Visual display of the The Longridge collection of English slipware and delftware

DELFTWARE !Beverage Wares 
Tea- and Coffee Wares 
London, probably Lambeth 
Probably c. 1733 
H.: 15/8" (4.1 cm); 
Diam.: 2 3/4" (7 cm) 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Very pale turquoise- 
white. Overall, excluding footrim 
SHAPE: Thrown. Narrow-edged, cylin- 
drical footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Exterior bears 
stylized flowers, fang, and abstract 
motifs. Interior and exterior borders 
composed of horizontal lines. 
Ex coll.: A. F Britton. 
1. Eberhard, Syml)ols, pp. 280-281 (wan)ý 
Williams, Symbolisni, p. 257 (lotus). 
2. Christie's (Amsterdam), April 7 8, 1992, 
lot 752, c. 1690 (poppegoed); private 
collection (sugar pot). 
3. Coppack, Lincolnshire Archaeology, 
pp. 118, 122, fig. 2, no. 22, c. 17:30 1740 
(saucer); Sandon, Cof(le Pots and teapots, 
pp. 12-13, pl. 8 (teapot); Britton, Bristol, 
no. 8.4 (punch bowl); private collection 
4. Atkins, Exhibition l199:1), no. 26, 
5. Austin, D)elft, p. 125, coffee cup excavat- 
ed at the Scrivener Store and Alexander 
Craig House; small mug at the William 
Finnie I louse. 
6. lipski and Archer, D)ated l)elltware, 
no. 371. 
7. Sherds found by Garner (V&A colleci- 
ion); Britton, LIondon, pp. 55, 57. 
Most distinctive of the motifs on this teabowl is the device often inaccu-

rately referred to as a "swastika." In fact this is an archaic
form of the Chinese 
character fang, meaning "the four regions of the world" and, later,
"ten thou- 
sand" (wan), symbolizing infinity. The central lotus bud symbolizes
purity and 
perfection, sacred to Buddhists and Daoists,' and the back-to-back scrolls
by an oval (also on Dutch market poppegoed Itoy vases] recovered from the
of the Vungtao) occur with similar wan on a tin-glazed sugar pot. Although
other teabowl is known, the design occurs with four different borders and
two distinct palettes on other shapes: it is in blue and white on a saucer
ment excavated in Lincoln; a teapot with a cash border; a punch bowl (with

atypical banner insignia) with a demifloret and crosshatched, four-dot diaper

border; and a plate with cornucopias in a similar border.' There is a similar

punch bowl painted in iron-red with blue concentric lines., Sherds of another

blue and white punch bowl and part of a coffee cup and a small mug with a
ble-line border were excavated at Williamsburg, Virginia. Throughout, the

decoration is penciled with a fine brush that in Holland is called a trekker

(Trekken means to draw), and only the lotus leaves are hatched. Based on
a dated 
plate, this style suggests a date of about 1733.6 The teabowl's blue and
design duplicates that on a small mug with rare red decoration found at Lam-

beth that perhaps is from the High Street pottery, established there in 1732
Henry Hodgson and Henry Forster of Stamford, Lincolnshire. 
Actual size 
The Longridge Collection 361 

Probably London 
c. 1735 
H.: 5/8" (4.1 cm); Diam.: 3" (7.6 cm) 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff, 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise. Overall, 
excluding footrim bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Narrow-edged, cylin- 
drical footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted and pow- 
dered. Exterior bears three similar floral 
reserves set against powdered ground. 
Yellow-brown rim. 
1. Pountney, Bristol, p, 84 (liquid tech- 
nique); Britton, Bristol, p. 234 (three dry 
2. Manganese, 1245" C.; cobalt, 1495" C. 
3. For London, see Ray, files, p. 99, 
figs. 26c-26g; pp. 130 131, pl. 10, nos. 103 
106; for Bristol, p. 101, figs. 29a, 29c, 29d; 
pl. 50, nos. 494 496, pp. 214-215; lbr Liver- 
pool, p. 104, figs. 33h 33i; ppý 160-161, 
pl. 24, no. 241. 
4. Macfarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, 
pp. 121 123. 
5. Sotheby's (L), l.ipski sale (1), March 10, 
1981, lot 158; and for sherd (too small to 
be properly diagnostic) lound by Lipski, 
see Lipski, Teaware, no. 98. 
6. Garner and Archer, Delftware, pls. 93A, 
124B; Archer, V&A, 11.50; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 15.28 (three plates dated 1739); Garner 
and Archer, Delftware, pls. 125C-125D 
(leaves in lozenges). 
7. Archer, V&A, nos. B.54 B.55, B.61. 
8. Austin, Delft, no. 45; Archer, V&A, 
no. B.52; Garner and Archer, Delftware, 
p. 33. 
9. Austin, Delft, nos. 272, 278; Britton, 
Bristol, no. 10.137 (dated 1736). 
10. Garner and Archer, Delftware, p. 30. 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
Tea- and Coffee Wares 
he white reserves on this teabowl were created by placing a template against

the unfired tin glaze, sprinkling on the manganese, and then removing the
plate so that the flower sprig and outline could be penciled. (It has been

suggested that liquid color, flicked from a brush, was used for some speckled

effects, but the precise appearance of the teabowl indicates that diy oxide
sprinkled over the surface.)' The hazy purple at the rim, irregular "tide-line,"

denser color just above the foot, and uneven color on the footring formed

because manganese oxide melts at a lower temperature than cobalt/ and the

fluxing properties of the lead in the glaze dispersed the granules in a downward

   Powdered purple grounds (see also nos. D94, D128, D319) with blue outlines

and central decoration frequently are found on tiles made in London, Bristol,

and, to a lesser extent, Liverpool' but are very rare on teaware." There
are only 
three comparable examples: a teabowl, its matching saucer, and a saucer frag-

ment unearthed at Wincanton in Somerset.' All have curved reserves like this

one, but the sprigs and leaves on them differ. 
   Tableware in this palette is often attributed to Wincanton or Bristol,
petal-shaped reserves on such pieces have straight or concave lower edges,
rims are painted manganese purple or left plain, and tapered, fernlike leaves

are rare and used only within lozenges." Convex-sided reserves, however,
occur on powdered plates made in Lambeth at Vauxhall pottery and Griffith's

High Street pottery with lobed flowers like these! Powdered purple footrings

are also typical of London," and tapered, fernlike leaves occur on Lambeth

plates, including one inscribed "TWs/1736.'I Pale turquoise glaze and
brown rims too are London characteristics."' 
362 The Longridge Collection