To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States
and with the
Indian tribes;
  To establish an uniform rule of naturalization,'and uniform laws on the
subject of bank-
ruptcies throughout the United States;
  To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix
the standard of
weights and measures;
  To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current
coin of the
United States;
  To establish post offices and post roads;
  To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited
times to
authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and
  To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
  To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas,
and offenses against
the laws of nations;
  To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning
on land and water;
  To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use
shall be for a
longer term than two years;
  To provida and maintain a navy;
  To malke rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval
  To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union,
suppress insur-
rections and repel invasions;
  To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for
governing such
part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving
to the States
respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training
the militia accord-
ing to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
  To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district
(not exceeding
  ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance
of Congress,
become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like
authority over all
places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the State in which
the same shall be,
for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful
buildings; and
  To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
execution the
foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the
Government of the
United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
  SECTION 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States
now exist-
  ing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress
prior to the year
  one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed
on such importa-
  tion, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.
  The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless
when in cases of
  rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
  No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
  No capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion
to the census or enu-
  meration hereinbefore directed to be taken.
  No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported trom any State.
  No preference shallhbe given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to
the ports of
  one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from one
State, be obliged to
  enter, clear or pay duties in another.
  No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations
  by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures
of all public
  money shall be published from time to time.
  No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person
holding an office
  of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress,
accept of any
  present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king,
prince or foreign
  SECTIoX 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation;
grant letters
  of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything
but gold and
  silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex
post facto law, or
  law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
  No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or
duties on imports
  or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection
laws; and
  the net produce, of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports
or exports, shall be
  for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall
be subject to the
  revision and control of the Congress.