1. Thirty-seven aldermen; one alderman
from each ward for term of two years;
twelve at large for terms of four years, six
to be elected biennially.
2. Thirty-seven aldermen; one from each
ward for four years; twelve at large for
four years, six to be elected biennially.
3. Eighteen aldermen; six at large and
twelve from aldermanic districts, all divided
into two groups, each group for a term of
four years at alternate biennial elections.
4. Eighteen aldermen from aldermanic
districts for four years, odd and even-num-
hered groups elected at alternate biennial
5. Nine aldermen at large elected in
groups of three for six year terms.

6. Twenty-five aldermen from wards for
terms of four years, elected every four
The two plans which receive the largest
number of votes at the primary election will
be submitted to the voters at the regular
election, and the plan receiving the largest
number of votes at this election will deter-
mine the number and length of term of of-
lice of the aldermen.
To facilitate the discussion of the various
forms of the Common Council, the Munic-
ipal Reference Library has prepared a brief
bibliography on the length of term of office,
number of members and methods of elec-
tion of city councils. Arguments for and
against are included. The references will
be found in the Municipal Reference I

We note this month a number of books bearing on various phases of the war. American publishers are
necessarily giving nuch attention to the subject, but not, as our lists prove, to the entire exclusion of
other books. Let us, as good citizens should, keep informed concerning the war, but also, in order that we
may keep entirely sane in these trying times, let us refresh our minds and souls with good reading on
other topics.

Ackerman, Carl W. Germany the Next Re-
public? 1917. Doran. $1.50       940.91-A182
Read in the light of recent events, this book
is very interesting. The author was in Germany
from March, 1915, to the time Ambassador Ge-
rard returned to the United States. With all of
the trained journalist's shrewd powers of ob-
servation, Mr. Ackerman watched the effects of
American foreign policy upon the minds of the
German people. In his preface he says, "I be-
lieve that the United States by two years of
patience and note writing, has done more to ac-
complish the destruction of militarism and to en-
courage freedom of thought in Germany than the
Allies did during nearly three years of fighting.'
The long-drugged nation stirred in its sleep, but
it is the belief of the author that only military
defeat can fully awaken the sleeper. The Ger-
muan cartoons which are used as illustrations are
fully as enlightening as to the German state of
mind, as anything Mr. Ackerman tells us.
Beer, George      L.   The    English-speaking
Peoples. 1917. Macmillan. $1.50       327-1141
This book is very well worth the attention of
any earnest student of present-day political sci-
ence. The author was at one time fecturer in
European history at Columbia University.   He
gives us a most careful survey of Anglo-American
relations in the past. discusses present phases of
the situation, and makes very clear our obliga-
tions for the future.  The possibilities of co-
operation between English-speaking peoples en-
tail responsibilities for world welfare which must
not be shirked.
Brooks, Charles S. There's Pippins and
Cheese to Come. 1917. Yale University
Press. $2.00                       814-B873t
When the weight of affairs in a world at war,
becomes too heavy a burden, it is well to turn
for refreshment to an author like Mr. Brooks.
"Journeys to Bagdad '. published last year. and
Tiere's Pippins and Cheese to Come'', are two
volumes of essays. Absolutely and delightfully

irresponsible, the author discourses upon such
subjects as "The worst edition of Shakespeare;
The chilly presence of hard-headed persons; On
buying old books: Any stick will do to beat a
dog; Now that spring is here.''
Chesterton, Gilbert K. Utopia of Usurers
and Other Essays. 1917. Boni & Live-
right. $1.25                         304-C52
To the reader who has been wont to consider
Mr. Chesterton as merely amusing and an adept
performer in the art of standing ona his head,
this book will cause surprise. It is an attack
on modern society-the world as ruled by capi-
talists. It is not always easy to get the an-
thor's vewpoint, but his essays are thought-
provoking and on the whole entertaining. Sev-
eral of the chapters deal with the war, one is
entitled "The Mask of Socialism'', and one "A
Workman s fHistory of England".
Chitwood, Oliver P. The Immediate Causes
of the Great \Wat-. 1917. Crowell. $1.35
This is ia good, concise summary of the causes
of the European war as they tire to be found in
documents of the warring nations. Such a book
was needed for the use of readers who have not
much time at their disposal, but who wish to
draw their own conclusions from facts as pre-
sented in undoubtedly authentic documents. The
author is professor of European history in West
Virginia University.
Clemens, Samuel L. (Mark Twain, pseud.)
Mark Twain's Letters; ed. by Albert Bige-
low Paine; 2 vols. 1917. 1larper. $4.00
Seldom, indeed, do we find two large volumes
of letters so uriformly interesting as those of.
Mark Twain. The mai stands revealed in all
of his relations of life. The first letters were
asritten in 1853 and the record is complete to