If-A ral tiomt.  r'Ix  A 
to h*  to Mldt, Z 1 r ilw- r-Jýi t@v* b o  on V "*;   mix W h
  Itha,v - 
-oI bt in V''~aaf~solr&''utl- hi m~ au 
 
 
            mto-,A  A-,Atr*  Ar.daI" L IV~ftIn 
        Athia 
 
  uto Irwa a "'orW 4v-',etthi rs*~r tn 
  te4 beto  100 t!t t4 1't& 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Aftoy $tov.m 
 
  

					
				
				
 
it 
 
 
MINNEAPOLIS 15, MINN. 
 
 
November 13th, 1946 
 
 
M0r. Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leop6ld: 
 
                I am pleased to have your letter of Nov. 
12th and your opinion relative to the disappearance of 
banded birds other than those bands taken and returned 
by the hunter. 
 
                I do think it is very much worth while 
that a careful study be made so that we may kiow more 
about the factors entering into the disappearance. I 
have been informed that the Biological Survey or the now 
Fish & Wildlife Service have done considerable work re- 
garding disease affecting aquatic fowl and especially as 
to botulism. Personally,I know very little about it but 
in the sane mail with your letter I received a letter from 
Clarence Cottam in which reference is made to the study 
of botulism diseases by their Department and also the further 
fact that an up to date bulletin on this same subject will 
be published in the course of the next two or three months. 
 
                 In line with your suggestion I shall be 
very pleased to send a copy to you in your care for 
Robert McCabe and it would be very much worth while if 
he would review "Prairie Wings" as you have suggested. 
                 I also would be very pleased to meet 
Mr. Hawkins anytime he may be in the city. If he will 
pay me a visit or -ive me a phone call, shall be most 
pleased to have lunch with him. I believe that such contacts 
furnish basis for better understanding. 
 
                With best personal regards, I remain 
 
                                Ver    u       s, 
 
 
                                  ftM.W. mi ;h 
 
 
I4WS : L 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
November 18, 1946 
 
 
Mr. X. W. Smith 
12U4 Flour Mxchawe Bldg. 
Minneapolis 15, Min. 
 
Dwx Ur, Saitht 
 
     I want to tha*3 rou qv vy rh for the copy of "Prairie 
Wings* you sent me through Professor Liopold. I can say 
offhand that it is ona of the finest books on (tucks that 
I have read, It most certainly embodies the eýithetc as 
well as certain technical wswts of waterfowl behavio-. 
 
     I shall try to rqview it as soon as possible for one 
of the Ornithological Journals and will, of course, seIld a 
co r to your of'ice as well. Thank you vrain for your 
generous gi ft. 
 
                                 Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
                                 Robert A. Malabe 
                                 Lastnictor - Wildlife          t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
THE MILWAUKEE JOURNAL 
    TELEPHONE MARQUETTE 6000 
        MILWAUKEE 1, WIS. 
 
 
                        Saturday, November 16. 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
     Enjoyed your review of ffarrington's book so much. 
ror the last three-four years I have been wondering 
what mad genius it can be in Ducks Unlimited who 
deliberately and persistently lies about something 
nobody nas to lie about. If i ever saw an organization 
go out of its way to borrow trouble--and apparently 
for reasons its officers and directors can t give---that 
organization is IDucks Unlimited. If I ever saw 
an organizations pubLic relations kicked to hell and 
gone, well, same outfit. 
 
     You ve hit the nail right smack on the head. 
They are'worthy, can be even more so. But   they 
borrow trouble. I've had all this out wv-'h buck 
btorey and others. buck was a national director, may 
still be. We had some long sessions and finally at the 
end of one when I had convinced him our paper was not 
trying to hurt DU out to help it, and I had suggested 
certain obviously needed changes in their publicity, 
Fck told me: 
 
     "uonsider it as good as done." 14othing happened. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
          Well, just wanted you to }mow how ± appreciated your 
piece. I'm lifting it and running almost all of it in the paper 
minute I get the space. 
 
 
all oes 
 
 
mar qua rri e 
 
  

					
				
				
 
      MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY 
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 
   EDWIN S. GEORGE RESERVE 
 
 
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11vember 1946 
 
 
DearvAl 3 
The box score on the DU critique is still 0001 
Sports Afield says "almost a year too late. This whol. matter 
of Iarrin'gto    book and Ducks Unlimited has been kicked around 
until everybody is sick of hearing about it." 
W7OO: agrait the editorial policy because it is a direct attack 
on another organization; would detraot from the Bulletin's 
position as a scientific journal because it is contentious 
rather thqn straight factual reporting; ad mright get us into 
endless correspondence, lawsuits, etc. which we are not set up 
to handle; and is the business of the "professional" conserva-

tion organizations, rather than ours anyway. To all of which 
I say "Then why have a Conservation Couittee?" 
Wildlife Society: same as Van Tyne's first point; plus these: 
no need to repeat what has already been done by you and Dy In 
NoY. ; "Leopold's review and Day's open criticism have pretty 
welil established the view of the profession" so what's to be 
gained by publishing it in the Journal? 
If it's any comfort to you, the poll of the Comittee showed 
that seven wanted it published in the Conservation Section 
two wanted it toned down, one was for it if JV approved, tree 
were agin it.f% 
So that's how we stand now. Looks as though we'd wasted most 
of the su   r on a turkey. I feel like a first class chum    -- 
and yet I       think that someone has got to give DX a racking 
back or we   rid up with another duck decline and a bunch of 
disillusioned sportsmen who won't know whom to believe or what 
to do. Or maybe everybody's out od step but Johnnie? 
Conservation section for December stinks. I hoped, up to the 
last minute, that the original plan would go through; then had 
to beat something out in a hurry - a "duck situation" article 
which you could have done ten times better if there had been 
time enough. And I wrote another review of Farrington for the 
Bulletin, leaving DU out of it. 
Have you any further suggestions? I'm damned if I want to send 
that 1S to Mrs, 7dge and I'm pretty dubious about the Audubon 
Society as an effettive place for it. I hate to throw in the 
sponge, but it begins to look as though it were that or a private 
printing. I'm sending a copy of this to the Professor, to let 
him know how it goes. 
 
 
Best to you al - 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                             THE WILDLIFE SOCIETY 
 
OFFICE OF EDITOR                                                        
  MONTANA STATE COLLEGE 
JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT                                          
  301 LEWIS HALL 
                                                                        
  BOZEMAN. MONT. 
                                                November 7, 1946 
 
 
 
 
       Dr.F.N. Hamerstrom 
       Edwin S. George Reserve 
       Pinckney, Michigan 
 
       Dear "Hammy"H: 
 
                 I appreciate very much being allowed to read over your criticism

       of Ducks Unlimited. I had considered a possible use of it as a book
review 
       but in checking back I find that Leopold reviewed this book in the
July issue 
       of the Journal of Wildlife Management. 
 
                 I submitted this manuscript by airmail to a member of the
Editorial 
       Board for his opinion and,in part,he replied as follows: 
 
                 "At the New York Wildlife Conference, last winter,
Al Day, 
            Director of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, tore into Ducks

            Unlimited, including Farrington's book. His remarks and Hochbaum'
s 
            remarks, plus the Ducks Unlimited rebuttal, defense, etc., will

            appear in the Transactions of that conference, and should be
sent 
            out soon. Hence there is no need to repeat the correct appraisal

            as furnished by Mr. Day. I don't disagree with 'Hammy's' article,

            but I think that we as a scientific group shouldn't attack any

            other group in this manner. I sincerely believe that it is not

            one of our purposes to either defend or attack any government

            agency, private agency, or any other's propoganda, plans, purposes,

            results, or failures. Farrington's book is clearly, purposely,

            admittedly, a propoganda, selling promotion book.   The right
body 
            attacked it, namely, the Fish and Wildlife Service through its

            Director. So far as I am concerned, I feel certain Al Day was
right. 
            . . . I know it doesn't worry Ducks Unlimited - they are professional

            promoters and accustomed to attacks. I advise against printing

            Hamerstrom's article in any form in the Journal of Wildlife 
            Management." 
 
                 It would appear to me that Leopold's review and Day's open
criticism 
       have pretty well established the view of the profession relative to
Ducks 
       Unlimited, and actually I believe that the Journal of Wildlife Management
would 
       have nothing to gain by publishing it, and at present it does not
seem to me 
       that it would be desirable for the Journal to publish a direct attack
on any 
       specific organization. We are, then, faced with this anomalous situation.

       Almost everyone seems to agree with the substance of your article
but not 
       sufficiently to desire to publish it. I am returning the manuscript
to you 
       and thank you again for letting me see it. 
 
                                          Very ýulours 
 
 
                                          Harlow 3. Mills, Editor 
                                          Journal of Wildlife Management

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
na4poli, 15, 9=aseota 
 
Dar Mr. -Smtth: 
 
             I am nfa  e>4 by the nw3 that a rnorgansation has bee under

Oontimoili atz y, ml that 1&rsnwtant chanrn arp, beip mAde in 1). T;-
 I Will 
watc h .roefal7 for the Aetaila &s they are mAe mbllo. 
 
             T- t beo  % msN bol4s, I i  -ftzxtler, but the itgoin 
for in not, ill I o-±nmn aý ir a.; ý,oiir fý1
   r would inicate, 
 
               Wi~st I t!.1* 70UX ht-"re to d  '4ol th  r2eturu tro
!llav for 
khrntarz too n*eJ1"-nt o oat to bothtkr to fmnd t*heir bands in. 
 
             11' th"et n~vsc- tho -,ctual 4i:ý around  rApr -!ear,
7you h~mv to 
doublo again for aripl.,*i n i lt wiI1".;4 Ard ý. , ILeuvzAY
 thrie. tiLw-t Ji. l.Ator 
fvrm carryi- shot. If tMi: i' oorrect, the ýyn ýxirmzt fOr
hf tt     total 
ro-lattou en h yer, T-t 1r to ssv, eih iw.Ar of uc-k1si       Twolrm.e two

rewn ymW, to offoet thoe    On the Iilluoii 0iver, each p.r Of EaL., 
in roet yas has     rodiaed only 1 - 3 w, l4vri   little or nc Mavin for

natural fat&lAti8 like bot.iAmp, foul ckler, etc. 
 
             Ot e-r .-, no on cw o rov t'v d  e of           Inhno  min 
bwAnds, -,or then strf of Um total emr-rn,ltw loss. '.Iie fifyrur-i hv  migueted

are optnionso not irovan fACt3. 
 
             Tmt    trkips whmth;r I ha,,s aW 14ieoi on joi-es othilr thstu
the. flu 
I have the vey ditintct itz 4,3ion thi;t di eo  losses h*vae sn  p1aye4 d
 P 
,perhaps Mcue of mur 1inotews (so far) to 4o anytt-Jn, abou,-t them, A rwdly
      / 
soun  watsrfobil p    owght to h-asr di~eE,  e.                         
   .... 
 
             anukt. for your kin; o-'fer to send me  lrairla ';ar.  Mr. -3va

son seat m a @.l, and I have rviewetl it for J-m:aLl of ildlifo         
. 
I will send 7= the vevievwh*n -rinted. I will ouly sq now that I Wish we

had more duck nntors lIke Mr. Atee,, 
 
             If you still hav a Cow of Prairie Wings to pa-e, m' amvetst,

Robert M-Cabe would grmtly value a aoo and  e~rhap wrild be Able to review

it in some other Journal. 
 
 
xO'7':"mr 126 1ý)46 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
               bI hjr reM ad~~i    wht4 yau say about the 3mith-fakn 
roport, I of cmirtie ot~nrt .,,rgua. abont w~it I have ncnt see. wnI 
   1110,~how4, for yom to) Pat a -irst-bwbad lm~neasinn of what oom of 
these ymaw tecimoiA ýn a.re Ulm.          u hapns to be a formar 3tiudas

of mtnw, If ynox aa  sure the tim, 1'd 111e to Ask him to ca-1 on yo 
so   day, He passes.        Mt   eapolls ai inttvale, 
 
              12hik fou vn 7ix1r letter. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oct Hochbauu 
     Hawkins 
 
  

					
				
				
 
MINEAIPLIS 1, F-M.-MINN 
MIINNEAPOLIS 15, MiNN. 
 
 
November 6th, 1946 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                 Thanks very kindly for your letter of 
 November 5th. I appreciate hearing from you as I believe you 
 are sincere and open-minded. Those who are actively interested 
 in Ducks Unlimited, men who are spending their own money and 
 devoting a very substantial amount of their time, do not want 
 anything done or said which might bring criticism on the 
 organization and interfere with the completion of the program 
 which we think is beneficial to the increase of the duck 
 population. 
 
                 I received a copy of the report by Bob Smith 
 and Art Hawkins. Have never met either of them personally 
 but after reading their report it does not appear to be 
 entirely unbiased.   We do have reports from men living in 
 this country on quite a number of projects covered in this 
 report which tell a somewhat different story. The principal 
 objection seems to be the measure of acreages which Ducks 
 Unlimited claim improved in Canada and we know there could 
 be definite differences of opinion on that point. 
 
                 I am particularly disappointed in that no 
 observations were made except in a few instances of the 
 soundness of the projects as relates to the dams and embank- 
 ments and that the quality of the water and marshes were 
 suitable and attractive to the ducks. 
 
                 However, I am firmly of the belief at this 
 time that the heads of the Fish & Wildlife Service and Ducks 
 Unlimited can and will co-operate, as they should do. I 
 think we can all reach our goal easier and more quickly by 
 getting together and discussing our problems, which in the 
-main are similar. 
 
                 Considerable thought and study has been given 
to the Canadian operations by our United States Trustees and 
at the Ottawa meeting of the Canadian Directors in April, 1946, 
an Executive Committee was created, composed of L.H.Barkhausen, 
 
 
t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
LZ4 PLOUR EXCHANGE 
MINNEAPOLIS 15, MINN. 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leppold       11/6/46 
 
                              -2- 
 
A. M. Bartley and myself as United States Directors and 
Judge Am. Ross of Moosomin, Sask., and Pres. S. S. Holden of 
Ottawa, Directors of the Canadian organization, formed that 
Comnnittee. Meetings have been held approximately every 
month either in Minneapolis or in Winnipeg. We realize that 
mistakes have been made, nothing of such importance that 
could not be corrected by a reorganization. The matter of re- 
organization has been under consideration now for so~i time 
and probably before this letter reaches you, you will have 
learned that Tom Main is no longer General Manager of Ducks 
Unlimited of Canada, and has no further authority as directing 
the aims and the personnel of that organization. I believe 
that answers your question. 
 
               Members who have been active in the organization 
feel that we have a definite responsibility and are giving it 
just the same attention as we would in the conduct of our own 
business. de do not intend to have a quarrel with any 
organization but definitely carry forward our plans of 
improving nesting areas in Canada as rapidly as conditions 
permit. 
 
               I am sure you can be most helpful with 
constructive criticism at all times. 
 
               I beg to remain 
 
 
XJS: L 
 
 
t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
MINNEAPOLIS 15, MINN. 
 
 
November 6th, 1946 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Aisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                There is one question that seemingly is 
without a satisfactory answer. 
 
                Ducks Unlimited started banding operations 
in 1939 and have banded approximately 44,000 ducks to 
date. Bands returned to the Fish & Wildlife Service 
caried from 7 to 12'% annually which seems a small 
percentage considering the fact that there has been an 
abundance of publicity requesting the hunter to send to 
Washington all bands recovered. Some bands are retained 
by the person taking them but in the aggregate I am 
doubtful that to be a substantial percentage as taking 
of a band by the hunter is rather rare and they are 
proud to send these bands in and receive the infornation 
covering the record of the bird. 
 
                The $64.00 question is 'What becomes of 
the 88 to 93% of the birds which were banded but never 
recovered?" In other words, there seemingly must be a 
tremendous loss of birds in the wintering grounds either 
thru disease, illegal hunting or other unknown rauses. 
Have you any ideas? If so, would appreciate hearing from 
you. I believe the Fish & Wildlife Service could well 
carry on a study of this problem. 
 
 
P.S. I shall be very pleased to present to your Department 
one or two copies of "Prairie Wings" by Edgar M. Queeny, 
which is just off the press, if you would like them. 
 
 
tGVS: L 
 
 
it 
 
  

					
				
				
 
IN REPLY REFER TO                                                    ADDRESS
ONLY THE 
                                                               DIRECTOR.
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
                                 UNITED STATES 
                        DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
 
                            FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
 
                                   CHICAGO, ILLINOIS                    
  , 
                                          54 
 
                                                          November 5, 1946.

 
 
 
 
       Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
            Department of Wildlife Management, 
                 424 University Farm Place, 
                      Madison 5, Wisconsin. 
 
       Dear Aldo: 
 
            I have just had the opportunity to read copy of your letter to

       C. A. Gross, State Chairman of Ducks Unlimited, at Green Bay, Wisconsin,

       and went to compliment you on the stand you have taken and for the
sup- 
       port you have given Bob Smith. 
 
            I sincerely hope that the real conservationists with Ducks Unlimited

       will make effort to correct the mistakes that have been so obvious
to a 
       number of us. In fairness, I am convinced that there are a goodly
number 
       of competent men in Ducks Unlimited who are sincerely anxious to render

       a public service, and while with some of their staffmoney may be the

       objective with ducks the means to an end, I cannot believe this is
the 
       honest opinion .of such men as Smith, the president, and at least
a large 
       percentage of their executive committee. Because of the importance
of 
       the problem, and their capacity for rendering a public service, I
feel 
       that every effort should be made to help to bring them into line.

 
            Anyway, I want to take this opportunity to thank you for the
support 
      you have given Bob when he was under fire because of the honest report

      he had given. 
 
                                            Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
                                                Clarence Cottem, 
                                                Acting Director. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10l96 
 
 
Mr. K V. W.*dth 
 
12-Oh 11.ux 
 
 
Dear ?tr, Imithl 
 
              I thlnk I'l,ýt has ý bene~aw to you VhAt r' mlmsgiviu
 ab-mtt lDV. risef 
ftomu on quOe~tion  Za -,,U. 4Ioim m-e lvirm by inatlmiw  a m-sy ri-tarft
%,-" itseýf 
RAud the rbw*. %1"u it Ial d'otnv i-04 b7 V1,ýWoviw the 1breoodlw
 growM* 
 
               IhdAVO heel ktd tj Meý -0 U-   MY n M!.V CM  the-Mtwtinora
OTI evil~en@g m~ 
mitted elther by bU,la aaploysevs, or by erwwe.'s IMSR Irm hovee,i wu~tin
for 
evilomae bwmi4 oi. field. wor mid, oomJ-rk from Pmolti -ý- ý;Tul
IVi10 tf- be frieri3y 
to D1.U, if ti*e f!,let- aflov*d taem to be, 
 
                 Ai- vidime ji, I believe., ow- iii your hvAid  I ",for
to the mpr 
   ývadt,4 iy  ýb ý3tth   I~ -rt    s.iid   I h;ave
Vv, hlih.A ýtontidn4,we tia the f, i 
 neas tva"d om'0oncte of booth of tllm. wo, 
 
              I im4ertand thMý the re-mrt la onafilmntla", rO
thl~-isý 1.'wo~er, 
 hwom nt tried ti f1R4' tv.t *vAt ia in it, 3ut 1-wnirin myu~iis yerx @a
ndter- 
 stand w tAnxiety to Warn *hat "Ou -,ra gnin to 40 abount it.  I lrwak
now asý a rao~bW 
 of a.,) 
 
              Are you able to --nmae your msybers, tha-t tfwp rf~ys-rt gýIveso
\. 
       rea~~miW ceanelae a the Tiestion of friot-41t-trtion? 
 
               If w-vto I Pfor none "IhaI exrect .o)a '.itev~ h@lana?
In feeat 
 W eonfillewe In !),Uj. will hlnge or. it. 
 
               I     itm-I"bMJýf it Virjt be,, OtrvioU'] to Y-nt
thAt roform, If 
 nmeede4. iwýt coae frmi~ !nzide th  orpi~tnizAnn  If It (-mo  froa
the mts~el, 'IU 
 willfal apur t. If' it Is        17ue ,  104 ýoe no't coM-, D  ,wl
'.  at 
      * ?5~Q1R~bI1tY tiv rests o*n you. 
 
                S"refoWW" I ýAo not uvman i r,41o on tho
Ael.,~th'er y-our TASU 
 vwel Iis wortb of t-io co tifllar or oon               xm1oisssk4san4 be
dup~x)twl in their 
 wio*~ or It t-; wo, :twid nsiul& be ro-piM,4d 
 
                                              YaarWi aiworoly, 
 
 
Aldo 1I0 Y) 4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                       October 51, 1946 
 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
"ept. of Wildlife Management 
University of Wisconsin 
 
 
424 University Farm. Place                              (ky 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Professor Jeopold: 
 
Whanks indeed for your kind letter of October 28th trans- 
mitting advance copy of your review of "Prairie Wings? 
Your courtesy in this is most appreciated. 
 
Mr. Qaeeny and Mr. Bishop and ourselves have been delight- 
ed with the unanimously complimentary reception accorded 
"Prairie Wings" by the representative people in   the wild- 
life field. Among these are Drs. Day, Lincoln, Gabrielson; 
Mlien, of Cornell, and Murphy, of the American Museum. 
We, of course, will make no use of the review prior to 
publication. 
 
Again Let us thank you. 
 
 
Executive Secretary 
 
 
342 (C/4LCUJLU& Q^C['MLI 
N1ew Yo-rk 17, N. Y. 
 
 
9g.ew ork I7, 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
                                                 Delta,,ainito ba 
                                                 October 2E,1I46 
 
rear A.L.* 
 
       I appreciate your sending    E , copy of your propo- d letter to Mort

Swith. But this is Art's £cport; and nice there probably are 11 ports
of 
ins ,nd. outs I donknoNr about, !(don't thinL I should pass judgement on
such 
st rategy,. 
 
       But the last paragraph of your Smith letter almost bowled me over,

Whether or not you snd thip lotter, you apparently sanction this attitude.

Arnd this is the basic reason fo- the fall of DU. I nevar evon suspected
it 
ofl yoar doorstep, 
 
       You say "it is a uiatter of degrn-'", ir~.plying that there
is a 
r-asonable as well as "unxeusonable degrei of distortlon.A 
 
        The D.U.propaganda is an admitted lie. It started in a small degree,

And from that smll degree it eW to such proportions that everything 
re\l&.ted to wild ducks hias bean confounded ty it. 
 
        True thc law reooghtzes the rnztt r of degree end makes punishment

accordingly. A small robbery is not as bad as a big robbery. A small 
distortion is not as bad as a big distortion. There are several degrees 
of murder. A little fraud is not as bed as a big fraud. 
 
        But wrong is wrong. And it is human nature that a small wrong( im

 (including a smiall distortion) often becomes a big wrong, particularly
if 
 the small degree is overlooked. 
        No. It is not a matter of degree. It is a matter of ethics. 
 
        Ducks Unlinited is made up of men who understand how strict codes
of 
 ethics must apply in their various profescions -- in medic-Ine,law,unive-sity,

 press-- ruling their behavior and guarding their professional welfare. But

 these very saiae men who hold to their own professional codes, are willing

 to wink at a degree of distortion in natural history, And that is exactly

 what is the matter with Ducks Unlimited, Rather than hol4ing to a code,

 you fellows have permitted a degree: of distortion , as you call it, that

 you would not ellow in your own work. The results have been far more 
 disasterous than you reelize, 
 
        One does not have to wear a halo, as you say, to be h~nest. And 
 if game management is willing to tolerate any degree of diptortion --5Ph

 is simply dishonest by another name -- then right here and now I no longer

 consider myself as 'belonging to that branch of your profession. 
 
        Tou mey pass me off as an idealist. I am. I am for th Pame ideals

 in wildlife admintstration that other professions have vuu for hemeelves.

 And those ideals cannot brook such thou'hts as you carry In your last 
 paragraph. 
 
        Sometime wildlife administration will win its rightful place in 
 the planning of this world. But it won't be until we get squared around

 amongst ourselves and agree upong what is right and what is wrong, 
 
        Since this concerns Art's rAport I an e-nding birn a copy of this

 letter. And I hope you will talk the rhole thing over. Art, I know, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
as well as yourself, may thint me a little b'eh. But you still sting z lot

of weight and I know in this case that your thinking is all out of whack,

and I~de hate to see it get farther than your desk. 
 
                                        Yours, 
 
 
r 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
 
 
                        Fish and Wildlife Service 
                    424 University  Farm  Place, 
                        Madison 5, Wisconsin. 
 
                                                              October 22,
1946 
 
Director, Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Merchandise Mart, 
Chicago 54, Illinois. 
 
Dear Sir: 
     If Mr. Bartley is quoted correctly in the enclosed clipping, DU evi-

dently has chosen to completely ignore our report on the DU projects. 
That, of course, is a direct slam at Smith and me, as well as the Service.

Until I saw this clipping, I was willing to believe that the Directors 
simply were unaware of what was going on within the organization. The only

conclusion I can draw now is that they know what is going on but believe

that the end justified the means. 
 
     If you still have any doubt that the organization is deliberately 
trying to hood-wink the public, permit me to quote from a letter written

by Bert Cartwright to Al Hochbaum, dated March 4, 1946: 
 
     "This salvage scene is used to bolster the fund raising campaign

and I have told T. C. M. plainly that it violates the Naturalists code and

can be plainly labelled as obtaining money under false pretenses. --- 
Right from the beginning T. C. M. has publicized the claim that we were 
creating permanent waters in the drought area.--That test came in 1944 
and 1945---and at least 30 of our projects went out of commission under 
the impact of two year's drought. Three year' drought would put - I 
believe - 75% of them out of commission. This, to my mind, is the most 
serious indictment of DU publicity and means that we are selling the U. S.

sportsman a gold brick. In other words, the building of dams, dykes, etc.

in areas without an assured water supply is not the answer to the waterfowl

problem." 
 
     "The acreage claims are exaggerated by at least 50% and the produc-

tivity of our areas-has been referred to as 'millions' and linked with 
the upsurge in waterfowl-in such a manner as to lead people to believe 
that we are dhiefly responsible for the recovery." 
 
     It looks like the DU problem is out-pf-hand. Next year work will 
start in such comparatively inaccessible areas as the Athabasca and upper

Saskatchewan Deltas. If the situation cannot be corrected this year, then

it is too late and some bad headaches are in the offing. 
 
                                       Very truly yours, 
 
                                       (Sgd.) Arthur S. Hawkins 
 
                                           Arthur S. Hawkins 
                                              Biologist 
 
  

					
				
				
    COPY OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLE             (Speech made Oct. 8 or 9, 1946)

    Minneapolis Star Outdoor Editor 
    Jack Connor 
 
           HUNTERS' FETE FUND    NEARS $25,000   GOAL 
 
 
     Another Star - Ducks Unlimited Hunters' party, greatest of them all,
has passed 
into history and the huge Lake Minnesota duck breeding project was more than
$6,000 
nearer its goal today. 
 
     Nearly 10,000 sportsmen and women jammed the Auditorium Tuesday night
for the 
big affair, and as a result there now is approximately $19,000 available
for the 
$25,000 Lake Minnesota. 
 
     Happiest person at the party was Mrs. Robert Oman of Chicago, whose
policeman 
husband was born and raised in Cambridge, Minn. She was awarded the Sports
Afield 
grand prize of an all-expense paid duck and goose hunting trip to Lake Manitoba.

Mr. Oman will take the trip. 
 
     Arthur M. Barley of New York, United States manager of Ducks Unlimited,
prin- 
cipal speaker, paid high tribute to Minnesota. He said it not only is the
top 
duck hunting state of the union, but also continfaes to be one of the top
contrib- 
utors to the Bucks Unlimited program. 
 
     That program, he added, has accomplished about one-third of its objective

with 1,000,000 acres of water area developed now as duck breeding grounds
in Canada. 
Awaiting development are 2,000,000 acres more. This year 10 new breeding
grounds 
projects were completed and seven more are under construction. 
 
     "The Minneapolis Star should feel complimented on the success of
this big 
affair," Bartley continued, "particularly by the knowledge that
many newspapers in 
other states now have adopted the hunters' party idea along lines originated
here." 
 
     Stage, screen and radio stars combined to provide an entertainment program

described as the beat of the three hunters' parties sponsored by The Star.
Head- 
lining the program were the Three Madcaps, nationally famous comedians. 
 
     Paramount Pictures contributed a Grantland Rice Sportlight titled "The
Game 
Bag" and both the Champion Outboard quartet and The Star and The Tribune
Girls' 
Chorus provided musical numbers. Randy Merriman, radio announcer, emceed
the spark- 
ling show. 
 
     Charles Johnson, executive sports editor of The Star and The Tribune,
opened 
the ceremonies by introducing outdoor writers for those newspapers. Conserva-

tion Commissioner Chester Wilson and Game and Fish Director Frank Blair extended

brief greetings. 
 
     Officials of statewide, sectional and local conservation groups, who
had 
attended a Tribune-sponsored conservation clinic at the Curtis hotel earlier
in 
the day, assisted in the awarding of prizes after the entertainment. 
 
     Among these were Dr. George Spielman, Mandan, N. D., state Ducks Unlimited

trustee; Dr. L. V. Hartle, Worthington; Al Niss, Fairmont; Buck Hedman, Grand
Rapids; 
Cap Nelson, Roseau; Dr. Ed Bratrude, Thief River Falls; Bill Jahns, St. Cloud;

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Ray Madison, Brainerd; Erv Anderson, Nisswa; Lenor Osterburg, Alexandria;

Bunt Mortinson, Ortonville; Bernard Esser, New Ulm; Frank Fritz, Currie;

Dr. L. M. Hawkins, Heron Lake, and many others. 
 
     Amusing sidelight on the party was the fact the grand prize winning
Omans 
of Chicago had come here Tuesday for a duck hunting trip near Cambridge.
Since 
he must be back on police duty in Chicago by October 30, they are cancelling
their 
Minnesota duck hunting plans and will continue on to Lake Manitoba to avail
them- 
selves of the Sports Afield award. 
 
 
-2-. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                   A 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A4~ 
 
   I 
     z 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
DELTA WATERFOWL RESEARCI 
           Delta, Manitoba, Canada 
 
 
Dear A.Lo:- 
 
 
        Thanks for the news. Art should be down almost any day now. 
 
        The Senator and Gabriplson were up for a few days. Each 
 confided that the other was slipping/ The Senator is his old self, 
 however, until he gets too many things running throuah his head at 
 oI.ce 
                                                           vice 
       Of courve (ueeny is a fine man. But if be i sti4ll/President 
he either doesn't know th6 facts about his orgenization, o4 he 
beleives ethics do not apnly do natural history as they do to business. 
It all comes down to the fact that either Tom has lied to his directors 
the same as to the public; or the whole bunch are fellow tra-rellerp. 
I do know that in the case of Glenn Martin, the fact that he is a fine 
aircraftsmarn does not make him an expert on waterfowl. iNe has done 
some pretty funny thingaz for the D.U. program. 
 
       Unlesu we can put S stop to the American invasion soon, this 
marph is on the way out.  These fellws, most of them mnembers of 
Ducks Unlimited, have swarmed to the marsh so that the kill in two 
weeks is greater than in any previous year. The Canadian hunter has 
remained about the same in numbers; thp number here at Delta has actunl*

decreased.  It is heartbreaking. Most of these men bplong to Ducks 
Unlimited-- and most of thpm bplieve that their D.U. does entitle 
them do do just about what they want with ducks; they actually 
beleive they have paid for what they shoot and more. 
 
       If you could see what a dirty,rotten thing this whole D.U. 
plan is you could understand how a we feel about it. You know what 
they sAX; we know what they do. 
 
       Pardon my reference to the matter again, but we um are all very 
bitter about it and justly so. And the fact that D.U. counts fine 
big businessmen among its members doesn't make matters arty better. 
 
                                Yours, 
 
 
SPONSORED BY THE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
H4 REPLY REFER TO 
 
                          UNITED STATES 
                  DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
                     FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
                                / - /94. 
 
             22z~6f~t 
 
 
 
 
 
                      cW a,I f 
 
 
'~ 
 
         / 
 
 
&ci- 
 
 
77,2oe% 
 
 
6~'10" 
 
 
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                                                      I-. 7 
 
V 
 
  

					
				
				
 
IN REPLY REFER TO 
 
 
        UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
   FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELTA WATERFOWL RESEARC 
           Delta, Manitobu, Canada 
 
 
S 
 
 
Dear A.L:- 
 
 
      Re the D.U. matter, I think you would be wise to withhold 
all further criticism until you get a cha-nce to telk with Art 
when he gets down next month, Botulism was early this year, 
but an it turned out, losses were less than usual. Besides, 
critivieing D.U. on the botulism question is sort of like 
getting after a criminal for evasion of income tax. I am 
sure you should wait until you talk with Art before you 
have any further correspondeace with the D.U1. crowd. 
 
                              Yours, 
 
 
SPONSORED BY THE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                17s 106 
 
 
 
I.V N. Aw  3 trs 
 
 
 
  DfrU. Gromut 
 
           I xrrdaa yti wt~wmsabt to   ws   ape a-xit of )*o% audhls tak

Dobre I     soet on It, ho~, I want It 10 -p  ssiz forAw omU      Laftw t

LWVUA Mting. I APMw~tte 7MW 00WtOq in inwt~In ka            o tor with 3010v

ow upv~eh ~    In4g Aul  on r PreawnI t swppsa  uose tm X a  tird   a 
eA in - aerIttio to tmU absoit antig 
 
Now as V, the no" Aowv -ni yw qiiation as tow1wt I t~z*a% to bob &Ahf

t.1k, In uV apro  bb Jt ha    sxtd exactly *t the "Ito rood to. kzw,

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 lit 
a lot of iit.I1 ýahlc wuxl4 hay# sustatlat~ ed isr -g ewwl etatemnt
     I bivo 
the kM~wt m*%oat for Waýga*ad4wtrhshr4.                 a    nwtu

he to we1~xtwA to W avrWW -*Ijbijel uhlh wu44 weoa~      VA position ef ga4

   or s~as lon11- rA4U. *htah Is doný"u wars   k on a the   
   ?btx,'ro trath to 
     hatJ...I*oxamPoe have ivrtea    W    ovor  sta  a~ loV Tod~ Vat "e
WASt 
 
 
          yon nov  I  e~y o rsiMfvw .Ulst zri~wig b4t rot.fr44 fr 
 
       WIaI foar th~whi, *.ýt V en       ,rem     wom .hot-llv*4 b..a-s
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J4  I wun to wrif4 VA4. Aft~r I havo don     so# I t will rto        hoawV

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dear Alberts 
 
This statement about bot~ilism so=ms like a clear cut question of fact. 
I remember your writing me that severe losses started ear 1y, but of course

somethitug may have happenied since. I viuld apprecsiate a one-sentence Vg~t

low-down on tho fmeta frnom vnim- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                             FOR                     1-.. ,-L. kgrOSS, J(-V
awJCLL7IaI 
                                                        130 U. Adams Street

 
 
 
 
 
                                    September 14, 1946 
 
 
 
 
 
Doctor Aldo Leopold 
% University of Wiisconsin 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Doctor: 
 
I am sending you the enclosed news article covering some of Robert 
Smith's remarks in Milwaukee last M-Ionday night. After you read 
this I would appreciate your letting me know what you tfink of these 
remarks. 
 
After the dinner in Madison Russenholt and I looked for you but 
apparently you found i necessary to leave. 
 
With kind personal regards I remain, 
                                Sincerely yours, 
 
 
 
 
                                C. A. Gross 
                                Wisconsin State Chairman 
                                Ducks Unlimited Committee 
 
 
C AG: HE 
 
 
Q- /"/ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
it 
 
 
MINNEAPOLIS 15, MINN. 
 
 
                                September 4th, 1946 
 
 
 
 
Dr. Aldo Leopold, 
University of Wisconsin 
424 University Farm Place 
Madison 5, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Dr. Leopold: 
 
                I was hopeful that I might have the 
pleasure of talking with you during my recent visit 
to Madison but unfortunately was unable to reach 
you before you left the room. Hope for better luck 
next time. 
 
                Had nothing special in mind to 
talk about but only the thought of becoming better 
acquainted. 
 
                Should you be in this city at anytime 
and have time to spare I would suggest having lunch 
or dinner together. 
 
                With best personal regards, I remain 
 
                             Sin   e 
 
 
MWS: L 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
                    "Lake Wisconsin" 
     The purpose of the Lake Wisconsin project, which has been 
 in the planning stage for years, is to provide a "duck factory"
in 
 the area of Canada where 80% of the ducks that go south along 
 the Wisconsin flyway are bred. 
     Without man's help, these ducks- have been dying by the 
 countless thousands every year when their meager natural water 
 supply dries up before the downy ducklings are able to fly in 
 search of necessary water. 
     Duck hunters throughout the United States have been keenly 
interested in developing Canadian duck breeding areas. With the 
cooperation of the Canadian government, a number of artificial 
lakes have already been constructed in Canadian duck breeding 
areas by the Ducks Unlimited organizations of Illinois, Louisiana, 
Maryland, and California and the cities of Fort Worth, Dallas, St. 
Louis, and San Francisco. In the process of development are lakes 
contributed by sportsmen of Nebraska, Michigan, Iowa,, and Min- 
nesota. 
     The location of Lake Wisconsin has been settled upon as 
1,200,000 acres in the Saskatchewan Delta. This would place it 
in the immediate vicinity of Lakes Minnesota and Iowa. The 
Saskatchewan government has set aside this entire delta area in 
perpetuity for duck nesting grounds. It is expected that when the 
reclamation project is completed it will result in the addition of 
millions of birds to the annual duck crop. 
     Five thousand dollars of the required $25,000 for Lake Wis- 
consin has already been raised before this, the official launching of 
the campaign. Every penny of profit from this banquet is going 
directly into Lake Wisconsin and the improvement of YOUR duck 
hunting. 
    You are well known as an ardent sportsman. Lake Wisconsin 
is your lake, your project, your duck hunting! Don't be like the 
man who put out plenty for a fine new car and then saw it fall apart 
because he wouldn't spend a penny on it for upkeep. Your hunt- 
ing trips and equipment cost you good money. How about pro- 
tecting that money by a sound investment in Lake Wisconsin? 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
                                                            / i 
'-M 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
This Man Lew Morrison... 
 
   Lew Morrison means the out-of-doors to 
thousands of sportsmen in Wisconsin and the 
Upper Michigan Peninsula. 
   His Sentinel column, "Out in the Open," re- 
flects a lifetime spent in the woods and waters 
of his native state. Few men anywhere have 
followed the habits of fish and game with 
deeper understanding. 
   Former world's champion fly caster, he is 
almost equally proficient with a bait casting 
rod, rifle or scattergun. His interest and sup- 
port of hunting dogs has helped improve the 
standards in all sporting breeds. 
   Lew's desk is in the Sentinel building but his 
beat is wherever fish or game are to be found 
in Wisconsin and the Upper Michigan Peninsula. 
Occasionally he visits other regions, too, and 
last fall reported the pheasant season in the 
Dakotas and watched the ducks in Manitoba 
gather for their southward migration. 
   Friend and counsellor to all who believe in 
true conservation, Lew Morrison is a Wisconsin 
institution. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
         OutOPEN 
     ,In    The     ..... 
 
                      'By LEW MORRISON 
    (This is the first of a series of four articles oj 
 our duck problem.) 
tVIISCONSIN duck hunters cannot be blamed 
 
 
W    for being slightly confused these days. 
    On one hand they have heard of the tremendous increase in the 
continental duck population in recent years under the co-operative 
program of American and Canadian sportsmen known as Ducks 
Unlimited. 
  On the other hand they have     of the Wildlife Service, that 20 
listened to a few   prophets of   million ducks are missing from 
doom who would have them be-      the estimate made last fall. Ga- 
lieve that the ancient sport of   brielson's statement was eagerly 
wildfowling is on its last legs   seized on by the intemperate lead- 
and that unless seasons and bags  ers of the Wisconsin Duck Hunt- 
are drastically limited or cur-   ers' Association as further evi- 
tailed completely for a few years dence that a gigantic hoax was 
the duck will go the way of the   being put over on the poor duck 
dodo bird   and  the passenger    hunter by somebody, probably 
pigeon.                           Ducks Unlimited. 
  Most of these Gloomy Gusses                *   *   * 
belong to the newly formed Wis-   Statement Timed 
consin Duck Hunters' Associa- 
tion which as far as we have      THEY failed to realize or may- 
been able to learn is mostly a        be they didn't want to re- 
group of earnest sportsmen who    member that Gabrielson's state- 
have met a few times but who      ment was timed to offset the drive 
have listenfew toiamesbadly-wn-   of certain hunters to have restric- 
have listened to a few badly in-   inread.TeWlifSrv 
formed and prejudiced men whose   tions relaxed. The Wildlife Serv- 
formedtanding rejudicis based on  ice count was due months ago, 
standing as experts    rasagan    but was timed to throw a smoke 
strong lungs and    extravagant   screen over the hearings before 
statements.,-A-ft 
 
 
Sounding Off 
HESE men have been sound- 
    Ing off about a survey that 
they have made of duck hunting 
in other states and have used ev- 
ery crumb of bad news as clear 
evidence that ducks are on the 
way out unless everybody listens 
to them and submits to a closed 
season for a few years or at least 
a very short season and small 
bag. 
  Adding to the confusion of the 
average duck hunter is the state- 
ment released a couple of weeks 
ago, by Dr. Ira Gabrielson, head 
 
 
the congressional committee on 
wildlife resources. 
  To make it still harder for the 
average hunter in this state to 
get his bearings, is the undeni- 
able fact that for the past few 
years duck hunting has been pret- 
ty sad in Wisconsin. And this 
at a time when the continental 
duck population has been rising I 
by leaps and bounds. 
  To help cut through this fog 
(much of it deliberately spread), 
the Sentinel will examine the 
various claims and counterclaims. 
Tomorrow we will talk about the 
part that Ducks Unlimited plays 
in the restoration of wildfowling. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
          (This is the second of a series about ducks and duck 
     hunting. Yesterday .we pointed out that the average duck 
     hunter has a right to be confused. Smoke screens prevent 
     him from seeing the truth. We hope to blow much of that 
     smoke away.) 
 
N THE early thirties it was evident to most people that the ducks 
  were in a bad way. The Great Drought that had settled over most 
of the vast Mississippi basin had turned the whole area Into a duck 
death trap. And north of the Canadian lein, where 90 per cent of 
North America's ducks are raised, the situation was little better. 
    The continental duck population had dropped from an estimated 
 
 
200 million down to 27'/ million. 
In the Canadian prairie prov- 
inces, marshes had been drained 
a few years before in an unwise 
attempt to add to wheat acreage. 
Too late the new settlers discov- 
ered that wheat could not be 
grown profitably on the reclaimed 
land. But by     this time   the 
marshes were destroyed for duck 
breeding grounds. 
  Still each spring the melting 
snow and spring rains would pro- 
vide plenty of surface water to 
tempt the dwindling northward 
migration to set up housekeeping. 
By early June most of the water 
would have run off, soaked into 
the parched land or evaporated. 
The ducklings were led by the 
mother duck in an aimless but 
desperate search for the water 
they must have. More millions 
perished in these treks and the 
duck population continued down 
and down. 
 
 
 
Many Restrictions 
O UR official solution for this 
     critical situation was restric- 
 tion piled upon restriction. Live 
 decoys were outlawed. The bag 
 was cut, the season shortened, 
 and certain species completely 
 protected. In fairness to our of- 
 
 
ficials in the Wildlife Service 
there was not a great deal else 
they could do. Most of the ducks 
were raised in Canada and there 
wasn't much they could do about 
It. 
  But on both sides of the line 
were men who just couldn't let 
international niceties stand in the 
way of doing something to per- 
petuate the grand old sport for 
themselves and their sons and 
sons' sons. Committees w e r e 
formed. Discussions led to plans 
and plans to action. The most 
effective piece of international 
co-operation yet to be conceived 
has worked out about like this: 
 
 
 
True Co-operation 
P RIVATE sportsmen in t h Is 
    country have raised well over 
a million dollars in cash. Canadi- 
an municipalities have donated 
land worth much more. Canadian 
sportsmen a n d ranchers a n d 
farmers have donated hundreds 
of thousands of man days build- 
ing dams, killing predators, fight- 
ing m a r s h and prairie fires, 
counting ducks and in dozens of 
other ways helping the duck to 
come back. 
   More than 1,100,000 acres of 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
land on 145 projects in the Ca- 
nadian midwest have been flood- 
ed-permanently-into duck fac- 
tories that will continue to turn 
out ducks by the millions every 
year. And the overall cost to 
provide this water control has 
been only 75 CENTS PER ACRE. 
  Mainspring in the Canadian set- 
up since Ducks Unlimited first 
started is Tom Main, ace water 
control engineer of the Canadian 
National Railways, and the man 
who worked out the water sys- 
tem for the island of Bermuda. 
Tom was loaned to Ducks Un- 
limited by the Canadian National 
and no more fortunate circum- 
stance hasa ever occurred to the 
wildfowler of North America. 
 
 
 
Large Scale Banding 
M  OST observers on both sides 
I    of the line, and there are 
plenty of competent engineers in 
the ranks of the duck hunters, 
agree that Tom Main has done 
more permanent good for duck 
breeding areas at smaller cost 
than any one dreamed could be 
accomplished when the project 
was undertaken. 
  But permanent breeding 
grounds is not DU's only claim 
on the affection and support of 
the duck hunter, Large scale 
banding has added greatly to our 
knowledge of migration habits. 
Predator control saves literally 
millions of ducks to wing their 
way south each fall. Volunteer 
workers (Kee-men) and profes- 
sional biologists count the ducks 
on their native slough and pot- 
holes and add to our knowledge 
of how many ducks are raised 
and what kind and how each spe- 
cies is doing. 
  Critics, and there are mighty 
 
 
few, insist that no accurate count 
can be made. That's probably 
true. But it is also true that no 
one has facilities to make a more 
accurate count than Ducks Un- 
limited and that they can come 
close enough for any practical 
purpose. 
 
Sour Grapes Attitude 
T HE same critics say that we 
    are going through a-wet cycle 
and that the duck would have 
come back anyway. That's a 
sour grapes attitude that fails 
to take into account that the fire 
control, predator control and per- 
manent water supply in breeding 
areas helps every duck hunter in 
North America whether the cycle 
is wet or dry. 
  Then there are a very few- 
they could all get in the room 
where we're writing this - who 
pretend that the majority of the 
ducks nest in northern Canada 
anyway and that the great 
marshes of the southern Cana- 
dian prairies, now happily saved 
forever, are just an insignificant 
conservation piece of Ducks Un- 
limited. Well, just try to tell 
that to any one who has seen the 
prairies come alive around Lake 
Winnipeg or Yorkton or Brooks 
or Johnson Lake or Watrous or 
a thousand other favorite haunts 
of the nesting mallard, pintail, 
teal and the other puddlers. 
  It would be tough to fool such 
hard headed men of business as 
Glenn Martin, Mort Smith, Ed 
Queenie, George Mason, Snick 
Gross, Will Reid and Lou Bark- 
hausen, to mention just a few of 
DU's stalwarts. They've been up 
there and have seen what goes on 
and so have able newspapermen 
whose business it is to find out 
the truth and report it as they 
see it. 
  They give Ducks Unlimited the 
major role in bringing back ducks 
to a total of close to 150 mil- 
lion. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
          (This is the third of a series about ducks and duck 
      hunting.  Yesterday we examined Ducks Unlimited con- 
      tribution to wildfowling. Today we'll talk about Dr. Ga- 
      brielson and his story of the "20 million missing ducks.")

L AST week the congressional committee on wild life resources met 
   n Washington.    One of the most important matters to come 
before it was the proposal by several groups that feeding and live 
decoys be permitted this year. 
    We've heard both sides of the question argued for hours on end 
and we still have no real definite ideas on the subject. A good case 
can be made out for both sides     ber one duck counter, he admit- 
and we'd just as soon leave the  ted that his agents reported that 
matter stand as it is for a while  20 per cent more ducks had gone 
anyway.    But the point we're     south last fall to winter In Mex- 
leading up to Is this: Dr. Ira Ga- ico, particularly on the eastern 
brielson who heads the Fish and  coast of Mexico. Lincoln also ad- 
Wildlife Service just doesn't want mitted that more banding returns 
to change the law. And maybe       had been received from SOUTH 
he is right in his opposition. The of the United States border than 
place where we take Issue with     for any period on record. 
him Is the tactics he uses to get       t      ,  , 
his own way.                       Three Possible Reasons 
   Ordinarily, the Wildlife report  yN SPITE of the Doctor's per- 
 on the number of ducks would       I plexity a few weeks before the 
 have been announced in March or   hearing he gave the committee 
 April based on their Inventory of these three possible reasons for 
 February. But he held up the re-   fewer ducks being noted during 
 port until June or just before the the inventory: (1) More birds 
 congressional committee hearing   wintering in Mexico. (2) A bigger 
 and either has a good press agent  kill by hunters. He said duck 
 or the news in Washington was      stamp sales had increased 225 
 awfully slow that day because   thousand over the previous sea- 
 his release made the wire services son. (3) Many birds were missed 
 in a big way and was carried       in checking their usual winter 
 from coast to coast. In his release concentration areas as they were 
 you will remember, the good Doc-   more widely scattered over areas 
 tor said that he Is "disturbed"  not covered by their checkers.

 by the unaccountable depletion       And then of course there's the 
 of our ducks from  125 million     report of Acting Director Albert 
 last year to 105 million this year. M. Day, made last year, that esti- 
             *  *   *               mated the duck census In 1944 at 
 Quite a Quandary                   200 million. But maybe that es- 
 THE Doctor is in quite a quan-     timate included coots and the 
     dary about the matter and a  Doctor's didn't. It's pretty hard 
 very timely quandary it is, too,   to get the boys together because 
 since his perturbation occurred  It seems as If their releases may 
 just before the committee hear-  be used to serve different pur- 
 ing.                               poses at different times. 
   He doesn't quite know what         Anyway reports from the Cana- 
 happened to the ducks but sug-     dian nesting areas Indicate that 
 gests the possibility that there   10 per cent more ducks arrived 
 may have been an over estimate  this spring than last fall and that 
 the year before.                   seems to leave the Doctor's 20 
   The odd part about the whole     million missing ducks right In his 
 thing is that when it came time  lap and In the hair of the alarm- 
 to closely question Frederick C.   ist leaders of the Wisconsin Duck 
 Lincoln, who is the Doctor's num-  Hunters' Assn. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
160 Million Ducks 
T HE facts of the matter prob- 
    ably are these: The Ducks 
Unlimited census of August, 1944, 
showed 140 million ducks north 
of the international line. Add the 
20 million in*the United States 
and you have 160 million for the 
continent. Albert M. Day of the 
Wildlife Service in October, 1944, 
pretty well agreed when he esti- 
mated that there were between 
125 millions and 150 millions. 
  On the basis of DU's "duck 
mathematics" which was arrived 
at after a good deal of research, 
the losses each year work out 
like this: 
North to south migra- 
  tion losses ......... 2 per cent 
Legal kill by hunters-15 per cent 
Crippling losses....... 5 per cent 
Illegal kill ........... 5 per cent 
Losses on wintering grounds (old 
  age, botulism, muskrat traps 
  and other factors)- 5 per cent 
South to north migra- 
  tion...............1 per cent 
  That adds up to a 33 per cent 
loss and means that the 160 mil- 
lion ducks we started with in 
August, 1944, was reduced to a 
few more than 107 million this 
spring. As the Wildlife Service 
 
 
survey shows 105 million there's 
a close enough agreement for 
any practical purpose. 
The Real Hitch 
THE real hitch with all the fig- 
    ures being used today may 
source back to the April, 1944, 
report of the Wildlife Service. 
They estimated there were 125 
million ducks at that time while 
Ducks Unlimited estimated there 
were about 96 and a half million. 
If we use the DU figure for the 
spring of 1944 and add the 10 per 
cent more that DU reports on the 
breeding grounds this spring, we 
arrive pretty close to the 105 mil- 
lion estimate of the Wildlife Serv- 
ice for this spring and there are 
no 20 million missing ducks to 
account for. 
  It's an interesting business, this 
counting of ducks, and some day 
we'll tell you how it is done, both 
on the breeding grounds and the 
wintering areas. It is likely that 
it can be done with at least a 90 
per cent degree of accuracy and 
of course it can indicate trends 
in duck population which should 
be the controlling factor in how 
our seasons and bag limits are 
set. 
 
 
          (This is the fourth and concluding article of series on 
      ducks and duck hunting.) 
WE SAID in our first article on duck hunting that the wildfowler 
     of this state has a perfect right to be confused. In the face 
of a rising duck population for the continent there have been few 
poorer seasons in Wisconsin than the past three. 
    Let's see what sense that makes and what, if anything, can be 
 
 
done about it. 
  To start with, several sections 
of the country noted excellent 
duck shooting in those years of 
the early thirties when our con- 
tinental population was down to 
the dangerously low figure of 
27% million. That was due to the 
drought in much of the country 
over which the ducks usually mi- 
grated south each fall. And a con- 
sequent concentration in places 
where there was water and food. 
  The midcontinent flyway nor- 
 
 
mally goes through the Dakotas, 
eastern Montana and western 
Minnesota. Through this route 
passed most of the puddle ducks 
that are raised each spring in the 
vast breeding grounds of the 
prairie provinces. 
Very Little Feed 
HE drought of the early 30's 
    saw the Dakotas with almost 
no water and very little feed. 
And as Tom Main of Ducks Un- 
limited has demonstrated so many 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
times, ducks will go where there 
is food and water. The Dakotas' 
loss was our gain and Wisconsin 
played host to the fall migration 
for several years. With the re- 
turn of more water to the Da- 
kotas and Montana, abundant 
food in the form of standing or 
shocked wheat or even stubble 
fields, the puddlers moved back 
into that flyway. For most of 
the ducks had been raised near 
wheat fields in the Canadian 
Middle West and had feasted and 
fattened on wheat before they 
started their migration. 
  Wisconsin, particularly the east- 
ern part, is naturally suited more 
to the diving ducks than to the 
puddlers. And it must be remem- 
bered that Ducks Unlimited in its 
effort to bring ducks back quick- 
ly, concentrated on the puddlers. 
They nested closer to civilization, 
responded quicker, and a natural 
habitat could be produced more 
rapidly than was the case with 
the divers. 
Will Divers Respond? 
DBUT now that ducks are almost 
certainly saved from extinc- 
tion the duck hunters of Wiscon- 
sin and Minnesota and Indiana 
quite properly ask what is being 
done for them. Will the divers re- 
spond as the puddlers did? Where 
do they nest? Can there be a de- 
velopment In the lake country 
north of us in Canada that will 
insure a migration through this 
state every fall? Is there a food 
shortage or water shortage in the 
divers' nesting area? Can preda- 
tors be controlled  up  there? 
Lucks Unlimited will go to work 
on divers this year to see what 
can be done. It's too early to tell 
what the problems are, to say 
nothing of the answers, but for 
the first time something will be 
attempted. 
  Is there anything that can be 
done in Wisconsin and Upper 
Michigan in the way of providing 
nesting areas? What about food 
supply in our lakes? It is ade- 
 
 
quate or can it be made adequate? 
Can carp be completely removed 
or brought under rigid control? 
  Then on the puddle duck ques- 
tion, what about our marshes? 
Is Horicon being developed as 
rapidly as it shoiyd be? Will it 
add to our chances to get ducks 
through here each fall if we feed 
during spring migrations? 
Two Other Queries 
HESE and a hundred other 
    questions occur to the duck 
hunter of Wisconsin. And to your 
columnist come two more. Will 
the conservation commission quit 
making a pass at the problem 
and provide some genuine leader- 
ship in the matter of duck hunt, 
ing in this state? And why don't 
we get any attention from  the 
Federal boys? 
  We've been on this job for quite 
a while and darned if we've ever 
seen or heard tell of the Wildlife 
Service doing much of anything 
for us in this state. We hear about 
them in Minnesota and Illinois 
and they are as busy as they can 
be when you go down to Chicago 
to talk to them. But why don't 
they come up here and tell us 
what they can do for US? We've 
got the fourth largest number of 
duck hunters in the country right 
here In Wisconsin. Yes, sir, 88,000 
of you boys walk up and buy a 
duck stamp. And your tax dol- 
lar on the shells and guns and 
stuff you buy must provide Uncle 
Sam with a pretty penny. Seems 
like some one would write and 
ask the Congressman or Senator 
how come. 
  Well that's about all on duck 
hunting now for a spell. It's fish- 
ing weather and we'll have to get 
out and tell you how and where 
they're biting. But don't ever for- 
get -Wisconsin can have good 
duck hunting again if you'll sup- 
port the people who have a good 
program and insist on some serv- 
ice from the boys you are paying 
to work for you in Madison and 
Washington. 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
 
                                                  Delta ianitoba 
                                                  Aug-t ý21?,1946

 
Dear A.L.:- 
 
       Thanks for the copy of the letter to Fred re D.U. I am sure you 
have misunderstood me w agan on the subject. I never expected you to 
take ray Payso on anything. I have simply tried to keep you informed of 
what was on my mind and you will remember I wrote you as Foon as it was 
apparent soamething was badly wrong --almost two years ago. Your reaction

to some of tlhis was at times a bit rough. I realize I wrote too frankly;

you could not realize why I did without being in my shees. 
 
     I don't agree with the wording and manner of your criticisms of 
D.U.--that is my only reason for disappointment. I think the cln~sineas 
of D.U. ceitios I wht gives them their strength and they are tonping 
the crest again. Surelv I dont heleive the probl7m c:n be olved by 
mt    waitinr for the Wildlife Society to make Pn inve-tistion even if 
they had the r 50 o- 000 it would cost to make a complete check. It 
has got to be done from the inside by members who realize thIt D.U. 
has not only lied to the public at large but to its orgpnlzationo D.U, 
is in exactly the same position as a bank which has oreatly inflicted its

assets and has no way of maklng up for the difference. Only it's ducks 
inptead of money,which makes it a lot easieg for the two or three men who

ere keeping the books.   They are geared to throw off outpid- investigation

But if the proper rort of a check is mede from the inside things can 
be set aright providing this starts early enough. I think Art's report, 
if taken seriously by Bertley, can lead to sucnh an invest igation. 
 
     Our correscporencp has deteriorated Periouly Pinc- we hit this 
rubject. Art is carry-ing the ball so I have no reason to say more. The 
only reason I wrote my last letter was because you asked me to say 
comething more in yours of June 27. 
 
 
      Lyle is bulding an adcltio-n to his 0b-4o and I b-!elve planns to 
winter here.  ITe has broaden greatly , hs an exr'Pllent and zodern 
odttlook on his -ork and I em sure is oinn to turn out some really 
im prtant stu-ff. Th7 entire loc,I r    -haýn reg!on M1T"ffT
 '1thin a 
mile o- so rfdius of the Station he is srttin- up for Innive study 
for the bandlng and colormarkir of territorial pairs next spring. Much 
will come fro>m this. 
      Art and Betty are living in a cottage neirby and seem to be 
enJoying Delta. Art, however, sort of has his reectB - around his negk 
vnd it has been Peldom since his return from the grand tour that te have

seen iir out for fresh air. He is rtayin on until e'ly Cctob1  -o tho* 
h- c~n follow tho flight down. 'Rob Smith flew bank !est week.    e 
probaely '-i11 drive up Iai late in September frov Winiona. Wish you 
would reconsider and take the trip -ith him. 
 
      Pete just had a baby boy added to his family.  (And just between 
us, I ghther that expectation of something of the s1me h'AIds Lyle here 
fcrr the winter). Pete is koepin- up with his flying and we hope to get 
a light plane before long -- it is indispensible in waterfo-l work. 
 
      I was interested in your letter to English, a copy of which you 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
sent roe. But I think you rather overemphasize the importence of reIdi 
the European literature. And contrary to what you imply, there is a 
is    strong American group workin; on"behsvior".  It is one thing
for 
garie m nagers to overlook the European literature. It is quite 1 nother

thing for them to fail to associate with the American workers in this 
field. 
       One renson the Eurpoean literature is not read nor the American 
w0rkers cultvIted by game manaers is that most of them wouldnt 
understand it. This is partly because of lack of training. Few game 
managers have a broad fd-1daton in biology. And it is partly due to 
a sort of aloofness or hligh-httedness or what-have-you which brings 
the game manager to look down his nose at anybody or group workinr with 
"dickeybirds". Most of the "bahavior"studies haei seen
with "dickey- 
birds" and it does not reach the garne mnager because people working

with dickeybirds are brlow his socipl level. It is a lot more than 
timply a failure to read European literatere and if you are not aware 
of this you are not gatting around as much as you should. 
 
       This' hits me pretty ciope. There iF a certain group which is 
quietly going bbout saying that certain thing.s bout d3icko hpen only 
at Delta,Manitoba. These chaps are conpletely without insight into the 
fundamentals of behavior; and thpy rpeak from purely off-hand observations.

The sad part of it is that these are the same fe11lws who should be 
puttizi7 new ideas to work. 
      Art was wholly unprepared to apply modern methods to dcucks when 
he came up.  I suppect now that this was one o' the enrly diFf'icuMtien 
between Lyle and Art: discussions would arise but could never get beyond

certain point. I gave Art a few key papers to read -- all published 
in America -- and he 1mymediatly started to put two and two together ,not

only for Canada but also for his Illinois wood ducks.  In other words 
he had to come up here for a course of readignz before hiM wood duck 
work had full meaning. Now, as it was between Art and ourselves when he 
first came up, Art is completely frustrated when he tries to discuss duct

problems with his old crowd. They don't talk the same language. 
      The trouble ip that the readina has to be sought before the field 
vork is done rather than as a chore connected wIth writinz up the pappr.

Your own bird song paper suffered that way. 
 
      I think"behavior" as you use it is a poor term. Post of what
we 
have been studying for a couple-th-usand years hli been behavior. 1MM 
?oward ,Nice,Lorenzp and the others have simply pioneered to establish 
a new tnderstanding of behavior --we look at an old subject in a new 
wy . This new slant covers so much ground~yet concerns the same things 
we have always worked with that "behavior" describer tt poorly.
I 
tm~ma    mmm~umdmmmmmmm      But -hatafer it kanurm is called it hes 
brought us to a crossroads. For all game managers and for most pro- 
Noward ornithologists the problem was: What does a bird do; when and 
where  does it do it? The modernist seek   the anwer to          d 
if game managers start trvini to answer wjas they mupt Piner or 
later, then thly will read the Purppean literature and  et nquininted 
With some of the fellowe at home, not because the Wildlife Society and 
you think they should, but because they heir to to get their work done. 
Game management is way bLhi-1 the times In many respects and its trouble

lies a lot deeper than a simple failure to read European literature. The

trouble with game mnngement, I think, is that it has got itself way 
 
 
-Pl- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
-37- 
 
 
out on a limb, apart from the main stem of biolog.Y TbIs is the fault 
of the leade-re. One reason most game M-bnbgerP do not think and work in

modern terms in beceuse the leaders who ptprted the profession didn't 
and still dont. 
       Nice flight of blue-wings throuiTh now. We dug P pond right in 
front of the houre9  Now have most sp-cie   of duckýsI-lis,Phorebirds

g18e( we have a sraall chptive flock of (eese and swan) 8nd most other 
merý h birds dropoing in and taking off right by the dininc roor v
window, 
eave been doing some interesting thingr with birds in relation to the 
problem of orientation; have flown a good many blindfolded,severnl 
hundred from sparrows through geme birds to hawks  ud owls. They do 
all right, most of them, and ,-hile we have not rezic ed any d-eflite 
a) noluslons we now know a few things you wont even find in the 
turopean literattre. 
       Rf.,srds to all, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
JU3 7, 19)46 
 
 
Wr. Arthur U. Bartley 
Duckis Unaiimted 
342 1&a1son Avemui 
X"w Yo  11k , 1-  T. 
Dear ,A,'t~hurs 
 
I apoogz   for n  otn   erg y   let   so 
You~ axe rigt ini that Vith eorp looke 
  liea ho1wae 4itri'butio    The actual 
distributions  ws an foows 
     (1) The four or fie tenal mn wo 
     sign the original1 criticeism with me. 
     (2) Your or five of v own, advnnood studets 
     with whom I had dism   the matte fro 
     time to time. 
     (3) Three or tfour p 
     relativ  who bM joined W at m  mama. 
     (4) m      o  ommssoner   in Wiconsin 
     with wo      omm    d iscuss watew   l 
     policy 
 cocd    thAt the Oet~gtletter mih     wl 
hae beeo adde  to th rest of wwlosures. Ile 1 
at least one point on which I stand oorw   teo. 
     With personal re-"  yam   sincerey. 
 
 
Aldo Leo!PQU 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                1U4 ILOUR hXCHANGE 
                                                MINNEAPOLIS 15, MINN. 
 
                                         May 28th, 1946 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
                 The writer attended his 45th Class Re-Union in 
Madison over last weekend. Had thought I might find time to 
pay you a short visit but visiting with about twenty-five 
classmates took up the time. 
 
                 I am very pleased on my return to find your 
letter of May 27th and note with interest your comments 
regarding "normal ratio" of upland game birds. 
 
                 In the memorandum addressed to the directors 
signed by yourself and others the following statement"During 
the last two years the plain trend of the evidence is that 
waterfowl have been decreasing, and that certain species are 
actually in danger. Despite this evidence, D.U. has 
claimed continued increase" this I could not understand. 
However, statement in your letter of the 27th, "While there 
is no standard "normal ratio", if the per cent of young in 
the bag suddenly drops, as it did in 1945, as compared with 
preceding years, it takes no "science" to see that something 
is wrong."  The latter statement fits in with my understanding 
which is borne out by statement made by Bert Cartwright in 
his 1945 report which indicates no change in census from 
previous year but thus for the first time since 1938 the 
upsurge of -the waterfowl was definitely checked. 
 
                I am sure that we all are striving for the 
sane goal as regards the duck population and that we must have 
faith in the sincerity of the other fellow. I know that your 
many friends in D.U. will welcome and give close study to 
your opinion and findings regarding the duck population. We 
may not always agree with you but nevertheless respect your 
judgment. I remain 
 
 
IN~VS:L 
 
 
1_\ý, ýA_ 
 
 
Ct 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2, 19i6 
 
 
Dwr Mr. 8Smitha 
 
I smheid have w44 lour, 1g that my criticsmo of DU is not a1&a at ym

persouly, and I share your belief that there In no s run by mll. 
 
Thr to no nooogized 'nosuml rntio", below u4h reprodutive per cen 
booomes daaros    W4 grop hAs stu4M for 10     rea1 ver des 4Sphoawt 
pomlation In which the .annual *)roe"is 70%.i.e. of 100 gro       birU

bandod one wintwt only 30 will stuvive a year hoe., %c year-lass 
shrink)s to xer in 5 y~ans (3 vlsfor cooks .) I am cut of rwwlnbs of 
this paý,per, but if you want to look It up you will find It In the
Journl 
of Wildlife  ngm      o Ot~e     93 
 
While there is no stndard Onorm xatio"# If the per cant of y~aun  In
the 
bag vad     4 rps. as it di4 In 1ý5 as o~ae wSitiý1    e  
gyer, 
it takes no Oslne to see thait somthing is wrong. 
 
In yong  little Is lb*=e=91t notn studies. where losses of 60-&)% 
of nests are Imowu to occur in thrifty pojxlati.on of quils phaats, 
and grosa. This heavy lose in naest and 7'm1Rg sees. t> be n~oal, in the

sense that it occurs In populations tl~t are thriving and that suastain 
shooting. Inidentally this in vdy we e~ia men eobjt to Wes 
    comptatinsin whioh loss of an egg in )vni~toba Is considered eoinsl to

loss of a grow- bird. It is by mtch l~d tILA hat  ritton, and oftan 
DU its@f, cretes the pmression that the M= Is of sanal eonsequme 
In  ,& Mnaemnt 
 
I regret ver mwzh to see Field =nd Stream constraing Al D~ys owit$*ismn 
of WIX as a question of 2  *M I =nt to make It cl&-aw th-at rj cr'iticism

has aothing-to do witliae# 
 
                                               YOWM sinwsrezyl 
 
 
                                               Aldo Leopold 
 
 
(Sgnd n r.Lepod' aseceto avoid dev) 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                           MORT SMITH 
                                                             Trustee 
                                                          1204 Flour Exchange

                                                          Minneapolis  Minn.
15 
 
                                              May 15th, 1946 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leipold 
Department of Wildlife Management, 
424 University Farm Place, 
Madison, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leipold: 
 
                 I note carefully your letter of May 13th. 
 
                 I have no inclination to become argumentative. 
I being a layman and you a scientist naturally view the 
problems from different angles. I do know that you have a 
very high standing in the minds of those who are active in 
the organization of Ducks Unlimited. I was raised near 
a wonderful duck lake in the prairie area of Southwestern 
Minnesota. I have always been interested in bird life, 
particularly as it pertains to ducks and upland game and 
I am interested in the findings of scientists such as yourself. 
 
                 Possibly you may have some literature or 
pamphlets which deals with the juvenile component as so far 
as I have knowledge this is a study of recent origin. I am 
particularly anxious to know what is considered the normal 
ratio below which the percentage of reproduction becomes 
dangerous and in what recent years those findings indicated 
danger. Please bear in mind that I am not interested in 
controversies but for a personal broader understanding. 
 
                 I am sure you will find the main objective 
of those who are interested in Ducks Unlimited to be conservative, 
honest and co-operative. 
 
                 Enclosed herewith you will find a circular 
which is sent out to workers throughout this state which I 
think you will be interested in seping. 
 
 
           FOR                           JOIN 
D              - 
     :                       ~D U CKS Unlimited 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
                                                1204 Flour Exchange, 
                                                Minnreapolis 15, Minnesota

                                                May 3rd, 1946 
 
          Enclosed herewith you will find literature which may help you to

a better understanding of the activities of D.U. 
 
          For your further information Ducks Unlimited Inc., was organized

in 1937. State organizations were created throughout the United States 
for the purpose of raising funds. D.U. (Canada) was organized and 
started to operate in Canada in 193B for the purpose of improving'the 
nesting areas in the Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, where

approximately 70 to 75% of tha birds which are shot in this country are 
hatched. These improvements consist of building dams, dikes and embank- 
ments to stabilize water levels, control fires and reduce predators. D.U.

have control of over 1,300,000 acres for the making of these improvements.

This area has been set aside by the Doc'inion government, the three 
Provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta) municipalities, and individuals

under lease without cost to D.U. Up to date D.U. has purchased only about

five hundred acres. Citizens of Canada, the Dominion Uovernment, the three

Provinces, and sportsmen't organizations have been very co-operative. 
 
          In addition to the actiivities being carried on by D.U. The 
Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Adn instration have also created thousands 
of water areas throughout the duck nesting territory and have been most 
helpful and co-operative with DulckIs Unliziitedo The Canadian Fish &
Game 
Leagues have been co-operative in predator control. The Eastern Irrigation

District and the United Irrigation officials have helped with land, water,

advice and encouragement. Hundreds of key-men have helped in observing 
conditions in their separate district2 with their studies and reports to

D.U. and are of great streagth to the organization in Canada. 
 
          Ducks Unlimited Inc., is now organized. in forty states with 
strong state organizations. D.U. is operating strictly for the production

of ducks and every duce hunter should become a member.  The more ducks, 
the greater the opportunity for the average hunter to enjoy the sport. 
 
          There is no set amount which the hunter should subscribe. We 
are hopeful that the average contribution will be not less than '5.00 
annually, although a minimum of "3.00 has been suggested for those who

do not feel in position to subscribe Ln larger amounts. Each subscriber 
receives a m-embership card and also a copy of the D.J. Quarterly which 
contains valuable information for every duck hunter. All those con- 
tributing Y10.00 or over receive a Certificate of Membership which is 
suitable for framing. Contributions to Ducks Unlimited are deductible for

income tax purposes, both State and Federal. 
 
          Each subscribing member is entitled to purchase a back emblem 
at W2.00 (net profit to D.U. ýl.00) or a sleeve emblem at 01.00 (net

profit to D.U. 60/.) These emblems are bought and paid for out of private

funds and the profits turned over to D.U. The sale of a subscription to 
D.U. does not entitle that individual .to either of the emblems but simply

gives him the right to purchase and wear them,  They do produce substantial

revenue for the organization and give added publicity. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
Page #2 
 
 
          The Ducks Unlimited neckties which are on sale in most of the 
better class haberdasheries are also distributed thru private funds with

a royalty of 50l per tie being paid to each State organization in which 
the ties are sold. 
 
          There are only three paid employees in the United States. 
Arthur Bartley, United States Manager, Ray Benson, Executive Secretary 
and Russ Prindle in charge of publicity. All others serving D.U. in 
the United States do so on their own time and expense. Funds raised 
consist of voluntary contributions from individuals and firms. Not one 
cent being received from taxes or from the Federal Government. D.U. does

not become involved in our local or national problems. Our purpose is 
to help increase the duck population and we intend to stick strictly 
to that purpose. 
 
 
 
                                                 inne s    rse 
 
 
Morton W. Smith, Minnesota Trustee 
1204 Flour Exchange, 
Minneapolis 15, Minnesota 
ATLANTIC 0471 
 
  

					
				
				
 
342 C/O'OL(.ýULUT& c1VIL 
9V\ew York 17, 5N,. Y. 
 
 
                                     May 24, 1946 
 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
1.24 University Farm Place 
Madison, 5, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Aldo: 
 
It has come to my attention that you have somewhat widely distributed 
mimeographed copies of the Mezorandia to the Board of Trustees of 
Ducks Unlimited, Inc. dated March 30, President M. W. Smith's reply 
dated April 19, and your answer to him dated May 13. 
 
With no desire to open a controversy, I fail to understand the reason 
for general distribution - particularly to people not directly in- 
volved or fully acquainted with all the facts - at least without 
first advising Mr. Smith that you intended to use his letter for such 
distribution. Nor can I understand why, if you thought distribution 
of such correspondence necessary, you did not include Bert Cartwright's,

answer to Criticism No. 1 dated April 30, 1946. 
 
Our Trustees accepted Dr. Cottam't statement: "I am much more concerned

about from here on, than from here back* as a pretty good policy to 
follow. This acceptance however was not because of any doubt in the 
minds of the Trustees that the criticisms could be fully answered, but 
because it seemed the interests of the ducks will be better served by 
following Dr. Cottam's suggestion and letting the future record speak 
for itself. 
                                        Very truly yours, 
 
 
                                        Arthur N. Bartley 
                                        U. S. Manager 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
March 30, 1946 
 
 
       Memorandum to Board of Directors of Duaks Unlimited 
 
At the Wildlife Conference in New York on MParch 13, 1946, 'Hr. A. M. Bartley,

representing Ducks Unlimited, asked that the technical waterfowl men express

their criticism of Ducks Unlimited, in writing. The undersigned, having 
had an opportunity to meet and discuss Mr. Bartley's request, submit the

following criticisms: 
 
        1. During the last two years the plain trend of the evidence is 
            tUhat waterfowl have been decreasing, and that certain species

            are actually in danger. Despite this evidence, D.U. has 
            claimed a continued increase. 
 
            Duck counters have never agreed on numbers, but all except 
            D-U.TIs counters agree on the -resent downward trend. It is 
            dangerous to conceal a dow;±urrd trend, or to ignore evidence

            that such a trend exists. 
 
        2. D.U. has said, in effect: "Write us a check, and more liberal

            regulations will follow". Such contingent contributions
arc 
            dingerous, and also unnecessary. Real abundance automatically

            brings liberalization. It needs no lobby. 
 
        3. D.U. Is publicity has "played up" the waterfowl losses
which its 
            field program can reduce, and. "played down" the rest,
especially 
            guns. Such selection and distortion. of evidence is dangerous

            because it creates a warped picture in the nublic mind. 
 
We offer these criticisms because we are convinced that D.U. is an indispen-

sible part of the waterfowl restoration program, and that it cannot afford

to impair its credit by false claims. 
 
If the Directors of D.U. doubt the validity of these criticisms, we suggest

that they consult their ovwn chief naturalist, 3. W. Cartwright. 
 
                                                     Aldo Leopold 
 
                                                     Lyle K. Sowls 
 
                                                     1. Albert Hochbaum 
 
                                                     Arthur S. Hawkins 
 
                                                     Robert H1 Smith 
 
 
'Richard Griffith 
 
  

					
				
				
                                DUCKS UNLIMITBD           Minneapolis 15,
Minn. 
                                                          April 18, 1946

 
 
Mr. Aldo Leopold 
University of Wisconsin 
Madison 5, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
          Referring to the memorandum addressed to the directors regarding

activities of Ducks Unlimited under date of March 30th, 1946, signed by 
yourself and Lyle K. Sowls, H. Albert Hochbaum, Arthur S. Hawkins, Robert

H.. Smith and Richard Griffith. Criticism as follows: 
 
1. "During the last two years the_ plain trend of the evidence is that
water- 
fowl have boon decreasing, and that cortain species are actI ally in danger.

Despite this evidence, D.U. has claimed continued increase. 
 
Duck counters have never agreed on nutmbers, but all except D.U.s counters

agree on the present downward trend. It is J..ngerous to conceal the downward

trend or to ignore evidence that such a trend exists." 
 
 
          In answer, I submit the following: 
       Season ýg Limit     DU Summer Estimate Wildlife Soinrice 
1937   30 days x   10      140,00,000    ...    36-49,000,000 
 
 
Winter Estimate 
 
 
1938   45  " 
1939   45  " 
 
 
1940 
 
1941 
 
 
Go, '"I 
 
 
xx 10 
 
xx 10 
 
xx 10 
 
 
60   1, i zxx 10 
 
 
1942   70  "   xxx 10 
 
 
1943   70 
 
1944   sO 
 
1945   go 
 
 
xxx 10 
 
  + 10 
 
 
50,000,000 
 
62,000,000 
 
69,000,000 
75,000,000 
 
97,000,000o 
125,000,000 
 
140,000,000 
 
 
10      140,000,000 
 
 
ft4g--58,O00,O000 
  654-~,ooo,ooo 
    65,000,000 
 
    70,000,000 
 
ft 100,QOOQOO 
 
119,600,000 
 
   125,350,000 
 
   105,500,000 
 not yet announced 
 
 
Not including Mexico and other counutries South of U.S. border. 
x Canvasback, redhead, ruddy, bufflehead and wood duck protected. 
xx  Only 3 canvasback, redhead, ruddy or bufflehead ducks. 
xxx  Only 3 redheads and buffleheads. 
I Limit 15 for mallard, pintail, wldgeon. 
Note: Wildlife Service Winter estimates arc made each January following the

shooting season. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
                                DUCKS UNLI14ITED 
                    Page #2 Mr. Aldo Leopold       4/1s/46 
 
          Increase of oven season by 10 days and increasing dailylbag limit

indicates United States Fish & Wildlife did not recognize any change
in trend 
up to and- including 1944. Cartright's 1945 report indicates no change from

previous year but states "Thus for the first time since 1939 the upsurge
of 
the waterfowl was definitely chocked." 
 
2.   "D.U. has said, in effect: "Write us a check, and more liboral
regulations 
will follow." Such contingent contributions aro darigotous and also
unnecessary. 
Real abunaxnco automatically *brings liberalization. It noods no lobby."

 
          It is an established fact that D.U. have taken no part in any 
program which tends to influence shooting regulations in '4orth America.
That 
I believe would be conoedbectby the Fish & Wildlife Service and futther
it is 
recognized by the average hunter. D.U. had no part in increasing the open

season to eighty &ays in 1944 or any part in increasing the daily bag
limit 
to fifteen birds. Nor rany part in the out-of-ýs(3')son slaughter
of  7cks in 
California and Colorado.  eoithor did thoy have any part in setting an open

season of eighty days in 1945: Criticism ;#:2 would seem to be unwarranted.

 
p. "D*U. 's uubliity ha," "played up" the water fowl
losses ffhich its field 
program can reduce, and "played down" the rest, especially guns.
Such selection 
and distortibn of evidence is d.angerous because it creates a warped picture

in the oiublic mind," 
 
           I believe it is, conceded by naturalists that about 70% of wild
ducks 
hatched are lost from various causes before they are on wing. If carrying

on of the D.U, program can reduce thait figure even a few percent their existence

will have been more than justified. As to "playing down the losses,
especially 
guns." The greater part of th6 control of that' loss lies within the
province 
of the Fish 2 Wildlife Service in the regulation of the open season and daily

bag limit. 
 
          You can be sure that members of D.U. will appreciateo and do not
wish 
to limit the constructive criticism whi  has to do with the soundness of
the 
plan of D.U. operations being carried forvard in Canada. We have the assurance

thru Dr. Cottam of the co-operation of the Fish & Wildlife Service. I
am sure 
yourself and others in your ,roiup can be most helpfal wvith your expert
1nowledge 
in giving D.U. your close co-operation, wh±ich will be very welcome.

 
                                              Yqurs vorý truly, 
 
                                    (sigened) M.W. Smith_ 
                                              Prosident 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                            424 University Farm Place 
                                            Madison 5, Wisconsin 
                                            nay 13, 1946 
 
 
 
 
Mr. 1&. W. Snith, President 
Dacks Unlimited 
Minneapolis 15, M1innesota 
 
Dear 'Mr. Smith: 
 
Your letter of Anril 1g convinces me that there is little use 
of our trying to discuss details. We argue from different 
premises, and thus "speak a different language". I am particularly

baffled by your contention that DU has not tried to influence 
regulations. 
 
7hile your letter gives me no indication of any change in DU 
policy in the direction I had hoped for, the spring issue of 
the DUT"aarterly" does. For the first time in several years 
the Quarterly presents some frank statements of unpalatable 
facts about the status of waterfowl. 
 
This is a welcome c    _,nge. I infer that there are oeo-ole inside 
as well as outside the DU staff who cannot swallow the policy of 
evasion which has prevailed in recent years. I hope that you, as 
the new prosident, will encourage this shift toward honest fact- 
facing. 
 
When I got your letter I made upn may mind to resign, but I think 
I will stick a while to see if this new shift continues. I 
earnestly hope it will,. 
 
                                              Yours sincerely, 
 
 
(signed)   Aldo Leopold 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
Prpagate                                                                
        Preserve 
 
 
            WISCONSIN 
 
4HUNTERS ASSOCIATION IN 
 
        /-I P~po"Sid.A "A*" diaed 
 
 
           Ii ~         WTWUWW@W'5 WSIUIWI. 
7 
 
 
              "h i~j    4- Office of the                    President

                                                        May 2, 1946 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold 
424 University Farm Place 
Nadison 6, Wisconsin 
 
Dear Mr. Leopold: 
 
I was positive that DU would pay particular heed to your suggestion and I

must now admit my disappointment over their disregard of your advice, the

logic of which and the sincerity that prompted the thought are commendable.

 
The Association, as stated in my previous letter, has publicly voiced 
criticism of DU, but, because of a reluctance to take steps that might en-

danger the flow of revenue to the project in Canada, we have not made a 
fight of it. 
 
It is the belief of many intelligent sportsmen and conservationists that

a nation-wide reprimand should be administered, and I offer as a suggestion

that you and your colleagues make an issue of it through proper sources.

I believe the eventual good that may result will be worth the effort, and

a good scrap is oftimes good for the soul. The task of holding and build-

ing up the duck population will suffer if the effort is not based on hard

reality free from present distortion. 
 
Your good friend, Gordon MacQuarrie, is one writer who would be happy if

you would give him the suggestions tendered to DU. lie has expressed him-

self vehemently about its tactics and nothing would delight him more than

an opportunity to shoot his six guns in his colunn. 
 
Anyhow, I leave with you the thought that there is an explosive in your 
pen if you choose to use it, and I trust you will forgive me if I have 
placed myself in the position of "holding your coat". However,
you may 
be assured of support from many of the same mind, and particularly the 
Association. 
 
                                         Very truly yours, 
 
 
                                         Arthur Molstad 
                                         1303 W. Kilbourn Ave., Apt. G 
 am-mf                                   Mlilwaukee 3, Wisconsin 
 
 
HUNT WITH A DOG 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
          I.,  C4_I0 L 
 
 
 
        ILI 
    4. 
 
 
 
 
  ¢ 0CC~ 4 t4 (I4 ~ ~  & 
 
 
 
 
IDk"L 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
             A Permanent Work in Sport and Conservation 
                              201 Bank of Commerce Chambers, 
                              Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
                              April 30, 1946. 
 
 
 
Professor Aldo Leopold, 
424 University Farm Place, 
University of Wisconsin, 
MADISON, Wisconsin. 
 
Dear Professor Leopold$ 
 
In the memorandum to the Board of Directors of Ducks Unlimited 
by you and your associates, dated March 30, criticism No. 1 
reads: "During the last two years the plain trend of the evidence 
is that waterfowl have been decreasing, and that certain species 
are actually in danger. Despite this evidence, D.U. has claimed 
a continued increase." 
 
Attached, please find the tabulation of the reports received by 
DU from their observers in the west, during the spring and fall of 
1944/.The census appraisals resulted in a figure of 140 million, 
an increase of 15 million over the previous year, or 124. This 
figure was published in the fall of 1944. 
 
During this season an increase of some 300 thousand hunters took 
place--a fact of which we were unaware until the information was 
released by the United States Fish & Wildlife Service in 1945. 
Their winter population estimate indicated a decrease as compared 
with 1943. My interpretation of this apparent contradiction is 
as follows: The increase shown by our figures, namely, 15 million, 
was insufficient to accommodate the increased hunting pressure. 
Not only was the 1944 increment wiped out, but inroads on capital 
were made. 
 
 
(helneral Manager: 
  T. C. MAIN, M.E.I.C. 
Asst. General Manager: 
E. S. RUSSENHOLT 
Chief Engineer: 
G. R. FANSET, B.Sc., c.E. 
Chief Naturalist: 
B. W. CARTWRIGHT 
Saskatchewan Manager: 
AV. L. BUNTING, B.Sc., C.E. 
 
Xlburta Manager: 
R. M. HARLEY 
 
OFFICES: 
201 Bank of Commerce 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 
42 Gov't Insurance Bldg. 
Regina, Saskatchewan 
Qu'Appelle Bldg. 
Edmonton, Alberta 
 
 
I cannot see how DU could have recognized a downward trend in 1944. 
All we could see at this end was that the increase had not been as 
great as that of 1943. In 1945 our observers again reported an 
increased return of breeding stOck' as compared with 1944, but the 
relation of increases to decreases and no change, was drawing 
closer together and it became apparent that hunting pressure in the 
United States was approaching the limit that the birds could stand. 
An adverse breeding season showed up in the census appraisal which 
came out at 143 million as compared with 140 million the year before. 
During 1945, we consistently reported the adverse factors which were 
 
 
To Increase and Perpetuate the Supply of Ducks 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
affecting the hatch, and our final statement that the very slight 
increase indicated, applied to two or three species only, and we 
named those species which showed no appreciable change or declines, 
In the meantime, a further great increase in hunting pressure had 
taken place, and again we had no information about this until long 
after the hunting season was over. I do not see how we can identify 
a downward trend until our spring tabulations show a decrease as 
compared with the previous year, or our census results in lower 
figures than the previous year. 
 
One valuable lesson from this experience, is that the percentage 
increase recorded in any season could be used to forecast the 
amount of hunting pressure that could be allowed without making 
inroads on capital. If any reasonably accurate figures on the 
annual kill for the past two years were available, we could compare 
them with the increment indicated by our census, and in that way 
suggest the limits of permitted kill so as to hold same within the 
increment* Of course, one adverse breeding season plays "hub" 
with the whole setup. 
 
Scattered reports coming in to date, indicate a lower return of 
breeding stock as compared with last year, but the slump is not so 
pronounced as I expected it to be. Our spring questionnaires will 
go out about the middle of May, and I hope to have the tabulated 
results ready early in June. I fully expect they will show a 
lower return of breeding stock than the previous year, and if it 
does, it will be the first time since 1938 that this has happened. 
 
There can be no doubt that the sky-rocketing hunting pressure has 
passed the limit of endurance, but if we have a favorable breeding 
season this year, the results may not be so serious as anticipated. 
 
April has been a warm, dry month throughout the west, with very small 
precipitation. The run-off was patchy and shallow surface waters are 
drying up fast. Prospects of a good juvenile survival are not bright. 
Above normal rains in May and June will be needed to see the hatch 
through, particularly in Saskatchewan and Alberta.  Surface water 
conditions in Manitoba are good and are in shape to stand a dry 
season. 
 
With kind personal regards, 
 
 
 
                                 Yours truly, 
 
 
 
                                 B,*. Cartwright, 
                                 Chief Naturalist. 
 
*WC/BM 
c.O. - Al Hochbaum 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SPRING REPORTS -- DUCKS ONLY 
 
 
1944 
 
 
Tvu~w~~o~   flapgii~a  1~Tn (ThftV~A 
 
 
ToEa.l No. of ReportS 
 
 
]; A             Taow-ne a                            - a^ Cl 
 
 
Manitoba 
Saskatchewan 
Alberta 
 
 
93 
172 
100 
 
 
Totals    365 
 
 
19 
49 
5L6 
 
124 
 
 
SPRING REPORTS 
     1945 
 
 
Manitoba 
Saskatchewan 
Alberta 
 
 
72 
58 
70 
 
 
5 
48 
 
 
Totals    200 
 
 
FALL HPORTS 
    1944 
 
 
Manitoba 
Saskatchewan 
Alberta 
 
 
100 
116 
125 
 
 
           Totals    341 
 
 
 
Manitoba             81 
Saskatchewan          58 
Alberta               55 
 
 
29 
67 
41 
 
137 
 
 
1945 
 
 
  8 
117 
716 
 
 
201          100 
 
 
33 
57 
29 
 
119 
 
 
145 
278 
185 
 
608 
 
 
12 
28 
2.;4 
 
 
64 
 
 
22 
47 
 
 
115 
 
 
89 
134 
 
 
359 
 
 
151 
230 
212 
 
593 
 
 
34 
45 
21 
 
 
123 
220 
 
 
495 
 
 
Totals    194 
 
  

					
				
				
 
(CANADA) 
 
 
Ge~neral Manager: 
T. C. MAIN, M.E.I.C. 
Asst. General Manager: 
E. S. RUSSENHOLT 
Chief Engineer: 
G. R. FANSET, B.Sc., C.E. 
Chief Naturalist: 
B3. W. CARTWRIGHT 
Saiskatchewan Manager: 
%V. L. BUNTING, B.S.., C.E. 
Alberta Manager: 
R. M. HARLEY 
OFFICES: 
201 Bank of Commerce 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 
42 Gov't Insurance Bldg. 
Regina, Saskatchewan 
Q&j'Appelle Bldg. 
Edmonton, Alberta 
 
 
            A Permanent Work in Sport and Conservation