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DELFTWARE !Beverage Wares Tea- and Coffee Wares London, probably Lambeth Probably c. 1733 H.: 15/8" (4.1 cm); Diam.: 2 3/4" (7 cm) BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. TIN GLAZE: Very pale turquoise- white. Overall, excluding footrim bottom. SHAPE: Thrown. Narrow-edged, cylin- drical footrim. DECORATION: Painted. Exterior bears stylized flowers, fang, and abstract motifs. Interior and exterior borders composed of horizontal lines. Ex coll.: A. F Britton. 1. Eberhard, Syml)ols, pp. 280-281 (wan)ý Williams, Symbolisni, p. 257 (lotus). 2. Christie's (Amsterdam), April 7 8, 1992, lot 752, c. 1690 (poppegoed); private collection (sugar pot). 3. Coppack, Lincolnshire Archaeology, pp. 118, 122, fig. 2, no. 22, c. 17:30 1740 (saucer); Sandon, Cof(le Pots and teapots, pp. 12-13, pl. 8 (teapot); Britton, Bristol, no. 8.4 (punch bowl); private collection (plate). 4. Atkins, Exhibition l199:1), no. 26, 5. Austin, D)elft, p. 125, coffee cup excavat- ed at the Scrivener Store and Alexander Craig House; small mug at the William Finnie I louse. 6. lipski and Archer, D)ated l)elltware, no. 371. 7. Sherds found by Garner (V&A colleci- ion); Britton, LIondon, pp. 55, 57. Most distinctive of the motifs on this teabowl is the device often inaccu- rately referred to as a "swastika." In fact this is an archaic form of the Chinese character fang, meaning "the four regions of the world" and, later, "ten thou- sand" (wan), symbolizing infinity. The central lotus bud symbolizes purity and perfection, sacred to Buddhists and Daoists,' and the back-to-back scrolls linked by an oval (also on Dutch market poppegoed Itoy vases] recovered from the wreck of the Vungtao) occur with similar wan on a tin-glazed sugar pot. Although no other teabowl is known, the design occurs with four different borders and in two distinct palettes on other shapes: it is in blue and white on a saucer frag- ment excavated in Lincoln; a teapot with a cash border; a punch bowl (with atypical banner insignia) with a demifloret and crosshatched, four-dot diaper border; and a plate with cornucopias in a similar border.' There is a similar punch bowl painted in iron-red with blue concentric lines., Sherds of another blue and white punch bowl and part of a coffee cup and a small mug with a dou- ble-line border were excavated at Williamsburg, Virginia. Throughout, the decoration is penciled with a fine brush that in Holland is called a trekker (Trekken means to draw), and only the lotus leaves are hatched. Based on a dated plate, this style suggests a date of about 1733.6 The teabowl's blue and white design duplicates that on a small mug with rare red decoration found at Lam- beth that perhaps is from the High Street pottery, established there in 1732 by Henry Hodgson and Henry Forster of Stamford, Lincolnshire. Actual size The Longridge Collection 361 D326. TEABOWL
D327. TEABOWL Probably London c. 1735 H.: 5/8" (4.1 cm); Diam.: 3" (7.6 cm) BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff, TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise. Overall, excluding footrim bottom. SHAPE: Thrown. Narrow-edged, cylin- drical footrim. DECORATION: Painted and pow- dered. Exterior bears three similar floral reserves set against powdered ground. Yellow-brown rim. 1. Pountney, Bristol, p, 84 (liquid tech- nique); Britton, Bristol, p. 234 (three dry techniques). 2. Manganese, 1245" C.; cobalt, 1495" C. 3. For London, see Ray, files, p. 99, figs. 26c-26g; pp. 130 131, pl. 10, nos. 103 106; for Bristol, p. 101, figs. 29a, 29c, 29d; pl. 50, nos. 494 496, pp. 214-215; lbr Liver- pool, p. 104, figs. 33h 33i; ppý 160-161, pl. 24, no. 241. 4. Macfarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, pp. 121 123. 5. Sotheby's (L), l.ipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, lot 158; and for sherd (too small to be properly diagnostic) lound by Lipski, see Lipski, Teaware, no. 98. 6. Garner and Archer, Delftware, pls. 93A, 124B; Archer, V&A, 11.50; Britton, Bristol, no. 15.28 (three plates dated 1739); Garner and Archer, Delftware, pls. 125C-125D (leaves in lozenges). 7. Archer, V&A, nos. B.54 B.55, B.61. 8. Austin, Delft, no. 45; Archer, V&A, no. B.52; Garner and Archer, Delftware, p. 33. 9. Austin, Delft, nos. 272, 278; Britton, Bristol, no. 10.137 (dated 1736). 10. Garner and Archer, Delftware, p. 30. DELFTWARE Beverage Wares Tea- and Coffee Wares Actual size he white reserves on this teabowl were created by placing a template against the unfired tin glaze, sprinkling on the manganese, and then removing the tem- plate so that the flower sprig and outline could be penciled. (It has been suggested that liquid color, flicked from a brush, was used for some speckled effects, but the precise appearance of the teabowl indicates that diy oxide was sprinkled over the surface.)' The hazy purple at the rim, irregular "tide-line," denser color just above the foot, and uneven color on the footring formed because manganese oxide melts at a lower temperature than cobalt/ and the fluxing properties of the lead in the glaze dispersed the granules in a downward direction. Powdered purple grounds (see also nos. D94, D128, D319) with blue outlines and central decoration frequently are found on tiles made in London, Bristol, and, to a lesser extent, Liverpool' but are very rare on teaware." There are only three comparable examples: a teabowl, its matching saucer, and a saucer frag- ment unearthed at Wincanton in Somerset.' All have curved reserves like this one, but the sprigs and leaves on them differ. Tableware in this palette is often attributed to Wincanton or Bristol, but petal-shaped reserves on such pieces have straight or concave lower edges, the rims are painted manganese purple or left plain, and tapered, fernlike leaves are rare and used only within lozenges." Convex-sided reserves, however, do occur on powdered plates made in Lambeth at Vauxhall pottery and Griffith's High Street pottery with lobed flowers like these! Powdered purple footrings are also typical of London," and tapered, fernlike leaves occur on Lambeth plates, including one inscribed "TWs/1736.'I Pale turquoise glaze and yellow- brown rims too are London characteristics."' 362 The Longridge Collection