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THE LONGRIDGE 
COLLECTION OF 
ENGLISH SLIPWARE 
AND DELFTWARE 
 
  

					
				
				
 
lv 
 
 
/ 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE LONGRIDGE 
 
 
COLLECTION OF 
 
 
ENGLISH SLIPWARE 
 
 
AND DELFTWARE 
 
by Leslie B. Grigsby 
 
with contributions by 
Michael Archer 
Margaret Macfarlane 
Jonalian lHorne 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Volume 2 DELFTWARE 
 
 
J-P onalhan Horne Publications 
   Il.ondon 
 
  

					
				
				
 
  Jonathan Horne Publications 2000 
All rights reserved. 
 
No part of this publication may be 
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, 
or transmitted, in any form or by means, 
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, 
recording, or otherwise, without 
the prior permission of the publisher. 
 
ISBN 0-9533112-1-X 
 
First published in 2000 
 
 
 
Jonathan Horne Publications 
66c K(ensington Church Street 
London W8 4BY 
Telephone: 020 7221 5658 
Facsimile: 020 7792 3090 
 
Printed and bound in Italy 
by Societa' Editoriale Graliche AZ, Verona 
 
Edited by Suzanne E. Coffman 
 
 
Photographed by Gavin Ashworth 
 
Designed and produced by 
Sonia Biancalani-Levethan, Fog Design, 
and Anita Marlene Merk, New York 
 
Set in Agenda and Swift type 
 
Front and back covers: Details of dish no. D65 
Frontispiece: Detail of dish no. D)1 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For Holeigh, Lindsay, Francesca, Isabella, and lain 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS 
 
 
 
  9  General Notes 
  10 Time Line of Monarchs and Some Other 
     Important Historical Persons 
 20  Delftware Introduction 
 
 
 29  DINING AND RELATED WARES 
 
 29  Dishes and Plates 
 30  "Palissy-Type" Wares 
 38  Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures and Events 
 90  Electioneering 
 94  Religious and Mythological Subjects 
 110 Miscellaneous Inscriptions as Primary Ornament 
 116 Family Arms, Guild Arms, and Trades 
 122 European Landscapes, Some with Figures 
 132 European Nautical Scenes 
 136 Oriental Landscapes, Gardens, and Figures 
 162 Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 180 Horticultural Designs 
 196 Geometric, Abstract, and Other Designs 
 
 203 Other 
204  Porringers 
212  Other Bowls and Pierced Dishes 
219  Drainers or Strainers 
222  Pickle and Sweetmeat Dishes 
227  Sauceboats and Other Dishes 
231  Salts, Casters, and a Jar 
 
 
243  BEVERAGE WARES 
 
244  Bottles and a Cistern 
258  Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
297  Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
316  Fuddling Cups 
322 Jugs 
326  Puzzle Jugs 
332  Punch Bowls 
355 Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
 
379  FIGURES AND FIGURE-SHAPED VESSELS 
 
 
389  BOOK-SHAPED VESSELS 
 
 
395 BOOT AND SHOES 
 
  

					
				
				
 
4os FLOWER CONTAINERS 
 
423 LIGHTING 
 
 
429 MISCELLANEOUS 
    Ar\Fll \A/PITIIMC1r- 1 ATfFI'  nQ1rCt-TZ 
 
 
437 APOTHECARY 
    AND HYGIENE-RELATED WARES 
438 Storage, Apothecary, Syrup, and Ointment Pots 
458 Apothecary Tiles 
461 Barber Basins and a Chamber Pot 
 
 
465 OTHER TILES, PLAQUES, 
    AND A WALL NICHE 
 
 
489 Delftware Dish Shapes 
491 Museum Short Title List 
492 Glossary 
494 Bibliography and Short Title List 
503 Index 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GENERAL NOTES 
 
 
Abbreviations 
 
c.            circa (plus or minus five years) 
Diam.         Diameter 
H.            Height (overall) 
L.            Length (overall) 
W             Width (overall) 
Ex coll.      Former collection 
 
 
 
Cross-referencing 
 
In cross-referencing between the two volumes, numerals preceded by an S indicate
entries 
in the slipware volume. Numerals preceded by a D indicate entries in the
delftware volume. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 9 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
FJ 
 
 
TIME LINE OF MONARCHS AND SOME OTHER 
 
 
IMPORTANT HISTORI 
 
 
JAMES I AND 
ANNE OF DENMARK 
 
 
CAL PERSONS 
  The following descriptions are based on entries in the National Biography
and 
  Cannon and Griffiths, British Monarchy. For cross-references to Longridge
entries, 
  see left margin. 
 
 
The Stuart king James VI of Scotland (1566-1625) and James I of England 
(r. 1603-1625) was the son of the ill-fated Mary Queen of Scots (1542-1587)
and 
Henry Stewart (or Stuart), Lord Darnley (1545-1567). On hearing of the death
of 
the English Tudor queen Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603), James left his wife,
Anne of 
Denmark (1574-1619), and their children to follow him as he hurried from
Edin- 
burgh to claim the English throne. As James I he was the first personal 
representation of the unification of the English and Scottish crowns. 
   The king's first speech to Parliament (1604) proposed that the newly formed

kingdom be renamed Great Britain, but, not surprisingly, after years of warfare

between the two countries, James's audience was less than enthusiastic. James's

pressures for the new name as well as his introduction of a new flag, abrasive

personality, and excessive spending did nothing to increase his popularity.
The 
same was true of his lack of support for religious tolerance and his pursuit
of 
closer relations with Spain (including a failed attempt to see the Prince
of Wales 
wed to the Spanish infanta). James died of illness in 1625. 
   Like Elizabeth I, James and, perhaps even more demonstrably, Anne of Den-

mark were patrons of the arts. During their reign Inigo Jones built the 
Banqueting Hall at Whitehall and began the Queen's House at Greenwich. The

monarchs also created the position of master of the king's music and named

Ben Jonson poet laureate. In 1668 the appointment of John Dryden formalized

the latter post. 
 
 
CHARLES I AND HENRIETTA MARIA 
 
 
D7, DI1-D13, D222 
 
 
Charles I (1600-1649) of England, Scotland, and Ireland 
(r. 1625-1649), the second son of James I and Anne of Den- 
mark, succeeded to the throne on his father's death. In the 
same year he married Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV 
of France. Although Charles appears to have surpassed his 
father in morality, he seems to have inherited James's unpleas- 
ant personality. Charles I displayed a deep love of music, and 
his patronage of the arts included the acquisition of paintings, 
especially important works by Raphael, Titian, Correggio, and 
other masters. 
 
 
   Charles's Catholic marriage and his secret agreement with France for reli-

gious concessions to English Catholics were deeply unpopular and conflicted

with his pledge to Parliament that his marriage would be "no advantage
to recu- 
sants at home." Other aspects of Charles's domestic and international
policies 
certainly created enemies, but the royal couple's support of Catholicism-in
the 
century following the papal excommunication and anti-Protestant murder plots

against Elizabeth I-was one of the greatest sources of animosity against
them. 
The king's response to the 1641 Irish uprising and his handling of the question

of who would command the militia against the insurgents led to another power

struggle with Parliament. In 1642 Charles was forced to withdraw to York
(see 
Civil Wars, below). 
 
 
10 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
it 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CIVIL WARS 
 
 
D222 
 
 
     OLIVER CROMWELL 
            (1599-1658) 
AND THE PROTECTORATE 
            (1653-1659) 
 
 
The termination of the monarchy with the execution of Charles I in 1649 was,

not surprisingly, followed by the closing of the House of Lords and brought
into 
stark light the need for a new form of government. The House of Commons 
enacted a law mandating that the Council of state for the new Commonwealth

be composed of forty-one members chosen by the Commons. 
   From its inception the Council had strong, although sometimes opposed,

leadership by Civil War parliamentary general Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658).
The 
1653 Instrument of Government stipulated that executive power reside in a
sin- 
gle person, and Cromwell became Lord Protector, assisted by a small council
and 
a parliament composed of a single house with four hundred members. For the

first time England, Scotland, and Ireland were represented in a single parlia-

ment. By 1654, however, a power struggle between Parliament and Cromwell

had begun. The latter soon and unpopularly declared martial law, or the "Rule

of the Major-Generals." Although he had refused the title of king, Cromwell
was 
empowered to choose his own successor, and on his death in 1658, his compar-

atively weak son Richard was named Lord Protector. The following year, 
surrounded by chaos and overwhelmed by the military's demands, Richard 
resigned. Enter General George Monck. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 11 
 
 
Having escaped from London, Charles I raised his standard at Nottingham on

August 22, 1642, and called for support to retake the capital. In October
of the 
same year he established his new capital at Oxford. 
   During the subsequent Civil War a reluctant populace and lack of money

often hampered the king's efforts. Although Charles retained support in several

regions, large pockets of resistance existed, and the navy allied with Parliament.

The Continent and Ireland, locked in political struggles of their own, could
offer 
the king little help. Charles hoped that his overtures to Scotland, in which
he 
promised constitutional changes and a Presbyterian form of government, would

draw the Scottish government to his cause. Several powerful clans did join
him, 
but in 1643 the government made an agreement with the English Parliament.

Although Charles had strengthened his military position by early 1645, his

forces were greatly outnumbered at Naseby and defeated by those of Fairfax
and 
Cromwell. The capture and publication of the king's correspondence increased

ill will toward him. Further losses diminished Charles's military strength,
and 
on March 21, 1646, the last royalist army surrendered. 
   Charles gave himself up to the Scottish army on May 5, and his remaining

years were spent in prison or attempting to escape. During this time the
king 
still hoped for ultimate triumph. A second Civil War began in spring 1648
and 
renewed Charles's hopes, but it became obvious that peace would never come

during the king's lifetime. His trial began at Westminster on January 20,
1649. 
At his sentencing one week later, he was declared a "Tyrant, Traitor,
Murderer, 
and public enemy to the good people of this Nation." On January 30,
1649, 
Charles I was beheaded on a scaffold outside the Banqueting Hall at Whitehall.

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
EI 
 
 
GENERAL MONCK 
 
 
1)7, D17 
 
 
      -_.- I             f.. . . fljV%. - - u - n~ - -11sJ , UUL L&I

1647 he and other prominent soldiers were released and 
returned to fight in Ireland on the side of the royalists. Monck 
was with Cromwell during the invasion of Scotland (1650) and 
remained there as commander in chief when Cromwell 
marched into England in pursuit of Charles II. 
 
 
   During the first Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654) Monck was appointed a gen-

eral of the British fleet and aided in updating and organizing that area
of the 
military. After the war the general returned to service in Scotland. In 1659,
the 
year after Cromwell's death, Monck was called upon to strengthen the growing

anti-Commonwealth movement. In January 1660 he moved his men across the 
TWeed into England. This show of force led the public to perceive the general
as 
the person most responsible for the restoration of Charles II. Monck died
on Jan- 
uary 3, 1670, and his funeral was held at Westminster Abbey on April 30.

 
 
Charles 11 (1630-1685) of England, Scotland, and Ireland 
(r. 1660-1685) was the third Stuart king to sit on the throne. 
He was at The Hague when he learned of his father's execution 
(1649) and the newly passed act abolishing the kingship. 
Charles spent much of the Commonwealth period (1649-1660) 
in exile attempting to solicit French, Irish, and Scottish sup- 
port to retake the throne. The French declared him king soon 
after Charles I's death, but it was not until 1651, after making 
religious and political concessions, that Charles was crowned 
King of Scotland. 
 
 
12 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
CHARLES II, CATHERINE OF 
BRAGANZA, THE RESTORATION, 
AND THE POPISH PLOT 
 
 
$2-15,1D7-D16, 1225, D 143-)44, D51, D20, 
D103, D222-D-223, D-225, D239, D269, I)410 
 
 
j 
 
 
   On July 31 of the same year Charles and his forces, pursued by Oliver

Cromwell's army, moved southward across the border into England. English

royalist supporters failed to appear in the expected numbers, and on Septem-

ber 3 the king barely escaped Cromwell at Worcester. Charles spent the next

weeks moving from one hiding place (including the branches of an oak tree
at 
Boscobel in Shropshire) to another, finally escaping to France. Unsuccessful

uprisings in support of the king took place from 1652 to 1655. By the latter
date 
concerns over Lord Protector Cromwell's tremendous and sometimes terrifying

power had increased royalist sympathies, and after Cromwell's death in 1658
a 
show of military force by General George Monck (see preceding entry) allowed

Charles to return to England. Parliament proclaimed him king in 1660. 
   Although Charles II's conversion to Catholicism did not take place until
near 
his death, his 1662 marriage to Catherine of Braganza (1638-1705), daughter
of 
John IV of Portugal, and his pro-Catholic policies (partly financed by France)

made him unpopular. Important events during Charles's reign include the 
Great Plague of 1664-1665; the disastrous Great Fire of London in September

1666 (which was partly blamed on government intrigue); and the second 
Anglo-Dutch War (1665-1667), which resulted from mercantile competition 
and during which New Amsterdam was overrun and renamed New York. In 1672

Charles issued a Declaration of Indulgence promising religious freedom to

 
  

					
				
				
 
I 
 
 
concessions and an infusion of money into the royal treasury. The couple

remained childless and, based on repeated rumors of impending divorce, appar-

ently loveless. The date 1681 on a delftware portrait dish (no. D14) that
depicts 
the queen places its manufacture during a resurgence of support for Charles

and Catherine following the "Popish Plot," or "Titus Oates
Conspiracy," which 
alleged, among other atrocities, a Jesuit plot instigated in Rome against
the 
monarchs' lives (see discussion under nos. D16, D417, D418). 
   Charles II, like his ancestors, increased the royal art collections; his
pur- 
chases include an important collection of drawings by Leonardo da Vinci.

Supportive of scientific research, he sponsored the establishment of the
Royal 
Society and was responsible for the building of the Greenwich Observatory.
Also 
with the king's support, Christopher Wren designed Chelsea Hospital and,
after 
the Great Fire, assisted in rebuilding Saint Paul's Cathedral. 
 
 
JAMES II AND MARY OF MODENA 
 
 
S4, D11-D13, D18-D21 
 
 
James II (1633-1701) of England, Scotland, and Ireland 
(r. 1685-1688) was the second son of Charles I and was the 
brother of Charles II. Although James distinguished himself as 
a military leader while Prince of Wales, he became one of 
Britain's least popular monarchs. By the early 1670s he had 
converted to Catholicism, and in May 1670 he signed a secret 
treaty aimed at returning Protestant England to Rome. Two 
years after the demise (1671) of Anne Hyde, James's Protestant 
first wife, who professed Catholicism before her death, James 
took the politically unpopular step of marrying the Italian 
 
 
Catholic Mary Beatrice. Also known as Mary of Modena (1658-1718), the new

queen was the sister of Francis II. 
   James commanded the Royal Navy with honor from 1660 until the Test Act

of 1673, aimed at excluding Catholics from high office, forced him to resign
as 
Lord High Admiral and brought to the forefront issues regarding his suitability

as future king. In the late 1670s James was implicated in the fictitious
Popish 
Plot (see preceding entry), and he followed suggestions to remove himself,
at 
least temporarily, from Court. Several times Parliament attempted to block

James's succession, but his coronation in 1685 at age fifty-one appears to
have 
been relatively uneventful. The same year James's superior forces easily
put 
down an invasion by James Scott, Duke of Monmouth, who attempted to claim

the throne for himself. James's pro-Catholic policies, aggressive personality,
and 
resistance to compromising with Parliament, however, gained him no friends.

   The king angered his subjects by accelerating his policy of granting military

and other important appointments to Catholics and dismissing six judges who

opposed him. In 1688 he issued a second Declaration of Indulgence along with

the order that it be read in all churches. Bishops who asked him to reconsider

were charged with seditious libel. In the same year Mary of Modena finally
gave 
birth to an heir, an event that drove Protestants, who had anticipated a
non- 
Catholic succession, to desperation. Soon afterward James II's reign was
cut 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 13 
 
 
SwvuWM 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
short by the bloodless "Glorious Revolution" (1688; see next entry),
which set his 
Protestant daughter Mary II and her Dutch Protestant husband, William III,
on 
the British throne. James went into exile in France; the deposed king's attempts

to regain the throne (see below) were followed later and equally unsuccessfully

by those of his son, James Edward. 
 
 
WILLIAM III AND MARY II 
AND THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION 
 
 
$6, DI -D13, D20-D29, D246 
 
 
Battles in Ireland, including the famous and decisive Battle of the Boyne,
led by 
William himself, were well supported in England and resulted in the eventual

defeat of James's Catholic forces and his departure once again for France.

(William's military ferocity is illustrated by his almost undoubted support
for 
the horrible massacre of the Macdonald clan in Scotland in 1692.) 
   To secure their position further, the recently crowned monarchs passed
a 
new Bill of Rights that detailed James's misdeeds and declared that no Catholic

nor any person wedded to a Catholic could succeed to the throne. Parliament's

power increased under William and Mary, partly because of a 1688 declaration

that the British legislature must be called annually and partly because William

needed money, typically acquired through taxation, and military support 
against France. More than ever before the monarchs were willing to consider

popular sentiments when reviewing political policy. 
   The couple's joint rule ended with Mary's death from smallpox in 1694.
Her 
demise weakened the monarchy, and anti-Dutch sentiments soon became 
apparent. Though peace with France finally was achieved in 1697, William
was 
concerned about Spain and lost popularity by resisting decreased taxation.
Two 
of the many frustrations of his later life were the reduction in the size
of the 
military in 1698 and the request the following year that he dismiss all foreign

counselors except Prince George of Denmark (see below). In 1702 William was

thrown from his horse while riding at Hampton Court. He subsequently died
of 
an inflammation of the lungs. 
   Life-size effigies made at the deaths of William III and Mary II and now
at 
Westminster Abbey illustrate the king's diminutive size (at five feet six
and one- 
 
 
14 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
half inches, he stands on a stool). Print and delftware portraits of the
couple 
often disguise William's stature by showing him set slightly back from his
five- 
foot, eleven-inch-tall wife so that their crowns appear to be on a level.

 
 
Anne, Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1665-1714; 
r. 1702-1714), was the second daughter ofJames II and the last 
Stuart monarch to rise to the throne. In 1683 Anne married 
Prince George of Denmark (1653-1708), Baron Ockingham, 
Earl of Kendal, and Duke of Cumberland, K.G. Their marriage 
seems to have been a happy one. Although George was natu- 
ralized by William III in 1689, the king apparently had little 
confidence in the asthmatic prince's talents. Even during 
Anne's reign George had comparatively little political power 
and served in the military primarily as a figurehead. 
 
 
ANNE AND PRINCE GEORGE 
OF DENMARK 
 
 
DI1-D13, D33-D36, D38-D39, D42, D256, 
D258, D419 
 
 
JOHN CHURCHILL, 
FIRST DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH 
 
 
D37-D39, D188 
 
 
   Unlike her father Anne remained devoted to the Church of England. Before

the Glorious Revolution both she and her sister, the future Mary II, were
told of 
the plot to depose their father and that they, respectively, were intended
to suc- 
ceed him on the throne. Before William and Mary's coronation, Anne formally

agreed not to contest the throne and was assured of succession before any
of 
her sister's offspring. 
   In 1700 Anne and George's only child to survive early childhood, eleven-year-

old William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, died. The following year the Act of

Settlement introduced the House of Hanover to the line of succession through

James I's granddaughter, the seventy-year-old Electress Sophia of Hanover.

Although the succession provisions did not go into effect until after Anne's

death, several restrictive aspects became effective immediately upon the
act's 
adoption. One of these measures required monarchs to gain Parliament's con-

sent before waging war or leaving the country. Another prohibited foreigners,

even if naturalized, to hold office or sit in Parliament. 
   Anne's reign saw the passage in 1707 of the Act of Union, which created
the 
Kingdom of Great Britain by uniting the parliaments of England (where Welsh

representatives already sat) and Scotland and declaring Scotland's acceptance
of 
the Hanoverian line of succession. Military successes (see Marlborough, below)

brought glory to the queen, but the last years of her reign were plagued
with 
domestic political strife. Anne died in 1714 as the result of a stroke. 
 
 
John Churchill (1650-1722), first Duke of Marlborough, was 
married to the ambitious Sarah Jennings, a close friend of 
Queen Anne's since childhood. Sarah's attempts to forward 
her husband's career increased friction between Anne and her 
brother-in-law, William III, who, although he respected 
Churchill's great military skill, mistrusted him for having 
deserted James II. Early in the 1690s Churchill was accused of 
treason, and William dismissed him from his post as comman- 
der in chief in the Netherlands. Anne, however, refused to 
dismiss Sarah from her own court. Although Mary II and Anne 
 
 
did not communicate again after 1692, William reinstated Churchill in 1698.

 
 
 
 
                                                  The Longridge Collection
15 
 
 
A 
 
  

					
				
				
 
reign or u.eorge i. 
 
 
JAMES BUTLER, 
SECOND DUKE OF ORMONDE 
 
 
D)40-D41 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GEORGE I 
 
 
DII -D)13, D45-D51 
 
 
James Butler, second Duke of Ormonde, K.G. (1665-1745), rose 
to his dukedom and became chancellor of Oxford in 1688, the 
year of the "Glorious Revolution" (see above and nos. D18, 
D22). The following year he acted as lord high constable at the 
coronation of William III and Mary IL The duke had strong roy- 
alist ties to Ireland and saw military service under both 
William III and Queen Anne. In 1702 he received command of 
the English and Dutch land forces that accompanied Sir 
George Rooke's fleet in the expedition against Cadiz. In the 
same year Ormonde and the Duke of Marlborough (see pre- 
 
 
ceding entry and no. D39) received the gratitude of Parliament for their
military 
successes, and in 1711 Ormonde succeeded Marlborough as captain-general of

the English forces. Ormonde remained in this position until 1714. His fairly

overt support of the Jacobite cause led to forfeiture of his estates, extinguishing

of his honors, and exile in 1715 and 1716. 
 
 
George Ludwig (1660-1727), Elector of Hanover (r. 1698-1727) 
and George I of England, Scotland, and Ireland (r. 1714-1727), 
was the first member of the House of Hanover to sit on the 
British throne. Born in Osnabrfick, Hanover (now Germany), 
George married his cousin Sophia Dorothea in 1682, and their 
son, George Augustus, was born the following year. The mar- 
riage was an unhappy one, and, after accusations of criminal 
intrigue, Sophia Dorothea was imprisoned in 1694. She 
remained incarcerated until her death in 1726. 
   George spent much of the first decade of the eighteenth 
 
 
century in military actions on the Continent and was little involved in English

policy. The British Act of Settlement of 1701, however, had introduced the
House 
of Hanover into the monarchy, and George became next in line for the British

crown upon the death of his mother, the Electress Sophia, in June 1714. He

became king of Great Britain when Queen Anne died two months later. 
Although James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766, the Old Pretender) had long

agitated for the reinstatement of the Stuart line, he was uncharacteristically

 
 
16 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
II 
 
 
,A 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
of English. The public, noting his refusal to give up his native German tongue,

German friends, and involvement in the politics of that country, feared Ger-

many would gain power over English interests. (In reality, George was fully

aware of these political sentiments and opposed a union between the two 
states.) In 1720 the stocks of the South Sea Company (of which George was
gov- 
ernor) crashed. The stocks had been introduced to alleviate the national
debt; 
the "South Sea Bubble" not only reduced the king's popularity further
but also 
weakened both the British government and economy. The end of the Great 
Northern War on the Continent in 1721 helped mitigate some of the pressures

on George as he finally became able to focus more on domestic issues. 
   George was a patron of the arts and was particularly fond of the work
of 
George Frideric Handel. The king donated moneys to the Royal Academy of 
Music and redecorated Kensington Palace extensively. George I died in 1727

while on a visit to Hanover. 
 
 
George Augustus (1683-1760), Elector of Hanover and George II 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland (r. 1727-1760), was the son 
of George I. At the age of forty-four George Augustus became 
the second Hanoverian to succeed to the British throne. 
Throughout his reign the king demonstrated a keen interest in 
the army, and he was the last British monarch to appear in per- 
son on the battlefield. He fought under Marlborough at 
Oudenarde (1708) and, at the age of sixty, led troops at Det- 
tingen (1743). 
   eonr e 11 unlike Ceopr re I urnc rnmrfrtfnhla c nAnl'nr, .. 
 
 
GEORGE II AND CAROLINE 
 
 
$9-S10, $14-$15, 1)49-l)50, )52-D53, )-313 
 
 
glish, but he continued his father's traditions of tying English policies
to 
German interests and spending much time in Hanover. With few exceptions,

most of which ended in political defeat, the king was willing (if not happy)
to 
follow his counselors' advice on issues concerning the British government.
In 
1744 he stated, "Ministers are the kings in this country." 
   George II's foreign policies and short temper did nothing for his popularity,

nor did his affairs with a series of foreign paramours and his perceived
neglect 
of his wife, Caroline of Ansbach (1683-1737), whom he had wed on Septem-

ber 2, 1705. George's grandfather, the Elector Ernest Augustus, had been
Caro- 
line's guardian, and the king's grandmother, the Electress Sophia, had been

fond of the girl and promoted the match. Although the ambitious Caroline

failed to learn English well, she enthusiastically shared her husband's interest

in English politics. 
   To some extent mirroring his relationship with George I, George II had

strong personal and political differences with his own son Frederick Louis

(1707-1751), Prince of Wales, who died before succeeding to the throne. Sup-

porters of the Jacobite cause ofJames Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766, the
Old 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 17 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   George and Caroline's interest in the arts included their patronage of
sculp- 
tor Michael Rysbrack. George also supported the founding of the British 
Museum in 1753. Caroline particularly appreciated poetry and took an interest

in science. The queen died peacefully of a "rupture" in 1737. George
II died of a 
heart attack on October 25, 1760. 
 
 
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, 
DUKE OF CUMBERLAND 
 
 
D54, D313 
 
 
GEORGE III AND CHARLOTTE 
 
 
S83-S84, D57 
 
 
I1 
 
 
William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765), was the 
third son (the second died in infancy) of George II and Caroline 
of Ansbach and the brother of Frederick Louis (1707-1751), 
Prince of Wales. (John Gay's Fables [1725/6] were composed as 
an amusement for the young duke.) Cumberland distin- 
guished himself in several military arenas but perhaps was 
most widely celebrated for his success at Culloden, where, on 
April 16, 1746, he led the British army's defeat of the Scottish 
Jacobites supporting Charles Edward Stuart (1720-1788, the 
Young Pretender). (Sir Everard Fawkener [1684-17581, the 
 
 
duke's secretary, was at one time the proprietor of the Chelsea porcelain
factory 
that produced busts of Cumberland after Culloden.) After the battle of Det-

tingen in 1743, General James Wolfe wrote that Cumberland "behaved as
bravely 
as a man could do. He had a musket-ball through the calf of his leg.... [He]
gave 
his orders with a great deal of calmness, and seemed quite unconcerned."
When 
offered medical assistance, the duke instructed the surgeon to care instead
for 
a nearby French soldier, who was more seriously wounded and more likely to
be 
neglected. In 1746 Horace Walpole wrote of the duke, "The soldiers adore
him, 
and with reason; he has a lion's courage.., and... great military genius."

 
 
George William Frederick (1738-1820), Electoral-prince of 
Brunswick-Lineburg and George III of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland (r. 1760-1820), was the eldest son of the Prince and 
Princess of Wales, Frederick Louis (1707-1751) and Augusta of 
Saxe-Coburg (1719-1772). Although George was the third 
member of the House of Hanover to ascend to the British 
throne, he was the first to have been born in England. Taking 
his father's wise political advice, George professed that he 
associated himself more closely with Britain than Germany. 
   George III was, for the most part, more popular than his 
 
 
father and grandfather. At the beginning of his reign he enjoyed the advantages

of youth, no Jacobite threat, bachelorhood, and the lack of an heir to threaten

political opposition. Although the king's early life was isolated and mundane

and his personality tended toward solemnity and self-righteousness, he became

both competent and industrious in adulthood, albeit a poor negotiator because

of lack of experience. 
 
 
18 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
   Among the most politically charged tasks in George's early career was
con- 
cluding the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), a military action that was draining

the government's coffers. Immediately following the war the passage of the

Stamp Act (1765) sparked protests in America. Although the act was repealed,

tensions between the British government and the colonists continued during

the rest of the 1760s and the 1770s. During this same period financial and
mil- 
itary concerns in India also plagued the king. In the early 1780s Britain
suffered 
the loss of the thirteen American mainland colonies. This blow, however,
pre- 
ceded an era of industrial expansion and commercial success in England, and

George remained comparatively popular throughout much of the rest of the

eighteenth century. 
   George III experienced episodes of physical and mental illness throughout

his adult life, and the outbreaks occurred more frequently and with more
sever- 
ity as he aged. The Regency Bill of February 1811 finally removed the respon-

sibilities of ruling from him. During the last eight and one-half years of
his life, 
a blind George III knew few moments of lucidity. 
   Early in his reign George's need for a Protestant wife made the king and
his 
counselors look toward Germany. After considering several young ladies, it
was 
settled that George should marry the sensible seventeen-year-old Charlotte

Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744-1818). The union took place in 1761
and 
resulted in the birth of George IV (1762-1830) and his fourteen siblings.

   George III collected books and enjoyed music. An interest in science led
him 
to encourage Sir William Herschel to construct at Windsor what was then the

world's largest telescope. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 19 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
DELFTWARE INTRODUCTION 
 
       Plates of pewter are no go, 
       Because you have to scour them so, 
       But a plate of porcelain, 
       When tis washed is white and clean 
       Therefor set on th' table free 
       A plate that finely painted be 
 
 
C    onsecutive lines from this rhyme appear in Dutch on sets of six tin-glazed
earthen- 
ware plates made in Holland during the third quarter of the seventeenth century.
The use 
 
 
of the term porceleijn (or porcelain) on these pieces and in early documents
reflects some 
Western potters' claims that their ceramics duplicated the fineness and translucency
of the 
Chinese and Japanese hard-paste porcelain then being imported into Europe.'
In reality, 
these Western imitations were made in opaque, somewhat porous reddish to
pale buff-col- 
ored, low-fired earthenware, which was coated with lead glaze that had been
opacified and 
 
 
1. See Scholten, van Drecht, pp. 260-261, no. 224, for a 
plate from such a service. See Archer, V&A, pp. 3, 29 33, 
flr Chinese porcelain as a delfiware inspiration. 
 
 
20 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
whitened with tin oxide-thus the term tin-glazed earthenware. (Several particularly
useful 
publications describing delftware materials and production methods are listed
below.)2 
Rather than being a consistent white, the glaze color varied widely, depending
on the 
amount of tin and other ingredients in the glaze and clays. The combination
of trace ele- 
ments of chrome in the clay and tin in the glaze could create a pinkish cast;
varying 
amounts of cobalt produced a bluish white to dark blue glaze; and lavender
or greenish 
casts are not uncommon.' 
 
 
ENGLISH DELFT MANUFACTURE 
 
 
Material from British archaeological sites indicates that late sixteenth-century
English pot- 
ters were well aware of porcelain being imported from the East and Continental
imitations 
 
 
A 
 
 
of it) A 1570 patent granted to a group of potters in Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire

allowed them to practice "the arte and science of baken of erthen vessellies]
and other 
erthen woorke after the manner of Turkye Italye Spayne and Netherlond."
In 1613 
 
 
2. Set, Arther, V&A, pa:'ti:',-,ýi pp. 1:1 23: AUstin, Delfti
:3. Ardier, V&A, pp. 19 20. 
Nol hlnie, London and Virginia; Ray, Warren: 
Edwards, london Potters; Britton, London; Britwjn,      4Iid pp 1     1 
 fiee Ior. 
                                              Pot tery. pp. 12 1 IC, lot
lhnt 
Bristol: Britton, Pickleherring: Blritton, Inventories;    1 It,   waix and
their 
Museum of London, Ixcavat ions: Bloice, Norfolk I louse. 
 
 
loLl s. 
 
 
Neal, and van Beuningen, 
1,, Italian, Spanish, lPortuguese 
mxnovemnent along early trade 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 21 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Southwark merchant Edmund Bradshawe, who traded along the Barbary Coast and
at 
Mediterranean ports, was granted a patent that permitted him to manuftacture
tin-glazed 
earthenware "as is used in Fiansa and other parte beyond the Seas.",

   Although maiolica from Southern Europe certainly influenced early English
tin glaze 
and had formed an important part of the import trade from medieval times,,
ultimately 
imports from Holland had the greatest impact on the budding English tin-glazed
earthen- 
ware industry. Even the term delft, commonly used for English tin-glazed
earthenware by 
the early 1700s, was taken from the name of an important Dutch tin-glazed
earthenware 
manufacturing center. (Modern scholars and collectors sometimes use capitalization
or the 
lack of it to differentiate between discussions of Dutch Delft and English
delft.) Among other 
early labels applied to Continental and English tin glaze are galliware or
gallyware (in use 
from the late 1500s to the 1700s), probably a reference to the ships that
first carried the 
nieces to Eneland: bastard chino ldarin from the late 1600sd: Hollondswor&,:
and whit', wore' 
 
 
   Late seventeenth-century English entrepreneurs fully appreciated the financial
potential 
of delftware manufacture. Sir John Lowther was interested in setting up (but
never suc- 
cessfully achieved) ceramic production at his Cumberland estate. In 1697/8
he recorded the 
results of his study of the industry in correspondence with his factor, William
Gilpen. One 
letter relayed information provided by Fulham potter John Dwight: 
 
        The Gally ware, or Hollandsware, as you call it, made at Lambeth
has also 
        [their clay] from a particular place belonging to Sir J. Banks not
but that 
        other places will do, but where they find good they stick to it.'

 
   Another of Lowther's letters enclosed Dwight's comments contrasting the
quality of and 
production methods used for delft and other earthenware with those used to
produce 
stoneware: 
 
        The differences between stone & Earthen Ware are such as these
stone 
        Pots (not Holland [here, unglazed redware] but cologne Ware) are
made of 
        Tobacco Pipe Clay wth some fine sand intermixd, & burnt but once.
the 
        Earthen Gally or White Ware cannot be made of Tobacco Pipe Cley,
but of 
        other sorts that will not endure a strong fire, & are twice (but
soft) burnt, 
        & that with wood only, for the glazing of wich White, Tin &
Lead calcind 
        together are used. The other Earthen country Pots that are glazed
wth 
        Lead-Oar are also soft burnt, & burnt for ye most part wth ...
Coale.... 
        Great store of white Ware [delft] is made in England, nor is there
any want 
        of Materialls or people bred up in & about that Manufacture....
That wich 
        is calld bastard China is only the White or gally Ware wrought thin
and 
        hansomly painted, is rotten within and hath no intrinsick vall.1°

 
(Dwight was not a delftware manufacturer and, like any good businessman,
preferred to 
show his own products in the best light.) 
   Dwight also provided Lowther with a rough recipe, discussed delftware
types and clay 
 
 
preparation, and offered a rare description of shaping delft pieces on the
wheel: 
 
 
 
5. Edwards, London Potters, p. 8; Weatherill and Edwards,  8. Britton, Inventories,
pp. 61-63; Archer, V&A, pp. 3 4. 
London and Whitehaven, p. 179 (Archer, V&A, p. 4, identi-  Austin, Delft,
p. 15, suggests that the term galleyware is 
fies the 1613 patent recipient as Hugh Cressey).      derived from the Saxon
for clay. 
6. Archer, V&A, p. 3.                        9. Weatherill and Edwards,
London and Whithaven, 
 
 
7. Valpy, 18th Century Newspapers, pp. 310, 313-316;        p. 163. 
Archer, V&A, p. 4.                          10. Ibid., pp. 163 164. Holland
ware also sometimes refers 
                                            to unglazed red stoneware made
in that country. 
 
 
22 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
5. 
 
 
il 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
At Lambeth Gaily Ware is made of a Compossion of Clays mixed together, 
one sort is called Red Clay which is very strong, and the other Blue Clay,

wch is of a good strength, & the last is White Clay which is ye weakest,

they are Mixed in this Manner. First they put about three Barrels of Red

Clay and five of Blue Clay and seven or Eight of white Clay, into a pond
or 
sestron [cistern] where it is stired and wrought together till it becomes
like 
 
 
Thick water, this is call'd washing of Clay, Then its put through a fine

haire sive and runs into a Shallow place like to a seastron, where it sattles

into a bed and the water dries from it, after which it is Carried into the

House and wrought up by treading, till it is of a Certain plyable temper

fitt for buisness [sic], then it is Carri'd to the Working Roome where it
is 
Moulded like fine Paste, after which it is devided into smale parcels accord-

in to what worke desined, ther being severall sorts made in one Roocme 
 
 
11. Cited ibid., p. 164. There is a lack of 17th- and 18th-  decorated mold
used for slipware dishes, see Manchester, 
century illustrations, and only a few contemporary      Greg Collection,
pp. 20 23, no, 24. 
descriptions provide information on English wheels of 
the period.                                  13. Lipski and Archer. Dated
Delfware, no. 265. 
12. Stephenson comments (September 1998), during a dis  14. Archer, V&A,
pp. 16-22. For the 1712 plate, see Lipski 
cussion of delftware-related finds from the London area.  and Archer, Dated
Delftware, no. 265, and Goldweitz, 
                                             Collection, p. 11. 
(Stephenson notes that a ceramic porringer-handle mold 
was found at the Pickleherring site.) For a buff clay, relief- 
 
 
24 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
        and all is turn'd or Made with a Wheele .... for Every sort of Worke
has 
        some diffrance in the wheele, as for the Wheeles themselues there
is noe 
        diffrance (but in the head upon which they Worke) it being a Round
peece 
        of Timber put upon an Axell Tree, or Rather upon an Iron spindle,
sett in 
        a perpenticular with the Wheele end downwards, and their block on
the 
        other End upon which they worke, allwayes obseruing to keep their

        wheele mouing with their Right foot while they turn any peece of
Ware, 
        which is brought to perfection by slight of hand, without any other
Toole 
        but only a peece of square Iron, with which they smouth over the
out sides 
        of their Ware." 
 
   Based on the regularity of size and form of many groups of delft plates
and dishes, 
domed hump molds must have been in common use for their production. The complete

lack of survival of such tools among archaeological evidence may indicate
that the molds 
were made of wood rather than the pottery or other materials sometimes used
for slipware 
dish molds (see also vol. 1, p. 39).11 
   After shaping and drying, the pieces destined to become delftware were
burnt once (bis- 
cuit fired) at from 9800 C. to 10000 C. to harden the bodies. Raw tin glaze
then was applied 
and any colored decoration was executed before the glaze and ornament were
affixed to 
the body in a second glost or gloss firing at temperatures similar to those
for biscuit firing. 
This process is commemorated with a sort of humanistic twist on the first
of what proba- 
bly originally was a set of six plates: the piece is inscribed "[1]/Thr°
many hands/Twice thr° 
the fire/at last/1712."''3 (For John Dwight's description of firing
delftware, see vol. 1, p. 32). 
   A few potters adopted the Dutch practice of applying a kwaart, or clear
lead glaze, over 
the finished tin glaze to increase the translucency and glossiness of the
surface and thus 
imitate porcelain more closely. "Muffle" kilns (firing to about
7600 C.), used to affix enameled 
ornament and colors that could not withstand glost firing temperatures, also
were a Dutch 
innovation. Gilded motifs could be fixed in a very low temperature firing
or adhered cold.,4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THE TASTE FOR ENGLISH DELFT 
 
 
The popularity of English delftware increased dramatically during the seventeenth
cen- 
tury, riding on the coattails of public fascination with the Chinese export
porcelain that it 
imitated directly or, through imported Continental tin glaze, indirectly.
Delftware shapes 
and designs inspired by Continental originals also were popular in England,
and domestic 
and immigrant potters competed with the foreign craftsmen who supplied the
import mar- 
ket in a time of limited access to fine ceramics. 
   In the 1690s this competition resulted in English delftware potters' agitating
for restric- 
tions against imported wares and formally stating their economic concerns.
The Company 
of Glass Sellers (who also were responsible for the sale of ceramics) responded
by issuing a 
broadsheet on which the potters' arguments were stated and refuted. Among
issues cov- 
ered in the document were: 
 
        I. That the Manufacture of Earthen Ware is of general use in private

            Families of all Conditions and of absolute necessity in divers
Trades 
            and Professions, sufficient Quantities whereof are, and with
ease might 
            be made at home, for supply of the whole Nation, in all respects
as 
            good as any Imported.... 
 
            Answer [English delftware potters] never did, neither can they
make 
            such Painted Earthen Ware as is Imported.... 
 
        II. That the said Manufacture is wholy made of English Materials,
great 
            quantities of Tin, Lead, Clay and Kelpe to a considerable Value
being 
            therein yearly used; and if the same were duly Encouraged, a
much 
            greater Consumption would be had, and the said Art be improved,
and 
            the Exportation and Vent Isalesi thereof in Foreign Parts be
Promoted. 
 
            Answer Far greater Quantities than there are or could be here
Con- 
            sumed of the said Materials, are Exported to Holland, Germany,

            Spain, Portugall, Italy, Turkey, Genoa, Persia and the East Indies,
to make 
            the said Wares so desired to be Prohibited.' 
 
   The Glass Sellers' Company also included an aesthetic argument: 
 
        the Inport of Foreign Earthen Ware has been a great Example to the
very 
        Pot-makers themselves, by making their Wares after Foreign Patterns
to 
        their great Interest.", 
 
   Individuals who wished to purchase delftware could patronize the shops
of members of 
 the Glass Sellers' Company or purchase the pottery directly from factories,
many of which 
 kept warehouses from which they sold their produce to the general market.
(Occasionally, 
 customers commissioned special items with particular ornament or inscriptions.)

 Consumers who lacked easy access to delftware potting centers--London; Bristol;
Liverpool; 
 Glasgow, Scotland; or Dublin, Ireland-often relied on traveling peddlers
and stands at mar- 
 kets and fairs, and residents of Britain's coastal towns and colonial or
foeign ports 
 received their delftware by ship.'1 
   Early in the second quarter of the eighteenth century, delftware began
to lose some of 
 its preeminence as English production of a broad range of new ceramic body
types 
 
 
 15. 1taselgrove and Murray, I)wight, p. 131. IFr sources of  16. 1 laselgrove
and Murray, Dwight, p1  132, 
 clay used in English delftware manufacture see Archer, 
                                             17. Arher, V&A pp 23 27.

 V&A,p. 13. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 25 
 
  

					
				
				
 
increased. A 1753 Public Advertiser published Nicolas Crisp's announcement
for the opening 
of the Vauxhall porcelain factory. Crisp linked his soft-paste wares to the
elegant hard-paste 
porcelain of China and took aim at the problems of delftware: 
 
        the finest of our Manufacture in this kind, is no other than a coarse
Earth, 
        baked and glazed over with a thin Coat of vitrified Materials, so
that the 
        earth does neither unite into a solid body, nor admit the Glazing,
with 
        which it is covered, to adhere firmly to it; by this Means, not only
any sud- 
 
 
        den heat, but even the Moisture of the Air, will cause the Glazing
to crack 
        and flake off.,, 
 
  Crisp apparently was not the only person of this period to disparage delftware.
One 
satirist writing in the London Connoisseur of January 15, 1756, complained
that: 
 
 
                                      A few delftware advertisements note
the pieces' place of origin. The Norwich Mercury for 
                                   December 9, 1758, recorded that "GRANTHAM'S
Earthen-Warehouse" in Norwich had 
                                   "Superfine Liverpool Delft"
available for purchase (see vol. 1, p. 29).2i 
 
 
                                   18. Emmerson, Teapots, p. 28. Crisp's
observations also  20. Belden, Festive Tradition, p. 201. 
                                   provide an explanation for the rarity
of English tin-glazed 
                                   tea- and coffee wares.               
      21. Smith, Norwich China ealers, p. 195. 
                                   19. Chalmers, Essayists, vol. 32, pp.
50-51. 
 
 
26 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
        I am never allowed to eat from anything better than a delft plate,
the econ- 
        omy of the beaufait, which is embellished with a variety of china
may not 
        be disarranged: and indeed my wife prides herself on her ingenious
con- 
        trivance in this article, having ranged among the rest some old china
not 
        fit for use, but disposed in such a manner, as to conceal the streaks
of 
        white paint that cement the broken pieces together. I must drink
my beer 
        out of an earthen mug, though a great quantity of plate is constantly
dis- 
        played on the side-boared; while all the furniture, except when we
have 
        company, is done up in paper, as if the family, to whom it belongs,
were 
        gone into the country." 
 
   Although fashionable members of the colonial market closely followed London
prefer- 
ences, more traditional consumers in the colonies demonstrated a continued
and sizable 
demand for delftware and other ceramics, even after interest in them had
begun to wane 
in England. Williamsburg, Virginia, shopkeeper John Greenhow was one supplier
of these 
tastes. In an April 11, 1771, advertisement in the Virginia Gazette, he offered
for sale "Delft 
Wares of most Sorts." A June 7, 1773, Boston Gazette advertisement mentioned
delftware 
among a broad range of ceramic types: 
 
        John Adams, 
        (At his Shop opposite the Old-South Meeting Houfe, BOSTON) 
        Hath received from London and Liverpool, 
          A Great Variety of the beft India China, confifting of Cups and
Saucers, 
        Tea Pots, Cream Pots, Sugar Dishes, Coffee Cups and Saucers, large
and 
        fmall Bowls, Plates, Pudding Difhes, Sauce Boats, Patty Pans, Quart
and 
        Pint Mugs. 
          A fine Affortment of Double and Single Flint Glafs, plain fluted
and 
        enamel'd cream-coloured Ware, plain white, blue & white, and
Enamel'd 
        Stone Ware, with all Kinds of Ware ufually imported, fuch as black,
brown, 
        tortoifet'hell, agate_ colleflower blue &, hite Dil lh £,r
20 
 
  

					
				
				
 
   By late in the century the production of delftware in England virtually
had ended, and 
English tin-glazed earthenware had been replaced by creamware, pearlware,
and other 
white-bodied ceramics. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 27 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
				
				
 
D ELF TWA RE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D1. DISH 
Southwark, London 
Montague Close or Pickleherring 
Dated 1633 
 
H.: 2 1/8" (5.4 cm); L.: 19 3/8" (49.2 cm); 
W.: 16 1/8" (40.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff with small red 
inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: White. That on exterior 
lower in tin content with greenish areas 
and touches of manganese purple. 
SHAPE: Molded. Deep-welled dish 
with unevenly smoothed exterior. 
DECORATION: Painted and relief, 
Fecundity scene with Venus and putti in 
interior. Inscribed 1633 STEPHEN: 
FORTVNE:&:ELIZABETH." Border com- 
posed of masks, vases of flowers (or 
fruit baskets?), circular depressions with 
flowers, and oval depressions with 
artemisia leaves. 
 
Published: Apollo 12 (July-December 1935), 
p. 11; Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 90; Little, Little by Little, p. 78, fig. 97; 
Grigsby, Dated Longridge Delftware and 
Slipware, pp. 878-879, pl. 4. 
Ex coils.: Lord Revelstoke; B. K. 
and N. F Little. 
 
 
1. L.ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 90-126 passim. 
2. Burman, Motifs 2, p. 105; Archer, V&A, p. 109; 
Britton, Palissy, pp. 172-173. For French exam- 
pies, see Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, Pictorial 
History, p. 178, no. 1; Kassebaunm Collection, 
no. 109; Archer, V&A, p. 110, fig. 27. Archer 
comments (19981: Palissy's successors did make 
fecundity dishes. 
3. Archer, V&A, no. A.16, pp. 110, 561. 
 
 
4. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, collection 
(no. 61.1240); Archer, V&A, no. A.61; Peirce, 
Cocke Collection, no. 1; Minneapolis Institute 
collection (no. 96.36.1); Allen Museum collec- 
tion; Sotheby's (L), November 15, 1994, lot 112. 
For a 1635 fecundity dish with florets and 
artemisia leaves but no mattress striping, see 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 91. 
5. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 137; 
Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 96, no. 1408. 
6. Burlington (1914), pl. 38, Case D, no. 57 (then 
in the Manderson collection). 
 
 
30 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I1 
 
 
Iý 
 
 
                                             "Palissy-Type" Wares

 
 
 
 
 
T   his important "fecundity dish" is the first of three in the
Longridge collection 
(see nos. D2, D3) and is the earliest of nearly twenty dated examples, the
latest 
being from 1697.1 English versions derive from sixteenth-century, French,
lead- 
glazed earthenware dishes, perhaps after metalwork originals, that often

display mottled grounds over much of the area outside the central reserve.
Tra- 
ditionally such pieces have been attributed to Bernard Palissy (d. 1590)

-explaining the popular title "Palissy dishes" for English examples-but
though 
his factory did produce fine relief-decorated pottery imitated by English
delft- 
ware manufacturers (see nos. D4, D5, D6), there is no evidence of its making

dishes depicting the fecundity scene. Based on the close similarity between
relief 
motifs, it has been thought, perhaps mistakenly, that molds were taken from
the 
French originals to create the English dishes.' 
    The date on the dish shown here indicates that it was made in Southwark
at 
Montague Close or Pickleherring. Although rim fragments of fecundity dishes

have been unearthed at Rotherhithe, there is no evidence of that factory's
being 
active before 1636.:' The Longridge dish fits into a distinct group of examples,

all but one of which have in the rim depressions florets alternating with

artemisia leaves. The leaf motif represents one of the Eight Precious Things
and 
is derived from Chinese export porcelain ornament. All dishes in the group
have 
a distinctive striped edge to the mattress on which the figure is reclining."
Some 
examples appear to be from different molds, and the constituents of the group

represent the produce of more than one factory (see nos. D2, D3). A somewhat

bizarre cousin to relief-decorated versions is a smooth-surfaced, circular
fecun- 
dity dish dated 1675 and depicting a variation on the central scene within
a 
foliate and grotesque border.' Also perhaps unique is an oval version with
the 
usual raised central scene within a smooth outer border painted with pome-

granates and grape clusters.' 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
Dining and Related Wares 
D Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D2, D3. DISHES 
(D2) Southwark, London 
Probably Richard Newnham, 
Pickleherring 
Dated 1659 
(D3) Probably Southwark, London 
c. 1675 
 
(D2) H.: 2" (5.1 cm); L.: 18" (45.7 cm); 
W.: 15 3/8" (39.1 cm) 
(D3) H.:1 5/8" (4.1 cm); L.: 181/2" (47 cm); 
W.: 15 3/8" (39.1 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff, (D2) somewhat 
pinkish. 
TIN GLAZE: White. (D2) That on exte- 
rior with open crazing, small greenish 
patches, and unglazed patches, (D3) 
unevenly applied, with bluish cast and 
unglazed patches, some with finger- 
prints in clay. 
SHAPE: Molded. Deep-welled dishes 
with unevenly smoothed exteriors, 
DECORATION: Painted and relief. 
Fecundity scene with Venus and putti in 
interior. Borders partly composed of 
masks and vases of flowers (or fruit bas- 
kets?). (D2) Border circular depressions 
depict a king and queen or are inscribed 
"N RA" or "1659." Oval depressions depict 
 
floral motifs. Well decoration com- 
posed of zigzags and graduated curves. 
(D3) Border depressions depict fruit, 
sometimes in baskets, and, in two oval 
depressions, Chinese figures in land- 
scapes, Well decoration composed of 
flowering vine. 
 
Published: (D2) Noppen, Ceramics, p. 210: 
Lipski and Archer. Dated Delftware, no. 106. 
Ex coll.: (D2) T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
                                            "Polissy-Type" Wares

 
 
 
 
 
 With the previous example, dated 1633, these fecundity dishes illustrate

the long-term popularity in English delftware of an originally French form.
On 
the 1659 dish (D2) the tiny circular portraits probably represent King Charles
I- 
with mustache and pointed beard-and Queen Henrietta Maria and presumably

indicate royalist sympathies on the part of the owners. (Initials matching
those 
1"NRA'A] on the dish occur within a shield on a molded, circular dish
dated 1660.)' 
Comparable portraits appear on three other fecundity dishes; the 1671 date
on 
one places its manufacture during the reign of Charles II (r. 1660-1685)."

Although not identical in format, flowers resembling those in the border

depressions on the Longridge dish (D2) are found on another 1659 fecundity

dish and on two undated examples. This date appears to be the latest on fecun-

dity dishes showing Venus wearing a necklace with a crucifix and may identify

the beginning of a period of increased antipopish sentiments. 
   The Longridge dish (D2) and those just discussed are among fourteen with

dates from 1651 to 1671. Although not all painted by the same hand, they
share 
motifs including figures (possibly portraits), flowers, checkered floors,
distinc- 
tive buildings, and small ships. Through its initials, a 1661 dish from the
group 
has been shown convincingly to have been made at the Pickleherring factory

during Richard Newnham's time as manager. The "WP" initials on
the backs of 
two dishes from 1658 and 1671, respectively, may represent William Price
or 
William Pocock, who painted delftware in Saint Saviour's, Southwark, and
pos- 
sibly worked at Pickleherring.' The remainder of the group also is likely
to have 
been made at that factory. 
    The second Longridge dish (D3), another undated example, and three from

 1674, 1675, and 1681, respectively, share distinctive painted flowers and
fruit in 
 their border depressions. The 1675 dish so closely resembles the Longridge
dish 
 in the fruit in its oval depressions and flowers on the vine decorating
the well 
 as to indicate that they are by the same hand and are similar in date.'
Flowers 
 resembling those on the vines also occur on dated Longridge delftware: a
1669 
 mug, a 1674 posset pot, and a 1675 scroll salt (nos. D240, D275, D208).
Given the 
 long tradition of fecundity dish production in Southwark, it is likely the
undat- 
 ed Longridge dish also was made there. 
 
 
1. lipski and Archer, Dated IDelftware, no. 107. 
2. Ibid., no. 118 (1671 dish); Christie's (L), 
May 30, 1977, lot 41; Sotheby's (I,), March 6, 
1968, lot 238. 
3. I ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 105 
(1659 dish); Nottingham Castle collection 
ino, 54- 30); Sotheby's (1), March :3, 1964, lot 87, 
 
 
4. Archer, V&A, p. 110 (all three dishes). 
Austin, Delft, no. 154 11661 dish), 
5. Taggart, Burnap, no. 99 (undated). Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 199 11674); 
120 (1675); 121 (1681). 
 
 
32 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1)2 
 
 
I) 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I1I 
 
 
DEL FTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
"Palissy-Type" Wares 
 
 
II 
 
 
1 
 
 
! 
 
 
D4. BOWL 
Southwark, London 
Possibly Pickleherring 
c. 1650 
 
H.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm); L.: 8 1/8" (20.6 cm); 
W.: 51/4" (13.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with open crazing, 
much wrinkled within foot and wiped 
off footrim. 
SHAPE: Molded with concave foot 
applied separately and also apparently 
molded. 
DECORATION: Painted and relief. 
Interior with seminaked figures, possi- 
bly Mars and Venus. Rim lobes bear 
molded foliate decoration and foliate 
and curvilinear border. Exterior bears 
two elaborated squarish motifs. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. For Ceres and Bacchus, see 
Dauterman, Palissy, p. 191, 
fig. 12 (Metropolitan Museum 
collection). For Mars and Venus, 
see Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, 
Pictorial History, p. 176, pl. 2; 
de Rothschild and Grandjean, 
Palissy, pl. 36. For a Continental 
tin-glazed dish with relief Ceres, 
see Rackhain, Glaisher, vol. 2, 
pl. 97B, no. 1420. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 724, 733. 
 
 
This bowl, like two other dishes in this collection (nos. D5, D6), derives
fr-om 
sixteenth-century French examples from Bernard Palissy's workshop. Similarly

shaped bowls from that pottery depict relief "Ceres and Bacchus"
and "Mars and 
Venus" subjects that in modeling resemble those on the bowl shown here.,

Although less distinct modeling makes it not completely obvious who the Long-

ridge figures are meant to be, they are most similar to the French Mars and

Venus subjects. If pieces after Palissy originals were a specialty of the
Pickle- 
herring factory (see no. D6), then the bowl may have been made there. The

bowl's attribution to England is based on its glaze and painting style. The
lobe 
and internal borders help to date the piece: similar ornament is found on
En- 
glish mugs dated 1645 and 1655.2 The meaning of the unusual motifs (perhaps

embryo coats of arms?) painted on the exterior of the bowl is unknown. 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
This rare dish, like two others in this collection (nos. D4, D6), was inspired

by-and this example perhaps was molded directly from-a sixteenth- or early

seventeenth-century version attributable to Bernard Palissy's factory in
Sain- 
tonge, France.' (A second relief-decorated dish model attributed to Palissy
also 
depicts the Sacrifice but is not known to have been reproduced in English
delft- 
ware.)2 Other Continental factories also produced dishes showing this popular

Old Testament subject, and the variations on the scene typically are derived

from Continental prints.' The same type of source inspired two-dimensional

depictions of the Sacrifice appearing on English delftware.' 
 
 
1. Morley-lietcher and Mcllroy, Pictorial Htistory,  31 For a Spanish inaiolica
Sacrilice dish, see 
p. 179, no. 2.                            Martinez Caviro, Ceramica Espanola,
p, 123, 
                                          no. 151. 
2. iturst, Neal, and van Beuningen, Plottery, 
pp. 86-87, 89, fig. 39.116, col. pl. 6.   4. For a 1665(?) dated  inglish
dish and its print 
                                          source, see Archer, V&A, no.
A.58, fig. 26. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 35 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D6. DISH 
Southwark, London 
Probably Richard Newnham, 
Pickleherring 
1645-1665 
 
H.: 31/4" (8.3 cm); L.: 17112" (44.5 cm); 
W.: 141/8" (35.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. That on exterior 
unevenly applied with a few greenish 
patches and some unglazed areas. 
SHAPE: Molded. Deep-welled dish 
with unevenly smoothed exterior. 
DECORATION: Painted and relief. 
Naturalistic arrangement including 
reptiles, shells, vegetation, and water. 
 
Ex col. J. P Kasseboum. 
 
 
                                            -Palissy Type"c WVres 
 
 
 
 
 
This important piece, like two others also in this collection (nos. D)4,
D5), 
derives from late sixteenth-century earthenware confidently attributable
to 
the Saintonge, France, factory of potter Bernard Palissy.' The same mold
used 
to shape the Longridge dish was used when creating two other English delift-

ware dishes, one inscribed on the back "EI A/1638" over a flourish.'
The 
frogs-two on the 1638 dish and four on the undated examples-were applied

after the dishes were molded. The lizard and snake heads may have been 
molded and applied, or perhaps they were heavily undercut while the clay
was 
still wet. 
    Despite possible differences in date, the closeness of the painting style
of all 
 three snake dishes may indicate that they are from the same factory, most
likely 
 Pickleherring. An oval with wiggly lines radiating from one side forms a
border 
 motif on the back of the non-Longridge snake dish without an inscription
and 
 resembles exterior ornament on a molded bowl with a coat of arms and a "bird-

 on-rocks" pseudo-kraak dish.' (The latest dated birds-on-rocks piece
is from 
 1651.) A 1661 dated fecundity dish confidently attributed to Pickleherring
also 
 displays the oval/wiggly line motif." 
    If the individuality of that motif means all four so-decorated pieces
are from 
 one production site, it helps form a link between snake and fecundity dishes.

 This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the "EIA" initials
seen on the 1638 
 snake dish also occur on the back of a fecundity dish with the same date.
It is 
 virtually certain that the two dishes were made for the same clients, and
it 
 is very likely that they were both ordered from the same pottery. 
 
 
1. For French Palissy examples, see Dauterman, 
Palissy, p. 188, no. 8; Morley-Fletcher and 
Mcllroy, Pictorial History, p. 178, no. 2. 
2. Toledo Musetum collection, no. 25.2 
(uninscribed). For the 1638 dish, see Lipski and 
Archer, Dated D)elltware, col. pl. 1, no. 92; 
Rackham., Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 1399. 
 
 
3. Rackham, Glaisher, vOL 1, no. 1309 (bowl); 
Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 36 (bird-on-rock). 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 111 
(fecundity). For Pickleherring attribution, 
see Archer, V&A, p. 110. 
5. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 93. 
 
 
36 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
II 
 
 
I1 
 
 
!1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
li 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
Dining and Related Wares 
T Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D7. DISH 
Southwark, London 
Possibly Richard Newnham, 
Pickleherring 
1645-1665 
 
H.: 3 3/8" (8.6 cm); 
Diam.: 16 3/8" (41.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff with large 
inclusions and blow holes. 
TIN GLAZE: White with much 
speckling. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Streaky and muddy, 
over pale slip. Overall on exterior, 
excluding patches at rim and where 
footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape A with more deeply curving well, 
virtually no flange, and noneverted rim. 
Footrim pierced with single hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. Equestrian 
figure carrying baton in landscape with 
building. Border composed of concen- 
tric circles and dashes. 
 
Published: Chorley collection, p. 182, p1 I; 
Archer, Monck, pp. 5, 8, fig. 8. 
Ex coils.: F L. Dickson, J and K. Chorley. 
 
 
                                           Royal, Mortial, and Other Historical
Figures 
                                           and Events 
 
 
 
 
The horseman depicted on this impressive dish undoubtedly was of consid-

erable importance, as evidenced in part by his carrying a baton, indicative
of 
high military rank. The mustache and pointed beard are consistent with por-

traits of Charles I, but the fashion also was popular among aristocrats and

leading soldiers of the period. If the dish does indeed depict Charles, it
may be 
unique in that it lacks any form of royal identification. Conversely, if
Charles is 
shown and the dish dates to Cromwell's Protectorate (1649-1660), it may have

been politic to omit any identifying insignia of the recently executed monarch.

    Based on its similarity to some published prints (see no. D17), the delftware

portrait also has been associated with General George Monck, Duke of Albe-

marle (d. 1670).' The origins of the design predate Monck commemoratives
and 
may be published images of Charles I. The Longridge equestrian group resem-

bles one in reverse on a 1637 dish showing the baton differently positioned.

That portrait, in turn, is said to resemble one on a medal commemorating

Prince Charles (later Charles II; see Time Line, pp. 12-13) at the Battle
of Edge- 
hill (1642). Presumably, the design must predate both the medal and the 1637

dish.' 
    Although somewhat similar in design, the 1637 dish and this Longridge

 example differ in painting style and date. The building and tree motif and
the 
 rounded stiles or fence on the Longridge dish have close counterparts on
a 1657 
 dish showing larger buildings within a leaf border. The latter dish and
differ- 
 ently ornamented examples dated 1657 and 1661 bear "NRE' initials linked
to 
 Elizabeth and Richard Newnham. Newnham was proprietor of the Pickle- 
 herring pottery in Southwark from around 1645 to 1684. Stylistically, the
dishes 
 form part of a group including dated examples from 1645 to 1671, with the

 majority being from 1650 to 1660.' 
 
 
1. Archer, Monck, p. 3, fig. 4 (citing British 
Museum Print Room, no. 28-29 in F. 
O'Donoghue, British Portraits). 
2. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 81A, 
no. 1397. 
3. Archer, V&A, no. A.56; Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 31, 111: 
Austin, Delft, no. 154. 
 
 
38 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
 
Ii 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 39 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I 
 
 
H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); 
Diam.: 12 3/4" (32.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Dark buff with a few 
blow holes. 
TIN GLAZE: Overfired white with 
medium crazing. Overall on interior, 
LEAD GLAZE: Brownish with traces of 
green, over pale slip, Overall on exterior. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B]/b with sharp, narrow groove 
on upper edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Charles 11 in 
coronation garb. Inscribed "NT" (in 
monogram), '1666," and "CR." Exterior 
inscribed "NT" (in monogram). Border 
composed of circle and dashes. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 50: Stretton, Rous Lench, 
p. 41, fig 4; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware. pp. 878-879, pi. 5. 
Ex coll.: T G Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
T   he monarch depicted on this dish is Charles 11 (1630-1685) of England,
Scot- 
land, and Ireland, who was "restored" to the throne in 1660 (r.
1660-1685) and 
two years later married the Portuguese Catholic Catherine of Braganza (see

Time Line, pp. 12-13). The date on the Longridge dish corresponds to the
year 
of the Great Fire of London and the second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-1667), the

latter resulting from mercantile competition. Although Britain enjoyed naval

successes in 1666, the war ended inconclusively.' 
   A checkered floor and columned arch setting appears as early as 1653 on
a 
delftware dish depicting Charles I in armor,2 but vaulted interiors like
that 
shown here are unknown on dated examples made before Charles II's corona-

tion in 1660. On the dated examples, the king is depicted in pose and costume

much as he appears on a 1672 dish in this collection (no. D9).' On the dish

shown here Charles holds only a scepter and is ornately attired, reflecting
his 
time in exile at the French court. This particular portrait of Charles is
unknown 
as a lone figure on other delftware dishes, but on a 1669 dated dish, he
is so 
depicted in the company of his wife, Catherine of Braganza. Speckling resem-

bling that ornamenting the vaulting on the Longridge dish extends down the

columns of a somewhat similar interior on a 1664 dish showing an exotic 
(Chinese?) figure holding a flower., 
    The "NT" monogram on the front of the Longridge dish without
doubt rep- 
resents the person for whom it was made, rather than the painter. The slightly

differing monogram on the back perhaps is a trial version. Another trial
mono- 
gram is found on the back of the 1638 Adoration dish in this collection (no.
D64) 
but is not shown on the front, although the same initials, "A WF,' are
twice 
repeated there. There is no direct evidence on which to base an attribution
for 
the Charles II dish, but, since there were five factories in operation in
London 
(four in Southwark and one in Wapping) in 1666, it seems more probable that
the 
Charles II dish was made there than at Norwich (active 1567-1698) or Brisling-

ton (active from 1642). Slipware dishes also depict Charles II in ceremonial
garb 
(see no. S5), and eighteenth-century Jacobite delftware depicts the so-called

Charles in the Boscobel Oak episode (nos. D43, D44). 
 
 
 
I. "Charles It," National Biography, vol. 4, 
pp. 84 96. 
2. For Charles 1, see Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 26, 30; Archer, Chargers, pl. 48d. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 38-42, 48. 
4. Ibid., nos. 56 (1669 dish), 47 (exotic figure 
dish). 
5. Archer, V&A, pp. 560 561, 564. 
 
 
40 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
                                                                        
                           Dining and Related Wares 
                                                                        
                           Dishes and Plates 
 
D8. DISH                                                                
              Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
                                                                        
              and Events 
Probably London 
Dated 1666 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
r 
 
 
iI 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 41 
 
 
1K 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D9. DISH 
London or perhaps Brislington 
or Bristol 
Dated 1672 
 
H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); 
Diam.: 12 3/4" (32.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: With greenish patches, 
over pale slip. Overall on exterior, 
excluding where footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B1/b. 
DECORATION: Painted. Charles II in 
ceremonial garb in a landscape. 
Inscribed "C2R" and "GME/16721" Border 
composed of circle and dashes. 
 
 
1. "Charles II," National Biography, vol. 4, 
pp. 96-98. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. A.6. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 39-42 11661-1662 dishes); no. 48 11665 
dish). For an undated example, see Austin, 
Delft, no. 171. 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 750-753, 755, 756. 
5. For the 16:t7 dish, see Archer, Chargers, 
pp. 114-115; Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 10. 
6. Archer, V&A, no. A.56. 
7. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 66. 
 
 
The date on this dish places it at a time when Charles II (r. 1660-1685;
see Time 
Line, pp. 12-13), after negotiating secretly for reconciliation with the
Church of 
Rome, issued a declaration of indulgence promising religious freedoms to
Protes- 
tant nonconformists and Catholics. The year also marked the beginning of
the 
third Anglo-Dutch War (1672-1674), which occurred during a period of British

naval and commercial superiority over Holland and France., Several delftware

dishes (see nos. D27, D28) depict closely comparable figures in settings
with much 
the same treatment of trees and foreground,2 but, unless identifying initials
are 
included, it is difficult to know which king is intended. (Some aid in identifica-

tion is in the form of facial hair, when accurately depicted: Charles I should
wear 
a mustache and beard, Charles II only a mustache, and James II and William
III 
should be clean shaven.) A generally similar figure of Charles II sometimes
is set 
in a vaulted setting resembling that on the previous dish (no. D8): four
examples 
with 1661 or 1662 dates show the hem of the king's costume elaborated with
ruf- 
fles, and, on two, lace is a feature of his collar. A 1665 dated "CR"
dish lacks the 
numeral 2 and depicts the king in a manner stylistically more similar to
his 
appearance on the Longridge example (D9).3 Half-length portraits of Charles
II 
beneath columned arches are found on caudle cups dated 1661 and 1662.4 
    Although scalelike trees occur on English delftware dishes at least as
early as 
 1637, the version on the Longridge dish seems not to have evolved before
the 
 reign of Charles II.5 Fences like those flanking the figure first appear
as a recur- 
 ring motif on Pickleherring delftware from around 1650 to 1660 .6 The initials

 "GM E" on the dish also are found on a 1676 dated example depicting
flowers 
 in a vase.7 
 
 
42 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
+ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
              Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Dishesand Plates 
 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
D10. DISH 
Brislington 
c. 1675-1690 
 
 
H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm); Diam.: 11 5/8" (29.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained 
 
 
orange-buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white. 
 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Twenty lobes rising 
 
 
from slightly convex center. Exterior 
follows form of interior, but with slight 
 
 
footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Charles II. 
inscribed "CR2.' Floral and foliate border. 
 
 
The portraits on this Charles II dish and on dishes portraying James 1i 
(nos. D18, D19), and, for both monarchs, Time Line, pp. 12-13) are painted
in the 
conventional manner associated with Brislington and act as a caution against

relying too heavily on physical features when identifying uninscribed subjects

on delftware. Based on paintings and published images of the monarchs, 
Charles II wore a mustache and James II was clean shaven, but here Charles
is 
clean shaven. Luckily, on all three Longridge pieces initials identify the
figures. 
On one smooth-edged, floral-bordered dish, the portrait is inscribed 
"CR2/1682."' 
    The shape of the gadrooned dish shown here is derived from metalwork
and 
matches that of a Longridge dish (no. D103) displaying Chinese figures in
land- 
scapes. It is possible that both are from the same mold. A smaller gadrooned

dish, also attributed to Brislington, has a crown and the date 1683 in the
cen- 
ter and a border of circles and pendant husks comparable to that on the Charles

II dish shown here.2 
 
 
a 
 
 
/I 
 
 
h.          - 
 
 
4 
 
 
1. For Charles 11 dishes, see Archer, Brislingi on, 
pp. 15:3 154, pls. 2, 4, 6 (1682). For the 1682 
dish, see also Britton, Bristol, no. 3.40. For an 
onusial punch bowl inscribed "KINGJ AMES ... 
1732," see 1ipski and Archer, Dated Delliware, 
no, 1087. 
 
 
2. Archer, Brislington. p. 158, pl. 14; lipski 
and Archer, luated DelIftware, no. 122. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
I 
 
 
DII, D12, D13. DISHES 
London or perhaps Brislington or Bristol 
(D1I, D13) 1685-1705 
(D12) 1675-1695 
 
(Dl1) H,: 3" (7.6 cm): 
Diam.: 16 1/4" (41.2 cm) 
(D12) H.: 21/2" (6.4 cm); 
Diam.: 131/2" (34.3 cm) 
(D13) H.: 2 7/8" (73 cm): 
Diam.: 131/8" (33.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: (D11) Fine-grained pinkish 
buff. (D12, D13) Buff with inclusions that 
protrude on exterior. 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D12) with speck- 
ling, (D]3) with medium crazing. (All) 
Overall on interiors. 
LEAD GLAZE: (Dll) Slightly bluish in 
cast. (D12) Greenish in cast with traces 
of tin. (D13) With greenish patches and 
traces of tin. (All) Over pale slip. Overall 
on exteriors, with footrims partially 
wiped clean, 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
Shape B1/b, (Dl1, D13) with rim groove. 
Footrims pierced (D12 partially) with 
single holes. (D13) Pierced above figure 
after firing, 
DECORATION: Painted, Equestrian 
figure of a king. Borders composed of 
circles and dashes, (D11) with band of 
interlocking semicircles and other 
curvilinear motifs, 
 
Published: (D12, D13) Home, Collection, pt. 8, 
nos. 193-194. 
Ex coils.: (Dil) L. L. Lipski, Mr. and 
Mrs. R. Billington, 
 
 
1. Britton, Bristol, pp. 50 51, fig. 3; Archer, V&A, 
p. 78, fig. 3. 
2. Archer, Chargers, pls. 48f, 50b: Archer, 
V&A, no. A.9. 
3. Downman, Chargers, pl. opp. p. 62; Austin, 
Delft, no. 178. 
 
 
4. Britton, Bristol, nos. 3.37, 3.38; Archer, Charg- 
ers, pl. 50a; Sotheby's (1), May 2.3, 1974, lot 27. 
For William IllI, see Sotheby's (L), May 21, 1985, 
lot 285. 
5. For Queen Anne, see Britton, Bristol, 
nos. 3.51, 10.8, 10.9: Archer, V&A, no. B4. 
For other motifs, see Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 221, 242. 
 
 
44 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
 
                                             Royal. Martial, and Other Historical
Figures 
                                             and Events 
 
 
 
 
. Nalson's Journaljfir. . . the "fryal of K. Charles 1 (1684) includes
as its frontispiece 
Cornelius van Dalen's print, closely related to the image on these dishes,
com- 
memorating the entrance of the king into Edinburgh, possibly when he was
in 
Scotland in 1641. Other versions of the print probably also were available,

accounting for the numerous delftware variations showing a king on a rearing

horse (occasionally mirroring the groups on these three longridge dishes)

flanked by trees with sponged or painted scalelike foliage.' 
    Generally similar portraits occur on dishes initialed "CR"
for Charles II 
 (r. 1660-1685) or "WR" for William III (r. 1689-1702). Oin uninscribed
examples 
 it is almost impossible to tell which monarch is intended. Although Charles
II 
 wore a mustache and James II (r. 1685-1688) and William III were clean shaven,

 on delftware portraits it often is difficult to make out facial features
clearly, and 
 examples are known on which the painter made mistakes when portraying the

 kings' faces. 
    The elaborate border on the largest of the Longridge dishes (1)11) occurs
oin 
 three other examples that depict a king on horseback and is found on "chargers"

 portraying a standing king identified by initials as William III. A 1686
dated 
 plate depicting a seated Chinese figure (no. D106) within a somewhat similar

 border suggests that some equestrian dishes in this group may commemorate

 James II or his predecessor, Charles II. Later examples with related borders
por- 
 tray Queen Anne (r. 1702-1714) or, based on "GR" initials, probably
George I 
 (r. 1714-1727). Based on other features that help to date the dishes, the
portrait 
 on the two remaining Longridge examples (D12, D13) probably was intended
to 
 represent William Ill. (For all of these monarchs, see Time Line, pp. 12-17.)

 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I)1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I 
 
 
D14. DISH 
Brislington or possibly Bristol 
Dated 1681 
 
 
II 
 
 
DELFTWARE IDining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
| 
 
 
i 
 
 
The date on this dish, 1681, places its manufacture to a period of resurgent

support for Charles II and Catherine of Braganza (1638-1705; see Time Line,

pp. 12-13) following the "Popish Plot," or "Titus Oates Conspiracy"
(see nos. D16, 
D417, D418).1 The dish's initials represent Katherine Regina, and the image,
with 
its distinctive hatlike quiff of hair, probably derives from a William Faithorne

(1616-1691) engraving after a painting by Dirk Stoop. Shallow bowls and dishes

with this portrait (but different borders) include two dated 1682 and initialed

"KR," in one case with a superscript 2, presumably a carryover
from the king's 
designation. 
   The unusual grape cluster(?) border on the dish shown here matches frag-

ments excavated at sites associated with Bristol's Temple Back and Limekiln

Lane potteries. These discoveries are unexpected, since the Longridge dish
is 
dated 1681 and Temple Back is believed not to have opened until 1682/3 and

Limekiln Lane until around 1694." Perhaps the fragments postdate the
Long- 
ridge dish, the potteries opened earlier than hitherto thought, or the fragments

have been muddled with some from elsewhere in Bristol. One differently bor-

dered dish depicts the same Catherine portrait and is associated with 
Brislington based partly on excavated fragments of dishes of similar shape.,

Considering that painters often moved from one pottery to another, virtually

identical pieces easily could have been made at more than one factory. 
 
 
     H.: 2 7/8" (73 cm); Diam.: 131/2" (34.3 cm) 
 
     BODY CLAY: Medium-grained dark 
     reddish buff. 
     TIN GLAZE: Grayish white. Overall 
     on interior, 
     LEAD GLAZE: Blue-green cast with 
     some tin content and crawling orange- 
     peel texture, over pale slip. Overall on 
     exterior, excluding where footrim 
     wiped clean. 
     SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
     Shape A with deeper well, more evert- 
     ed rim, wider flange, and pronounced 
     throwing or turning rings. Footrim 
     pierced with single hole. 
     DECORATION: Painted. Catherine of 
     Braganza. Inscribed "KR 1681." Border 
     composed of concentric circles and 
     plants with grape clusters(?). 
 
     Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
     Delftware, no, 73, 
     Ex colls.:j. W Cowther; T G. Burn, Rous 
     Lench. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     1. "Catherine of Braganza," National 
     Biography, vol. 3, pp. 1226-1227; "Charles II," 
     ibid., vol. 4, pp. 93-94. 
     2. Archer, V&A, no. A.5, col. pl. 3 (dish, 
     painting). Lipski and Archer, Dated 
     Delftware, nos. 75. 150 11682 dishes). 
     For others, see Archer, Brislington, p. 156, 
     pl. 7; Sotheby's (L), March 10, 1981, lot 48; 
     February 24, 1987, lot 17 (border like 
     Longridge no. D)18); November 15, 1994, 
     lot 104. 
     3. Archer, V&A, p. 564. The fragments are 
     in the Bristol Museum collection. 
     4. Archer, V&A, no. A.5; Archer, Brisling- 
     ton, pp. 154-155, pl 7. 
 
46 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DIS. DISH 
 
 
Probably English: London, Brislington, 
 
 
or Bristol 
 
 
1662-1685 
 
 
H.: 2 3/8" (6 cm); Diam.: 151/4" (38.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
 
TIN GLAZE: White with some pitting 
 
 
on exterior. 
 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape D with wider 
 
 
border and thicker footrim. 
 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Catherine of 
 
 
Braganza holding a rose; Charles II hold 
 
 
ing orb and scepter within border of 
 
 
A Ithough this dish was excavated in Holland, has very white glaze (a Dutch

characteristic), and an unusual shape, there is evidence for its having been

made in England. First, in the inscription Qfor Queen has been used rather
than 
the Dutch K for konigin.' Second, the "CR" is very similar in style
to the same ini- 
tials on English delftware bottles (see no. D222).1 Third, the depiction
of Charles 
II in armor with martial trophies is somewhat similar to that on an English

mug dated 1660 and without trophies on bottles: one from the 1660s was exca-

vated in England and is inscribed "ChARLS THE 2D,, (no. D225).' 
    A veiy similar but somewhat smaller dish has a history of being in Horace

Walpole's collection as early as 1784, and another shows a solitary Charles
II in 
armor within a border of "grotesque" ornament.' All three dishes
are so dis- 
tinctive in style that they must be by the same hand. A 1662 dated Longridge

jug (no. D296) showing Catherine with a very different Charles II in a robe
and 
armor presumably commemorates their marriage in that year. 
 
 
martial trophies. Inscribed "Q-K CR." 
 
 
Border composed of grotesque beasts, 
 
 
masks, foliate motifs, and concentric 
 
 
circles. 
 
 
1. Granted, a Dutch piece loi the English market 
also might incorporate English spelling. 
2. For a 1648 bottle, see L.ipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 1351. 
 
 
4. See Archer, V&A, no. B.1, pl. 44, for Walpole 
dish and grotesque motifs (tor the latter, 
see also no. A.50). For the Charles 11 dish, see 
Phillips (L), December 11, 1996, lot 220. 
 
 
Ex coil.: E. van Drecht. 
 
 
:3. Britton, London, pls. 75a 75b. Archer, V&A, 
no. 1.12. For a 1660 dated tnug showing a 
different view of Charles in armor, see Lipski 
and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 748. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 47 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D16. PLATE 
London 
Possibly the factory of Jan Ariens 
van Hamme 
1678 or slightly later 
 
H.: 13/8" (3.4 cm); Diam.: 81/4" (21 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, more pitted 
on reverse. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape G, but deeper. 
DECORATION: Painted. Men around 
table in interior. Inscribed "The 
Confpirators figneing ye/ref olve for 
killing the/king" Border composed of 
floral band and concentric circles. 
 
Published: Ray, Warren, p. 123; Ray, Tiles, 
p. 114, no. 9; Archer, V&A, nos. N.O-N. 18, 
Ex coll.: L. L. Lipski. 
 
 
    October 1678 pamphlet titled 
    "A SERMON Al 1TH11 FUNER\AL OF 
    S' EDMUND-BURY GODFREY... Who was 
    Barliaroujly Murthered." 
 
 
 
 
    1. "Titus Oates" (1649 1705), National 
    Biography, vol. 14, pp. 741 748. 
    2. For tiles and cards, see Archer, V&A, 
    nos. N.10 N.18 (the nine inscribed tiles); 
    Ray, Tiles, pp. 61, 114 115, nos. 8-19, 
    figs. 36a 36c; Britton, London, p. 176, 
    nos. 199-201, fig. 22; Sotheby's (L), Lipski 
    sale (3), March 1, 1983, lots 505-506; and 
    for the 21 tiles and cards, March 15, 1971, 
    lot 21; Home, Tiles, p. 17, no. 12. 
    3. Archer, V&A, nos. N.10-N.18, pp. 40 41; 
    Ray, Tiles, pp. 34-35; Britton, London, 
    p. 59. 
 
 
48 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
 
                                           DEL FTWARE Dining and Related
Wares 
                                                         Dishes and Plates

 
                                           Royal, Martial, and Other Historical
Figures 
                                           and Events 
 
 
 
 
+laying cards with engravings by Francis Barlow (1626-1704) illustrate the
fic- 
titious "Horrid Hellish Popish Plot," or "Titus Oates Conspiracy"
(see nos. D14, 
D417, D418 and Time Line, pp. 12-13), of 1678. Titus Oates (1649-1705) was
a 
poor scholar whose tutor, hired in an attempt to help him take a degree at

Cambridge, recorded, "He was a great dunce, ran into debt; and, being
sent 
away for want of money, never took a degree." Somehow, though, Oates
even- 
tually gained employment as a vicar and began a rocky career, punctuated
in 
the early years by imprisonment for libel, an escape to the sea, and, somewhat

surprisingly, a chaplaincy to Protestants in the household of the Duke of

Norfolk. Around 1676 or 1677, Oates-supported by anti-Catholic vicar Israel

Tonge and seeing financial potential-pretended a reconciliation to the 
Catholic Church in order to infiltrate and spy on leaders of the Jesuits.
He 
wrote a paper (1678) that presented to Charles II fictitious findings of
an elab- 
orate plot instigated by Pope Innocent XI: the king's life was to be taken
in one 
of three preplanned methods; his councillors then would die; Ireland would
be 
invaded by the French; Protestants would be massacred; the Duke of York 
would be crowned; and England would be returned to the Church of Rome. 
Oates was brought before the Privy Council, where he further elaborated the

lie. Word of his accusations leaked out, and Oates became a popular figure.

Arrests of the accused began-several ending in execution-and the public's

antipopish sentiments, already strong, increased. When Sir Edmund Berry 
Godfrey was found dead (perhaps assassinated at Oates's instigation), the

Catholics were accused of murdering him because he deposed Oates. 
Eventually, after a series of interrogations and participation in trials,
Oates 
began to lose credibility, though he did gain some support based on rumored

assassination plots against him. His words and actions finally led to his
impris- 
onment. Later in life he was released and continued in his unpleasant career.,

    The conspiracy inspired designs on this plate and a set of nine floral-cornered

 tiles inscribed: 1) "The plot first hatcht at Rome by the Pope and
Cardinalls 
 &ct."; 2) "The Conspirators Signeing ye Resolve for killing
the King." (referring 
 to Charles II); 3) "Father Conyers Preaching against ye Oathes of Alejance
and 
 Supremacy," with "Extirpate Heriticks root & branch"
coming from Conyers's 
 mouth; 4) "Dr. Oates discouereth ye Plot to ye King and Councell.";
5) "Ct bed- 
 low discoverer of the plott."; 6) "Capt bedlow examind by ye secret
Comitee of 
 the house of Commons"; 7) "Picherin attempts to kill ye K. in
St. lames Park."; 
 8) "Pickerin executed"; and 9) "Sr William waller burning
Popish books, 
 Images, and Reliques." The second tile matches the Longridge plate,
the only 
 plate known with a related subject. A rare group of twenty-one uninscribed

 tiles also bears images derived from Popish-Plot-card designs, and at least
four 
 other sets of tiles depict variations on the scenes. 
    In 1676 immigrant potter Jan Ariens van Hamme (d. 1680) was granted 
 permission to produce tiles and porcelain "after the way practiced
in Holland" 
 at his London (possibly Copthall or Vauxhall in Lambeth) factory. It appears

 that little or no tile production took place in London earlier in the 1670s.

 Evidence for van Hamme's making this Longridge dish (see also no. D68) and

 the closely related tiles is provided by the Dutch style of the painting
of the 
 scenes and, on the plate, the floral border.3 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1) 
 
 
See )417, 1)418 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 49 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D17. DISH 
London or perhaps Brislington or Bristol 
c. 1680-1685 
 
H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); 
Diam.: 131/4" (33.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Pinkish buff with 
inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Streaky, over pale slip. 
Overall on exterior. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B1/b with slightly convex center 
to interior and pronounced turning 
grooves on exterior. 
DECORATION: Painted. Equestrian 
figure, probably General George 
Monck, first Duke of Albemarle. Border 
composed of circle and dashes. 
 
Published, Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, 
Pictorial History, p. 242, no. 7; Horne, 
Collection, pt. 8, no, 195. 
 
 
DEL FTWARE [ Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE     Dishes and Plates 
 
Royal, Martial. and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
he figure on the Longridge and related dishes is without identiftying initials,

but the same subject-also with the baton, indicative of high military rank-is

depicted on a 1680 dated dish initialed "G DM" and thought to represent
George 
Monck (or Monk), first Duke of Albemarle (1608-1670; see Time Line, pp. 15-16).,

After his death, Monck's body lay in state at Somerset House before his funeral

was held with great ceremony at Westminster Abbey. An effigy (partially sur-

viving there) made at his death portrayed him "in Compleate Armour azured

with guilt [gilt] Nayles ... this Representation to hold [a] Guilt Baston
[baton] of 
Copper in the Right hand." Although by this period armor rarely appeared
on 
the battlefield, Monck and some other important military leaders still were
por- 
trayed wearing it (see nos. D38, D39, D50). (Sashes were colored to indicate

which side the officer was on and often were large enough to use as a litter
to 
carry him off the field if he was wounded in battle.)2 In 1680 public anxiety

about the succession to the throne led to renewed expressions of enthusiasm

for Monck's memory, and it would have been entirely appropriate for potters
to 
have produced dishes with his portrait at that time. (For a diminutive horseman

with a baton and trailing sash on a 1680 dated plate, see no. D88.) 
    An engraving of Monck, probably after one for an earlier military hero
(see 
 no. D207), inspired the decoration on the dish shown here and at least six
other 
 examples so similar in coloring and style that they probably are by the
same 
 hand. Trees with scalelike foliage and "paths" in the foreground
occur on many 
 other late seventeenth-century dishes, but here and on another Longridge

 equestrian dish (no. D12), they have tufts of strokes added to the trees.
This 
 unusual treatment also occurs on a 1685 dated double portrait dish inscribed

 "MsH" and "MRH," providing an approximate date for the
Longridge dishes." 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. A.59, col. pl. 39; Archer, 
Monck, fig. 1, p. 2. 
2. Harvey and Mortimer, Efligies, pp. 72 78, 
no, 7; Horne comments (September 1998). 
3. For Monck engravings, see Archer, Monck, 
p. 3, figs. 4-5; and for similar dishes, p. 6, fig. 9 
(Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, collection, 
noý 62.1212); Ray, Warren, no. 10; Bonham's 
(Knightsbridge), October 23, 1996, lot 133. 
 
 
4. Archer, Monck, p. 7, fig. 10; lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 77. See Archer, V&A, 
nos. A.6, A.15, for other subject dishes with 
related decorative details. 
 
 
SO The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
 
II 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection S1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWA RE !:Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
D18. DISH 
Brislington 
1685-1688 
 
 
H.: 2 1/4" (5.8 cm); Diam.: 13" (33 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise. Overall 
on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Greenish cast with 
some tin content, over pale slip. Overall 
on exterior, excluding where footrim 
wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape A with barely everted rim. 
Footrim pierced with single hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. James II in 
ceremonial garb. Inscribed "JR2."' 
Border composed of flowers and 
concentric circles. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. For Janies I's pro-Catholic and other 
policies, see "James I," National Biogra- 
phy, vol. 10, pp. 619-630. For a possibly 
London porringer depicting the king 
(I2 R'), see lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1236. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. A.7, col. pl. 5 (James 11). 
For one with a slightly dilferent border, 
Sotheby's (1L, February 24, 1987, lot 15. 
3. Archer, Brislington, pls. 2, 3 Charles 11, 
Mary). Sotheby's (ll), February 24, 1987, 
lots 16 18 (Charles I1, Catherinel?], 
unknown man). I pski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 79 80 (crowns). 
4. For Charles I1, see I ipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 74; Archer, V&A, 
no. A.4. For James 11, see Sotheby's (L), 1 ipski 
sale (1), March 10, 1981, lot 47. 
 
 
MD 
ID-ased on their glaze, painted ornament, and other features, nearly every

 
example of delftware depicting the (for the most part) unpopular King James
II 
(r. 1685-1688; see Time Line, pp. 13-14) is attributable to Brislington.1
The 
reason for the localized manufacture of this delftware subject, however,

remains unknown. The border on the Longridge dish and at least five others

with the same James 1I portrait2 is among the types most commonly found on

dishes from the pottery and also edges portraits of Charles II, Catherine
of Bra- 
ganza, an unknown man (see nos. D20, D21), and Mary II or Mary of Modena.
A 
1686 and a 1687 dated dish in the group depict crowns.)' The same portrait
as 
on the Longridge dish, but differing slightly in details, represents Charles
II 
(with "CR2" initials) on a differently floral-bordered dish dated
1682 and a scroll- 
bordered example with a fluted rim (no. D10); and it represents James II
on a 
saucer-shaped dish inscribed "JR2.", 
 
 
52 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D19. DISH 
Brislington 
1685-1688 
 
H.: 1' (2.5 cm); W. (between points): 9 3/8" 
(23.8 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale greenish blue, 
slightly transparent, much pitted on 
middle of exterior. 
SHAPE: Molded. Octagonal well. 
DECORATION: Painted and relief 
James II. Inscribed IR." Border composed 
of Chinese figures in landscapes over 
relief scallop shells and oval motifs. 
 
Published: Archer, Rijksmuseum, p. 75, no. 60, 
Archer, Brislingtont p. 159. 
Exhibited, British Antique Dealers Associa- 
tion Golden Jubilee Exhibition, V&A, 1968. 
no, 92. 
Ex coll.: L. L. Lipski. 
 
 
he glaze color, palette, and idiosyncratic style in which this shallow dish
is 
decorated indicate a Brislington origin.' An almost identical example differs
in 
minor details and has a plain border rather than one with Chinese figures
in 
landscapes. Three other examples of this elaborate molded form are known,

one of which shows a plowing scene and is dated 1688.' The other two are
paint- 
ed, respectively, with a fruit surrounded by blossoms and a bird seated on
three 
round flowers., Another Brislington dish (no. D18) portrays James II clean

shaven, as he typically is depicted in paintings and prints. 
    The colors of this dish and the painting style of the chinoiserie border
are 
so like those of a lobed dish in this collection (no. D103) as to make it
likely 
that both are from the same factory, if not decorated by the same hand. On
the 
lobed dish, the central reserve is filled with a Chinese figure seated among
rocks 
and plants. 
 
1, Archer, Brislington, p. 158. 
2. Country Lift, November 12, 1981, p. 1646. 
3. Manchester, Greg Collection, no. 78: lipski 
and Archer, Il)ated Delftware, no. 124. 
4. For frouit, see Archer, Brislington, pl. 17; 
Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, 
lot 23. For bird and flowers, see Metropolitan 
Museum collection (no. 38.73.5). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 53 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D20, D21. DISHES 
Brislington 
(D20) 1685-1694 
(D21) c. 1680-1696 
 
(D20) H.: 21/4" (5.8 cm); 
Diam.: 131/4" (33.7 cm) 
(D21) H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm): 
Diam.: 131/2" (34.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pinkish buff 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise. Overall 
on interiors. 
LEAD GLAZE: (D20) Greenish cast 
with some tin content. (D21) Muddy and 
of crawling orange-peel texture. (Both) 
Over pale slip, Overall on exteriors, 
excluding where footrims wiped 'lean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
Shape A, (D20) with barely everted rim. 
(Both) Footrims pierced with single 
holes. 
DECORATION: Painted. (D20) Mary of 
Modena or Queen Mary I1. Inscribed 
"QM." (D21) Unknown man. (Both) Bor- 
ders composed of floral motifs, insects, 
and concentric circles. 
 
Ex coils.: (D20) L. L. Lipski; P. P Kasseboum. 
 
 
                                            Royal, Martial, and Other Historical
Figures 
                                            and Events 
 
 
 
 
 
The woman portrayed here (1)20) equally may represent Mary of Modena, 
James II's second wife (in. 1673), or his daughter Mary I, the wife of William
III 
(see Time Line, pp. 13-15). If the former, comparatively unpopular lady (see
no. 
D18) is depicted, the dish dates to James IL's brief reign (1685-1688). If,
as is 
more likely, the Protestant Mary II is shown, the piece probably dates to
her 
reign as queen (1689-1694). 
    Contemporary prints portray Mary of Modena and Mary I1 with their hair

dressed in a similar manner. (As each lady would have been referred to as

"Queen Mary," the initials on the Longridge dish ID201 are of little
aid in her 
identification.)' The portrait and inscription also occur oin a dish with
a gener- 
ally similar border, on one edged by a simple circle, and on one bordered
with 
a wreath.:' One uninscribed example shows a variation on the portrait enclosed

in a border like that on the Longridge James I1 dish (no. D18).1 
    Male portraits like that on dish number D21 and a matching dish recur
on 
 two with floral borders (see no. D18) and on a shallow bowl without a border.

 As yet, the gentleman has not convincingly been identified, but it has been
sug- 
 gested that the portrait represents Charles II's eldest illegitimate son,
James 
 Scott (1649-1685), Duke of Monmouth.' The portrait shares design and stylistic

 features with a crowned image of William III seen on another Longridge dish

 (no. D29) and is somewhat less close to views of James II (no. D18). Considering

 that the "QM" dish in this entry (D20) depicts one of the Queen
Marys without 
 a crown and the same portrait is known without initials, William III or
James II 
 cannot be ruled out as possible subjects for the male portrait. 
    The distinctive border on the dishes shown here is attributable to Brislington

 through excavated fragments and is found on a 1691 dated dish depicting
a 
 crown and on two examples with portraits of William III (r. 1689-1702).'
The 
 portraits match that on a differently bordered Longridge dish (no. D29).

 
 
1. "James II," National Biography, vol. 10, p. 622. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. A.8. 
3. Ibid. Britton, Bristol, no. 3.42; Ginsburg and 
Levy advertisement, Connoisseur 167, no. 673 
(March 1968), p. IXXX. 
4. Archer, Brislington, p. 153, pl. 3 (Museum 
Boymans van Beuningen, Rotterdam collection). 
5. Phillips (L), January 30, 1980, lot 61; Sotheby's 
(L), March 4, 1975, lot 5; July 27, 1982, lot 193; 
February 24, 1987, lot 18. See also Allen, Dolz 
Collection, p. 861, pl. 5. 
 
 
6. An armored man portrait dish inscribed 
"IDMI1696" may be relevant (see Archer, 
Brislington, p. 157, pl. 12; Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 86). 
7. Archer, V&A, no. A.8; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 3.41; Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 83. 
 
 
54 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D20 
 
 
1)21 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 55 
 
 
11-t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D22, D23, D24. DISH and PLATES 
(D22) Probably London 
1689-1694 
(D23, D24) London 
(D23) Dated 1691 
(D24) 1689-1694 
 
(D22) H.: 2 3/8" (6 cm); 
Diam.: 12 5/8" (32.2 cm) 
(D23) H,: 11/4" (3.2 cm); 
Diam.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm) 
(D24) H.: 11/8" (2.8 cm); 
Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff, (D23, D24) fine- 
grained, (D23) more pale. 
TIN GLAZE: (D22) White. Overall on 
interior, only. (D23) Bluish white. 
Overall. (D24) Greenish white, some- 
what pitted on exterior. Overall. 
LEAD GLAZE: (D22) Muddy and of 
greenish cast, over pale slip. Overall 
on exterior, excluding where footrim 
wiped clean. 
SHAPE: (D22) Thrown over hump 
mold. Shape B1/b. (D23, D24) Molded. 
Shape J, (D24) with less rounded back, 
narrower rim, and slightly convex bot- 
tom. 
DECORATION: (D22) Painted and 
sponged. (D23, D24) Painted. (All) 
William III and Mary II. (D22) Inscribed 
"WMR." Border composed of concen- 
tric circles and dashes. (D23) Inscribed 
"IW/1691/WMR." Border composed of 
classic Chinese scrolls and quatrefoil 
motifs. (D24) Inscribed "WMR." Border 
composed of concentric circles. 
 
Published: (023) Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 792. 
Ex coils.: (D22) H. E Ward, J. V Vizcarra. 
(D24)). V Vizcarra. 
 
 
                                             Royal, Martial. and Other Historical
Figures 
                                             and Events 
 
 
 
 
 
William III and Mary II reigned together from 1689 until Mary's death in

1694, and William continued as king until 1702 (see Time Line, pp. 14-15).
Life- 
size effigies made at their deaths illustrate William's diminutive size (at
five feet 
six and one-half inches 168.9 cmj, he stands on a stool), which in prints
and on 
delftware portraits of the couple often is disguised by the king's being
shown 
slightly set back from his five-foot, eleven-inch (180.3 cm) wife so that
their 
crowns appear on a level.' The "blue dash" bordered Longridge dish
(D22) is one 
of a few similar examples that probably came from the same workshop.' Oth-

ers display sponged trees with bold multiple trunks and portray Mary in a

somewhat less flamboyant hairdo or show the couple in interiors with curtains

and tiled floors. The setting on the Longridge dish recurs, often with a
low 
fence, in portraits of William III standing alone or riding a rearing horse.
A dish 
fragment of the former type was excavated in Lambeth, and sherds of the lat-

ter have been found in Lambeth, Rotherhithe, and elsewhere in London."

   Dated plates with half-length views of William III and Mary II identified
by 
the initials "WMR" are relatively uncommon. Three in addition to
the Longridge 
plate (D23) are dated 1691; two have plain borders and, respectively, the
initials 
"MW" and "IF E"; a scroll-bordered version has the initials
"RMH.' One plain- 
bordered plate is inscribed "MCI/1694,'' the year of Mary's death and
the latest 
date found on delftware commemorating the couple. The dated plates differ
in 
painting style and, to some extent, in shape, indicating that they are from
dif- 
ferent factories. 
   Fragments with decoration similar to that on the undated Longridge plate

(D24) shown here were unearthed in Lambeth.' (A fragment matching the 
Longridge plate and showing the left side of William's wig and a portion
of the 
W was found at a Liverpool pottery site but predates the beginning of manu-

facture there.)' Another plate fragment with the design in the same format,
if 
by a different hand, was unearthed from the seventeenth-century William 
Drummond plantation site, Governor's Land, in James City County, Virginia.

A similar portrait appears on an octagonal plate with a border matching that

on a lobed dish in this collection (no. D104.). 
 
 
1. For Westminster Abbey collection effigies, 
see Harvey and Mortimer, Effigies, pp. 109 120, 
col. phs. 11 12. (This material provided courtesy 
of Jonathan Home.) 
2. Ray, Warren, no. 3; Sotheby's (L), May 15, 
1979, lot 58. 
3. Garner and Archer, Delftware, no. 22; 
l)ownman, Chargers, app. p. 76; Austin, Delft, 
no. 173. 
4. For king standing, see Smithsonian collec- 
tion, no. 65.36 (dish); Birmingham Museum 
collection, no. M.17781 (fragment). For equestrian, 
see Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 1, col. pl. 13, 
no. 1631 (dish); Archer, V&A, no. A.9 (dish and 
fragments). 
 
 
5. Sotheby's (L), October 22, 1985, lot 77; 
Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, Pictorial History, 
p. 234, no. 2; Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 190-191, 200. 
6. Archer, V&A, no. B.2, showing a similar plate; 
for another "WMR" plate, no. B.3. For a plate 
showing a variation of the portrait, excavated 
among late 17th-century delftware at the 
Aldgate (consumer) site, see Thompson, Grew, 
and Schofield, Aldgate Excavations, p. 60, fig. 29, 
no. 137. 
7. Garner, Liverpool, pl. 77. 
8. Austin, Delft, p. 19, fig. 19; for other undated 
examples portraying the couple, nos. 174-177. 
9. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 27 
 
 
56 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
IJLS5  J 1t 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 57 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Royal. Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
H.: 15/8" (4.1 cm); Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained 
medium buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise with 
 
 
pitting on exterior and in blue-painted 
areas of interior. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape C with lower footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Mary II. 
Inscribed "QM." Circle border. 
 
 
he attribution of this dish to Brislington rests on its glaze color, painting

style, and shape. Although it sometimes is difficult to determine if "QM"
ini- 
tialed portraits represent Mary of Modena or Mary II (see no. D20), there
is 
little doubt that the latter queen is commemorated on this example. Nearly

identical portraits appear on two dishes that have encircling wreaths resem-

bling that on a William III dish in this collection (no. D29).1 Such wreaths
are 
only known around portraits inscribed "QM" or "KW." Somewhat
similar por- 
traits of Mary, perhaps after different design sources, also appear on delftware

with "QM" initials and, in at least one case, show the queen with
William III 
and the initials "WMR." 
 
 
Ex coil.: H. E. Ward, 
 
 
I1 
 
 
1. Sotheby's (L), june 3, 1980, lot 26: Christie's 
(L), February 27, 1989, lot 135. 
2. Archer, Brislington, p. 158, pl. 13; Manchester 
City Art Gallery collection (no. 1923-226): Wad- 
desdon Manor, Buckinghamshire, collection 
("WMR" dish). 
 
 
58 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D25. DISH 
Brislington 
1689-1694 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D26. DISH 
Probably London 
1689-1694 
 
 
H.: 3" (76 cm); Diam,: 13 5/8" (34.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Slightly turquoise in 
cast with some tin content, over pale 
slip. Overall on exterior. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape Bl/a. 
DECORATION: Painted. Mary II. 
Inscribed "MR." Border composed of 
circle and dashes. 
 
Ex col. J. P Kosseboum. 
 
 
he painted ornament on this dish is very similar to that on an example that

differs only in the inclusion of small plants in the foreground. A third
dish in 
the group depicts William IIl standing in ceremonial garb between the same

trees, this time without cross-hatching of the bases of the tree trunks.
The por- 
trait of Mary II was reused later on QA" initialed examples that commemorate

Queen Anne and seems not to have been used to portray any other person. Dish

fragments showing Queen Anne in a setting also used for Prince George of
Den- 
mark and the Duke of Marlborough (nos. D33, 1)38, D39) have been unearthed

in Lambeth. 
 
 
 
i. Brition, Bristol, no. 3.49; Archer, V&A, no. A.11. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. A.12. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 59 
 
  

					
				
				
 
               Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D27, D28. DISHES 
 
London or perhaps Brislington or Bristol 
(D27) 1689-1702 
(D28) Probably 1689-1702 
 
(D27) H.: 3 1/8" (79 cm): 
Diam.: 13 3/4" (34.9 cm) 
(D28) H.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm); 
Diam.: 13 5/8" (34.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D28) with medium 
crazing. (Both) Overall on interiors, 
LEAD GLAZE: (D27) Blue-green cast 
with blue spattering. (D28) Slight blue- 
green cast. (Both) Over pale slip. 
 
Overall on exteriors, excluding where 
 
footrims wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
(D27) Shape B1. (D28) Shape B1/b with 
 
footrim pierced with single hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. King in 
ceremonial garb. (D27) William Il1, 
inscribed "WR." (D28) William III or 
 
perhaps James II. (Both) Borders 
composed of circles and blue dashes. 
 
Ex coils.: (D27) Admiral Sir L. Preston; 
Mrs. P A. Robinson. (D28) L. L. Lipski; 
Mr. and Mrs. R. Billington, 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. A.6. 
2. For delftware portraits of Charles I1, 
see Austin, Delft, no. 171; Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 38-42, 48 
(1661-1665 dated versions). 
3. L.ipski and Archer, Dated Delitware, 
no. 84 (1694 dish); Goldweitz, Collection 
pls. c d (1695 dish). For one in a different 
style, see Archer, Chargers, pl. 49t. 
 
 
                                             Royal, Martial, and Other Historical
Figures 
                                             and Events 
 
 
 
 
 
The initials on the first of these dishes (D)27) identity William III (r.
1689- 
1702; see Time Line, pp. 14-15), and it is likely that the second example
(D28) 
commemorates the same king. (Both William III and James II were clean shaven,

but all known delftware with clearly identifiable portrayals of the latter

monarch [see no. D18] are very different in style and can be attributed to
Bris- 
lington.)' The figures on both of the dishes shown here and on a 1672 dated

Charles II dish (no. D9), which has trees much like those on the uninscribed
exam- 
ple (D28), are standard images after one or more published illustrations.'
Settings 
on "WR" initialed examples valy: one 1694 dated dish, with the
portrait after 
the same design source, shows the king among trees with fernlike foliage
com- 
posed of curved slashes of color; on another, a differently dressed and posed

William (with "WR" initials) stands between sketchily painted trees
supported 
on a crosshatched foreground. The reverse of the second dish is incised with

the date 1695. Differences in the painting styles of William III (full-length)
por- 
trait dishes indicate that more than one factory manufactured them. 
 
 
D28 
 
 
60 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
If 
 
 
)27 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 61 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D29. DISH 
Brislington 
1689-1702 
 
H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm); Diam.: 13 5/8" (34.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise with dense 
pitting. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Slightly blue in cast and 
of crawling orange-peel texture, over 
pale slip. Overall on exterior, excluding 
where footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B2 with wider, flat rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. William III. 
Inscribed "KW." Border composed of 
wreath and circle. 
 
 
he decoration and inscription on this William III (see Time Line, pp. 14-15)

dish are reproduced almost exactly on two other examples. The figure stylisti-

cally resembles the unidentified man shown within an insect and flower border

on another Longridge dish (no. D21), and, indeed, the "I(W" portrait
also is 
known within that border type.' The same general approach to portraiture

(with different details) is demonstrated on Brislington dishes that depict

Charles II and James II (no. D18).,' Wreaths, classical references to honors
con- 
ferred on political leaders, military figures, and other notables, also encircle

delftware portraits of Mary II (see no. D25).4 
 
 
1. Archer, Brislington, p. 158, pl. 10; Christie's 
(1), March 29, 1971, lot 56 (Morley-Fletcher and 
Mcdlroy, Pictorial History, p. 242, no. 4). 
2. For the "KW" dish, see Britton, Bristol, 
no. 3.41; Archer, Brislington, p. 154, pl. 8. 
:3. Garner and Archer, Delftware, pl. 20 
(Charles 1I). 
4. Sotheby's (I), June 3, 1980, lot 26; Christie's 
(L), February 27, 1989, lot 135. 
 
 
62 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
52 
 
 
4 
 
 
D30. DISH 
London or perhaps Brislington or Bristol 
1690-1710 
 
H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); 
Diam.: 12 7/8" (32.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff with redware frag- 
ments adhering to back. 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightly pitted. 
Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Brilliant turquoise with 
tin content. Overall on interior, exclud- 
ing where footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B1/b, 
DECORATION: Painted. Equestrian fig- 
ure. Border composed of concentric 
circles and dashes. 
 
 
he equestrian figure on this dish shares several design features with a more

elaborately painted mirror image, possibly representing Charles II (see Time

Line, pp. 12-13), on a 1669 dated dish initialed "MH" and attributed
to South- 
wark or Rotherhithe.' The riders' wearing of hats, the positioning of the
batons 
(indicative of high military rank), and the postures of the horses differ
from 
those on most other delftware equestrian dishes. 
   This enigmatic dish is surprisingly light in weight and has a highly unusu-

ally bright turquoise back. The whiteness of the glaze and overall appearance
of 
the painting indicate a late seventeenth- or early eighteenth-century date,

toward the end of the "charger" tradition. 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. A.2, Col. p1. 2. For a 1672 
dish portraying a somewhat similar hut hiai less 
figure, see Lipski and Archer, D)ated Dlelfltware, 
no. 61. For a 1749 delft bowl depicting General 
Monck in arnior and a hai. see Austin, Dell. 
no. 47. 
 
 
Ex coll J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 63 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWAIRE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D31. DISH 
Possibly London 
1700-1710 
 
H.: 3" (7.6 cm); Diam,: 13 5/8" (34.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: With greenish cast, 
over pale slip. Overall on exterior, 
excluding where footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape A with deeper well and more 
vertical curving flange. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Equestrian figure. Inscribed "C.R.S." 
Border composed of concentric circles 
and dashes. 
 
Published: Downmon, Chargers, pp. 77-78. 
Ex colt.: B, Hortand. 
 
 
                                           Royal. Martial, and Other Historical
Figures 
                                           and Events 
 
 
 
 
 
Two other dishes are closely similar to this example and also depict a mounted

figure wearing a breastplate(?), tunic, and breeches and holding a baton,
the 
sign of high military rank. One of the dishes is uninscribed, and the other
is 
initialed "CKS," perhaps standing for King Charles Second. ("C.R.S."
on the 
Longridge dish may abbreviate the Latin Carolus Rex Secundus.) A third related
dish 
is initialed "P.G." and presumably portrays Prince George of Denmark
(see also 
no. D38), the husband of Queen Anne.' Trees painted similarly to those on
the 
dishes under discussion also appear on a 1704 dated example depicting a wind-

mill and houses. That date combined with that of Prince George's death (1708)

help to indicate the period of production of the whole group. 
    Although evidence indicates that the Longridge dish was produced in 
London,' it shows resemblances in painting style, palette, and trees to a
series 
of dishes, some of which depict figures initialed "WR" or couples
identified by 
 
"WMR. None of the latter dishes, however, have blue dash borders, and
they 
are sufficiently unlike the generality of English "chargers" to
suggest that they 
are from an individualistic workshop in England or are of Continental origin

(perhaps for the English market).' 
 
 
    1. Sothehy's (L), May 23, 1974, lot 28 
    (uninscribed and "'G" dishes); 
    May 27, 1986, lot 5 ("CKS" dish). 
    2. Austin, Delit, no. 164. 
    3. Archer, V&A, nos. A.11, A.12. 
    4. Britton, Bristol, nos. 3.46, 3.48 
    CWR" dishes). Archer, Rijksmuseum, 
    no. 67, Archer and Morgan, no. 29 
    ("wMR" dishes). 
 
64 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The bare feet and unusual costume of the figure portrayed on this dish are

difficult to explain. Possibly the rider is a painter's fantasy intended
to portray 
a contemporary king in the style of portraits from classical antiquity. The
horse 
on the dish is unusual in that it is shown in a posture much less common
than 
the rocking horse image habitually found on dishes showing kings (see nos.

Dll, D12, D13) and the galloping version shown on some other examples (see

no. D17). A horse mirroring this one in pose but bearing an armored rider

appears on an earlier dish in the Longridge collection (no. D7). A somewhat

similar figure also is portrayed on an important dish dated 1680 thought
to 
depict General Monck and on prints that commemorate him., 
   The trees on the Longridge dish have no close parallels, but those on
two 
William III dishes, one dated 1695, and on an unusual Queen Anne dish have

vaguely similar characteristics and point to a late seventeenth- or early
eigh- 
teenth-century date of manufacture., The sketchy painting style and formulaic

treatment of the foreground "paths" reinforce this late dating,
a period when 
manufacture of such dishes seems increasingly to have been limited to potteries

in and near Bristol. 
 
 
 
 
1. Archer, Monck. Qigs. 1, 4. 5; Archer, V&A, 
no. A.59. 
2. For William  III, see I ipski and Archer, 
Iated lDelftware, no. 85; I)ownnian, Chargers, 
pl. opp. p. 66. For Queen Anne, see Christie's (L), 
May 6, 1974, lot 10. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 65 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D33, D34. DISHES 
(D33) London 
Possibly Norfolk House 
1702-1714 
(D34) Probably Brislington or 
possibly Bristol 
c. 1715 
 
(D33) HI: 2 7/8" (7 cm); 
Diam.: 13 3/4" (34.9 cm) 
(D34) H.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm); 
Diam.: 131/8" (33.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: (D33) Fine-grained buff. 
(D34) Buff with inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall 
on interiors. 
LEAD GLAZE: (D33) Slightly greenish 
in cast. (D34) With some tin content. 
(Both) Overall on exteriors, over pale 
slip. Footrims partially wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
(D33) Shape A with more concave rim 
border. (D34) Shape B1/a with deeper 
well. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Queen Anne in ceremonial garb. 
Inscribed "AR." Borders composed of 
concentric circles and dashes. 
 
Ex call.: (D34) Mr. and Mrs. R. Billington. 
 
 
                                           Royal, Martial, and Other Historical
Figures 
                                           and Events 
 
 
 
 
 
Queen Anne (r. 1702-1714; see Time Line, p. 15), James 11's second daugh-

ter, who in 1683 married Prince George of Denmark (see no. D38), appears
to 
have been a comparatively popular monarch.' She typically is portrayed on
delft- 
ware in one of two ways: she stands between sponged trees with small clumps

of grass painted at her feet with short, straight strokes, as on one dish
shown 
here (D33); or she sits between similarly rendered trees with larger tussocks
of 
grass or small bushes, painted with longer, curving lines.' The second setting

was reused for Prince George of Denmark, Anne's generals (see nos. D39, D37,

D45), George I, and George II. 
   Among dishes closely resembling the second Longridge dish (D34) are some

with sponged foregrounds. A fragment (not a waster) unearthed at the Brisling-

ton pottery site shows part of the crown, the tip of the scepter, and the
letter 
"A."" The trees on this dish (D34) resemble types on George
I and II portrait dish- 
es (see nos. D49, D50), indicating a date late in Anne's reign or perhaps

identifying the piece as a rare example of a posthumous commemorative of
a 
monarch on delftware. (For a barrel-shaped mug inscribed "To The Pious
Mem- 
ory of Queen Anne 1720" and also postdating the queen's death, see no.
D258). 
For commemoration of Charles II, showing him in the Boscobel Oak, on eigh-

teenth-century plates, see nos. D43, D44.) 
   Although a number of dated blue dash chargers depict full-length, standing

figures of kings-from Charles 1 (1653) to William III (1695)-examples bearing

views of similiarly posed queens are extremely rare.4 Perhaps the only example

is a 1669 dated dish on which Queen Catherine accompanies her husband, 
Charles II, who, unlike her, is in full regalia.' 
 
 
 
1. "Anne," National Biography, vol. 1, 
pp. 441-457 
2. Austin, Delft, no. 181; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 3.50; Archer, V&A, no. A.12. For a dish with 
Anne standing as in the first group near the 
tussocks/bushes of the second group, see Sothe- 
by's (L), June 14, 1988, lot 281 (ex Warren coil.). 
3. Garner and Archer, Delftware, pl. 24; Britton, 
Bristol, no. 3.52; Archer, Chargers, pl. 50.c.; 
Pountney, Bristol, pp. 41 -42. pls. 1, 10 (fragment). 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 26 85 
passim (kings). 
5. Ibid., no. 56. 
 
 
66 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7 
 
 
D33 
 
 
D134 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 67 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
              Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
(D35) H.: 11/8" (2.9 cm); 
Diam.: 8 3/8" (21.3 cm) 
 
(D36) H.: 11/4" (3.2 cm); 
Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D35) bluish. (Both) 
 
 
With pitting, especially on exteriors. 
SHAPE: Molded. (D35) ShapeJ. 
 
(D36) Shape H. 
DECORATION: Painted. Queen Anne. 
 
Inscribed "AR." Borders composed of 
concentric circles and (D35) overlapping 
 
 
D35, D36. PLATES 
 
(D35) London 
(D36) Bristol 
 
1702-1714 
 
 
wavy lines. 
 
 
Ex coll.: (D35) Warren. 
 
 
D35  036 
       1. Austin, Delft, no. 184 (union): no. 188 
       (George 1); nos. 182-183, and Britton, London, 
       nos. 10.7-10.9 (Queen Anne plates). See Britton, 
       London, p. 70, fig. I, no. 119, for Vauxhall 
       waster; Britton, Bristol, no. 10.15, for c. 1705 
       Princess Caroline plate. 
       2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 261 
       (1711). For portrait plates, see Austin, Delft, 
       nos. 187, 189; Britton, London, no. 10.16. 
       .3. Britton, London, no. 184, pp. 142-143. 
       Unearthing New England's Past, no. 337. 
 
 
68 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
do dated plates with overlapping wavy-line borders (D35) have been iden-

tified, but examples exist showing the English rose and Scottish thistle
com- 
memorating the 1707 Act of Union. (A similar central motif occurs on a waster

initialed "GR" excavated at Vauxhall.) Variations on the border,
sometimes with 
somewhat more heavily drawn pairs of circles, occur on otherwise patterned

plates including one with a crown surmounting "GR" (see nos. D71,
1)174), prob- 
ably for George I. The attribution of the first Longridge plate (D35) to
London 
is based on its shape. The second plate (D36) is of a shape associated with

Bristol and has a border similar to that on a 1711 dated plate with a pastoral

scene and plates commemorating George I, George II, and the latter's wife,

Caroline of Ansbach.1 Fragments of plates with borders matching both types

on the Longridge plates have been excavated in Virginia, and a Queen Anne

bust portrait plate was unearthed at the Bostonian Hotel site in Boston,

Massachusetts. 
 
 
11 
 
  

					
				
				
 
r, 
 
 
I' 
 
 
D37. DISH 
 
 
London 
Possibly Norfolk House 
c. 1704-c. 1710 
 
H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm): Diam.: 13 1/8" (33.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Pinkish buff with 
inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: White, Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: With some tin content. 
Overall on exterior, excluding where 
footrim partly wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape A with deeper, narrower, convex 
flange and high, flaring footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Equestrian figure, probably Prince 
Eugene. Border composed of concen- 
tric circles and dashes. 
 
Published. Horne, Collection, pt. 13 no. 362. 
 
 
MD 
Frince Eug~ne of Savoy (1663-1736), exiled by Louis XIV, became a marshal
in 
the Austrian Army. He gained popularity in England after sharing with the

Duke of Marlborough (no. 1)39) in victories against the French at Blenheim

(1704), Oudenarde (1708), and Malplaquet (1709) in the War of the Spanish
Suc- 
cession (1702-1713). The figure on the dish shown here is identifiable as
the 
prince based on its similarity to one on a (probably somewhat later) dish

inscribed "Prince Eugine" portraying an equestrian figure in an
identical pose 
but dressed in contemporary clothes.' The "Prince Engine" dish
and the Long- 
ridge dish appear to have the only equestrian representations of the prince
on 
delftware. 
   The setting on this dish recurs on examples portraying George I, the Duke
of 
Marlborough (nos. 1)45, 1)39), Prince George of Denmark (see no. D38), and
other 
eminent men, many of whom stand in armor and hold batons (see no. D)17).'
The 
setting recurs on a stag dish in this collection (no. D141). 
 
 
1, Archer colninl Ints t1998). Manchester City Art 
(allery, (reg ( ollection (no. 205). 
2. For dishes with comparable portraits. 
see Austin. D)elft  no. 191 RRay. Warren, pl. 2. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 69 
 
  

					
				
				
 
          RE Dining and Related Wares 
DEL FT  ARE   Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D38, D39. DISHES 
 
London or Bristol 
(D38) 1702-c. 1708 
 
(D39)1704-1711 
 
 
(D38) H.: 3" (7.6 cm); 
 
Diam.: 131/2" (34.3 cm) 
 
(D39) H,: 2 1/4" (5.8 cm); 
 
Diam,: 13 3/4" (34.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff 
 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall 
on interiors. 
 
LEAD GLAZE: (D38) With turquoise 
 
streaks. (D39) Of a greenish cast, (Both) 
With some tin content, over pale slip. 
 
Overall on exteriors, excluding where 
footrims partly wiped clean. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
 
(D38) Shape B2 but deeper and groove 
 
less at rim. (D39) Shape A. 
 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Martial figures holding batons. 
 
(D38) Prince George of Denmark. 
 
Inscribed "PG." (D39) Duke of Marlbor- 
 
ough. Inscribed "DM." (Both) Borders 
 
composed of concentric circles and 
dashes. 
 
Ex coil.: (Both) ]. P Kossebaum. 
 
 
                                           Royal, Martial, and Other Historical
Figures 
                                           and Events 
 
 
 
 
 MD 
 rrince George of Denmark (1653-1708), Baron Ockingham, Earl of Kendal and

Duke of Cumberland, K.G. (see Time Line, p. 15), identified as "PG"
on the first 
dish shown here (D38), married the future Queen Anne (r. 1702-1714) in 1683.

Although he is shown here in the outdated armor and holding the baton typi-

cally used on delftware as a symbol of military power and rank, he appears
to 
have served in that capacity primarily as a figurehead. In contrast, John

Churchill (1650-1722), first Duke of Marlborough (identifiable on D39) via
the 
initials "DM"), attained considerable fame through his military
successes. 
He remained quite popular until he fell from favor with Queen Anne and was

dismissed in 1711.V 
    Both men as they appear on these dishes stand in one of the two settings

most commonly used from around 1700 for portrayals of Queen Anne, her gen-

erals, and other eminent individuals (see nos. D33, D45): a dish inscribed
"GR2" 
depicts the same armored figure holding a baton, proving that the setting
was 
in use at least as late as the 1727 accession of George II.1 A virtually
identical fig- 
ure also was used to depict, respectively, Prince Eugene ("PE"),
the Duke of 
Ormonde ("DO"), and George I ("GR").' Another example
is unusual for its "PM" 
initials and, perhaps, like Longridge number D39, was intended to commemo-

rate the Duke of Marlborough.4 A large fragment showing one of these figures

was excavated in Lambeth at Norfolk House. Although not itself a waster,
it 
accompanied kiln furniture, making attribution virtually certain. Based on
its 
shape, the Prince George dish (D38) may have been made in Bristol. 
 
 
1. "George, Prince of Denmark," National 
Biography, vol. 7, pp. 1083 1086. "Churchill, 
John, first Duke of Marlborough," ibid., vol. 4, 
pp. .315 :341. 
2. Ray, Warren, pl. 2, no. 7. 
3. Morley-Fletcher and Mcliroy, Pictorial History, 
p. 243 (Prince Etgene); Austin, Delft, no. 191 
(Orimonde); Rackhaln, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 122C, 
no. 1637 (George 1). 
 
 
4. Austin, Delft, no. 191, citing Christie's (L), 
December 8, 1980, lot 189. 
5. Found by F. t. (Garner (fragment now in the 
V&A collection). 
 
 
70 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D38 
 
 
I)D3 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 71 
 
  

					
				
				
 
   D40. DISH 
   Probably London 
   c. 1705-1714 
 
   H.: 2 3/8" (6 cm); Diam.: 121/8" (30.8 cm) 
 
   BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
   TIN GLAZE: White. 
   LEAD GLAZE: With some tin content, 
   over pale slip. Overall on exterior, 
   excluding where footrim wiped clean. 
   SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
   Shape A with more vertical flange. 
   Footrim pierced with two holes 
   after firing. 
   DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
   Duke of Ormonde in contemporary 
   dress. Inscribed "DO." Border composed 
   of concentric circles and dashes. 
 
   Ex coil.: Mr. and Mrs. R. Billington. 
 
 
72 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
james Butler (1665-1745), second Duke of Ormonde, K.G. (see Time Line, 
p. 16), who is depicted on this dish, was a military hero during the reigns
of 
William III and Queen Anne: he was honored by Parliament in 1702 and from

1711 to 1714 was captain-general of the English forces. His Jacobite sympathies,

however, led to his falling from royal favor in 1716.' That Ormonde's populari-

ty was particularly evident in London suggests that this dish probably was
made 
there. Closely comparable dishes depict the figure in settings with painted

rather than sponged foregrounds,2 and the same portrait is differently identi-

fied on some examples: "PW" on one dish may refer to Queen Anne's
son, 
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester; "PG" identifies Prince George
of Denmark; 
"DM," the Duke of Marlborough." One unusual uninscribed example
shows the 
figure in opposite pose between different trees.4 Ormonde also occasionally
is 
depicted in armor (see nos. D38, D39). 
 
 
1. "James Butler, second Duke of Ormonde," 
National Biography, vol. 3, pp. 512 517. 
2. Britton, Bristol, no. 3.58; Christie's (L), 
March 1, 1993, lot 340; Downman, Chargers, 
opp, P. 80. 
 
 
3. Austin, Delft, no. 192. 
4. Britton, Bristol. no. 3.59. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D EL F TW@A R E Dining and Related Wares 
              1 Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
H,: 1 5/8' (4.1 cm); Diam.. 111/8' (28.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white, 
 
 
somewhat pitted on exterior. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape E with footrim 
more like that of Shape D. 
D E CO RATI O N: Painted. James Butler, 
second Duke of Ormonde. Inscribed 
"DO." Borders composed of flower-and- 
dot and hatched bands. Exterior bears 
number "20" and cjrcle and star under- 
rim markings. 
 
 
D41. DISH 
Bristol 
Number "20" on exterior 
c. 1705-1715 
 
 
Published: Home. Collecrion. pt. 7Z no. 487 
 
 
1. or Marlbhorough,. see Briittion. Bristol,11      2. l)ishes,  ii po isr'i
ng Queen Anne and( 1 he liiito'e 
no. 101.12. 1 or George 1. see 'Sothehy's ill, IipskIi (George I r.ensemle
i he I ongridge dish in lotrtoo 
sale 13), Mar chI 1, 1983 loti 401: Rackhani.          lottne, C ollection.
pi. 17. no. 487, i i relerencee 
Glai sheir, vol . ,pl. 102h., no. 16631; Arc her. V&A to 1 ChIri stie
II. , February 18. 1980, Ioi 17. now 
no. 117: Ray. Warien. p1. 7. no. 21. and (prohably rih slol Miiseuim 1ollec
lion lbs. NA\ 989 990J). 
alier same designi s~oure} no. 24.         3. Arc her, V&A. no. 13.107.

 
 
The Longr dge Collection 73 
 
 
  Chis type of depiction of James Butler, second Duke of Ormonde, K.G. 
(1665-1745), is less common than versions on similarly initialed blue dash

"chargers" in which he stands in armor (see nos. D38, D39). The
portrait seen 
here was used on differently bordered dishes and plates to depict other promi-

nent men, including the Duke of Marlborough and George I;' one Longridge

plate (no. D46) that portrays the king has a number 4 on the exterior. The
cres- 
cented background of the portrait is known on delft portrait plates and dishes

dating to both Anne's and George I's reign (nos. D35, D36, D46).2 Somewhat
sim- 
ilar floral elements form part of the border on a 1698 dated plate, and 
fragments showing this kind of decoration have been found in London, Belfast,

and Bristol. The decoration on the back may identify Bristol as the source
of 
this dish. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
              Dining and Related Wares 
    DELFWAREDishes and Plates 
         ... .. .... ...... .D: e ri~ a e 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
D42. DISH 
London 
c. 1710 
 
 
H.: 11/8" (2.8 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4' (22.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape J. 
DECORATION: Painted. Dr. Henry 
Sacheverell. Inscribed "DS." Border 
composed of concentric circles. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Grigsby, Weldon, no. 176; National Biography, 
vol. 12, pp. 569-572. 
2. O'Donoghue, Portraits, vol. 4, pp. 1-2 (Archer 
comments 119981). 
3. Raekham, Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 1357; Rackham 
and Read, English Pottery, fig. 104 (Brighton 
Museum, Willett collection). 
4. In R. L. I lobson's review of Rackharm and Read, 
English Pottery (Burlington Magazie, August 
1924, p. 91). 
5. For salt-glazed, see Grigsby, Weldon, no. 176: 
Mountford, Salt-glazed Stoneware, pl. 218 
(Stoke-on-Trent collection); Rackharn, Staflord- 
shire, pl. 45; Read, Figures, pl. 2 (Metropolitan 
Museum collection, no. 34.165.22). For earthenware, 
see Taggart, Burnap, p. 91. 
 
 
The High Church clergyman Dr. Henry Sacheverell (1674?-1724) protested 
against the government's tolerance of dissenters and in the early 1700s became

the focus of competition between the Whigs, in power and supported by Queen

Anne (see Time Line, p. 15), and the Tories. In 1710 his pamphlets and inflam-

matory sermons led to a highly publicized trial at Westminster. The mild

sentence of three years' suspension of preaching (followed by his assignment
to 
the wealthy parish of Saint Andrew's, Holborn) reflected an awareness of
strong 
public support for the preacher and was a blow to the ruling Whigs, who soon

were replaced by the Tory party.' 
   At least fifteen engraved portraits of Sacheverell were circulated; the
source 
of the Longridge plate's image probably was one by M. V. de Gucht after the

Thomas Gibson portrait at Magdalen College, Oxford.' Two relevant bird and

flower-bordered dishes include: one (fluted) inscribed "Dr. Henry Sacheverell"

and showing him in church flanked by a curtain and the Tablets of the Law;
the 
other (smooth) inscribed "Dr S" with a waist-length view nearly
mirroring the 
Longridge portrait.' Potter Markham Eeles (d. 1731) of Hackney is said to
have 
"made his fortune at the time when Sacheverell's noted trial took place
by mak- 
 
ing crockery were on which the Rev. Doctor's likeness was depicted."4
Other 
commemoratives of the doctor include several salt-glazed stoneware and at

least one lead-glazed earthenware standing figure models. Based on its shape,

the Longridge plate is attributable to London. 
 
 
74 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D43, D44. PLATES 
 
(D43) London 
 
1715-1725 
 
(D44) Liverpool 
 
c. 1745 
 
 
(D43) H,: 11/8" (2.8 cm); 
 
Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
(D44) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
 
Diam: 9 1/8" (23.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
 
(D44) paler. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. (D43) Shape J. 
 
(D44) Shape M 
 
DECORATION: Painted and (D43) 
 
sponged. Charles II with three crowns in 
 
the Boscobel Oak, (D44) with horsemen 
 
below, Border composed of diaper 
 
band with floral reserves. (D43) 
 
Inscribed "CR." Border composed of 
 
concentric circles. 
 
Published: (D44) Garner and Archer. 
Delftware, pl. 79A. 
Ex coils.: (D43) T' G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
(D44) A F Al/brook. 
 
 
On these two plates the future Charles II (see Time Line, pp. 12-13) peers

out from the branches of an oak tree hung with the crowns of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. The image commemorates an event following the Battle

of Worcester (1651), when Charles took refuge with the Penderell family at

Boscobel House in Shropshire. When Cromwell's troops came searching for 
him, Charles and his companion, Colonel William Carlos, hid for a day in
the 
oak tree. (This escapade came to be celebrated annually on May 29 as "Oak-apple

Day.") Somewhat similar scenes occur on several seventeenth-century
delftware 
dishes; a plaque showing the king alone and a dish portraying heads of both

Charles and Carlos are labeled "The Royal Oak."' A fine Dutch delft
dish depicts 
Charles's head in a plumed hat under the title "PURSU'D BY MEN, PRESERV'D

BY GOD" and illustrates Boscobel House (labeled). Figures below the
tree 
declare, "The price is 1000 pound," "Dead or alive,"
and "No qvarter."' (A 1650 
dated bottle in the Longridge collection Ino. D2231) bears the name of John

Tomes, who also sheltered the king during this period.) 
    The plates shown here and other eighteenth-century delft examples illus-

 trate long-term support for the Jacobite cause (see no. 1)54).1 (The same
theme 
 also appears on seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Staffordshire slipware

 dishes.)" The "CR" plate (1)43), with its profile associated
with London, is a more 
 common type than the noninscribed plate (D44) and probably commemorates

 the 1715 Jacobite rebellion. The profile of the second plate (D44) derives
from 
 Yongzheng-period (1723 1735) Chinese export porcelain and was not adopted

 by English delftware potters until around 1730. The profile thus indicates
that 
 the plate commemorates the 1745 Jacobite rebellion (see also no. D55). Based

 on its painting style, border decoration, and glaze, the plate probably
was 
 made in Liverpool. 
 
 
1. Allher. V&A, to. NIA (history, plaV u1e11 
"Carlos. Caries, or Careless. Williaml," National 
Biographyp, ol. 3, p 1014, Raekhahi. (,laisher, 
vol. 2. pl 94C, nou 1425 ldish}. See MntCl'el of 
ll,onldn, Recelit I, ints, pp. 150 151, fig. 7, no. 3, 
tor polychrome, 17th-ceentury plate fi'aglient 
showing Charles's head agains trunk of tlree 
with inscription "IRPOYAII" excavated at VauxhlaIl 
Bridgeloli (VauhllX~tl pIlttery). For lo' 1670 print 
of Charles and Carlos tinder the royal oak with 
the three Crowns ill its blri lt'nchs, See  Pepys  . 
Exhibitionn. no)318. 
 
 
2. Rakharn ( laisher, vol. 2, pl. 192A, no. 2470. 
3. For plates. weo Austin, Delft, no. 196. Taggart, 
Burnalp. no. 87 British Mu(s1ui 1 ollection1 
30. 1939, 6 7, 1,; Brighton Museum collection 
(Willett); So0heby's (I.), September 15. 1992, 
lot 180. Ray, iarren 1. p 115. note sevesiral inns 
were naied "The Royal Oak." 
4. Cooper, Slipware D)ishes, nos. 86 89, and 
ri pgb)y, Chipstone, no. 114 (17th (lelturyi); 
Grigsby., Slipware, 1. 45, fig. 52 (181h 1entury). 
 
 
D443 
 
 
-1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D45. DISH 
London 
Possibly Norfolk House 
1714-1727 
 
H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); Diam.: 13 7/8' (35.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, much pitted on 
exterior and with poorly adhered 
patches, Overall, excluding where 
wiped clean on and within footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape A with more concave flange. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
King George I Inscribed "GR." Border 
composed of concentric circles 
and dashes, 
 
 
This is the first of several dishes in the Longridge collection that depict

George I (r. 1714-1727; see Time Line, pp. 16-17), the somewhat unpopular
first 
Hanoverian king of Britain. His wife, Sophia Dorothea (in. 1682), appears
not to 
have been depicted on delftware., The dish shown here may be unique in por-

traying George I in contemporary dress with the coronation regalia but lacking

other symbols of royalty. (The baton symbolizes military rank.) Two other
dish- 
es do show him (differently posed) in contemporary dress with the crown and

orb, but in both cases he wears an ermine-lined cloak.2 The setting used
on the 
Longridge dish reappears on one depicting George II (inscribed "G2R")
in the 
armor and posture used earlier for commemorations of the Duke of Marlbor-

ough and other eminent persons (see nos. D38, D140) and also is found on
a 
stag dish in this collection (no. D141)." Not surprisingly, although
"GRII" does 
appear, no delftware is known with the initials "GRI," and lacking
numerals, 
"GR" is assumed typically to refer to George I. 
 
1. "George 1," National Biography, vol. 7, 
pp 1025 10:35. 
2. Royal Scottish Museum collection (no. 1953- 
286): Taggart, Burnap, no. 144. 
3. For George II, see Ray, Warren, pl. 2, no. 7. 
 
 
76 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE ýDining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D46. DISH 
Bristol 
Number "4" on exterior 
1714-c. 1720 
 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); Diam.: 13" (33 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, possibly 
with a kwaart. Footrim partly 
 
 
wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape D, but with 
 
 
somewhat concave border. Footrim 
with two closely spaced holes. 
DECORATION: Painted. George I. 
Inscribed "GR." Border composed of 
 
 
The portrait on this dish reappears with differences in details on "GR"
ini- 
tialed delftware dishes, plates, and bowls.' One dish, by the same painter
or 
workshop as the example shown here, includes a very similar portrait with

looped-up curtains within a different border.' The nearly identical back
has a 4 
within the footrim. The motifs on the back appear to be more common on 
pieces made in the Bristol area than elsewhere. 
    Similar portraits are found on dishes with initials identifying the Duke
of 
Marlborough and the Duke of Ormonde (no. D41), both of whom were popular

during the reign of Queen Anne (1702-1714).' Based on this similarity, the
Long- 
ridge dish is likely to date to the years soon after George I's coronation.

 
 
foliate and scroll motifs, diaper- 
patterned panels, and concentric 
circles. Exterior bears number "4" and 
 
 
cross and double-stroke under-rim 
 
 
markings. 
 
 
Ex coil. H. E. Word. 
 
 
1. For "C(R" dmishes with di It[rent borders, 
see Sotheby's, (1, Lipski sale (3). March 1. 1983, 
lot 401: Rackham, (laisher, vol. 2, pl. 102b, 
no. 1663: Archer, V&A, no. 1.7: Ray, Warren, 
pl. 7. nos. 23, 24. 
2. Sotihev's (L,), March 1, 1983, lot 401. 
:3. For Marlborough, see Br'itton, Bristol, 
no, 10.12. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 77 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I, 
 
 
gv 
 
 
D47. DISH 
 
 
Probably Bristol 
 
 
Probably Limekiln Lane 
1714-1727 
 
 
H.: 3 1/8" (7.9 cm); Diam.: 13 7/8" (35.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained pale 
 
pinkish buff, 
TIN GLAZE: White with gray speck- 
ling. Densely pitted dull gray glaze 
(overfired) on exterior, 
SHAPE: Shape A but deeper with more 
widely flaring footrim and less distinct 
 
edge to well. 
DECORATION: Painted. George I 
between trees, Inscribed "GR." Border 
 
 
composed of zigzag line, curvilinear 
motifs, and concentric circles. 
 
 
The figure on this dish is more likely to represent George I (r. 1714-1727)
than 
George II (r. 1727-1760), partly because the very distinctive border is found
with 
a portrait of Queen Anne and on a dish dated 1714.' The same border also
occurs 
on a dish depicting a European lady walking among sponged trees (no. D91)
and 
on one with an armed Chinese figure with a bamboo spear standing between

large flying insects.2 Fragments of the border have been excavated in London
and 
in Bristol from the Limekiln Lane pottery.' The painting style of the Longridge

plate's trees resembles that used on plates attributed to Bristol, including
one 
dated 1733 and thought possibly to have been made at Limekiln Lane.4 
 
 
1. Sotheby's (L), November 17, 1981, lot 263 
(Queen Anne). For 1714, see Ray, Warren, no. 49; 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 273. 
2. Home, Collection, pt. 7, no. 168. Another with 
this border is in the Liverpool Museum 
collection (no. 1071). 
 
 
3. London fragments were unearthed by 
Garner, Bristol fragments by L L. Lipski (Archer 
comments 119981). 
4. Ray, Warren, nos. 145-146; Archer, V&A, 
no. B.201 (dated 1733). 
 
 
78 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
i 
 
 
! 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEL FTWA RE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
H.: 13/8"(3.5 cm); Diam.: 8 5/8" (21.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
 
 
SHAPE: Press-molded. Shape J but 
 
 
deeper with slightly wider rim and less 
 
 
curved exterior. 
 
 
DECORATION: Painted. George I. 
Inscribed "GR." Border composed of 
 
 
concentric circles. 
 
 
nile fact that no numeral is attached to the "GR" on this plate
indicates that 
the image represents George I rather than George II (see no. D45). The portrait

resembles a print of George I inscribed "Gunst sculpsit. M. Harrebeeck
excud- 
it," which is said to be after an original by Kneller) Borders of the
type shown 
here also occur on Longridge portrait plates depicting Queen Anne, Dr. Henry

Sacheverell, and Queen Caroline (nos. D36, D42, D53). They also appear on

examples portraying Caroline's husband. George II, and on a fragment exca-

vated at Vauxhall that depicts an unknown king. (The similarly bordered 
Charles II in the Oak plate (no. D43J, unlike the other portrait plates that
are 
contemporary with the figures depicted on them, greatly postdates his reign

11660-16851.) One "GR" plate with a different half-length view
of a king in armor 
has a border like that on a Longridge collection plate depicting Ceres (no.
D75).3' 
The profile of the plate shown here indicates that it was made in London.

 
 
1.Nat 1ional P'orai i iit allery' collection , I.onfdonf 
Iprmint) 
2. Aust in, 1 )elfi, nio. 1 89 (George II and Chariottie 
plates); Brit ion. l~ondon, p. 70. tig. C. 
3. Sol heby's Ill, 1,ips~ki sale (1), Mairch 10) 1981, 
Iot 128. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 79 
 
 
D48. PLATE 
London 
1714-1727 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D Dining and Related Wares 
D Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D49, D50. DISHES 
Bristol or perhaps Brislington 
If Bristol, Josiah Bundy or James 
Gaynard of Limekiln Lane 
(D49) Probably 1714-1727 
(D50) 1727-c. 1735 
 
(D49) H.: 3" (7.6 cm); Diam.: 131/8" (33.3 cm) 
(D50) H.: 3S(7.6 cm); Diam.: 13 7/8" (35.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White on interiors. Bluish 
white, unevenly applied, pitted, and 
speckled on exteriors, Footrims wiped 
mostly clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
Shape B2, (D49) with flatter upper edge 
and (D50) markedly convex on upper 
edge. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
(D49) Probably George I. (D50) George 
II. Inscribed "G11R.'' (Both) Borders com- 
posed of concentric circles and dashes. 
 
Published: (D49) Home, Collection, pt. 2, 
no. 35. 
 
 
                                            Royal, Martial, and Other Historical
Figures 
                                            and Events 
 
 
 
 
 
 N umerous dishes are closely related in design to the two shown here. On

uninscribed versions it often is difficult to determine if the monarch repre-

sented is George I or George 11 (see no. 1)45 and Time Line, pp. 17-18).
George 
11 (r. 1727-1760), depicted on the second dish (D50), is identifiable via
the 
numeral and block capitals, the most common lettering on inscribed examples.

(Calligraphic initials also occasionally occur.) The dish (D50) depicts the
latest 
monarch and most common portrait of George 11 found on "blue dash charg-

ers," with at least seven others differing in minor details and showing
some 
variations of color. Based on its shape and decoration, the piece (D50) probably

dates to the first part of the king's reign.' For a 1746 dated anti-Jacobite
punch 
bowl depicting (probably) George 1I's head in a wreath, see number D321,
and 
for a slipware dish with a relief portrait of George II, number S10). George
II's 
wife, Caroline of Ansbach, appears less often than her husband on delftware

(see no. D53.) 
 
 
D49 
 
 
1. Austin, Delft, no. 185; Ray, Warren, pl. 1, 
no. 6; Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl 122, no. 1639. 
2. Britton, Bristol, no. 3.57. 
3. Archer comments (1998). 
 
 
80 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1)50) 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 81 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
Dining and Related Wares 
Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
D51. PLATE 
Probably Bristol 
1714-1727 
 
 
H.:1 1/8" (2.9 cm); Diam.: 7 3/4" (19.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, more pitted 
 
 
on exterior, 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape H with 
straight sides. 
DECORATION: Painted. Crown with 
"GR" initials. Borders composed of 
curvilinear and foliate motifs, overlap- 
ping wavy lines, and concentric circles. 
 
 
Crowns in conjunction with royal initials occur as early as the 1640s on

dated London delftware bottles bearing "CR" initials for Charles
I (see no. D30). 
The earliest dated plate displaying such an ornamental combination may be

one from 1681, this time with "CR" for Charles II (see Time Line,
pp. 12-13). That 
dish and uninitialed examples with dates later in the 1680s and 1690s are

attributable to Brislington.' A polychrome crown and "AR," for
Queen Anne, 
appear on a plate with the border shown here, and examples inscribed "A"
and 
"AR 1712," respectively, bear crowns more like the Longridge type.'

    Although one somewhat crudely painted plate is dated 1740 and presumably

commemorates George II (r. 1727-1760),3 crown-and-"GR" dishes typically
are 
undated and, based on their shape and decoration, probably were made during

the reign of George 1 (1714-1727).' One small crown-and-"GR" dish
is molded 
with twenty flutes, and a 1716 dated plate with a border like that on the
example 
shown here is inscribed "God Save King George."' Based on its shape
and 
excavated material, the Longridge dish is likely to have been made at Bristol.'

 
 
1. For 1681 dish, see Austin, Delft, 
no. 172; Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 72. For uninitialed 
dishes, lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 78 80, 83, 187; Archer, 
Brislington, p. 157, no. 14. 
2. Christie's (NY), Barrett sale, June 17, 
1997, lot 75; Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston, collection (no. 65.483); 
Bonham's (L), October 13, 1992, lot 25. 
3. Britton, Bristol, no. 10.14 (fluted); 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 470 11716)1 
4. For "GR,' see Austin, Delft, no. 187. 
5. l~ipski and Archer, Dated D)ellfware, 
no. 284. 
6. Archer comments (1998). 
 
 
82 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Is, 
 
 
V  ý 
 
 
I;           '*!A 
 
 
D52. DISH 
Bristol or perhaps Brislington 
If Bristol, Josiah Bundy or James 
Gaynard of Limekiln Lane 
c. 1727-c. 1735 
 
 
H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm); Diam.: 12 3/4" (32.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White on interior. Bluish 
in cast (pinkish where body shows 
 
 
No other delftware dish is known to match this one in design format, and

no other equestrian "charger" portrays a figure plausibly identifiable
as George 
I, or indeed as George I. The manufacture of chargers died out during George

IL's reign (1727-1760), and the dish shown here probably was made at much

the same time and place as another dish in this collection (no. 1)50), on
which 
the king is shown standing in coronation garb. Both examples share charac-

teristics of color, painting style, and glaze.' Somewhat similar trees are
found 
on blue-dash-bordered Queen Anne dishes (see no. 1)34) dating to later in
her 
reign (r. 1702-1714).' 
 
 
through) on exterior. Footrim wiped 
 
 
clean, 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B]/a but with rim not concave. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Equestrian figure of George II. Inscribed 
"K ye 2 G," Border composed of 
 
 
1. F'or a discussion oiflate chargeis, see Ar'cher 
Chargers. pp. 117 118. 
2. For more distantly related trees, see a 1741 
dated Adam and Fve dish with edge moiits 
der ived friom Chinese porcelain (Archer. V&A. 
no. A.18) 
 
 
concentric circles. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 83 
 
 
Nk 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D53. PLATE 
 
 
London 
Probably 1727-c. 1737 
 
H.: 11/8" (2.9 cm); Diam.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape J with slightly 
wider rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Probably 
Queen Caroline. Inscribed "QC." 
Border composed of concentric circles. 
 
 
U n theory, the queen represented here could be either Caroline of Ansbach,
wife 
of George II (see Time Line, pp. 17-18), or Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Stre-

litz, wife of George III. Concentric circle borders, however, were no longer
in use 
on delft plates (see no. D48) when George III came to the throne in 1760,
and 
Charlotte wore her hair shorter and dressed upwards. Two plates with 
concentric circle borders and closely related polychrome portraits are 
initialed "CR" for Caroline Regina; one is paired with a "G2R"
inscribed plate 
depicting Caroline's husband, George II.' One plate inscribed "To ye
Pious Mem- 
ory of Queen Caroline 1738" postdates her death by one year,' but posthumous

references to royalty on delftware are rare. The profile of the Longridge
plate 
shown here indicates that it was made in London. 
 
 
1. Britton, Bristol, no. 10.16 (Caroline); Austin, 
l)elft, no. 189 (Caroline and George 11). 
2. Britton, London, no. 131. 
 
 
84 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D ELF TWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
D54. PLATE 
 
Possibly Liverpool 
 
Dated 1746 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 318" (21.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape M 
DECORATION: Painted, Equestrian 
figure of Duke of Cumberland holding 
 
baton. Inscribed "1746/Duke William/ 
 
for Ever" 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. For anti-Jacobite delltware, see 
Lipski and Archer, Dated l'elltware, 
nos, 496, 1115, 
2. For delitware, see Archer, V&A, 
no. 1.26 (punch bowl); 1 ipski and 
Archer, I)ated IDelftware, no. 828 
mnug): Sot lhebv's (), June 6, 1989, 
lot 195 (plate). Iot- crealwat e and 
porcelain figures, see Grigsby. 
Weldon, ios. 262. 263. 
:3. lipski and Archer, Dated l)elft- 
wvare. nos. 498A  49811 (nonligural): 
Ra.y. Warien, pp. 117, 125, no. 29, 
pl.  I lobsont,  rlitst',h  Museum, 
no. 1134; Sotheby's (I), Lipski sale, 
IDecembn r 6, 198:3, lot 678. For an 
undated -Duke William For Evetr" 
plate, see AUStin, Itelft. no. 193. 
 
 
The Jacobite rebellion of 1745 inspired the production of numerous ceram-

ics depicting themes in support of the Jacobites (see no. D44) or the Loyalists

who opposed them (see no. D313).1 The plate shown here fits into the latter

group and depicts William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765), who 
was George II's third son. Cumberland led the British army to defeat the
Scots 
at Culloden, resulting in the production of many ceramic pieces specifically

relating to him., 
   The image on the Longridge plate probably derives from a print and appears

to be unique. Two nonfigural plates bear similar inscriptions, and three
proba- 
bly Bristol plates nearly identical to one another depict Cumberland on a

walking horse within a border inscribed "God save ye Duke of Cumberland:

Remember ye fight of Cullodon."I The Longridge plate has no decisive
diagnos- 
tic features but in shape and glaze color is consistent with Liverpool wares.

 
 
The Longridge Collection 85 
 
 
1 1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D55. DISH 
Probably Liverpool 
Number "11/7" on exterior 
c. 1747 
 
H.: 2" (5.1 cm); Diam.: 13" (33 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape D. 
DECORATION: Painted. Probably 
Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, with puppies 
and cat. Borders composed of concen-            " 
tric octagons, trellis-and-dot panels, 
and flower-and-scroll motifs. Exterior 
bears number "11/7" and frond border. 
 
Published. Home, Collection, pt. 13. no. 364. 
 
 
 
                                                  X 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                            This figure is associated with
the pro-Jacobite Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat 
                                            (c. 1667-1747), of Scotland,
partly based on the tradition that in 1746 he brought 
                                            along his pets when he was condemned
of high treason and sent to the Tower 
               ~of London. Fraser's somewhat bizarre career included his
gaining the title 
 
                                            twelfth baron Lovat by capturing
and forcing the baroness to become his wife 
                                            after he failed to make her daughter
marry him. For this act he was condemned 
                                            as an outlaw in 1701, having
in 1698 received his first condemnation of high 
                                            treason. He helped raise French
support for the Jacobites and was imprisoned 
                                            after the rebellion. Fraser's
death by the axe in 1747 was the last execution of 
                                            its type in England.' True to
character to the last, when at his trial Lovat was 
                                            offered the chance to put questions
to the Duke of Cumberland's secretary, Sir 
                                            Everard Fawkener (1684-1758),
who was appearing as a witness against him, 
                                            Lovat instead wished him joy
of his young wife.' 
                                               Hogarth's 1746 print of Lovat
has been said to be the inspiration for this dish 
                                            but is an interior view showing
a hatless figure somewhat differently posi- 
                                            tioned, without animals, and
seated on a different chair.' One of the prints 
 1. Horne, Collection, pt. 13, no. 364; 
 National Biography, vol. 7, pp. 656 662.   produced in response to the great
popular interest in Lovat's trial is a more like- 
 2. "Sir Everard Fawkener," National        ly design source. Patterned
ogee panels, some with floral motifs and scrolls 
 Biography, vol. 6, p. 1127                 resembling those on the Longridge
dish, also border 1720s and 1730s dated 
 3. Burke and Caldwell, Hogarth, pl. 201;   plates.' Herbal sprigs like those
on the back of the dish often are associated with 
 National Biography, vol. 7 p. 661.         Liverpool, an attribution supported
by the nature and color of the glaze. 
 
 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 330, 330A, 333, 427. 428. 
5. Britton, Bristol, pp. 312-313: Archer 
comments (1998). 
 
 
86 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
               Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Dishes and Plates 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
D56. PLATE 
 
Probably Bristol 
 
c. 1760 
 
 
H.: 11/8" (2.8 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape H with wider rim 
 
and more irregular exterior wall. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Frederick II, 
 
King of Prussia, in armor. Inscribed "KP." 
 
Border composed of a circle. 
 
Ex coils.: T G. Burn, Rous Lench; 
J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, attained considerable popularity in
En- 
gland as the ally of the British against the French during the Seven Years'
War 
(1756-1763) and appears on English pottery and porcelain made for domestic

and export markets.' The Longridge plate is one of at least six similar examples,'

and a more detailed version of the same portrait is above a ribbon on a plate

inscribed "The King of Prufsia" with military trophies. Like the
portrait after an 
engraving by Robert Hancock, the trophies derive from Worcester porcelain

transfer prints. Other delftware is known with a different portrait of Frederick

after another Hancock image printed on Worcester.' Based on its profile,
the 
Longridge plate was made in Bristol. 
 
 
1. For salt-glazed stoneware, see (Grigsby, Wel- 
don, no. 14; Grigsby, Chipstone, nos. 204, 226; 
excavated plate sherds (Colonial Williamsburg, 
l)epartment ol Arcltaeological Research collec- 
tion, nos. 3571a-er 1011 1. 10:301) 9n). "White 
Stone, Prussian & Basket work'd Plates and 
IDishes" are advertised fbr sale in the Novem- 
her 13, 1758, Bostoli Gazettc. 
 
 
2. Manchester City Art Gallery collection, 
no. 1923-275 (Archer conmnents 119981): 
Christie's (L), March 29, 1971. lot 98: April 19, 
1982, lot 139, Sotheby's (I), April 14. t992, 
lot 191: Sotheby's (NY), October 20, 1993. lot 62. 
 
 
3. Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale, 1)e ember 6, 198:3, 
lot 677 (delIt plate): Hlandley, Collection, 
nos. 1.5 1.7 (Worcester). For a delft bowl 
with a Frederick portiait, see Sothebv's (I), 
June 5, 1990, lot 326. 
4. Handley, Collection, nos. 1.5 1.6 (Worctster), 
Archer, V&A, no. F.40 (delft bowl). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 87 
 
 
Il 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D57. PLATE 
 
 
London 
c. 1763 
 
 
H.: 11/4" (3.2 cm); Diam.: 8 7/8" (22.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. ShapeJ. 
DECORATION: Painted. George Ill. 
Inscribed "Gl1l R." 
 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 5, no. 112. 
Ex coil.: H. E. Word. 
 
 
The portrait on this plate represents George III (1738-1820; see Time Line,

pp. 18-19) and, like images on matching plates depicting his wife, Queen
Char- 
lotte,' derives from painted or published images. (These English monarchs
are 
the last to be depicted on delftware from that country.) A possible source
for the 
king's portrait is W. Wollett's engraving after Allan Ramsay's painting 
(1762-1763) used as a design for new coinage.' The delft image also resembles

printed views of George III (shown in an embroidered coat) adapted from 
engravings after Jeremiah Meyer's 1761 painting and known in printed form
on 
creamware and Worcester porcelain.:' At least two delft plates with the same

image of George III as the example shown here are painted only in blue.'
Based 
on their profiles, the plates in the group were made in London. 
 
 
1. For Charlotte plates, see Britton, London, 
no. 144; Mint Museum, Denholm Gallery, no. 21; 
Sotheby's Il), Lipski sale 13), March 1, 1983, lot 
572 n. 
2. Smart, Ramsay, p. 166. 
 
 
3. Drakard, Printed Pottery, pp. 146-149, 
nos. 394, 397, col. pl. 1; Handley, Collection, 
nos. 1.2-1.4. 
 
 
4. For blue-painted examples, see Austin, Delft, 
no. 190; Tryon Palace collection. Sotheby's (L), 
Lipski sale (3), March 1, 1983, lot 572 (blue and 
manganese). 
 
 
88 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
              Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Dishesand Plates 
 
 
Royal, Martial, and Other Historical Figures 
and Events 
 
 
D58. PLATE 
 
London 
c. 1779 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with 
 
 
green tinge. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape M with 
 
 
wider rim. 
DECORATION: Painted and sgraffito. 
 
Admiral Augustus, Viscount Keppel. 
 
Inscribed "ADMIRAL KEPPEL FOR EVER." 
Borders composed of foliage and 
 
 
concentric circles, one with sgraffito 
 
wavy line. 
 
 
The distinguished military career of Augustus, Viscount Keppel (1725-1786),

made him a popular subject on delftware and other commemoratives. He 
entered the navy as a child and in 1778, following France's declaration of
war, was 
promoted to admiral and commander in chief of the grand fleet. After a battle

against the French at Brest (July 1778), he was falsely accused of misconduct
and 
neglect of duty but, with the public's enthusiastic and sometimes riotous
support, 
was found innocent at his early 1779 trial. It is likely that the Longridge
plate 
dates to about this time.' The portrait on this and other delft plates (some
with 
different borders but with inscriptions consistently matching the Longridge

type) and on creamware is derived from an engraved image published in 1779

by T. Cook after an original by D. Dodd.' At least two historical medals
issued at 
about this time also depict this view of Keppel. 
 
 
1. )riakard, Printed Poltery, p. 154, 
Archer, V&A, no. B.14. 
2. For the print and differently 
bordered plates, see Archer, V&A, 
no. 11.14; Britton, Bristol, no. 10.21. 
For delfl plates maclhing the 
Longridge examl)le, see Britton, 
Bristol, no. 10.22: Britton, L.ondon, 
no. 161. For a creamware jug, 
see l)rakard, Prinled Pottery, 
p. 154. no. 414. 
3. Brown, lHistorical Medals, 
nos. 214, 220. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 89 
 
 
-AW 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
DELFTWARE 1 Diningand Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
Electioneering 
 
 
D59. PLATE 
Bristol 
c. 1734-1735 
 
 
H.: 11/8" (2.8 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape N with slightly 
wider rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Justice tri- 
umphing over Envy. Inscribed "TC," 
"LIBERTAS POPULI," and, on paper at 
lower right, "The Petition." Border 
composed of floral panels, flower-and- 
scroll motifs, and concentric circles. 
Exterior bears concentric circles. 
 
 
This plate was made on the occasion of an election that took place in Bristol

in 1734. "The Tory candidate, Thomas Coster, standing on an anti-court
plat- 
form, defeated the Treasury official, Mr. Scrope. The city corporation, who
had 
supported Scrope, presented a petition to parliament claiming that many of
the 
voters were not qualified, as well as other irregularities, but after the
Commons 
had heard considerable evidence, the petition was withdrawn, and Coster later

entered the city in triumph. The whole incident was accompanied with much

propaganda on both sides, including the publication of the pollbooks, the
peti- 
tion and the cases on both sides. Engraved prints of Coster were produced
and 
sold. There is therefore every reason to expect the local delftware potters
to cash 
in on the market, particularly since Coster was associated with Cornish mining

interest."' 
   At least eleven plates depict variations on this design, all evidently
based on 
the same print. The most complex, Type A, have the central scene common to

all the plates flanked by columns supporting an arch inscribed "LIBERTAS
POP- 
ULF" (the Liberty of the People).' Above these words is an elaborate
cartouche 
initialed "T.C.," for Thomas Coster, with trumpeting putti at either
side. Outside 
on the columns are emblematic figures (possibly Fame and Bounty) on plinths.

A tablet below is inscribed: "Let Justice in each/Honest Heart abide,/And
over 
Envey/Let Her always Ride." The cumbent figure (Envy) holds a torch
and a 
scroll, the latter inscribed "The Petitions." Type A plates have
a more elaborate 
border than Types B and C (discussed below) and are evidently closest to
the 
original print source. 
   Type B, which includes the plate shown here and at least three others,
is sim- 
pler in design. The scroll on one reads, "The Polinn" (perhaps
for the "The 
Polling") rather than "The Petition" or "Petitions,"
and its back has a crescent- 
like mark and alternating X and II motifs. The two other non-Longridge plates

bear "WP 4" marks.' 
   Type C differs most dramatically from A and B in having a blue-painted
flo- 
ral design on the border in reserve against a manganese, purple powdered

ground. The scenes are generally similar in composition to type B, but they

have more elaborately worked central figures. They lack curtains and "TC"
ini- 
tials (the latter perhaps indicating they were made for some other election)
but 
have two flying putti and the word "Placemen" on the scroll. 
   The "TC" initialed Type A and B plates celebrate Coster's victory,
differing 
from typical election wares, which have inscriptions indicating that they
were 
made during or in anticipation of elections (see nos. D60-D62). Hitherto,
it was 
thought that the earliest election for which plates or bowls were made was
the 
Bristol one of 1739,1 but it is now apparent that the "TC" "Libertas
Populi" plates 
antedate these by some five years. Based on its date, one unusual plate from

1734 depicts a seated man smoking a pipe and is initialed "TC."

 
 
90 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1. Michael Archer is deeply indebted to Anthony 
Ray, who provided him with the infoirmation 
about this election, which he in turn obtained 
from l)r. Jonathan Barry. 
 
2. The plates include Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 56; 
its "pair" (Tilley advertisement, Apollo 83, no. 47 
[january 1966], p. xxii); Nelson-Atkins collection 
(F85-15). 
 
3. For Type B plates, see Ray, Warren, pl. 9, 
no. 31  Polinn"), pl. 8 (British Museum collec- 
tion, no. 1910, 12 19, 1); Phillips (1), March 1, 
1989, lot 183. 
 
 
4. For Type C plates, see Ray, Warren, pl. 9, 
no. 32, col. pl. F; Britton, Bristol, no. 15.18; 
Sotheby's (L), March 2, 1965, lot 58; another, 
whereabouts unknown (photo V&A archive). 
 
5. For election wares, see Ray, Warren, 
pp. 127 129; Archer, V&A, nos. B.72, B.80. 
 
6, Britton, Bristol, no. 10.23. 
 
7. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 396. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 91 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D60, D61, D62. PLATES 
 
Bristol 
 
(D60) Dated 1754 
 
(D61) c. 1754 
(D62) Probably 1768 
 
 
(D60) H.: 11/8" (2.9 cm); 
 
Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
(D61) H.: 11/8" (2.9 cm); 
 
Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
(D62) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
 
Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. (D60) Shape N with 
wider rim, (D61) Shape H with wider rim 
 
and triangular arrangement of pairs of 
 
peg marks on exterior of rim. 
 
(D62) Shape M. 
DECORATION: Painted. (D60) 
Inscribed "Fortescue.&.Harris./For 
 
Ever./J754 [1754]." Border composed of 
 
a wreath. (D61) Inscribed "Sr. John 
Pole/for ever." Border composed of 
foliate lobing (D62) Inscribed "Crefwe[l 
 
Esqr:/For Ever." Border composed of 
cracked ice pattern with floral reserves. 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 16, 
nos. 457 459; (D60) Burlington (1914), 
Case E, no. 30 (possibly some plate), 
Possibly ex coil.: (D60) C. E. Roberts Chanter. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
Electioneering 
 
 
The first electioneering plate (D60) shown here is dated and was intended
to 
support the candidacy of John Fortescue and John Harris for the May 31, 1754,

election for the Barnstaple constituency in Devon: the results were Harris
(217 
votes), George Amgard (206 votes), Fortescue (154 votes). Fortescue had stood
for 
Devonshire the year before, when a nearly identical plate, but without Harris's

name, was produced dated 1753.2 The date 1754 appears to be the latest and

1711 the earliest on plates with simple wreaths and enclosing inscriptions
(see 
under nos. D81, D82).3 
   The first of the undated Longridge plates (D61) differs in design from
the sev- 
eral known to have been made in support of Sir John Pole's candidature in
the 
1754 by-election for the constituency of Taunton, Somerset. Another plate
with 
the same lettering, scrolls, and squiggle motifs has three quite different
con- 
centric bands of ornament.' Plates commemorating Pole's campaign typically

bear an inscribed central panel and four blue-painted border reserves set

against a powdered blue ground; the border panels of one type has Chinese
fig- 
ures fishing, and another has floral sprays.' (Uninscribed plates with these

designs are attributed to Bristol's Temple Back or Redcliff Back potteries.)'
A set 
of six powdered-blue-bordered plates is inscribed "Sir Jno Pole for
Ever 1754" 
and, based on so-far unsupportable family tradition, was made for an election

banquet. Other electioneering plates appear to have been handed out for free

or sold.7 
   The third Longridge plate (D62) was made in support of Thomas E. Cresswell,

who was elected for the constituency of Wootton Bassett, Wiltshire, in 1754,

1761, and 1768. The dating of this plate and one similar example8 is aided
by the 
cracked ice border decoration, derived from Chinese porcelain motifs, which

appears on English delftware plates dated 1768 to 1774.1 This date range

suggests that the plates were made for the 1768 election. The color and nature

of the Longridge plate's glaze support a Bristol attribution, as does the
fact that 
Wootton Bassett is eighty-five miles from London but only forty miles from

Bristol, making it more likely that those commissioning this plate would
have 
turned to the potters there. Also, the making of election plates seems to
have 
been limited to Bristol. 
 
 
1. Horne, Collection, pt. 16, no. 458. 
2. lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 563 
(Stoke-on-nTrent collection). 
3. lbid., nos. 262A 262E. 
4. Grovesnor Hlouse Fair (1976) catalog, 1). 65. 
5. For 1754 dated plates, see Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, nos. 577a 577c, 578a 578b, 
one of latter illustrated as 577c. 
6. Archer, V&A, nos. B.72-B.75. 
 
 
7. For Pole and other electioneering plates, 
see Ray, Warren, p. 128 (Taunton collection). 
Archer, V&A, no. B.72. 
81 For history and a similar plate, now 
destroyed, see Britton, Bristol, p. 141. 
9. l~ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 656, 
669, 671, 676. For a cracked ice-bordered plate 
excavated at Williamsburg, Va., see Austin, 
Delft, p. 185. 
 
 
92 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1)60 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                          ]~rA~wr 
 
 
I)61 1)62 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D63. "CLAPMASH" DISH 
Southwark, London 
Possibly Montague Close 
Exterior inscribed "IK/16[3]7" 
(within footrim), "IK" or "HK" 
over "IL," '*," and "W" or interlocked 
"Ls," all perhaps painters' marks 
Dated 1637 
 
H.: 4 1/2" (11.4 cm); Diam.: 15" (38.1 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained reddish 
buff with inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: Off-white with 
fine-grained gray to brown speckling. 
Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Uneven, with slightly 
greenish cast, over buff-colored slip 
with manganese speckling. Overall on 
exterior, excluding where footrim 
wiped clean. Traces of tin glaze, 
perhaps from another dish, 
SHAPE: Thrown or shaped over hump 
mold. Nearly hemispherical with almost 
flat border. Footrim like shape B, but 
with flat bottom and single pierced hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. Saint George 
and the dragon. Inscribed "IOHN 
AYERS/1637." Borders composed of 
bands of scrolling foliage and flowers, 
pseudofluting with dot clusters, and 
concentric circles, the outermost with 
dots. Exterior inscribed "IK/16[3]7," 
"IK [or HK]," "IL," "'," and "W"
or 
interlocked 1Ls." 
 
 
                                           Religious and Mythological Subjects

 
 
 
 
 
 
his important dish illustrates the enthusiasm for Saint George, the patron

saint of England, that ranged across the whole social spectrum, friom the
dedi- 
cation of the premier order of chivalry to his appearance on inn signs and
in 
every aspect of fine and decorative arts (see slipware dishes nos. S14, S15).
A par- 
ticularly well-known painting of Saint George is one by Raphael that was
in the 
Earl of Pembroke's collection by the early 1600s and in 1627 was engraved
by 
Flemish artist Lucas Vorsterman the Elder (1595-1675).' The Longridge dish,

dated ten years later, follows this print closely but in reverse, perhaps
indicat- 
ing that the painter used a print after Vorsterman's original. 
    The name John Ayres may refer to a man (b. 1588) by that name who was

apprenticed to the Drapers' Company in 1604 and became free in 1614. Until

1636 he flourished as a tailor, took nine apprentices, and paid quarterage
to the 
Drapers. He was unable to pay the 1641 poll tax, however, suggesting that
he 
had fallen on hard times, and in 1642 he died intestate. His estate was admin-

istered by his creditors.2 Ayers's first wife died in 1625, and in 1627 he
married 
Margaret Wooldham of Saint Olave's parish, Southwark, where the Pickle- 
herring factory was active. If the same Ayers commissioned the dish, it may

have been made to mark his tenth wedding anniversary. 
    The inscriptions and markings on the Longridge dish's exterior are likely
to 
 be painters' marks, as is borne out by a dish that depicts a different armored

 equestrian figure with a baton. That dish, identical in painting style to
the Long- 
 ridge dish, also shows diminutive curtains or clouds at the top of the scene;

 distinctive rows of dots on the horse's body; flat starlike plants; dwarf
trees; the 
 date, also 1637; and, on the back, "IL" initials." The date
and pair of initials 
 match the Longridge versions. Since both dishes share the "IL"
initials and the 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
i6 
 
 
27 
 
 
11/' 
 
 
1. Tihe painting at one time was in 
the Royal Collection and now is in 
the National Gallery in Washington. 
2. Michael Archer is indebted to 
Frank Britton for this inoinmation 
(Archer comntents [19981). See also 
Sotheby's (L), February 21. 1995, 
lot 23. 
3. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, no. 1397 
(see also Lipski and Archer, Dated 
l)elliware, no. 10). 
4. Edwards, ILondon Potters, pp. 80, 
82 83. 
5. Reiarks in Britton, Pickleherring, 
pý 85, 
6. Lipski and Archer. D)ated Delft- 
ware. nos. 14, 30. 
 
 
second example is borderless, "IL" may relate to the central scenes'
painter, and 
"IK" on the Longridge dish to the border painter. A division of
labor of this kind 
in a workshop seems very likely. There is no obvious potter known with the
lat- 
ter initials. A John Kirby was assessed for rates at the Montague Close pottery

in 1637 and 1638, but the reference suggests that he was a part-owner rather

than a humble painter of borders. The only potters with the initials "I.L."
who 
were active around the right period are John Loytrop, whose daughter was
bap- 
tized in 1647, and James Leake, whose son and daughter were baptized in 1660

and 1665.) Both lived in Saint Saviour's parish, Southwark, and therefore
more 
likely worked at Montague Close than at Pickleherring. 
   The unusual, deep shape of the Longridge piece probably identifies it
as a 
capmrash, anglicized frlom the Dutch Klapmuts, that resembled "a kind
of sailor's 
hat with upturned brim: hence a similarly shaped deep dish or shallow bowl

with rounded walls and flattened rim." The 1669 inventory of the Pickleherring

pothouse, made on the death of manager John Robins, includes entries for

3,300 clapmashes, the eighth most numerous of forty-three different forms.

Considering that they were a significant part of the pottery's production,
it is 
surprising that more clapmashes do not survive. Pseudofluted borders resem-

bling this one occur on dishes dated 1640 and 1657,1 and a large drug or
storage 
jar (no. 1)393). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 95 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D64. DISH 
Southwark, London 
Pickleherring or Montague Close 
Initialed "RI," perhaps for Richard Irons 
Dated 1638 
 
H: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); Diam.: 16 1/2" (41.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Dark pinkish buff with 
darker inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: White with brown speck- 
ling. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Slightly greenish cast 
with brown speckling, over pale slip. 
Overall on exterior, excluding where 
 
footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape A, but deeper with steeper sides, 
less everted edge, and narrower flange. 
Footrim pierced with two closely 
spaced holes, 
DECORATION: Painted. The Adora- 
 
tion. Interior inscribed "AWF'F and 
AW F/1638." Borders composed of 
 
wreath; band with plants, animals, birds, 
insects, a human, and grotesques; con- 
centric circles; and dashes. Exterior 
inscribed "RI" and "AFW" (monogram). 
 
Published: Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, pp. 878-879, pl. 3. 
 
 
                                            Religious and Mythological Subjects

 
 
 
 
 
 
O      n this unique and extremely important dish, three of the four figures

who stand in adoration of Christ are more likely to represent the Magi than

shepherds, although they are not carrying gifts. This inference is based
on the 
manner in which the figures are dressed and the fact that they do not carry

crooks. The lamb in the foreground perhaps is a reference to the Lamb of
God, 
a symbol of Christ, frequently shown in Renaissance art in representations
of 
the Holy Family, or the combination of a lamb and child may represent Saint

John the Baptist. 
   The design source for the scene on the dish is likely to have been a Bible
illus- 
tration.' Among the dishes on the shelf in the scene is one with decoration

resembling that on Chinese export porcelain. The latticed window, candlestick

(at the left, on the floor), and furniture also indicate fairly contemporary
design 
influences. 
    The dish's elaborate border of grotesques and other figures is in the
style of 
patterns on Italian maiolica.1 In color palette and painting style, the Longridge

figures are so close to those on an ovoid mug inscribed "ANN CHAPMAN
ANNO 
1642" as to indicate that they are by the same hand.' Somewhat similiar

grotesques also occur in the border on a 1659 dated dish depicting a Prodigal

Son scene, and less similiar ones appear on a dish dated 1660 with a scene
of 
the Dream of Jacob (Gen. 28:11).1 
    The initials on the front and the monogram on the back represent the
name of 
 the couple for whom the dish was made and may refer to Aaron Witt and Frances

 Allen, who married on July 9, 1638, at Saint George the Martyr in Southwark5
On 
 the back, "RI" probably identifies the potter or painter of the
dish, perhaps Richard 
 Irons, who was buried at Southwark in 1664. At this date there were three
pot- 
 teries active in the area: Pickleherring, Montague Close, and Rotherhithe.

    A 1637 dated dish depicting Mary Salome shares certain features with
the 
 Longridge Adoration dish: her face, like Mary's and Joseph's, is angular
and 
 schematic in style; the figures' hands are sketchily shown; and their draperies

 have very simple folds and shading. The Mary Salome dish can be shown to
have 
 been made at either Pickleherring or Montague Close, more probably the 
 former. If the dishes' stylistic links can be sustained, they probably share
the 
 same attribution. 
    The Adoration dish at one time hung on the wall of a house in South London,

 where it survived the Blitz (1940-1945).' 
 
 
1. Horne comments (January 1998) state   3. Archer, V&A, col. pl. 168,
no. CA. 
that Frank Britton (ntow deceased)       4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware,

informed Mr. Home that he had found 
                                    nos. 34. 35. 
the design for this and other early delft- 
ware in a Bible in the British Museum     5. Research provided to Michael
Archer 
Library. Sadly, his record is now lost.  courtesy of Frank Britton. 
2. A fragment of an Italian bowl with    6. Archer, V&A, no. A.53. 
related grotesques was excavated at a 
                                    7. Ibid. 
consumer site on Magdalen Street, 
Southwark (Pearce comments [September,    8. Horne comments (April 1998).

19981). 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
D6S. DISH 
Southwark, London 
Pickleherring or Rotherhithe 
Dated 1650 
 
H.: 2 7/8" (73 cm); Diam.: 141/4" (36.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pinkish buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White with brown speck- 
ling. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: With bluish and 
greenish areas, possibly over pale slip. 
Overall on exterior, excluding where 
 
footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B1/b with more rounded flange. 
 
Footrim pierced with single hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. The Tempta- 
tion of Adam and Eve. Interior inscribed 
 
"TM/1650." Exterior inscribed "1,H/1650." 
Border composed of concentric circles 
and dashes. 
 
Published: Mactaggort, Chorgers, Archer, 
Chargers, p. 1IZ pl. 51c; Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 22 
Ex cails.: M Moctoggartr L. L. Lipski 
 
 
                                           DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares

                                                        Dishes and Plates

 
                                           Religious and Mythological Subjects

 
 
 
 
 
 
      part from seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century dishes depicting
the 
Temptation, religious subjects rarely appear on English delftware (see nos.
D5, 
D64, D68, D335). Only two Temptation or Adam and Eve dishes, respectively

from 1635 and 1640, bear dates earlier than that on the dish shown here.'
The 
designs on these and many other examples derive from Netherlandish print

sources, such as published images by Crispin van de Passe and Hendrik Goltz-

ius (see also nos. D66, D67). Other designs inspired the decoration on some

undated examples, a 1663 Adam and Eve dish that may be the only other dated

version with a blue dash border, and a panel on a 1668 dated posset pot.'
Adam 
and Eve chargers sometimes have been associated with the Fruiterers' Com-

pany, the arms of which include the same theme. 
   Two unusual features of the Longridge dish are the blue feathery bands
edg- 
ing the sides of the trees and the fringe of short blue grasses at the top
of the 
foreground. These characteristics also occur on four Adam and Eve dishes

attributable to Rotherhithe based on their similarity to wasters from that
pot- 
tery? The "IoH" initials on the back of the Longridge dish are
likely to stand for 
the Christian name and surname of the painter. (The back of a 1652 dated
Nativ- 
ity dish with stylistically different painting also bears "IH"
initials.)' Since I and 
J were interchangeable in the seventeenth century, a number of names qualify

as potential candidates. John Heath (d. 1658) of Saint Saviour's parish in
South- 
wark baptized children in 1646, 1654, and 1658; Isaac Hickson died in the
same 
parish in 1665; John Holby was living in Saint Olave's parish, also in Southwark,

in 1678; John Hood was married in Saint Alphage, Greenwich, in 1663. Other

potters or painters with I or JH initials can be associated with earlier
and later 
dates, and there may well have been some of whom no record survives. None

of the above names can be associated with particular factories or skills,
but it is 
very likely that anyone calling himself a potter in Saint Saviour's parish
in 1650 
would have been employed at Pickleherring. Since Heath and Hickson were 
both in the parish at the time, there is the possibility that one or the
other was 
the "I°H" of the Longridge dish. 
 
 
98 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1. lipsli and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 6, 13.  4. Lipski and Archer,
D)ated Delftware, no. 1698. 
 
 
2. Archer, Chargers, pp. 116 118; Archer, V&A, 
no. A13, fig. 24: Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft- 
ware, nos. 6, 13. For early Adam and Eve dishes, 
Netherlandish design sources, and (;oltzius, see 
Mactaggart, Chargers, p. 59, pl. 5, pp. 61 63. 
 
3. Archer, Chargers, pls. 51a 521"; Britton, 
Bristol, p. 50, figs. 1 2; lipski and Archer, I)ated 
Delflware, nos. 44 (1663), 897 (1668), and, for 
color view, Allen, l)olz Collection, p. 859, pl. 4. 
 
 
5. Sotheby's (1), December 6, 1983, lot 593; 
Noel flume, London and Virginia, pl. 29; Ilorne, 
Collection, pt. 6, no. 134; Royal Ontario Museuim 
collection (no. 931.10.49). 
 
6. Taggart, Burnap, no. 79, pp. 34, 58. 
 
7. Ecwards, London, pp. 73 74. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 99 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D66, D67. DISHES 
(D66) Probably London 
1655-1680 
(D67) London, Brislington, or Bristol 
1675-1695 
 
(D66) H.: 31/4" (8.3 cm); 
Diam.: 16" (40.6 cm) 
(D67) H.: 2 1/4" (5.8 cm): 
Diam.: 131/4" (33.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: (D66) Fine-grained 
pinkish buff with small inclusions. 
(D67) Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall 
on interiors. 
LEAD GLAZE: Bluish in cast and 
somewhat muddy, (D66) of orange-peel 
texture, (D67) probably overfired. (Both) 
Over pale slip. Overall on exteriors, 
excluding where footrims wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B1/b, (D66) with slightly convex 
center to interior. (D67) Footrim pierced 
with single hole, 
DECORATION: Painted. The Tempta- 
tion. Borders composed of circles 
and dashes. 
 
 
Religious and Mythological Subjects 
 
 
he treatment of the trees and tbreground on the first Adam and Eve dish 
shown here (D66) in many respects corresponds with that on a 1672 dated 
Charles II dish (no. D9) also in this collection. The painting of the figures,
how- 
ever, has much in common with an Adam      and Ewve dish dated 1635, 
perhaps indicating that the Longridge example was made somewhat earlier 
than the 1670s. The figures on the Longridge and 1635 dishes are after those
in 
an engraving of Adam and Eve by Crispin van de Passe.' 
    Foreground "paths" and scalelike trees (but with tufting) similar
to those on 
the second Longridge dish (D67) are found on one that possibly depicts Gen-

eral Monck (no. D17), and it is likely that both share the same date and

attribution. Generally similar trees (again with tufts) also occur on a blue
dash- 
bordered dish dated 1685 that depicts a couple identified as Mr. and Mrs.
11.' 
 
 
D67 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, p. 81, fig. 24; nos. A.13, A.14. 
2. Ibid., no. A.15; Archer, Chargers, pl. 49d 
(Bayou Bend collection). 
 
 
100 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IL 
 
 
A 
 
 
I 
 
 
! 
 
 
j 
 
 
D)66 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 101 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
             D Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Religious and Mythological Subjects 
 
 
H.: 1 1/8" (2.8 cm); Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
SHAPE: Molded. ShapeJ with less 
 
 
rounded exterior to rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Balaam, the 
Ass, and the Angel. Initialed "IH/1692." 
Borders composed of band of wavy line 
and fruit-and-flower motifs, and con- 
 
 
centric circles. 
 
 
This biblical scene of Balaam, the Ass, and the Angel is taken from Num.
22:27 
and also appears on two later (c. 1725-1750) London tiles., All three pieces
share 
a common design source, probably a seventeenth-century print. The plate's

landscape and foliage resemble types on contemporary D)utch wares that were

imported into England in the late seventeenth century despite efforts by
English 
potters to prohibit the trade. The Longridge plate is by an English potter
influ- 
enced by Dutch wares or a Dutchman in London, perhaps one of those brought

over by potter Jan Ariens van Hamme (see also no. D16).1 The border pattern
on 
this plate also occurs on two 1687 plates that depict vases of flowers and
a bird.' 
Biblical scenes, excepting those of Adam and Eve, are very unusual on English

delftware (see no. D335). 
 
 
Published Home, Collection. pt. 14, no. 388. 
 
 
1. Horne, Tiles, no. 492; Ray, Tiles, no. 41. 
2. Archer, V&A, pp. 40 42. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 168-169. 
 
 
102 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D68. PLATE 
Probably London 
Dated 1692 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D69. DISH 
London or Bristol 
1695-1720 
 
 
H.: 2 1/4" (5.7 cm); Diam.: 14" (35.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff to 
orange-buff with inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: White with some speck- 
ling, pooling to green (from painted 
ornament). Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Strong green to blue- 
green with patches of blue speckling, 
over pale slip. Overall on exterior, 
excluding where footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B1/a. 
DECORATION: Painted. So-called 
Wild Man with club between fruit 
trees. Border composed of concentric 
 
 
circles and dashes. 
 
 
A t least three blue dash-bordered dishes depict this figure, who on the

others faces in the opposite direction between different trees.' (He sometimes

has been identified as Hercules, but that hero normally wears the Nemean

Lion's skin rather than a tutu of leaves.) The figure may represent the Wild
Man, 
apparently conceived of in the Middle Ages, who, like "wild women,"
was 
thought to be clothed in a thick coat of his own hair or a suit of leaves
and to 
inhabit the woods and mountains. Although distinct, the Wild Man has obvi-

ous connections with the Green Man, Jack-in-the-Green, and the Lord of the

May, who presided over May Day festivities. By the seventeenth century the

Wild Man survived only as a part of folk festivities, as heraldic supporters,
or on 
inn signs., The sketchy painting of the foreground and foliage on this dish
indi- 
cates a comparatively late date, as does the low bush or clump of grasses
that 
also occurs on a dish showing Queen Anne (r. 1702-1714) standing and anoth-

er depicting a shepherd.' Somewhat similar trees appear on an odd "blue
dash 
charger" showing a boar up on its hind legs, holding a halberd.5 
 
 
1. Ray, Warren, pl. 4, no. 12ý Sotheby's (I), G. F. 
Glenny sale, July 24, 1956, lot 24 (possibly saine 
piece as Sothehy's 1I.1, May 27, 1975, lot 15). 
2. See Grigshy, Weldon, no. 25, for such a ligure 
on a scratch-blue. salt-glazed stoneware jug. 
 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 18, no. 518. 
Ex coll.: G. F Glenny. 
 
 
3. Husband, Wild Man, p. 1: Ray, Warren, 
pp. 110 111, no. 12; Archer comments (1998). 
4. Archer comments (1998), citing Christie's (1), 
May 6, 1974, lot 10; Sotheby's (L), May 16, 1978, 
lot 19. 
5. Jellinek, Animnal D)ecoration, p. 86, fig. 8 
(Salfiron Walden Museum). 
 
 
t 
 
 
-41). 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D70. PLATE 
 
 
Probably London 
Dated 1708 
 
 
H.: 13/8" (3.5 cm); Diam.: 8 7/8" (22.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape E with tapering 
foot and more upturned flange. 
DECORATION: Painted. Cupids with 
 
 
wind instruments and flowers. Inscribed 
"EKE/1708." Exterior bordered by 
 
alternating circles and dot clusters. 
 
 
Published: Garner, Lambeth, p. 54; Garner 
and Archer, Delftware, pl. 53.B,; Home, 
Collection, pt. 13, no. 358. 
 
 
Cupids with trumpets or other ornaments among flowers are a popular 
motif on early eighteenth-century delftware. In combination with the initials

on this and a virtually identical plate, they may celebrate a marriage or

betrothal.' The floral motifs in the plate's borders resemble some on an
impor- 
tant punch or wassail bowl (no. D306) also inscribed "EKE/1708,"
and likely to 
have been owned by the same persons. Related flowers also occur on a 1704

Merryman plate, and plate fragments excavated in London show equally elabo-

rate (though not identical) borders.' Although, based on their shape, the
1708 
plates reasonably could be associated with Bristol or Brislington, the pattern
on 
the exterior is not typical of examples from those areas. 
 
 
1. For dated delft with cupids, see Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 248, 943, 
1548; for the plate matching the longridge 
example, see Austin, Delft, no. 204. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 238 (plate); Garner, Lambeth, pl. 13e, 
p. 54. 
 
 
104 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
.Aý 
 
 
rp 
 
 
 
6 k      - tW4, 
 
 
r 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I, 
 
 
/ 
 
 
N 
 
 
D71. PLATE 
 
 
London or Bristol 
1700-1720 
 
 
H: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape G with slightly 
 
 
convex back. 
DECORATION: Painted. Cupid 
holding leaf sprigs. Border composed 
of concentric circles and overlapping 
wavy lines. 
 
 
  his plate and at least two others depict the same flying Cupid clutching
two 
leafy sprigs. The other two, however, differ somewhat in painting style and
have 
different borders; one has arcs and crescents, and the other has a design
derived 
from Chinese scroll patterns.' The first of these and the intersecting arcs
on the 
Longridge plate are border patterns most commonly found ons pieces that can

be dated to Queen Anne's reign (1702-1714), although the latter type also

appears on plates dating to the reign of George I (no. D51).' Plates in this
shape 
were made at potteries in both London and Bristol. The same Cupid motif also

was used to ornament Continental delftware. 
 
 
1. Garner and Archer, 1)elflwaire, 1)1. 66.B (private 
co~lletion, E ngland): Brit ton. Brist ol, no. 14.5 1. 
2. 1or Ojueen Anne-theine plates witih bothB 
border types, see Austin, D)elft, nos. 182 184. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 105 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D72, D73. PLATES 
London 
(D72) 1700-1710 
 
(D73) 1710-1720 
 
 
(D72) H.: 11/4" (3.2 cm); 
Diam.. 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
(D73) H.:] 11/8" (2.9 cm): 
 
Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff, 
TIN GLAZE: Grayish white. 
SHAPE: Molded, Shape J with slightly 
wider rim, (D73) with flatter bottom 
 
having two parallel indentations near 
center, perhaps indicating plate was 
placed on two long supports to allow 
 
glaze to dry before second firing. 
DECORATION: Painted. Mermaid, 
(D73) with comb and mirror. (Both) Bor- 
ders composed of concentric circles. 
 
Published: (D73) Atkins, Exhibition (1993), 
no. 12. 
Ex coil.: T Jellinek. 
 
 
            1)72  1)73 
 
 
 
 
 
The manner in which the mermaid and waves are painted on the first Long-

ridge plate (D72) resembles that used on some circa 1700 Dutch tiles depicting

sea creatures and ships.' Similar images also appear on English and Dutch

plates. At least two of the former show the distinctive waves supporting
ships; 
one was excavated at the Brush-Everard House site in Williamsburg, Virginia.'

Two mermaid plates virtually identical to the first shown here (D72) were
exca- 
vated in Norwich, and fragments of three others were found in a 1710 to 1735

disposal level at Edward Rumney's Tavern in London Town, near Annapolis,

Maryland. (The "Mermaid" was a popular name for taverns.) The first
Longridge 
plate's (D72) decoration and profile indicate a date of around 1700 to 1710
and 
an attribution to London. The second plate (D73) is of a profile also associated

with London, but significant differences in design, such as the treatment
of the 
sky, indicate that the piece postdates the first example (D72). 
   The mirror and comb held by the mermaid on the second plate (D73) are
her 
traditional attributes and, as well as being a reference to Vanity, emphasize
her 
role as a siren of great beauty capable of luring sailors to a watery grave.
Besides 
being dangerous to know, mermaids were said to have the power of prophecy,

and an extensive mythology is associated with both the ones who lived in
the 
sea and those who inhabited lakes and freshwater rivers. 
   Although mermaids frequently appear in medieval artwork and occur in her-

aldry (see no. D170), they are relatively rare on English delftware. Mermaids
with 
combs and mirrors accompany Arion on one Longridge plate (see no. D76). Two

are painted on a 1683 dated delftware rosewater bowl shaped like a scallop
shell, 
and another appears between cliffs on a dish.' Others are found on some seven-

teenth-century slipware dishes.' 
 
 
1. Schaap, Tiles, pp. 145, 151; de jonge, 
Dutch Tiles, pl. 70c; Sotheby's (Amsterdam), 
March 24 25, 1997, lots 46, 48. For a dolphin 
supported on basically similar waves in an early 
18th-century English delft bowl excavated at an 
Aldgate, London, consumer site, see Thompson, 
Grew, and Schofield, Aldgate Excavations, p. 59, 
fig. 27a. 
2. Mundy, Delft, pl. 4; Austin, Delft, p. 149. 
 
 
3. Jennings, Norwich, p. 210, no. 1486 (Norwich 
fragments). For London Town fragments, 
Luchenback comments July 1999) and Horne 
cominents (October 1998). 
4, Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 1338 (also 
Archer, Rijksmuseum, no. 49); vol. 2, pl. 122B, 
no. 1657. 
5. Cooper, Slipware Dishes, pls. 202-206. 
 
 
106 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Religious and Mythological Subjects 
 
 
H.: 13/8" (3.5 cm); Diam.: 9 3/4" (24.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly blue-grayish 
white. Overall, excluding footrim edge. 
A kwaart covers front, runs slightly 
 
 
over edge, and is visible in partial 
handprint(?) within footrim. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape E but with 
footrim like D. Pairs of rough areas just 
within footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged 
(or stamped). Cupid on fence near wall. 
Borders composed of concentric 
circles, band of circles and dots with 
filler motifs, outer band with 
differently arranged circles and dots, 
filler motifs, radiating lines, and 
calligraphic strokes. Exterior bears circle 
and three-stroke under-rim markings. 
 
 
D74. PLATE 
Bristol or Brislington 
If Bristol, possibly Temple Back 
c. 1740 
 
 
1. Ray, DlXftware l)iversions, pp. 154 155, 
pls, 77 -78: Archer, V&A, no. B.203; Sotheby's (L), 
Kassebaumn sale (1), October 1, 1991, lot 116; for 
a bowl, see Britton, Bristol, no. 8 8 
2. Ray, l)elftware Diversions, pl. 78c. Archer, 
V&A, no. 13.203. mentions a stamped circle dish 
showing the Chinese figure holding a severed 
head. 
 
 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 413a 413c, 476. 
4. Archer, V&A, no. B.203. 
5. Austin, Dkelft, p. 85 (punch bowl); Lipski and 
Archer, I)ated I)eltware, no. 543 (Plate). 13or a 
Plate with these flowers and a squirrel, see 
Taggart, Burnap, no. 147. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 107 
 
 
This unusual plate fits into the "Stamped Circle Group" of delftware
that usu- 
ally bears ornament all in blue or manganese, or in a combination of the
two.' 
In addition to the patterns of sponged (or stamped) circles that the name

implies, several pieces in the group include narrowly spaced, radiating lines
as 
border motifs. On one comparable dish a differently detailed central reserve
is 
laid out much like the one shown here, but a Chinese figure is included rather

than Cupid. The dating of the group is based on three matching 1737 dated

plates that lack sponged motifs but are related through the "feel"
and format of 
their designs and a 1741 dated plate with sponged circles and rim ornament

much like those of the example shown here., Sponged decoration of this gen-

eral type also is known on fragments from Temple Back (Bristol) and 
Brislington.: A punch bowl with sponged circles and dots forming a floral
bor- 
der was unearthed at Shields Tavern in Williamsburg, Virginia, and flowers
of 
the same general type occur on a 1750 dated plate. 
 
 
t 
 
 
ii 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D75. PLATE 
 
 
London or Bristol 
 
 
Z-shaped slash or number "2" on 
 
 
exterior 
 
1715-1745 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm): Diam,: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
 
(4 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained light 
 
pinkish buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white, slightly 
 
transparent, with brown and blue 
 
speckling, Overall, 
SHAPE: Molded, Shape G with outer 
 
profile of wall more like Shape I. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Ceres with 
 
 
cornucopia superimposed against floral 
 
spray. Borders composed of band of 
 
 
floral, foliate, and scroll motifs and 
 
concentric circles. Exterior bears off- 
 
center Z shaped slash or number '2" 
 
 
Published. Atkins, Exhibition (1998), no. 30. 
 
 
V 
 
 
   eres (Flora or Plenty) appears on several other delftware pieces in much

the same format, but differently painted and not against flowers: a 1709
dated 
posset pot; 1730 to 1750 octagonal and circular plates, probably from Bristol,

with Cupid's head and floral borders; and in a different pose on a 1725 to
1750 
Bristol tile with a powdered manganese border., Yellow flowers resembling

those on the Longridge plate ornament a 1690 to 1710 posset pot,' and the

plate's border is somewhat like that on a dish with a central, dancing oriental

figure, also in the collection (no. D116). Related edge motifs also occur
on a 
George I (r. 1714-1727) portrait plate and on floral-patterned plates dated
1722 
and 1724. 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 948 
(posset pot); Archer, V&A, no. B.199 (plate); 
Britton, Bristol, no. 19,22 (plate); Horne, Tiles, 
fig. 2 (plate), no. 19 (tile); Ray, Tiles, pl. 1, no. 5. 
2. Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 18. 
3. Sotheby's (1), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, 
lot 128; Lipski and Archer, Dated l)elltware, 
nos. 321, 331. 
 
 
108 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
A A-A" 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1745-1765 
 
 
H.: 17/8" (4.8 cm): Diam.: 13 7/8" (35.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff with 
 
several large blow holes. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with large 
 
pits. Very lumpy and pooling on back. 
 
SHAPE: Shape D with more rounded, 
 
lower rim. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Arion holding 
 
lyre astride dolphin, with ships, fish, 
 
and mermaids holding mirrors. Border 
 
composed of a circle. 
 
 
overboard when threatened with robbery and murder by the crew of the boat

on which he sailed. A passing dolphin, attracted by his music, carried him
to 
safety.' Versions of this scene occur on seventeenth-century Dutch tiles
and 
eighteenth-century English plates, some of the latter with central figure
groups 
so similar to this one that they must be after the same design source? Different

ships flank the groups, and other versions of Arion on the dolphin also are

known, including one in relief on a circa 1760 bronze pass designed by William

Hogarth and used for admittance to the famous Vauxhall Gardens.' Two other

Longridge plates (nos. D73, D170) also depict mermaids holding combs and
mir- 
rors symbolic of Beauty and Vanity. The painting of the tree foliage and
behavior 
of the glaze on the back of this dish indicate a London attribution, but
archae- 
ological fragments link other Arion plates to Bristol. 
 
 
1. Sotheby's (Stussex), September 18, 1996, 
lot 601. 
2. F orl Dutch tWie and pri  source, see Schaap, 
tiles, no. 185, and p. 138, fig 50. For plates, see 
Archer, V&A, no. B.224: Allen, Dolz Collection, 
p. 857. fig. 4. 
 
 
3. For plates, see Christie's (NY), Barrett sale, 
June 17, 1997, lot 77; Sotheby's (L), July 16, 1991, 
lot 139. For the bronze pass, see A. 11. Baldwin 
and Sons Ltd. (London) Co rniiorative Medals 
(1998 sales catalog), no. 101. 
4. Archer comments (1998); Archer, V&A, 
no. 1B.224. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 109 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D77. PLATE 
 
London (Dutch decorator) or Holland 
 
(probably Delft) for English market 
 
Dated 1661 
 
 
H.: 11/8" (2.8 cm); 
 
W. (between flat sides): 7 1/2" (19.1 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
 
LEAD GLAZE: Slightly greenish cast 
 
with brown speckling, over pale slip. 
 
Overall on exterior, excluding where 
 
footrim wiped clean. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Low with octagonal 
 
well and bottom. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Inscribed 
 
"Weilcom.my./Freinds./j661 [1661]" 
 
over paraph, 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, noa 1128. 
Ex coll.: T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
                                             Miscellaneous Inscriptions as
Primary Ornament 
 
 
 
 
 
 
This plate belongs to a distinct group with features indicating they possibly

were made by Dutch workmen active in England, or, perhaps, are Dutch in ori-

gin. The group comprises three (or four) plates matching the Longridge 
example;' one (circular) inscribed "You & i are/Earth/1661";'
plates inscribed "A 
Frindly/Feast," "Good Wyne/and Beere," and (two) "and
Wholson/Cheere"; and 
one inscribed "and mery/Gets."4 (Two delft bottles bear probably
modern "Weil- 
com my/Freinds/1661" and "You & i are/Earth/1661" inscriptions.)'
Where it can 
be ascertained, the plates are of a very fiat profile, rare for English delftware.

Inscription characteristics that indicate that a Dutchman (or Dutchmen) in
En- 
gland or Holland decorated the group include unusually poor spelling, a dieresis

on the y (see also no. D79) and an accent on the u, both commonly used in
Hol- 
land, and calligraphy quite different and markedly superior to that on 
contemporary inscribed English plates.' 
    Also relevant are two other plates with English inscriptions. One (circular)

has the rhyme "heer is Lettel cheer/but you are welcom/heer." The
other (octag- 
onal) is of second quality and bears the Merryman verse line "(3) to
entertayne/ 
his gefs" (see no. D79).1 Both were excavated from the same privy in
Delft and, 
considering the enormous quantity of Dutch tin-glazed earthenware exported

to England and the lack of evidence for equivalent imports, are likely of
local 
production. 
 
 
1. 1 ipski and Archer, Dated Delfitware, 
nos. 112, 112A, 112C. 
2. Britton, London, no. 69 (Museum of 
London collection). 
3. For three, see Stoner and Elvans adver- 
tisement, The Connioisseur, December 1, 
1917, pp. VIII, IX; for the fourth, 1em- 
ming, Lambeth Delft, p. 195. 
4. Private collection. 
5. Itorne, Collection, pt. 15, no. 415, 
remarking upon objects in Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 1488-1489. 
6. See van Dam, Gedateerd Delfts, no. 17, 
for 1683 Dutch plates with pious and 
humorous verses and the letters W and y 
(with an umlaut) notably similar in style. 
van Drecht comments (April 17, 19981: 
The use of a paraph is virtually unknown 
on Dutch delftware, and the glaze and 
shape of the Longridge dish are not Dutch. 
7. Scholten, van Drecht, p. 33, 
nos. 221, 222. 
 
 
110 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D78. PLATE 
London 
Dated 1664 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape G with 
smaller-diameter center and nearly 
flat bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Crowned 
cartouche inscribed "IWA/1664 [1664]." 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 729; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, pp. 880-881, pl. 9. 
Ex calls.: L. L. Lipski; J P Kassebaurn. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                               This plate belongs to a group
of objects with dates ranging from 1651 to 1664 
                                               (see also nos. D235, D237)
and variations on a cartouche with leafy and strap- 
                                               work elements painted in a
loose, sketchy manner.' Evidently executed by more 
                                               than one decorator, the cartouches
sometimes incorporate a crown or a human 
                                               mask, and the side scrolls
have finials topped with two or three short lines. A 
                                               1659 mug and a 1664 lobed
dish in the group share with the Longridge plate 
                                               the two leafy branches and
the paraph beneath the letters.2 The dish also has 
                                               the three-pointed appendage
at the bottom of the cartouche and stars alternat- 
                                               ing with the letters. The
group is attributable to London on grounds of date and 
                                               excavated evidence such as
a 1655 dated puzzle jug with a cartouche and bis- 
                                               cuit fragments of a goblet
similar in shape to the Longridge 1656 cartouched 
                                               example (no. D237)., 
 
 
 
                                               1. For examples, see ILipski
and Archer, Dated  2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 741; 
                                               Delftware, nos. 741 (1659
mug), 971 (1658 jug),  Christie's (L), D)ecember 5,1994, lot 4. 
                                               1565 (flower container), Sotheby's
(l), Kass~ebaum 
                                                                        
                 3. Britton, l.ondon, no. 65 (Saint James's Street, 
                                                sale, October 1, 1991, lot
56 (1661 posset pot);  Piccadilly); Archer, V&A, no. C.8 (Lambeth). 
                                                Britton, London, no. 65 (1665
puzzle jug); 
                                                Christie's (IL), lDec ember
5, 1994, lot 4 (1664 dish): 
                                                Sotheby's (IL.), Moor Wood
sale, May 15, 1979, 
                                                lot 7 (1653 dish). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 111 
 
  

					
				
				
 
               I Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
Miscellaneous Inscriptions as Primary Ornament 
 
 
D79. PLATES 
 
 
Possibly Brislington 
 
Dated 1682 
 
 
H. (average): 11/8" (2.9 cm); 
 
Diam. (average): 9" (22.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white, that on 
 
exteriors more pitted and, in some 
 
cases, runny. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape G with exterior 
profiles on several roughly echoing 
 
well shapes. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Central 
 
reserves with crowns, winged masks, 
 
animal heads, tasseled swags, and 
 
C-scrolls framing six-part inscription: 
 
"[1]/What is a/merey man"; "2/Let him 
 
doe/What he kan"; "3/to intertaine/ his 
 
gefts"; "4/With Wine/and mery Jefts"; 
 
"S/but if his/Wife doth frowne"; "6/all 
 
meryment/goofe downe." Rims 
 
inscribed "ILK" and 1J682 [1682]" within 
 
scrolls and graduated curvilinear motifs. 
 
Borders composed of concentric circles. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 151, 15A-151E. 
Exhibited: Daily Telegraph Exhibition (1928), 
no. 23, Age of Walnut Exhibition (1932), p. 122. 
Ex coils.: Radford, T G. Burn, 
Rous Lench. 
 
 
These "Merryman plates" are the earliest dated complete set attributed
to 
England and retain several features derived from Continental versions, some
of 
which also have English inscriptions (see under no. D77). A notable I)utch
exam- 
pie is a low octagonal plate inscribed "3/to entertayneihis gefs"
within a painted 
frame differing only in minor details from that on the plates shown here.'
The 
Dutch plate was excavated from a privy in Delft and is of second quality
(with a 
firing scar), presumably making it unsuitable for export. The shape of the
Long- 
ridge plates is somewhat like Dutch types, but the painting style of the
initials 
and date and, less conclusively, the primitive quality of the flange motifs
indi- 
cate Bristlington is a possible source for the plates.' 
    Although the Merryman rhyme appears to have been the most popular on

 delftware plates, at least six other comparable rhymes are known, and Conti-

 nental plate series inscribed in German and Dutch also were made.' Dates
on 
 English Merryman plates with the Longridge type of cartouche range from
1684 
 to 1704, with most being from the first decade of that period.' Merryman

 rhymes appear within wreaths on plates with later dates.' The cartouche
enclos- 
 es initials on dishes dated 1707 and 1742 and a name on a (possibly Dutch)
1714 
 punch bowl with strong London associations." 
 
 
1. Scholten, van Drecht, p. 33, no. 222; for the 
cartouche aronund Dutch verses, nos. 223 224. 
For other Dutch plates with similar cartouches, 
see Archer, V&A, nos. M.8-M.10. 
2. For similar-style lettering and dates, see 
l~ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 73 75 
(1681 and 1682 dishes). 
3. For English, see Ray, Warren, pp. 145-146; 
Horne, Collection, pt. 1, no. 5. For German, see 
Bauer, Frankfurt, p. 37. For Dutch, see Scholten, 
van Drecht, nos. 223 -224; van Dam, Gedateerd 
Delfts, no. 17. 
 
 
4. l~ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 153, 
166-166B, 167, 184, 196 196E, 238. For undated 
sets, see Sotheby's (I), October 1, 1991, Kasse- 
baum sale (1), lot 34; Walton. Temple Newsam, 
no. 15; Austin and Spang, Ceramics, p. 671, 
fig. 1 (Deerfield collection). 
5. For wreathed Merryman plates dated 1716 to 
1752, see Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 288 557E passim; and for a "171?l" dated 
fragment inscribed "(4)/With wine &/Merry 
J[missinglll7 [missingl" excavated at Exeter, see 
Allan, Exeter, pp. 210, 213, fig. 119, no. 2638. 
6. Britton, Bristol, no. 19.60; Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 483; Britton, Bristol, 
nos. 116a- I16b. 
 
 
112 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 113 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
              Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Miscellaneous Inscriptions as Primary Ornament 
 
 
H.: 11/8" (2.8 cm); 
 
 
W. (between flat sides): 8" (20.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape G but octago- 
 
 
nal with wider rim and circular well 
 
and bottom. Exterior wall convex at 
 
 
midheight. 
DECORATION: Painted. Laurel wreath 
 
framing inscription "GSM/1686." Borders 
 
composed of sprigs and concentric 
 
 
octagons and circles. 
 
 
This plate and another, inscribed "MS/1686," are so similar in
style that they 
must be by the same hand. Based on the usual meaning of triangular arrange-

ments of initials (the upper initial denotes a couple's surname and the lower

initials their Christian names),, both plates share the same surname initial.
The 
common initial combined with the matching dates may indicate that the plates

were made for members of the same family. 
   Another octagonal plate with a comparable central wreath is inscribed

 
"IWB/1689." The plants on the border differ slightly from those
on the 1686 
plates but are identical to those on wreathless plates inscribed "16
HCE 91" 
(under a stag's head) and "TAM/1691' (within paraphs), respectively.
The gen- 
eral type of plants bordering the plates are part of a repertoire of motifs

on pieces attributable to Brislington, including 1692 dated large dishes
with 
portraits of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza (see Time Line, pp. 12-13).)

 
 
1. Archer, Brislington, pp. 158, 160, pl. 18; Lipski 
and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 160. 
2. See Watkins, Three-Initial Cipher, for excep- 
tions to the rtle. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated l)elftware, no. 183 
(1689 plate, traditionally said to have been made 
ltr William Iles Bayley, member of an old Bris- 
lington family [Archer comments (1998)1), 188 
(stag), 189 (paraphs); no, 159, ftr "MB/1685" 
octagonal plate with the paraphs and a different 
leafy border. 
 
 
4. Britton, Bristol, no. 3.40, and Archer, Brislington, 
p. 156, pl. 6 (Charles II); Rackham, Glaisher, 
vol. 2, pl. 102C, no. 1642 (Catherine). 
 
 
114 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D80. PLATE 
 
Brislington 
Dated 1686 
 
 
4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D81, D82. PLATES 
Probably London 
 
(081) Dated 1689 
(D82) Dated 1712 
 
 
(D81) H.: 5/8" (1.6 cm); Diam.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm) 
(D82) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff, (D81) pale and 
 
(D82) fine-grained. 
TIN GLAZE: (D81) Pale greenish white 
with blue and brown dense speckling, 
pitting, and, on reverse, small poorly 
adhered patches. (D82) Bluish white. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. (D81) Shape F with 
 
narrower rim. (D82) Shape G with slight- 
ly convex bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Wreath encir- 
 
cling inscriptions, (D81) "RG/1689" with 
dot and graduated linear motifs, (D82) 
"MT/1712" under Chinese classic scroll. 
 
Probably published: (D82) Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 263A. 
Ex calls.: (087) B. Harland, Warren. (D82) 
Carter; B. and M, Morgan. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
Miscellaneous Inscriptions as Primary Ornament 
 
 
These wreaths, c 
tom and intersec 
delftware. The ear 
and the nearly thir 
from 1670 to 1727. 
1712 example (D8, 
wreaths encircling 
punch bowls date 
James II portrait, a 
more common wi 
leaves, is best kno 
nos. D60, D79, D2 
type were made ir 
Southwark at Wir 
type shown here ( 
 
 
1. ILipski and Archer, I) 
2. Ibid., nos. 131, 349; ! 
examples with intermne 
for a related mug date 
1699, see Mundy, Delft, 
delft figural tile picturn 
wreath (itorne, Tiles, c 
3. For the mate to the 
1)elfl, no. 263; for flor 
tar one inscribed "MAI 
no. 178. 
 
 
I)81 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Family Arms, Guild Arms, and Trades 
 
 
D83. DISH 
 
 
Southwark, London 
Richard Newnham, Pickleherring 
Dated 1651 
 
H.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm): Diam.: 15 1/8" (38.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff 
TIN GLAZE: White with slightly pale 
green cast. 
SHAPE: Molded with separate molds 
for front and back. Slightly recessed 
center within footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Arms of the 
Worshipful Company of Grocers with 
motto "GOD:GRANT:GRCE [sic]" and 
inscription "IHM/1651 [1651]." 
 
Published. Garner and Archer, Delftware, 
no. 28B and p. 13, Garner. Delftware, pl. IBI 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 98. 
Exhibited: Honey. 1948 ECC Exhibition, pl. 1, 
no. 6. 
Ex calls.: B. Harland, F H. Garner: Major 
E. R. W Robinson, J P Kassebaum. 
 
 
The Worshipful Company of Grocers derived from a guild that in the 
thirteenth century was described as "the mistery of Grossers, Pepperers,
and 
Apothecaries." The company was incorporated in 1428/9 and was granted

armorial bearings in 1532 ("Argent a chevron gules between six cloves
nine 
cloves sable"). The arms are shown on the dish with the griffin supporters,

camel crest, and (here abbreviated) motto "God Grant Grace."' With
the excep- 
tion of one 1661 dated palissy dish, all known dated delftware bearing the

Grocers' arms are from either 1649 or 1651.' The reason for this limited
date 
range is not known. Also surprising is the fact that, although London Grocers'

arms delftware might be expected to be found only in London contexts, a pair

of 1649 dated bottles with "E WM" initials associated with Norwich
grocer 
Edward Woodward (Woodyard?) were found in Norwich in the 1860s. 
   Delftware molded dishes of the sort shown here are based on silver origi-

nals, sometimes used to hold rosewater for hand washing at the table,' and

were made from the second quarter of the seventeenth to the early eighteenth

centuries. (For other molded dishes after metalwork forms, see nos. D10,
D103, 
D104, D177). The initials on the example shown here are said to be those
of Sir 
James and Marie Houblon, whose son was the first governor of the Bank of
En- 
gland and was master of the Grocers' Company. 
   Two 1649 dated dishes are similar in size to the Longridge example and
may 
be from the same mold. One bears elaborate plant and fantastic figure motifs

derived from Italian (Urbino) maiolica.' The other bears the arms of the
London 
Company of Parish Clerks and the initials "RMAA" and has an elaborate
border 
consisting of scenes of sailing ships, buildings, and trees. Such motifs
have been 
linked to the Pickleherring factory. Based on the closeness in date of the
1649 
and Longridge (1651) dishes and the likelihood of their being from the same

mold, it is possible that all three were produced at a single factory. A
cartouche 
in the center of a larger, plain-bordered dish of this shape is dated 1670
and 
initialed "R M.'' 
 
 
116 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1. llrojley, Guoilds of l ondclt pl. 28, 
pp. 129 112. 
 
 
2. 1 ipski and Archer, Iated Ilellhware, 
nos. 96 96A, 110 (pa~lssy dish), 970, 137(0 1 370A. 
1447; tor one with later decor at ion, no. 1797. 
 
 
3. Jenntings, Norwich. no. 15:30, fig. 98; Lipski 
aind Arc her, Dated l)elhlware, nos. 1170, 13t70A. 
 
 
5. Sot heby's (l ), Garner Sale (1), Oct ober 6, 1964, 
lot 170. 
 
 
6. 1 ipski and Archer. IDat ed Il~elfiware, no. 95. 
 
 
7. Ibid., 11. 97; 1Burmlan. Moltils 2, p. 104. 1For 
related Pickleherring motifs;, see Arc her, V&A, 
no. A.56. 
 
 
8. Archer, V&A, no. 117. 
 
 
4. Aicher, V&A, p. 110. 
 
 
The Longridge Collectton 117 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D84. (OVERSIZE) DISH 
London 
Dated "1673/MAY THE:21th" 
 
H.: 3 1/8" (7.9 cm); Diam,: 22 3/8" (56.8 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, that on exterior 
somewhat pooled, blotted, smudged, 
and crawling at rim. 
SHAPE: Shape E with wider, more 
upturned flange. Footrim pierced with 
four closely spaced holes. 
DECORATION: Painted. Unidentified 
coat of arms, Inscribed "WWM 1673/ 
MAY THE:21th [sic]." Inner border 
composed of scrollwork and clusters of 
foliate motifs. Outer border composed 
of reserves, alternating Chinese figures 
in landscapes with floral motifs, 
separated by cross-hatching and 
scale patterns. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 134; Archer, Monck, pp. 1-2, fig. 2. 
Ex coils.: T G. Burn, Rous Lench; 
J. P Kosseboum. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Family Arms, Guild Arms, and Trades 
 
 
The as-yet unidentified arms' and crest on this extremely large dish are

formally described as "Three Lozenges Upon a Helm with a Wreath of the
Col- 
ors a Cubit Arm sleeved and cuffed holding a Lozenge." Research has
shown the 
"wWM'M initials to be those of William Wythe and Mary Judge, who were
mar- 
 
ried at All Hallows-on-the-Wall in the City of London in 1673, but no connection

between the couple and the arms has been found. 
   The flowers, leaves, and insects in the border panels on this dish resemble

those on the 1669 dated mug (no. D240) and the 1674 Merchant Taylor's arms

puzzle/posset pot (no. D275) also in this collection. Like the Chinese-figure-in-

landscape panels and the scroll motifs, this ornament is based on designs
from 
Ming Transitional porcelain of the last half of the seventeenth century.'
Chinese 
figural motifs after such inspirations also appear on Longridge collection
dishes 
from the decades just before 1700 (see nos. D101-D112). Filler designs closely

similar to the scale-pattern and textilelike motif painted between the border

panels are quite rare on English delftware. 
    The cloud-scroll motifs that form the well border on the dish shown here
are 
 paralleled, although not identically, on other delftware in the Longridge
collec- 
 tion. The scrollwork on the set of Merryman plates (nos. D79) has, as on
this 
 dish, tiny slashed elaborations. On the set, the motif is used to frame
the 1682 
 date and 'IIK" initials. Scrolls without the slashed elaborations occur
on the 
 1674 Merchant Taylor's arms puzzle/posset pot (no. D275), mentioned above,

 and the mantling around the arms and inscription on that pot resembles but
is 
 less elegantly executed than the type shown here. Somewhat similar mantling

 also ornaments a Longridge mug that is dated 1684 and bears the arms of
the 
 Worshipful Company of Butchers (no. D245). Based on its painting style,
the 
 dish shown here is likely to be from London. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 1. The arms at one time were thought to be 
 those of the Company of Makers of Playing 
 (lards (chartered in 1628), but their earliest 
 arms are not recorded until 1739 (Lipski and 
 Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 134). 
 2, Research carried out by Mr. Frank Britton 
 (Sotheby's ILl, Rous Lench sale it], July 1, 1986, 
 lot 29). 
 3. Archer, Oriental Influence, pp. 54-58. 
 
 
118 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 119 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D85. PLATE 
Probably London 
Dated 1724 
 
H.: 11/4" (3.2 cm); Diam.: 9 3/4'(24.8 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightly transpar- 
ent and with opening crazing. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape E. 
DECORATION: Painted and sgraffito. 
Arms of the Worshipful Company of 
Butchers with motto "Omnia subjecifti 
sub pedibus oves & boves." Inscribed 
"T GH' and dated 1724. Border 
 
composed of band of sgraffito scrolls 
with ovals having scroll and foliate 
elaborations. 
 
 
120 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
A      Ithough a number of members of the Butchers' Company of London 
(incorporated 1605)' in 1724 had the initials T. G., the date does not appear
to 
have any particular significance for any of themi. The arms also appear on
sev- 
eral other dated delftware pieces: a 1684 Longridge mug (no. D245); a 1728

mug with a blue-on-white band like the plate's sgraffito border in pattern;
a 
1732 mug; and a 1749 punch bowl.:' Initials or names on these and other com-

pany arms pieces typically refer to owners who were members of the company.

(For other Longridge armorial delftware, mostly with guild arms, see nos.
D83, 
D84, D224, D238, D242, D244, D245, D275, D310, D394, D395, D411.) This plate

is attributable to London based on its arms, and archaeological material
indi- 
cates that sgraffito-decorated borders typically are from factories in that
city. 
(Particularly close sgraffito borders occur on bowl fragments excavated at

Vauxhall in Lambeth.)4' Sgraffito scrolls edge a plate with pseudoarms former-

ly associated with the Leathersellers' Company, and borders of this general

type also occur on plate fragments excavated at colonial sites and a few
1733 
and 1734 dated plates. 
 
1. For the armorial bearings and discussion of  4. Cockell, Vauxhall Cross,
pl. 129b, 130b. 
the company, see Bromley, Guilds of London, 
                                         5. Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 54, and
Tilley, London 
col. pl. 6, pp. 34-36. The accurate spelling of the 
motto is "Ornnia subiecusti sub pedihus, evces et bwove."  Arms,
pt. 4, pp. 281-282, fig. 7 (Leathersellers). 
                                         For fragments, see Garner, Lambeth,
pl. 12a 
 2. Archer comments (19981.              (London); Austin, Delft, pp. 162-163
(Williamsburg, 
 3. l.ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 812,  Va.). Lipski and Archer,
Dated Delftware, 
                                         nos. 372, 387-387E (dated plates).

 820, 1124; for dated pieces depicting the butchers' 
 trade, nos. 564, 1138; Home, Collection, pt. 1, 
 no. 8. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Family Arms, Guild Arms, and Trades 
 
 
D86. PLATE 
London or Bristol 
Dated 1758 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise, slightly 
transparent. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape N with 
broader rim of thirty-five flutes and 
scalloped edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Two men 
cutting wood with pit saw and a third 
carrying a board. Borders composed 
of bianco-sopra-bianco ornament. Exte- 
rior inscribed "Charles, Cordy/of 
norwich/1758." 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Doted 
Delftware, no. 600. 
Ex coll.: J A. Hutton. 
 
 
Sawyer Charles Cordy's name appears in Norfolk and Norwich tax and 
voting records and trade directories from 1755/6 to 1779. It also occurs
on a 
plate inscribed "Charls,Cordy./Norwich/J760," like the Longridge
example in 
shape but with a different bianco-sopra-bianco border and a polychrome Chi-

nese scene of fishermen and a building. (Neither plate's date corresponds
with 
known events in the craftsman's life.) Three other bianco-sopra-bianco plates
of 
this shape bear the same Chinese scene but are inscribed "Cornelius
Dixon/Nor- 
wich/1760."2 The Longridge plate's border pattern has been associated
with 
Lambeth and one close to that on the 1760 "Cordy" dish with Bristol.'
No evi- 
dence proves that either border was exclusive to a single potting center.

   With few exceptions, the fashion for depicting craftsmen at work on delft-

ware appears to have been restricted to the third quarter of the eighteenth

century. A different view of men sawing wood occurs on a 1772 dated plate
with 
a blue-painted border., 
 
 
1. lipski and Archer. Dated ijelflware, nos. 600, 
609. 
2ý Ibid., nos. 608 60811 
3. Van Oss, English Delft, pls. 204c (left), 202a; 
Archer. V&A, nos. B.83, B.85 1B.86. 
 
 
4. For dated examples, see lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, nos. 649 (1767 brickmakers), 
656 (1768 bakers), 668 (1772 sawyers), 682 (1777 
candlemaker), 852 (1782 baker), 1106 (1742 farrier), 
11:38 1753 butcher), 1180 (1761 cooper); Britton, 
London, no. 145 1176r3 cooper). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 121 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
D87. DISH 
Southwark, London 
Pickleherring or Rotherhithe 
1645-1660 
 
H.: 3 3/8" (8.6 cm); Diam.: 15" (38.1 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff with small 
inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: White with dense brown 
speckling. Overall on interior, 
LEAD GLAZE: Brownish with slightly 
blue cast, over pale slip. Overall on 
exterior, excluding where footrim 
wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B1/b with pronounced 
groove at rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Buildings in 
landscape. Border composed of con- 
centric circles and dashes. 
 
Published: Horme, Collection, pt 13, no. 354, 
 
 
DEL FTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
European Landscapes, Some with Figures 
 
 
This dish belongs to a large group that includes mugs, jugs, bowls, and 
"fecundity dishes." They all share a distinctive range of landscape
scenes with 
towers and houses, many with shallow, sloping roofs; foliage made up of small,

dotted strokes; and often square-rigged ships that sail toward cliffs.' Pieces
in 
the group bear dates ranging from 1645 to 1664. Particularly close in style
to the 
Longridge example are three mugs from 1645, 1650, and 1660, respectively,
and 
two jugs dated 1650 and 1660.1 Elaborate fruited and foliate bands border
an 
undated dish depicting a yacht near a town crowded with buildings and another

dated 1657 depicting a scene more closely similar to that on the Longridge
dish. 
Although all of the pieces under discussion share design elements, differences

in painting styles indicate that a number of individuals were responsible
for the 
decoration. Documentary and excavated material indicate that most, if not
all, 
were employed in Southwark at the Pickleherring factory of Richard Newnham

or at Rotherhithe.;ý 
   Two "blue dash chargers" in the Longridge collection are particularly
close 
in glaze quality and color palette to the example shown here and have some-

what similar blue-stroked highlighting of the sky. One of the dishes depicts

Adam and Eve (no. D65) and is dated 1650. The nervous, densely spaced foliage

on the groundline is similar in feel to the densely dotted plants shown here,

and the green and yellow-ocher striped turf is somewhat similarly filled
in 
hatched strokes. The grass on an equestrian dish, possibly depicting General

Monck (no. D7), is painted in basically the same manner. On that example
a 
towered, diminutive building, though different in details, has concave sides
to 
the roof like the structures shown here. Generally similar buildings also
occur 
at much the same time on comparable pieces made in Holland. 
   For many years, this dish hung covering a damp spot on the wall of a stu-

dent's accommodations in the Midlands. After he eventually put the piece
up for 
auction, he was very pleased to discover its true worth.' 
 
 
 
  1. For discussion of the group, see Archer, V&A, 
  no. A.56; Burman, Motifs 1; Burman, Motifs 2. 
  2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 723 
  (1645 mug); 728 (1650 mug); 743 (1660 mug); 
  969 (1650 jug); 973 (1660 jug). 
  3. lritton, Bristol, no. 3.10, col. pl. p. 26 (undated); 
  Archer, V&A, no. A.56 (1657 dated). 
  4. See Scholten, van lDrecht, nos. 46, 129-132, 
  135 140; Korf, Majolica 2, pp. 247-251. 
  5. Horne comments (April 1998). 
 
 
122 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 123 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
              Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Dishes and Plates 
 
 
European Landscapes, Some with Figures 
 
 
H.: 1 3/8" (3.5 cm); Diam.: 9 3/8" (23.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise with 
medium crazing. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape G with exterior 
 
 
wall slightly less concave. 
DECORATION: Painted, Landscape 
with horseman wearing sash and 
holding baton, building, and trees. 
Inscribed "R P/1680." Borders 
 
 
The scene on this plate at first appears simply to depict an anonymous 
gentleman out for a pleasant ride in the countryside. On closer inspection,

however, it is seen that he carries a baton and has the trailing sash (both
signs 
of rank) apparent on blue dash chargers depicting military figures in armor.

The plate's 1680 date fits the period of some equestrian dishes of that type
(see 
no. D17). This may be the earliest dated plate bearing this border, a type

derived from Chinese porcelain (see later variation on no. D253). Comparable

English examples with this feature are a 1690 dated Merryman plate relating

to a set in this collection (see no. D79), and a bird and flower plate from
1695.1 
Although this dish shape also was made in Holland, the initials are in the
tri- 
angular format typical of England.' 
 
 
composed of concentric circles and 
band of wavy lines, scrolls, flowers, 
and fruit(?). 
 
 
Published. Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 145. 
Ex coils.: Possibly Lord Revelstoke:' 
J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
1. See Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 145. 
2. Ibid., nos. 184, 205. 
3. Archer comments (1998). 
 
 
124 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D88. PLATE 
London, Brislington, or Bristol 
Dated 1680 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I 
 
 
D89. DISH 
Brislington 
c. 1700 
 
 
H.: 2 5/8" (6.6 cm); Diam.: 13 1/4" (33.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pinkish buff 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise. Overall 
 
 
on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Shiny with slightly 
blue-gray cast and some tin content, 
over pale slip. Overall on exterior, 
excluding where footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B2 without groove at rim, 
Footrim partially pierced with 
 
 
he combination of shades of blue and very pale manganese purple demon- 
strated on this dish was not often used by delftware painters. One directly

comparable example is a bowl with a piecrust rim and a central scene in which

a man with a stick in his hand walks away from a (different) building.' The

wispy trees flanking the figure and the commalike filler ornament below a
line 
in the extreme foreground are similar to those on the Longridge dish. Another

piecrust-rimmed bowl shows the same trees as part of a landscape in which
a 
Chinese figure is seated. Based on the Longridge dish's glaze and decorative

motifs, which can be matched to excavated fragments, it and the wavy-edged

bowls (see nos. D188, D189) in this group are attributable to Brislington.
The 
"Union Jack" identifies the building as English. 
 
 
1. florlne, Collection, pt. 7, no. 167, 
2. Sotheby's (L), March L 1983, lot 394. 
 
 
single hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. Building 
flying "Union Jack" in landscape. 
Border composed of concentric circles, 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 125 
 
 
< 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
European Landscapes, Some with Figures 
 
 
D90. PLATE 
 
 
London or possibly Brislington or 
Bristol 
Dated 1701 
 
H.: 13/8" (3.5 cm); Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff 
TIN GLAZE: White, probably with 
a kwaort. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape G but taller 
with slightly less concave exterior wall 
DECORATION: Painted. Couple in 
landscape with buildings. Primary bor- 
der composed of trelliswork with 
foliate(?) reserves and one inscribed 
1Cs/1701." Other borders composed of 
 
graduated arcs and concentric circles. 
 
Published Possibly Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 225A, Home, Collection, pt. 8, 
no. 197 
 
 
his plate and a virtually identical example are from the same set. Another

similarly bordered plate very likely by the same hand also is dated 1701
but is 
initialed "WEF"' and, this time, the same lady and gentleman are
standing.' (The 
women's distinctive lace headpiece, after a Dutch fashion, was popular briefly

around 1700.) Although the shape, painting style, landscape with a windmill,

flower in the border reserves, and glaze (almost certainly with a kwaart,
or 
glossy lead glaze overcoat) are Dutch in flavor, the initials and date look
very 
English, and similar border motifs (after Chinese originals) occur on English

plates dated 1697.' The 1701 plates reflect the strong Dutch influence in
En- 
gland following William III's accession in 1689. 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 225 226; Ray, Warren, pl. 18, nos. 54, 55. 
2. Archer comments (1998). For related borders, 
see Van Oss, English Delft, pls. 194a-194b 
(Dutch dishes); Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 209 209A (English plates), 
942 (English cup). 
 
 
126 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I)'91  i.)iJ 
 
 
D91, D92. DISH and PLATE 
(D91) London or Bristol 
1705-1720 
(D92) London 
1740-1760 
 
 
(D91) H,: 2' (5.1 cm); 
Diam. 11" (27.9 cm) 
(D92) H.:I1 1/8"(2.9 cm); 
Diam.: 7 3/8' (18.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
(D92) more pale. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, (D91) with 
 
 
some pitting on exterior. 
SHAPE: Molded. (D91) Shape E with 
more vertical flange. (D92) Shape J. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Women (D91) wearing hat and carrying 
bundle, (D92) with basket on head, 
both figures in landscapes with trees. 
(D91) Borders composed of concentric 
circles; band of lobe, curvilinear, and 
dot motifs; band of zigzag and curvilin- 
 
 
ear imitifs. 
 
 
Poblished: (D91) Horne, Collection, pr. 16, 
no. 451. 
Ex coil. (D92) Worren. 
 
 
   Zigzag borders resembling the type on the first dish shown here (D91)
occur 
 
on a 1714 dated plate, a dish depicting a Chinese figure holding a spear,
some 
depicting Queen Anne (r. 1702-1714) and George I (r. 1714-1727, no. D47),

respectively, and dish fragments excavated in London and Bristol. A date
before 
the middle of George's reign is indicated for the dish shown here by the
solid 
shading in the right foreground (see also Queen Anne plate [no. D36[) and,
more 
importantly, the fact that the dish has a triangular arrangement of stilt
marks 
on the center of the interior, indicating that it was fired in a similar
fashion to 
seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century "chargers."- 
    Nunmerous small plates of simple profile like the small example shown
here 
(D92) were mass-produced in the eighteenth century on a speculative basis
at 
potteries in London and Bristol. They were painted with considerable economy,

and a sponge was often used to produce the effect of foliage in a quick and
effec- 
tive manner. One closely similar plate differs fr'om this one in that the
sponging 
is in manganese purple, and another in that color range depicts the same
lady 
but without a hat) The profile of the Longridge plate indicates that it was
made 
in London, and the behavior of the glaze dates it to about 1740 to 1760.

 
 
1. Soi heby's (1,), Novelnber 1', 1981, lot 263 
(Queen Annel:; lor no, (Citlect ion, pt. 7, no, 168 
(man with spear)I; Ray, Warren. no. 49, Litpski 
and Archer, 1)ated D~elftwaire, no. 273 117141, 
no(. 1050, a 1711 bowl with hathhed zigzatg 
bordeir. Lotndon It agmnents unearithod by Garner 
and B~ristol Ii agtnents by 1.1. I.Iipski lAr chor 
contttnts 1199811. lor a relatted border on an 
untistual Metrryanlti pla to, see At kins, Exl tbit ion 
119941, no. 15. 
 
 
2. Arc.hor notnients (1998). 
.3. Ibid., llritton. Bristol, nos. 14.49 14.50. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 127 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
European Landscapes, Some with Figures 
 
 
D93. PLATE 
Bristol or London 
Dated 1727 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 1/4" (21 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with dense 
speckling. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape H with flatter 
interior to well. 
DECORATION: Painted. Shepherd and 
sheep in landscape with buildings, 
trees, and bird. Inscribed "HL 1727" and 
 
   0, woe is me! my only Flock is gone, 
   Which oft I uf'd to fold & feed alone; 
   But yet my care for thee, poor 
     Ewe, behold! 
   Cou'd not preferve thy Lamb 
     from bleakest Cold, 
 
   Nor save thy Life, which I with 
     Sorrow moan, 
   No Grief like mine, hath 
     Shepherds ever known. 
 
 Border composed of a circle. Exterior 
 bears central flower. 
 
 Published. Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, 
 Pictorial History, p. 241, no. 19; Home, 
 Collection, pt. 12, no. 329. 
 
 
The ornament on this unusual dish likely derives from a printed source and

is somewhat similar in decorative style to a landscape and horse-drawn wagon

scene on a 1723 dated plate.' Although the original intent of the person
who 
commissioned the plate shown here is unknown, the poem and scene are so 
melancholy that, to the modern eye, they verge on the humorous. No very sim-

ilar sentiment has been discovered on delftware. Examples with other 
sheepherders include a 1714 dated plate with a seaside scene, two 1754 punch

bowls inscribed "Prosperity to the Flock," a 1760 plate (with floral
sprays on the 
reverse) showing a shepherdess with two sheep, and two (shepherdless) plates

dated 1771 depicting single sheep.' Based on its shape and glaze color, the

Longridge plate more likely is from Bristol than London. 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 326. 
2. Ibid., nos. 274, 1142, 606, 665-665A. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D94. SOUP PLATE 
 
 
London 
c. 1745 
 
H.: 13/4" (4.4 cm); Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with pooling 
on exterior. Pits from burst bubbles 
indicate overfiring. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape E with much 
deeper well and more tapering foot. 
DECORATION: Painted, sponged, 
and powdered. Man with a basket in 
landscape with bridge, buildings, and 
trees within lobed reserve against 
powdered ground, with fish in reserve 
forming border. 
 
Ex coil.: E. Pitts Curtis, 
 
 
his and other manganese purple "powdered ground" pieces in this
collec- 
tion, including a punch bowl with fish on the interior (see nos. D128, D319,

D327), represent one of the most common colors (along with blue) used for
such 
grounds.' A few other plates painted with the same scene and fish have unusu-

al powdered yellow grounds that, like rare green and brown versions, appear
to 
be restricted to London delftware.2 Perhaps the only dated powdered ground

plate with a fish is one from 1747 depicting the Crucifixion.' Punch bowl
frag- 
ments with fish against manganese purple powdered grounds have been 
excavated at Williamsburg, Virginia, and Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
 
 
 
1. For 1759-1762 Bow porcelain with a powdered  3. Lipski and Archer, Dated
Delftware, no. 51:3. 
blue ground, see Adams and Redstone. Bow, 
                                          4. Austin, Delft, p. 82, no. 45;
Unearthing New 
p. 167, cot. pl. M, fig.                  England's Past, p. 77. no. 215
(Ilart-Shortridge 
2. Austin, Delft, no. 258; for other fish-bordered  House site). 
examples, nos. 259, 263, 265, 275; Peirce, Cocke 
Collection, no. 16. For fish on plates showing a 
Chinese figure near a fence and flowering tree 
and attributed to London based on excavated 
material, see Archer, V&A, nos. 1.56 B.57; Sothe- 
by's 11.), July 27, 1982, lot 276; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 15.43. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 129 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTW ARE Dining and Related Wares 
           DEL .TWARE  Dishes and Plates 
 
European Landscapes, Some with Figures 
 
 
D95, D96. DISHES 
Lambeth, London 
c. 1785 
 
 
(D95) H.: 13/4" (4.4 cm); 
Diam.: 131/2" (34.3 cm) 
(D96) H.: 2 1/4" (5.8 cm); 
Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: (D95)Greenish white. 
(D96) Bluish white, pooling slightly on 
exterior. 
SHAPE: (D95) Molded Shape M but 
deeper and with straighter sides. 
(D96) Thrown. Bowl with flat-edged, 
short, tapering footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted and 
(D96) sgraffito. (D95) Commemoration 
of Vincenzo Lunardi's balloon ascent. 
Border composed of concentric circles, 
sprigs, swags, and pseudoshell edge. 
(D96) Commemoration of Blanchard's 
ascent. Border composed of concentric 
circles, band of trelliswork reserves, and 
incised curvilinear motifs. 
 
 
§incenzo Lunardi (1759-1806), secretary to the Neapolitan ambassador
to 
England, is said to have been the "first aerial traveler in the English
atmosphere." 
He earned this reputation when, on September 15, 1784, observed by a stunned

audience of nearly two hundred thousand (the king and Prince of Wales among

them), he rose above Armoury House, Moorfields, in a hydrogen balloon and

sailed over London to land at Ware. The flight postdated the first ascension
by 
Pildtre de Rozier by only one year. Jean-Pierre-Francois Blanchard and his
Amer- 
ican patron, Dr. John Jeffries, ascended from English soil on January 7,
1785, and 
sailed across the English Channel to France.' 
    Lunardi's and later Blanchard's balloon ascents fascinated the English
pub- 
lic, and published images that commemorated the events acted as delftware

design sources., The shape of the balloon's gondola on the first dish shown
here 
(D95) helps to associate it with the Lunardi flight, and the border motifs
and 
style of the foliage in the reserve aid in attributing it to London, where
frag- 
ments have been excavated. Variations on this particular dish type also are

known? 
    The shallow bowl (D96) commemorates Blanchard's flight and depicts a

 gondola-shaped craft differing significantly from that on the other balloon
plate 
 (D95). Some of Blanchard's flights originated in London from Stockwell Road,
a 
 mile south of the Vauxhall pottery, and potters there may well have witnessed

 these ascents. Closely comparable plates and shallow bowls also are painted
in 
 the dark blue characteristic of late eighteenth-century Lambeth potteries,
and 
 some have the orange-brown rim of which traces survive on the bowl shown

 here.4 
 
 
D96 
 
 
1. "Vincenzo Lunardi," National Biography, 
vol. 12, p. 278; Archer, V&A, no. LAS. 
2. For delft and prints, see Archer, V&A, no. E.15; 
Britton, London, nos. 163-164, figs. 20 21: Brit- 
ton, Bristol, nos. 10.50 10.52. 
3. Archer, V&A, nos. B.15-B.16, E.15; Hunter and 
Miller, Shell-Edge, p. 434, pl. 3. 
4. Britton, London, no. 164; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 10.50; Ray, Warren, no. 34; Poole, Glaisher, 
p. 161, no. 2. 
 
 
130 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
U' 
 
 
q 
 
 
D95 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 131 
 
 
1)96 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D97. DISH 
Bristol 
 
Number "10" on exterior 
c. 1740 
 
 
H.: 1 7/8" (4.8 cm): Diam.: 13 1/8" (33.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Light bluish white with 
 
brown speckling and tiny blow holes. 
 
 
Somewhat runny and uneven on exterior. 
Overall, excluding portion of footrim 
 
 
edge. 
SHAPE: Molded Shape between D 
 
 
and E. 
DECORATION: Painted. Castle or fort 
 
on island with ships and figure-filled 
 
 
rowboat. Land in foreground with 
 
 
fence. Border composed of circle and 
brown edge. Exterior bears number 10" 
and double-stroke and leaf under rim 
 
 
markings. 
 
 
Ex colt.: Printed sticker "HHW/ number/104,' 
with "104" written in ink. 
 
 
1. Admiral Edward Vernon (1684 1757). Ray, 
Warren, figs. 1-7, pp. 56-63; Archer, V&A, 
no. B.11, col. pl. 48; Britton, Bristol, pp. 159-160, 
no. 10.46, figs. 15-16. 
2. Atkins, Exhibition (1993), no. 17. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 465- 
468; Ray, Warren, pl. 25, nos. 63, 64; Austin, 
Delft, no. 261. 
4. Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 59; Ray, Warren, 
pl. 10, no. 27, pp. 130 131. The corner ornament 
of a 1740 London map of'the Itarbour Town and 
Fort f Porto-Bello taken by Admiral Vernon Nov. 22d. 
1739 includes four battleships matching those 
from the Fort Chagres engraving (Colonial 
Williamsburg collection, no. 1968-126). 
 
 
This scene appears to be a simplified version of one in an elaborate 1740

engraving titled An exact Account of Vice Admiral Vernon's taking the Castle
& Town of 
Chagre in ye West-Indies. One of the ships in the engraving closely matches
the 
large vessel near the right on the dish. Also in the engraving is an exploding-

towered fort with an arched gate, a flag, and, in the foreground, a rowboat
with 
figures differently posed from those on the dish shown here. 
   Two impressive delft dishes titled "The taking of CHAGRE in the West
Indies 
by Admiral VERNON" closely imitate the engraving's detailed design and
are 
attributed to Richard Frank's Redcliff Back pottery in Bristol. The dishes'
tower 
is identified as having the "flag of Truce hung out by Span." Another
delft dish 
depicts "A View of the Hot Well" (after a 1731 engraving) and shows
the Chagres 
engraving's men-in-a-rowboat motif. That dish, inscribed "Is F' over
"1741/2," 
has under-rim markings and detailing of the water much like those on the
Long- 
ridge dish. Although such initials and other criteria have led a group of
often 
elegantly painted delftware pieces to be attributed to Joseph Flower,, the
asso- 
ciation of the dish shown here with the group is tangential enough to preclude

confident attribution. 
   Another "10"-marked dish shows a different version of the exploding-tower

Chagres scene,' and several 1740 dated "powdered ground" plates,
like a flower 
brick in this collection (no. D374), depict towered forts, somewhat similar
in 
design to the structure on the Longridge dish, with flags and sailing ships.3

Scenes on some dishes depicting Vernon's victory at Portobello, Panama, have

been confused with views relating to Chagres.1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
European Nautical Scenes 
 
 
D98. PLATE 
Probably Bristol 
Dated 1752 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, slightly 
 
translucent. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape L with slightly 
more rounded exterior of rim and well. 
DECORATION: Painted. Fully rigged 
ship with lion(?) figurehead and seven 
guns. Inscribed "Diadem" under foliate 
scrolls. Border composed of a circle. 
Center of exterior inscribed "Francis 
 
Gott/1752." 
 
Published: Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, 
Pictorial History, p. 234, no. 4; Horne, 
Collection, pt. 17, no. 489 
Ex call.: W A, H. Harding. 
 
 
As yet the identity of "Francis Gott," probably the original owner
of this 
and a virtually identical plate, remains unknown, nor is there a record of
a Diadem 
in the British Royal Navy until 1782. The 1764 Lloyd's register does include
a 
reference to a Diadem that was built in France in 1750 and armed with fourteen

guns. Possibly the two vessels are one and the same, with the French ship
per- 
haps having been captured by the British.' (One of the flags may be a Union

Jack.) Alternatively, the plates could have been made in England for the
owner 
of a foreign ship (see nos. D99, D100). Ships sailing to the right on delftware
are 
less common than ships sailing in the opposite direction (see nos. D99, D100,

D314, D318). A punch bowl in the Longridge collection (no. D318) also shows
its 
(interior) ship scene nested on scrollwork. 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. B3.237, stating tihe central 
mast's pennant probably indicates the ship was 
a privateer: also lipski and Archer, Dated Delft- 
ware, no. 556. IHorne comments iSept ember 
1998): It this were a French ship, considering 
the hostilities hetween the two countries, it is 
mnore likely to have been taken as a prize than 
plurchase'd 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 133 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D99. PLATE 
Bristol 
Probably Richard Frank of Redcliff Back 
Dated 1764 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 7/8" (22.5 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white to lavender. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape M with slightly 
wider upturned rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Fully rigged 
ship flying the Danzig flag, under 
which is a man's profile, presumably the 
rudderhead. Inscribed "DE JUNGE 
GOTTFRIED EN JUNGE CHRISTIAN. 
1764." Border composed of bianco- 
sopra-bianco floral motifs. 
 
Ex col. J. P Kasseboum. 
 
 
Recent research has provided much useful information on eighteenth- 
century delftware and porcelain bearing more or less accurate depictions
of 
ships, many of which appear to have been derived from published prints.,
An 
entry in the Bristol wharfage books under August 30, 1764, refers to the
paying 
of port dues of 16s 8d for the Young Gotfried, a ship of two hundred tons
regis- 
tered in Danzig (now Gdafisk, a port in northern Poland).' Doubtless, it
was 
during this time at port that this and a nearly identical plate were ordered.'
One 
Bristol plate depicting a Danzig ship is dated 1755; three others showing
dif- 
ferent types of vessels flying the Danzig flag were made in Liverpool. The
latter 
share the rudderhead carved like a man's head seen on the Longridge plate.4

The pinecone bianco-sopra-bianco (white-on-white) border on this plate occurs

on differently decorated examples dated 1761 to 1765 and on a number of 
punch bowls and plates, many of them with ships, bearing Swedish inscrip-

tions.5 (Documentary evidence proves that Magnus Lundberg, a Swede who 
formerly was a painter at a Rbrstrand faience factory, was master painter
at a 
Bristol factory in the mid-1660s.)6 
 
1. Watney and Roberts, Liverpool Ship Bowls;  5. Lipski and Archer, Dated
Delftware, nos. 622, 
Watney, Jackson; Goldweitz, Devonshire.  626, 629, 631, 639, 1194, 1196;
Charleston, 
                                         Bristol and Sweden, pls. 212 216;
Archer, V&A, 
                                         nos. B.87 B.88; for bianco-sopra-bianco
decora- 
 3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 632  tion, pp. 155-156. 
 (Museum fuir Kunst and Gewerbe collection, 
                                         6. Charleston, Bristol and Sweden,
pp. 225-226. 
 Hamberg, no. 1905.51)1 
 4. Britton, Bristol, no. 16.32 (Bristol). Archer 
 comments (1998), citing Liverpool examples 
 inscribed "De ttoltnung" (National Maritime 
 Museum collection, no. W79-56), "La Vertu 
 flier," and "De FIcimfi Bruiyder" (Danzig Maritime 
 Museum collection), respectively. 
 
 
134 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEIL FT W ARE Dining and Related Wares 
             Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D100. PLATE 
Liverpool 
c. 1765 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 9" (22.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
SHAPE: Shape L. 
DECORATION: Painted. Brig (or, if 
aftermost mast is double, snow) flying 
Swedish flag. Inscribed "Succefs to ye. 
Lamuel/Capt. lacob Bekrman." Border 
composed of Chinese fretwork band. 
 
Published., Home, Collection, pt. 1Z no. 490. 
Ex coll.: M and C. Baron. 
 
 
A ccording to the Lloyd's register of 1764, the Lemuel, a ship of two hundred

tons built in Sweden in 1755, had "Jsa Behrman" as master and traded
from 
Liverpool to "Westerwk."I The painting style of the plate is so
similar to contem- 
porary Liverpool ship bowls as to indicate that the plate was ordered by
Captain 
Bekrman on a visit to that port city. Large numbers of ships from the Baltic
area 
and Scandinavia traded to Liverpool and Bristol, and it was not unusual for
mas- 
ters to commission plates or bowls during their visits (see no. D99). The
Longridge 
plate's two-masted ship, with its distinctive figurehead and billowing sails,
is in 
painting style much like three-masted ones on other delftware, some with
1760s 
dates, with ships apparently after a single or similar published image.,

 
 
1. Archer comments 11998); Htorne, Collection, 
)t. 17, no. 490. 
2. For a 1780 William Jackson painting and a 
1766 punch bowl, see Wat ney, Jackson, pp. 123, 
125, 1igs. 1, 11. See also Archer, V&A, nos. F.42 
F.43; Austin, DXelft, no. 286. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 135 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens, and Figures 
 
 
D101. PLATE 
Probably Brislington 
1675-1690 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
W. (between flat sides): 10 3/8" (26.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Green-bluish white, 
SHAPE: Molded, Shape G but 
octagonal with circular well and bot- 
tom and more convex exterior wall. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese figure 
in landscape. Border composed of 
simple outlines. 
 
Ex coll.: J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
he decoration on this and the following dishes derives from Eastern 
prototypes and is of a sort used at potteries in London, Brislington, and
Bristol. 
Although it is difficult to differentiate between these factories on the
basis of 
style, the greenish tint of the glaze and schematic ornament on the plate
sup- 
port an association with Brislington. Also probably from Brislington is a
1683 
dated punch bowl that shares with the Longridge plate similar clusters of
trian- 
gular leaves, vertical trees with tiny comma-shaped foliage, pancakelike
cloud 
layering near the cliffs, and dotted filler ornament (see also nos. D276,
D280).' 
A 1672 dated caudle cup shares the clusters of triangular leaves, asterisklike

leaves, and oval-cluster leaves with the Longridge dish. Dates on octagonal

plates, many of them depicting Chinese figures in landscapes, are restricted
to 
a range of the very late 1670s to the very early 1690s (see nos. D80, D107).'

 
 
1. Rackharn, Glaisher, vol. 2, no. 1339. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 782 
(cup); for octagonal plates, nos. 143A-143C, 
159 160, 162, 165, 183, 188--189. 
 
 
136 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
F) 
 
 
'/zTh ~ 
 
 
D102. DISH 
Brislington 
1675-1695 
 
 
H: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm); Diam.: 13' (33 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Olive-gray in cast and 
 
 
coarse orange-peel textured, over pale 
slip. Overall on exterior, excluding 
where footrim wiped clean, 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B2 without groove at rim. 
 
 
Footrim pierced with single hole. 
D E CORATI O N: Painted. Chinese figure 
 
 
   Chinese figures in landscapes, very roughly based on oriental porcelain

prototypes, became a popular subject with English pot painters between about

1670 and 1700. Based on dated examples, the height of this fashion appears
to 
have been in the 1680s. 
   The dish shown here and two others also in this collection (nos. D103,
D132) 
are admirable examples of the exuberant painting style, use of manganese
out- 
lines, two tones of blue and yellow, and duck egg-blue glaze that diffe-rentiate

Brislington products from those of London factories. Fragments relating to
the 
Chinese figures and the orange and blue stripes have been found at Brisling-

ton) A dish fragment painted in a similar style was unearthed at a domestic
site 
in Williamsburg, Virginia) 
 
 
1. I ipski and Archer, D)aied De'lftware, 
ni), 1 15 218 passim. 
2. 1or a relatied Chi nese l ignire in a land scape 
dish. see Britton, Bristol, no. 1.7. 
 
 
3. Aircher comments (1998), citing fi]aginenis in 
the V&A colleci ion. 
4. Austin, l)elli, p. 146. 
 
 
in landscape. Border composed of 
 
 
concentric circles, 
 
 
Published: Home, Collectroo, pt 12, n00 323. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 137 
 
 
"N 
 
 
\ 
 
 
N) 
    I 
 
 
t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEL F TWARE Dining and Related Wares 
DEL.T...   E  Dishes and Plates 
 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens, and Figures 
 
 
D103. DISH 
Probably Brislington 
1675-1690 
 
 
H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm); Diam.: 11 5/8" (29.5 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained dark 
buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Lightturquoise. 
SHAPE: Molded. Twenty lobes rising 
from slightly convex center. Shape of 
back follows form of interior but with 
slight footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
figures in landscapes. 
 
 
AlIthough fragments of basically similarly shaped dishes have been 
unearthed at at least one London site,' the glaze color, formalized painting

style, and palette of this dish indicate that it was produced in Brislington.
Some- 
what similar mounds in dark blue and yellow with purple grasses and outlines

are found on a Longridge collection saucer-shaped dish (no. D102) and on
a dish 
depicting James II (no. D19), the latter with the mounds in shades of blue.
In 
shape and size the dish shown here matches one depicting Charles II (no.
D10), 
and both may be from the same mold. The dates of Charles's reign (1660-1685;

see Time Line, pp. 12-13) and the 1683 below a crown centered on another

example of nearly this shape (with a somewhat larger, fiat central reserve)
aid 
in dating the Longridge Chinese figures in landscapes dish.' This piece was
pat- 
terned after lobed metalwork shapes; for other delftware and slipware 
examples, see numbers S31, D10, D83, D104, D135. 
 
 
1. For differently decorated lobed dishes 
excavated at the Aldgate (consumer) site, 
see Thompson, Grew, and Schofield, Aldgate 
Excavations, p. 59, fig. 28, no. 127. 
2. For the 1683 dish, see Archer, Brislington, 
p. 157, no. 14; Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft- 
ware, no. 122. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
D E L F T IW A R E Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens, and Figures 
 
 
H.: 11/4" (3.2 cm); Diam,: 8 1/4" (21 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Paleturquoise. 
SHAPE: Molded. Slightly concave well 
rising to twenty-five lobes. Shape of 
back follows form of interior, with bot- 
tom slightly concave. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese figure 
in landscape. Border composed of 
 
 
tassels, foliate motifs, and circles. 
 
 
This dish, like the previous example, takes its shape from English metalwork

and its painted ornament from Chinese export porcelain.' Lobed delftware
dishes 
have been excavated in London at the Pickleherring pottery site, in Rotherhithe,

and in Lambeth, including Norfolk House,' as well as at Brislington. Chinese

landscapes, sometimes with figures, are fairly common on multilobed dishes

(see no. D103), and other subjects, including royal portraits (no. D10),
also are 
found on them. 
    Dish borders resembling that on the dish shown here have been excavated

in London and at Brislington.4 Related ornament occurs on octagonal plates
(see 
no. D165) variously with Chinese figures in landscapes or portraits of William

and Mary. So-patterned rim fragments were excavated at Saint Mary's City
in 
Maryland.' The border motif also is found on some Dutch tin glaze. 
 
 
P 
 
 
1. For export porcelain ornament as a design 
source, see Archer, V&A, no. Dl))4 
2. Mu seoum of London, Southwark and Lamnbeth, 
figý 144, no. 1342; Archer, V&,A. no. A.64; Bloice, 
Norfolk Hlouse, fig. 53, nos. 32 33. 
3. Archer, V&A, no. A.64. 
 
 
4. Archer, Brislingion, p. 160, no. 20: 
Garner, Lambeth, pl. 13c. 
5. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 27 
(William and Mary)l Austin, Delft, no. 199 
(f ragments). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 139 
 
 
D104. DISH 
London or Brislington 
1680-1695 
 
 
ý_ %16 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D105. PLATE 
London or perhaps Brislington or Bristol 
 
Dated 1684 
 
 
H..] 11/8(2.8 cm); Diam.. 8 1/2' (21.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape G with nar- 
rower flange and more convex exterior 
 
of well. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese fig- 
 
ure in landscape, Inscribed "RC/1684." 
Border composed of figural and land- 
 
scape motifs and concentric circles. 
 
Published: Gautier. English Delfr, p. 5, pl. 8, 
Garner, Delftware, pl. 26b; Garner and 
Archer, Delftware, pl. 43B. pp. 15, 25: Lipski 
and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 758. 
Ex coils.: H. Griffiths, F H. Garner, Major 
E. R. W Robinson, J P Kasseboum. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                               The origin of "Chinese-figure-in-grasses"
motifs is sixteenth-century Ming 
                                               Transitional Chinese porcelain
that in later years may have been known to 
                                               European potters, or perhaps
they worked from simpler, less elegantly drawn 
                                               Japanese copies exported to
the West from around 1660 to 1680.1 Dates on 
                                               English delftware Chinese-figure-in-grasses
plates and dishes range from 1674 
                                               to 1687,1 and fragments without
dates have been excavated in London, Bris- 
                                               lington, Bristol, and Belfast.:'
Based on its glaze color and painting style, the 
                                               example shown here probably
is from the first of these manufacturing areas. 
                                               Exported English Chinese-figure-in-grasses
dishes have been excavated at 
                                               Williamsburg, Virginia, and
Saint Mary's City, Maryland.4 Dutch delftware ver- 
                                               sions of closely related patterns
also were produced, some of them for export.' 
 
 
 
                                               1. Archer, V&A. no. )4.
For further discussion  4. Austin, Delft, p. 146, nos. 199-200. 
                                               of Chinese motifs on delftware,
see Archer, 5. for a Dutch example found in Haarlem, see 
                                               Oriental Influence.      
                 van Dam, Geleyersgoet, pl. 145. 
                                               2. Lipski and Archer, Dated
Delftware, 
                                               nos. 135 165 passim. 
                                               3. Museum of london, Southwark
and Lambeth, 
                                               p. 326, fig. 139, nos. 1382
1383; pp. 331 332, 
                                               figs. 142 143, nos. 1314,
1 316, 1400, 1402 1404. 
                                               Garner, Lambelh, pls. 12b,
13a. Archer, V&A, 
                                               no. D)4. 
 
 
140 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E LF T WA RE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
I 
 
 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens, and Figures 
 
 
H.: 3/4' (1.9 cm); Diam.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape F with shorter 
 
 
flange and slightly concave bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese figure 
in landscape. Inscribed "SB/1686." Border 
 
 
composed of concentric circles and 
 
 
curvilinear motifs. 
 
 
  his plate appears to be the earliest dated example bearing an arcs-and-

 
crescents border (for a variant, see no. Dfl), an edge motif that continued
in use 
into the early eighteenth century.' The flat cloud motifs, dot clusters,
depth of 
the color, and, to a lesser extent, rounded foliage on this plate show similarities

to motifs on a probably Brislington octagonal plate with Chinese figures,
also 
in this collection (no. D10I). Also, the plant to the left of the figure
is very sim- 
ilar to one on the back of a polychrome posset pot (no. D276). Though the
loose. 
conventional design and painting style of the central reserve may indicate
that 
the plate shown here was made in Brislington, borders of the type shown here

are found fairly often among archaeological evidence from London. 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dared Deft- 
ware, na. l61. 
Ex calls.; L. L Lipski;J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
'4 
 
 
1. }lr dated plates with related borders. see 
l~ipski and Arc.her. Dated I)eltlware, nos. 186, 
221.,242. 
2. Stephenson comments lSeptember 1998), 
tPearre comiments (September 1998), and 
fraigments f bnd in I ondon. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 141 
 
 
D106. PLATE 
Brislington or London 
Dated 1686 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D107, D108, D109. PLATES 
Probably London 
 
(D107, D108) Possibly Pickleherring 
 
(D107) Dated 1687 
(D108, D109) 1680-1690 
 
 
(D107) H.: 7/8" (2.2 cm); 
W. (between flat sides): 8" (20.3 cm) 
 
(D108) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
 
W. (between f[at sides): 7 3/4" (19.7 cm) 
(D109) H.: 11/8" (2.9 cm); 
Diam.: 8 3/8" (21.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: (D107) Fine-grained buff. 
(D108, D109) Medium- to fine-grained 
 
reddish buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: (D107) Greenish-bluish 
white. (D108, D109) Dark blue, (D109) 
somewhat dry in appearance. 
SHAPE: Molded. (D107) Shape F 
 
(D108) Shape G with slightly convex 
exterior of wall. (D109) Shape G with 
wider rim and slightly concave exterior 
 
of wall. 
DECORATION: Painted, Chinese 
figures in landscapes. (D107) Inscribed 
 
"EH/1687." Borders composed of 
concentric circles and vegetable motifs, 
(D107, D108) with scrolls and octagons. 
 
Published: (D107) Lipski and Archer, Doted 
Delftware, no. 162. 
Ex coils.: (D107) M. L. Clarke, F H. Garner, J. V 
Vizcarro; J P Kassebaum. (DI08) L. L. Lipski; 
J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
D107 
 
 
5Dorder decoration similar to that on the 1687 plate shown here (D107) edges

 
a "Chinese-figure-in-grasses" bowl excavated (Mark Brown's Wharf
site) among 
kiln waste from the Pickleherring factory,' and other factories may well
have 
produced similar edge ornament. The border also is known around a flowers
and 
table reserve, quite different Chinese-figure-in-grasses scene,' and it occurs
on 
the bleu persan or bleu de Nevers plate (D108) shown here. Vertically oriented
cen- 
tral shrubs, resembling those centered on the dated (D107) and circular (D109)

plates shown here, appear on 1679 and 1680 dated plates, originally after
the 
same design source as the latter Longridge example. Border decoration like

that on the circular bleu persan plate shown here (D109) occurs on a bleu
persan 
cistern attributed to Lambeth based on archaeological material.' 
    In addition to being manufactured on the Continent, from whence the appel-

lation bleu de Nevers originates, dark blue tin-glazed delftware was made
in 
England at several London factories and at Brislington.5 It appears on a
broad 
range of shapes (see nos. D177, D180, D252, D278, D279), and, in some cases,

the decoration basically is a dark-to-light reversal (D108, D109) of typical
delft- 
ware motifs. 
 
 
1. Museum of London, Southwark and London, 
p. 326, fig. 139, no. 1383. 
2. Peirce, Cocke Collection, no. 5; Mundy, Delft, 
pl. 5. 
 
 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 143, 
143A-B, 144. 
4. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 19. 
5. Archer, V&A, no. C.13: Grigsby, Chipstone, 
no. 32. 
 
 
142 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D1 08 
 
 
1) 109 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 143 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D110, D11l, D112. PLATES 
London, Brislington, or Bristol 
1675-1695 
 
 
(D110) H.: 5/8" (1.6 cm); 
W. (between flat sides): 7 7/8" (20 cm) 
(Dl11) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
W. (between flat sides): 7 7/8" (20 cm) 
(D112) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
W. (between flat sides): 7 7/8" (20 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: (D110, D111) Fine-grained 
and (D112) medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: (Dl10) Slightly greenish 
blue. (DIl1, D112) White, (Dl11) slightly 
 
 
lumpy on exterior. 
SHAPE: Molded, Flattened version of 
(D110) Shape F and (D111, D112) Shape G 
with slightly convex octagonal bottom; 
(D112) slightly upturned at rim, (D110, 
D112) Triangular arrangement of small 
unglazed marks centered on exterior. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
 
 
figures in landscapes, Borders 
 
 
composed of similar motifs, concentric 
 
 
circles, and octagons. 
 
 
Published: (DI12) Archer and Morgan, Chino 
Dishes, no. 17 
Ex coils.: (All) L. L. Lipski. (Dl)1) B. and 
M Morgon:J P Kosseboum. (DI12)J. P Kosse- 
boum, 
 
 
The unusual color combination-purple and green-on the first plate shown 
here (D110) derives from ornament on Dutch delftware. English delft displaying

similar colors and themes includes two octagonal plates and one circular
exam- 
ple. The non-Longridge octagonal plates differ from one another in pattern;
one 
ultimately is after the same Chinese porcelain design as the first Longridge

plate (D110); the other similarly links to the purple and yellow plate (D112).1

    The border of the rare blue and yellow plate (D111) is found on circular
blue- 
and-white examples inscribed "TCI/1675" and "TBM/1680,"
respectively, and on 
a set of octagonal plates inscribed "WDD/1679."I Two circular plates
display the 
unusual purple and yellow combination seen on the third Longridge plate 
(Dl12). One of the purple and green examples mentioned above4 is very differ-

ent in painting style but has central reserve and border ornament after the

same oriental prototype used for this plate (D112). A fragment of a circular
plate 
excavated among waste from the Pickleherring factory (Mark Brown's Wharf

site) displays a figure, vertical trees, and horizontally striped landscape
some- 
what similar to those on the last Longridge plate (D112).1 
 
 
1. For octagonal plates, see Grigsby, Chipstone, 
no. 46; Horne, Collection, pt. 13, no. 356. 
For the circular plate, see Archer and Morgan, 
China Dishes, no. 16. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 138, 
143-144. For an example similar to the Long- 
ridge plate in color and pattern, see Sotheby's 
(L), Lipski sale, March 10, 1981, lot 22. 
 
 
3. Sotheby's (L), November 17, 1981, lot 242; 
Alton Museum collection. 
4. Horne, Collection, pt. 13, no. 356. 
5. Museum of London, Southwark and Lambeth, 
p. 331, fig. 142, no. 1316. 
 
 
144 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I) 
 
 
D110 
 
 
0 : 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1)111 
 
 
1)112 
 
 
The Longridge Collectior 145 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1M113   U)114 
 
 
D113, D114. PLATES 
(D113) Probably Bristol 
1710-1730 
(D114) Bristol or London 
1720-1740 
 
 
   (D113) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
   Diam.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm) 
   (D114) H.: 11/8" (2.8 cm); 
   Diam.: 8 314" (22.2 cm) 
 
   BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
   TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
   SHAPE: Molded (D113) Shape H with 
   slightly flaring exterior profile. 
   (Dl14) Shape K. 
   DECORATION: (D113) Painted and 
   sponged. (D114) Painted. (D113) Chinese 
   landscape with seated man, building, 
   plants, and trees. Border composed of a 
   circle. (D114) Human head with necklace 
   set on leafy arms(?). Borders composed 
   of narrow, checkered band with dots 
   and concentric circles. 
 
   Ex coil.: (D714)J P Kosseboum. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
146 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
he first plate shown here (D113) is one of a small group notable for its
un- 
usual figural subject.' Other aspects of the decoration-specifically the
green 
mounds in the foreground, sponged plants and trees, and border-are much 
like motifs on the Longridge peacock plates (nos. D136, D137), and presumably

all of these are of about the same date. 
    On the second plate (D114), the color combination used to create the
very 
unusual image-red with details of the face and the wreath's stalk painted
in 
manganese purple-is a rare one. Rhomboidal brushstrokes much like those 
used to paint the details first appear with dates on delftware plates around
1720 
and evidently continued in popularity into the 1740s. Hatching at the base
of 
the strokes is found on dated examples from as early as 1728.2 
 
 
 
1. Britton, Bristol, no. 19.28, also noting a 
(similar?) example at Reading Museum 
(no, 241.61.17); Atkins, Exhibition (1998), no. 27. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 312 505 passim; fbr 1724 1744 punch 
bowls with rhomboidal strokes, nos. 1069 1133 
passim. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DE L FT WA RE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens. and Figures 
 
 
D115. PLATE 
London 
Possibly Norfolk House 
Dated 1721 
 
 
H. 1 1/8' (2.8 cm); Diam.: 8 1/4' (21 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape K, but mare 
 
 
shallowly indented an exterior of wall. 
DECORATION: Painted. Landscape 
with fence, plants, rack, and flying bird. 
Inscribed "RDs/1721.' Border composed 
of foliate and floral motifs, scrollwork, 
 
 
U late fragments excavated in Lambeth display curving plants resembling the

one growing from behind the Chinese fr'etwork fence on this plate. Somewhat

similar plants occur with bird and flower motifs on other English delftware

made from around 1720 to the 1740s,' and differently patterned lappets and

ogee panels (see also no. D59) form border motifs on a few dated plates fromn

the 1720s.' Though some examples in these groups are painted only in blue,

others share with the Longridge plate a brilliant color palette. 
 
 
lappets, and concentric circles. 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dared 
Delftware, no. 317. 
Ex c~oll.: E. Pitrs Curtis. 
 
 
I0 
 
 
7 Aith.'i. \ iSA, no~. 71.117. II. 111:1 ip~ki ,ind 
 
2 1 ip~ I i .i nd Ai & hoc. I Xii ud I II Ii '.x arc. nui~ I Iii. 
I lilA 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 141 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D116. PLATE 
Probably Brislington or Bristol 
Number 'T' on exterior 
1715-1735 
 
H.: 2 1/8" (5.4 cm); Diam.: 12 7/8" (32.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape D with 
flatter rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese figure 
in front of fence. Borders composed of 
flowering plants with dots and aster- 
isks, three-brick motifs with arcs and 
scrolls; flowers and leaves with scroll- 
work; and concentric circles. Exterior 
bears central "I" and, on well and 
flange, open crosses and oval to Q- 
shaped motifs (perhaps representing 
leaves?). 
 
Ex colt.: Byard. 
 
 
The pattern bordering the dancing Chinese figure on this dish relates to
that 
on a pair of plates with central reserves inscribed "TA/1709."'
A version of the pat- 
tern also occurs on a dish resembling one in the Longridge collection (no.
D119) 
in its fluted rim and edge decoration and, like it, dates from around 1730
to 
1735.2 "Three-brick" border motifs seem not to have been used,
and outer bor- 
ders of this type were uncommon (see also no. D75) until the 1720s, indicating

that the Longridge dish also dates to that decade. The three-brick motif
and dec- 
oration on the back of the dish can be associated with Brislington and Bristol.

 
 
1. Christie's (1), Rous lench sale, May 29, 
1990, lot 18. 
2. Britton, Bristol, no. 8.29. 
3. For three-brick motif, see Britton, 
Bristol, no. 12.78; Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 1076. For the outer 
border, see l~ipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 321, 331, 339; Britton, 
Bristol, nos. 13.9 13.11, 13.19-13.20, 
13.24; Ray, Warren, pl. 68. 
4. Garner and Archer, Delftware, p. 39. 
 
 
i 
 
 
iiili¸ iiiiiiiii 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D117. PLATE 
Bristol or possibly London 
1710-1725 
 
H.: 3/4" (1.9 cm); Diam.: 8 3/8" (21.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained medium 
buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightly transpar- 
ent and with gray speckling. Overall. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape H but flatter. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
waterscape with plants, boat, fisher- 
man, and building. Borders composed 
of concentric circles and band of 
flowers and foliage with scrolls. Exterior 
inscribed "TREE," 
 
Ex coil.: Printed sticker "HHW number195," 
with "95" written in ink. 
 
 
The scene on this cheerfully decorated plate appears to have been moderately

popular. It occurs in a fairly similar style on two saucer dishes with rim
orna- 
ment relating to that on a dish in this collection (no. D119),' and it is
painted in 
a quite different manner on a Longridge mug (no. D262). Such views also occur

on a three-footed blue and white stand, two cylindrical polychrome bowls
(one 
retaining its cover), and, apparently, on Dutch tin glaze.' For floral borders
elab- 
orated with scrollwork, see numbers D116, D189, and for trees formed of sets
of 
vertical lines with slashes at the tops, see numbers D168, D343. No names
have 
yet been associated with the "TRE" initials on the plate. 
 
 
1. Britton, Bristol, no, 8.28; Garner and Archer, 
Delftware, no. 53A. 
2. Taggart, Burnap, no. 1.36; Archer and Morgan, 
China Dishes, no. 49 (covered bowl); Rackhain, 
Glaisher, vol. 2, p1] 124b. no. 1696 (bowl). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 149 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D118. DISH 
Bristol or Brislington 
If Bristol, possibly Limekiln Lane 
1720-1735 
 
H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); Diam.: 14 1/2" (36.8 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, orange- 
peel-textured on exterior. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape D 
DECORATION: Painted, Chinese figure 
seated near screens and table with 
vases in garden. Border primarily 
composed of floral panels and foliate 
motifs. Exterior bordered with "Q" and 
double-stroke motifs. 
 
Published: Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, 
no, 47; Home. Collection, pt. 12, no. 330. 
Ex colt.: B. and M. Morgan. 
 
 
The decoration on this piece derives from Kangxi porcelain designs, perhaps

via Japanese imitations, and the identical lady is found in a different garden

scene with a dancing boy on at least one other delftware dish. The flower
paint- 
ing style and brilliant palette occur on delftware dating from around 1695
to 
the 1730s (see no. D255).' Somewhat similar-style oval panels, with flowers

rather than leaves dividing them, ornament a 1709 dated Carpenters' arms

bowl; buildings within circles ornament the exterior of a 1726 bowl inscribed

 
 
"Drink:Fair/Dont:Swear"; and floral oval-border panels with leaf
dividers form a 
double ring on one 1734 dated dish.,' The back of the Longridge dish bears
dec- 
oration, derived from oriental porcelain patterns,4 that indicates it was
made in 
Brislington or Bristol, rather than London. Identical exterior motifs occur
on a 
1733 dated dish that, based on archaeological fragments, is attributed to
John 
and Hester Weaver of Bristol's Limekiln Lane pottery. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 47; 3. For the bowl, see Britton,
Bristol, col. pl. p. 31, 
Ray, Warren, no. 131, col. pl. 1) (dish).  no. 10.27, and (different side)
Pountney, Bristol, 
2. Archer, V&A, col. pl. 43, no. A.65. For related  frontispiece. For
the 1726 and 1734 pieces, 
floral designs, see Ray, Warren, col. pl. C;  see Lipski and Archer, Dated
l)elftware, 
                                           nos. 1075, 393. 
Austin, Delft, no. 611. 
 
 
4. For under-rim markings, see Britton, Bristol, 
pp. 309-317. For Chinese and Japanese dishes, 
see Carswell, Chinese Porcelain, nos. 61, 88. 
5. Archer, V&A, no. B.201. 
 
 
150 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Dl19. DISH 
Bristol 
Possibly Limekiln Lane 
Number "7" on exterior 
1720-1735 
 
 
H.: 2"(5.1 cm); Diam.: 13" (33 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white with 
blue-gray speckling. 
SHAPE: Malded. Shape D with longer 
 
 
flange curving outwards, forty-eight 
flutes, and edge with scars, the last sug- 
gesting dish was fired upside dawn. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese figure 
 
 
seated near screens in garden. Borders 
 
 
composed of concentric circles and 
plain and patterned stripes. Exterior 
bears central "7" and border with circles 
 
 
D E LF TWAR E Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens, and Figures 
 
 
   s on the previous dish (no. Dl18), the ornament on both sides of this

 
example derives from oriental prototypes. The identical central reserve 
from the example shown here occurs within a very different border on a dish

with the back having the same circle and double-stroke motifs, this time

around a 5 rather than a 7.' Somewhat different seated Chinese ladies also
are 
depicted near fences on plates solidly attributed through archaeological

evidence to Bristol's Limekiln Lane pottery.? The color range and painting
style 
(especially the trees) of the Longridge piece also occur on a 1733 dated
delftware 
dish) 
 
 
    Fragments of differently painted dishes of approximately this shape have

been excavated at consumer sites in London and Williamsburg, Virginia; one

from the latter location has a closely related border motif.4 A 1722 dated
dish of 
this type, also with a somewhat similar painted border, depicts a bird and

flower motif in the central reserve. Two others depict, respectively, landscape

and floral motifs. It appears that a narrow tool was used to push (from behind)

the edges of these dishes into the fluting of the dish molds. 
 
 
and double strokes. 
 
 
1. Ray, Warren, no. 146. for a scene dliller- 
ing only in details onl a dish with a 4 mark 
and dash and cirIcl under-rim markings. 
see Christie's 11.1 loune 12, 1995. lot 13. 
2. Britton. Bristol. no. 12.5: Ray, Warren, 
pl. 75, no. 145. 
3. Brui iton. Bristol. cot. p1. p. 33. no. 12.14. 
4, lcarce comiients lSeptember 19981, 
Iiondont: Austin, I1)ell t, pp. 146 147, 
W~illiamsburg. 
5. 1ipski anod Archer.,l),ted l)el~lware, 
nio. .317; Brit ton. lBristoil, nis i8.288.129. 
 
 
m'I- 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 151 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D120. DISH 
Bristol 
c. 1735 
 
H.: 2" (5.1 cm); Diam.: 13 1/2" (34.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape E. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese fig- 
ure waving flag in landscape with fence. 
Border composed of a circle. 
 
Published. Home, Collection, pt. 14, no. 394. 
 
 
The trees on this dish, with their clusters of asterisklike needles, and
the 
bushes with parallel stems and horizontal strokes for foliage, respectively,
have 
parallels on other Longridge examples (nos. D119,,D123) and represent popular

motifs of their time. The fretwork fence has counterparts on dishes, one
of 
them dated 1733, that are attributed to Limekiln Lane in Bristol based on

archaeological material.' The apparently wide-ranging popularity of such
deco- 
rative elements on delftware, however, cautions against confident attributions

based on less than identical matching of motifs.' 
 
 
 
1. Ray, Warren, no. 145; Britton, Bristol, p. 33, 
col. pl. 12.14 (1733, formerly associated with 
Niglett). 
2. For other use of related fretwork fences, 
see Britton, Bristol, nos. 19.17, 19.20. 
 
 
152 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I 
 
 
OF 
 
 
D121. DISH 
Bristol or Brislington 
If Bristol, probably Limekiln Lane 
1730-1755 
 
 
H.: 17/8" (4.8 cm); Diam.: 13 3/8" (34 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, that on 
 
 
exterior somewhat runny with pitting. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape E with slightly 
concave rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese fig- 
ures, one with flag, in landscape with 
 
 
bridge, rocks, trees, plants, and another 
figure in window. Borders composed of 
concentric circles and trellised band 
with flower and scroll reserves. Exterior 
 
 
of well bears double strokes alternating 
with crosses. 
 
 
MD 
Dorders with elongated oval (usually floral) reserves against variously 
patterned, comparatively narrow bands were inspired by edge motifs on Chinese

export porcelain and are found on fragments excavated in Bristol and London'

and on dishes attributed to Liverpool. Delftware dishes with borders of this
gen- 
eral pattern bear dates from the 1720s through the mid-1760s, with the greatest

concentration being from the 1730s.' One 1752 dated example is by a different

hand but shares many design features with another Chinese landscape dish
in 
this collection (no. D124). That Longridge dish and the example shown here

have under-rim markings, a feature that aids in attributing dishes to Bristol
or 
Brislington.' A trellis-bordered dish showing different central reserve motifs

laid out in a similar manner to those on this plate is initialed "WP"
on the back 
and has been matched to fragments from the Limekiln Lane site., 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, nos. fA 19, B.121. 
2. l1ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 351 
:352, 373, 405 405A, 410, 421, 436, 438, 445, 
1-5-511A (less oval), 535, 558, 644. for 1730s 
maugs, nos. 821, 822: for 1680s wider versions of 
such bands, nos, 690 692. 
:3. Ibid., no. 558. 
4. Britton, Bristol, pp. 309 317. 
5. forne comments (September 1998), citing 
fragments he has seen. 
 
 
I/ 
 
 
Irll 
 
 
Ili t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D122, D123. DISHES 
Bristol 
(D122) Possibly Limekiln Lane or 
Temple Back 
 
(D123) Possibly Temple Back 
c. 1730-1755 
 
(D122) H.: 13/4" (4.4 cm); 
Diam.: 13 1/4" (33.7 cm) 
(D123) H.: 13/4" (4.4 cm); 
Diam.: 111/2" (29.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, 
 
(D122) somewhat pooled. 
SHAPE: Molded. (D122) Shape E. 
 
(D123) Shape D with wider, upturned rim 
and peg marks on upper edge, the 
latter perhaps resulting from firing plate 
face-down. 
DECORATION: Painted, Chinese figure 
in tiered landscape with fences. 
 
Published: (D122) Archer, Rijksmuseum, no. 103. 
Ex coils.: (D122) L, L. Lipski. (D123) K. Harornitt. 
 
 
D122 
 
 
These two dishes share with the previous example (no. D121) a similar color

range and landscape motifs, including the willow trees and, especially on
the 
first dish shown here (D122), trees or bushes with parallel trunks having
green, 
dashlike, horizontal strokes. Similar bushes occur on fragments excavated
at the 
Limekiln Lane and Temple Back sites in Bristol. Some from the latter site
depict 
the peculiar plant composed of ovals superimposed on parallel uprights seen

on the second Longridge dish (D123).1 The multitrunked bushes and double-oval

plants also occur on dishes showing three-tiered landscapes in which a Chinese

boy(?) skips rope and on examples depicting an acrobat. Such circus-related

scenes may derive from popular images published in England, some of which

depict performers' assistants in much the same pose as on the first dish
shown 
here (D122).1 (For another circus performer, see no. D425.) 
 
 
1. Ray, Warren, pl. 75, no. 145 (Limekiln Lane); 
Archer, V&A, no. B.218 (Temple Back). 
2. For skipping rope, see Britton, Bristol, 
no. 11.45; for related motifs, nos. 11.42 11.44, 
11.48. For the acrobat and circus scenes titled 
"Representations of the several Surprizing Perfor- 
mances of the framous POLANDER, as they are 
Perform'd every evening at Sadlers Wells," see ltorne, 
Collection, pt. 11, no. 297. 
 
 
D123 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D ELkF TWAR E  Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D124. DISH 
Bristol or Brislington 
Number "1" on exterior 
1730-1755 
 
 
H.: 2 1/4' (5.8 cm); Diam.: 12 3/4" (32.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, that on exterior 
mare runny and pitted. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape D. Footrim 
 
 
pierced with two hales before firing. 
DECORATION: Painted. Bird, flowering 
plants, and Chinese pavilion beneath 
cliff. Borders composed of concentric 
circles and trellised band with flower 
 
 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens, and Figures 
 
 
   mong the Chinese-porcelain-inspired motifs broadly interpreted on En-

 
glish delftware are scenes depicting buildings shoved up against or perched

precariously on cliffs (see also nos. D125, D)126).' Trellis and floral reserve
bor- 
ders like that on this dish are discussed in entry number D121. A stylistically

similar border and a birdless but closely related central reserve appear
on a 
plate inscribed "SH/1752,"'2 and uninscribed variations appear
on other exam- 
ples.:' The ornament on the exterior of the Longridge dish is typical of
pieces 
made at Brislington or Bristol. A very similar dish with a few differences
in 
details is numbered 2, rather than I, on the bottom) 
 
 
and scroll reserves. Exterior bears 
number 1T" and double-stroke and 
 
 
naught under-rim markings. 
 
 
V 
   1111' 
 
 
 
 
 
 
             r~A 
 
 
I. See iliit ton, lhi isi ol, nos. 19.18 19.19: t;arner 
and Aircher, D elftware, nos. 60A, 70B11 (or datecd 
examples, 1 ipski aod Arceher. l'aied Delfiware, 
nos. 419 117 37), 425 117(81, 461 462 17401. 
2. 1ipski and Arc her. I)atied l)e~ltx~w.e. noo 558. 
3. Ray. Warren, no. 62A; tGarnei and Archei, 
l)eliiwar'e, pl. 62A. 
4.( Chisties il1, )c Otober 18, 1988, lol 497 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 155 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I 
 
 
K. 
 
 
'9 
 
 
C 
 
 
KP 
 
 
1'. 
 
 
.1 
 
 
/i 
 
 
11 
 
 
V.- 
$ 
 
 
I// 
 
 
1\ 
 
 
D12S. DISH 
Bristol 
c. 1745 
 
 
H.:1 3/4" (4.4 cm); Diam.: 131/4" (33.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Grayish white with much 
 
 
pitting on exterior. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape E with 
wider rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Buildings and 
 
 
fences in landscape with rock, trees, 
and birds. Border composed of a circle. 
Exterior of well and flange bears alter- 
nating double strokes and crosses. 
 
 
his dish illustrates one of several Chinese-export-porcelain-inspired land-

scapes with buildings and cliffs on English delftware (see nos. D124, D126).
At 
least three others, including one decorated in blue only, are so similar
to this 
example that they are likely to be from the same pottery.' Another dish with
the 
same under-rim markings as the Longridge dish has different ornament on the

front, linked through excavated fragments to Bristol's Temple Back pottery.
A 
fragment with a bird similar to that near the top of the dish shown here
was 
excavated at Limekiln Lane, also in Bristol.2 Variations on this bird motif
also 
occur on many other dishes.' 
 
 
1. Britton, Bristol, no. 19.19; The Antique Dealer & 
Collector's Gtide 39, no. 7 (February 1986), Wain 
Antiques advertisement: Rackham, Glaisher, 
vol. 1, no. 2535 (blue painted). 
2. Archer, V&A, no. B.218; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 19.19. 
3. Ray, Warren, pl. 76, no. 147; pl. 77, no. 150. 
 
 
156 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
/ 
 
 
4- 
 
 
t 
 
 
\ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens, and Figures 
 
 
I'.' 
 
 
D126, D127. PLATES 
(D126) Probably Liverpool 
Dated 1742 
(D127) London or Liverpool 
1740-1760 
 
 
(D126) H.: 1/2" (1.3 cm): 
Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
(D127) HW: 1(2.5 cm); 
Diam.: 8 3/4' (22.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff 
(D126) pale. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall, 
excluding edges of footrims. 
SHAPE: Molded. (D126) Shape M with 
shallower well and more rounded 
exterior profile. (D127) Shape N. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
gardens with women and buildings. 
(D'26) Inscribed "RTE /1742," Border 
composed of circle and brown edge. 
(D127) Border[ess (glaze worn 
away at edge). 
 
Published: (D127) Atkins, Exhibition (1999). 
no. 34. 
 
 
D)126 
 
 
The noticeably 
delicate painting 
to Liverpool. The 
those on an unda 
tory. On the unda 
of her hair, and a 
dated, polychrom 
typical of Londor 
and a Chinese sce 
in the same (if m, 
some extent, it al 
the dated dish (D 
tion of Chinese e: 
 
1. Winterthur l ollectri 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 157 
 
  

					
				
				
 
              Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Oriental Landscapes. Gardens, and Figures 
 
 
D128. PLATE 
London 
c. 1750 
 
 
H.: 5/8" (1.6 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff with scattered 
inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale blue, that on exteri- 
or somewhat runny and transparent. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape N with wider, 
less concave rim. 
DECORATION: Painted, powdered, 
and sgraffito. Bird on flowering plant 
with nearby rocks and insect. Border 
powdered with incised floral motifs. 
 
 
MD 
owdered-ground borders, most often composed of purple or blue ornament 
applied in any of several ways to create a densely mottled ground, are fbund

on delftware plates with dates ranging from 1738 to 1764. Dated examples

with sgraffito floral patterns, such as one from 1748 depicting a Chinese
fig- 
ure in a landscape, are less common than those with fish (see no. D94) or

patterned reserves.' Fragments with floral-incised powdered borders includ-

ing white blooms on the foliate vine have been unearthed in Lambeth and aid

in attributing such ornament to London.' Although no match for the Long-

ridge plate's central motif has been found on a similarly bordered example,

related borders do occur on many examples with oriental motifs.' One excep-

tion with a related border bears a playing-card motif like that on a dish
in this 
collection (no. D179).' 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delfiware, nos.  3. Austin, Delft, nos. 268,
272 274; for a 
426-635 passim; lot 1748 example, no. 524.   related border fragment excavated
in Williams- 
                                        burg, va.. p. 16,1: Ray. Warren.
p1. 79, nn. 155; 
2. Archer, V&A, col. pl. 75, nos. 13.64-B.65;  blrt, V,1., f16;R. 1re
140  79, no. 155; 
ner,Britton, London, os. 139 140; Britton, Bristol, 
                                        .nos. 15.5-15.7; 15.20  15.25. 
                                        4. Britton, Bristol, no. 15.9. 
 
 
158 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
L 
 
 
I 
 
 
%0 
 
      VU 
  % A.j 
 
 
WA 
 
 
D129. DISH 
 
 
Probably London 
c. 1750 
 
 
H.:] 3/8" (3.5 cm); Diam.: 11 3/4" (29.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish to blue- 
 
 
greenish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape E. 
DECORATION: Painted. Pseudo-lmari 
land- and waterscape with buildings, 
 
 
trees, plants, and fisherman in boat. 
Borders composed of floral and scrolling 
 
 
foliate motifs and concentric circles. 
 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 18. no. 520. 
 
 
En the 1750s to 1770s English delftware made as direct imitations of oriental

export hard-paste porcelain typically was in blue and white and not uncom-

monly was made in sets.' The dish shown here is a very rare example of 
delftware displaying designs directly after the red, blue, and gilt of inari
porce- 
lain, which originated in Japan. (On the delftware, a dark yellow is substituted

for the gold.) The dish perhaps was made to replace a damaged piece from
a porce- 
lain set. Evidence that an enormous quantity of inari ware and other porcelain

was imported to the West is found among archaeological material from the

Geldermalsen, a Dutch East Indiaman that sank in 1752,' and from many colonial

sites. Based on its pale, delicate palette, the origins of this particular
plate's 
ornament is a circa 1739 Chinese imitation of Japanese Imari.' Tin-glazed

pseudo-Imari wares also were made at some Continental factories. 
 
 
1. Austin, Delft, nos. 349 350, 361. 
2. English psetido-liiari soft-paste porcelain 
ware was ilnade in solinte qutlantily. For Bow 
examples, see Gabszewicz and Fireem.iani, Bow, 
nos. 68 74. Fo3  a 1756 Italian rmaiolica plate 
imitating an inari floral pattern, see Klesse, 
Majolika, no. (344. 
 
 
3 F or Inari and other porcelain with 
reserve s enes somnewhat like tlhat on the 
Longridge plate, see JoLrg, Gel.erlialseln 
pls. 38, 50, 62. 63. 
4. lorne comments (September 1998). 
5. For an Italian plate with a Paws(iale 
Rubati mark, see Klesse, Majolika, no. 344 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 159 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D130. PLATE or DISH 
Probably Bristol or Liverpool 
c. 1755 
 
H.: 7/8" (2.2 cm); 
Diam. (greatest): 9 3/8" (23.8 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale pinkish 
buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Light bluish white. 
Overall. 
SHAPE: Molded, with rim cut to shape. 
Shape F with slightly deeper well. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowering 
plants, fence, and insects. Borders com- 
posed of circle, outlining of rim, and 
scroll, berry(?), floral, and foliate motifs. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens. and Figures 
 
 
This plate or dish closely compares to another in size, shape, and glaze
but 
displays quite different painted designs; on the other piece, the border
is 
derived from French faience designs, and the center displays a Western-style

basket of flowers., Some dishes with differently proportioned wide- and 
notched-lobe rims bear other decorative motifs, and at least one is attributed
to 
Liverpool based on ornament and under-rim motifs. Examples somewhat closer

to the Longridge dish in rim shape bear designs associated with Bristol.'
Some 
flowers, scrollwork, and leaves from the unusual border on the Longridge
dish 
resemble motifs ornamenting a rare, possibly London or Mortlake delft clock

case dated 1768.2 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. B.140. 
2. Britton, Bristol, nos. 12.1, 16.17, 18.14-18.15. 
3. Ibid., no. 9.2. 
 
 
160 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E LF TWAR E Dini ng and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D131. PLATE 
Liverpool 
Probably decorated in Staffordshire 
1750-1765 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Light bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape M with 
wider rim. 
DECORATION: Painted in low- 
temperature enamels. Chinese woman 
and child on horseback in landscape 
with flowering plants and rocks, Border 
composed of flowers and scroll- 
 
bordered panels. 
 
Published: Horne, Collection, pt. 15, no. 433, 
 
 
Oriental Landscapes, Gardens, and Figures 
 
 
T   he pseudo famille rose enameled decoration on this plate and on two similar

examples is much like that more typically found on Staffordshire salt-glazed

stoneware, and it is not unlikely that, after gloss firing in Liverpool,
the blank 
plates were sent to Staffordshire for low-temperature enamel decoration.'
Simeon 
Shaw writes early in the nineteenth century that two Dutchmen set up an 
enameling shop in Staffordshire in the 1750s and soon were joined by enamel-

ers from Liverpool.' (This information also opens the possibility that at
least 
some enameling of this type could have originated from that city.) The tree
on 
the Longridge dish resembles one on another plate of this shape, which, like
the 
other delftware with ornament like that on salt-glazed stoneware, is attributable

to Liverpool partly by its shape." 
 
 
1. 1 or similar plates, see Austin, DIelft, no. 3 10 
(mistakenly stating one is at the V&A): Archer 
and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 86 (now Dolz 
collection). For other delftware with "salt-glaze- 
type" enameling, see Archer, V&A, no. 1.14 
(flower brick); Rackhamn, Glaisher, vol. 1, 
nos. 1727 1728 (bottle, chamber pot). 
 
 
2. Archer and Morgan, China I)ishes, no. 86. See 
also Garner and Archer, Delftware, col. pl. iH; for 
enameled salt-glaze, Horne, Collection, pt. 15, 
no. 434; Mountford, Salt-Glazed Stoneware, 
nos. 191, 198, 200-201, 207. 
3. Archer, V&A, nos. B.145, B.22. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 161 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
                                                                        
                                 D Dining and Related Wares 
                                                                        
                   DELFTWARE Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D132. DISH                                                              
                   Birds, Animals, and Fish 
Brislington 
 
 
c. 1680 
 
H.: 2 1/8" (5.4 cm); Diam.: 13" (33 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise. Overall on 
interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Slightly bluish in cast, 
over pale slip. Overall on exterior, 
excluding where footrim wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape B2, but slightly shallower and 
without groove at rim. Footrim pierced 
with single hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. Bird (possibly 
goose or swan), butterflies, other 
insects, and plants. Border composed of 
concentric circles. 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 16, no. 450. 
 
 
At least three other versions of this dish are known, two of them nearly

identical to the Longridge example.' The third dish differs slightly in painting

style, the posing of the central bird, and the proportions of the insects
and 
plants. Unlike the others, it is coated in a brown lead glaze on the exterior.2
Even 
with these differences, it fits into the group that, based on dish shapes,
glaze 
color, palette, and painting style, is associated with Brislington. The designs
on 
the dishes derive from ornament on export porcelain. 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. A.60; Sotheby's {L), April 17, 
1973, lot 178. 
2. Britton, Bristol, no. 3.8. 
 
 
162 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
 
H: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Grayish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape J. 
DECORATION: Painted. Bird on 
 
 
he leaves and flowers on this plate resemble some on examples with roses

and thistles commemorating Queen Anne and the Act of Union between En- 
gland and Scotland (1707), and the same border appears on a "GR"
initialed 
plate with related motif~s.' Although ornament in the same style is found
both 
on pieces made in London and on examples from Bristol, the profile of the

Longridge plate indicates that it was made in the former manufacturing area.

 
 
flowering branch with insect. Border 
composed of concentric circles. 
 
 
1, Sotheby's (L), Iipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, 
lot 82; Archer and Morgan,. China Dishes, 
no. 52. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 163 
 
 
D133. PLATE 
 
 
London 
1705-1720 
 
 
Ex coil.: T Jellinek. 
 
 
Al 
 
  

					
				
				
 
              I Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
 
(D134) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
Diam.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm) 
(D135) H.: 1 1/4" (3.2 cm); 
Diam.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: (D134) White. (D135) Slight- 
ly bluish white with medium crazing. 
S H A P E: Molded. Shape J, (D134) shal- 
lower, (D135) with slightly wider rim. 
Two parallel indentations in glaze near 
center of back perhaps indicate plate 
was placed on supports to allow glaze 
to dry before second firing. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Lion and (D135) hare among trees and 
plants. Borders composed of concentric 
circles. 
 
 
Ex coll.: (D135) T Jellinek. 
 
 
The first plate shown here (D134) and several other delftware pieces depict
a 
lion in a landscape flanked by trees or standing on a pavement beside a build-

ing.' Of these, the Longridge plate may be the only one to show the beast's
fasce 
in animal form. The others show humnan-faced lions, and one persuasive argu-

ment states such animals are symbolic representations of William III as the
Lion 
of Holland., The Iongridge lion, although without a human fatce, may originally

have retained some symbolic association with William III. Alternatively,
the 
faces may simply indicate a lack of knowledge of the animal's anatomny. A

concentric-circle-bordered plate with a different lion between sponged trees
was 
excavated in Williamsburg, Virginia.' 
    The profiles of both plates shown here indicate that they were made in

 London. The painting of the clouds and sponging of the trees support a date
of 
 around 1710 to 1725, and border decoration composed of concentric circles

 appears to have been used only during the first half of the eighteenth century

 on plates of simple profile. 
 
 
1. Ray, Delftware Diversions, p. 154, pls. 75d (see 
also Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 66), 75e; Austin, 
Delft, nos. 194, 195; Sotheby's (L), March 25, 
1980, lot 69. See Longridge nos. $19-S21 for slip- 
ware versions of the subject. 
2. Ray, Delftware Diversions, p. 154. A 1641 
Wenzel Hlollar print shows the lions of Holland 
and England supporting an orange tree and 
celebrates William of Orange's marriage to 
James Il's daughter Mary (Austin, Delft, no. 194). 
3. Austin, Delft, p. 142. 
 
 
164 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D134, D135. PLATES 
Probably London 
1710-1725 
 
  

					
				
				
 
il 
 
 
I)134 
 
 
1)1'.35 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEL FTWARE  Dining and Related Wares 
              EDishes and Plates 
 
 
D136, D137. PLATES 
Probably Bristol 
1710-1730 
 
(D136) H.: 11/8" (2.9 cm): 
Diam.: 8 7/8" (22.5 cm) 
(D137) H.: 11/4" (3.2 cm); 
Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. (D136) Shape N. 
(D137) Shape H but taller. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Peacock perched in tree. Border com- 
posed of a circle. 
 
 
                                           Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Numnerous Bristol plates depicting cocks, peacocks, and other birds walk-

ing between sponged trees are ornamented in blue, yellow, red, and a pale

manganese purple. Based on their profile, they date from around 1720 to 1750.1

A category of broadly similar plates have, additionally, a dull green and
much 
darker manganese purple like that on the example shown here. Some in this

group have a border of arcs and crescents,' a motif that was most commonly

used between about 1700 and 1720. Evidence for the depiction of peacocks

between sponged trees at an early date is a ginger jar from the first decade
of 
the century.' Some rare plates (see no. D113) depict a man seated in a landscape

with similar sponged trees and a circle border like those on the Longridge
pea- 
cock plate. 
 
 
D)136 
 
 
1. Biritton, Bristol, nou. 14.1-14.4, 14.8-14.10; 
Austin, Delft, nus. 215 216. For examples exca- 
vated at Williamsburg, Virginia, see Austin, 
Delft, p. 150; Noel Hurme, Pottery and Porcelain, 
p, 13, fig. 4. 
2. Austin, Delft, p. 150 (Williamsburg excavated 
fragment). 
3. Archer and Morgan, China D)ishes, no. 44. 
 
 
166 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
1)137 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D138, D139, D140. PLATES 
London 
1725-1740 
 
 
(D]138) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam,. 6 7/8"(17.4 cm) 
(D139) H.:]1 1/2" (3.8 cm); Diam.: 9"(22.9 cm) 
(D140) H.:] 3/8"(3.5 cm); Diam.: 9"(22.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. (D140) Left- 
 
 
hand side discolored and deeply pitted 
 
 
from localized overfiring. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape], (D]38) with 
shallower well and flat bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Cockerel with 
plants, (D138) with floating abstract 
rather than foliate motif. 
 
 
1. Briitton, Bristol, nos. 14.5 14 7 Iwith 
borders), Sotheby's {I,), October 20, 1981, 
lot 42; christie's (NY). Januairy 25, 1993, 
Royail Scottish Museum collection 
{no. 1957-56;3). 
2. Fragments (now in V&A collection) 
excavated by Gatrner. 
.3. Archcer, V&A. no. 1,13; Grigsby, (hip- 
stone, no. 28, Raickhaim. CGlaisher, vol. 2, 
pl. 124A, no. 1473; Acdvcertiscement, Antiqiies 
49, no. .3 (March 1956), p. 207. 
 
 
11' 
 
 
PI, 
                    I 
                  I 
 
 
1) 138 
 
 
  hese three plates probably are fr'om a single workshop and possibly were

painted by the same hand. Seven others share the same highly distinctive
style 
but variouisly have the addition of other flowers, flying insects, leaves,
and, on 
six, any of three different border patterns.' The whole group is securely
attrib- 
utable to London on the basis of fragments unearthed there) Closely similar

cocks appear on four punch bowls that also share other characteristics, includ-

ing the unusual interlinked zigzag motif seen on the first of the plates
shown 
here (D138). The zigzag and plant motifs on the plates and bowls appear with

other ornament, including ducks rather than cockerels, on a Longridge punch

bowl (no. D311). 
 
 
1)139   1)140 
 
 
  I 
 
F 
 
 
I 
 
 
I, 
 
 
II 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D141. DISH 
Lambeth, London 
 
1705-1730 
 
 
H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); Diam.: 113/4" (29.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall on interior. 
 
LEAD GLAZE: Bluish in cast with 
 
some tin content and heavy orange- 
 
peel texture exposing small patches of 
 
body, over pale slip. Overall on exterior, 
 
excluding where footrim wiped clean. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
 
Shape A with narrower flange. 
 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
 
Stag in landscape. Borders composed of 
 
concentric circles and dashes. 
 
 
MD 
IDesides the Longridge dish, at least three similar pieces depicting stags
are 
 
known. Sponged trees and large, wiry plants (foreground) of the type seen
here 
first appear on dishes portraying Queen Anne (r. 1702-1714) and also are
found on 
examples with martial figures identifiable as the Dukes of Marlborough (see

no. D39) and Ormonde, Prince Eug~ne, and Anne's husband, Prince George 
of Denmark. Marlborough, Ormonde, and Eug~ne became popular heroes dur- 
ing the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713). The setting also appears
on 
dishes depicting George I (no. D45)2 and George II. A substantial fragment
of one 
of these armored-figure dishes was unearthed at the Norfolk House site in
Lam- 
beth, and, although not a waster, its association with kiln waste supports
an 
attribution to one of the Lambeth factories.)' The same landscape setting
also 
was used when depicting a cockerel and Cupid shooting an arrow.' 
 
 
1. Austin, Delft, no. 169; Art Institute of Chicago 
collection (no. 44.706); Rackham, Glaisher, 
vol. 1, no. 1656. ror a dotted unicorn in a differ- 
ent setting with sponged trees, see Britton, 
Bristol, no. 3.60. 
2. See Archer, V&A, no. A. 12. 
 
 
3. Fragment unearthed by Garner and now in 
the V&A collection. 
4. Ray, Warren, no. 13; Sotheby's (L), Septem- 
ber 15, 1992, lot 182. 
 
 
Ex coil.: Mr. and Mrs. R. Billington. 
 
 
168 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEL FT WARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D142. DISH 
Bristol 
Probably Limekiln Lane 
Number "4" on exterior 
c. 1730-1735 
 
 
H.. 2" (5.1 cm); Diam.: 10 7/8"(27.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape D. 
DECORATION: Painted. Stag in land- 
scape with rocks, plants, and fence. 
Border composed of different Chinese 
figures among rocks, plants, and fences. 
Exterior bears number "4" and double- 
stroke and cross under-rim markings. 
 
 
Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
 
  he designs on the front of this dish are loosely based on Ming Transitional
and 
Kangxi porcelain originals and have counterparts on both Continental and
En- 
glish delftware.' The Longridge example is likely to be contemporary with
a 
1733 dated dish depicting som~ewhat similar long figures also wearing unusual

hats with turned-up brims.2 Other decorative elements on that dish link it

through archaeological material to the L~imekiln Lane pottery in Bristol.)
The 
repeating cross and double-stroke motifs on the reverse of the Longridge
dish 
further strengthen the Bristol attribution. Several slightly later well-painted

plates in blue and white show similarly posed deer within Chinese-figured
bor- 
ders, and a dish with removable sections depicts such a deer on its tray.4

 
 
/' 
 
 
I 
                 .4              -, 
             it's  ~ 
K                ,, 
 
 
L~ b~c 
 
 
1.0:o Nor lherni I 01ropean1 delitware, se 
Sc holtenvi w I )re44hi, nos. 108 i border);p 118 
(deer .1nd border.)( .arwe~ll C hines I'orcelain, 
no. 161 (bord(er). 
2. britlon. Bristiol. 4ol. pI. p. 31, no. 12 14. Fr a 
170 3 d ish dis playing ea rlier vers ions ol land- 
stpe elementi on I le I oingiidge dish, see I ips ki 
.1nd Xt hei , I XaiNId l~elftwarIe, no. 236. 
 
 
1. Se Ray, Wirren0, no. 145. 
4, Ibid.. p1. 77, pp. 208 209, nos. 154,i 154b; 
Brpiiion, Brnistol, no. 11.10, tGarne4r, I ,inbei h. Bris- 
111 (or I iv erpoiol, pls 8 Ia 8 lb. Archer4 4Oioitents 
(1 998j: "All ol1 these' Iplalesi are 01 Brist~ol origin" 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 169 
 
 
II 
 
 
   '-'U 
   -U 
 
Ut 
 
 
  V 
LW 
 
 
/ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D143. DISH 
Lambeth, London 
1720-1740 
 
 
   H.: 2 3/8" (6 cm); Diam.: 13 3/8I (34 cm) 
 
   BODY CLAY: Pale buff with small 
   inclusions. 
   TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, that on 
   exterior low in tin content and with 
   bluish dribbles. 
   SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
   Shape A with deep well, pared away on 
   exterior to produce more vertical 
   flange. 
   DECORATION: Painted. Swimming 
   swan with plants and birds. Borders 
   composed of concentric circles and 
   blue dashes. 
 
   Ex coil.: T Jeinek. 
 
 
170 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
The tin-glazed (rather than lead-glazed) back of the dish shown here as well

as the color range of its decoration, known on dishes depicting Queen Anne

and her generals (see nos. D33, D37, D39), support a date of about 1720 to
1740. 
The swan dish is part of a group that includes some of the latest dishes
with 
blue dash borders (see also nos. D144-D146). Characteristic of the group
are 
humans, birds, or animals with prominent, round, dotted eyes; flanking flow-

ers and leaves or sponged trees; low-placed, straight lines defining plain

khaki-green foregrounds, sometimes with clumps of grass; skies with washes

of pigment denoting clouds; and flocks of simple V-shaped flying birds. Many

of these elements are found on the closest parallel to the Longridge swan
dish, 
which depicts a polka-dotted swimming duck with the foreground having a 
row of crosshatched clumps of grass rather than a horizontal band.' The attri-

bution to Lambeth rests on excavated fragments relating to the Longridge
fox 
dish (no. D145). Another plate, in blue and white, depicts a swan that shows

several similarities to this one, but the bird swims in a different setting.'

 
 
1. Sotheby's (1), November 25, 1980, lot 41 
2. Peirce, Cocke Collection, no. 12. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D144. DISH 
Lambeth, London 
1720-1740 
 
 
H. (average): 2" (5.1 crn): 
Diam.: 13 3/4" (34.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white with 
blue speckling on interior. 
SHAPE: Molded. Nearest to Shape A 
 
 
but with everted edge, no footrim, and 
 
 
irregular cleaning of back, 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Cat playing fiddle for mice, flanked by 
trees. Border composed of concentric 
 
 
circles and dashes. 
 
 
[Design fibatures this dish shares with similarly attributed bird and animal

dishes (see nos. D143, D145, D146) include round, dotted eyes to figures;

V-shaped flying birds; straight lines defining foregrounds; and tin-glazed
exte- 
riors. The sponged trees are particularly close to those on the Iongridge
bird 
and fox dishes (nos. D145, D146) and on three other dishes depicting, respec-

tively, a standing woman with a lute(?); a night watchman with a spear, 
lantern, and handbell; and an exotically dressed man playing a violin like
that 
on the cat dish.' 
   Although the "Hey Diddle Diddle" nursery rhyme dates to 1756
and thus 
postdates this dish, "The Cat and the Fiddle" has been popular
as a public house 
name since at least 1501, when there was "Le Cawte cuim Lc ydell"
in Bucklersburg 
in the City of London.- The name may derive from the French Le C.mat fidole,
but 
in this particular case, the scene alludes to a quite different tradition.
The mice 
dancing toward their doom bring to mind the Pied Piper of Hamlin and a 
Reynard the Fox episode, in which the fox, disguised as a preacher, gulls
his con- 
gregation of geese and chickens into a false feeling of security.' 
 
 
1. liigiart, Burlilp, no. 145: Salti on Walden 
Museum collection. Sotheby's (L), May 23. 1974, 
lot 29. For ia dellt bowl with a stvlistically difter- 
ent violinist scene, see M1n dy, Delft, pl. 7. 
 
 
2. Sothelby's (1), April 15, 1997, lot 158. 
3. Archer comments (1998). For a leruila (Italy) 
16th-centurv dish depicting a Reynard the Fox 
scene, see taiger-Sith, Tin -(,lazed Pot1ery, no. 64. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 171 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
             I Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
 
(D145) H.: 11/2" (3.8 cm); 
Diam.: 111/2" (29.2 cm) 
(D146) H.: 11/2" (3.8 cm): 
Diam.: 10 3/8" (26.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
(D145) pale. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, thick and 
pooling on exteriors, (D146) with 
stronger blue areas. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
(D145) Shape N with proportionally 
larger recessed area to bottom. 
(D146) Nearest to shape K but with 
everted rim. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
(D145) Fox. (D146) Parrot(?) and insect. 
Borders composed of concentric circles 
and (D146) dashes. 
 
Ex coils.: (0145) 7 Jellinek. (D146) L. L. Lipski. 
 
 
hese dishes display bold, naive qualities similar to those seen on the Long-

ridge swan dish (no. D143). The closest parallel to the fox dish (D145) is
one 
depicting a somewhat similarly posed spotted stag between trees, some match-

ing those at the right on the dishes shown here.' Closely related trees also

appear on a dish that portrays a lady holding a fan and one showing a cat
and 
mice (no. D144).1 The parallel-line approach is echoed in the pond water
on the 
Longridge swan dish (no. D143). 
   An excavated fragment depicting the raised foot of an animal who walks
to the 
right is comparable in painting style to the Longridge fox (D145) and shows
the 
characteristic plain foreground, clumps of grass, and sponged trees (see
no. D143). 
Somewhat similar trees also are found on a fragment that shows the body,
head, 
and forelegs of a leopard.' Although not wasters, the fragments were found
in the 
context of kiln waste material in Lambeth. These fragments and the shape
of the 
dish support a London attribution. 
   The bird dish (D146) is small and unusual in shape and, like variations
that 
show polka-dotted birds with folded wings,4 has a blue dash border reminiscent

of those on "chargers." Based on its glaze, use of color, and several
design 
features, however, it, like the Longridge swan and cat-and-mice fiddle dishes

(nos. D143, D144), was produced well after the bulk of those dishes. 
 
 
D145, D146. DISHES 
Probably Lambeth, London 
1720-1740 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
i 
 
 
1)145 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
D Dining and Related Wares 
' Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm): Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
S H A PE: Molded. Shape J with flatter 
 
 
border and shallower well. 
DECORATION: Painted. Stag with 
fence and trees. Border composed of 
 
 
C lusters of three rhomboidal strokes, like those on the border of this plate,

were a particularly prevalent type of decorative element on delftware made

from around 1720 to 1740, and leaping stags, sometimes pursued by hunters

and hounds, are not uncommon on late seventeenth- and eighteenth-century

delftware.' The shape of the plate shown here is associated with London,
and 
among early eighteenth-century fragments excavated there is the better part
of 
another plate with a leaping stag very similar to this one.' 
 
 
concentric circles and foliage. 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 312,  2. Archer coimnents (1998)
regarding fragments 
329 330A, 351 352, 357, 367, 393 394, 404 406,  unearthed by Garner. 
410, 438, 440 441 (rhomboidal leaves). For stags, 
ibid., no. 139, Ray. Tiles, pl. 33, no. 321. 
 
 
174 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D147. PLATE 
 
 
Probably London 
1720-1740 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
 
H.: 11/4" (3.2 cm); Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise, slightly 
 
transparent on exterior, with patches of 
 
dense brown speckling. Overall. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape H. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Parrot(?) on 
 
calligraphic-leaved spray. Border 
 
 
Forders of the type seen on this dish appear most often to have been paint-

ed around floral, faunal, and avian motifs.' Based on dated plates and dishes,

the fashion for calligraphic foliage on plants appears for the most part
to have 
died out by the mid-1740s.2 For an excellent example of calligraphic brush-

strokes forming foliate arms on a figure, painted on a 1720 to 1740 plate,
see 
number D114. The border of a circa 1757 electioneering plate illustrates
a later 
example of the style (no. D61). 
 
 
composed of wavy line with pointed, 
 
 
radiating slashes and clusters of 
calligraphic leaves. 
 
 
1, Britton, Bristol, no. 14.29. 
2. Iipski and Archer, D)ated D)eltIware, particu- 
larly nos. 312 504A passim. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 175 
 
 
D148. PLATE 
 
Bristol or London 
 
c. 1740 
 
 
II 
 
 
|iI 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D149, D150. PLATES 
Bristol 
(D149) 1720-1750 
(D150) 1730-1760 
 
(Both) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam,: 7 7/8" (20 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape H. 
DECORATION: (D149) Painted and 
sponged. (D150) Painted. (D149) Bird 
with worm in beak near trees and fence. 
Border composed of a circle. (D150) Bird 
with fence, plants, and flying birds. 
 
 
Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
 
The sponging and positioning of the foliage on the trees as well as the gait

and general characteristics of the bird on the first plate shown here (D149)
link 
it to types with (often polychrome) "farm series" peacocks and
cockerels. Farm 
series pieces were made at Bristol and London between around 1720 and 1750

(see nos. D136-D140),1 and the profile of the Longridge plate supports a
similar 
attribution. 
   The closest parallel to the second Longridge plate (D150) may be one painted

in blue, red, yellow, and green with a quite similar bird (excepting the
beak and 
legs) and a fence with similar narrowly spaced uprights. It also features
a vertical, 
twiggy plant with leaves in alternating placement, as on this example.' The
pro- 
file of the second Longridge example indicates that it was produced in Bristol.

 
1. Britton, Bristol, nos. 14.1 14.4, 14.8-14.10: 
Austin, Delft, nos. 214 216. For a different 
type of bird, see Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale, 
March 10, 1981, lot 88. 
2. Peirce, Cocke Collection, no. 9. 
 
 
D149   D150 
 
 
176 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFT"WARE Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE } Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D151. PLATE 
London 
1750-1775 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Grayish white, lumpy on 
exterior. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape J but shallow- 
er. Three indentations near center of 
back perhaps indicate plate was placed 
on a trivet to allow glaze to dry before 
second firing. 
DECORATION: Painted. Cockpit with 
two cocks and chandelier. Border 
composed of concentric circles. 
 
Ex coil.: T Jellinek. 
 
 
The scene on this extremely unusual plate probably derives from one of the

numerous eighteenth-century prints illustrating the various stages in a cock-

fight., The lack of an inscription perhaps indicates that the plate does
not 
celebrate any particular fight but instead refers to the sport in general.
Based 
on its profile and glaze characteristics, the plate was produced in London

around 1750 to 1775. 
 
1. For a chinoiserie delft plate with a different 
cockfight('?) scene, see Kinghorn and Quail, 
Delftfield, p. :37. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 177 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D152. PLATE 
London 
 
c. 1745 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 7/8" (22,5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. ShapeJ. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Spouting 
dolphin or whale flanked by ships. 
 
Border composed of cross-and-dot and 
 
artemisia leaf motifs. 
 
Ex coll.: E. Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
Creatures of the type depicted on this plate generally have been identified

as dolphins, although some versions more closely resemble whales. (The Long-

ridge plate depicting Arion on a dolphin [see no. D76[ shows a different

spouting sea creature near the primary figures.) The enigmatic rim motifs

alternating with the crosses and dots are almost certainly highly schematic

renderings of artemisia leaves (see also border of no. Dl), one of the Chinese

Eight Precious Things. Ships resembling those that flank the dolphin can
be 
seen on circa 1740 to 1750 plates that probably portray Admiral Vernon.!
Based 
on their profile, the Longridge and similar dolphin plates were made in Lon-

don. Some other types appear to have been produced in Bristol.4 
 
 
1. For a c. 1640 1660 Haarlem or Delft plate 
with a simiar type of creature identified as a 
whale, see Scholten, van Drecht, no. 198. 
2. Archer, V&A, nos. B.12 B.13. 
3. For a 1700 1710 (diflerent) spouting dolphin 
in a delft bowl excavated at a consumer site at 
Aldgate (London), see Thompson, Grew, and 
Schofield, Aldgate Excavations, p. 59, fig. 27a. 
 
 
4. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 103F, no. 1467. 
For similar and Bristol plates, see Britton, Bristol, 
nos. 14.24 14.25; Austin, Delft, nos. 218- 220. 
 
 
178 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Birds, Animals, and Fish 
 
 
D153. PLATE 
Bristol 
c. 1774 
 
H.: 11/4" (3.2 cm); Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape H. 
DECORATION: Painted. Fish. 
Border composed of trelliswork with 
fish reserves and concentric circles. 
 
 
wo dated dishes are close enough to this one to provide a fairly solid date

for it. One, from 1774, is very similar to the Longridge plate in color and
format 
but has "cracked ice" rather than trelliswork filling the area
of the border 
between the fish reserves. The dated plate is associated with Bristol based
on 
cracked-ice delftware fragments excavated there. The second dated example,
in 
manganese and red, is from 1772 and depicts a swirl of sixteen fish painted
in 
a very similar style to the Longridge fish. One unusual plate dating to the
1740s 
or 1750s is somewhat similar in the arrangement of its fish but shows them
set 
against a "powdered manganese" ground with a Cupid joining the
three fish on 
the rim.2 
 
I. lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 666, 
671. Ray, Warren, pl. 54, no. 105; 1. 180. 
2. Morley -Flucher and McIlroy, 'ictorial islosory, 
p. 239, no. 16. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 179 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D154, D1SS. DISHES 
(D154) Possibly Southwark, London 
 
c. 1640 
(D1355) London or possibly Brislington 
 
or Bristol 
1670-1690 
 
 
(D154) H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm); 
 
Diam.: 14 5/8" (37.2 cm) 
(D155) H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); 
Diam.: 13 1/2" (34.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff, (D154) with red- 
 
brown inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D154) with fine 
 
brown speckling. (Both) Overall on 
 
interiors. 
 
LEAD GLAZE: (D154) Some tin content 
with greenish patches near footrim. 
 
(D155) Shiny, of greenish cast. (Both) 
 
Over pale slip. Overall on exteriors. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
 
Shape B], (D154) with sharp rim groove 
 
and deeply rounded rim. Each footrim 
pierced with single hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. Leaves, 
 
pomegranates or apples, and 
(D154) grapes. (Both) Borders composed 
 
of concentric circles and (DISS) dashes. 
 
 
                                            Horticulturol Designs 
 
 
 
 
 
 
he designs on the dishes shown here derive from types on fifteenth- to 
seventeenth-century Italian maiolica, particularly that exported to Northern

Europe from Venice and Montelupo.' Illustrative of circa 1600 imitations
made 
in the Netherlands (perhaps Haarlem) is the dish at lower left. It is made
in 
medium-grained reddish buff clay with inclusions, and the tin glaze is grayish

white with extensive crazing. The greenish lead glaze on the exterior is
sandy in 
texture and is applied over pale slip. The very regular, narrow dashes on
the rim, 
precise open foliage, and central leaf have numerous parallels on Dutch tin
glaze.' 
   In its painted color range, the first of the Longridge dishes shown here

(D154) resembles the Continental example at lower left. Although it can be
dif- 
ficult to differentiate between English and Netherlandish products, the 
Longridge dish is somewhat similar to dated examples from 1634, 1639, and

1640, which, based on design and clay or glaze features, have been attributed

to England.3 Fragments of comparable wasters have been found in Southwark

at Rotherhithe and Pickleherring.4 
   A later date for the second English Longridge dish (D155) and for another

and a bowl with similar ornament, is indicated by the greater simplicity
of the 
design and the use of turquoise green, prevalent in the third quarter of
the cen- 
tury, rather than a softer grass green (see no. D154). Turquoise also is
found on 
a Longridge vase-of-flowers dish with a pomegranate and leaf border (no.
D159). 
   A 1647 dated dish fragment with fruit and leaves was excavated in the
Pithay 
in Bristol and is painted in blue with the leaves a yellowish green.' A leaf
on the 
dish resembles the type on the second Longridge dish (D155), but the fragment

otherwise is dissimilar and is not a waster, precluding its use as a basis
for dat- 
ing or attribution. It does, however, open the possibility that fruit-patterned

dishes were made at Brislington and Bristol potteries. 
 
 
Netherlands. c. 1600 
 
 
1. For Montelupo exports, see Hurst, Neal, and 
van Beuningen, Pottery, pp. 12, 14. 
2. Scholten, van Drecht, nos. 49-62: Korf, 
Majolica 2, figs. 372, 405, 431. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 5, 
12, 14. 
4. Britton, London, no. 29; Noal Hume, London 
and Virginia, pp. 74-75, fig. 8, no. 3. London con- 
sumer sites such as Chaucer House, Southwark 
(site CH75), and others also have yielded related 
dishes (Stephenson comments [September 19981). 
For Continental or English pomegranate dishes 
excavated at Norwich, see Jennings, Norwich, 
p. 193, fig. 84, no. 1377; p. 197, fig. 87, no. 1401. 
5. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl 93C, no. 1413; 
Ray, Warren, no. 14. 
6. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 17. 
 
 
180 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D154 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D155 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 181 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEL FTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Horticultural Designs 
 
 
D156, D157. DISHES 
Southwark, London 
 
c. 1655 
 
 
(D156) H 1 3/4" (4.4 cm); 
Diam.: 9 58" (24.5 cm) 
(D157) H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); 
 
Diam.: 13 3/8" (34 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall on 
interiors. 
 
LEAD GLAZE: Slightly greenish in cast, 
over pale slip. Overall on exteriors, 
 
excluding where footrims wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
 
Shape Bifa. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Leaves with 
 
nuts or berries. 
 
 
These dishes derive directly from a type made at Montelupo in Tuscany and

exported to Northern Europe during the first half of the seventeenth century.

Large leaf patterns are most commonly found on tazze but also occur on dishes,

and both shapes have been excavated in Holland and England.' 
    Several English examples resemble the Longridge dishes,' and related
frag- 
ments in association with factory waste have been excavated in London. A

broad range of variations on this design were also made, indicating that
such 
patterns were reasonably popular.1 No dated dish exactly matching the type

shown here is known, but somewhat similar fleshy leaves form part of the

decoration of two pieces dated 1655 and 1657 and the slightly later (undated)

Longridge dish depicting a vase of flowers (no. D159).1 
 
 
 
1. Hurst, Neal, and van Beuningen, Pottery, 
pp. 18 21; Hurst, ed., Wilson, Italian Pottery, 
p. 214, figs. 4a 4b. 
2. See Sotheby's IL), June 3, 1980, lot 13; Octo- 
ber 18, 1988, lot 490. Phillips (L), December 1 2, 
1993, lots 168, 182a. For other variations, see 
Taggart, Burnap, nos. 93 95; Rackham, Glaisher, 
vol. 2, p1s. 95A 95B. 
3. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, p1s. 95A-95B; 
Fisher, St. Louis Collection, p. 626, pl. 1. 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 28, 
32. 
 
 
182 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
Ii)an   U LIII 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D158. DISH 
Southwark, London 
Possibly Rotherhithe 
c. 1660 
 
H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); Diam.: 11 3/4" (29.8 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Reddish buff with traces 
of darker red inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: Yellowish white with 
medium crazing. 
LEAD GLAZE: Muddy areas and 
greenish patches, possibly over pale 
slip. On exterior. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape 81/b, heavily warped in firing. 
Footrim pierced with single hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers 
growing from mound. Border composed 
of a circle and dashes. 
 
Ex coll.: H. M. Beaumont. 
 
 
                                           DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares

                                                       Dishes and Plates

 
                                           Horticultural Designs 
 
 
 
 
 
 
[English delftware dishes depicting tulips and other flowers reflect the
tulip 
mania that swept through Holland and the rest of Europe in the late sixteenth

and early seventeenth centuries. Tulips initially were imported from Turkey,

and Turkish dishes made at Iznik also found their way north and were proba-

bly a source of design for pot painters.' One English example dated 1628

displays the curvilinear asymmetry typical of its Turkish prototypes, but
most 
show more or less bilaterally symmetrical floral arrangements. Typically
such 
dishes are uninscribed, but a few bear dates ranging from 1661 to 1676.2

   The small oval leaves of the Longridge dish indicate a circa 1655 to 1665

date, and the striating of its flower petals is comparable to that on examples

with flowers growing from different fenced mounds (see no. D160).1 The daisy-

like flowers at the upper left and right on the Longridge dish occur on one
with 
a complex border of leaves and ogival shapes enclosing small fruit.' Fragments

of similar dishes found on the site of the Rotherhithe pottery indicate the
prob- 
able source of these pieces. 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, p. 33, figs. 16 17; Anrher, Charg- 
ers, pp. 118 119. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 4, 37, 
45, 53, 66. 
3. Archer, V&A, no. A.23. 
 
 
4. Saffron Walden Museum collection 
(no. W. M. T. 153). 
5. Archer, V&A, no. A. 23; Archer, Chargers, 
pl. 53b. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 183 
 
  

					
				
				
 
     DELTWA RE ý1 Dining and Related Wares 
D ELFTW    E  Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Horticultural Designs 
 
 
H.: 21/4" (5.8 cm); Diam.: 16 1/8" (40.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall on interior. 
LEAD GLAZE: Heavily crazed with 
manganese purple speckling and 
greenish cast, over pale slip. Overall on 
exterior, excluding where footrim 
wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape A but flatter with more everted 
rim. Footrim pierced with single hole. 
DECORATION: Painted, Flowers in 
vase. Borders composed of band of 
diaper, leaf, and fruit motifs, concentric 
circles, and dashes. 
 
 
Less common than "tulip chargers," on which flowers grow from a
mound 
(see nos. D158, D160-D162), are those depicting them emerging from ornate

two-handled vases. The earliest dated English dish depicting a vase of tulips
is 
an elegantly painted one from 1661 that shows a flower container set on a

checkerboard floor. As on the unusually flat dish shown here, the elaborate
bor- 
der is composed of panels containing pomegranates (symbolic of fertility),

leaves, and trelliswork, but the panels are different both in arrangement
and 
details. (Two dishes that display vases of flowers within simple blue dash
and cir- 
cle borders are dated, respectively, 1668 and 1676.)1 Variations on the complex

border, sometimes with other fruit in place of pomegranates, also occur on
vase- 
of-flower dishes that stylistically are more similar to the Longridge dish.'
(For 
apples or pomegranates painted in much the same style as the pear on the
bor- 
der of the dish shown here, see nos. D154, D155.) 
   Borders composed of trelliswork alternating with horticultural motifs
also 
occur on dated dishes with different types of central reserve motifs: one
1669 
equestrian dish has leaf-filled border reserves; a 1670 armorial dish has
floral 
motifs alternating with the trelliswork; and one 1671 dish has fruit and
leaves.: 
   Although Italian maiolica, some of it inspired by Iznik wares, ultimately

inspired pieces of the type shown here, two-handled vases of flowers are
found 
in some numbers on early Dutch Delft dishes.' These northern wares were 
imported into England on a large scale and likely aided in the transport
of the 
fashion to potters there. 
 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 37 (1661), 53 (1668), 66 (1676). 
2. Britton, Bristol, no. 3.14; Rackham and Read, 
English Pottery, pl. 60, fig. 105; Archer, Charg- 
ers, pls. 54d, 55b. 
3. Iipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 55 (1669), 57 (1670), 59 (1671). 
4. For 16th- and 17th-century examples, see 
Scholten, van Drecht, nos. 8, 38, 39. 
 
 
184 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D159. DISH 
London 
1665-1680 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 185 
 
  

					
				
				
 
O E LF TWA RE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Horticultural Designs 
 
 
D160, D161, D162. DISHES 
 
London 
 
 
(D160) H.: 3 1/4" (8.3 cm); Diam,: 16' (40.6 cm) 
 
(D161) H,: 21/4' (5.8 cm); Diam.: 161/8 (40.9 cm) 
(D162) H.: 15/8" (4.2 cm); Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
 
(D161) darkish. 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D161) with fine 
 
crazing. (All) Overall on interiors. 
 
LEAD GLAZE: (D160, D161) Greenish in 
 
cast, (D161) heavily crazed, over pale 
slip. (D162) Slightly greenish in cast with 
 
considerable tin content, heavily pitted 
and speckled, over pale slip. (All) 
Overall on exteriors, excluding where 
 
footrims wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
 
(D160) Shape A with flatter flange. 
 
(D161) Shape B1/b with shallow rim 
 
groove, footrim with two partially 
pierced holes. (D162) Shape B1/a with 
 
shallower profile and more convex rim. 
 
Footrim pierced with single hole, bro- 
 
ken before firing. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers 
 
growing from mound. Borders com- 
 
posed of concentric circles and blue 
 
dashes, (D160) with fruited foliate band. 
 
Published: (D162) Home, Collection, pt. 4, 
no. 79 
Ex coil.: (D1360) F L. Dickson. (D162) B. and M. 
Morgan. 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. A.25; for related 
London tulip chargers, nos. A.23, 
A.26 A.32, A.34ý 
2. Archer, Chargers, p. 120; Archer, V&A, 
no. A.25. For an early example resembling 
Longridge no. D158, see Sotheby's (L), Lip- 
ski sale, March 10, 1981, lot 53. 
3. Archer comments (1998); Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 56, 62. 
4. Archer, Chargers, p. 119, pl. 54.e; 
Phillips, Pottery, pl. 10; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 3.10. 
5. Archer comments (1998). 
 
 
The painting of the flowers on these dishes is similar in many respects to
that 
on another large dish in the Longridge collection, which bears an elaborate
bor- 
der around a vase of flowers (no. D159). Archaeological evidence for more
or less 
similar tulip chargers is scarce, and what does exist was unearthed at London

sites.' A process of evolution is detectable in London tulip dishes (datable
as a 
whole from around 1670 to 1710), and, based on their ornamental motifs, 
shape, and glaze, the examples under discussion likely fit into the circa
1670 to 
1685 period. 
   Zigzag borders of leaves enclosing small fruit are found on Italian maiolica

made at Deruta in the early sixteenth century and may have been introduced

into England on Dutch Delftware. Approximate dating of the border on one
of 
the English dishes shown here (D160) is arrived at through comparison with
the 
borders on a 1669 dated dish depicting Charles II (much as on no. D8) with

Catherine of Braganza and a much simplified version on a 1673 example show-

ing Charles alone.' Undated dishes with similar border patterns include two

others with tulips and one depicting a ship near a shore with buildings.4

   One of the dishes shown here (D162) is unusually small. The lesser bright-

ness of the yellow on this example in comparison to the two others (D160,
D161) 
colored with the same pigment results from variations in the firing conditions.'

 
 
D)162 
 
 
186 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
1670-1685 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1)160 
 
 
D)161 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 187 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
0163, D164. DISHES 
Bristol or Brislington 
(D163) Painted mark resembling "J" 
on exterior 
c. 1725 
(D164) c. 1740 
 
(D163) H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm); 
Diam.: 13 1/2" (34.3 cm) 
(D164) H.: 2" (5.1 cm); 
Diam.: 13 1/4" (33.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, (D164) 
pinkish. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall on 
interiors. 
LEAD GLAZE: (D163) With green 
patches near rim and within footrim 
(see below), over pale slip. Overall on 
exterior, excluding where footrim 
 
wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
(D163) Shape B2 without groove. (D164) 
Shape D. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowering 
plants. Borders composed of leaves and 
fruit. (D163) Exterior bears mark resem- 
bling a letter "J" within footrim. 
 
 
Detail of bottomn of 1)163 
 
 
                                            Horticultural Designs 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Although superficially quite different, these two dishes share several 
design elements. The borders display more (D163) or less (D164) robust versions

of the same design, prototypes for which are found on 1657 and 1663 dated

dishes with coats of arms and a 1668 example depicting a ship.' The glaze
color, 
greater simplification, and formalization of the borders and flowers on the

Longridge dishes indicate much later dates. Supporting this conclusion is
the 
shape of the second Longridge dish (D164), which is based on Chinese export

plates of the Yongzheng period (1723-1735). 
   By the early eighteenth century, leaves on tulip dishes typically are
flatter, 
straighter, and arranged somewhat like a palisade,, as is demonstrated on
the 
second dish shown here (D164). This tendency is also apparent on circa 1730
to 
1740 dishes with fruit and leaf borders like that on the first dish (D163),
but with 
blue dashes, sponging, or curvilinear motifs at the edge. Fragments with
the 
last edge type have been found at Brislington.:1 The organization of the
central 
medallion into an upright tulip flanked by leaves and droopy, oval, crosshatched

flowers is common to all of the dishes discussed here. 
   Six regularly placed, approximately triangular, greenish patches near
the rim 
and another at the center on the exterior of the first dish shown here (D163)

probably correspond with green half-leaves of similar design to those on
the inte- 
rior but were painted on a dish fired above it in the kiln. During firing
the 
pigment must have volatilized and deposited itself on the back of the dish
below. 
 
 
1. Iipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 29, 
43, 54. 
2. Archer, Chargers, p. 120. 
3. Archer, V&A, nos. A.40-A.41; Britton, Bristol, 
nos. 3.15-3.17. 
 
 
188 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D163 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1)164 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 189 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D165. PLATE 
 
London or Brislington 
 
c. 1690 
 
H.: 1/8" (2,8 cm); 
W. (between flat sides): 8" (20.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
TIN GLAZE: Pale greenish blue. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape F with steeper 
 
flange and octagonal bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Cluster of 
 
pears. Border composed of tassels; foli- 
ate, drape[ike motifs; concentric circles; 
 
and octagon. 
 
Ex coil.: L. L. Lipski. 
 
 
he border on this plate and on an example showing grapes with the pears'

occurs in more elegant form on a Longridge collection gadrooned dish (no.
D104) 
with a Chinese landscape scene. Related borders also occur on some Dutch
tin 
glaze and on excavated English delft from London, Brislington,2 and colonial

contexts such as Saint Mary's City, Maryland. These, like other octagonal
plates 
with the border, depict scenes other than the fruit.' Dates on delftware
octago- 
nal dishes range from as early as 1661 to 1691,1 and several dishes of this
shape 
are in the Longridge collection (nos. D77, D80, D101, D107, D108, D110, Dl11,

D112). 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. B.105. 
2. Archer, Brislington, p. 160, no. 20; Garner, 
1Lambeth, pl. 13c; Archer, V&A, no. B,105. For a 
late 17th-century octagonal dish with a related 
border that was excavated in london at the 
Aldgate lconsumer) site, see Thompson, Grew, 
and Schofield, Aldgate Excavations, p. 59, 
fig. 28, no. 127. 
 
 
3. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 27 
(William and Mary); Austin, Delft, no. 199 
(lfragments). 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 112-189 passim. 
 
 
190 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D EL FTW A RE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
 
D166. PLATE 
Probably Brislington 
Dated 1697 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 8 1/4' (21 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape G. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers, 
leaves, and insects, Inscribed "AT/1697." 
Borders composed of concentric circles 
and band with hillocks and plants. 
 
 
5D 
Dased on the loose and somewhat sketchy style of painting on this plate,

 
related dishes (see no. D101), and archaeological fragments, such pieces
are 
attributed to Brislington. The floral and fruit(?) painting in the reserve
on one 
molded dish (similar to a Longridge James II portrait dish in shape [no.
D191) dif- 
fers in format but is very similar in style to the central motifs on the
plate 
shown here.' Its border has a close counterpart on a plate with a central
Chi- 
nese figural scene, like the Longridge plate dated 1697 but initialed "I(T.2
The 
coincidence of similar dates and border decoration suggests that the two
plates 
were made at the same factory, and the shared second initial possibly indicates

familial ties between the owners of the pieces. A less delicately painted
plate 
inscribed "SH 1704" displays a simpler floral pattern in a somewhat
similar for- 
mat to the central reserve motifs on this Longridge plate." 
 
 
1. Archer, Brisling ton, pp. 152, no. 17, Sotheby's 
(1), lipski sale (1), March 101, 1981, lot 2:3 (now 
Metropolitan Mtusenun collection, no. 3873.5). 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 212. 
3. Ibid., no. 242. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 191 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D167. PLATE 
 
London 
 
1700-1725 
 
 
H.: 1 3/8" (3.5 cm); Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. ShapeJ. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Tulip plant. 
 
Border composed of arcs, some 
 
graduated, and concentric circles. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                     lthough the leaves and
blooms on this plate are reminiscent of those on 
 
                                              larger tulip dishes of the
late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the 
                                              simplicity of the floral composition
has more in common with designs on 
 
                                              "primitive" plates
made later in the eighteenth century., This evidence indicates 
                                              a date range of around 1700
to 1725, which also is supported by the border dec- 
                                              oration. A variant of the border
edges a small bowl with a portrait of the Duke 
 
                                              of Marlborough and a plate
dated 17122 and has been found on fragments exca- 
                                              vated in London. 
 
 
 
                                              1. For 1724 and 1734 dated
floral plates (the lat- 
                                              ter perhaps Continental), see
Lipski and Archer, 
                                              Dated Delftware, nos. 328,
392. For parallels on 
                                              17th-century Dutch tiles, see
Schaap, Tiles, 
                                              pl. 19. 
 
                                              2. Bonham's (L), October 13,
1992, lot 25. For 
                                              1699 dated plates with related
borders, see 
                                              Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware,
nos. 217 
                                              218; for a plate rim fragment
excavated at 
                                              Williamsburg, Va., see Austin,
Delft, p. 149. 
 
                                              3. Archer comments (1998).

 
 
192 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/ 
 
 
.1 
 
 
./ 
 
 
/ 
 
 
I 
 
 
D168. DISH 
 
 
London, probably Lambeth 
 
 
1760-1780 
 
 
H.: 11/2" (3.8 cm); Diam.: 13 5/8" (34.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Slightly pinkish buff. 
 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise, that on 
exterior with a few poorly adhered 
 
 
patches and transparent turquoise drips. 
 
 
his dish is among the latest of the delftware in the Longridge collection.
Its 
pseudofluted border, rather than fitting into the usual pool of tin-glaze
motifs, 
is more similar to the wide bands of radiating motifs found on English and
Con- 
tinental porcelain, which by the 1760s were quite fashionable.' Flat, circular

flowers superimposed against patterned grounds in the "Japanese taste"
also are 
a feature of porcelain of the period2 The attribution for the dish is based
on its 
pinwheel or overlapping apple-slice flowers, which are roughly similar to
floral 
motifs on plates linked to London through archaeological material.' 
 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape N with 
 
 
wider rim. 
 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Double- 
 
 
flowered sprigs, some superimposed on 
pseudofluted border. Other borders 
 
 
1. For floral cups and saucers with radiating 
panels, see Spero, Worcester, no. 153 (1772 1775); 
with narrowly spaced, slightly spiraling lines 
and wider panels, see Bradley, Derby, nos. 78, 88 
(1775- 1780). 
 
 
2. Ayers, Impey, and Mallet, Palaces, nos, 254, 
257-258 (flowers on Chinese porcelain after 
hnari ware). Spero, Worcester, nos. 79 80 (plate 
and basket). 
3. Archer, V&A, nos. B.35-B.37. 
 
 
composed of concentric circles. 
 
 
Ex coil.: K. Hommitt. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 193 
 
 
/ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D169. PLATE 
Bristol 
1750-1770 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained light buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Blue-grayish to lavender 
with gray speckling. Overall, excluding 
bottom edge of footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump mold. 
Shape N with wider rim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Bouquet of 
flowers tied with string. Bianco- 
sopra-bianco border composed of 
flowers and foliage. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                               This plate is illustrative
of a fairly large group bearing more or less similar 
                                               floral bouquets gathered with
ribbons and set within the same bianco-sopra- 
                                               bianco border.' Details of
the patterns, leaf and flower painting styles, and sizes 
                                               differ enough to indicate
that the dishes were not made as a set and that they 
                                               were decorated by more than
one hand, perhaps at different factories. Fazack- 
                                               erley-type floral ornament
appears to have been made on the largest scale in 
                                               Liverpool (see nos. D328-D331).2
There is support, however, for attributing the 
                                               bouquet-of-flowers-with-a-ribbon
group to Bristol. The same motif occurs on 
                                               "pinecone" bianco-sopra-bianco
bordered plates firmly attributed to that center. 
 
                                               At least one of the Longridge-type
plates has under-rim markings matching 
                                               those on pinecone bordered
plates, and the same colors and glaze occur on Bris- 
                                               tol tiles and other shapes."

 
 
 
                                               1. See Archer, V&A, no.
B.90 (for color, see  3. Archer, V&A, no. B.90; also, for under-rim 
                                               Archer, Rijksmuseum, cover);
Austin, Delft, col.  markings, compare that example to Britton, 
                                               pl 25, no. 344; Ray, Warren,
pl 57, nos. 111  112;  Bristol, no. 16.35 (marking illustrated p. 311, 
                                               Britton, Bristol, nos. 16.26
 16.28.      fig. 23[iiil). For pinecone borders and Bristol, 
                                                                        
                see Van Oss, English Deltt, p1. 201a; Charleston, 
                                               2. For a related Fazackerley
painting style on a 
                                               Liverpool flower brick, see
Brown and Lockett,  Bristol and Sweden, pls 212a, 213b-216b 
                                               Liverpool, no, 17; for excavated
Liverpool frag- 
                                               ments, see Garner, Liverpool,
pl. 64. 
 
 
194 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
D ELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
 
Horticultural Designs 
 
 
H.: 1 3/8" (3.5 cm); Diam.: 9 1/4" (23.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pate buff. 
 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
 
 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape M. 
 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowering 
 
 
plants with rocks surmounted by crest 
 
 
with mermaid holding mirror and comb, 
 
 
possibly representing Murray of 
 
 
Polmaise. Border motifs composed of 
further flowers. 
 
 
Plates, rectangular dishes with chamfered corners, and tureens (the last
of a 
form sometimes associated with Liverpool)' from the same service as this
exam- 
pie are attributed to Glasgow's Delftfield factory (active 1748-1823), partly

because of decorative similarities with a 1761 dated bowl dedicated to (Henry)

Robert Gilchrist, who held the post of sheriff substitute at the Sheriff
Court in 
Hamilton (near Glasgow), Lancashire. Several English and Scottish families
used 
mermaid crests, but the period of the service helps associate it with the
Murray 
of Polmaise family of Stirling.' 
   An April 1749 Delftfield pottery advertisement stated that commissions

would be taken from "Such Noblemen or Gentlemen as incline to have full
Setts 
for their Tables, and their Coats of Arms paonted upon them," and 1788
adver- 
tisements for their Edinburgh "Ware room" state, "Sets or
particular pieces [will 
be] made to any pattern ... [including] coats of arms, crests, or other devices."

 
 
Ex coll.:j P Kasseboum. 
 
 
1. Kinghorn and Quail, lDelftitild, p 35: Austin, 
Delft, no. 314; Archer, V&A, no. B.163: Liverpool 
Museum (nos. 50.60.52, 50.45.17): Christie's (L), 
Rous lench sale, May 29 30, 1990, lot 68; 
June 2, 1975, lots 259-260; Taggart, Burnap, 
no. 158; Britton, Bristol, no. 9.28. 
 
 
2. Archer, V&A, nos F.35, 1.163, Kinghorn and 
Quail, l)elftfield, pp. 32 -34; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 9.28; Garner and Archer, Delftware, 
pp. 76 77, nos. 133a 133b. 
 
 
3. Kinghorn and Quail, Delftfield, pp. 31, 23. 
See also 1Denhohn, l)elfiield. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 195 
 
 
D170. PLATE 
Glasgow, Scotland 
 
 
Delftfield 
 
 
c. 1765 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D171, D172, D173. DISHES 
Southwark or Rotherhithe, London 
 
(D171) c. 1640 
(D172, D173) 1630-1650 
 
 
(D171) H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); 
Diam,: 13" (33 cm) 
(D172) H.: 1 7/8" (4.8 cm); 
 
Diam.: 9 1/2" (24.1 cm) 
(D173) H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); 
Diam.: 12 !/2" (3.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff, (D171) with large 
inclusions, (D172) fine-grained, (D173) 
 
medium-grained and reddish. 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D171) slightly 
transparent, (D172) with medium craz- 
ing, (D173) with a few large pits. (All) 
 
Overall on interiors. 
LEAD GLAZE: (D171) Somewhat 
 
muddy. (D172) Greenish in cast. 
 
(D173) Bright green. (All) Over pale slip. 
Overall on exteriors, excluding where 
 
 
footrims wiped clean. 
SHAPE: (D171) Molded. Shape A with 
floral rim bosses deeply pushed out 
from behind. (D172, D173) Thrown over 
hump molds. Shape B1/b. (D173) Footrim 
pierced with single (broken) hole. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Geometric 
patterns. (D171) Border composed of 
 
 
curvilinear motifs, raised bosses, and 
concentric circles. (D172, D173) Borders 
composed of pseudo-kraak motifs and 
 
 
concentric circles. 
 
 
Ex coils.: (D173) L. L. Lipski; J. P Kasseboum. 
 
 
Detail of rim of no. D 171 
 
 
D171 
 
 
Only one example closely similar in decoration to the embossed-rim dish 
(D171) has been identified.' Aids to dating these dishes include polychrome

examples of generally similar shape but with differently painted rims and
edges: 
a Temptation dish is inscribed "TTM/1635"; a dish depicting Mary
Salome is 
inscribed "ICA" and dated 1637.1 Dutch dishes with similar rim
and edge treat- 
ments are known from around 1600 and include one with a pomegranate and 
grapes motif somewhat like that on one Longridge dish (no. D154)." 
   The borders on Longridge dishes (D172, D173) derive from Chinese export

kraak porcelain. The highly simplified motifs possibly represent the lotus
and 
the artemisia leaf, taken, respectively, from the Eight Buddhist Emblems
and the 
Eight Precious Things. Judging by the number of fairly similar dishes that
sur- 
vive, such designs were quite popular in England and were produced at more

than one factory. Fragments of related dish borders and centers have been
exca- 
vated at London sites.' As is true of Longridge examples (D172, D173), others
in 
this group typically are solidly colored at the edges, but at least one example
has 
this region ornamented with dash-filled arcs. The central motif on the three

Longridge dishes also is found on Dutch dishes and on 1640 to 1660 Anglo-

Netherlands dish fragments, the latter unearthed in England at Norwich.'

 
 
1. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 6. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. A.13, col. pl. 10; no. A.53, col. 
pl. 32. For an undated, embossed Adam and Eve 
dish, see Austin, Delft, no. 155. 
3. van Gangelen, Kersloot, and Venhuis, 
Slibaardewerk, p. 81, fig. 101a (checkerboard). 
Scholten, van Drecht, nos. 13-15, 18 19, 37, 58 
(various centers). Korf, Majolica 1, no. 23 (pome- 
granate and grapes). 
 
 
4. Archer, V&A, no. A.45. Noel Hume, London 
and Virginia, pp. 45 48, pls. 45-49; p. 77, 
figs. 1 2; col. pis. opp. pp. 84, 85. Museum of 
London, Southwark and Lambeth, p. 324, 
fig. 137, no. 1368. 
5. Austin, Delft, no. 158. 
6. Korf, Majolica 2, figs. 148, 149; Jennings, 
Norwich, p. 196, fig. 86, no. 1392. 
 
 
00 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
0 
 
 
I 
 
 
&IA 
 
 
1)172 
 
 
D)173 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 197 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D174, D175, D176. DISHES 
 
(D174) London or Brislington 
1645-1680 
 
(D175) Southwark, London 
1665-1695 
 
(D176) Probably Brislington 
 
1655-1685 
 
 
(D174) H: 2 3/4" (7 cm); 
Diam.: 13 1/2" (34.3 cm) 
 
(D175) H.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm); 
 
Diam.: 12 7/8" (32.7 cm) 
(D176) H.: 17/8" (4.8 cm); 
 
Diam.: 8 1/8" (20.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: (D174, D176) Fine-grained 
buff, (D176) pinkish. (D175) Medium- 
 
grained dark buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White. 
LEAD GLAZE: (D174) Brown, orange- 
 
peel texture. (D175) Slightly bluish with 
 
blue speckling and large tin content. 
 
(D176) Slightly greenish with purple 
specks. (All, perhaps excepting D175) 
Over pale slip. (All) On exteriors, 
 
excluding where footrims partially 
wiped clean. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown over hump molds. 
(D174, D175) Shape B1/b. (D176) Shape A 
 
with wider flange. (D175, D176) Pierced 
 
with single hole through footrim 
 
before firing and (D176) through flange 
after firing. 
DECORATION: Painted. Geometric 
 
pattern. Borders composed of 
 
geometric motifs, concentric circles, 
 
and (D175, D176) dashes. 
 
 
1)1 
 
 
The ornamental motifs on these and many other geometric dishes are also 
found on Continental pieces and make appearances on early drug jars or storage

pots (no. D392).' Patterns illustrating the combination of a range of related
orna- 
ment are known through archaeological material: a border like that on one
of 
the Longridge dishes (D174) appears on a fragment unearthed at Brislington
and 
on a dish with central decoration that matches sherds from Rotherhithe. Other

geometric dishes with pinwheel centers have been excavated elsewhere in Lon-

don.' The frond and graduated curve border on another of the Longridge dishes

(D175) resembles that on a dish with a central motif linked archaeologically
to 
Brislington. Excavated evidence for the border has been found at Southwark

sites.' 
   The remaining Longridge dish (D176) has a diamond-shaped central motif,

is unusually small, and differs partly from other geometric dishes in that
the 
center is wide in relation to the flange and the wall is particularly deep.
The 
motif of a thin, wavy line within broadly spaced, large dashes is found on
an 
intact English delft geometric dish, in various forms on rim fragments 
unearthed at Brislington and Bristol, and on Dutch delftware.' Other design

components of the Longridge dish (D176) are found on fragments excavated
at 
kiln sites in London, Brislington, and Bristol and on pieces made around
1600 
in the Netherlands and Liguria (northwest Italy). Much of the central ornament

on the Longridge dish also appears on a 1640 to 1660 Anglo-Netherlands dish

unearthed at Norwich. The unusual combination of blue, pale turquoise, and

manganese purple appears on sherds found in Brislington. Given the uncon-

ventional nature of many large dishes made there, it is possible that this

example should be attributed to that factory. 
 
 
1. Korf, Majolica 1, nos. 42, 43, 54; Scholten, van 
Drecht, no. 29. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. A.47. 
3. Ibid., nos. A.46, A.48; Museum of London, 
Southwark and Lambeth, fig. 136, nos. 1364, 
1304; fig. 142, no. 1401; fig. 144, no. 1410; 
Britton, London, p. 69, fig. 10C. 
4. Archer, V&A, no. A.48; Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 
38 (see also Home, Collection, pt. 12, no, 318). 
 
 
5. For the dish, see Atkins, Exhibition (1992), 
no. 20. For fragments, see Downman, Chargers, 
pls. opp. pp. 32, 34. For a Dutch example, see 
Scholten, van Drecht, no. 64. 
6. Baart, ed. Wilson, Italian Pottery, p. 235, 
fig. 13. For Norwich fragment, see Jennings, 
Norwich, p. 196, fig. 86, no. 1396. 
 
 
198 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D 174 
 
 
D)175 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 199 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              Dishes and Plates 
 
Geometric, Abstract, and Other Designs 
 
 
D177. DISH 
London or Brislington 
1675-1695 
 
 
H.: 11/4" (3.2 cm); Diam.: 8 3/4" (22.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained dark 
buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Dark blue. 
SHAPE: Molded. Twelve outer lobes 
encircle twelve inner bosses and circu 
lar center. Scar on reverse of rim may 
indicate dish was fired while supported 
by pegs. 
DECORATION: Spattered or splashed 
on interior only. 
 
Ex coll.: J P Kassebaum. 
 
 
This dish shape seems to be contemporary with more narrowly gadrooned 
types made in delftware and slipware (see nos. D10, D103, D104, S31). Frag-

ments of molded dishes of the type shown here have been excavated at London

sites, and sherds with related ornament have been unearthed at London and

Brislington.1 Bleu de Nevers (or bleu persan) grounds are found on a broad
range of 
1680 to 1690 shapes (nos. D108, D109, D180, D252, D278, D279) and, although

oriental figures in landscapes are common motifs, flowers and splashed deco-

ration also were popular (see no. D180).1 English, white-splashed bleu de
Nevers 
was exported to America, where examples have been passed down in families,

and fragments have been excavated in Charleston, South Carolina, and else-

where. Similar ornament also is found on some Dutch tin glaze. 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. A.63; Britton, London, 
no. 99. For dishes like the Longridge example, 
see Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 1391; Sothe- 
by's (L), Rous Lench sale (1), July 1, 1986, lot 33; 
Sotheby's (L), July 24, 1984, lot 12; Sotheby's (L), 
October 15, 1959, lot 23. 
2. See Ilorne, Tiles, no. 429, for a splashed tile. 
3. Charleston Museum collection; Austin, Delft, 
pp. 18, 105. 
 
 
200 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DEL F TWARE ] Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
Geometric, Abstract, and Other Designs 
 
 
D178. DISH 
Probably London 
1680-1700 
 
 
H.: 13/4" (4.4 cm); Diam.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise with dark- 
er turquoise specks. 
 
SHAPE: Molded, Shape B1/b but deep- 
er (more of a bowl shape) and with 
more tapering bottom to footrim. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Abstract 
pattern of irregular blotches. 
 
Ex coil.: L. L. Lipski 
 
 
This deep dish, a porringer, and a globular mug (nos. D183, D248) also in
the 
collection are similarly patterned in irregular purple and blue blotches,
some- 
times with the color applied in broader bold strokes. Several aspects of
the 
porringer (no. D183) shape help link it to London production sites.' Other
pieces 
in this color scheme include bowl fragments excavated from the Pickleherring

factory site (Southwark), a late seventeenth-century pear-shaped mug from
the 
Aldgate (consumer) site, and pieces excavated at other consumer sites. Varia-

tions have blotches (some of them more circular in shape) in blue, green,
and 
yellow, sometimes with manganese purple-brown.)' 
 
 
1. Commtenting on a similar porringer (Grtigsby, 
Chipstone, no, 64), Michael Archer favored a 
London attribution for it but noted that 
fragments with this color scheme also have 
been unearthed in Belfast (Arc-her comments 
[Septeinber 1992 and June 19951). 
2. Stephenson conmnments (September 1998); 
Pearce comments (September 1998), citing 
Thompson, Grew, and Schofield, Aldgate 
Excavwtions, pp. 57-58, fig. 26, no. 124 
(Aldgate fragment). 
 
 
:3. tor posset pots, see Grigshby, Chipstone, 
no. 17 (also Sotheby's 11.1, lipski sale [11, 
March 10, 1981, lot 20): Mundy, t)elft, pl. 14, 
fig. 2; Sotheby's (L), October 17 18, 1992, lot 486 
(circular blotches). For a dish, see Grigsby, 
Chipstone, no. 34. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 201 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Dishes and Plates 
 
Geometric, Abstract, and Other Designs 
 
 
D179. DISH 
London 
Possibly Lambeth High Street 
 
 
"Bowcock" on exterior, possibly a 
maker's mark 
c. 1748 
 
H,: 1" (2.5 cm), Diam.: 8 7/8" (22.5 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. 
SHAPE: Molded. Shape M. 
DECORATION: Painted and probably 
powdered. Playing cards in reserve 
against dense ground. (Thickly applied 
color cracks where it draws together, 
making method of color application 
difficult to determine.) Center of exte- 
rior inscribed "Bowcock." 
 
Ex coil.: B. K. and N. F Little. 
 
 
his plate is unusual in that playing cards form the sole decoration; 
several other English playing-card plates have borders of four circular flower

heads in reserve on sgraffito leafy floral vines.' Such borders also appear
on 
plates with central reserve scenes of a Chinese figure with a bamboo over
his 
shoulder or one holding a spear and two birdcages. The former type is known

with 1748 dates, and fragments showing the sgrafiito border decoration and

dense blue ornament have been found in Lambeth! No record can be found of

"Bowcock," who may have been the manufacturer of the Longridge
plate. The 
 
Pope Joan game tray (no. D386) also has playing-card motifs, as does an English

delftware bowl with a man in a landscape on the exterior; probably Dutch

bowls with green grounds and playing cards inside and out; and several Dutch

plates, two dated 1731 and 1733, respectively.' A triangular and two basket-

shaped counter trays in enameled Staffordshire salt-glazed stoneware also

display playing-card motifs.' 
 
 
1. Private collection, Williamsburg; Sotheby's (L), 
May 15, 1979, lot 50; Britton, Bristol, no. 15.9: 
Mundy, Delft, pl. 38, no. 2 [sold Sotheby's [LI, 
June 22, 1976, lot 63); Sotheby's (L), Moor Wood 
sale, May 15, 1979, lot 50. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 524- 
524A (dated plates); Garner, Lambeth, p. 55, 
pl. 15B (plate and rim fragment). 
 
 
3. Christie's (L), October 14, 1985, lot 14 (land- 
scape bowl). For Dutch(?) bowls, Horne, Collec- 
tion, pt. 14, no. 393; Little, Little by Little, p. 73, 
fig. 91, and Sotheby's (NY), Little sale, October 21- 
22, 1994, lot 471. For Dutch plates, see Fourest, 
Delftware, no. 137 (Musee des Arts decoratifs; 
Musees royaux d'Art et d'Histoire collections). 
4. Mountford, Salt-glazed Stoneware, pl. 193; 
V&A collection, nos. 67/U1868, 671-1868 (Archer 
comments 119981). 
 
 
V 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
I, 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
              DDining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Other 
 
Porringers 
 
 
D180. PORRINGER 
Probably London 
1640-1670 
 
 
H.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm); 
Diam. (body): 6 7/8" (17.5 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 8 3/8" (21.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Dark blue. Overall on 
interior and top and sides of handle. 
LEAD GLAZE: With blue-green cast 
and traces of tin. On handle bottom 
and overall on exterior, excluding 
footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat handle cut to 
shape and pierced. Slightly convex 
bottom with flaring footrim having 
flat edge. 
DECORATION: Splashed. Bleu persan. 
 
Ex coils.: L. L. Lipskij. P Kasseboum. 
 
 
he profile of this porringer (for discussion of the term, see nos. D181,
D182) 
derives from metalwork and indicates that it probably dates to the mid- 
seventeenth century, a time when English delftware manufacturers also were

strongly influenced by imports of Continental pottery and, indeed, potters.
Two 
English or Continental porringers excavated in London (unknown sites) resem-

ble this one in their nearly hemispherical profiles but are without flaring
rims. 
The unevenly lobed handle on one has a pierced circle and two pierced cres-

cents, and the exterior has a yellow lead glaze. The greenish gray exterior
glaze 
on the other contrasts with the slightly bluish white glaze on its interior.
Both 
of the bowls bear painted Northern European motifs, but white-splashed Wliu

persan ornament does occur on some Continental delftware. 
   Among English splashed blet person postdating the piece shown here is
a 
porringer that resembles Longridge number D183 in profile and was unearthed

from a cesspit in Black Swan Yard in Southwark (near the Pickleherring facto-

ry), and one with straightish, flaring sides was found in Lambeth. (Sherds
with 
splashed decoration also were found at Brislington.)l Another splashed por-

ringer has a reputed history of early ownership in a Plymouth, Massachusetts,

family.3 For other bleu persan wares in the Longridge collection, see numbers

D108, D109, D177, D252, D278, D279. 
 
 
1. Noel Hume, London and Virginia, 
pp. 89-91, fig. 14, nos. 1-2. 
2. Ibid., pp. 92-94, fig. 15, no. 2 (near 
Pickleherring, c. 1680 1700); Archer, V&A, 
no. .1, porringer found (Lambeth) by 
Garner; and no. A.63, citing Brislingion 
fIragments at V&A and British Museum. 
For another blotched Neu persan 
porringer, see Burlington (1914), p1. 31, 
Case E, no. 83. 
3. Austin, Delft, p. 18, fig. 14. 
 
 
204 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 205 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D181, D182. PORRINGERS 
London 
Dated 1673 
 
 
(D181) H.: 2 3/8" (6 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 3/8" (13.7 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 7 3/8" (18.7 cm) 
(D]82) H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 5/8" (14.3 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 7 3/8" (18.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D182) slightly 
transparent Overall, excluding footrim 
edges. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handles shaped in 
mold and pierced. Flat bottoms with 
V-shaped footrims with flat edges. 
DECORATION: Painted. (D181) In- 
scribed "MS/1673." (D182) Inscribed 
"AH/1673." Borders composed of 
concentric circles edged with sets 
of graduated lines and foliate motifs, 
(D182) with additional well borders 
composed of scrolls and asterisks. 
(D182) Handle bears scrollwork. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1234 (D181); no. 1235A (D182). 
(D182) Grigsby, Dated Longridge Delftware 
and Slipware, pp. 882-885, pl. 16. 
Ex calls.: (D787) E. Pitts Curtis. (D182) L. L. 
Lipski; T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
                                                                    D181,
D)182 
 
 
he term porringer was in common usage by the mid-seventeenth century. A 
May 29, 1661, entry in Pepys's diary states, "[I] rose earley; ... and
put six spoons 
and a porringer of Silver in my pocket to give away to-day." In 1679,
a London 
Gazette notice of "lost [silver] plate" included "3 Porringers
(one with the ear 
off)." Twenty years later, in 1699, the Pickleherring pottery inventory
had 
entries for 7,748 porringers variously identified as "Spanish"
(perhaps for their 
shape); "blood" (perhaps indicating use); by size, including "half
pinte," "pinte," 
"slight," "toy"; by color, such as "white";
and by quality, such as "faulty." Gally 
 
porrengers may refer to decoration or differentiate some vessels from the

stoneware ones also made at the factory. Although most of the pottery from

the factory probably was intended for domestic consumption, some conceivably

may have been wares for the export market. 
   The border motifs on the Longridge porringers and on an example virtually

identical to the "AH" example (D182) include sets of graduated
lines alternating 
with foliage. The borders appear to have been inspired by decoration edging

inscriptions found primarily on drinking vessels dating from the 1640s to
the 
1660s.1 (See also a 1667 dated button in this collection [no. D384].) Chinese

scrolls resembling that bordering the "AH" porringer (68), but
typically without 
dots, are not uncommon on 1670s and 1680s delftware, and dotted versions

occur on the 1682 dated "Merryman plates" and a 1695 dated two-handled
cup 
in the Longridge collection (nos. D79, D284).1 
    Much like the illustrated porringers in profile and handle type (but
with a 
wider oval hole) is one inscribed "TRE/1673" that was unearthed
at the 
Winchester Palace site (Southwark) near Montague Close. The wreath encircling

the inscription resembles those on two Longridge plates (nos. D81, D82).
Re- 
lated porringers and handles also were excavated at the Pickleherring site.7

A handle of the type under discussion also occurs on a 1686 dated porringer

depicting a James II portrait! 
 
 
206 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
1D18 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
                 Other 
 
 
Porringers 
 
 
g'~~ 
 
 
I 
 
 
A*AU-a 
 
 
D181, 1)182 
 
 
1. Archer and Morgan, China D)ishes, no. 2:3. 
 
 
2. Britton, Inventories, p. 64; Britton, Pickle- 
herring, pp. 61, 68 79; Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 64. 
 
 
3. An entry for "2 doz, white Porringers" 
appears in a 1692 invoice "otr goods and 
merchandise laden by President and Society of 
Merchants of london Trading in West New 
Jersey," and one for "1 Doz. white porringers" is 
in a 1694 invoice of goods shipped to New York 
by the "West New Jersey Society" (Springsted, 
New Jersey Delftware, pp. 4:3 44). For a bki' 
pcrsan porringer with a Massachusetts history 
and anl all-white example excavated at the 
Public Gaol in Williamsburg, Va., see Austin, 
1)ellt, pp. 18, 196. 
 
 
5. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 900- 
912 passim; and no. 1012, for dotted scrolls on a 
1677 dated puzzle jug, 
 
 
6. Museum of London, Southwark and ILambeth. 
pp. 311, 488; Goffin comments (September 
1998); Stephenson cominents (November 1998). 
 
 
7. Museum of london, Southwark and Lambeth, 
pp. 310-311, fig. 131, nos. 1280 and 1283, similar 
handles; no. 1282, similar handle; no. 1275, 
similar body shape, dilferent handle; p. 326, 
fig. 139, no. 1380, similar handle with striated 
painted ornament. For a similar handle from an 
unrecorded site, see Noel Hume, London and 
Virginia, pp. 90-92, fig. 14, no. 7. 
 
 
8. lipski and Archer, Dated l)eltware, no, 12:36. 
 
 
4. Britton, London, nos. 70-71; Lipski and Archer, 
D)ated IDelftware, nos. 714 759 passim. 1286. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 207 
 
  

					
				
				
 
              Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Other 
 
Porringers 
 
 
H.: 3" (7.6 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 5 5/8" (14.3 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 71/4" (18.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White with gray to 
 
brown speckling and some patches of 
wrinkling on exterior. Overall, excluding 
 
footrim edge. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle shaped in 
 
mold and pierced. Flat bottom with 
 
deep, nearly cylindrical footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Irregularly 
 
shaped blotches, those on exterior wall 
 
in two uneven rows, those on handle 
 
top in random pattern of dots. 
 
Ex coils.: J. V Vizcorro; J. P Kossebourn. 
 
 
Porringers are the most common shape displaying randomly arranged blue 
and purple blotches, but a few other shapes-primarily drinking vessels-also

display the motif (see nos. D178, D248).1 Delftware with blotch decoration
has 
been excavated at London sites, including a nonproduction site at Aldgate.
(A 
few fragments also were found in Belfast, Ireland; if those pots were made

there, they date to around 1700.)2 
   Dated porringers with handles showing similar piercing are known from

1662, 1698, 1727 (see no. D184), and 1730. A mold for making five-lobed han-

dles was excavated at the Pickleherring site but is too worn to determine
if it 
was for this type of heart-and-circle-holed handle.' The Norfolk House site
(Lam- 
beth) yielded a seven- rather than nine-lobed handle with such piercing in

association with a straight-sided bowl waster,' and lobed porringer handles

with related piercing were excavated at the 2-5 Moreley Street site (1680s
context) 
in Lambeth, and in Southwark at the Pickleherring, Tooley Street, New Hibernia

Wharf, and Saint Saviour's sites.' Dates on porringers of rounded profile
range 
from 1686 to 1765 (see nos. D184-D186).' 
 
 
1. For porringers (unless noted), see Grigsby, 
Chipstone, no. 64; Lothian, Apothecary Vessels, 
p. 3, no. 13b; Britton, London, nos. 104, 105 
(ointment pot); Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), 
March 10, 1981, lots 15 (cylindrical mug), 16. For 
blotches in other colors, see Grigsby, Chipstone, 
no. 17 (posset pot). 
2. For London evidence, Stephenson comments 
(September 1998); Pearce comments (September 
1998), citing Thompson, Grew, and Schofield, 
Aldgate Excavations, pp. 57 58, fig. 26, no. 124 
(Aldgate fragment). For London and Belfast, see 
Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 64, citing Archer com- 
ments regarding a similar blotched porringer. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 1232, 
1237, 1241. 
 
 
4. Stephenson comments (September 1998). 
5. Bloice, Norfolk House, pp. 99, 119, 124-125, 
fig. 54, nos. 54A-60B. Round-profiled porringers 
and other tab-handle types also were found. 
6. Museum of London, Southwark and Lambeth, 
p. 310, fig. 131, no. 1275; p. 312, fig. 132, 
nos0 1285-1286 (Mark Brown's WharflPickle- 
herring); pp. 361 362, fig. 160, no. 1641 (Moreley 
Street). Noel Hume, London and Virginia, p. 90, 
fig. 14; pp. 92-94, fig. 15 (Pickleherring). Bloice, 
Norfolk House, pp. 124-125, fig. 54; pp. 151-152 
(Southwark). 
7. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1236-1244. 
 
 
D183. PORRINGER 
 
 
London 
 
1680-1710 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D184. PORRINGER 
Probably London 
Dated 1727 
 
 
H,: 3" (7.6 cm); 
Diam, (body): 5 1/2' (14 cm); 
Diam. (with handle). 7 3/8" (18.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pinkish buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, somewhat 
 
 
runny on exterior, with gray to blue 
speckling. Overall, excluding footrim 
edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle molded to 
shape and pierced. Slightly convex bot- 
 
 
tom with nearly cylindrical footrim with 
 
 
flat edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Birds and 
 
 
flowering plant. Borders composed of 
concentric circles, foliate and triple-line 
motifs, and band of scrollwork. 
Inscribed "Mary Miller/1727." Handle 
top bears foliage and scrolls; sides bear 
band of dots. 
 
 
Published: Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, 
Pictorial History. p. 249, no. 11; Lipski andl 
Archer, Dored Delftwore, no. 1240, Grigsby, 
Dated Longridge Delftwore ond Slipwore, 
pp. 883-885, p1.16. 
Ex coils.: T G. Burn, Rous Lench, 
J. P Kossebaum. 
 
 
1. li pski and Arcther, l )ated D)elftiware, no. 1241. 
2. Brinttoo, Inventories, p. 6 ; see ailso B~rit ton, 
l~ondon, pp. 48--49, 190 192. 
 
 
  his elegantly decorated porringer probably is by the same hand as one of
the 
same shape that is inscribed "Blor R] S/1730" and shares with it
reserve design 
elements., the reserve border, the placement and style of its inscription,
and 
handle ornament (much of it now flaked away).'Scrolls and foliage of the
type 
on the two pieces' handles were in vogue from around 1715 to 1730 and appear

on a wide variety of shapes (see nos. D259, D364). The popularity of porringers

around this time is evidenced by entries in the Gravel Lane stoneware and
delft- 
ware manufactory (Southwark) inventory taken in 1726/7 at the death of 
Nathaniel Oade: "In the Long Room . .. 10355 )raw ware) viz Porringers

Chamber Pots, Butter Ware & c"; in "the loft... 2270 )bisket
ware) viz Chamber 
Potts and Porringer Sluggs lanother term for saggars, in which pots were
fired)"; 
among delft(?) in "the Warehouse up one pair of Stairs ... 149 dozen
of (perfect 
ware) viz Mustard Pots and Salts, small painted Pattys, small Porringers";
and in 
"the Garret in the Dwelling House/Ilteml 265 dozen of China Porringers."

 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
 
Porringers 
 
 
H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 3/4" (12.1 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6" (15.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
TIN GLAZE: White with blue speck- 
ling, especially on interior. Overall, 
 
 
excluding footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle molded to 
shape and pierced. Flat bottom with 
narrow-edged, V-shaped footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Central 
reserve inscribed "1CE/1731" with 
graduated-line and dot-cluster filler 
motifs. Borders composed of concen- 
tric circles and lobing. Handle top bears 
 
radiating lines. Exterior of wall bears 
two near-repeats of flowering vine 
 
with insect, 
 
 
Lobed rim borders and the general type of handle decorated with the radia-

ting-line patterns shown here appear to have been a popular combination on

circa 1730 delft porringers.' (For a late example of the border, see no.
D186.) The 
border also occurs on other delftware: a mug attributed to Liverpool based
on 
excavated fragments; plates (some of London shape) with initials and dates,

respectively, of 1731, 1734, and 1736, in central reserves resembling that
of the 
porringer;' and the interiors of punch bowls dated, respectively, 1724 and
1727.1 
A 1730 dated plate initialed "EE" is stylistically similar to the
porringer in its 
central reserve and (to some extent) flowers. A 1730 dated floral-patterned
jug 
inscribed "THOMAS AND ELIZABETH SHEARMAN" resembles the porringer
in 
its deep-blue-painted grassy mounds and numbering style (see also no. D302),"

and grassy elements of the same general type occur on a floral dish fragment

found at Vauxhall.1 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1242; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, pp. 883-885, pl. 16. 
Ex coils.: F. A. Crisp; E. Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
1. For otherwise differently decorated porringers,  3. Lipski and Archer,
Dated Delftware, nos. 1068 
see Britton, Bristol, no. 5.15; Austin, Delft,  (1724), 1077 (1727). 
nos. 396-398, and for a mug with the border,    4. Ibid., nos. 363 (plate),
986 dug). 
no. 98. 
                                           5. Cockell, vauxhall Cross, pl.
120. For a poly- 
2. Archer, V&A, no. C.18; Austin, Delft, no. 396; 
                                           chrome, lobed punch bowl, much
like Longridge 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 366, 
389-390, 407-409.                          no. D309 in shape, with grassy
mounds and dif- 
                                           ferent flowers with birds, see
Sotheby's (L), 
                                           Kassebaim sale (1), October 1,
1991, lot 44. 
 
 
210 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D185. PORRINGER 
 
 
London or Liverpool 
Dated 1731 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D EL FT WA RE Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTARE Other 
 
 
H.: 3" (76 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 1/8"(13 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6 1/2" (16.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white with 
 
 
brown speckling on interior; runny with 
much pitting on exterior, with some 
crawling on top of handle. Overall, 
excluding footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle molded to 
shape and pierced. Flat bottom with 
deep footrim with narrow edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Interior bears 
building with fence and tree. Slightly 
altered building (alone) repeated five 
times on exterior. Bottom inscribed 
"EE[in monogram, or I]B/1765." Upper 
border composed of scalelike lobing. 
Handle solidly colored on top with 
scribbled (test?) motifs on bottom. 
 
 
  his is an unusually late example of the lobe-bordered porringer type dis-

 
cussed in the previous entry (no. D185), and both vessels also resemble each

other in body and handle shape. The ornament on the piece, less than stellar
in 
quality, illustrates a mid-eighteenth-century fashion for simplified buildings
of 
roughly the same outline set in (typically oriental) landscapes.' The odd
motifs 
(a squiggle and a face) on the handle bottom perhaps were tests of the decora-

tor's brush. 
 
 
rii 
 
 
Published: Lipski ond Archer. Dated 
Delftwore, no. 1244. 
Es coils.: L. L. Lipski (printed sticker: 
"L, L. L.Collection/ No." wirh 71214" written 
in blue); K. ond R, Barrett. 
 
 
1. See llriiion. Birisitol, nos. 14.46, 14.48. lor 
1 770s datecd delft with st~iriated-roofe~d buildings, 
see l ipski arid Atcher. I aiied Delft war e. 
nos. 15 34 1535. Foi the lashion on delit ware 
excavated in America, see Aus~tin. I)ellt, 
pp. 20 22. tigs. 25 27. 30, :12. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 211 
 
 
D186. PORRINGER 
London, Liverpool, or Bristol 
Dated 1765 
 
 
Porringers 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
DELFTWA RE Dining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
 
D187. BUTTER DISH                                                       
                   Other Bowls and Pierced Dishes 
 
Probably London 
 
1700-1720 
 
 
H.: 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); 
 
Diam.: 5 3/4" (14.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff 
 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly blue-to 
 
turquoise-white, unevenly applied on 
lid interior and bottom of bowl. 
 
Overall, excluding bottom edges of lid 
 
and footrim. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown, Bowl interior has 
 
conical spike. Nearly cylindrical footrim 
 
with narrow edge. 
 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
 
Trees and bushes with, on bowl, a man 
 
walking and buildings. Finial top bears 
 
central dot, radiating lines, and 
 
concentric circles. Other borders 
 
composed of concentric circles and 
 
horizontal lines. 
 
 
FD 
D owls of this type-covered and with an internal spike-are thought to have

 
been used for serving butter. Four circa 1715 examples that resemble this
one 
in profile but have different painted (and no sponged) decoration were excava-

ted at the Vauxhall pottery site, and another example of slightly different

profile was found elsewhere in Lambeth. The spikes on all of these pieces
are 
triangular, rather than conical, in section. 
   Although the term butter dish was in use by the end of the seventeenth
cen- 
tury, it may not always have referred to dishes of this type; the 1699 
Pickleherring inventory has entries for 4,125 delft butter dishes, with butter
in 
this case perhaps referring to size.' Densely sponged trees and Dutch-inspired

figures occur on a 1708 dated punch bowl (see also no. D286).,' 
 
 
1. 1For Vauxhall, see Britton, London, 
pp. 66, 71, pl. J. For others with triangular 
spikes, see col. pl. M, no. 121 (floral); 
Rackhaln, Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 1695 (figur- 
al), Britton, Bristol, no. 8.47 (grapevine). 
For a Lambeth example (Lambeth High 
Street or Norfolk House), found by 
Garner, see Archer, V&A, no. 1.51. 
2. Britton, Inventories, p. 64; Archer, V&A, 
p. 71. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 1047. 
 
 
212 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D EL F TWAR E Dining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
 
Other Bowls and Pierced Dishes 
 
 
H.: 2 3/8" (6 cm); 
Diam.: 6 3/8" (16.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly transparent 
white with pitting on reverse. Overall, 
excluding where footrim edge partly 
wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with undulating rim. 
Nearly cylindrical footrim with narrow 
edge. 
DECORATION: Painted, Duk'e of 
Marlborough with pulled-back curtains, 
Inscribed "DM." Borders composed of 
geometric motifs, V-shaped elements, 
 
 
and concentric circles. 
 
 
U ortrait bowls of this piecrust-rimmed, or wavy-edged, type commemorating

the Duke of Marlborough (see Time Line, pp. 15-16, and no. D38) are rare.
On 
one, Marlborough's portrait is initialed "DM" and presented in
a format similar 
to George I ("GR") and the Duke of Ormonde ("DO") on
Longridge dishes D46 
and D41.' Another piecrust-rimmed bowl has a script "AR" and matches

the one shown here in rim and reserve borders but depicts a glaring Queen

Anne (r. 1702-1714).2 (Marlborough served as one of her generals.) Anne's

husband, Prince George of Denmark (see no. D38), occasionally is portrayed

with "PG" initials in bowls of this type,3 as is George I (r. 1714-1727)
with 
"GR" initials.; The reserve border on the Longridge bowl has much
in common 
with that near the base of a Bristol or London mug also in this collection

(no. D255). 
 
 
111 
 
 
Ex coils. L. L Lipski (printed sricker: 
"L L. L.ICollection/No." with '647" 
written in blue): black-painted collection 
no "EURCER/1243/AI' 
 
 
4 
 
 
\11 
 
 
1. Brition, B~risto, no. 10.12, with bordei resem- 
bling that of I ongiridge dishI no. 1) 118. 
2. Ibid., no. 10.6. 
3. Sotheby's (1,), 1ipski sale 121, November 17. 
1981, lot 258. 
4. Rackhan,(1,uGlisher, vol. 2, p1. 10213, no. 1663, 
poit rait of type on "I)M dish listed above in 
n. 1. lor ano~ther. see Sotbeby>s(L, 11.Maiy 15. 1979. 
lo)t 81. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 213 
 
 
D188. BOWL 
Bristol or London 
c 1704-1711 
 
 
A 
 
 
~1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
               Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE       t 
              i Other 
 
 
Other Bowls ond Pierced Dishes 
 
 
H.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm); 
 
Diam.: 7 1/8" (18.1 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly transparent (espe- 
 
cially on exterior) bluish white. Overall, 
excluding majority of footrim edge. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown, with undulating rim. 
 
 
Nearly cylindrical footrim with narrow 
 
 
D189. BOWL 
Probably Bristol 
 
Number "4" on bottom 
1710-1730 
 
 
edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowering 
plant with bird and insect. Borders 
 
 
composed of concentric circles; 
band of floral, foliate, scrolled, and 
 
other curvilinear motifs; and, at rim, 
 
 
V-shaped elements. Bottom bears 
 
number "4" at center. 
 
 
1. See Ray, Warren, pl. 55, nos. 106-108; Britton, 
Bristol, nos. 8.43, 8.44 (fruit), 8.45; Austin, Delft, 
nos. 588, 596, 597 (Chinese scene); Archer and 
Morgan, China Dishes, no. 37 (Chinese scene); 
Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (3), March 1, 1983, lot 
394 (Chinese scene). 
2. For the border around a water scene in a 
flat-rimmed bowl, see Britton, Bristol, no. 8.30. 
 
 
3. Ibid., col. pl. 34, no. 13.8, and pp. 209-210 
(dish); Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 317, 331 (dated plates). See also Austin, 
Delft, no. 211. 
4. Ray, Warren, p. 183, no. 106 (Brislington); 
Austin, Delft, p. 239 (fragments excavated at 
Williamsburg, Va.). 
5. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 37. 
 
 
214 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
Floral motifs are much more common on piecrust-rimmed bowls than are 
portraits (see no. D188).' The painted flower-and-scroll border on this example

matches that on a plate depicting Ceres at its center (no. D75).1 The painting

style of the central reserve is very like that of a large dish with a three-fish
motif 
(see also no. D214) and under-rim markings that help to associate it with
Bris- 
tol; related floral and foliate motifs are found on plates dated 1722 and
1724. 
(For another plate painted in this style, see no. D124.) Fragments of piecrust

rims were found at Brislington, and piecrust-rimmed bowls have been excava-

ted at colonial sites." Some bowls with this rim type may have been
employed 
as washbasins., 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
D190. BOWL 
 
 
Probably Bristol 
1710-1730 
 
 
H.: 2 1/8" (5.4 cm); 
Diam.: 6 5/8" (16.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise with some 
pitting on reverse. Overall, excluding 
footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Short, tapering 
footrim with narrow bottom edge. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Chinese scene with fence, mountains, 
hill, and plants. 
 
 
The landscape on this piece differs in some details but is very similar to
one 
painted in blue and white inside a piecrust-rimmed bowl (for general form,
see 
nos. D188, D189).1 On the latter painted, rather than sponged, bushes are
at the 
right, and a Chinese figure sits at the center of the scene. (The piecrust
bowl's 
scene recurs in polychrome and without the figure on the interior of one
por- 
ringer.)' Another bowl that resembles the Longridge example in shape, both

border motifs, painting style, and palette probably is from the same factory.

The comparable vessel's central reserve depicts a house in a landscape with

sponged plants. For a mug with a blue and white version of the outer border

shown here, see number D262. 
 
 
1. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 37. 
2. Britton, Bristol, no. 5.16. 
3. Christie's (NY), Chorley sale, January 25, 
1993, lot 11. 
 
 
II 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 21S 
 
 
.... 
 
 
IV j 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFWAREDining and Related Wares 
DELFTARE jOther 
 
 
D 191. D I SH                                                           
                       Other Bowls and Pierced Dishes 
London 
1740-175 5 
H.:1 1/2' (3.8 cm); 
 
Diam.. 7 3/4" (19.7 cm) 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white. Overall,!il 
excluding footrim edge.J 
SHAPE: Thrown or molded, with 
pierced border. Piecrust rim shaped by                          't 
impressing with rounded tool. Flat 
bottom with short, slightly tapering                             t 
footrim, nearly cylindrical on interior                     J         
wall.                                                                  ,

DECORATION: Painted and sgraffito. 
Chinese vignette with vase, flowers, 
and leaf. Piercing outlined on interior. 
Piecrust-rim border composed of 
clusters of short, parallel lines and 
concentric lozenges.,                                                   
                     .r 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                   Che pattern of the piercing
of this dish matches that of at least one other 
                                                 piecrust-rimmed example.'
On that one, a circular central reserve depicts a 
                                                 chinoiserie landscape with
buildings and figures, and the piercing again is out- 
                                                 lined. The pattern of the
outer border differs from the type shown here. The 
                                                 glaze on both dishes is
typical of London delftware, as is the use of sgraffito 
                                                 detailing demonstrated on
the Longridge dish.2 Sgraffito-detailed leaves of 
                                                 approximately this type
occur on dated pieces from 1749 to 1756.:' 
 
                        ~1. Austin, Deift, no. 292, 
                                                                        
              2. Archer, V&A, n1o. B.83; cockell, Vauxhall 
                                                           ...........  
   ........... cross, pls. 129-130. For sgraffito  on  Dublin 
                                2                       "          delftware,
see Arc'her and Hickey, Irish 
                               .                                        
             Delftware, no. 78. 
                         \'   ¢3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware,
nos. 530, 
                                  ,'.....                  ....551, 581,
581A, 1150, 1163. 
 
 
216 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
in wniCh case it couio easily nave Deen reverseu. A InIumDIrer 01 IeCS wItn
subjects 
after Berchem are also in reverse.4 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. G.15 (Mr. Archer is responsi- 
ble for much of the information in this entry): 
Austin, Delft, no. 371 n. 1; Cockell, Baskets, 
pp. 29 32; Cockell, Vauxhall Cross, pl. 1:34. For 
c. 1755 Staffordshire creamware and salt-glazed 
stoneware examples and piercing outlines from 
molds, see Grigsby, Weldon, ries. 127a -127b. 
 
2. Ray, Tiles, pl. 35, nos. 349 and 350. 
 
3. flollstein, Eichings, no. 42. 
 
4. Ray, De animalia, pp. 802-810, 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 217 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D193. BOWL 
Dublin, Ireland 
Probably David Davis and Co. 
or Henry Delamain 
c. 1749-1760 
 
H.: 2 3/8" (6 cm); 
Diam.: 6 1/2" (16.5 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff with 
scattered, small blow holes or cracks 
on exterior. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly transparent 
bluish white with occasional pitting 
Overall, excluding footrim edge. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown or shaped over mold, 
with pierced rim. Flat bottom with tall, 
nearly cylindrical footrim, tapering 
 
inward on interior wall Two holes 
pierced in footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted (trees possibly 
cut-sponged). Landscape with tree- 
covered mound, broken tree, and dis- 
tant walls or hedgerows. On interior, 
piercing outlined with crosshatched 
circles with dot-filled gaps; on exterior, 
outlined in dots. 
 
 
A number of pierced bowls in several sizes are of exactly the same shape

as this example and show the same decoration around their borders.1 They
all 
share very similarly painted landscape scenes, some with figures and buildings.

At least three of the bowls have on the underside within the footrim a crowned

harp and the painted word Dublin.' These vessels are said to have been pre-

sented to either the Duke of Dorset or to Lord George Sackville in Ireland
about 
1753. The date recurs on a bowl with a landscape in the same style; the under-

side (within the footrim) is inscribed "Clay got over the Primate's
Coals-Dublin 
1753."3 
    In 1752 Captain Henry Delamain took over Dublin's only active pottery,
on 
the North Strand at "the World's End," from Davis and Company.
(After his 
death in 1757, Delamain's wife took over the factory, running it until 1760.)
It 
is known that Davis made "fruit baskets" and that a Mrs. Delaney
purchased a 
dozen of them for a friend in 1750. If, as seems likely, pierced bowls can
be iden- 
tified as fruit baskets, it is possible that the Longridge example and those
like 
it may have been made by both Davis and Delamain (see no. D192).4 
 
 
1. For examples, see Archer and Hickey, 
Irish Delftware, nos. 25 27; Austin, Delft, 
nos. 371-372. For a plate with similar 
decoration and pseudo-Chinese mark, 
see Archer, V&A, pl. 152, no. B.238. 
2. Museum of Ireland, Collection, pp. 24-25. 
3. Archer and Hickey, Irish Delftware, 
p. 38, no. 5 (British Museum collection). 
4. Archer, V&A, no. B.238, p. 568; Archer 
comments 11998). Mr. Archer is responsi- 
ble for much of the information included 
in this entry. 
 
 
218 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
DELTWAE Dining and Related Wares 
DELFWAREOther 
 
 
H.: 11/4"(3.2 cm); 
Diam.: 14 3/4" (37.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall. 
SHAPE: Molded or shaped on the 
 
 
wheel and pierced. Smoothly concave 
 
 
reverse. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers and 
 
 
dot clusters. Border composed of trellis 
band with five floral reserves. 
 
 
Ex call. L. L. Lipski (printed sticker "L_ L. L / 
CollectionlNo." with "1102' written in blue). 
 
 
  Che October 24, 1770, inventory of Lord Botetourt's personal property at
the 
 
Governor's Palace in Williamsburg, Virginia, records "6 round &
6 oval fish 
strainers" among ceramics in the "Servant's Hall."' Williamsburg
archaeologi- 
cal sites have yielded fragments of pierced delft strainers. Such pieces
were 
inserted into compatibly shaped dishes. (One fish-bordered, circular dish
with 
an attached, pierced, shallow-domed top forms a possible visual parallel.)
Delft 
drainers or strainers of this type were a mid-eighteenth-century innovation
atnd 
occur in a wide variety of painted patterns and shapes; circular, oval, and
cham- 
fered rectangular ones are most common (see nos. D195, D196).' Creamware

and other pale earthenware versions are fiattopped, rather than domed, and

were made well into the nineteenth century.' Like delftware ones, they have

large, central holes, presumably used when lifting the unit from a dish.
(It has 
been suggested that some delftware examples were inserted into punch bowls

to convert them to flower containers,5 but there is little solid evidence
for such 
usage, and it is likely that the inserts would have shifted during the insertion

of flowers.) 
 
 
1, Hood, Governor's Palace, p. 293,; see p. 290 tfbr 
"4 tin fish strainers' in the first stire rooim; see 
p. 293 for "1 pewter fish Strainer" in the 
kitchen; see p. 301 lor a "Salad Dish and fish 
Strainer" among ceramics in the 'Housekeepers 
Room," in the June 26, 1776, inventory For 
Robert Eden, governor tof Maryland. For 
1750-1781 American refierences to fish drainers 
and fish strainers, see Archer, V&A, no. FE60. 
2. Atistin, Delit, p. 199 lfragments fronm 
Chiswell-Bticktrotit House, Donnegan and wind- 
mill sites}, no. 400. 
3. For otiher dlelttware examples, see Archer, 
V&A, nos. E60 V.65; Sotheby's (1,), lipski sale 121, 
November 17, 1981, lots 280-282, Lipski sale 131, 
Mairch 1, 1983, lot 538. 
4. For 16 examples. see Cotysh and lienrywood, 
P'rinted Pottery, pp. 49 391 passim. Such drain- 
ers were for serving bouilc'd tish aind probably 
meai and typically were made to fit 16" 140.6 
cm) or 18" 145.7 coil dishes (p. 1151. For George 
Washington's 1769 order for '2 largc' Fish drain- 
ers" in "ye most fashe kind of Qtieen's Ware 
[creanmwarcF'" and his 1770 order for '2 large 
Oival Fish strainers" in "F'ine Cream cold [warel," 
see Detweiler, Chinawasre, p, 204. 
5. Horne comments IJanuary 1998), citing 
Hfsorn, Tiles, nos. 365-366. 
 
 
I'. 
 
 
-a 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 219 
 
 
D194. DRAINER or STRAINER 
Probably Liverpool 
1750-1770 
 
 
Drainers or Strainers 
 
 
i 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
 
D195. DRAINER or STRAINER 
 
 
Drainers or Strainers 
 
 
Probably Liverpool 
1750-1770 
 
 
H.: 7/8" (2.2 cm); 
L.: 12" (30.5 cm); 
W.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall. 
SHAPE: Molded and pierced. Smoothly 
concave reverse. 
 
 
Although this and other drainers or strainers were intended to be fitted

into the large, low dishes that caught the juices of the fish (or other food)
served 
upon them, the drainers apparently were purchased separately. Several other

shallowly domed inserts in various shapes also depict species of fish; most
are 
painted in blue and white.' (For another dish associated with and depicting
fish, 
see no. D206.) One circular dish with an attached low-domed strainer or drainer

has small depictions of fish as a border.' 
 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Fish, 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. F60 (circular); Horne, 
Collection, pt. 5, no. 114 (oval); Fisher, St. Louis 
Collection, p. 629, fig. 7 (circular); Sotheby's (L), 
Lipski sale (3), March 1, 1983, lot 409 (circular); 
Britton, Bristol, no. 9.26 (chamfered rectangle), 
and no. 9.25, for a different type of strainer 
depicting fish. 
2. Austin, Delft, no. 400. 
 
 
220 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
P        A    Rr        NrobabyLondon orLiverpool* 
H.:I1 3/4" (4.4 cm); 
Diam.: 9 5/8"(24.4 cm)"                                       
                    /Q                                      l 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff.lp 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise-white., 
Overall.                                       I 
SHAPE: Molded or shaped on the                         £ 
wheel and pierced. Smoothly concave 
reverse. Possible (not clear) triangular" 
arrangement of peg marks on back 
DECORATION: Painted. "Banded                                       
                                              ! 
 
hedge" pattern with flowers and                                    
i 
insects. Borders composed of concen- 
tric circles.                                                           
                                 . 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                his drainer or strainer is
one of two Longridge collection pieces bearing 
                                                polychrome "banded hedges"
derived from Japanese (kakiemon) porcelain 
                                                designs. The other example,
a 1745 dated puzzle jug, is painted in a very differ- 
                                                ent style and shows the more
typical inclusion of birds (see no. D300). The 
                                                "banded hedge"
pattern shown here is very similar to that on a scallop-edged 
                                                punch bowl (or monteith?),
and both may have been painted by the same hand.' 
                                                "Banded hedge"
motifls also occur on English soft-paste porcelain (see no. D300) 
                                                and on some Continental porcelain
and tin-glazed earthenware./ 
 
                                                1. Ratkhanm, (,laisher. vol.
2, p1. 1241), no. 1674. 
                                                2, Wa~k ha, Meissein. nov.
96 57 (i. 1728 plates 
                                                wit 111whoei car" decoraior110:1
van l )am Geoda- 
                                                teerd lxelfis pp. 18 19 11719
dated dish), 4l 42 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 221 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
               Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE Other 
 
 
D197, D198. PICKLE or SWEET- 
 
MEAT DISHES 
 
(D197) Probably London 
 
c. 1755 
(D198) Probably London or Liverpool 
 
1750-1770 
 
 
(D197) H.: 4 7/8" (12.4 cm); 
 
L. (shell point-shell point): 71/4'(18.4 cm) 
 
(D198) H.: 3" (7.6 cm); 
 
L. (shell point-shell point): 7" (17.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
 
(D197) pinkish. 
 
TIN GLAZE: (D197) White, slightly 
 
transparent on raised areas. Overall, 
 
excluding bottoms of feet. (D198) Light 
 
turquoise, slightly transparent on raised 
 
areas. Overall, excluding portions of 
 
bottoms of feet. 
 
SHAPE: Press-molded, (D197) on prob- 
 
ably hand-formed core. (D197) Three 
 
flat-bottomed, conical feet. (D198) 
 
Three flat-bottomed, scallop-shell- 
 
shaped feet. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. (D197) Bowl 
 
interiors bear floral sprays and simple 
 
line borders. Dish exteriors bear "shell- 
 
edge" borders and lower shells with 
 
graduated-line filler ornament. Smaller 
 
shells also highlighted. (D198) Details of 
 
shell interiors and small shells. 
 
Ex coil.: (D198) Mr. and Mrs. W F Knauer, 
"Man Full of Trouble" Tavern. 
 
 
                                             Pickle and Sweetmeat Dishes

 
 
 
 
 
 
Although comparatively rare in English delftware, multishell pickle or 
sweetmeat dishes were made in large numbers in English soft-paste porcelain,

and it is extremely likely that most delftware examples were derived from

them.' (The most popular formats of such dishes included single shells; single-

level, three-shell clusters; and complex multilevel encrustacions.) Such
pieces 
reflected society's growing fascination with naturalistic subjects. Designs
were 
derived from metalwork, illustrations in scientific publications, and prints.

   The multilevel dish shown here (D197) is strikingly similar in shape and
size 
to a 1753 to 1766 Bow (London) soft-paste porcelain example-so much so that

the two examples conceivably could have been shaped in the same molds. (The

applied small shells are less similar in modeling.) The Bow shell sweetmeat
inte- 
riors depict Chinese landscapes in underglaze blue, and the ribbing of the

exteriors bears graduated-line motifs.' The Bonnin and Morris factory in

Philadelphia had close ties with Bow and in the early 1770s produced soft-paste

porcelain shell sweetmeats of the same general form., 
    No very close parallels to the second Longridge dish (D198) have been
iden- 
tified.' Among other delft examples are a few small, single-shell dishes
that 
probably are from Liverpool in the 1750s or 1760s and have Chinese pavilion-in-

landscape scenes on the interiors." A few large and elaborate delftware

centerpieces composed of multilevel shell clusters have been attributed to
the 
Delftfield factory in Glasgow, Scotland, or, sometimes, to Henry Delamain's

Dublin, Ireland, factory. 
 
 
D197   D197 
 
 
1. Adams and Redstone, Bow, col. pl. C. (opp. 
p. 64), p. 87, fig. 15, p. 129, figs. 53-54; Tait, Bow, 
pls. 187-192; Gabszewicz and Freeman, Bow, 
nos. 2 6, 15 16, 41 42; Austin, Chelsea, nos. 
7-10; Rice, Derby, nos. 37, 129; Bradley, Derby, 
no. 121; Spero, Worcester, nos. 57, 68 (col. pl. 
22); Handley, Collection, no. 2.3 (Worcester); 
Northern Ceramic Society, Liverpool, no. 61 
(Samuel Gilbody). William Littler at Longton 
Hall and at West Pans, near Edinburgh, also 
produced shell-shaped dishes. 
2. For a silver gilt salt and a matching Chelsea 
one, see Austin, Chelsea, no. 7. 
3. Adams and Redstone, Bow, p. 87, fig. 15. 
 
 
4. Levin, American Ceramics, p. 32, fig. 21 
(Brooklyn Museum collection); Adams and Red- 
stone, Bow, pp. 78 79. 
5. For a delft sauceboat supported on a shell 
resembling the three shells on the Longridge 
dish, see Home, Collection, pt. 9, no. 230. 
6. Austin, Delft, no. 387; Archer, V&A, no. G.12. 
For a 1683 dated shell dish, see Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1229 (also Archer, 
Rijksmuseum, no. 49), 
7. Archer, V&A, no. G.13; Kinghorn and Quail, 
Delftfield, p. 35, col. pl.; Home, Collection, pt. 1, 
no. 14. 
 
 
222 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D198 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1) 197 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1)198 
 
 
The Longri~dge Collection 223 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                                        
                 DE L FTWAR E Dining and Related Wares 
                                                                        
                                Other 
 
 
D199. PICKLE or SWEETMEAT                                               
                 Pickle and Sweetmeat Dishes 
DISH 
 
 
rroDaoiy Bristol 
Painted blue number"1" on bottom 
1720-1735 
 
H.: 1" (2.6 cm); L.: 5 3/8" (13.7 cm); 
W.: 3 3/8" (8.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, slightly 
transparent on raised areas (especially 
on exterior). Overall, excluding bottom. 
SHAPE: Press-molded. Flat bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowering 
vine with border of stripes and wavy 
lines highlighting fluting. Number 'T' on 
bottom, 
 
Published: Atkins, Exhibition (1993), no. 20. 
 
 
KLike spoon trays (see nos. D333, D334), a type of tea equipage, this dish
is 
small and oblong. Its walls are comparatively high, however, and may indicate

that the piece was intended to serve pickles or sweetmeats at the dining
table. 
Some dated delftware, primarily from the 1720s, displays related flowers
and 
leaves amid other motifs. The "feel" of the decoration on the Longridge
dish per- 
haps is most like that of a probably Bristol 1722 dated bird-and-flowers
plate 
that also shares with it a fluted rim painted in narrow, radiating panels.
(The 
rim also occurs on an undated Longridge plate with a Chinese scene [no. D1191

and on one with a flower-and-dot cluster pattern.)' The "1" on
the underside of 
the pickle or sweetmeat dish probably is a painter's mark. 
 
 
1. lipski and Archer, Dated Delltware, nos. 317 (1722 plate), 
1017, 1059, 1066-1067, 1070 1072, 1078, 1095. Britton, Bris- 
tol, no. 8.29 (flower-and-dot cluster plate). For related flowers 
and leaves on a Bristol polychrome dish, see Britton, Bristol, 
col. pl. pý 34, no. 13.8. 
 
 
224 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
DELF TWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
Pickle and Sweetmeat Dishes 
 
 
D200, D201. PICKLE or SWEET- 
 
MEAT DISHES 
 
 
(D200, both) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
L. (point to point, average): 5" (12.7 cm) 
 
(D201) H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
L.: 4 1/2" (11.4 cm) 
 
 
-*j 
 
 
Probably Liverpool 
1750-1770 
 
 
among grasses. Borders composed of 
bands of concentric lozenges and arcs 
with pendant ovals forming corners. 
 
(D201) Flowers with oval filler motifs. 
Border composed of concentric hearts, 
the outer one edged in scrolls with 
curvilinear elaborations. 
 
 
Ex coil.: Group Captain A. F Britton. 
 
 
D200 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, p. 4, citing Karen-M Walton, "An 
Inventory of 1710 from Dyrham Park," Furniture 
History 22 (1986): 91. 
2. For a delftware triangular dish with a differ- 
ent painted pattern, see Austin, Delft, no. 385, 
For salt-glazed dishes and molds for them, see 
Grigsby, Weldon, nos. 40-41: Mountford, Salt- 
glazed Stoneware, nos. 31, 104 105; see no, 193 
for a large, triangular tray with enameled play- 
ing cards; Christie's (NY), March 6, 1981, lot 68. 
3. Grigsby, Weldon, no. 40, citing Mountford, 
Thesis, app. 3. p. 64. 
 
 
4. For a salt-glazed stoneware dish, see the Colo- 
nial Williamsburg collection (no. 1967-667); 
Grigsby, Weldon, no. 41, citing Mountford, The- 
sis, app. 4, p. 16. 
5. For probably Liverpool examples, see Austin, 
Delft, nos. 389-390; Britton, Bristol, nos. 9.36 
9.39; Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 89. 
 
 
D)201 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 225 
 
 
The 1710 inventory of Dyrham Park in Gloucestershire includes, under the

"Deli" subheading of "Act. of the China etc.," a listing
for "Triangular blew and 
white Sawcers For Picldes."' Triangular and heart-shaped delftware dishes,
how- 
ever, are far outnumbered by Staffordshire salt-glazed stoneware examples

that, like the tin-glazed ones, were intended to hold pickles or sweetmeats.'

Thomas and John Wedgwood of the Big House factory in Burslem, Staffordshire,

probably were referring to lead-glazed earthenware versions in a 1764 account-

book entry for pieces sold to potter Humphrey Palmer: "6 Green Heart
Stand 9 
Green Triangular Stands 8d."' Hexagonal, one-piece salt-glazed dishes
with clus- 
ters of radiating, triangular wells may illustrate how sets of individual
triangles 
or hearts were arranged on the dining table. (Perhaps the "3 Doz Bundles
Heart 
3:0" sold in 1770 by the Wedgwoods were multiheart dishes.)4 Some wavy-edged,

probably Liverpool delftware dishes with clustered wells also illustrate
this 
idea.' 
 
 
I 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained pale 
 
buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, (D201) 
slightly transparent on exterior. Overall, 
 
excluding footrim edges. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. (D200) Shallow, flat- 
bottomed, triangular ridges form 
footrims. (D201) Shallow, flat-bottomed, 
 
heart-shaped ridge forms footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. (D200) Birds 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DE L F TW ARE Dining and Related Wares 
               D  Other 
 
 
D202. PICKLE or SWEETMEAT DISH 
Liverpool or possibly Dublin, Ireland 
If Dublin, Henry Delamain 
c. 1760 
 
H.: 11/2" (3.8 cm); 
Diam. (point to point): 8 1/2" (21.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, slightly 
transparent on raised areas. Overall, 
excluding footrim bottoms. 
SHAPE: Press-molded. All pieces flat- 
bottomed with shallow ridges echoing 
 
dish shapes forming footrims. 
DECORATION: Painted. Outer dish 
bears Chinese flower vase on table 
among flowering plants. Border com- 
posed of horizontal line with pendant 
foliate motifs and dots. Inner dishes 
bear floral vines and borders composed 
of crosshatched bands with scrolls and 
interconnected arcs. 
 
Ex coll.: K. Hammitt. 
 
 
Pickle and Sweetmeat Dishes 
 
 
his general type of piece-composed of a large dish nesting smaller ones-

typically bears Chinese export-porcelain-inspired floral motifs, sometimes
with 
large figural scenes ornamenting the trays.1 Liverpool appears to have manu-

factured the greater quantity, but some multipart dishes with numerical marks

(probably for decorators) have been associated with Ireland.2 This category
of 
dish also was made in other ceramics, and Josiah Wedgwood's 1774 Queen's

Ware catalog lists a "Large Dish, which contains five small pieces,
a, b, c, for 
Pickles of different kinds."3 A few delftware dishes that in outline
resemble the 
one shown here have basically similarly shaped wells joined to form a single

entity.' 
 
 
1. Differences in borders on the Longridge 
dishes may indicate that they are contempora- 
neous but were not made as a set. For related 
dishes, see Austin, Delft, no. 390 (figures in a 
garden); Garner, Lambeth, Bristol or Liverpool, 
pl. 83b (deer, somewhat like that on Longridge 
no. D142); Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, Pictorial 
History, pp. 246-247, no. 6; Sotheby's (NY), Octo- 
ber 20, 1993, lot 60; Britton, Bristol, no. 9.40 
(missing large tray). 
2. Peirce, Cocke Collection, no. 15, Liverpool or 
Irish dish with "2" mark; Archer and Hickey, 
Irish Delftware, no. 36, Irish dish with "8" or "S" 
mark. For a London one-part, multiwelled dish 
with a "6" mark, see Archer, V&A, no. G.10. 
 
 
3. Mankowitz, Wedgwood, p. 64. Also listed are 
"Pickle Stands of Different kinds." 
4. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 89. For 
multiwelled trays attributed to Lambeth, in part 
based on archaeology, see Garner, Lambeth, 
Bristol or Liverpool, pl. 83a. 
 
 
226 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D203. SAUCEBOAT 
Liverpool, London, or Bristol 
1750-1765 
 
H.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm); L.: 6 1/8" (15.6 cm); 
W.: 2 3/4" (7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, somewhat 
transparent over raised areas. Overall, 
excluding foot edge. 
SHAPE: Press-molded. Extruded handle 
with nearly flat interior, triple-ribbed 
exterior, and curled lower terminal. 
Foot (probably molded) smoothly flar- 
ing on interior wall. 
DECORATION: Painted. Exterior bears 
two similar landscapes with buildings, 
fence, and trees. Underside of lip bears 
panels of scales flanking scrollwork 
band. Interior bears central flower and 
border composed of band of solid tri- 
angles with triple-arc filler. 
 
Ex coal.: E. Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
Sauceboats and Other Dishes 
 
 
5auceboats appear to have been little used in England before about 1715.

Like examples in other ceramics, delftware sauceboats typically take their
form 
from metalwork examples.' By mid-century sauceboats could be ordered as 
part of a service. A 1763 invoice records a London purchase of Chinese export

porcelain for George Washington: 
 
 
1 Compleat sett Table China fine blue & white consisting of 
                                             £s. d. 
 
 
11 long dishes 
24 plates-12 soop plates 
1 Tureen Cov & Dish 
4 Sauce boats 4 salts 
 
 
122 
 
 
1 
 
 
1. Davis, Silver, no. 162. For delftware sauce- 
boats after metalwork designs, see Home, 
Collection, pt. 9, nos. 226, 230. 
2. Detweiler, Chinaware, p. 203. 
3. For a delft sauceboat with a somewhat similar 
foot and interior border, see Britton, Bristol, 
no. 9.11. 
4. For Bow with related motifs, see Gabszewicz 
and Freeman, Bow, nos. 111, 174. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 227 
 
 
   The painted scene on the boat shown here has much in common with Bris-

tol wares of the mid-century, but somewhat similar landscapes also are known

on London delft. The glaze is not unlike that found on some Liverpool delft.'
The 
interior flower and use of a scale diaper (under the lip) may derive from
soft- 
paste porcelain motifs. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D204. SAUCEBOAT 
 
Liverpool; Dublin, Ireland; or London 
 
1750-1765 
 
 
H.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm); 
 
L.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm); 
 
W. (with handles): 7 3/4" (19.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly transparent 
 
bluish white. Overall, excluding footrim 
 
 
bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Press-molded body and fox 
 
handles. Recessed bottom with low, 
 
 
oval footrim. 
 
DECORATION: Painted and sgraffito. 
 
Interior bears scene of flower vase and 
 
box on rock with chrysanthemum plant. 
 
Wall exterior bears flowers and foliage 
 
 
on sides; shoulder bordered by trellis- 
 
work. Pouring lips (interiors and 
 
exteriors) bear floral and scrollwork 
 
 
reserves. Handle spines bear featherlike 
 
fronds with flowers. 
 
 
1. Davis, Silver, no. 162 (1729/30 hall- 
mark); Ray, Warren, p. 173, no. 93. For 
Worcester porcelain, see Peirce, Cocke 
Collection, no. 161; Spero, Worcester, col. 
pl. 15, no. 42. 
2. Mountford, Salt-glazed Stoneware, 
pl. 131; Mountford, Thesis, vol. 2, crate 
book, p. 6 (September 20, 1770). 
3. For pastoral scenes, see Home, Collec- 
tion, pt. 8, no. 198 (also citing Chinese 
export sauceboats of similar shape from 
the Nanking cargo); Ray, Warren, pl. 48, 
no, 93. For a dock scene, see Sotheby's (I), 
Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, lot 143. For 
floral motifs, one with a bird, see Austin, 
Delft, nos. 381 382; Taggart, Burnap, 
no. 159; Archer, V&A, no. G.19; Rackham, 
Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 112F, no. 1546; 
Chorley collection, p. 183, no. 5 (see also 
Christie's [NY], Chorley sale, January 25, 
1993, lot 20). 
4. Archer and Hickey, Irish Delftware, 
no. 78. 
5. Britton, Bristol, nos. 6.30 6.31. 
 
 
The double-sauceboat form appears to have been introduced early in the 
1700s by Huguenot silversmiths and also was made in Dutch Delftware, Chinese

porcelain, and a variety of English ceramics., Burslem potters Thomas and
John 
Wedgwood's 1770 crate book includes entries for "6 larg two han1. Dyll
Sause 
boats land] 8 less Iditto] one handle ... 2 midle IDitto] two hande with
blew... 
4 less [Ditto]," probably in salt-glazed stoneware.' Delftware double
sauceboats 
resembling the Longridge one in body shape and handles bear a broad range
of 
painted decoration and typically are attributed to Liverpool. The sgraffito

leaves (unusual on the form) and flowers shown here, however, have much in

common with motifs on tin glaze attributed to Dublin.4 (Sgraffito ornament

also occurs on some London delftware.) The flower, rock, and vase motif seen

on the sauceboat interior is executed in similar and different styles on
two bottles.' 
 
 
228 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
 
D205. "TOY" CAULDRON 
London, Bristol, or Liverpool 
1710-1730 
 
 
H,: 2 1/4"(5.7 cm); 
Diam.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained medium 
buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Somewhat matte bluish 
white with pitting and, on interior, 
wrinkles. Small poorly adhered patches 
 
 
on bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Rolled handles of cir- 
cular section. Three small, nearly 
conical feet. 
DECORATION: Painted. Central vine 
composed of scrolls with graduated- 
line leaves. Borders composed of 
stylized foliage and horizontal lines. 
 
 
Sauceboots and Other Dishes 
 
 
  his tiny and unusual cauldron-shaped vessel may fit into the "toy"
category, 
based on the late seventeenth- and eighteenth-century use of the term for
small 
wares (in some cases miniaturized versions of larger ones), at least some
of 
which were purely ornamental. The pot's shape is derived from a type of cook-

ing vessel with feet that supported it among hot coals or embers. Two blue
and 
white pots similar in shape to the Longridge example are painted with (differ-

ent) chinoiserie flowers, and possibly a third similar piece was described
in a 
1960s sale catalog as a "miniature Lambeth cooking pot set on three
short feet 
and with loop handles painted with a Chinaman and flowers in underglaze-

blue."' A biscuit earthenware base showing tripod feet of similar shape
to those 
on the Longridge example was excavated in London.' 
 
 
1. Ai kins~, E xhibi Ilion (1994), no. 17 (It: 2 1/8" 
[5. (imil; Brit0on, Bristol, 1no. 4.12 (LI: 2 1/2" 
16.5 cmli); So heby's (Ij ),lGrinei sale, pt. 1, 
October 6, 1964, lot 147i (tt. 3 1 2" 8.9 cmli 
2. Stephenson coimments (September 1998). 
 
 
The Longr dge Collection 229 
 
 
d%/- [ LLdl blZk* 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWNARE Dining and Related Wares 
    DELFWAREother 
 
 
D206. CHAR DISH or CHAR POT 
 
 
Liverpool 
 
1760-1800 
 
 
H.: 13/4" (4.4 cm); 
 
Diam.: 91/4" (23.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Somewhat transparent 
 
bluish to turquoise white. Overall. 
SHAPE: Thrown. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Exterior 
 
bears five more or less evenly spaced, 
 
similar fish. 
 
 
Decorative enough to have been used at the table, this piece probably is

representative of dishes used to pot and ship char, a deep freshwater fish
native 
to the Lake District.' In 1698, Celia Fiennes sampled the famous potted char
of 
a Mrs. Rowlandson of the King's Arms, Kendall, and recorded that the fish
was 
in season "between Michaelmas and Christmas.... they pott [them] with
sweet 
spices.... if they are in season their taste is very Rich and fat tho' not
so strong 
or clogging as the lampreys are." Elizabeth Raffeld's 1769 char recipe
instructs 
the cook to "lay them close into broad thin Pots for that purpose."'
Evidence for 
the use of such vessels in London at about this time includes a char dish
frag- 
ment from a circa 1770 deposit at the northwest side of Bedford Square that

probably formed part of a fill for road construction.' No delft char dishes
are 
known to predate the type shown here, and all of those in the group bear
poly- 
chrome fish motifs.' The shape and decorative motif continued in popularity

well into the 1800s; examples were produced in creamware and pearlware.1

 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. E56, citing Mayer's History 
of the Art oj Pottery (18501, which states that 
Zacharias Barnes of Liverpool "made large 
quantities of potting pots for Char, which 
were sent to the lakes." 
2. Britton, Bristol, no. 9.27; Archer, V&A, 
no. E56, citing C. Morris, ed., The Illustrated 
Journeys of Celia Fiennes (London, 1982), 
pp. 165 166. 
 
 
3. Bimson, 18th Century Deposit, p. 292, 
pl. 265. 
4. Austin, Delft, no. 404; Taggart, Burnap, 
no. 165; Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 
1981, lot 200; Britton, Bristol, no. 9.27; Archer, 
V&A, nos. F.56-E57; Sotheby's (NY), Koger sale, 
October 24, 1998, lots 1048, 1050 (the latter of 
unusually deep proportions). 
5. For three pearlware examples in graduated 
sizes, see Sotheby's (L), June 14, 1988, lot 354. 
 
 
230 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
Sauceboats and Other Dishes 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
  his salt is one of six known examples in English delftware; based on slight

 
differences in sizes, some of them may have been made in different molds.
All 
six salts bear painted shields of the City of London at the narrow ends,
leaving 
little doubt as to their place of origin. Unlike the Longridge example, the
others 
are painted in polychrome: some salts are in several colors and others are
paint- 
ed only in yellow and blue.2 
    The shape of this and the closely related salts is thought to derive
from Ital- 
ian maiolica examples, perhaps themselves after early metalwork examples.:
No 
exact matches for the vessel shape have been identified yet,4 but scrolled
floral 
motifs (different in details) inside the wells of some of the English salts
do have 
fairly close counterparts on sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century Italian
tin 
glaze.5 The flowers in the well of one of the potychrome English salts are
much 
like those on a 1633 dated Longridge fecundity dish (no. D1), and flowers
in 
another of the salts resemble those on a fuddling cup in this collection
(no. D292) 
and a 1639 dated bottle.6 The stylized flower on the Longridge salt has multi-

lobed leaves and cross-hatching of the stems like some on one of the othcr
salts 
and another fuddling cup. (Unlike the salt shown here, however, both of the
lat- 
ter vessels' flowers have spiraled tendrils.)7 The edge motifs on the tops
of the 
salts also differ; some have a row of interlocking scrolls and others, sets
of 
straight or wavy lines with or without dots. 
 
 
1. In that reference, the height is misrecorded as 
4 118' 111.5 cm). 
2. Archer. V&A. no. G.I: Hobson, Btritish Muse- 
sins, no. E.~ (misrecorded as BIrisitol Museum in 
Arc her, V&A, no. G.1l; Rackham, (laisher, vol. 1, 
nos. 1418 1419; (hiristie's IL), October 14. 1985, 
lot 8. 
 
 
3. Archer, V&A, no. C.I Horne, Collection, 
pt. 19, no, 552. 
 
 
4. See Norman. Waullace C'ollection. p. 272, 
no. C 136, for au mid-16th-ccntuuy Llrbino rectan- 
gsulaur salt with focur lison's paw feset andI (painted) 
acanthusiseaif corners aind classiccal scenes. 
 
 
5. Compare Archer, V&A, no, G.1, with Norman, 
Wallace Collection, p. 125, no. C 55 (1534 dated 
dish hack), and Vydrova, Italian Majolica. no. 50 
lFaensza costrel, c. 16001. 
6. Conspare Chrustiu's 11.1, October 14, 1985, lot 8 
(salt) with the 1633 dish (ino, Dt). (For reference 
is) a 1635 1640 lecsndity dish with related flow- 
ers in the National Trust collection at T'he Vyne 
in I lampshire, see' Arc her, V&A, no. G.1). 
 
 
7. For comparable flowers, some with spiral-ten- 
dlriled motifs, see Archer, V&A, nos. Ci. Isalt), 
11.3 (fu~ddlung cup), longridge tuddling cup 
(no. 1)292); 1,ipski and Archer, Date'd IDelftware, 
nos, 1255 (1639 dauted bottle). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 231 
 
 
I 
 
 
Southwark0 London 
 
 
H.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); 
 
 
of feet. 
 
 
solidly colored. 
 
 
D207. SALT 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D ELF TWA RE Dining and Related Wares 
              D  Other 
 
 
Salts, Casters, and ajar 
 
 
D208. "SCROLL" or "CURLES" 
 
SALT 
 
 
London 
 
Dated 1675 
 
 
H.: 4 1/2" (11.4 cm); Diam.: 5" (12.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff with small inclusions. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
wide band edging underside of base. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Scrolled, double-roal 
 
handles. 
DECORATION: Painted, Inscribed 
"A'W/1675" with asterisks within scroll, 
 
flower, and graduated V border. Scrolls 
 
(three-dimensional) bear line and dot 
 
detailing. Base band composed of 
 
flowers and butterflies bordered by 
 
horizontal lines. 
 
Published.- Tilley, Master-Saotr Morley-Fletcher 
and Mcllroy, Pictorial History, p. 248, no. 3; 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1538. 
Britton, Pickleherring, p. 87 fig. 7 
Ex coils.: Woodcock and (collateral) 
Wetherell families for several generations 
(see Tilley, Master-Salt, p. 80); T G. Burn, 
Rous Lench. 
 
1. Penzer, Scroll Salts, p. 48; p, 49, fig. 1, for a 
London silver 1638/9 "pulley" salt ("F.C." marked) 
resembling the Longridge delftware one in 
shape. Davis, Silver, nos. 145-146. Belden, 
Festive Iradition, p. 45, citing Holme, "vol. 2, 
hk. 3, ch. 14, fig. 2, p. 1; fig. 19, p. 5"; pp. 46 47, 
figs. 2:5, 2:6, for 17th-century Continental depic- 
tions of salts supporting dishes. 
2. Britton, Pickleherring, pp. 68 70, 72, 74 75, 
77-78. Britton, Inventories, p. 64, states there 
are totals of 1,921 delfi salts and 48 stoneware 
salts in the Pickleherring inventory. 
3. Stephenson comnments (September 1998), 
citing Rotherhithe fragments; Bloice, Norfolk 
House, pp. 124, 126, fig. 54, nos. 67 68, 74 
(Norfolk 1House). For Pickleherring, see Noel 
Hume, London and Virginia, p. 67, fig. 6, no. 14, 
p. 69: Museum of London, Excavations, p. 312, 
fig. 132, nos. 1289-1291 (Mark Brown's Wharf 
site). For another London-excavated example, 
see Britton, London, no. 44. 
4. Hobson, British Museum, p. 130, nos. F7. 
E6; and for ai three-scrolled bleu persan salt with 
white dots, pl. 11, no. E8. 
5. Noel Hume, ILondon and Virginia, p. 70, n. 13 
(aames City County); Unearthing New England's 
Past, no. 320 (Boston example); Austin, Delft, 
p. 19, fig. 17 (New Haven, Plymouth, and 
New Hlampshire examples). 
6. Stephenson comments (September 1998); 
Pearce comments (September 1998). 
 
 
M etalwork salts predate delftware versions, and among the earliest 
references to the form are Margaret Urwin of Royston's complaint in 1630

regarding the lack of hallmarks on her "Scroll Salt" and a 1632
record for 
Thomas Borne's bequest to the Barber-Surgeons Company of finds for com- 
missioning "a faire Salt white [silver], with scroules of the new fashion
bought 
and his name ingraven theron." A 1662 entry in Pepys's diaiy describes
a met- 
alwork salt with eagles' heads (instead of scrolls) "to bear up a dish,"
and Randle 
Holme's 1688 Academy of Heraldry states that salts were used "to set
another dish 
upon ... to make the feast look full and noble as if there were two tables
or one 
dish above another."' By the 1660s three-scrolled metalwork salts had
given way 
to four-scrolled types, but in delftware three appendages consistently were
the 
preference. 
   The 1699 probate inventory of John Robins, manager of the Pickleherring

Quay factory, includes (typically listed by the dozen) 375 "small Curies
[or curld] 
salts," "midle curles salts," and "large curld salts."
The "curles" likely refer to 
appendages like those topping the example shown here. (Shapes are not iden-

tified for the salts listed as "new," "small," "white
plain," "midle," "midle plain," 
"plain," "painted," or with no description. Four dozen
stoneware salts also are 
 
listed.)' 
    Flat-rimmed salts are known from several production site excavations:
bis- 
cuit wasters were excavated at Platform Wharf in Rotherhithe; probably 
flattopped salt wasters, one with scrolls, were excavated at Norfolk House
in 
Lambeth; and flattopped and wavy-edged salts were unearthed at Pickleherring

(see no. D209)." Flat-rimmed scroll salts were unearthed from consumer
sites "in 
the Savoy," and one was uncovered when "building the new schools
at Oxford."' 
    Delftware scroll salts also made their way to the colonies. Fragments
were 
excavated at the Joseph Pettit site (c. 1690 context) in James City County,

Virginia, and at the Bostonian Hotel site in Boston, Massachusetts. Others

surviving aboveground have histories of early ownership in New Haven, 
Connecticut, as well as Plymouth, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. 
    The example shown here is the only recorded dated "scroll"
or "curles" salt. 
Its floral and insect decoration, derived from Ming Transitional porcelain

motifs, associates it with other dated pieces in this collection: a 1669
mug, a 
1673 armorial dish, a 1674 posset pot with the London Merchant Taylors' 
Company arms, and (undated) a "fecundity" dish and vase (nos. D240,
D84, 
D275, D3, D365). Similarly inspired decoration also is found on a 1682 cup
with 
the London Watermen and Lightermen's arms (no. D244). (For related 
floral ornament on delftware, see no. D275.) The flower, scroll, and graduated
V 
motif on the salt's flange also occurs on delftware excavated in London,
and the 
shape of the piece corresponds to fragments unearthed at Platform Wharf in

Rotherhithe.5 Other factories also produced delftware salts in the period
(see no. 
D209). 
 
 
232 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Actual size 
 
 
I 
 
 
The Longridge Cotlection 233 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D209. "SCROLL" or "CURLES" 
SALT 
London 
1660-1680 
 
H.: 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); Diam.: 5 3/8" (13.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Pinkish buff with 
inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly grayish white. 
Overall, excluding portion of underside 
of base. 
SHAPE: Thrown with ruffled (wavy) 
edge. Rolled and applied scrolls. 
DECORATION: Wavy edge and scrolls. 
 
Published- Garner and Archer, Delftware, 
pl 271; Garner Delftware, pl. 8A. 
Ex coils.: F H. Garner (no. 338); E. Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
DEL FTWARE Dining and Related Wares 
              LOther 
 
Salts, Casters, and a jar 
 
 
The origins and usage of "scroll" or "curles" salts are
discussed in some depth 
in the previous entry (no. D208). Delftware salts of the kind shown here
have 
been excavated at several London sites, including Mark Brown's Wharf (yielding

waste from the Pickleherring complex) in Southwark, where two wavy-rimmed

salts made without scrolls were found as well as flat-rimmed examples., Exca-

vated bases and scrolls from salts that no longer retain the upper dishes
were 
found at Norfolk House in Lambeth.2 (Some excavated bases and scrolls of
this 
general type may be from delftware flower containers [for a slipware version,

see no. S93] or other vessels.) 
 
 
1. Museum of London, Excavations, pp. 310-312, 
fig. 132, nos. 1289-1291. For a wavy-edged scroll 
salt not from an excavation, see Belden, Festive 
Tradition, p. 45, fig. 2:4 (Winterthur collection). 
2. Bloice, Norfolk House, pp. 124, 126, fig. 54, 
nos. 67 68, 74. For a salt(?) base excavated at the 
Bostonian Hotel, Boston, Massachusetts, see 
Unearthing New England's Past, no. 320. 
 
 
234 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                                        
                               Dining and Related Wares 
                                                                        
                 DEL FTWARE Other 
 
 
D210. SALT(?)                                                           
                 Salts, Casters, and a Jar 
Probably London 
I f,'n~_l fOn 
 
 
H.: 3 1/4" (8.3 cm); 
Diam. (body): 31/4" (8.3 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 3 3/4" (9.5 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained 
dark buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish to turquoise 
white. Overall, excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Rolled handle. Center 
of bottom roughly conical; bottom 
quite rough in texture. 
DECORATION: Painted. Winged 
angel's head. Handle bears radiating 
slashes on upper surface. Foot bordered 
by horizontal lines. 
 
Ex coils.: A. Faulds; T G. Burn, Roos Lench. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
Although this small vessel displays a winged angel's head, a motif 
typically peculiar to apothecary wares, the pot's form-a handled bowl on
a tall, 
flaring foot-is not matched by known vessels intended for medicinal uses.
It 
has more in common with standing salts (see no. D208, dated 1675) used at
the 
dinner table.' Tall waisted-cone feet also appear on wet drug jars, several
of 
them with "angel" motifs, and on nozzled and scroll-handled flower
containers. 
Some salts and flower containers also have broad and narrow horizontal stripes

on portions of the bases." Winged angels' heads typically are less geometricized

in style than the one shown here, and they occur on apothecary wares with

dates from 1660 to 1722 (see also nos. D398-D400), with the vast majority
pre- 
dating 1700.' 
 
 
 
1. Britton, ILondon, no. 44, c. 1675 white scroll  3. Grigsby, Chipstone,
nos. 71 (salt); 76 (vase). 
salt found in london. Horne speculates that  4. Lipskt and Archer, Dated
Delftware 
perhaps the angel indicates this vessel was used 
                                          nos. 1599-1667 passinm. 
 as a stoop for holy water (Horne comments 
 IJanuary 19991). 
 2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delfltware, no. 1635 
 (dated 1674); Grigsby, Chipstone, nos. 95 96. 
 For a c. 1700 Loindon flower container, see 
 Archer, V&A, no. 1.2. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 235 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELF TWARE Dining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
 
D211, D212. SALTS 
 
London 
 
(D211) Dated 1676 
(D212) 1655-1680 
 
 
(Both) H.: 7 5/8" (19.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Pinkish buff. 
TIN GLAZE: (D211) Somewhat trans- 
 
parent white with medium crazing. 
Overall, excluding footrim edge. (D212) 
White with large, deep pits, especially 
 
on back. Overall, excluding footrim 
 
edge and under shoes. 
SHAPE: Molded. Concave bottoms, 
 
(D211) lacking firing hole (a small hole 
 
has been blown between the knees), 
(D212) with small central firing hole. 
DECORATION: Painted. Head and fab- 
rics of each seated man detailed. Salt 
dishes ornamented, (D211) dated 1676 
over paraph on dish with insect corners, 
 
(D212) with arabesque on dish bordered 
 
by parallel strokes and ovals. (D211) Bot- 
tom bears sketchily drawn insect. 
 
Published.- (D211) Lipski and Archer, Doted 
Delftware, col. p. 171, no. 1539 (D212) Charley 
collection, p. 783 pl. 3. 
Ex coils.: (D211) Patch; T G Burn, Rous Lench. 
(D212) F L. Dickson; J. and K. Chorley. 
 
 
                                             Salts, Casters, and ajar 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The dating of each of these two rare salts may seem surprising, but modeling

differences-notably that of the shoes-indicate that they may be as much as

twenty years apart in date of manufacture. The undated figure at the right

(D212) wears long, flat, square-toed shoes with flowerlike buckles similar
to 
those on a matching example, perhaps firom the same mold, holding a dish

dated 1657. The shoulders of that figure have attached candle sockets.' A
circa 
1680 Chinese figure-inlandscape plate, found placed on the pelvis and abdo-

men of the occupant of a coffin at Saint Martin Vintry (London), has border

elements relating to the arabesque in the dish of the undated salt shown
here. 
Apparently, it "was a custom to place a receptacle of salt on a corpse
in the belief 
that it prevented swelling or purging."' 
   At least two salts of basically the shape shown here are known in seventeenth-

century English delftware, and a circa 1600 Flemish tin-glazed one exemplifies

the type that must have inspired the later English imitations! Biscuit wasters

of several seated-man salts of a very different model were excavated at Hibernia

Wharf, Southwark (near Montague Close). They consist of a man who holds a

dish and is seated on a pillow with a dog's hindquarters at the back. More
dogs 
(or lions?) are near the man's feet. 
 
 
0211, U212 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. G.2. For an undated version, 
also with candle sockets, see Rackham, Glaisher, 
vol. 1, no. 14.21. With sockets, both are 8" 
(20.3 cm) tall. 
2 Britto'n Tondon  Q7  
 
 
150OLOM OI no. IIz I I    I .    , no.      . 
 
 
3. Both are undated, made without sockets, and 
in private collections (tbr one, see Some Pottery 
and Porcelain, p. 46, pl. 43a [Iiawes collectionl. 
4. Archer, V&A, no. G.2, fig. 42 (private collection). 
5. Stephenson comments (September 1998). 
 
 
236 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
J)211, I212 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                   1)211, 1)212     .... . ..         .. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 237 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWA RE Dining and Related Wares 
              Other 
 
Salts, Casters, and ajar 
 
 
D213. SALTS (PAIR) 
London 
c. 1720 
 
 
H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); Diam.: 3 1/4" (8.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Slightly chamfered 
lower edges. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
flowers and scrolls. Borders composed 
of stylized foliage, filled zigzags, and 
horizontal lines. 
 
 
The shape of this pair of salts was inspired by metalwork,' and the ornament

on them probably derives from that on Ming Transitional Chinese export porce-

lain (see no. D340). Flowers like those seen here, but without scrolls, occur
in 
the same colors in this collection on a covered sugar pot, possibly from
the 
Vauxhall Pottery in Lambeth (no. D340), and a pair of shoes (no. D363) with

crosshatched, zigzag borders. For somewhat less closely related flowers in
these 
colors on a 1722 dated shoe, see number D361. Crosshatched, zigzag borders
are 
found in blue and white with different flowers on other shoes, dated 1713

and 1718, and (with dots) on a 1710 to 1715 Duke of Ormonde dish (no. D41).

Related flowers with scrolled elaborations ornament a footed punch bowl dated

1714.2 
 
 
1. Horne notes that, unlike the earlier salts (see 
nos. D208, D209, D211, D212), the examples 
shown here are from a period when such dishes 
sometimes were produced in sets. Sets of four 
salts are not uncommon in metalwork (Horne 
comments [October 1998]). 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1725 1726 (shoes), 1054 (bowl). 
 
 
238 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D ELF TWA RE Dining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
 
D214. SALT 
Bristol or London 
c. 1725 
 
 
Salts, Casters, and ajar 
 
 
H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); Diam.: 3 1/2" (8.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
Overall, excluding where wiped clean 
under edge of foot. 
SHAPE: Thrown. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese birds, 
rocks, and flowering plants with, in top 
well, three interlaced fish. Borders 
composed of filled arcs, overlapping Vs, 
and horizontal lines. 
 
Ex coil.: E. Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
An approach similar to that used on this salt to depict colored birds and
flow- 
ers is apparent on an unusually large posset pot also in this collection
(no. D289). 
In its colors and shape the salt also has much in common with one displaying
flo- 
ral, rather than bird-on-rock, motifs.' The overlapping fish motif is painted
in blue 
and green on a delft dish(?) fragment excavated at Williamsburg, Virginia.'
The 
same fish motif also is found on a ceiling boss in Bristol Cathedral and
in small 
circular reserves on a (probably Bristol) punch bowl dated 1724.1 The upper
bor- 
der of this salt matches that of a small teapot painted in the same colors
with 
different birds, rocks, and flowers. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
1. Britton, Bristol, no. 9.24. 
2. Austin, Delft, p. 82, fragment from 
Orlando Jones House (no. 10CA.0092). 
3. Britton, Bristol, pp. 209-210, fig. 19, 
no. 13.1. 
4. Austin, Delft, col. pl. 6, no. 118. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 239 
 
  

					
				
				
 
               E  Dining and Related Wares 
DELFTWARE iOte 
               Other 
 
Salts, Cas ters, and a jar 
 
 
D215. CASTER 
 
 
London 
Dated "December 16 ... 1696" and 
"December the 16 Day" 
 
H.: 4 5/8" (11.7 cm); Diam.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown and pierced. Slightly 
concave bottom with large central hole. 
DECORATION: Painted and sgraffito. 
Upper panels include trelliswork, dot 
clusters, and one is inscribed (painted) 
"December 16" over (sgraffito) 
"EH/1696." Lower panel (continuous) 
 
depicts birds and flowers set against a 
ground of dot clusters and cross motifs. 
Unglazed bottom inscribed (painted) 
"December the 16 Day" with circles. 
 
 
his hitherto unpublished caster derives its decoration from Chinese porce-

lain and its shape from metalwork. (From Charles II's reign [1660-1685] on,

metalwork casters typically were made in sets of three.), The dense, dark
blue 
and the use of sgraffito decoration aid in attributing the delftware example
to 
London. Beside a 1700 dated caster, also in this collection (no. D216), there
is 
only one other recorded dated example-one from 1691 that is shaped like a

square tower.' Later delftware casters typically are of baluster shape? 
 
 
1. Davis, Silver, no. 152 (1685/6 London 
cylindrical caster), citing a 1689 order from 
Virginia for a London silver "Sett of Castors 
that is to say for Mustard, Pepper & Sugar." 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 1544. 
3. Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, 
lot 147; Archer and Hickey, Irish Delftware 
(Irish or French), no. 21. 
 
 
Bottom 
 
 
240 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEL F TWA RE Di.ning and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
 
D216. CASTER 
London or Bristol 
Dated 1700 
 
 
H.: 5" (12.7 cm); Diam: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained yellow-buff, 
 
TIN GLAZE: White, Overall, excluding 
 
chamfered lower edge and wide band 
around bottom. Glazed around hole in 
 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown and pierced. Shallow 
horizontal band at midheight. Slightly 
 
concave bottom with large central hole. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Birds and 
 
flowers set against ground with dot 
clusters, asterisks, and leaves. Inscribed 
 
"AW/1700." 
 
 
Salts, Casters, and a jar 
 
 
The combination of somewhat inelegantly painted, circular flowers, dot- 
cluster and asterisk grounds, and, often, trefoil leaves, derives from Chinese

porcelain motifs and was popular on English delftware from the late 1690s
into 
the 1730s. One version of the decoration appears within a bowl excavated
at 
Vauxhall; others occur on further fragments found in London and Bristol.2
Sim- 
ilar motifs also are painted on fragments excavated at Williamsburg, Virginia?

 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1545. 
Ex coils,: F H. Garner, C. S. Moreton. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 242 
(1704 dated plate); Britton, Bristol, nos. 9.32, 
10.36 Oar, 1711 dated bowl); Ray, Warren, 
pls. 72a, c, no. 141 (1728 dated bowl); Austin, 
Delft, no. 601 (vase); Sotheby's (I,). l~ipski sale (2), 
November 17, 1981, lots 252, 344-345 (posset 
pot, jars). 
 
 
2. Cockell, Vauxhall Cross, pl. 128b; Archer, 
V&A, no. D.17 (posset pot, London fragments 
found by Garner, and Bristol Museum fragments). 
For a possibly Dutch mtug, see Britton, Bristol, 
no, 6.8. 
3. Austin, Delft, no. 601. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 241 
 
 
Salts, Casters, and a Jar 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEL F TWARE IDining and Related Wares 
               Other 
 
Salts, Casters, and a lor 
 
 
D217. JAR 
Bristol or London 
1700-1725 
 
 
H.: 8 1/2" (21.6 cm); Diam.: 6 3/4" (17.1 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white. 
Overall, excluding bottom edges of lid 
and footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Rolled and scrolled 
handles. Lower portion of lid has inner 
rim fitting within upper edge of jar 
body. Footrim of medium width. 
DECORATION: Painted. Repeats of 
similar birds on rocks with flowering 
plants on either side. Lid bears flowering 
plants and, on finial, concentric circles. 
Borders composed of horizontal lines 
and, on lid, concentric circles. Handles 
bear diagonal slashes. 
 
Published: Garner and Archer, Delftware, 
pi. 55C, Garner, Delftware, pl. 36A. 
Ex colls.: P Glover; E, Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1546 1549 (dated): Grigsby, Chipstone, 
no. 75; Austin, Delft, nos. 406-408; Archer, 
V&A, nos, G.7-G.9; Archer and Morgan, 
China Dishes, col. pl. 1, nos. 31, 39, 44 45; 
Ray, Warren, pls. 64, 66, 67, nos. 128, 130, 
132 Britton, Bristol, nos. 9.31 9.32, 13.22; 
Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, 
lots 61, 78 79; Lipski sale (2), November 17, 
1981, lots 344-346. 
2. Britton, Bristol, no. 13.18. 
 
 
p 
 
 
St is likely that jars of this type were used to store a variety of materials,

perhaps ranging from spices for food to powders used at the dressing table.
The 
lids that survive for those vessels have specialized, double rims, perhaps
to make 
them more secure or seal tightly. Vessels of this general type include 1690s

versions with squat, ogee-shaped bodies on high pedestal bases; early 
eighteenth-century ones resembling the Longridge one in form; and examples

from the same period with somewhat taller proportions to the lower portion
of 
the belly. The two opposing handles normally are in the form of scrolls that
are 
drawn out horizontally. Decoration typically imitates Chinese porcelain motifs,

especially flowers, birds, and rocks; humans are depicted less often.' The
2 on the 
bottom of one polychrome bird-on-rocks-with-flowers example may indicate

that it was produced in Bristol or Brislington.2 The bird, leaves, asterisk
motif, 
and palette on the jar shown here have parallels on a Longridge mug (no.
D255) 
attributed to Bristol or London. 
 
 
242 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
				
				
 
D218, D219. WINE BOTTLES 
Southwark, London 
Probably Pickleherring 
Dated 1628 
 
(Both) H.: 7 318" (18.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5" (12.7 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 5/8" (14.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff, 
(D218) pinkish. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
lower edges (some running of glaze) 
and (D219) bottom; (D218) bottom bears 
some glaze splashes. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Pulled handles, flat on 
interiors, rounded on exteriors, with 
tapering lower terminals, each having 
thumb-sized depression. Slightly 
concave, rough-textured bottoms with 
flattened edges. 
DECORATION: Painted. Primary deco- 
ration includes bird-on-rock, insect, 
flowering plant, and flying bird motifs. 
Borders composed of scrolls, trellis- 
work, dots, and straight lines. Dated 1628 
(D219 running in glaze) under handles. 
 
Published: (D218) Archer and Morgan, China 
Dishes, no. 4; Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1253. (D219) Grigsby, Dated 
Longridge Delftware and Slipwore, p. 877 pl. 2 
Ex coil.: (D218) B, and M Morgan. 
 
 
DELFTWARE IBeverage Wares 
 
Bottles and a Cistern 
 
 
A 1628 dated bottle, which matches the examples shown here in shape and 
several floral, bird-on-rock, insect, and border motifs, was caught as it
fell from 
the ceiling during the London Underground's recent excavation of a tunnel

forming part of the new Jubilee Line extension (Westminster to London Bridge).

The bottle joins other 1628 dated examples, including those shown here, in

being among the earliest of dated English delftware. (Very differently orna-

mented bottles roughly of this shape were made in some numbers into the 
1670s; the latest dated example is from 1719 [no. D2291.)2 
   This type of "bird-on-rock" motif derives from ornament on late
Ming porce- 
lain, much of it associated with the reign of Emperor Wanli (1573-1619).
The 
motif occurs on several English delftware shapes (see nos. D232-D234, D272,

D292), some with dates from 1628 to 1651, and on early seventeenth-century

Dutch tin-glazed kraakporselein.: Much early bird-on-rock delftware is attributed

to Christian Wilhelm, who in 1604 leased a property in Pickleherring, 
Southwark. Dates on baluster-shaped bottles like those shown here predate

Wilhelm's demise (1630). In 1604 he is recorded as making smalt (ground cobalt

oxide glass, used as a pigment), and potters are known to have joined the
fac- 
tory in 1616 and 1618.1 Wilhelm's January 22, 1627/8, petition for renewal
of his 
smalt monopoly states that he had employed workers in "Gallipottmaking
[i.e., 
tin-glazed earthenware]" for sixteen years (which he increased to twenty
in his 
July 1628 warrant for a fourteen-year patent).' A patent was granted and

allowed him the: 
 
 
       sole makinge of all such gallyware and other ware as heretofore 
       he hath been accustomed to make (himselfe beinge the inventor 
       thereof within this Kingdome) .... And all kinde or sortis] of bot-

       tell[s] of all Colo[rs] basons & ewers saltls] dishes of all sortis]

       drinkinge pott[s] pavinge tyles Apothecaries & Comfittmakers 
       pott[s] of all sortis] & all kinde of earthen worke. 
 
 
Wilhelm also was permitted to search locations suspected to hold wares made

in infringement of the patent.6 
    Some shapes ornamented similarly to the Longridge bottles bear dates
dur- 
ing the 1630 to 1645 managership of Pickleherring by Wilhelm's son-in-law,

Thomas Townsend, and at least one in the group was made under Townsend's

successor (c. 1645-1684), Richard Newnham.1 A dish or bowl fragment with

bird-on-rock ornament much like that found at the Pickleherring site was
exca- 
vated in Lee Hall, Virginia, and related floral motifs occur on Dutch fragments

excavated at Fort Orange, New York.' 
    The English delftware bottle form is known in Northern European salt-

 glazed stoneware, but the shape seems not to have been made there in 
 tin-glazed earthenware. Bottles of this type probably were used to decant
and 
 serve liquor, rather than to store it, which typically took place in casks.

 Although some bottles may have had tied-on covers, there is evidence of
corks 
 being used to seal bottles as early as 1605.1 
 
 
244 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
! 
 
  

					
				
				
 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1250 1252 (dated bird-on-rock bottles); 
nos. 1254-1502 (other dated bottles). For an 
undated bird-on-rock bottle, see Grigsby, Chip- 
stone, no. 23. 
 
 
discussion of the factory, see Briton, London, 
pp. 34-:36. 
 
 
9. Archer, V&A, p. 266. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE lBeverage Wares 
 
Bottles and a Cistern 
 
 
D220. WINE BOTTLE 
London, probably Southwark 
Dated 1640(?) 
 
 
H.: 6" (15.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with open crazing. 
Overall, excluding bottom and edge 
 
of foot. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Pulled handle, flat on 
interior, rounded on exterior, with 
tapering lower terminal. Very slightly 
concave bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Dog(?) in 
laurel wreath topped by inscription 
"DDA/1640[?]" (running in glaze). Also 
 
inscribed "WHEN THIS YOV SE [wreath] 
REMEMBER ME." 
 
Published: Howard, Lambeth, app. p. 8, pl. 2: 
Howard, Drug Jars, pl. 21, no. 76. 
Exhibited: Loan Exhibition of Drinking Vessels, 
Vintners Hall, June 1933 (Catalog, pl 19C). 
Ex coils.: G. E. Howard. Taylor. T G. Burn, 
Rous Lench. 
 
 
N o other bottle with decoration of this type-an animal centered within a

wreath-has yet been found. The doglike creature presumably is symbolic of
the 
family referred to by the uppermost initial, D. (The lower initials probably
refer 
to the first names of a husband and wife.) The inscription "WHEN THIS
YOV SE 
REMEMBER ME" was very popular and reappears 150 years later as part
of a 
longer sentiment on a dated slipware puzzle jug in this collection (no. S89).'
See 
that entry fbr further discussion of the phrase. Biscuit delftware bottles
of this 
shape (see also nos. D221-D223) have been excavated at Platform Wharf, 
Rotherhithe, in Southwark.' The Rotherhithe factory was active from around

1636 to around 1663.' 
 
 
1. For a 1774 dated delft tea canister with a 
related rhyme, see Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1528. 
2. Stephenson comments (September 1998). 
3. Archer, V&A, p. 561. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
III 
 
 
D E L F T W A R E {Beverage Wares 
 
 
D221. WINE BOTTLE 
 
 
London, probably Southwark 
Dated 1642 
 
 
H.: 7 1/4" (18.4 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5" (12.7 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 1/2" (14 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with open crazing. 
Overall, excluding bottom and edge 
 
 
of foot. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Pulled handle, flat- 
 
 
tened on interior and exterior, with 
tapering lower terminal having some- 
what angular depression. Sl'ightly 
concave bottom, flattened near (chami 
fered) outer edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Cartouche 
 
 
The grotesque cartouche, with figures derived from ornament on Italian 
maiolica, is unusual on English delftware and predates most scroll-and-foliate

types (see nos. D78, D235, D237). A closely comparable but multicolored car-

touche ornaments one 1641 dated bottle inscribed "RSE'E and "RENISH
WINE."' 
This beverage from the Rhineland was drunk for pleasure or for medicinal

reasons: the 1607 Englishman's Doctor informs us that "New Rhennish-wine
stirs 
vrine [urine]," and a posset recipe in the 1669 Closet of the Eminently
Learned Sir 
Kenelme Digbie, Kt. Opened includes Rhenish wine among other ingredients.'
The 
Longridge bottle may also have been intended for this type of wine, but other

alcoholic drink names, such as sack, white ("WHIT") wine, and claret
occur on 
more or less contemporary examples (see nos. D226-D228). 
 
 
formed of grotesques and loop motif. 
Inscribed "RPM/1642" over flourish. 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no, 1272. 
Ex coils,: C J. Lomax; Blyth; T G. Burn, 
Rous Lench. 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1270 
(British Museum collection, no. E.18). The ini- 
tials are misrecorded as "ISE" in Hodgkin and 
Hodgkin, Dated Pottery, no. 235. 
2. "Rhenish," Oxtord English Dictionary, vol. 8, 
p. 625; Charleston, English Glass, p. 119. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 247 
 
 
Bottles and a Cistern 
 
 
I II 
 
 
I I I 
 
 
T 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE lBeverage Wares 
 
Bottles and a Cistern 
 
 
D222. WINE BOTTLE 
 
London, probably Southwark 
Dated 1644 
 
 
H.: 6" (15.2 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pinkish buff, 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Pulled handle, flat on 
 
interior, rounded on exterior, with 
tapering lower terminal having some- 
 
what angular depression. Slightly 
 
concave, rough-textured bottom with 
 
chamfered edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Crown over 
inscription "CR/Wh:WINE/1644." 
 
Published: Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, p. 879, pl. 6. 
 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1351, 1391, 1368. 
2. Ibid., nos. 1355, 1365, 1276, 1279, 1305 
lalso Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 24). 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1501; 
Hodgkin and Hodgkin, Dated Pottery, no. 411 
(British Museum collection). 
 
 
F\ather than indicating ownership in royal households, the inclusion of 
crowns (with or without royal initials) on delftware bottles probably demon-

strated support for the monarchy. The bottle shown here is one of at least
eight 
with crowns and dates from Charles I's reign (1625-1649; see Time Line, p.
10). 
The 1644 date places it during the Civil War (begun in 1642) and predates

Charles's confinement (1646) and eventual beheading (1649). The bottle is
the 
earliest of three generally similar examples: one is dated 1648, and the
other is 
inscribed "CLARET/1649." (For somewhat similar "CR" initials
on a portrait dish 
and a 1664 dated apothecary tile, see nos. D15, D410.) One 1649 crown-over-

"CR" bottle is quite different in painting style,' and crowns surmount
the words 
"SACK" and "CLARET" on 1648 dated bottles without "CR"
initials. Bottles dated 
1642, 1643, and 1645 show crowns centered on the beverage names "WHIT

WINE" or "SACK" (see nos. D226-D228)." The second-latest
dated bottles of this 
type (for latest, see no. D229) is a 1676 dated crown-over-"CR"
example manufac- 
tured during Charles II's reign (1660-1685; see also Time Line, pp. 12-13,
and 
no. D225). Also from this period is an undated bottle with metal mounts and

the inscription "SACK/C[crownjR2.',, 
 
 
248 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D223. WINE BOTTLE 
 
London, probably Southwark 
 
Dated 1650 
 
 
H.: 7 3/4" (19.7 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 5 1/4" (13.3 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 5 3/8" (13.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained 
 
dark buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Grayish white, of slightly 
orange-peel texture with crazing. 
 
Overall, excluding lower edge and 
 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Pulled handle, round- 
 
ed on interior, concave on exterior, 
 
with pointed lower terminal. Slightly 
 
concave bottom with chamfered edge. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Inscribed 
 
"IOHN*TOMES" in panel under 
 
"WHIT/ 1650." 
 
 
Published: Howard, Lambeth, opp, p 8, pl. 2; 
Howard, Drug Jars, pl. 21, no. 75; Lipski and 
Archer, Doted Delftware, no. 1417; Stretton, 
Rous Lench, p. 40, fig. 1; Davis, Scepter and 
Spit, p. 680, fig, 2; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, p. 879, pl. 6. 
Exhibited: Loan Exhibition of Drinking 
Vessels, Vintners Hall, June 1933 (Catalog, 
pl. 198); Charles II Loan Exhibition, January 
1932 (Catalog, no. 724). 
Ex coils.: G. E. Howard; Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain; T G. Burn, 
Rous Lench. 
 
 
This bottle long has been associated with John Tomes of Long Marston, who

is credited with disguising Charles II as a servant in his kitchen to hide
him 
from Cromwell's men after the 1651 Battle of Worcester (see the Boscobel
Oak 
incident discussed under nos. D43, D44).i Following the battle, Jane Lane

(d. 1689), a member of the Tomes family, is said to have aided Charles by

disguising him as her manservant and having him accompany her first to the

Long Marston home of a Mr. "Tombs" and then on to Sherbourne, from
whence 
Charles escaped to France. (A royalist and Baptist divine named John Tombes

11603-16761, not associated with the events following Worcester, was appoint-

ed in 1654 as one of Cromwell's "triers.")' The inscription "Whit"
(i.e., white 
wine; see no. D226) on the bottle identifies the beverage intended to be
con- 
tained in it., 
 
 
1. Howard, Lambeth, p. 7. 
2. "Sir John Tonies," National Biography. vol. 19, 
p. 933, states 1Lane was a member of the Tomes 
family. In the entry on "Jane Lane" (ibid., vol. 11, 
pp. 515 516), Tiimbs is identified as a Lane 
family friend. See also "John Tomnbs," ibid., 
vol. 19, pp. 929-930. 
3. See Archer, V&A, pp. 266-267, for bottles 
probably used [br carrying wine f'oim storage 
casks to the table. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 249 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D224. WINE BOTTLE 
 
 
London 
Dated 1650 
 
 
H.: 6 3/8" (16.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 7/8" (12.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5" (12.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, more thinly 
applied in interior, with crazing. Overall, 
excluding bottom and portions of 
lower edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Pulled handle, flat on 
 
 
interior, rounded on exterior, with 
tapering lower terminal. Slightly con- 
cave bottom (outer portion somewhat 
flattened) with chamfered edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Arms of the 
London Worshipful Company of Parish 
Clerks. Dated 1650 above arms and 
inscribed "THOMAS WIBRON" over 
 
 
'SI 
 
 
paraphs. 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Doted Delft 
ware, no, 1396; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, pp. 880 887, pl. 11. 
 
 
The armorial bearings (granted 1582) of the Worshipful Company of Parish

Clerks as they are shown on this bottle lack the motto "Unitas societatis
stabilitas."' 
Thomas Wibron may have commissioned the painting of the London Parish 
Clerks' arms on this bottle to celebrate his becoming a freeman of the company

or to commemorate some other important event. Among the few delftware 
pieces displaying the same arms is a 1649 dated molded dish with an elaborate

land- and seascape border.' For unknown reasons, dates on other delftware

bottles with company arms also are very close to those on the Longridge bottle:

a pair of Grocers' Company arms bottles are dated 1649, and one is from 1652;

a Pewterers' Company arms bottle is dated 1650, as is one showing the Cooks'

Company arms? (For other delftware bearing company arms, see nos. D83-D85,

D238, D242, D244, D245, D275, D310, D394, D395, D411.) 
 
 
1. Bromley, Guilds of London, col. pl. 40 (arms), 
and, for discussion of the company, pp. 189-192. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 97; 
see no. 1777 for the arms on a 1644 dated 
17th century ointment pot thought to have 
been decorated much later. 
3. Ibid., nos. 1370, 1370A, 1394, 1395, 1447. 
 
 
250 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D22r. WINE BOTTLE 
London, probably Southwark 
Probably 1660 
 
H.: 6 1/4" (15.9 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 3/4" (14.6); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 3/4" (14.6 cm) 
 
 
At least four bottles have decoration clearly referring to Charles II (see

Time Line, pp. 12-13); one, said to have been excavated in Northamptonshire,

is quite like the Longridge bottle in ornament and inscription but shows

Charles's head without the appropriate mustache and turned in the opposite

direction.' A generally similar portrait initialed "CR" ornaments
an elaborately 
painted puzzle jug. High military rank is symbolized by the figures' (outdated)

armor and batons. These features, rather than the usual coronation attirp
with 
 
 
the orb and scepter, and the fact that a crown hovers above Charles's head
on 
the bottles may indicate that the vessels were made after he was declared
king 
(1660) but before his coronation (1661)i On one "CR2" inscribed
porringer, 
Charles is in armor, holds a sword, and, this time, wears his crown. (Compara-

ble in shape to 1660s dated examples, the porringer may have been made soon

after the coronation.), The king again appears in three-quarter length wearing

a crown and armor and, this time, holding a staff on a "caudle cup"
inscribed 
"CHARLES The 2D)."' Also associated with Charles II's monarchy
are two other 
bottles; one with metalwork mounts is inscribed "SACK" and "CR2"
and displays 
a large crown; on another a crown surmounts the inscription "CR/1676."'

 
1. Archer, V&A, no. E.12.              5. Winterthur collection, no.
1954.536, of a 
2. Rackhamn, (aisher, vol. 2, pl. 82A, no. 1327.  shape much like Longridge
nos. D241, D242. 
        2. Rackg~inanlaisoerinoli 2tedl.otteryono1417; 
          Homecoment (Spteber199JLpsk and Archer, Da.ed I.ltae . 0.. 150..

 
 
3. Horne comments (September 1998),             6. Hodgkin and Htodgkin,
Dated Pottery, no. 411; 
                                Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1501.

4. Archer, V&A, no. E.12, citing a piece in the 
Detroit Institute of Arts collection. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 251 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D226, D227, D228. WINE BOTTLES 
London, probably Southwark 
(D226) Dated 1647 
(D227) Dated 1660 
(D228) Dated 1650 
 
(D226) H.: 6 3/8" (16.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 5/8" (11.7 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 4 3/4" (12.1 cm) 
(D227) H.: 4 1/2" (11.4 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3" (7.6 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 31/2" (8.9 cm) 
(D228) H.: 7 3/8" (18.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 5/8" (14.3 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 7/8" (14.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: (D226, D228) Fine-grained 
and (D227) medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: (D226) White, slightly 
transparent. (D227) Greenish white. 
(D228) White, with open crazing. (All) 
Overall, excluding bottoms. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Pulled handles, 
(D226) flat on interior, rounded on exte- 
rior, (D227) rounded on interior and 
exterior, (D228) rounded on interior, 
concave on exterior, (All) With tapering 
lower terminals. Slightly concave bot- 
toms. 
DECORATION: Painted. (D226) 
Inscribed "WHIT/1647" over flourish. 
(D227) Inscribed "SACK/1660" and 
(D228) "CLARET/1650" over paraphs. 
 
Published. Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, (D226) noa 1342, (D228) no. 1425, 
Ex cails.: (D226) SirJ. Evans; S. Miner; (D228) 
T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Bottles and a Cistern 
 
 
[Delftware bottles left in the white or decorated with alcoholic beverage

names and dates over flourishes or paraphs are much more common than more

elaborately ornamented examples. (By the 1670s, the fashion for delft bottles

seems virtually to have died out, as glass bottle production had increased

dramatically.) The dates of the vessels shown here indicate they were made
in 
Southwark, where factories were active at Montague Close, Pickleherring,
and 
Rotherhithe, or perhaps at the Hermitage factory at Wapping (also London).

   "WHIT" on the 1647 bottle (D226) refers to white wine (see also
nos. D222, 
D223) and is among the most common names found on vessels of this type. It

appears first on 1641 dated examples-one is inscribed simply "WHIT"
and others, 
"WHIT WINE"-and the latest dated "WHIT" bottle may be
one from 1658.' 
"CLARET" (D228) is less common than "WHIT" or "SACK"
and appears on dated 
examples from 1640 to 1662. By around 1600 the term was used to refer to
red 
wines in general. 
   "SACK," seen on the unusually small and latest dated example
shown here 
(D227), is the most common beverage name on bottles of this type, leading
to 
the inappropriate use of sack bottle as a term for many otherwise inscribed

examples. In the 1600s sack referred to any in a group of wines, including
sher- 
ry-sack, rumney-sack, Malaga-sack, Palm-sack, Canary-sack, and Madeira-sack.

Several of these names indicate a Southern European origin for the wines.
This 
hypothesis is supported in the English Housewife (1623), where Markham writes,

"Your best Sacks are of Seres in Spaine, your smaller of Galicia and
Portugal; 
your strong Sacks are of the Ilands of the Canaries, and of Malligo."'4
Sack some- 
times was included in recipes: a 1663 entry in Samuel Pepys's diary mentions
a 
supper at which he served "a good sack-posset and cold meat and sent
my 
guests away about 10 a-clock at night." (Sack-posset also was recommended
for 
grooms on their wedding nights!)' The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir
Kenelme 
Digbie, IK. Opened (1669) states: 
 
 
      My Lady Middlefex makes Syllabubs for little Glaffes ... 
      Take 3 pints offweet Cream, one of quick white whine (or Rhenifh) 
      and a good wine glafsful ... of Sack: mingle with them about three

      quarters of a pound of fine Sugar in Powder. Beat all thefe together

      with a whisk, till all appeareth converted into froth. Then pour it

      into your little Syllabub glaffes, and let them ftand all night. The

      next day the Curd will be thick and firm above.' 
 
 
   As well as being served at entertainments, sack had medicinal uses. In
his 
Account of the London Plague in 1665, Dr. Nathaniel Hodges states, "Gratitude
oblig- 
es me to do Justice to the vertues of Sack, as it deservedly is ranked amongst
the 
principal Anitidotes, whether it be drank by it self or impregnated with
Worm- 
wood, Angelica &c .... and it is certainly true that during the late
fatal Times, 
both the infected and the well found vast Benefit from it."'7 
 
 
D226, D227, D228 
 
 
252 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
   John Greene of the London Company of Glass Sellers enclosed scale draw-

 
ings in a 1668 order for drinking glasses to be made by Venetian glassmaker

 
Allesio Morelli. Presumably reflecting consumers' preferences, the beer glasses

 
were to be slightly larger than the claret glasses ("for French wines"),
which in 
 
turn were slightly larger than the sack glasses ("for Spanish wines").
The grad- 
 
uation of sizes for such drinking vessels is borne out in a 1677 tariff list
for 
 
English glass made by George Ravenscroft. 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, pp. 560 561. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1266 1269, 1481. 
 
3. Ibid., nos. 1261 1492 passim: Archer, V&A, 
p. 266, nos. E.8. E.10. F.13. 
 
4. 1ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, p. 307, 
lor further historical remarks. Grigsby, Chip- 
stone, no. 24: Archer, V&A, pp. 266 267. 
 
5. Pepys, Diary, January 13 15, 1663, vol. 4, 
p. 14: McKearin, Vessels, pp. 58, 63 n. 22. 
 
 
6. "Sir Kenelm Digby" (1603 1665), National 
Biography, vol. 5, pp. 965 971. Digby was an 
"author. naval comnmander, and diplomatist." 
See McKearin, Vessels, p. 65, citingThe Closel. 
 
7. Lothian, Apothecary Vessels, p. 2, citing 
Nathaniel Hlodges, Lot tologit (london, 1720). 
 
8. Charleston, Ernglish Glass, pp. 104 105, 116. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 253 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D229. WINE BOTTLE 
Probably London 
Blue stroke (possibly a number 1") 
on bottom 
Dated 1719 
 
H.: 8" (20.3 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 5/8" (14.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
portion of bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Original handle was 
pulled and probably had a tapering 
lower terminal. (Now with modern 
handle and neck.) Concave bottom, 
flattened near edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Inscribed 
"WILLIAM HOLLIS OF SCRWBY./1719." 
Bottom bears single stroke (possibly a 
number "1") at center. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Bottles and a Cistern 
 
 
This appears to be the latest of all the dated single-handled delftware wine

bottles, postdating the next latest by forty-three years.' The Longridge
bottle dif- 
fers in profile from the earlier dated pieces, which tend to have proportionally

smaller, typically waisted bases and a smoother transition from the body
to the 
neck. Nothing is known of the William Hollis who ordered this bottle. "SCRWBY"

may be a misspelling of or abbreviated name for the town where he lived (for

examples, Scawby, in Lincolnshire, and Shrewsbury, in Shropshire)).' 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1502. 
Ex coll.: Lord Revelstoke. 
 
 
Detail of bhottom 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Daied Delftware, no. 1501 
(1676 bottle inscribed "CR" under a crown). 
2. Ibid., no. 1502. 
 
 
254 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Mare delftware "mallet-shaped" bottles, including this one, take
their form 
from glass versions. Two delft bottles of this shape bear European landscapes

and figures and have grape clusters at the rims, which would seem to support

a connection with wine.' Some of the other mallet-shaped examples bear differ-

ent landscape scenes, some with figures or flowers., Conceivably, Norfolk,

Virginia, shopkeepers Balfour and Barraud may have been referring to bottles
of 
this shape in their advertisement for "delf bottles" in the July
25, 1766, issue of 
the Virgiwa Gazette. 
 
 
1. (rigsby, Chipstone, no, 26. For one paired 
(perhaps inappropriatel y since the 1940s with a 
bowl of a type uIsually associated with hygienic 
use, see Britton. Bristol, col, pl. p. 40, 
nos. 18.8 18.9 (see also Austin, D)elf, no. 585). 
U sually bottles with wash basins are haluster 
rather than "wine-bottle" shaped (see Archer, 
V&A, p. 274, fig, 351. 
 
 
2. Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, 
lot 135: Howard, r)rug Jars, pl. 22, no. 84. 
Austin, I)elf, no. 585; Archer, V&A, no, F.20; 
Britton, Bristol, no. 6,26. 
 
 
 
             The Longridge Coliection 255 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D231. CISTERN 
London or perhaps Liverpool 
1710-1730 
 
H.: 121/8" (30.8 cm); 
Diam. (body): 9 1/2" (24.1 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 10 3/8" (26.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
Overall, excluding where wiped away 
unevenly on bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handles possibly cut 
from thrown cylinder. Molded satyr's 
mask pierced for (pewter) spigot. 
Slightly concave bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
figures, building, and fences in land- 
scape with flowering plants. Upper 
borders composed of floral panels and 
scrollwork. Lower border composed of 
scrollwork and horizontal lines. Handles 
bear foliate panels. 
 
 
                                          DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
                                          Bottles and a Cistern 
 
 
 
 
 
 No other tin-glazed earthenware cistern of this particular form or decora-

 tion has yet been identified, but several other English examples are known
in 
 other forms and with other motifs. The recorded dated cisterns are much
earlier 
 than the Longridge example: a columned, rectangular one with mythological

 scenes is from 1638; flat-backed cisterns with rounded or chamfered fronts
are 
 from 1641 (with flowers, foliage, and abstract motifs); and one with "CR"
ini- 
 tials, a crown, and a bird-on-rock motif is from 1644.' All three dated
vessels 
 have different molded lion's masks pierced to receive spigots. 
   At least three undated eighteenth-century delftware cisterns are balus-

troidal with flat backs. A 1715 to 1725 example with red A and incised 14
marks 
has polychrome Chinese flower and bird motifs and a relief, horned mask with

a hole for a spigot closely resembling the one on the Longridge cistern.'
Second 
in the group is a circa 1725 blue and white cistern with different birds
and flow- 
ers and a simple, raised ring around the spigot hole.' Floral panels differing

from the Longridge type in design form the upper border on the body of the
ves- 
sel. The third delftware cistern, probably dating to the 1750s, depicts landscapes

with fountains and a bridge and is painted in a style attributable to David
Davis 
or Henry Delamain of Dublin.4 A shell, rather than a mask, is pierced for
a spig- 
ot.4 (A relief shell also was used on at least one 1790 to 1800 Yorkshire

creamware cistern of flat-backed baluster form.), 
   Certain features of the Longridge cistern's decoration resemble some on
a 
large, covered wassail bowl inscribed "THOMAS BOOTLE/ESQUIRE MEMBER/OF

PARLIAMENT/FOR L1VERPOOLE/1724."" Both vessels display similar
shades of 
blue, some of it speckled, and somewhat similar heavy scrolls (compare the

cistern base and the bottom edge of one bowl lid). Both also bear Chinese
land- 
scapes and scroll-and-flower border panels. In the Longridge collection,
floral 
panels occur on a probably London mug, a 1716 dated plaque, and a 1727 dated

porringer (nos. D259, D421, D184). The plaque and a pair of shoes (no. D364)

have flowers and foliage resembling those in the cistern's primary scene.

 
 
256 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T WARE Beverage Wares 
 
Bottles and a Cistern 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1509-1511; Austin, IDelft, no. 715. 
 
2. Christie's (1), November 2, 1998, lot 58. For a 
pair of shoes in this collection painted in the same 
palette (with the addition of yellow) and with the 
same tipper border pattern, see no. D363. 
 
3. Hotrne, Collection, pt. 12, no. 331. 
 
4. Archer, V&A, no. 1.23, also citing two "from 
the same mould and by the same hand or work- 
shop." 
 
 
5. For creamware "water-cisterns," see Walton, 
Temple Newsam, nos. 560 564. 
 
6. Poole, English Pottery, no. 19, and Rackham, 
Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 127, no. 1716. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 257 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D232, D233. MUGS 
Southwark, London 
Probably Pickleherring 
(D232) Dated 1630 
(D233) Dated 1635 
 
(D232) H.: 4 7/8" (12.4 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 5/8" (9.2 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 4 7/8" (12.4 cm) 
(D233) H.: 51/2" (14 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 1/8" (10.5 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 1/2" (14 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: (D232) Fine-grained pale 
buff. (D233) Fine-grained pinkish buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with brown speck- 
ling. Overall, excluding lower edges 
(worn on D233) and bottoms. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with raised ribs near 
rims. Pulled handles, rounded on inte- 
rior, more angular on exteriors, with 
pointed lower terminals. Slightly 
concave bottoms. 
DECORATION: Painted. Birds- 
on-rocks with flowering plants and 
insects. (D232) Dated "1630" below 
handle. (D233) Rim inscribed 
"EDMVND:PEIRSON:&:ELIZABETH:1635." 
Borders composed of horizontal lines 
and interlocking S-scrolls. 
 
Published: (D233) Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 715; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, p. 877 pl. 2. 
Ex coils.: (D233) A. E. Blake; T G. Burn, Rous 
Lench. 
 
 
                                            DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
                                            Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs,
and a Goblet 
 
 
 
 
 
 
These two mugs are among several early bird-on-rock-patterned delftware 
vessels (see also nos. D218, D219, D234, D272) that, based on their dates,
deco- 
ration, and archaeological material, are associated with Southwark's 
Pickleherring factory.' In profile, the earlier-dated mug (D232) resembles
one 
with bird-on-rock motifs and a band inscribed "MRS. MARY HOOPER 1629."
Two 
others are more like the 1635 mug (D233) in shape: one is inscribed 
"WILLIAM,AND,ELIZABETH,BVRGES;24TH AVGVST:1631"; the other bears
the 
inscription "IOHN:POT1EN:&:SVSANNA:1633," with the date repeated
beneath 
the handle.2 Another early ovoid mug, inscribed "1628 ELIZABETH BROCKLE-

HURST," has a speckled blue and purple ground rather than bird-on-rock

motifs.) 
 
 
1)404, 1)403 
 
 
258 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
m\)Dot s i ale, II~dlI (JURCY 3LIVIt lull I LIWdlhI), 
see Noel Hume, London and Virginia, pp. 67 68, 
fig. 6, no. 7. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 259 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D234. MUG 
 
 
Southwark, London 
 
Probably Pickleherring 
 
Dated 1630 or 1632                                  n shape, this unusually
tall mug h 
 
 
H.: 9 7/8" (25.1 cm);                             (such as some made
for the church) a 
 
Diam. (body): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm);             English) ,jug, dated 1632,
also is quite t 
 
Diam. (with handle): 5 3/4" (14.6 cm)       most notably having a less
pronoun 
                                                 wider border ornament.,
The decoratk 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff.             designs and relates to motifs
on severa 
 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly grayish white.          (see nos. D218, D219, D232-D234,
D27 
 
 
jveradi, excluuing majority oi bOttOmi 
and chamfered lower edge. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Pulled handle, slightly 
 
concave on interior, somewhat angular 
 
on exterior, with curled lower terminal. 
 
Slightly concave bottom with cham- 
 
fered exterior edge. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Birds-on- 
 
rocks, flying birds, and flowering plants. 
 
Dated "1630" or "1632" below handle. 
 
Borders composed of horizontal lines 
 
and bands of more or less diagonal 
 
lines with rows of dots. 
 
Published: Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, 
Pictorial History, pp. 250-251, no. 11; Lipski 
and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 709, 
Grigsby, Dated Longridge Delftware and 
Slipware, p. 87Z p1. 2. 
 
Ex coils.: P Brooks; private, England. 
 
 
1. Bedford, Delftware, p. 7, illustrates the jug, 
stating it is in the V&A collection, but the piece 
is not included in Archer, V&A. 
2. For a probably Dutch, tall, ovoid jug with 
somewhat similar bird-on-rock and border 
motifs, see Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 82B. 
 
 
260 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
as ap 
nd Cc 
all bu 
ced fc 
)n on 
1 cont 
2) an( 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
 
D235, D236. MUGS                                                        
                   Cups (Single Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
London, probably Southwark 
(D235) Dated 1653 
(D236) 1650-1660 
 
 
(D235) H.: 7 1/2" (19.1 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 5 3/4" (14.6 cm) 
 
(D236) H.: 7" (17.8 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 5 5/8" (14.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: (D235)Medium-grained 
 
buff, (D236) Fine-grained pinkish buff 
with red inclusions. 
 
TIN GLAZE: (D235) Slightly grayish 
 
white with open crazing. (D236) White 
 
with patches of gray to brown speck- 
ling, open crazing on exterior, finer 
 
crazing on interior. (Both) Overall, 
excluding majority of bottoms. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown, (D236) with throwing 
rings very pronounced on interior. 
 
(Both) Handles rounded on interiors, 
 
concave on exteriors, (D235) with rolled 
 
lower terminal. (D235) Slightly concave 
bottom, flattened at edge; (D236) 
recessed and flat bottom with flat 
 
footrim and pronounced turning rings. 
 
DECORATION: Relief (pushed out 
from interior) and (D235) painted. 
 
(D235) Nine and (D236) ten vertical rows 
of five bosses. (D235) Inscribed 
"GBW/J653 [1653]" in masked and 
 
crowned cartouche. 
 
Published: (D235) Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, pp. 880-881, pl. 9 
Ex coll.: (D235) Sixth Marquess of Bute. 
 
 
These mugs and a posset pot (no. D274) in this collection exemplify "bossed"

English delftware, on which the relief ornament was pushed out by the potter's

fingertips. The attribution to Southwark for the group is aided by dates
of the 
1653 mug (D235) and a cylindrical posset pot inscribed "KG/1651"
in a 
cartouche as well as excavation at the Pickleherring site of biscuit fragments
of 
bumpy-sided, cylindrical mugs.' (Glazed fragments of such mugs also are known

from London consumer sites.)' Stylistic resemblances appear between the 
cartouches on the Longridge mug (D235), the 1651 posset pot, another from

1653, a molded dish and mug dated 1654, a 1656 goblet or cup (no. D237),
a 
1658 jug,' and a 1664 plate (no. D78). 
    The second Longridge mug (D236) is more typical of bossed delftware in
that 
 it is unpainted. Several basically similar examples are known,' and variations

 include a mug with a horizontal relief band at midheight around the body
and 
 one with a twisted handle. Among other bossed, white delftware shapes are

 candlesticks and an urn, the last with twisted handles.6 
 
 
1. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 85B, no. 1319 
(posset pot). Stephenson comments (September 
1998), regarding fragments. 
2. Pearce comments (September 1998). 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 892, 
971 (posset pot, jug); Britton, London, no. 64 
(dish); Phillips (L), March 12, 1997, lot 247 (mug). 
 
 
4. Walton, temple Newsaln, no. 11; Britton, Lon- 
don, no. 63; Sotheby's (L), July 12, 1983, lot 112. 
5. Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, 
lot 11; Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 1283. 
6. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 13; 
Fisher, St. Louis Collection, p. 627, fig. 1; Garner 
and Archer, Delftware, pl 29A; Sotheby's (L), LIip- 
ski sale (1), March 10, 1981, lot 12. 
 
 
262 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 263 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D237. GOBLET or "CUP" 
 
London, probably Southwark 
 
Possibly Pickleherring 
 
Dated 1656 
 
 
H.: 41/2" (11.4 cm); Diam.: 41/8" (10.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained pinkish 
 
buff 
 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightly transpar- 
 
ent and runny with gray to brown 
 
speckling and open crazing. Overall, 
 
excluding wide band around edge of 
 
bottom, 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Concave bottom, 
 
echoing shape of exterior profile. Stem 
 
hollow up to base of bowl. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Cartouche 
 
inscribed "MRI/1656.' 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 871; Stretton, Rous Lench, p. 40, fig. 2; 
Grigsby, Dated Longridge Delftware and 
Slipware, pp. 880-881, pl. 9 
 
Ex coils.: T M. Ragg; T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Stephenson comments (September 1998). 
See Thompson, Grew, and Schofield, Aldgate 
Excavations, pp. 56-57, fig. 26, nos. 122 -123, fur 
delft bowl (floral decorated) and base fragments 
of goblets of a different shape, excavated in 
London at the Aldgate (consumer) site. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. C.8, citing fragments found 
by Garner. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 869-873. 
4. Austin, Delft, no. 82 (see also Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 872). 
5. See also Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 100, 740, 1565. 
 
 
                                             DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
                                             Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs,
and a Goblet 
 
 
 
 
 
  D 
  Discuit fragments of a goblet with a base and stem much like those of this

 
vessel were excavated at the Pickleherring site in Southwark.' (A biscuit
waster 
of a goblet of about this shape also was found in Lambeth but may be later
in 
date, as no delftware factory is known to have been active there until the

1670s.)4 The goblet shown here is one of five of about the same shape with
1650s 
dates. An example inscribed "HE THAT HATH THIS CUP IN HAND DRINKE UP

THE BEERE LET IT NOT STAND 1656" bears Coopers' arms and provides one
pe- 
riod title for the shape.4 (Wine and other strong liquors probably also were

served in such vessels.) The Longridge goblet also fits in a group of other
delft- 
ware shapes with similar decoration and dates of 1651 to 1664 (see nos. D78,

D235).5 
 
 
264 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I-L ttlL ý -ZI 
 
  

					
				
				
 
p 
 
 
D238. CUP 
Probably Southwark, London 
Dated 16517?] 
 
 
H.: 3 1/8"(7.9 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4"(10.2 cm);' 
Diam. (with handle): 5" (12.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with small poorly 
adhered patches. Overall, excluding 
much of bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle of oval 
section. Slightly concave bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Arms of the 
 
 
(London) Worshipful Company of 
Bakers. Inscribed "AMR' above and to 
left of arms. Dated "165[7?]" to right of 
arms. Also inscribed 
"DRINKE:VP:YOVR:DRI!N KE & 
SEE:MY:CONNY." Crouching rabbit on 
 
 
  his cup and two others--one dated 1645 and dedicated to "JOHN LARTH
MAN 
AND ROSE" and a 1669 dated example initialed "RSM" -bear versions
of the Lon- 
don Bakers' Company arms (granted 1590) and presumably belonged to freemen

of the company. The armorial bearings as they are shown on the Longridge
cup 
reduce the "arm descending (from a cloud) cuffed" to a hand and
omit the official 
flanking anchors. The crest and two bucks that should act as supporters also
are 
left off, as is the motto "Praise God for All."'2 (The motto (differently
spelled) occurs 
only on the 1669 cup.) Based on their dates and London arms, the cups probably

were produced in Southwark. Like the example shown here, another Longridge

cup has unusual brushstrokes on the bottom (no. D239). 
    The latter portion of the inscription on the cup shown here descends
from 
medieval origins and, like the rabbit inside it, refers indelicately to a
portion of 
the female anatomy. The theme recurs on deift cups with rabbits inside and

bands inscribed "NO:MONEY:NO:CONNY.1657," "DRINCK VP YOVR
DRINI( AND 
SE MY CO[NIE," or "DRINKE AND SEE MY CONY"': 
 
 
bottom of interior. Bottom of exterior 
bears several swipes made with a 
narrow, blue-paint-filled brush (more 
 
 
likely from cleaning the brush than 
from creating a mark). 
 
 
Published: Hodgkin and Hodgkin, Dared 
Pottery, no. 294, Chorley collection, p. 182, 
p7. 2; Tilley, London Arms, pt. 3, p. 126. fig. 6: 
Jellinek, Animal Decoration. p, 85, Noel 
Hume, London and Virginia, p. .31, p7. 20; 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 737, 
Grigsby, Dated Longridge De'lftw are and 
Slipware, pp. 880-881, p1. 11I 
Ex calls.: A. Franks (1885),]. E. Hodgkin (1891), 
T. Binney; F A, Crisp;]. and K. Chorley 
(no. A 194). 
 
 
13 Austin, Delft, no. 80; Grigsby, C hipsione, 
no. 9. The laiiter discusses the term usaudhe isp, 
which is (often associated with this turi. 
2. Birimley. Gutilds of L~ondon, (ii] pl. 2 
larnssl, pp. 9-13: Tilley, london Arms. pt. 3. 
pp. 126 127 Austin, l)elfi, no. 80, staites 
the ainchiirless armss may relate to piissihly 
incorr ect ,arls in Stow's 11633 ed.) Siurviy 
iif Loiidi 
 
 
31. Archer. V&A, no. t.6. Sothehy's (NY), little 
sale, pt. 2, Octohei 21 22, 1994, lot 485, 
lellinek, Aninmal lDecorat ion, pp. 89586, 
fig. 6. For a related "coney" rhymie on a Viux- 
hall, silt-glazed, hrown stonewar e isug dated 
1724 withI a raibhit inside, see [torne, 
Stoneware, no. 40. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 265 
 
 
Actual size 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D239. CUP 
London 
Dated 1661 
 
H.: 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); 
Diam.: 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 7/8" (14.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with brown speck- 
ling and orange-peel texture. Overall, 
excluding lower edge and bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle flat on inte- 
rior, rounded on exterior Slightly 
concave bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Charles I/ in 
coronation garb and holding orb and 
scepter, all within an archway. Inscribed 
"CR2/1661." Bottom of exterior bears 
narrow, dark-paint-filled brushstrokes 
(more likely from cleaning the brush 
than from creating a mark). 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 753; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipwore, p. 879, pl. 6. 
Ex coils.: N. Thomos; J. P Kossebaum. 
 
 
                                                                        Actual
size 
 
 
Several Longridge delftware pieces portray Charles II in ceremonial attire

(nos. D8-D10, D296). The date on this cup is from early in Charles's reign

(1660-1685; see also Time Line, pp. 12-13) and commemorates the year of his

coronation. Similarly inspired portraits and arches ornament at least five
other 
more or less baluster-shaped cups (three dated 1661 and two 1662) and a cylin-

drical mug dated 1660.' (In these portraits, however, the medallions are
hung 
on ribbons rather than a chain.) Other types of portraits of Charles in ceremonial

attire on delft mugs bear dates from 1660 to 1679,2 and some versions portray

him in armor with a crown and holding a martial baton (see nos. D15, D225).1

Cups resembling the Longridge example in shape were unearthed at the Pick-

leherring factory site in Southwark.' For another Longridge cup with brush-

strokes on the bottom, see number D238. 
 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 750 
(1661), 755 756 (1662); Britton, london, nos. 72 
(1660), 73-74 (1661), col. pl. H. For comparable 
dated dish and jug portraits, see Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 38 42, 48, 973. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 749, 
760-761, 765, 774, 783; for an undated example, 
Archer, V&A, no. C.9. 
3. For Charles in armor on 1660 dated cups, see 
Lipski and Archer, Dated D)elftware, nos. 746- 
748; bor other views, Austin, Delft, no. 83; Brit- 
ton, London, nos. 75a-75b. 
4. Noel Hume, London and Virginia, pp. 66-68, 
fig. 6, nos. 1, 3. 
 
 
266 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The floral decoration on this important mug derives from motifs on Ming 
Transitional porcelain, available in the West from the 1620s. Closely related

floral motifs occur on a 1674 dated posset pot with London Drapers' Company

arms, a 1675 scroll salt, a 1682 caudle cup, and an undated "fecundity"
dish in 
this collection (no. D275, for further discussion of this type of ornament,
and 
nos. D208, D244, D3). The large butterfly appears on a posset pot with arms
of 
the Cooks' Company of London and a 1688 date.' The company arms support an

attribution of the group to London. 
   Surviving mugs with flaring feet, derived from metalwork, indicate the

feature was a popular one on delftware made into the eighteenth century.

Somewhat surprisingly, however, pots displaying this type of broadly flaring

foot are unknown among delftware from London archaeological sites. No other

dated delftware mug resembles the Longridge one in proportions, but a 1674

dated jug (no. D)297) displays a variation on its leafy border. 
 
1. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 841, no. 1445. 
2. See D)avis, Silver, no. 45, for 1650s two-handled 
London silver cups with bodies o 'approximnately 
this profit(. Archaeological re narks derived 
110i' Stephenson comments (September 1998); 
Pearce commnents ISeptebther 1998).                The Longridge Collection
267 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D241. CUP 
 
Probably London 
 
Dated 1673 
 
 
H.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 5/8" (11.7 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6" (15.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightly transpar- 
ent, somewhat unevenly applied, and 
with medium crazing. Overall, excluding 
 
majority of bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with rings quite 
pronounced on interior. Handle of near- 
 
ly oval section. Slightly concave 
 
bottom with edge irregularly (and pre- 
sumably unintentionally) folded under. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
figure with tipped vase(?) in landscape 
 
with mounds, trees, and buildings. 
Inscribed "lB" and dated 1673. Borders 
 
composed of band of horizontal and 
 
vertical lines. Handle bears series of 
 
V-shaped lines. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer. Dated 
Delftware, no. 772. 
Ex coil: T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Cups (Single -Handled), Mugs. and a Goblet 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
MD 
Lerhaps closest to this cup in its quirky approach to the painting of the

figures and in certain elements of the plants and landscape is a large blue
and 
white jug dated one year later and also in this collection (no. D297). 
Conceivably, both vessels could have been painted by a single decorator.
Waster 
cups of approximately this shape (but not with this ornament) were among

wasters excavated from the Pickleherring factory (Mark Brown's Wharf site)
in 
Southwark and from Norfolk House in Lambeth.' A similarly shaped mug in this

collection (no. D244) bears the arms of the London Watermen and Lightermen's

Company. 
 
 
1. Museum of London, 
Southwark and Lambeth, 
p. 310, fig. 131, nos. 1272- 
1273: Bloice, Norfolk 
House, p. 124, fig. 54, 
no. 61B. 
 
 
268 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                                        
                   D E L F T WAR e Be eage Wares 
 
D242. CUP                                                               
                   Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
London 
Dated 1674 
 
H.: 3 5/8" (9.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4" (10.2 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 5 3/8" (13.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White with medium to 
open crazing. Overall, excluding broad, 
 
irregular band around edge of bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle nearly flat 
on interior, convex on exterior. 
Concave bottom with narrow, flat edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Unidentified 
 
arms flanked by Chinese figures in land- 
 
scapes. Inscribed "NSAA" and dated 1674 
Handle bears vertical scroll band 
flanked by dot and dash motifs. 
 
Published. Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 775. 
Handwritten Sticker: Inscribed 
"76NSA 74/ Nicholas Spaoring ands/Abigail, 
(nee Martin) his wife,/married 28 ApI. 1657 
Parish/bk, St.Albans, Herts. Their/son, Moses 
married Jane Fountain. See Sparling/Elliott, 
and Atkins pedigrees/[in?] present owner/ 
Charles Edward/Atkins, Novr/1931." 
 
 
                                                                        Actual
size 
 
 
On this mug, the unidentified arms-presumably representing the owners' 
family or trade-include "a Chevron between three Hats each adorned with
three 
Feathers on the sinister side." It is not known to whom the arms belong,

whether the inscription on the handwritten sticker on the cup's underside
is 
correct, or what special occasion the date commemorates.' Mugs of approxi-

mately this shape were made from around 1655 through the 1680s (see nos.
D241, 
D243, D244) and often are called "caudle cups," but it is likely
that they were 
used for consuming a wide variety of alcoholic liquors.' Another 1674 dated

example shares with the cup shown here some landscape elements and a seat-

ed figure with an identical row of dots across the forehead and downcast
eyes.' 
Fragments of similarly shaped mugs have been excavated in London at 
Pickleherring (Mark Brown's Wharf site, Southwark) and Norfolk House (Lambeth)."

 
 
1. Blazon courtesy of S. d'O. Duckworth, Assis- 
tant to Portcullis Pursuivant, College of Arms. 
For material relating to the sticker inscription, 
see Lipski and Archer, i)ated Delftware, no. 775. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 733-791 passim; Archer, V&A, p. 240. 
 
 
:3. Britton, London, no. 77, and, (or another view, 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 773. 
4. Museum of London, Southwark and L ambeth, 
p. 310, fig. 131, nos. 1272-1273; Bloice, Norfolk 
House, p. 124, fig. 54, no. 611. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 269 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I 
 
 
LW #hJA 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
D243. CUP 
 
 
Probably London 
 
 
Dated 1676 
 
 
H.: 3 1/2" (8.9 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 3/4" (12.1 cm); 
 
 
Diam. (with handle): 5 7/8" (14.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained 
 
 
pinkish buff. 
 
 
he inscription on this cup identifies its owners, and, perhaps, its date
tells 
the year of the couple's marriage. Inscriptions with (often more elegantly

drawn) sets of graduated lines forming primary border motifs are found on

delft cups with dates from at least 1647 through 1676, the date on the example

shown here.' Related motifs also occur on dishes and other delftware vessels,

including two porringers dated 1673, in this collection (nos. D181, D182,
D174, 
D175, D391, D392). Similarly shaped mugs have been excavated among wasters

from Pickleherring (Mark Brown's Wharf site, Southwark) and at Norfolk House

(Lambeth). 
 
 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightly transpar 
 
 
ent with blue speckling. Overall, 
 
 
excluding portion of bottom. 
 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle of nearly oval 
 
 
section. Deeply concave bottom with 
 
 
flattened edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Inscribed 
 
 
1. 1ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 727, 729, 733, 739, 759; Britton, 
London, nos. 70 71. 
2. Museumr of London, Southwark and 
Lambheth, p. .310, fig. 131, nos. 1272 
1273; Bloice, Norfolk House, p. 124, 
fig. 54, no. 61B. 
 
 
"WILLIAM:CHIP:ELIZABETH:CHIP/1676." 
 
 
Borders composed of graduated lines. 
Handle bears single dot on shoulder. 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 780; Archer, Rijksmuseum, 
p. 25, no. 43. 
 
 
Ex coils.: Sinclair, T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
270 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D244. CUP 
London 
Dated 1682 
 
 
H.: 3 5/8" (9.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 3/4" (12.1 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6 1/8" (15.6 cm) 
 
 
-/4, 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff 
 
 
with dark inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with open 
 
 
crazing. Lower edge chipped when 
broken away from kiln after firing. Over 
all, excluding bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle nearly flat on 
interior, convex on exterior, with taper- 
ing lower terminal Concave bottom 
with somewhat flattened edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Arms of 
(London) Worshipful Company of 
Watermen and Lightermen flanked by 
flowering plants, Inscribed "IDA" and 
"1682." Handle bears horizontal slashes 
and ovals within linear borders. 
 
 
"iI 
 
 
Published: Garner, Delftware, pl. 33A; Garner 
and Archer, Delftware, pl 32A, p, 13, Lipski 
and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 789 
Ex calls.: F H. Garner, T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
pany arms mug, and a 1674 posset pot with Drapers' Company arms (no. D275)

show such mantling along with similarly inspired floral motifs.)' For variations

on this floral motif, see numbers D3, D208, D240, and D275 (including a fuller

discussion of the motifs). Wasters of cups of approximately this shape have
been 
excavated in London.' 
 
 
1. Bromrley, Guilds of"london. col. pl. 55, 
pp. 256-257. Lipski and Archer, D)ated Dl~eft- 
ware, nos. 195, 281, 660. 758, 784, 789, 811. 
1184, Archer, V&A, no. 13.17. For a c. 1707 
mug inscribed "lohn Giles Queenhithe" that 
depicts a fieriymatn and is linkable to the 
compatny via Giles's name, see Grtigsby, 
Chipsione, 0o) 12. 
2. Tilley, London Arms, pt. 2. p. 270. 
3. Austin, Ielef t, nos. 84, 13. 
4. For Matrk Brown's Wharf, see Musetum of 
 
 
Londton, Southwark and L ambeth, p. 310, fig. 
131, nos. 1272-1273. For Norfolk Hlouse, see 
Blokce, Norfolk H ouse, p. 124, fig. 54, no. 6111. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 271 
 
 
Actual 6-zf 
 
 
ýý_ra 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D245. MUG 
 
 
Probably London 
Dated 1684 
 
 
H.: 5 1/4" (13.3 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 3/8" (13.7 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6 5/8" (16.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Light turquoise with 
 
 
clusters of pits. Overall, excluding 
 
 
portion of bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with turned ribs. Han- 
dle convex on interior, slightly concave 
on exterior, with curled lower terminal 
Concave bottom with flat edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Arms of the 
Worshipful Company of Butchers 
 
 
(repaired at uppermost region of arms). 
Inscribed "IWM - and dated 1684. 
Handle bears series of lozenge-shaped 
scrolls. Exterior bottom bears "ID" 
 
 
showing faintly through glaze. 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 790. 
Ex coil.: Mr. and Mrs. R. Bilrington. 
 
 
[Dates from 1684 to 1749 appear on this mug, a plate in this collection,
and 
other delftware displaying Butchers' Company arms (see no. D85). The mug's

shape derives from metalwork and resembles those of two 1682 dated mugs:

one bears the London Watermen and Lightermen's arms; the other, depicting
a 
man and his horse in a landscape with a wagon, also resembles this one in
the 
styles of its date and "TW'" initials.' The prominent "IWM''
on the Longridge 
mug probably identifies a company member and his wife. The meaning of the

faint "ID" on the bottom remains unknown. Although this type of
flaring-footed 
shape is unknown among London-excavated delftware,2 the arms on this pot

and on the Watermen and Lightermen's arms mug indicate they were produced

in London. 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 784-785. 
2. Stephenson comments (September 1998); 
Pearce comments (September 1998). 
 
 
272 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I 
 
 
nt.ýMdl ýIZV 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                                        
                   DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
D246. MUG                                                               
                   Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
Probably London 
1689-1694 
 
 
H.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); 
Diam. (body): 31/2" (8.9 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 4 3/8" (11.1 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightlytranspar- 
ent with open crazing, especially on 
interior. Overall, excluding nearly entire 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle nearly flat on 
interior, convex on exterior, with slightly 
curled and flattened lower terminal. 
Slightly concave bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Inscribed 
"GOD.BLES.KING.WILIAM &.QVEN. 
MARY." within double-line-bordered 
frame edged with wavy lines and foliate 
motifs. Rim border composed of band 
of single and triple vertical strokes 
pendant from horizontal line. Handle 
 
undecorated. 
 
Published- Grigsby, Dated Longridge Delft- 
ware and Slipware, p. 879, pl. 6. 
 
 
This mug, two similarly shaped examples with closely related inscriptions

and borders,' and other delftware that commemorates both King William III

and Queen Mary II probably date from 1689 to 1694, the period of the mon-

archs' joint reign (see nos. D22-D24 and Time Line, pp. 14-15).1 Two other
mugs 
resemble the Longridge one in shape and in the style of their bands, which
are 
inscribed "GOD.SENDyE.KING.SAVE.TO.IRLND," presumably a reference
to 
William's late 1680s military action against the forces of James Il.'ý
Earlier 
versions of the inscription border occur on a different cup shape; one example

is lewdly inscribed "NO:MONEY:NO:CONNY:1657," the other, excavated

from Oxford's Bodlein tunnel, cautions, "[BEWAR?]E:OFTHE:FOX:"
(see nos. 
D264-D266).4 Glazed cups of approximately the shape shown here are known

from London consumer sites. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
1. Sotheby's (I.), Rous 1,ench sale (1), july 1, 1986,  3. For mugs, see
Howard, lDrug Jars, pl. 19, 
lot 27 (with a rim border like but more crisp   no. 65; Charleston and Towner,
English Ceramics, 
than that on the loongridge mug); Morley-Fletcher  pl. 3, no. 14. William
lII landed in Carrickfergus 
and Mcllroy, Pictorial History, p. 252, no. 7 (with  in June 1690. 
dartlike motif's forming rim border).           4. Archer, V&A, no. C.6;
Ashmolean Museum 
2. For a 1694 dated globular mug with William   collection (no. 1938.1170).

and Mary portraits resembling those on a plate  5 'earce comments (September
1998), Britton, 
in this collection (no. D23), see Austin, Delft,  London, no. 103. 
no. 92. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 273 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D247, D248. MUGS 
 
Probably London 
 
1680-1700 
 
 
(D247) H.: 3 1/2" (8.9 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 3" (7.6 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 4" (10.2 cm) 
 
(D248) H.: 4 3/4" (12.1 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 4 1/4" (10.8 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 5 1/4" (13.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: (D247) Light turquoise, 
 
slightly transparent with some dry 
 
patches over decoration. Overall, 
 
excluding edge of bottom. (D248) 
 
White, slightly transparent. Overall, 
excluding majority of bottom. 
 
S H A P E: Thrown, (D248) with turned 
 
neck. (D247) Handle nearly flat on interi- 
 
or, convex on exterior, with curled and 
 
pinched lower terminal. (D248) Handle 
 
 
convex on interior, concave on exterior, 
 
with slightly curled lower terminal. (Both) 
 
Slightly concave bottoms with flat edges. 
 
DECORATION: Painted, (D247) Long, 
 
horizontal strokes. (D248) Random 
 
pattern of irregular blotches. (Both) 
 
Handles bear horizontal slashes. 
 
 
1)247, D248 
 
 
3D 
  Droadly painted decoration of the type on the first of these mugs (D247)
is 
 
extremely unusual. The irregular blotches of blue and purple (D248) are a
some- 
what more common motif that also occurs on a Longridge dish and porringer

(nos. D178, D183); the shape of the latter piece has been attributed to London

based on archaeological evidence.' London sites also have yielded blotched
delft- 
ware, and a few so-patterned fragments were found in Belfast, Ireland. (If
made 
at Belfast, they date to around 1700.) The profile, ridged neck, and thinness
of 
the potting of the blotched mug (D248) resemble those of salt-glazed stoneware

vessels by John Dwight of Fulham, near London.' 
 
 
1. For related delftware, see Grigsby, Chip- 
stone, no. 64; Britton, London, no. 104; 
Christie's (L), December 6, 1982, lot 42; 
Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, 
lots 15-16. 
2. For London evidence, Stephenson com- 
ments (September 1998); Pearce comments 
(September 1998), citing Thompson, Grew, 
and Schofield, Aldgate Excavations, pp. 57 
58, fig. 26, no. 124 (Aldgate fragment). For 
London and Belfast, Grigsby, Chipstone, 
no. 64, citing Archer comments (September 
1992 and June 1995) regarding a blotched 
porringer. 
3. See Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 215, and for 
examples by other potters, nos. 185 187. 
 
 
D247, D248 
 
 
Published: (D247) Little, Little by Little, p. 77 
fig, 95. (D248) Honey, 1948 ECC Exhibition, 
pl. 1, no. 19 (exhibition cotalog), 
Ex coils,: (D247) B. K, and N. F Little. 
(D248) T M. Ragg; E. Pitts Curtis, 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
D249. MUG 
Probably London 
1675-1700 
 
 
H.: 4 5/8" (11.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 1/2" (8.9 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained 
 
light buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with open crazing 
and, on interior of rim, large pale blue 
drips. Perhaps under a kwaart, Overall, 
 
excluding wide patch around 
bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with fluting by hand. 
 
Handle nearly oval in section with tear- 
shaped impression on tapering lower 
terminal. Bottom fairly deeply concave. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese figure 
seated in landscape with rocks, plants, 
and flowering tree. Borders composed 
of (somewhat runny) horizontal lines. 
Handle with (somewhat runny) scrolls 
along spine flanked by rows of narrowly 
 
spaced dots. 
 
 
The inclusion of flutes on a tin-glazed mug, as shown here, is extremely

unusual. A softly baluster profile is somewhat less rare and is a feature
of two 
other Longridge mugs (nos. D251, D253) that depict different Chinese figures
in 
landscapes.' Three Longridge pieces resemble the mug in the "feel"
of their dec- 
oration-presumably because of its derivation from contemporary Chinese 
export porcelain-but, unlike the example shown here, have neither trek orna-

ment nor a kwaart (derived from Dutch tin glaze). The first of the three
is a 1674 
dated cup (no. D242) with speckley filler ornament, somewhat similar plants
and 
a seated figure, much the same handle ornament, and very dark to light blue

shading. The second and third examples include a 1674 dated jug (no. D297)
and 
a 1673 dated cup, the latter with a runny rim-border line (no. D241). Both
display 
quirky figures and strong to pale blue painting. 
 
 
1. See one of these mugs (no. D)253), dated 1696, 
and a 1697 dated plate (Lipski and Archer, Dated 
D)elltware, no. 212) for versions of the long- 
leaved plant and other painting derived from 
D)utch tin glaze. The 1696 mug, at least, also has 
a kwaart. For related decorative themes, see also 
nos. 1)20 D21, D)23, 1)30, 1)38-1)39, D56, )78, 
 
 
D)88, 1)93, 1)99,1)101-1)102, 1105 1)108, 1)111 
D112,1)114, D118, D160, D170,1)177, D230, 1)232, 
1)246,1)250, 1)252 1)253, D257, 1)261 1D262, 1)276, 
1)278-D280, D284-D285, D296, 1)299, 1)304 
1)305, 1)308, 1)314 D315, D341, D343, D356, 
I)3581-D359, D373, D376 1D378, 1)390 1)391, D421, 
1)434. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 275 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D250, D251. MUGS 
London, Brislington, or Bristol 
1680-1700 
 
 
(D250) H.: 5 1/2' (14 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 3/4" (12.1 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 7/8" (14.9 cm) 
(D251) H.: 4" (10.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 1/4" (8.3 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 4" (10.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
(D250) with small inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: (D250) Slightly bluish 
white with medium crazing. Overall, 
excluding edge of bottom, (D251) Slightly 
 
transparent light turquoise, perhaps 
under a kwoort. Overall, excluding 
uneven band around edge of bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown, (D250) with turned 
ribs. (D250) Handle concave on interior, 
convex on exterior, with curled lower 
 
terminal. (D251) Handle nearly flat on 
 
 
interior, convex on exterior, with 
 
 
impressed, tapering lower terminal 
(Both) Concave bottoms, (D250) cham- 
 
 
fered on exterior edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Seated 
Chinese figures in landscapes with 
rocks and plants. Borders composed of 
horizontal lines, (D250) with band of 
 
single and triple vertical strokes, (Both) 
 
 
Handles bear horizontal slashes. 
 
 
Ex coils: Worren (no, 14);J. P Kosseboum. 
 
 
1)250, )251 
 
 
C hinese figures in landscapes were popular late seventeenth-century 
motifs that occur on a broad range of delftware shapes (see nos. D101-D112,

D241, D252, D276, D278-D280). In glaze color and painting style, the smaller

mug (D251) has much in common with a large, 1682 dated example that also

resembles it in shape and some plant and screen motifs.' These motifs are

found with a figure much like that on the Longridge mug (D251) on a 1684

dated puzzle cup attributable to London based on initials. The larger Long-

ridge mug (D250) and a 1686 dated example with a wreath and birds are 
related in profile, and the latter has a similar rim turning painted in horizon-

tal lines.' The neck border on the mug (D250) compares to that on a mug 
commemorating William and Mary (joint reign 1689-1694) and one dated 
1698 (nos. D246, D254). 
 
 
1. Taggart, Burnap, no. 119; Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 787. For 
undated variations from the same 
period, see Britton, Bristol, nos. 11.15 
11.17; Archer, V&A, no. C.10. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. D.4. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no, 793. 
 
 
D250, )251 
 
 
276 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E I Beverage Wares 
 
 
D252. MUG                                                               
                          Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
Probably London 
 
1680-1700 
 
 
H.: 3 1/8" (7.9 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 3 1/4" (8.3 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 4 1/8" (10.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Dark blue. Overall, 
 
excluding wide, irregular band around 
 
edge of bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown, with pushed-out rib. 
 
Handle nearly flat on interior, convex 
 
on exterior, with impressed lower 
 
terminal. Concave bottom. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese man 
 
seated on hill with plants and cliff. 
 
Borders composed of scroll-and-dot- 
 
cluster band and horizontal lines. 
 
Handle bears horizontal slashes. 
 
 
AccrI ar size 
 
 
 
1. For a discussion of bleui person ware., 
see Grigshy, ahipstone, no. 32. 1r related rungs, 
see Archer, V&A, no. C.13; Austin, Delft, no. 90; 
Soiheby's (1), Rotts tench sale (1), July 1, 1986, 
lot 32. 
 
2 Archer. V&A, no. C.12. Austin, eft, no. 89 
 
 
 
 
1orf London wiuthwvaryk r tarnd nlram 1enh p. 3 
 
 
see Archer and Morgan, China Ditshes, cot. pl. 2, 
no. 19. 
 
3. For wasters, see Arc her, V&A, no. C.13; Archer 
andi Morgan, China Dirshes, 1t. 41 (tLambeth): 
Brit ton, tLondton, p. 5: 5 Nortiok Houise): Museurn 
o l~ondon. Souithwartk ant tLambe th, p. 31t5, 
ig, 144, no. 1333 (Mark Brown's Wharf). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 277 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E Beverage Wares 
 
 
D253. MUG 
 
London or possibly Holland, 
 
for English market 
 
Dated 1696 
 
 
H.: 7" (17.8 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 4 3/4" (12.1 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 5 7/8" (14.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White, more bluish or 
 
blue-greenish with speckling on interior, 
 
with open crazing probably under a 
 
kwaart. Overall, excluding bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown, with shallow, turned 
 
rib. Handle nearly flat on interior and 
 
exterior, with rolled lower terminal. 
 
Concave bottom. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese man 
 
seated holding tray(?) in landscape with 
 
rocks, mountains, trees, plants, and 
 
fence. Inscribed "16:FRA[reversed N]CIS 
 
HERBERT:96." Borders composed of 
 
horizontal lines and band with wavy 
 
line, scrolls, and fruit(?). Handle bears 
lengthwise lines edged in diagonal 
 
slashes and dots. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 800. 
Ex colls.: F H. Garner; G. B. Sloter; 
J. P Kasseboum. 
 
 
                                             Cups (Single -Handled), Mugs,
and a Goblet 
 
 
 
 
 
 
This vessel is challenging to attribute because of the conflicting clues
it pro- 
vides. Traditionally, the mug has been considered of English manufacture,'
and 
the name Herbert is not an uncommon one in England.2 A few English 
vessels of this profile are known, most notably a 1694 dated large mug with
a 
flower-and-scroll rim band and the arms of the London Company of Merchant

Taylors.' A 1695 dated English posset pot displays stylistically somewhat
similar 
trek ornament, including a Chinese figure in a landscape, half-suns (near
the 
top), and some plants and tiny-dot filler ornament.' Trek painting (with

"penciled," usually purple outlines) and the use of a kwaart glaze
(a clear lead 
 
coating over the decorated tin-glazed surface) also sometimes are seen on

English delft and may indicate that the piece was produced by a Dutchman
in 
England.' 
   Conversely, some of the features discussed above typically indicate Conti-

nental manufacture; vessels of this profile, trek painting, and kwaart glaze
are 
by far more common on Dutch than English delftware. Though no close parallel

has been found, the high quality of the painting and openness of the landscape

perhaps are more typical of pots made in Holland than in England.' Links
between 
England and Holland were close around 1700, particularly after William of

Orange ascended to the English throne in 1689. Considerable quantities of
tin- 
glazed earthenware, some with inscriptions in English (see no. D77), were

exported from Holland to England, and there is a well-known category of Dutch

plates with English names, apparently commemorating marriages.' 
 
 
1. Sotheby's (L), October 28, 1968, lot 126; 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 800; Sotheby's (L), Garner sale, 
March 2, 1965, lot 149; Kassebaurn sale (1), 
October 1, 1991, lot 50. 
2. For English persons surnamed Herbert, 
see National Biography, vol. 9, pp. 617 686. 
3 Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 796; no. 801, for a 1696 dated vessel of 
this shape with birds and flowers. 
4. Ibid., no. 930. 
5. Horne comments January 1998). 
6. Archer comments (1998), attributing the 
Longridge mug to Holland on grounds of 
both style and technique of manufacture. 
van Drecht comments (April 17, 1998) state 
that, based on shape and decoration, the 
pot is not Dutch. van Dam comments 
(April 1998), "lThe pot] has everything to 
make it non Dutch ... the pale blue and 
manganese, the combination of these two 
colours as late as 1696, the lettering and 
  LId LIt ~Iap ;vlt ~I stgZ it I Idi: 
 
 
a L asb L11 bledsap W L a s 51gl ty lad nlg 
mouth." 
7. Archer, V&A, pp. 40 41. Warren, Dutch 
Marriage Plates, pp. 304-307. 
 
 
278 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
It 
 
 
ixcual size 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 279 
 
 
J 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
a 
 
 
D254. MUG 
Probably London 
Dated 1698 
 
 
H.: 5 318' (13.7 cm); Diam. (body): 6'(15.2 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 7 3/4" (19.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightly transpar 
ent and bluish in cast on interior and 
bottom. Overall, excluding bottom 
 
 
A mong the pieces most closely resembling this one in shape and decora- 
tive style is another circa 1700 mug with "ID" initials, somewhat
similar birds 
and flowers, and different borders., The vessel shape derives from metalwork,

and Chinese porcelain designs inspired related bird and flower motifs that
con- 
tinued in popularity into the next century (see no. D260). The scrollwork
border 
and the leaves seen here in the central band have parallels on a 1694 dated

plate,2 and the former also occurs on the rims of two teabowls excavated
at the 
John Custis home site in Williamsburg, Virginia. For drinking vessels with
bor- 
ders resembling that on the base of the mug, see numbers D246, D250, D261.

 
 
edge and uneven, narrow arc on bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with turnings. Handle 
convex on interior, slightly concave on 
 
 
exterior, with curled lower terminal. Flat 
 
 
inset bottom with flaring sides. 
DECORATION: Painted. Birds, rocks, 
and flowering plants. Inscribed 
"I HA/1698." Borders composed of scroll 
 
and trefoil band, single and triple 
rectangles, and horizontal lines. Handle 
bears wavy line and scrollwork. 
 
 
1. See Britton Bristol, no. 6.6, for an undated 
mug resembling this one in shape and decora- 
tive motifs. 
 
 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 201. 
3. Austin, Delft, p. 122; Noel Hlume, Pottery and 
Porcelain, p. 15, fig. 10. 
 
 
Ex colt.: J. P Kossebaum. 
 
 
kf 4Ai 
 
  

					
				
				
 
Striated flowers, asterisks (some with dotted ends), and the same color palette

occur on delftware made from around 1695 through the 1730s (see nos. D118,

D214, D217, D256) and derive from ornament on oriental porcelain. Typically
on 
delftware, such decorative elements are associated with Bristol, but archaeolog-

ical evidence indicates variations also were produced in London.' Striated

flowers occur on a chinoiserie dish in this collection (no. D118) that, like
one stag 
plate (no. D147) and the mug shown here, has nervous, green strokes forming

tree foliage. Similar birds, leaves, and the dotted asterisk motif occur
on a cov- 
ered jar in this collection (no. D217). For border motifs relating to those
in the 
band on the lower portion of the mug, see numbers D91, D188, D343, a 1714

dated dish, and a 1727 dated punch bowl.' 
 
 
1. For London archaeology, see Archer, V&A, col. 
pl. 43, nos. A.65 (lobed dish), C.15 (dotted-aster- 
isk mug). For related colors and motifs, see 
l~ipski and Archer, Dated Dlelfiware, nos. 250 
(1707 plate), 984 (1707 jug), 1048 (1709 bowl 
with vases on tables; for side 2 see Pountney, 
Bristol, fiontispiece); Ray, Warren, pl. 55, 
no. 106, pl. 63, no. 124; Austin, Delft, no. 611; 
Britton, Bristol, nos. 4.14, 4.16, 9.24; Archer and 
Morgan, China l)ishes, no. 38. 
 
 
2. See also Ray, Warren, pl. 75, no. 146. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delfiware, nos, 273, 
1076: no. 707 for the dotted asterisk-after a 
Chinese floral motif-on a 1630 mug. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 281 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
D E L F T W A R E [ Beverage Wares 
 
 
Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs. and a Goblet 
 
 
Bristol or London 
1707 or slightly later 
 
 
H.: 5 5/8" (14.3 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 5/8" (9.2 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 51/2" (14 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pinkish buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
Overall, excluding most of bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with base turning. 
 
 
Handle rounded on interior, concave on 
exterior, with slightly scrolled lower 
terminal. Concave bottom with narrow, 
 
 
flattened edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Asterisks in 
 
trelliswork with crosses at intersections 
and reserve inscribed "union." Borders 
composed of horizontal lines and band 
of double-lobed and scroll motifs. Han- 
 
dle bears broad, irregular, horizontal 
 
 
This mug and one with similar ornament (matching fragments unearthed in 
Bristol and London)' below a different scrolled border commemorate the "Act
of 
Union" that was approved by the House of Commons in July 1706 and ratified

by the Scottish parliament in January 1707. William III's efforts and portions
of 
the 1703 "Scotch Act of Security" formed the basis for the act
by which Great 
Britain was created. In the act England guaranteed to Scotland religious
and (to 
some extent) economic independence and a separate legal system in exchange

for joint government, currency, trade, and, perhaps most importantly, a shared

line of succession. A blue and white version of the diaper pattern on this
mug 
ornaments a cup and saucer excavated at the Chiswell-Bucktrout site in 
Williamsburg, Virginia, and the pattern occurs in blue, red, and green on
a 
(rounded) cup fragment unearthed at Fort Michilimackinac (Michigan), estab-

lished by the French around 1715." 
 
 
stripes in blue. 
 
 
Published: Garner and Archer, Delftware, 
pl. 65A, Garner, Delftware, pl. 36A. 
Ex coils.: F H. Garner, . P Kassebaum. 
 
 
1. For Bristol fragments, see Britton, 
Bristol, no. 6.1: Archer comments (1998), 
citing fragments in the Bristol Museum. 
For teabow1 fragment unearthed in 
Lambeth, see Lipski, Teaware, no. 92. 
2. Ray, Warren, p. 123; Sotheby's (L), Kas- 
sebaum sale (2), October 7, 1992, lot 87. 
The crowns of England and Scotland were 
joined in 1603, when James VI of Scotland 
was crowned James I of England. 
3. Austin, Delft, p. 124; Miller and Stone, 
Michilimackinac, pp. 34-35, fig. 5i. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
282 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D256. MUG 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
 
Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
H.: 5" (12.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 3/8" (8.6 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 41/2" (11.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
 
 
Somewhat surprisingly, simple checkerboard patterns like this one are rela-

tively uncommon on English delftware.' Related ornament with the white 
squares having dashes forming a cross, rather than clusters of dots, occurs
on 
blue-painted mug fragments unearthed at Williamsburg, Virginia.' The circa

1707 "union" mug discussed in the previous entry (no. D256) also
fits into this 
general group. 
 
 
bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with horizontal base 
moldings. Strap handle, rounded on 
interior, concave on exterior, with 
curled lower terminal. Slightly concave 
bottom with narrow, flat edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Checkerboard 
 
 
with four-dot motifs. Borders com- 
posed of horizontal lines. Handle bears 
 
 
horizontal lines. 
 
 
Ex coll.:J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
1. See also Sotheby's (L), September 29, 1987, 
lot 1; Christie's (L), February 23, 1987, lot 14. 
2. Austin, Delft, p. 110; no. 23, for a circa 1730 
posset pot with plaid decoration incorporating 
four-dot clusters. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 283 
 
 
D257. MUG 
London or Bristol 
1710-1730 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
 
Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
Probably London 
Dated 1720 
 
 
H.: 6 1/8" (15.6 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 7/8" (12.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6 3/8" (16.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff with 
 
small inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: Light blue to turquoise. 
Overall, excluding nearly all of bottom. 
SHAPPE: Thrown, with narrowly spaced, 
turned ribs. Handle slightly concave on 
interior and exterior, with curled lower 
terminal Slightly concave bottom with 
 
flat edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Panel 
inscribed "To The Pious Memory of 
Queen Anne 1720" with dots, straight 
lines, and asterisks. Borders composed 
of horizontal lines, band of filled and 
quadruple stacked arcs, and bands of 
nested series of arcs. Handle bears 
horizontal slashes. 
 
Published. Lipski, Dated English Delftware, 
pl. 153a, Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 805, Grigsby, Dated Longridge Delftware 
and Slipware, pp. 879-880, p1. 6, 
Ex colls J HR  . Lucas -Scudamore; 
J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
Queen Anne (d. 1714; see Time Line, p. 15) was the last of the Stuart mon-

archs and is one of the few English kings or queens commemorated 
posthumously on delftware; she also is memorialized on post-1714 salt-glazed,

brown stoneware mugs.' Such references are likely to have Jacobite symbolism.

(For Queen Anne on delftware, see also nos. D33-D36); for other Jacobite
delft- 
ware, nos. D43, D44.) 
   Another barrel-shaped mug displays the London Carpenters' arms and is

inscribed "THOMAS BILLING/1724."1 These arms and the presence of
similar 
narrowly spaced, parallel lines on glazed fragments of barrel-shaped mugs

from London archaeological sites" support a London attribution for the
mug 
shown here., 
 
 
1. For Queen Anne on post-1714 dated delftware  2. Lipski and Archer, Dated
Delitware, no, 808. 
mugs, see Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
                                          3. Stephenson comments ISeptember
19981. 
no. 806 (1722); Archer, V&A, C.23 (1758). For 
dated Queen Anne stoneware, see Home,           4. For handleless, barrel-shaped
delftware yes- 
Stoneware, nos. 39 40 (1740); Grigsby, Chip-    sels with circular openings
for taps, see Lipski 
stone, no. 190 (1731).                    and Archer, Dated Delftware, no.
1506 (dated 
                                          1748); Archer, V&A, no. E.22.

 
 
284 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D258. MUG 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D ELFTWARE lBeverage Wares 
 
 
Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
H.: 5" (12.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 1/4" (13.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with blue to 
brown speckling and open crazing, 
Overall, excluding bottom edge and 
just within it. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle nearly flat on 
interior and exterior, with curled lower 
terminal. Concave bottom with narrow, 
flat edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Bull's head 
surmounted by and resting upon coro- 
nets. Handle flanked by flowers. Primary 
borders composed of scrolls, flowers, 
foliage, and trelliswork. Other borders 
composed of cable pattern and hori- 
zontal lines. Handle bears scrollwork. 
 
 
n t has not yet been possible to determine who is represented by this mug's

crest, "Issuant from a Ducal Coronet a Bull's head surmounted by a Coronet
of 
rank." Stylistically, the crest has more in common with Continental
than English 
heraldry.' Somewhat similar bulls' heads (lacking necks and coronets) form

elements of the London Butchers' Company arms on one cylindrical mug dated

1728.2 Hatched or "cable" borders, like that near the base of the
Longridge mug, 
occur on dated punch bowls from the 1720s and 1730s," and the border
and 
scrollwork have parallels on fragments unearthed at London sites. The scrolls

(see 1727 dated porringer, no. D184), flowers, striated leaves (nos. D184,
D364), 
and circular panels of the mug relate to motifs on dated delftware from around

1715 to 1735.1 
 
 
1. March 18, 1998, letter from S. D'O. Duckworth,  3. Ibid,, nos. 1066 1067,
1074, 1080 1081, 
Assistant to Portcullis Pursuivant, College of  1089 1090, 1093-1095. 
Arms, to Michael Archer. Duckworth also notes, 
          ........................e ois ea cret oidbeluopan4. Pearce comments
ISeptember 19981. 
"The bull's head crest could be European .. . 
because the coronet depicted over the head is  5. Lipski and Archer. D)ated
Delftware, nos. 275, 
not of standard Fnglish pattern           304, 133, 427, 810, 956, 1058 1059,
1066 1067, 
                                          1070, 1072, 1077, 1087, 1093 1095.

2 .tl~pski and Archer, Dated I)elftwatre, no. 812. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 285 
 
 
D2S9. MUG 
 
 
Probably London 
1715-1730 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
D260. MUG 
Bristol or London 
1715-1730 
 
 
H.: 6 3/4" (17.1 cm); 
Diam, (body): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6 5/8" (16.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with a few small 
poorly adhered patches. Overall, 
 
 
excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle nearly flat on 
interior, slightly concave on exterior, 
with slightly curled lower terminal. 
Shallowly concave bottom with flat 
edge. 
 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Birds, rocks, 
and flowering plants. Borders 
composed of scrolled band, band of 
foliate motifs, and horizontal lines. 
Handle bears scrollwork. Bottom 
depicts figure with hat and scarf in 
basket(?) in landscape. 
 
 
r ", 
 
 
Ex coll.,j P Kosseboum. 
 
 
Sn its ornament this mug relates to a 1698 dated example also in this collec-

tion (no. D254); both mugs look to Chinese porcelain as a design source.
The 
mug shown here, however, is likely to be somewhat later in date, based on
its 
profile and the proportions of the decorative base band in relation to the
rest 
of the ornament., Similarly inspired floral and bird motifs are found on
a 1716 
dated plate, and fragments bearing related patterns have been unearthed in

Bristol and London? A 1728 mug displays somewhat similar but more elegantly

painted scrolls on its handle.' The peculiar figure on the bottom of the
mug 
shown here may refer to some popular story or specific event,4 and, as it
would 
have been visible to the drinker's companions rather than to the drinker,
may 
have had a double meaning. 
 
 
1. For relevant 1720 1728 dated mugs, see Lipski 
and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 804, 810, 812. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. B.109. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 813. 
4. For a somewhat similar figure on tiles depict- 
ing "Saint Paul lin a basketl escaping tfrom 
Damascus" (Acts 9:24), see Home, Tiles, nos. 
654-656. 
 
 
286 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
It i 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
H.: 5 3/8" (13.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 7/8" (14.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
 
upper rim (worn) and bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Strap handle, convex 
 
on interior, concave on exterior, with 
tapering lower terminal. Deeply 
 
concave bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
 
pavilion in landscape with mound 
 
(or haystack?), trees, and hillocks. 
Borders composed of horizontal lines 
(one edging rim interior), bands of 
geometricized flowers and foliage, and 
alternating single squares and triple- 
square clusters. Handle bears scrolls 
 
and graduated lines. 
 
Ex coal.: J. P Kasseboum. 
 
 
This is one of at least three closely similar mugs that differ from one another

only in handle decoration. The same primary motif and a closely related upper

border also occur on a bowl and posset pot.' Variations, some with a fisherman

in a boat, occur on teacups and saucers, including examples excavated at

domestic sites in Williamsburg, Virginia.' Another version is found on small,

cylindrical mugs. Fragments with decoration like that on the mug shown here

were excavated in Lambeth and Vauxhall, and vessels of approximately this

shape bear dates in the 1720s.4 For a discussion of rhomboidal brushstrokes,
see 
number D114, and for borders relating to that near the base of the mug shown

here, numbers D246, D250, D254. 
 
 
1. For mugs, see Garn, r and Archeri, Delftware, 
pl. 56A; Archer, V&A, no. (.17. Archer and 
Morgan, China Dishes, no. 61 (bowl entry citing 
posset pot at Bath). 
2. Sotheby's (L). Lipski sale i3), lot 440; Austin, 
Dlelft, p. 123, nos. 144- 145, the sautcer fragment 
with a slightly different rimi band and the cup 
(blue and white) with no rim band. For a saucer 
with a "1" mark, see Britton, Bristol, no, 12.84. 
 
 
3. Atkins, ]xhibition (1995), no. 24; (hristie's (IL), 
Glover sale, June 14, 1988, lot 23. 
4. Archer, V&A, no. C .17; L.ipski and Archer, 
Dated I)elflware, nos. 807, 813, 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 287 
 
 
D261. MUG 
 
 
London 
1715-1730 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D262. MUG 
Probably Bristol 
1715-1740 
 
 
H.: 3 5/8" (9.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4" (10.2 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, poorly adhered 
to upper and handle edges. Overall, 
excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Thin strap handle, 
convex on interior, concave on exterior, 
with slightly curled lower terminal. 
Slightly concave bottom with sides 
echoing shape of flaring base. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
building in landscape with plants and 
boatman. Borders composed of 
horizontal lines and band of lozenges 
with superimposed diamonds. Handle 
bears horizontal slashes. 
 
Ex coll .j P Kossebaum. 
 
 
                                            DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
                                            Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs,
and a Goblet 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Convex, flaring feet in combination with thin strap handles occur on mugs

dated 1722 and 1728.1 The bright, hard colors and sketchy, somewhat awkward

approach to the primary decoration on the vessel shown here are typical of
that 
general period and support an attribution to Bristol. The scene on the mug

shares several elements-the house and bamboo(?) motif, dot-leaved tree, and
a 
(different) fisherman in a boat-with a plate in this collection (no. 1)117),
and the 
mug's lower border relates to one edging a small bowl (no. D190). 
 
 
Actual size 
 
1. JLipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 807, 813. 
 
 
288 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
              I 
 
 
Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
D263. MUG 
 
 
Liverpool, London, or Bristol 
Dated 1744 
 
 
H.: 6 1/2' (16.5 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 3/4" (14.6 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6 7/8" (17.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with bluish 
smudges. Overall, excluding bottom 
edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Strap handle, convex 
 
 
  his large (2 3/4 pint capacity) mug has brown edges and trellised borders

with floral reserves derived from ornament on Chinese porcelain. Its profile,

more common to delftware from the 1720s,' is based on English metalwork 
forms. The surname Latham does not provide an obvious clue to the mug's place

of origin, since prominent persons by that name lived in Ireland and in several

English counties in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.2 
 
 
on interior, concave on exterior, with 
slightly folded lower terminal. Deeply 
recessed, flat bottom with sides echo- 
 
 
ing exterior profile. 
DECORATION: Painted. Birds on 
fence flanked by flowers. Inscribed 
"Richard Latham 1744." Borders 
composed of horizontal lines, band of 
trelliswork with floral reserves, and 
band of conjoined arcs with dots. 
 
 
I,,, 
 
 
Handle bears graduated straight and 
curved lines. 
 
 
ii 
 
 
(I 
 
 
virv 
Il/ /  a 
 
 
LI 
 
 
1. lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 813- 814; Austin, Delit, no. 94. For a mug of 
closely related shape and handle type (perhaps 
assigned to too late a datel. see Britton, Bristol. 
no. 11.37. 
2. National Biography, vol. 11, pp. 605-610. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 289 
 
 
it 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D264, D265, D266. MUGS 
Probably Bristol 
If Bristol, Limekiln Lane or 
possibly Temple Back 
(D264) Dated 1731 
(D265, D266) 1720-1735 
 
(D264) H.: 6 5/8" (16.8 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 5/8" (9.2 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 1/8" (13 cm) 
(D265) H.: 4 7/8" (12.4 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 5/8" (9.2 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 4 3/4" (12.1 cm) 
(D266) H.: 4 1/8" (10.5 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 1/8" (7.9 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 4 3/8" (11.1 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff 
with small inclusions. 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D265, D266) with 
brown and blue speckling. (All) Overall, 
excluding (D264) nearly entire bottom 
and (D265, D266) edges of bottoms. 
SHAPE: Thrown. (D264) Handle slighly 
concave on interior and exterior. 
(D265) Handle nearly flat on interior, 
slightly concave on exterior. (D266) 
Handle nearly flat on interior, convex 
on exterior. (All) Handles with slightly 
curled lower terminals. Concave bot- 
toms with narrow, fiat edges. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Fox, (D264, D265) leaping fence and (all) 
flanked by trees and bushes. (D264) 
Inscribed "Be ware of the sly/Dog fox 
1731." (D265) Inscribed "beware/of the 
fox." (All) Borders composed of horizon- 
tal lines. (D264) Handle bears horizontal 
slashes. (D266) Handle sponged. 
 
Published: (D264) Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no, 819. 
Ex colls.: (D264) L. L. Lipski. (D266) E. Pitts 
Curtis. 
 
 
                                          DELFTWARE IBeverage Wares 
 
                                          Cups (Single Handled), Mugs, and
a Goblet 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Although delft mugs showing a bounding fox and "Beware the Fox"

inscriptions are not uncommon, dated examples are rare.' The undated ones

shown here (D265, D266) may predate the 1731 version (D264), based on a mug

of much the same shape dated 1720 and a 1711 dated bowl bearing a fox and

the inscription., (The bowl may be the earliest dated delft piece with the
inscrip- 
tion.) Excavated material indicates fox mugs were made at one or more 
potteries in Bristol and, perhaps, at Brislington.:' A 1670 to 1700 possibly

London delft caudle cup fragment inscribed "[missing1E:OF'THE:FOX:"
was 
unearthed from Oxford's Bodleian tunnel, and a "Be Ware of the Fox"
mug was 
excavated in York County, Virginia, at the site of a property that belonged
to 
Quaker merchant John Bates in the eighteenth century. 
   The unusual inclusion of the words "sly dog" and the exaggerated
mas- 
culinity of the creature on the 1731 mug (D264) may have held particular

significance for the vessel's owner. It has been suggested that the more
typical 
"Beware the Fox" inscription meant "be careful that your drink
is not spoilt,"' 
but as early as 1611, the term fox meant "to intoxicate, befuddle,"
"to redden 
(one's nose) with drinking," and "to get drunk." This interpretation,
with "the 
Fox" synonymous with drunkenness," is supported by "BEWARE
THE DRINK/ 
THE FOX/1672" on a lead-glazed, earthenware, beaker-shaped cup, probably

from Wiltshire, and "Good Ale will catch him" inscribed on a circa
1730 delft 
jug with a fox.7 
    The "Good Ale" jug, said to have been bought by Glaisher from
a person 
 named Fox, lends credence to the theory that at least some pieces in the
group 
 relate to Henry Fox, first Baron Holland (1705-1774), who became active
in pol- 
 itics in the 1730s. The seated fox and "Beware of the Fox" inscription
on a circa 
 1780 enameled creamware teapot, by William Greatbatch, is thought to refer
to 
 the baron's son, Charles James Fox, a reforming member of Parliament.' 
 
 
D264, D265, D266 
 
 
290 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWAR EBeverage Wares 
 
 
Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
D264, 1)265, 1)266 
 
 
1. For others, see Brighton Pavilion Museum 
(Willett collection, no, 479); Manchester, Greg 
Collection, no. 77. For a related fox near a flow- 
ering plant on a polychrome Bristol dish, see 
Atkins, Exhibition (1992), no. 37. 
 
 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 804, 
1050. For a polychrome plate with sponged trees 
and a leaping stag-and-fence motif resembling 
the fox-and-tences on the ILongridge mugs, see 
Arkins, Exhibition (1999), no. 27. 
 
 
4. Ashmolean Museum collection (cup fragment, 
no. 1938.1170), Austin, 1Delft, p. 18, fig. 11 (mug). 
 
 
5. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 819, 
1050 (bowl). The Oxjerd English Dictionary 
includes for Jox a meaning 'of beer: To turn sour 
in fermenting" (vol. 4, p. 502). 
 
 
6. Ibid. 
 
 
7. private collection in America (cup); Rackhamn, 
Glaisher, vol. 1, no, 1698 (jug). 
 
 
:3. Archer, V&A, p. 553. Archer notes, "In 1922, 
the British Museum bought from Pountney frag- 
lments (1922, 10-20, 1) which he said he had 
excavated in Bristol on the Temple Back pottery 
site. Unbortunately, he may have muddled these 
with shards he had found in Brislington. One of 
the fragments has part ofa tox, a sponged tree, 
and lhe word 'fox.' A similar fragment was 
found on Brandon Hlill in Bristol behind the 
litckiln Lane pottery site" (Archer comments 
119981; Maxwell, Bristol, p. 117, plate XII l). 
 
 
8. Austin, Delft, p. 18. 
 
 
9. Barker, Greatbatch, pp. 212, 215, pl. 113. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 291 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
 
Cups (Single-Handled). Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
H.: 6 1/2' (16.5 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 1/4" (10.8 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 5 3/4" (14.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pinkish buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with small 
poorly adhered patches, especially on 
interior. Overall, excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle nearly flat on 
interior, concave on exterior, with 
curled lower terminal. Inset bottom 
with slightly concave center and cham- 
fered inner edge of footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Lady with 
cane and dog in landscape with rustic 
buildings, church, fences, trees, and 
mountains. Border composed of scrolls, 
other curvilinear motifs, and ovals. 
Handle bears flowers on long stems. 
Bottom inscribed "Dame Well's/1754." 
 
 
he elderly(?) woman with a cane shown in the well-painted scene on this 
mug presumably is meant to represent Dame Well (or Wells), for whom the ves-

sel is inscribed. The mug, a 1743 dated punch bowl, and a similarly dated
tray, 
are among early dated English delftware on which architecture is depicted
in 
such a comparatively realistic manner. (This style appears to have become
more 
popular in the 1770s and 1780s.)' The landscape painting style differs markedly

from types associated with Bristol in the same period (see nos. D318). Dates
on 
broad-footed, baluster-shaped mugs range from around 1745 to 1765 (see also

no. D268).2 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 1109, 
1558 (1743 bowl and tray), and no. 1174, fbr a 
well-painted church on a 1759 punch bowl. 
Archer, V&A, no. C.25 (1785 mug); Britton, Bris- 
tol, no. 18.33 (1771 plate); Austin, Delft, no. 593 
(c. 1760 bottle). For probably London flower 
bricks with dogs resembling that on the mug, 
see Archer, V&A, no. 1.13; Rackham, Glaisher, 
vol. 2, pl. 112A, no. 1543. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 826-847 passim. 
 
 
Detail of bottom 
 
 
292 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D267. MUG 
Probably London 
Dated 1754 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D268. MUG 
 
Probably Liverpool 
 
Dated 1763 
 
 
H.: 4 1/4" (10.8 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 7/8" (9.8 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 51/4" (13.3 cm) 
 
 
J 
 
 
,i 
 
 
, J 1 1; 
 
 
                                                                        
                                         Actual size 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 844. 
                                               Hhis mug is decorated in much
the same manner (perhaps after contempo- 
 
                                             rarv English norcelain motifsl
as a delftware itlg inscribed "Silccefs tn/lane 
 
 
Pinder/1773.", Although the two ladies' places of residence have not
yet been 
identified, the lettering style-especially that on the mug shown here-resem-

bles the type on a small Liverpool jug inscribed "Success to Sir William

Meredith/And all his Plumpers ElizAbeth [sic] Ormes 1761.,"2 Other Liverpool

delftware displays grape clusters somewhat similar to those on the mug: blue

and white dishes with the motif form a set with a tray with a Chinese stag
motif 
(resembling that on no. D142); a 1754 dated polychrome punch bowl with a

sheepherding scene includes the grapes as a border motif; and a tile fragment

with grapes was excavated in Liverpool at Smithsfield Street. 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 999. 
2. Brown and Lockett, Liverpool, no. 12. 
:3. Garner, Lambeth, Bristol or Liverpool, 
pl. 83a 83b (dish set and a stag plate attributed 
to liverpool); Archer, Liverpool, pp. 111-112, 
nos. 1-2 (punch bowl); Garner, Liverpool, 
pl. 75 (tile iragment). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 293 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D269. MUG 
Probably London 
1750-1770 
 
 
F. 
 
 
H.: 6 1/2" (16.5 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6" (15.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Light turquoise with 
 
 
brown speckling. Overall, excluding 
bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with turned ribs. 
 
 
Handle convex on interior, with faint 
lengthwise ribs on exterior and folded 
lower terminal. Concave bottom with 
narrow, flat edge. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Couple in landscape with hillocks, 
buildings, low fences, and trees. Borders 
composed of horizontal lines and ocher 
 
 
L. 
 
 
4 
 
 
t 
 
 
I 
 
 
a 
 
 
rim. Handle bears wavy-ended scrolls 
and floral motifs. 
 
 
Ex colt.: G. A. Rust. 
 
 
This mug fits into a group of pieces that typically bear scenes reflecting

French tastes and depict elegantly drawn European couples in pastoral land-

scapes with buildings and sponged trees. Dates on such pieces indicate that
the 
fashion was particularly popular in the 1750s and 1760s (see nos. D270, D315).1

(For the somewhat heavier style fashionable earlier in the century, see nos.
D288, 
D307.) 
    The glaze color, the strong blue decoration, and the painting style of
the 
mug shown here typically are associated with London,' and related motifs
also 
were used at Bristol.' Cylindrical cups with flaring bases were produced
during 
much of the century, but examples with dates from the early 1750s seem closest

to this one in proportions., 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 570, 
841, 842, 847, 1131, 1161, 1167-1168, 1174, 1196, 
1200, 1204. For undated delft much like the 
Longridge mug in ornamental style, see Archer, 
V&A, nos. C.20, 1.15-1.16, N.129 -N.130; Austin, 
Delft, nos. 617, 619. 
2. Horne comments (October 1998); Archer, 
V&A. no. 1.15. 
 
 
3. For Bristol delft traditionally attributed to 
john Bowen of Bristol and related Continental 
design inspirations and markets, see Grigsby, 
Chipstone, no. 26. See also Archer, V&A, 
nos. B.225, B.232. 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 834, 
836, 
 
 
294 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E I Beverage Wares 
 
 
Cups (Single-Handled), Mugs, and a Goblet 
 
 
H.: 7 3/4" (19.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 1/2" (14 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 71/2" (19.1 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Light turquoise, slightly 
transparent on interior and bottom. 
Overall, excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle nearly flat on 
interior and exterior, with folded lower 
terminal. Recessed bottom with slightly 
 
concave center and flat footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Hunt scene 
with windmill and follies in mountainous 
landscape. Border composed of 
horizontal lines. Handle bears flowering 
vine. Bottom dated 1766. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 849. 
Ex coil.: T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
[European hunting motifs, also occasionally found on late 1600s tin glaze,,

were especially popular on eighteenth-century delftware. Published prints
prob- 
ably were the inspiration for many examples in the latter group. Dated 
examples from 1736 to 1798 bear scenes that vary surprisingly little in format,

depicting horsemen and dogs chasing their quarry across open landscapes.2

Painting styles and other features, however, indicate that hunt-scene delftware

was produced at more than one potting center. For the same reasons discussed

in entry number D269, this mug may have been produced in London. 
 
 
I1 Grigsby, Chipsrone, no. 48 (1676 plate): 
Lipski and Archer. Dated Delfhware, no, 778 
(1676 mug). 
2. For dated pieces with comparable hunt 
scenes, see Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 571 (175:3 plate). 1119, 1123, 1127, 1172 
(respectively, 1748-1758 punch bowls), 1556 
(1736 tray); Archer, V&A, no, C.27 (1793 mug). 
 
 
3. For a 1770 dated Liverpool plow-scene 
punch bowl with related horses and figures, 
see Brown and Lockett, Liverpool, no. 13. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 295 
 
 
D270. MUG 
 
 
Probably London 
Dated 1766 
 
 
Detail Ot bottOlrn 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D271. MUG 
Probably London or Liverpool 
1760-1790 
 
H.: 6 1/2" (16.5 cm); 
Diam. (body): 41/4" (10.8 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6" (15.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise, somewhat 
transparent near base and in patches on 
interior. Overall, excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with turned base 
molding. Handle nearly flat on interior 
and exterior, with folded lower terminal. 
Bottom inset to create footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
landscape with buildings, trees, and 
plants. Handle bears sets of horizontal 
strokes alternating with crosses super- 
imposed on concentric circles. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                              he ornament on this unusual
mug clearly is taken from Chinese export 
                                              porcelain. Among the closest
delftware counterparts is a circa 1770 baluster- 
                                              shaped bottle with a willow(?)
resembling those flanking the mug's handle and 
                                              a five-branched tree with circle
and curvilinear edging, much like that on the 
                                              stacked hillocks central to
the mug's scene.' The fairly bold dots below several 
                                              landscape elements on the mug
also occur in Chinese scenes on delftware 
                                              attributed to London and Liverpool
and probably are simplifications of wooden 
                                              posts or shore shading from
the Chinese originals.' The pitting and uneven 
                                              glaze are typical of delft
attributed to London? The mug's proportions-tall and 
                                              narrow with a flaring foot-are
similar to those of a hunt-scene mug dated 
                       %1793,1 but variations on the shape were made from
the mid-century on. 
 
 
 
                                              1. Britton, Bristol, no. 6.36.

                                              2. Austin, Delft, no. 648;
Brown and Lockett, 
                                              Liverpool, nos. 11, 48 (the
latter is tin-glazed 
                                              stoneware). 
                                              3. Horne comments (October
1998). 
                                              4. Archer, V&A, no. C.27.

 
 
296 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
H.: 5"(12.7 cm); Diam. (body): 5 IIZ'(14 cm); 
 
Diam. (with spout): 6 1/2" (16.5 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handles): 8 1/4" (21 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained 
 
pinkish buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White with afew blow 
 
holes. Large patch on bottom glazed by 
 
overrun from walls, Overall, excluding 
 
where footrim wiped clean. 
 
S H A P E: Thrown and probably originally 
 
with low-domed lid. Pulled handles 
 
(one partially replaced) with raised 
ridge along spines and slightly curled 
 
lower terminals. Spout (partially 
 
replaced) of circular section. Concave 
 
bottom with flat rim. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Bird-on-rock 
 
motifs with plants. Borders composed 
 
of interlocking S-scrolls and horizontal 
 
lines. Handles bear mottled ground, 
 
slightly running in glaze, and spout 
 
bears wavy line elaborated with dashes 
 
and curvilinear motifs. 
 
 
and archaeological evidence, this type of ware is associated with the Pickle-

herring factory in Southwark (see nos. D218, D219). 
   A 1632 dated posset pot, much like this one in shape, retains its low-domed

lid and shares several design features with the Longridge example but probably

was painted by another decorator.' Another bird-on-rock posset pot is of
much 
the same shape (with a flatter lid) and is inscribed "STEPHEN GARDNER
1631." 
At least two other uninscribed examples also are known.' 
 
 
1, lobson, British Museum, f1ig. 107, no. 101 
(side 1), and Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 887 lside 2). 
 
 
2. Rackham, (Glisher, vol. 2, pl. 8113, no. 1294; 
Archer, RiJksmuseunn, no. 11 (Boymans-van 
Beuningen Museum, Rotterdam, colleciion); 
Archer, V&A, no. D.9. 
 
 
Ex colls.: L. L. Lipski:J. P Kasseboum. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 297 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
 
D273, D274. POSSET POTS                                                 
                   Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
 
 
London, probably Southwark 
(D274) Perhaps Pickleherring 
 
c. 1655 
 
 
(D273) H,: 8" (20.3 cm): 
 
Diam, (body and lid): 6 1/2" (16.5 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
(D274) H.: 6 3/8" (16.2 cm); 
 
Diam. (body and lid): 6" (15.2 cm); 
 
Diam. (lid to spout): 7" (17.8 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 8" (20.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: (D273) White, slightly 
transparent with gray speckling. Overall, 
 
excluding bottom and footrim of body, 
lid's bottom edge, and patch on under- 
side of lid. (D274) White with open 
 
crazing. Overall, excluding lower edges 
 
of lid and body. 
SHAPE: Thrown, (D273) with distinct 
throwing rings on interior. (Both) Single 
 
spout. (D273) Scrolled handles of circular 
section. (D274) Handles flat on interior 
and concave on exterior. (Both) Triangu- 
lar arrangement of peg marks on 
 
underside of lid edges; bottoms of pots 
recessed to form footrims. 
 
DECORATION: Relief, pushed out 
from interior. (D273) Body fluted and lid 
 
has eight vertical rows of three bosses. 
(D274) Body has eight vertical rows of 
 
four bosses and two bosses under each 
handle. Lid has twelve bosses. 
 
Published: (D273) Home, Collection, pt. 18, 
no 516. 
 
 
(Of these two rare posset pots, the fluted example (D273) is the most 
unusual. Two others with fluting (and bossed lids) are of squat, globular
profile 
and have handles more like those on the second pot shown here (D)274).- That

example, several others of much the same shape, and a few squat, globular
or 
baluster-shaped posset pots all have vertical rows of bosses. A cylindrical
exam- 
ple inscribed "KG/1651" and a bossed mug and fluted candlestick,
both dated 
1653 (see nos. D235, D380), help indicate a period for the group. 
   The bossed posset pot (D274) has close parallels in biscuit lid, knob,
spout, 
and body wasters from the Picldeherring site. Similarly ornamented mugs (see

nos. D235, D236) also are known from the Pickleherring site, and other bossed

delftware has been excavated at consumer sites in London.4 
 
 
 
1. Sotheby's (I), ILipski sale (1), March 10, 1981,  3. Rackham, Glaisher,
vol. 2, p1  85B, no. 1319 
lot 10, noting a coverless "somewhat similar  11651 posset pot) 
posset pot ... sold 30th January 1979. lot 8",  4. Stephenson comments
(September 19981 
February 25, 1986, lot 43.                 Pearce comments (September 19981.

2. Grigsby, Chipstone, no 16, Archer, V&A, 
nos. D.10-D.11; Austin. Delft, no. 11; Crellin, 
Wellcome, nos. 362. 363 (with possibly modern 
1661 date), 364. 
 
 
D27, 
 
 
298 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
D E L F T WAR E [Beverage Wares 
 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
 
 
1)273 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 299 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                        
             DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
D275. PUZZLE/POSSET POT                                                 
             Posset Pots and Cups (Double -Handled) 
London 
Dated 1674 
 
 
H.: 5 3/8" (13.6 cm); 
Diam. (body): 6 1/2" (16.5 cm); 
Diam. (with spouts): 8 1/8" (20.6 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 10 1/8" (25.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handles of oval 
section with attached snakes (top of 
one restored). False bottom placed 
one-third of way up interior. Spout 
between arms and initial panels opens 
into upper chamber, other spout into 
lower. Slightly concave bottom, flat- 
tened near edge, has 3/4" (1.9 cm) tube 
rising from center to open into lower 
chamber. 
DECORATION: Painted. One side 
bears arms of Worshipful Company of 
Merchant Taylors and panel inscribed 
"TWE/1674." Other side bears more or 
 
less symmetrical bouquets of flowers 
with snails and flying insects. Primary 
decoration on spouts includes scroll- 
work. Handles bear linear borders, and 
snakes are dotted. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 903; Grigsby., Dated Longridge 
Delftware and slipware, pp. 880-881, pl. 71. 
Ex coll.: . P Kassebaum. 
 
 
The armorial bearings of the Worshipftul Company of Merchant Taylors have,

on this vessel, been simplified almost beyond recognition: the hanging motifs

are meant to represent "a pavilion imperial purple garnished or lined
ermine 
between two mantles [here robes) also imperial purple lined ermine."
The crest 
composed of a lamb against sunbeams and the camel supporters have been left

off, as has the motto "Concordia parvae res crescunt."I Merchant
Taylors' arms also 
appear on a caudle cup inscribed "1688/MARRIED APRILye 29," a mug
or jug 
inscribed "sBs/1694,'' and a 1722 dated tile.' 
   This unusual vessel probably had a lid originally. Although it appears
to have 
two nearly identical spouts, in reality, only the one on the armorial side
opens 
into the visible interior. The other spout gives access to a hidden lower
com- 
partment that could have been left empty or filled with some other liquid

through the hole in the bottom. If left empty, sucking the wrong tube would

have produced similar results to conventional "puzzle jugs" (see
nos. D296- 
D303) that frustrated would-be drinkers by producing only air when not 
approached correctly. 
   The floral decoration on the pot shown here derives from circa 1620 to
1680 
Ming Transitional porcelain, and delft fragments with decoration after the

same source have been found in London.4 (Such flowers were much copied in

Holland but were not taken up in England until well after the middle of the
sev- 
enteenth century.)5 Delftware with more or less similar motifs and dates
from 
1669 to 1678 include other posset pots, at least one mug, a scroll salt,
and (see 
well border) an undated "fecundity" dish and vase or jar (see nos.
D3, D208, 
D240, D365).1 Flowers and shield mantling much like those on the puzzle/pos-

set pot ornament a 1674 dated mug with the London Salters' Company arms 
and a 1682 cup with the arms of the London Company of Watermen (no. D244).

Related mantling occurs without the flowers on a 1672 Carpenters' arms posset

pot and a large armorial dish dated 1673 (no. D84).1 
 
 
300 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E Beverage Wares 
 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
 
 
1. Bromley, Guilds of London, col. pl 38, 
pp. 173-177. 
 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 795-796, 1692. 
 
3. For circulatory systems, see Crossley, 
Puzzle Jugs. 
 
4. Archer comments (1998), referring to frag- 
ments found by Garner. 
 
5. Archer, Oriental Influence, pp. 54-58; Sheaf 
and Kilburn, Hatcher Porcelain, pl. 51. For Conti- 
nental tin glaze, see van D)am, Gedateerd Delfts, 
no. 12; Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pls. 222B. 223, 
224B-224C, 225B. 
 
 
6. For 1674-1678 dated posset pots, see Rack- 
ham, Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 1333; Crellin, 
Wellcome, fig. 375; Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 907 908, and no. 905 for a relat- 
ed posset pot lid. For undated posset pots, see 
Crellin, Wellcome, nos. 375, 386 (latter is 
Dutch). For an undated delftware dish, see 
Horne, Collection, pt. 10, no. 251. For related 
butterflies with different flowers on a 1681 
plate, see Britton, Bristol, no. 10.26. 
 
7. Austin, Delft, nos. 84, 13. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 301 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE [Beverage Wares 
 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double -Handled) 
 
 
D276, D277. POSSET POTS 
 
London, Brislington, or Bristol 
1670-1690 
 
 
(D276) H.: 6 3/4" (17.1 cm); 
 
Diam. (with lid): 6 3/8" (16.2 cm); 
Diam. (with lid and spout): 7" (17.8 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handles): 9 1/4" (23.5 cm) 
(D277) H.: 7 1/4" (18.4 cm); 
 
Diam. (with lid): 7" (17.8 cm); 
Diam. (with lid and spout): 71/8" (18.1 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff 
TIN GLAZE: (D276) Greenish white 
 
and (D277) white with open crazing. 
(Both) Overall, excluding lower edges of 
 
lid sockets and bodies. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Single spouts of 
 
circular section. Handles of nearly 
circular section, scrolled at either end. 
 
Bottoms recessed to form flat-edged 
 
footrims. 
DECORATION: (D276) Painted. Chinese 
figures in rocky landscapes with plants. 
 
Finial bears foliate motif in circle. 
Handles bear slashes along spines and 
linear borders. Other borders composed 
 
of horizontal lines and, on lid, circles 
 
and circle-and-wavy-line band. 
 
Ex calls,: (D276) E. Pitts Curtis. (D277) L. Gautier; 
J. and K. Chorley. 
 
 
The first posset pot shown here (D276) displays a design inspired by Ming

Transitional porcelain; the undecorated second pot (D277) reflects a more
aus- 
tere (and probably less costly) fashion. The painted example (D276) is decorated

in an unusual palette' in a style sometimes associated with Brislington (see
also 
nos. D101-D103), although other centers also may have produced such wares.

Dated delftware with related ornament is known from the 1670s and 1680s (see

no. D106).1 
    White, cylindrical posset pots were made in London (see also nos. D273,

D274) but also may have been produced at Brislington or Bristol.' 
Evidence of the export of this form is provided by fragments of a mushroom-

shaped knop and tightly scrolled handles outlined in blue with slashes along

the spine, probably from posset pots or two-handled cups, excavated in 
Williamsburg, Virginia. A cylindrical, white posset pot with scrolled handles

was unearthed at the Broad Street site in New York City.' 
 
 
D)27( 
 
 
I)2 1/, 
 
 
1. See Grigsby, Chipsione, no. 33, tar a monteith  3. For a white, cylindrical
posset pot excavated 
bearing closely related ornament in the same  in London, see Britton, Bristol,
no. 53. 
palette.                                   4. See Austin, Delft, p. 69 (knop
frnom Governor's 
2. Archer, V&A, no. F.3 (1681 bowl). Lipski and  Palace; handles fraom
Wetherburn's Tavern); 
Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1039, and Rack-  p. 19, fig. 18 (white posset
pot, Archaeological 
ham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 87B, no. 1339 (1683  Collections, South Street
Seaport Museum, New 
bowl); pl. 99C, no. 1585 (1677 cup); pl. 106,  York, N.Y.). 
no. 1504, and pl. 107B, no. 1506 (1685 and 1687 
posset pots, 1686 stand). Noel Hume, London 
and Virginia, p. 30, pl. 17 (Glaisher collection, 
1683 flower container). 
 
 
302 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D276 
 
 
1)27'ý 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 303 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D278, D279. POSSET POTS 
 
 
Probably London 
1670-1695 
 
 
(D278) H.: 10 1/2" (26.7 cm); 
Diam. (with lid): 6 7/8" (17.4 cm); 
Diam, (with spout): 7 5/8" (19.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 111/2" (29.2 cm) 
(D279) H.: 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 7/8" (14.9 cm); 
Diam. (with spout): 6 3/8" (16.2 cm); 
Diam, (with handles): 7 5/8" (19.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: (D278) Fine-grained 
pinkish buff. (D279) Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Dark blue, (D278) some- 
what uneven, (D279) with surface matte 
from firing. (D278) Overall, excluding 
bottom edges of lid flange and footrim 
and large patches on bottom where 
glaze not adhered. (D279) Overall, 
excluding footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. (D278) Handles flat 
 
 
on interiors, convex on exteriors, with 
 
 
scrolled lower terminals; tubular spout 
descends on interior to bottom of 
bowl. Foot interior echoes profile of 
 
 
exterior, rising into hollow pedestal. 
Horizontal flange of lid with two marks 
from originally three pegs. (D279) Han- 
dles bear scrolled terminals. Spout of 
slightly flattened, circular section. Bot- 
tom slightly recessed to form nearly 
 
flat-edged footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted, Chinese 
 
 
figures in landscapes with rocks, plants, 
and (D278) fences. (D278) Borders on 
body composed of horizontal lines and, 
on foot, scrollwork band and band of 
 
 
ovals and wavy lines; lid borders 
 
 
composed of concentric circles and 
band of dots. Handles bear horizontal 
slashes bordered by dots. Spout bears 
lengthwise slashes. (D279) Borders on 
body composed of horizontal lines. 
Handles bear ovals, horizontal slashes, 
and linear borders. Spout similarly 
 
decorated but with dot borders. 
 
 
Although the first of these posset pots (D278) is extremely unusual in 
shape, in all other respects it and the second example (D279) fit into the
cate- 
gory of English pieces decorated with "Chinese-figures-in-landscapes"
painted 
on the cobalt-tinted glaze known as bleu persan or bleu de Nevers (see also

nos. D108, D109, D177, D180, D252). The fine painting style has close parallels

on other bleu persan pieces, including cisterns; cylindrical mugs (datable
by their 
shape to around 1690); an oval potted-meat container; a deep, lobed pot;
and 
several other pieces., Bleu persan fragments excavated at the Pickleherring
pro- 
duction site in Southwark correspond to the oval potting pot in shape and

display vertical-line plants with tiny strokes for leaves, as on the footed
posset 
pot shown here (D278). A bleu persan spouted vessel was unearthed at the

Norfolk House, Lambeth, production site,2 and bleu persan fragments also
have 
been excavated at Brislington. For a two-handled cup much like the second

posset pot shown here (D279) in body shape but with Chinese ornament in blue

against a white ground, see number D280. Also like the cup, the posset pot
orig- 
inally had a domed lid. 
 
 
1. For a cistern and discussion of bleu persan 
ornament, see Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 32. 
Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 19 
(cistern); Archer, V&A, no. C.13 (mug); Austin, 
Delft, no. 90 (mug); Home, Collection, pt. 11, 
nos. 292 (container), 294 (pot). For a bleu persan, 
globular mug with related plant and border 
motifs, see Austin, Delft, no. 89. 
2. Museum of London, Southwark and Lambeth, 
p. 334, no. 1333 (Pickleherring); Bloice, Norfolk 
House, p. 124, fig. 54, no. 66. 
 
 
D278 
 
 
D278 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1)279 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 305 
 
 
D278 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
D ELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
 
 
D280. CUP 
London, Brislington, or Bristol 
1670-1690 
 
H.: 4 5/8" (11.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 3/4" (14.6 cm); 
Diam, (with handles): 8" (20.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Pinkish buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Light turquoise with 
medium crazing. Overall, excluding 
center of bottom and footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handles nearly flat on 
interiors, concave on exteriors, with 
curled lower terminals. Short, nearly 
cylindrical footrim with flat edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese 
figures in rocky landscapes with plants. 
Borders composed of horizontal lines. 
Handles bear horizontal slashes. 
 
 
This two-handled cup probably originally had a domed lid with a mushroom-

shaped knop. The vessel's painted ornament is after designs on Ming Tran-

sitional porcelain and is one of several variations on Chinese themes popular

on English delftware in the late seventeenth century (see also nos. D101-D103,

D106, D276). Somewhat similar figures also occur on Dutch delftware of the

period.' 
 
 
1. See Erkelens, Delffs Porcelijn, 
p. 151, for a "Greek A factory" 
1678 1686 dish relating 
to fragments from William and 
Mary's palace at Het ILoo. 
 
 
306 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
DELF TWA R EJ Beverage Wa res. .......... 
 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
 
 
D281, D282. CUP AND 
POSSET POT 
 
 
London or Bristol 
(D281) 1675-1700 
(D282) 1690-1710 
 
(D281) H.: 4 5/8" (11.7 cm); 
Diam. (with lid): 3 3/8" (8.6 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handles): 5" (12.7 cm) 
(D282) H.: 5" (12.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4" (10.2 cm); 
Diam. (with spout): 4 1/2" (11.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 5 5/8" (14.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D281)slightly 
transparent with brown speckling. 
(Both) Overall, excluding where lid 
sockets and footrim edges wiped clean 
and (D282) unglazed patches within 
footrims. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Rolled handles. 
(D282) Spout of circular section. 
(Both) Bottoms recessed to form 
 
footrims. 
DECORATION: (D282) Painted. Highly 
stylized landscapes with vertical and 
horizontal lines, Borders composed of 
graduated arcs, horizontal lines, and, on 
 
lid, circles. Handles and spout bear 
horizontal slashes. (D281) Undecorated. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. For 1699 dated similarly bordered 
plates, see lIipski and Archer, lDated 
Deltlware, nos, 217 218, A so-bordered 
early 18t1h-cun)ry plate fragmeni was 
excivated at Williamlsburg, Va. (Aust in, 
DelIt, p. 149), 
2. Austin, IDelft no. 16; Lipski and Archer, 
Dated l)ellfware, no. 219. 
 
 
he date for the undecorated cup (D281), which has a blue splash from some

other object fired with it in the kiln, reflects the vogue during the third
and 
early fourth quarters of the seventeenth century for delftware left "in
the white" 
(see nos. D236, D273, D274). The plant motifs on the blue and white posset
pot 
derive from seventeenth-century Chinese porcelain designs, and the band of

graduated curves is a circa 1700 motif (see no. D167) that continued in popu-

larity for a decade or so.' Narrowly spaced, horizontal lines form filler
ornament 
on a small posset pot with simplified Chinese landscapes and a 1700 dated
plate 
depicting a European lady smoking a pipe., 
 
 
1)28 
 
 
D)282 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double -Handled) 
 
 
D283. CUP 
Probably London 
Dated 1680 
 
 
H.: 6 7/8" (17.5 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5 114" (13.3 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 8 1/4" (21 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
Overall, excluding lid socket and footrim 
edges and patches within footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handles and finial 
elements rolled. Bottom recessed to 
form narrow-edged footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Cartouche 
inscribed "IM/1680." (Reverse side 
undecorated.) Lid bears fleurs-de-lis, 
finial with blue detailing, and border 
composed of concentric circles. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 909. 
Ex calls.: A, Golding-Barrett, L. L. Lipski 
(no. 865); J. P Kassebaurn. 
 
 
ý nitialed cartouches appear on a broad range of delftware shapes
(see no. D78). 
Perhaps most closely related to this pot in terms of decoration is a (now
lidless) 
inverted-bell- shaped cup with two scroll handles. The cup is inscribed 
"AGA/1688" in a less clearly heart-shaped reserve.' The reserve's
"mantling" is 
 
generally similar in format to the type shown here and has similar dotted
elabo- 
rations and painted "finials." 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated D)elftware, 
no. 922. 
 
 
308 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
;I'-        _N 
,dM1 J&A 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
II 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
 
 
D284. CUP 
 
 
London or Bristol 
Dated 1695 
 
 
H.: 6 1/2" (16.5 cm); 
Diam. (body and lid): 4 1/8" (10.5 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 6" (15.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with blue to gray 
speckling. Overall, excluding majority 
of lid socket and footrim edges and 
unglazed patches within foottim. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Rolled handles, 
ornamented with small balls and 
scrolls. Lid bears turned finial and 
elements resembling the handles. 
Bottom slightly recessed to form 
narrow-edged footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted, trek style. 
Birds and flowers. Rim border composed 
of band of scrollwork with reserves 
inscribed "RF" and "1695," Other body 
and lid borders composed of circles 
and horizontal lines. Handles and finial 
scrolls bear scrollwork, dots, and 
dashes. Central finial element bears 
foliate motifs. 
 
Published: Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, Pic- 
torial History, p. 236, no, 1; Home, Collection, 
pt. 12, no. 328. 
Ex coil.: Green-painted collection number 
"D8.HD.86." 
 
 
Although the dated side on this pot might be expected to be "primary,"
the 
more elaborate scene on the initialed side indicates that the original owner
con- 
sidered it more important. Open patterns of flowers and, often, birds somewhat

like those seen here occur on dated posset pots and two-handled cups from
the 
1690s.1 The bird below the date panel also appears on other delftware (for
later, 
mirror-image bird, see nos. D63, D307)2 and derives from Chinese porcelain

motifs or, perhaps, is after an image in a "chinoiserie" design
book. Decorative 
rim bands with inscribed reserves similar in shape to those on the Longridge
pot 
ornament 1690s and early eighteenth-century dated posset pots and two-han-

dled cups.3 
 
 
1. I.ipski and Archer, lDated DelIftware, nos. 927 
(1691), 929 (1694), 9:32 (1696), 936 (1697). 
2. For undated posset pots with this motif, see 
Crellin, Wellcome, no. 372; Austin, Dielft, no. 19. 
3. l.ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 938 
(1699), 940 (1700), 942 (1701), 943 (1702)1 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 309 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D285. POSSET POT 
 
 
Probably Bristol 
1700-1715 
 
 
H.: 10 1/4" (26 cm); 
 
 
Diam. (body and lid): 7 3/4" (19.7 cm); 
Diam. (with spout): 8 5/8" (21.9 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 111/2" (29.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
 
 
Overall, excluding lid socket and 
 
 
footrim edges. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Strap handles with 
 
 
slightly concave exteriors supporting 
 
 
snakes. Bird finial supported by two 
 
 
joined pairs of rolled scrolls. Spout of 
circular section. Slightly concave 
bottom recessed to form flat footrim. 
 
 
Marks from two of originally three pegs 
under lid flange. 
DECORATION: Painted. Seated 
 
 
Chinese figures by tables, screens, and 
kettles and in landscapes with rocks 
 
 
and plants. Borders on body composed 
of horizontal lines and, on lid, circles; 
handles and lid finial bear dots and slash- 
es; herringbonelike pattern on spout. 
 
 
he decoration on this posset pot is taken from ornament on mid- to late 
seventeenth-century Chinese hard-paste porcelain and, on English delftware,
is 
of a type associated with Bristol.' A figure group much like that on the
back of 
the Longridge pot ornaments a punch bowl in this collection (no. D305) and
a 
two-handled cup that is twice-dated 1710, and a rare teapot displays plants
and 
(different) Chinese figures also painted in this style. The example shown
here, 
two other posset pots, and a lone posset pot lid all share closely related
decora- 
tion. All four are unusual in that paired scrolls like those on "scroll
salts" (see 
nos. D208, D209) support bird finials, and straps rather than the more typical

pairs of rolled elements form handles and support snakes." 
 
 
1. For a Continental tin-glazed bottle with a 
seated figure like the right-facing type on this 
pot, see Rackhaii, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 107A, 
no. 2596. 
 
 
2. For the cup, see Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 949; (side two) Sotheby's (L), Lipski 
sale (1), March 10, 1981, lot 83. For the teapot, 
see Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 1. For differently 
detailed figures, see Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 950 (1711 posset pot); and for a 
related jar without red dotting of the clothing, 
Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, col. pl. 1. 
3. Taggart, Burnap, no. 114; Crellin, Wellcome, 
no, 368; Britton, Bristol, no. 421 (lid). 
 
 
310 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
A \ 
 
 
- V 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELF TWARE {BeverageWae 
 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
 
 
I~*W~wN( 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 311 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D286. POSSET POT 
London or perhaps Bristol 
1700-1715 
 
 
H.: 8 1/8" (20.6 cm); 
Diam. (body): 7 1/8" (18.1 cm); 
Diam. (with spout): 7 5/8" (19.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 9 1/8" (23.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, possibly under a 
kwoort, or coating of lead glaze. Over- 
all, excluding lid socket edge, footrim, 
 
 
and wide patch immediately within 
 
 
footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown, Scrolled handles, 
flattened on interiors of rolls and 
 
 
f 
 
 
convex on exteriors. Spout of circular 
 
 
section. Bottom, slightly concave near 
 
 
center, recessed to form narrow 
footrim. Marks from two of originally 
 
 
three pegs under lid flange. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
 
 
Landscape with European men, one 
playing a lute, and a masked or black- 
faced, headdressed figure holding a 
 
 
bow and arrow and riding an elephant. 
Borders composed of horizontal lines 
and, on knop, radiating lines. Slashes 
ornament spout and handles; latter also 
 
 
bear dot borders. 
 
 
Ex coil.: E. Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
N o close parallels for the cheerfully patterned elephant and exotic rider

seen on this pot are known. Other polychrome pieces are possibly related
based 
on sponged trees and the unusual patterning of figural motifs: a jar depicts
a 
lady who wears an asterisk-patterned gown and walks a child by lead strings;
a 
flower bowl shows a polka-dotted, leaping animal in a landscape with a fort.'

Wavy-trunked, sponged trees and more or less formally painted standing figures

(derived from types on Dutch tin glaze) of the same general type as those
near 
the spout of the posset pot are not uncommon.' Differences in elegance of

design to some extent reflect varied skill levels on the parts of contemporary

decorators. 
 
 
1. For the jar, see Archer and Morgan, China 
Dishes, no. 39; (side two) Sotheby's (L), Morgan 
sale (2), March 25, 1980, lot 31. For the flower 
container, Britton, Bristol, no. 7.23. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. G.8; Crellin, Wellcome, 
no. 380; and for 1704 dated plates, Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 239-240. For more 
formally painted examples, see Ray, Warren, 
pl. 19, no. 56; Archer, V&A, nos. B.196, F.4; 
Austin, Delft, no. 21; Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 248 (1707 dish), 943 (1702 posset 
pot), 1047 (1708 bowl). 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
 
 
D287. POSSET POT 
Bristol or London 
1700-1720 
 
 
H.: 4 7/8" (12.4 cm); 
Diam. (body and lid): 4 1/8" (10.5 cm); 
Diam. (with spout): 4 5/8" (11.7 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 6" (15.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white with 
pitting (especially on bottom). Overall, 
 
excluding lid socket and footrim edges. 
S H APE: Thrown. Strap handles, rounded 
on interior, concave on exterior, with 
slightly curled lower terminals. Spout 
of circular section. Bottom recessed to 
form flat-edged footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers and 
foliage with scrollwork and dot filler 
ornament. Borders composed of scroll- 
work, cross-filled dots, and horizontal 
lines. Handles and spout bear horizontal 
slashes/lines; spout also bears bordering 
vertical dashes. 
 
 
U arsleylike leaves typically are features of delftware from the first decades
of 
the eighteenth century. They are found with hatched triple-leaf motifs set

against a dotted background on a "NS/1707" inscribed jug painted
in the same 
colors as this posset pot.1 The same features (with asterisks rather than
dots as 
filler ornament) occur on a polychrome plate that, because of its border
orna- 
ment, is associated with the end of the seventeenth century. Several other

polychrome posset pots also combine birds and flowers with parsley-leaf and

scroll motifs.2 The striated flower petals and color palette on this posset
pot are 
much like those on a Longridge mug (no. D255) of about the same date. 
 
 
1. Rackhani, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 123B, no. 1654 
(see also Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 984). 
2. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, no. 38 
(plate). For posset pots, see Crellin, Wellcome, 
no. 373: Britton, Bristol, no. 4.2. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 313 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE 1 Beverage Wares 
 
Posset Pots and Cups (Double-Handled) 
 
 
D288. CUP 
Bristol or London 
Dated 1716 
 
 
H 3" (7.6 cm); 
Diam. (body): 3 7/8" (9.8 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 5 1/2" (14 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Blue-greenish white 
with occasional pitting, especially on 
interior and bottom. Overall, excluding 
footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown with pushed-out rib 
near rim. Handles composed of scrolls 
with applied scrolled tabs. Nearly cylin- 
drical footrim with narrow, flat edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. On side one, 
European ladies in landscape with 
buildings; on side two, bird and flower 
motifs. Borders composed of horizontal 
lines and band of pendant filled arcs 
elaborated with foliate motifs and scrolls. 
Mottled handles. Bottom dated "1716." 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 955; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, pp. 881-882, pl. 12. 
Ex coils.: Mrs. Caldwell; D. Cooper; 
P Glover, E. Pitts Curtis, 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                             Actual size 
 
 
This two-handled cup, dated 1716, almost certainly is decorated by the same

hand as a 1715 dated punch bowl (no. D307) also in this collection. The vessels

closely resemble one another in painting style and share several elements:
the 
buildings, a (hatless) female figure, plants, painted filling of the hillocks,
a bird 
motif (on the back of the cup), and the calligraphic numbering style for
the 
dates. A pair of plates inscribed "ACE/1715' displays closely related
figures; one 
also has related buildings and similar floral motifs (see the back of the
cup). 
Such flowers often are associated with Bristol.' Two cups with undersides

inscribed, respectively, "EWi1707" and "ML/1727" resemble
the one shown here 
in their profiles and unusual handles.' The figures and trees on the 1707
cup are 
somewhat like those on the 1715 punch bowl (no. D307), and the 1727 cup has

somewhat similar flowers to those on the cup shown here. For fuddling cups

displaying related folate motifs and densely sponged handles, see numbers

D294, D295. 
 
 
1. Ray, Warren, p. 157, no. 59; pl. 22, 
nos. 59-60. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 947, 957. 
 
 
314 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D289. POSSET POT 
Bristol or London 
1700-1720 
 
 
H.: 10 1/2" (26.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 10 1/8" (25.7 cm); 
Diam. (with spout): 10 3/4" (27.3 cm); 
Diam. (with handles): 13 314" (34.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
edge of foot. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handles are pairs of 
rolls, flattened on interiors, with 
scrolled terminals flanked by applied 
scrolls. Twisted "snakes" on handle 
spines. Spout of oval section. Bottom 
echoes exterior profile. 
DECORATION: Painted. Two pairs of 
bird-and-flower motifs framed in 
foliate and linear scrollwork, Borders 
composed of horizontal lines and 
bands with, respectively, floral reserves, 
filled arcs and curvilinear motifs, filled 
triangles, and (on foot) pseudofliuting, 
Foliate band on spout. 
 
 
This unusually large posset pot and a somewhat smaller one of approxi- 
mately the same shape originally had lids. Like the one shown here, the smaller

pot has twisted snakes on its handles, but it differs in its bird-and-flower

motifs., The painted decoration on both pots indicates that they were made
at 
Bristol. As early as 1687, domed feet occur on snake-handled posset pots
with 
convex neck "moldings"; examples without the neck moldings bear
dates into 
the early 1700s.1 Leafy borders resembling that on the spout of the pot shown

here also occur on a polychrome plate dated 1707, a 1710 dated shoe, and
is 
especially close in style to that on a blue and white mug dated 1720. For
birds 
and flowers in the same color range on a salt, see number D214. 
 
 
1. Britton, Bristol, no. 4.16. 
2. Lipski and Archer. Dated 
Delftware, nos. 917, 918 (with twist- 
ed snakes), 933, 940 944, 95:3. 
3. Ibid., nos. 250, 1721; Britton, 
Bristol, no. 6.5. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 315 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
D290, D291. FUDDLING CUPS 
 
London, probably Southwark 
 
(D290) Dated 1641 
 
(D291) 1635-1660 
 
 
(D290) H.: 3 3/8" (8.6 cm); 
Diam.: 5 5/8" (14.3 cm) 
 
(D291) H.: 3 1/2" (8.9 cm); 
 
Diam.: 5 3/8" (13.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White (D290), slightly 
transparent, (D291) slightly greenish and 
 
runny. Bottoms unglazed. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Rolled and twisted 
 
handles, Joined bellies of vessels 
 
pierced to form single, larger vessel. 
 
Rough-textured bottoms with slightly 
 
concave centers. 
DECORATION: Painted. (D290) 
 
Inscribed "1641 BR OTH [E or F]R." 
 
Published: (D290) Lipski and Archer, Doted 
Delftwore, no. 882. 
Ex coll.: (Both) E. Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
                                            DELFTWARE lBeverage Wares 
 
                                            Fuddling Cups 
 
 
 
 
 
 
he nine known examples of dated delftware fuddling cups commemorate 
years from 1633 to 1649 (no. D293).1 None of the other dated examples are
very 
similar in decorative style to the 1641 example (D290). Its inscription may
have 
been intended to be read as "BROTHER," and the droopy-centered
H has paral- 
lels (not conjoined with Ts) on delftware with dates from around 1630 to
1660.2 
   A three-part, seventeenth-century delft fuddling cup inscribed "DRYNCK
ALL 
BOYSE" helps to associate vessels of this type with communal drinking.'
An 
early reference to the form dates to 1791, when the Reverend J. Collinson
wrote 
of earthenware (some probably slipware) manufacture in Donyatt, Somerset:

"The chief productions of the Crock Street potteries would appear to
have been 
jolly Boys or Fuddling Cups, which were three drinking cups joined in one
so 
that they could all three be drunk from at the same time.", 
    Fragments of glazed delftware fuddling cups have been excavated in South-

wark, and biscuit examples were found at Platform Wharf, Rotherhithef 
Clusters of three or four vessels are most common for English tin-glazed
fud- 
dling cups, but slipware versions (see nos. S76, S77) can have up to ten.i

Continental delftware fuddling cups typically are differentiated from English

ones based on shape (with individual vessels often of a somewhat smoother,

elongated baluster profile), decoration, body clay, and glaze characteristics.

 
 
1)290 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 877 
885. For an example with possibly modern 
inscription ("1644 S:C"), see Sotheby's (L), Rous 
Lench sale (1), July 1, 1986, lot 41. 
2. For mugs, Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 706 (1629), 722 (1644), 724 (1645), 729 
(1650), 744 (1660); fbr a posset pot, no. 886 
(1631). 
3. Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (2), November 17, 
1981, lot 231. 
 
 
4. Coleman-Smith and Pearson, l)onyatt, p. 40. 
5. Archer, V&A, no. D.2; Stephenson comments 
(September 1998), noting that the Rotherhithe 
vessels all had lost their necks. 
6. Coleman-Smith and Pearson, Donyatt, 
pls. 27, 28; pp. 282-285, fig. 147. 
 
 
316 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 317 
 
 
1)290 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
D)291 
 
 
AcLiual size 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Fuddling Cups 
 
 
D292. FUDDLING CUP 
 
 
London, probably Southwark 
 
1630-1650 
 
 
H.: 3 1/4" (8.3 cm); 
 
Diam.: 4 5/8" (11.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White with blue and 
 
brown speckling. Overall, excluding 
 
majority of bottoms. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Rolled and twisted 
 
handles. Joined bellies of vessels 
 
pierced to form single, larger vessel. 
 
Rough textured, slightly concave 
 
bottoms. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Each cup 
 
bears similar bird on branch under 
curvilinear motifs. Three trefoil elements 
 
centered over conjoined region. Handles 
 
bear scrolls, trefoil motifs, and outlines. 
Borders composed of horizontal lines. 
 
 
FD 
IDirds very like the type on this cup are known on dated English delftware

 
from the 1630s and occur in slightly different form on examples from a few

years earlier (for 1628 bottles, see nos. D218, D219).' Scrolled motifs resembling

those near the rims of this cup occur as part of floral motifs on an otherwise

white, circa 1640 fuddling cup and are not uncommon on Dutch delftware.,

Another fuddling cup, though it bears neither birds nor arabesques, is virtu-

ally identical to the Longridge example in shape and the painting of its
(hori- 
zontal-line) borders and its line, scroll, and trefoil handle ornament.,

 
 
Actual size 
 
 
        1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
        nos. 886-888; for different form, nos. 706 707, 
        1250 1253, 1511. 
        2. Archer, V&A, no. D.3. 
        3. Home, Collection, pt. 19, no. 553 (also Sothe- 
        by's {NYI, Koger sale, October 24, 1998, lot 1001). 
 
 
318 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
catalog), pl. 17; Lipski and Archer, Doted 
Delftware, no, 883, 
Ex coils.: M. Solt, J. H Taylor, F. Berry, 
 
 
MD 
D    ased on its shape, handle decoration, and date numerals, this fuddling
cup 
 
may be from the same factory as two others with the same date: the first
is all 
in white except for "RTp/1649' over a paraph on one vessel; the second
bears a 
single digit of the date above matched Chinese flowers on each vessel. Although

the cup shown here also includes a few Chinese motifs (notably the dotted
flow- 
ers), it primarily relies on designs from Dutch tin glaze or perhaps published

images for its floral elements. 
 
 
1. Iipski and Archer, Dated Dlelfiware, nos. 884 
885 (Glaisher collection, nos. 1307-1928, 1306- 
1928). 
2. See Archer and Morgan, China I)ishes, no. 5, 
for undated example with Chinese flowers. See 
Rackhani, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 81B, no. 1294, for 
the floating miotifs on a 163,1 posset pot with 
Chinese designs. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 319 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
D294, D295. FUDDLING CUPS 
London or Bristol 
1700-1730 
 
(D294) H.: 5" (12.7 cm); 
Diam: 9 3/4" (24.8 cm) 
(D295) H.: 3" (7.6 cm); 
Diam.: 5 5/8" (14.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: (D294) Fine- and 
(D295) medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: (D294) Bluish white. 
Overall, excluding bottom edges of 
feet. (D295) Very pale turquoise, slightly 
transparent, somewhat runny on inte- 
rior. Overall, excluding majority of 
bottom edges. 
SHAPE: Thrown, (D294) with spout 
attached to base tube that joins six 
cups with holes in bottoms. (Both) 
Rolled and twisted handles. (D294) Four 
feet with concave centers to bottoms. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Different floral motifs, birds, and 
insects on fronts and (D294) backs of 
cups. (D294) Base ring bears Chinese 
cloud-scrolls and flowers. Spout bears 
scroll and flower motifs and, at tip, 
dashed border. Sponged handles, and 
(D294) cup rims and feet. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
Fuddling Cups 
 
 
N o other fuddling cup of the form of the more complex example (D294)- 
with vessels opening into a tubular ring and accessed through a spout has

been discovered among English delftware. The shape has much in common 
with spoutless "ring vases" known from antiquity and made on the
Continent 
in various ceramic types during the seventeenth century. The closest English

relative to the example shown here may be a late seventeenth- or early eigh-

teenth-century vessel in reddish earthenware with a brown slip or glaze.'
The 
piece is composed of four slightly waisted, inverted-bell-shaped cups mounted

on a tubular ring, and it has a spout and arched twisted-roll handles that,
in 
shape and placement, are much like those of the delftware example (D294)

shown here. 
    Ornament on the delft fuddling cup relates to types on other dated delft

shapes. Painted scrolls much like those on its base ring and spout are found
on 
circa 1700 dated delftware (see no. D284).1 Some flowers and foliage and
the ner- 
vous quality of the painting resemble design elements on a tea canister dated

1726.4 and the dense, dark sponging, also seen on the second, simpler cup

shown here (D295), has parallels on appendages of two-handled cups from,

respectively, 1707, 1716 (no. D288), and 1727.1 
    Delft fuddling cups with comparatively wide necks (compare nos. D290-

D293) typically are thought to be latish in date. The fashion for delft fuddling

cups died out by the 1730s but continued much later for slipware versions
(see 
nos. D218, D219). 
 
 
1. See Coleman-Smith and Pearson, Donyatt, 
p. 281, for non-English Iron Age, Roman English, 
late Saxon, and other versions. For 1600 1650 
Low Countries slipware ring vases, see Hurst, 
Neal, and van Beuningen, Pottery, p. 169, pl. 28; 
pp. 172 173, fig. 85, nos. 252, 253. 
 
 
2. Earle, Collection, pp. 10-11, no. 4. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 943. 
4. Ibid., no. 1514, and no. 950, for a 1711 posset 
pot with related flowers and plants in a Chinese 
figural landscape. 
5. Ibid., nos. 947, 957. 
 
 
320 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
1D295 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D294 
 
 
D294 
 
 
D294 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 321 
 
 
D)294 
 
 
D294 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
                                                                        
               DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
D296. JUG                                                               
               jugs 
 
Probably Southwark, London 
Dated 1662 
 
 
H.: 111/2" (29.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 8 1/2" (21.6 cm); 
Diam, (with handle): 10" (25.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained orange-buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightly transpar- 
 
ent, flaking in places. Pitting and poorly 
adhered patches on interior. Overall, 
excluding where bottom wiped clean. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown, with pronounced 
molding at base of neck. Handle flat on 
 
interior, grooved on exterior (with 
fragment of another pot adhered during 
firing), with curled lower terminal 
Bottom slightly concave. 
DECORATION: Painted. Central 
reserve with Charles II and Catherine of 
Braganza and inscription "HMS/1662/CR2 
QDK" set among exterior scenes with 
 
Chinese figures, flowers, and buildings. 
Borders composed of horizontal lines 
and bands with, respectively, wavy, 
flowering vine; zigzagged lozenges and 
graduated curvilinear motifs; and inter- 
 
locking S-scrolls. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Doted Delft- 
ware, no. 974; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftwore and Slipwore, pp. 878-879, pl. 5. 
Ex coil. T7 G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 973. 
2. Ibid., nos. 760, 765 (1663, 1668 cups); 
Manchester, Greg Collection, no. 63 11666 cup). 
3. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 83, no. 1311; 
I tpski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 969. 
4, See Burlington (1914), pl. 30, case D, no. 47, 
for an unusual portrait of Charles ("CR") and 
Catherine ("KR") painted inside a porringer. 
5. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1594. 
6. Atkins, Exhibition (1997), no. 10. 
7. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 2218. 
8. Archer, V&A, no. A.56; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 3.10. 
 
 
Only one jug other than the example shown here is known to bear a royal 
portrait; that one shows a three-quarter-length image of Charles II alone
in cer- 
emonial garb (with ermined robe over clothing, rather than armor) and holding

an orb and scepter. The 1660 date on that vessel commemorates Charles's coro-

nation. The 1662 date on the Longridge jug memorializes his marriage to 
Catherine (see Time Line, pp. 12-13).1 (The D in Catherine's "Q@K"
inscription 
perhaps is an accidental carryover from "CR2D," often representing
Charles 
"the second.") The reserve border on the 1660 jug is a slightly
pear-shaped 
version of the type seen here; the reserve is set against ship scenes much
like 
those on a 1650 dated Apothecaries' arms jug that relates closely to the
Long- 
ridge vessel in shape." For stylistically different portraits of Charles
II and 
Catherine on other shapes, see numbers D8-D10, D14, D15, D225, D239. 
   Rare parallels for the extraordinary schematic Chinese figures (with small

heads and perfunctory features) holding flags or baskets of flowers, towering

over buildings, and being dwarfed by giant plants and flowers are found on

three large display drug jars. Two of these have pseudogadrooned borders
(see 
no. D394) and huge daisylike flowers; one of them is dated 1658 and has Apothe-

caries' Company arms and tall, standing Chinese figures, one holding a flag;'

the other has similar standing figures, one of whom holds a basket of flowers.,,

On the third jar are giant flowers, buildings with domes, and seated and
stand- 
ing figures, one with a flag. 
   Based on their decoration, date, and the quantity of delftware thought
to 
have been made there, the jars and Longridge jug probably were produced in

Southwark, perhaps at a single workshop. Trees with dotted outlines resem-

bling one on the jug and comparable, but less sketchily drawn, buildings
with 
towers and domed roofs ornament a 1675 dated dish and one made around 
1668.1 Evidence indicates that both of these dishes are from London. 
 
 
322 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Jugs 
 
 
D297. JUG 
 
Probably London 
Dated 1674 
 
 
H.: 9 1/2" (24.1 cm); 
Diam. (body): 7 1/4" (18.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 8 3/8" (21.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained dark 
buff 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly off-white with 
much crazing and some small poorly 
 
adhered patches. Overall, excluding 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle flat on interi- 
or with lengthwise, bold rib on exterior 
 
and tapering lower terminal with inden- 
tation at top. Slightly concave bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese scene 
with figures, plants, willow and palm 
 
trees, and rocks. Inscribed "S:G/1674." 
Borders composed of band with pen- 
 
dant, wavy-edged, triangular leaves and 
horizontal lines. Handle bears rows of 
dots, horizontal slashes, and central 
vertical line. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft- 
ware, no. 978. 
Ex coll.: T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
TO'his large jug shares several design elements and stylistic features with
a 
1672 goblet bearing London Vintners' Company arms and a 1673 dated cup 
(no. D241).( These features in combination with the close dates may indicate

that the vessels are of the same origin. A pierced-rimmed dish inscribed

"RMM/1674" shows a quirky hunched-back and another figure painted
in a 
 
style somewhat like that used for figures on the Longridge jug.' One undated

puzzle jug (resembling no. D299 in shape) has a leafy border much like that
on 
the jug shown here and, like the other vessels, depicts a Chinese figure
hold- 
ing a baluster-shaped vase.,' The leafy border, derived from designs on Ming

Transitional porcelain, also recurs on Dutch tin glaze and on an English
1675 
dated puzzle jug with plants depicted somewhat similarly to those on the
jug 
shown here. For a 1669 dated mug with a leafy border, see number D240. 
 
 
1. For 1672 goblet, see Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 874 (Glaisher collec- 
tion). 
2. Ibid., no. 135. 
3. Britton, London, no. 91. 
4. See Ayers, Impey, and Mallet, Palaces, 
p. 192, no. 182, for Chinese reference and 
1670-1680 Dutch large jar with leafy lower 
border. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 1011 (1675 dated jug). 
 
 
324 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 32S 
 
 
44 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
 
Puzzle jugs 
 
 
D298. PUZZLE JUG 
 
Southwark, London 
 
 
c. 1644 
 
 
H.: 6" (15.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 1/8" (10.4 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 5" (12.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained reddish 
 
buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Creamy white. Overall, 
 
excluding virtually all of bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Hollow handle of 
 
 
circular to oval section with small hole 
 
 
under upper end. Slightly concave 
 
 
bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Four nearly 
 
circular panels with repeated geometric 
 
 
MD 
ruzzle jugs, popular for use in some drinking games, were produced in virtu-

ally all English ceramic types from medieval times on (for slipware examples,

see nos. S47, S75, S89-$91). Two 1644 dated delftware bottles are very similar
to 
the rare example shown here in their neck and handle ornament and horizontal-

line borders. One of the bottles has identically patterned panels; on the
other, 
somewhat different scrollwork forms a wide band.' (In 1644 factories active
in 
Southwark included Montague Close, Pickleherring, and Rotherhithe.) The 
panel motifs on this puzzle jug derive from ornament on Chinese porcelain
and 
have parallels on Italian and Dutch tin-glazed earthenware.' Another puzzle
jug, 
identical to the example shown here in shape and in neck and handle ornament,

has "bird-on-rock" motifs (see nos. D218, D219) on the body."
Dates on English 
delftware with such motifs range from the 1620s to the early 1650s, and 
fragments decorated in this way have been excavated in Southwark. 
 
 
and foliate pattern. Borders on body 
 
 
composed of horizontal lines, those on 
 
neck with superimposed vertical 
 
straight and wavy lines. Handle and rim 
 
bear irregular banding. 
 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 17 no. 484. 
 
 
1. See Crossley, Puzzle jugs, for circulatory 
systems. 
2. lipski and Archer, Dated Delitware, 
nos. 1284 1285. 
3. For related motifs on an early 17th- 
century Dutch dish, see Scholten, van 
Drecht, no. 42. 
4. Pountney, Bristol, pl. 9, and Rackham, 
Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 1297. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
to, 0 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
example resembles this one in neck shape 
and piercings (see Crossley, Puzzle Jugs, 
p. 83, no. 3d). 
3. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, 
no. 13. 
4. Britton, London, no. 91. 
 
 
5 everal aspects of this jug's ornament, such as the cloud banks resembling

pancake stacks and the dotted and other small filler ornament, typically
are 
associated with Brislington.' Based on vessels of related shape, however,
London 
perhaps is a more likely place of manufacture for the vessel. One probably
Lon- 
don puzzle jug of approximately this shape is all in white except for the

inscription "wCE/1653" amid small arabesques and a paraph.! A 1650s
white 
candlestick with bossed decoration (see also no. D274) is attributed to London

and has two diagonally pierced knops resembling those on the neck of the
puz- 
zle jug shown here., Another undated puzzle jug, much like this one in shape,

has blue and white Chinese decoration, including a leaty border relating
to that 
on a 1674 dated jug in this collection (no. D297).1 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 327 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
D E L F T W A R E ý Beverage Wares 
 
 
Puzzle jugs 
 
 
D300. PUZZLE JUG 
 
London 
 
Dated 1742 
 
 
H.: 8 7/8" (22.5 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 5 3/8" (13.6 cm); 
 
Diam. (with handle): 6 3/4" (17.1 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff 
 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white with 
 
gray to blue speckling. Heavily pitted 
 
on handle. Overall, excluding irregular 
 
band around edge of bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown, with tubular spouts 
 
(one restored), rim, and handle. Handle 
 
of circular section with small hole under 
 
upper end. Slightly concave bottom. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese "band- 
 
ed hedge" with birds, fences, flowering 
 
plants and trees, and insects. Inscribed 
 
"lohn;Keeling." and "1742." Primary decora- 
 
tion's border composed of floral swags, 
 
flowers, scrolls, and lappets with (at bot- 
 
tom) horizontal and zigzag lines. Neck 
 
bears solid bands and bands of trelliswork 
 
with two floral reserves. Handle bears 
 
wavy band of scrolls and foliate motifs. 
 
 
Published Garner, Lambeth, Bristol or Liver- 
pool, pt 82a; Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1026, Garner and Archer, Delft- 
ware, pl. 64; Garner, Delftware, pl. 53; Archer, 
Rijksmuseum, pl. 89; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, pp. 884-885, p1. 17 
Ex coils.: F H. Garner; T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
he brilliant palette, delicacy of painting, and reliance on kakiemon porce-

lain designs evident on this stunning puzzle jug also are demonstrated in
the 
(different) patterns on a 1740 dated punch bowl in this collection (no. D312).1

"Banded hedge" motifs, an example of which appears on the jug,
are more com- 
mon on Continental and English porcelain' but do occasionally occur on 
English delftware (see no. D196).,' Delft fragments with a banded-hedge motif
in 
the same bright colors have been excavated in Lambeth.4 
    The following note about John Keeling, whose name appears on the jug,
was 
supplied by Frank Britton: 
       John Keeling was baptized on 21 March 1742, so this charming 
       puzzle jug was evidently a christening present. His parents were 
       John Keeling of St. James Clerkenwell and Ann Preest of Kingston 
       Surrey, who were married on 3 January 1739 in the private chapel 
       of Lincoln's Inn, one of the Inns of Court in which people were 
       trained for the legal profession. It is likely that this young John

       Keeling was descended from Sir John Keeling, who was Lord High 
       Justice of the King's Bench 1663-1671, for he also lived in St. James

       Clerkenwell.5 
    A salt-glazed brown stoneware puzzle jug, also in this collection (not
illus- 
trated), bears a Portobello relief scene and the date 1741. It is quite similar
to 
this one in overall profile and in its three large mouthpieces and has been

linked to the Vauxhall pottery through archaeological material.6 
 
 
1. The Dutch imported Japanese porcelain 
decorated in this way into Europe from 
1659 onwards. For kakiemon porcelain as a 
design source, see Archer, V&A, pp. 31-32, 
fig. 15. For 1680-1700 Japanese porcelain 
with banded hedge motifs, see Ayers, lmpey, 
and Mallet, Palaces, nos. 121, 124, 130, 139; 
no. 136, for related birds; nos. 281, 288, for 
related motifs on Dutch and French tin 
glaze. 
2. For English porcelain, see Spero, Worces- 
ter, no. 5, col. pl. 5; Adams and Redstone, 
Bow, col. pl. B, p. 123, fig. 47B; Gabszewicz 
and Freeman, Bow, nos. 52-54, 55-58, 59; 
Rice, Derby, no. 125. For related motifs on a 
1739 dated Dutch delft dish, see van Dam, 
Gedateerd Delfts, pp. 38 39. 
3. For a bowl particularly close to the Long- 
ridge jug in ornament, see Ayers, Impey, 
and Mallet, Palaces, no. 289. See also Lipski 
and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 827 
(1745 dated mug); Archer, V&A, nos. F.19, 
E20 (bowls); Austin, Delft, no. 101 (mug); 
Christie's (L), May 18, 1992, lot 2 (reticulat- 
ed tea kettle); Britton, Bristol, nos. 6.2 
(mug), 12.87 (plate); Rackham, Glaisher, 
vol. 2, pl. 124D, no. 1674 (bowl). 
4. Archer, V&A, no. E19. 
5. Archer comments (1998). 
6. See Horne, Collection, pt. 6, no. 142. 
 
 
328 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 329 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D301, D302, D303. PUZZLE JUGS 
(D301, D302) London or Liverpool 
(D301) Dated 1732 
(D302) Dated 1733 
(D303) Liverpool or Bristol 
Dated 1752 
 
 
(D301) H.: 7 3/8" (18.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 51/4" (13.3 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 7 3/8" (18.7 cm) 
(D302) H.: 7 1/4" (18.4 cm); 
Diam. (body): 51/8" (13 cm); 
Diam. (handle to spout): 7 1/4" (18.4 cm) 
(D303) H.: 7 1/4" (18.4 cm); 
Diam. (body): 5" (12.7 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 6 5/8" (16.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: (D301, D302) Slightly 
transparent bluish white. Overall, 
excluding most of bottoms. (D303) 
Bluish white. Overall, excluding footrim 
bottom and irregular patches within it. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with pierced necks 
 
 
and three-nozzled, hollow rims. 
Hollow handles of circular section with 
holes on undersides near upper ends. 
(D301, D302) Slightly concave bottoms. 
(D303) Slightly concave bottom 
recessed to form footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. (D301) Inscribed 
"Here Gentlemen come try your Skill/l'le 
hold a wager if you will:/That you don't 
drink this liquor a[l;/Without you spill or 
lett some fall./1732." (D302) Inscribed "Here 
Gentlemen come try yr: Skill,/lI'e hold a 
wager if you will:/That you don't drink this 
liquor alt;/Without you Spill or lett some 
fall./1733." (D303) Inscribed "Here Gentle- 
men come try your skill/lie hold a wager if 
you will/That you dont Drink this LiQuor 
all/But you will sPill or Lett some fal[/1752." 
All three jugs bear floral panels. 
 
 
1)301, I302 
 
 
[Dated delft puzzle jugs of approximately this shape are known from as early

as 1721. The 1732 example shown here (D301), however, appears to be the earli-

est dated one to display the very popular "Here Gentlemen" drinking
rhyme.' 
The latest dated puzzle jug with the rhyme is from 1784 and is also the latest

recorded dated delft puzzle jug of any type.' Variations on the rhyme occur
on 
dated slipware examples from around 1770 through at least the 1870s;ý'
one 
from 1774 (no. S91) is without the rhyme, but its inscription, "A/Pusling/Jug,"

provides an early title for the form. 
   The pierced pattern on the 1732 and 1733 delftware jugs (D301, D302) tradi-

tionally is associated with Liverpool, but it is not unlikely that more than
one 
center used the same pattern. The glaze of the two vessels is more typical
of Lon- 
don delftware. The third jug (D303) is stylistically different from the first
two 
and is unusual for its painted colors. Its late date, 1752, and the quality
of the 
painting may indicate that it was made in Liverpool.' (Other patterns of
pierced 
circles have been attributed to Bristol.)' A few undated, baluster-shaped
puzzle 
jugs from around 1750 also bear the "Here Gentlemen" rhyme and
may have 
been made in Delftfield, near Glasgow, Scotland, or Dublin, Ireland.' 
 
 
Published: (D301) Home, Collection, pt. 9, 
no. 225. (D303) Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1028. 
Ex coIls.: (D303) Dr. C. H. J. Price; J. V Vizcarra. 
 
 
D303 
 
 
330 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
'5krc~ 
,521L ~1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1)3U1, W)302 
 
 
1. See Lipski and Archer, D)ated Delftware, 
nos. 1016-1018, for 1721 1729 dated examples 
of this shape. Austin, Delft, no. 31, states this 
rhyme occurs on 85 percent of the 50 or so 
examples bearing pairs of couplets. 
 
2, See Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 1035 (1784 cylindrical puzzle jug); and 
nos, 1020-1023, 1032 1033, for other dated 
puzzle jugs with the rhyme. 
 
3. A 1779 one is inscribed. "Gentlemen now try 
your skill./I'll lay you Sixpense if you willfIDrink 
out of this without a/spill" (V&A Museum collec- 
tion, no. C339-1919). For 19th-century slipware, 
see Crossley, Puzzle jugs, p. 76, fig. la (1850); 
Sotheby's (L), _June 6, 1989, lots 324 (1876), 326 
(1860); Draper, I)ated, pl. 13 (1877), and for an 
earthenware (not slipware) example, 
pl. 25 (1845). 
 
4. Archer, V&A, nos. 1).5 1.8. Horne comments 
(October 1998). For a 1674 dated, probably Ion- 
don dish with related pierced flowers, see ILipski 
and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 135. 
 
5. For a "Here Gentlemen" puzzle jug somewhat 
similar in proportions, with handle and rim 
ornament much like that on the ILongridge pot 
and with a pierced pattern usually associated 
with I Liverpool, see Archer and Morgan, China 
Dishes, no. 69, 
 
6. Archer, V&A, nos. D).8: Grigsby, Chipstone, 
no. 22. 
 
7. Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 21. 
 
 
I) i, UJ 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 331 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
DELFTWARE ýBeverage Wares 
 
 
Punch Bowls 
 
 
H.: 6 5/8" (16.8 cm); 
Diam.: 12 1/2" (31.8 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise with 
occasional large pits, blow holes, and 
poorly adhered patches. Overall, 
excluding footrim bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. 
DECORATION: Painted. Exterior bears 
Chinese landscapes with figures, rocks, 
fences, and plants. Borders composed 
 
of horizontal lines. Interior central 
reserve bears large ship flanked by 
 
smaller ones. Borders composed of 
concentric circles and band of foliate 
motifs. 
 
 
A     ccording to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest English reference
to 
punch is in a 1632 letter stating, "I am very glad you have so good
compani to 
be with .... I hop you will keep a good house together and drinke punch by
no 
allowanc." A 1696 definition for the drink describes it as "a kind
of Indian drink 
made of Lime-Juice, Brandy, and other Ingredients," and two years later
it was 
written that "At Nerule" they "make that enervating liquor
called Paunch (which 
is Indostan for Five) from Five Ingredients." This Hindi origin for
the drink's 
name was recorded as early as 1672, but there are indications of European

sources for the term as well. (Some recipes also contain more than five ingre-

dients.) Punch was being drunk from or served in bowls (see no. D315, interior)

by the late 1650s; a 1658 letter includes the words "Your Company, which
wee 
haue often remembered in a bowle of the cleerest punch, hauing noe better

Liquor." 
    Somewhat surprisingly, delftware punch bowls are not known to predate

the early 1680s. Based on its nearly hemispherical profile, the punch bowl

shown here dates to around that time. Another, dated 1681, is of about this

shape (under a stronger turquoise glaze), has a different Chinese-figure-in-land-

scape scene, and, on the interior, displays the Coopers' Company arms.' The

turquoise casts to the glazes and quirky painting styles may indicate that
the 
bowls are from Brislington, but the arms open the possibility of London as
the 
place of manufacture. 
   The trek painting style (compare no. D253) of the Longridge bowl's exterior

scenes and the particular ship motif are of northern European origin.3 A
re- 
lated boat appears between two small ships on an English dish with a zigzag

lozenge border (for a variation, see no. Dll); one such vessel is perched
on her- 
ringbone-type waves (see no. D72) and again flanked by two diminutive ships

on an early eighteenth-century plate excavated at the Brush-Everard House
in 
Williamsburg, Virginia.4 
 
 
1. Oxford English Dictionary, vol. 8, p. 1595, also 
including a 1653 reference, "Bolleponge Ithought 
to derive from 'Bowl of Punch') est vii mot 
Anglois, qui signifie vne hoisson dour les Anglois vsent 
aox indes faite de sucre, suc de limon, eau de vie, fleur 
de muscade, & biscuit rosty"; Grigsby, Chipstone, 
no. 27. "Kalendarium, 1650-1672," in Evelyn, 
Diary, vol. 3, p. 313, records that John Evelyn 
consumed "spiritous drinks, as Punch &c" on "an 
East India vessel" in 1662 and cites E. Phillips's 
New World of English words (1658), in which 
punch is defined as "a kind of Indian drink." 
2. See Archer, V&A, no. F.3. 
3. For a somewhat similar boat on a c. 1630- 
1650 Delft or Haarlem plate, see Scholten, van 
Drecht, no. 199. 
4. Unearthing New England's Past, no. 1 (Gold- 
weitz collection); Austin, Delft, p. 149, 
concentric-circles border. 
 
 
332 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D304. PUNCH BOWL 
London or Brislington 
c. 1680 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Punch Bowls 
 
 
D305. PUNCH BOWL 
Probably Bristol 
 
1700-1715 
 
 
H.: 6 3/8" (16.2 cm); 
 
Diam. (average): 9 5/8" (24.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale blue to light 
 
turquoise, that on interior with loosely 
 
spaced, large pits. Overall, excluding 
edge of and uneven patches within 
 
footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Nearly cylindrical 
 
footrim with chamfered bottom. Trian- 
 
gular arrangement of stilt marks on 
bottom of interior. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. On side one, 
Chinese figures seated in landscape 
 
with trees, plants, rocks, and fences; on 
 
side two, Chinese boys near flower 
vase. Interior bears central fishermen(?) 
 
and grasses motif within border com- 
 
posed of six curvilinear elements. 
Exterior borders composed of horizon- 
 
tal lines and, on base, dart motifs. 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 19, no. 557 
 
 
MD 
D ased on its palette and decoration, both of which are derived from 
 
Chinese porcelain motifs, this punch bowl and a Longridge collection posset
pot 
(no. D285) form part of a group with several pieces of hollowware usually
attrib- 
uted to Bristol. Though no other punch bowl bearing ornament of this type
has 
been found, a few posset pots (one dated 1711), a 1710 dated two-handled
cup, 
and an undated teapot do display related figural scenes in the same colors.,

Seated adults in various poses are the most common figures depicted on such

wares, but the teapot and a covered jar (see no. D217 for approximate shape)

also portray single "boxing child" figures posed much like the
one at the right 
on the Iongridge bowl.' The teapot, jar, and some of the other examples also

share with the bowl paired (sometimes crossed) "golf club" motifs.
Differences 
in painting styles on the vessels in the group indicate that more than one
fac- 
tory produced them. (For cross-hatching of plants and grasses on a mug, see

no. D255, and for a seated woman in a somewhat similar style on a later 
Bristol plate, see no. D119.) 
    The distortion of the upper portion of the bowl, with the rim ranging
from 
9 1/4 inches (23.5 cm) to 10 inches (25.4 cm) across, presumably reflects
han- 
dling before the clay dried. Stilt marks on the interior of the bowl indicate
that 
another piece was fired within it. 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 949 
(1710 cup), 950 (1711 posset pot); Grigsby, Chip- 
stone, no. 1, and ttorne, Collection, pt. 4, no. 84 
(teapot). For other posset pots, see Taggart, 
Burnap, no. 114; Crellin, Wellcome, no. 368; 
Britton, Bristol, no. 421 (lid only). 
2. Archer and Morgan, (hina Dishes, col. pl. 1, 
no. 45. 
 
 
334 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 335 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D306. PUNCH or WASSAIL BOWL 
Probably London 
Dated 1708 
 
 
H.: 24 1/4" (61.6 cm); Diam: 14 1/2" (36.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white. Overall, 
 
 
excluding all lower edges. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with serrated rims 
 
 
and, below them, applied relief pears(?), 
 
 
lozenges, rings, and domed oval-and- 
dots motifs. 
DECORATION: Painted. Main portion 
of bowl exterior depicts hunt scene 
with buildings, plants, and trees. Bowl 
interior shows Bacchus holding wine 
bottle and goblet and sitting astride a 
barrel within a grapevine border. Upper 
 
 
three sections of vessel banded with 
 
 
flowers, scrolls, lappets, and dots, with 
 
some of the banding echoed on the 
 
 
foot of the bowl. Interior of spice hold 
 
 
er (the lidded, uppermost level) 
inscribed "EKE/1708." 
 
 
Published: Grigsby, Dated Longridge Delft- 
wore and Slipware, pp. 876-877 pis. , IA. 
Ex coll.: Beauchamp family. 
 
 
This large and imposing bowl is remarkable not only for its superlative paint-

ing but also for its state of preservation. It is not unlikely that the piece
was 
commissioned by the same persons who owned two plates (see no. D70) with

the same "E'E/1708' inscription and similar floral border elements.'

   The bowl is one in an early eighteenth-century group with tall pedestal

feet-rather than the much more common low feet. Many also originally had

elaborate covers.2 (For a 1752 footed bowl with a christening scene, see

no. D315.) Few of the bowls retain their lids, but where they do, each has
a small, 
covered container at the top. The closest parallel to such lids can be found
on 
the large, turned wooden bowls, often made of lignum vitae, that were used
for 
the wassail ceremony. Wassail derives from the Anglo-Saxon wes hasil, meaning

"health to you," and over time changed from being a general toast
to a distinct 
Twelfth-Night ceremony (after Christmas), when a bowl of hot spiced ale was

brought in for revelers. The normal recipe added nutmeg, sugar, and ginger
to 
an ale or cider base. Sometimes, when the pulp of roasted apples was added,
the 
mixture was known as "Lambs wool," and by the mid-eighteenth century,
rum 
was often included. Wassail seems always to have been made in some quantity,

which helps to explain the considerable capacity of wassail bowls. 
   Another bowl, now lidless, differs from the one shown here only in painted

details, and both stylistically resemble a large plaque with a hunting scene
in 
this collection (no. D419). The ornament on all three pieces undoubtedly
derives 
from prints, perhaps by a single artist.' 
   Considering the use of large bowls of this general type, Bacchus and grape

motifs are surprisingly uncommon. No closely comparable figure to the one

inside the Longridge bowl has been found. Inside two other bowls, one dated

1697 and the other made around the same time, are views of Bacchus facing
to 
the left and sitting astride a barrel.' Those figures share a single design
source, 
but the small plants in the 1697 bowl's scene are replaced in the undated
exam- 
ple with a goblet, low cups(?), and a punch bowl. 
 
 
1. Austin, Delft, no. 204. 
2. For dated punch bowls retaining their lids, see 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 1042 
(1697), 1045 (1705), 1068 (1724); for 1693 1727 
lidless examples with tall feet, nos. 1040-1078 
passim; for 1740s lidless examples, nos. 1103, 
1108, 1114. 
3. Archer comments (1998), citing Brears, Was- 
sail, figs. 2 4; ppý 170-173, 180-181. 
 
 
4. Archer comments (1998), citing bowl in the 
Baltimore Museum of Art, no. 73.76.156. 
5. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1042 
(lidded); Horne, Collection, pt. 14, no. 392. For a 
somewhat similar Bacchus on a William Great- 
batch creamware teapot (1770-1782), see Barker, 
Greatbatch, p. 214, pl. l11b. 
 
 
336 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 337 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
D ELFTWARE [Beverage Wares 
 
 
Punch Bowls 
 
 
D307. PUNCH BOWL 
 
 
Bristol or London 
Dated 1715 
 
 
H.: 7 1/8" (18.1 cm); 
Diam.: 11" (27.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise with occa 
sional pitting, especially on interior. 
Overall, excluding where lower region 
of footrim wiped clean. 
S H A P E: Thrown. Interior of footrim 
echoes exterior profile. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Exterior bears European figures in land- 
 
 
scape with buildings and inscription 
"GB/1715." Exterior borders composed of 
horizontal lines and band of stylized 
 
 
ju-i lappets. Interior reserve bears drink- 
ing and smoking scene with hunchbacked 
figures near table. Borders composed of 
circles, ring of scrolls and curvilinear 
motifs, and ring of dot clusters. 
 
 
This punch bowl is extremely likely to have been painted by the same hand

as a 1716 dated cup (no. D288) in this collection, with which it shares several

decorative features: the approach to painting plants and hillocks; other
land- 
scape features, such as the tower with a spire; a female figure; and a very

similar flying bird. A very large wassail bowl on a high foot displays a
very sim- 
ilar landscape with trees with divided, spreading roots; buildings with spires;

and standing and sitting men and women.' Two closely related plates dated

1715 (discussed under no. D288) share with the bowl the same male and female

types, the building with a spire, and the tree with spreading roots.' A 1710
dated 
bowl fragment unearthed in Lambeth displays a similar style of sponging;
a 
building with dotting around a central, arched door; and a portion of a male
fig- 
ure painted in a style not unlike that on the bowl." 
   It is quite unusual for the interior of a bowl to be painted in polychrome

when the exterior is in blue and white. (The interior's palette and the dot-pat-

terned fabrics are more like those on a posset pot and another punch bowl,
both 
with Chinese figures, in the collection [nos. D305, D2851.) The interior
also is 
markedly different from the exterior in subject matter and decorative style
and 
probably was executed by a different hand. The dancing(?) men appear to be
on 
a stage with curtains drawn back at the sides and the fringe of another across

the top, rather like a pelmet. Both figures hold what may be caps in their
low- 
ered hands, and the artist has given them exaggeratedly high shoulders, 
perhaps identifying them as hunchbacks. If the latter is true, the characters

may derive from prints by the French artist Jacques Callot (1592-1635), who

produced a series of prints entitled Varie Figure Gobbi based on a troupe
of 
hunchbacks he had seen performing in Florence in 1612. A number of the fig-

ures in these engravings wear curving, conical caps.' Figures of Punch also

typically are hunchbacked and perhaps were intended here as a play on the
use 
of the bowl.' 
 
 
                                            1. Phillips (L), September 16,
1987, lot 113.   4. Archer comments (1998). 
Published Grigsby, Dared Langridge Delft- 
                                            2. Ray, Warren, nos. 59, 60.
           5. Horne comments (February 1998). 
ware and Stipware, pp. 881-882, pls. 12, 12A. 
                                            3. Archer, V&A, no. E5. 
 
 
338 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 339 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
if -~ 6 
 
 
  (. 
& 
 
 
D308. PUNCH BOWL 
 
 
London 
c. 1715 
 
 
H.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm); 
 
Diam.: 15 7/8" (40.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff 
with scattered, small blow holes. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white with 
blue and gray speckling and occasional 
pits. Overall, excluding footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom with tall, 
nearly cylindrical footrim, slightly con- 
 
vex on interior wall. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
 
 
Interior bears crane, plant, and insect 
within border composed of floral 
 
sprays and dot clusters. Exterior bears 
landscape with figures, buildings, and 
 
 
The deep, straight-sided profile of this large and well-painted bowl dates
it to 
around 1715, and the close-at-hand, fantastic building complex (compare 
no. D306) helps to set its landscape apart from more common types that depict

only figures (sometimes on horseback) close up in more or less continuous
hilly 
exterior scenes with diminutive buildings.' The trees, for which some foliage

perhaps was executed with a sponge trimmed to shape, and the painting style

of the bowl's figures have much in common with motifs on a 1702 dated pos-

set pot.' (For a contrasting style on dated pieces, see nos. D288, D307,
a 1715 
punch bowl and a 1716 two-handled cup.) Fragments 1 3/4 inches (4.4 cm) and

1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in length, adhered to the rim, indicate that the bowl shown

here stuck to other objects during firing. 
 
 
1. See Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 1056, fbr a 1718 dated punch bowl with 
another building complex and, on the interior, a 
swan ringed with oriental motifs. Home, Collec- 
ton, pt. 7, no. 169, states the bowl may have 
been made for the White Swan Tavern, which 
stood opposite lambeth Parish Church. For a 
bowl comparable in decorative style to the long- 
ridge example and its linkage to Lambeth through 
fragments, see Garner, lambeth, p. 55, pl. 15f. 
 
 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 943; no. 248 for a 1707 dish in the same 
style. 
 
 
sponged trees and plants. Borders com- 
 
posed of horizontal lines. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D ELFT WA RE lBeverage Wares 
 
 
Punch Bowls 
 
 
H.: 5 1A" .cT ); 
 
Diam.: 10" (25.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white, slightly 
 
transparent (especially on interim, and 
 
within footrim). Overall, excludin2 
 
footrim bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Based on what appear to be 
 
throwing rings, may have been thrown 
 
and then fluted. High, nearly cylindrical 
 
footrim 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Exterior bears 
 
repeats of floral and scroll motifs form- 
 
ing primary pattern and border. Interior 
 
bears water bird among bamboo(?). 
 
Interior border composed of alternating 
 
scroll and four-dash motifs. 
 
 
FD) 
D ased on dated pieces, this unusual punch bowl probably was made around

 
1715. An example very much like this one in shape displays (exterior) Chinese

figures in a landscape and (interior) Juno in her chariot and is inscribed

"IC/1712"; "RFM/1714" appears on a footed punch bowl
with fluting at the top 
and a base border that includes floral motifs relating to those shown here.,
(For 
a fluted tea bowl dated 1712, see no. D323.) Somewhat similar border motifs

also occur on a Longridge dish and plate (nos. D116, D117) and on a 1716
dated 
bird, rock, and flowering tree dish initialed "TBE," perhaps for
ship's carpenter 
Thomas Bayley, who married Elizabeth Mathews of Saint Mary Redcliff parish,

Bristol, in 1715/6. The dated dish and the Longridge example (no. D116) have

under-rim markings, a feature typically associated with Bristol." Fluted
bowls 
of about the same date were excavated in London at the Vauxhall pottery site

and at the Old Hall, Temple Balsall, Warwickshire (consumer site).:' 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Dellftware. nos. 1052 
{Glaisher collection), 1054. For other fluted 
bowls, see Britton, London, no. 117 (bird-on-rock 
motif); Sotheby's (L), Kassebaum sale (1), Oct-) 
ber 1, 1991, lot 44 (grassy mounds somewhat 
like those on longridge porringer Ino. D)1851, 
with flow1,,  adnd birds): Christie's (IL. (lover 
sale, June 14, 1988, loi 26 (llowers and birds). 
2. Archer, V&A, no. B.109 (1716 dish), citing 
fragments with related decoration found in 
London by Garner and at Bristol. Under-rim 
markings are rare on fragments excavated in 
London (Stephenson comments [September 
19981: Pearce comments ISeptember 19981). 
 
 
3. Britttn, London, p. 70, pl. F. glazed and (vari- 
ous sizes) biscuit delftware fragments; Gooder, 
lemple Balsall, p. 160, fig. 4, no. 30. For a wide- 
fluted howl with typically london decoration, 
see Itorne, Collection, pt. 2, o1,. 32 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 341 
 
 
D309. PUNCH BOWL 
 
Bristol or London 
 
c. 1715 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D310. PUNCH BOWL 
 
 
London 
Dated 1723 
 
 
H.: 6 3/8" (16.2 cm); 
Diam.: 12" (30.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Somewhat runny white 
with blue and gray speckling. Overall, 
excluding footrim edge; some poorly 
adhered or missed patches on interior 
 
 
wall of footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom with tall, 
slightly waisted, tapering footrim with 
nearly vertical interior wall. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Interior bears 
Arms of the Worshipful Company of 
Cordwainers and is inscribed "DB/1723" 
 
within wreath. Border composed of 
wavy lines with scrolls and flowers. 
 
 
Exterior has five repeats of a pair of 
geese with flowers amid dot-ring, floral, 
and foliate filler ornament. Borders 
 
 
composed of wavy lines with scrolls 
and male nudes, trelliswork with floral 
reserves, and horizontal lines. Bottom 
 
 
bears pair of narrowly spaced, concen 
 
tric circles (blue). 
 
 
The Cordwainers, whose company arms appear in this bowl, derive their name

from Spanish cordovan leather (once used to make shoes) via the Old French

cordoanier, for shoemaker. The company was incorporated in 1439 and in 1579

was granted its arms "three goats' heads erased argent [silver] horned
and 
bearded or [gold]" and the crest, another goat's head, this one with
the horns 
wreathed "or and azure."' This bowl omits the motto Coino et arte
and is one of at 
least four pieces that display the Cordwainers' arms and bear dates from
1673 to 
1749.' The ring-of-dots filler motif is found on dated delftware from at
least 1697 
to 1733, and a mirror image version of the pair of geese occurs on a circa
1760 
delft bottle." (For a discussion of wreaths, see nos. D81, D82.) 
    Nude males are relatively rare on English delftware, and, excluding Adam

on Temptation dishes, where they do occur, the figures usually have wings
(see 
nos. D70, D71).4 The legs of a stylistically similar figure appear on a dish
frag- 
ment excavated at Williamsburg, Virginia. 
 
 
Published Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft 
wore, no. 1065. 
 
 
1. Bromley, Guilds of London, col. pl. 13, pp. 59 
61; Tilley, London Arms, pt. 2, p. 270. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 794, 
977; Austin, Delft, no. 26 11749). 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 937, 
939-940, 953, 1024, 1074; and for the bottle, 
Sotheby's (L), November 15, 1994, lot 103. 
4. Crellin, Wellcome, nos. 374 (possibly Conti- 
nental), 381; Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1044 (1701 bowl); Britton, Bristol, 
no. 7.22 (flower bowl). 
5. Austin, Delft, p. 147, Blair stables site. 
 
 
342 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
D E L F T W A R E ý Beverage Wares 
 
 
                                                                        
                   Punch Bowls 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                     *           LT his bowl fits into a
group of examples closely related in shape, painted col- 
                                               ors, floral ornament (particularly
the type flanking the perched bird), and other 
                                               motifs. On the other bowls,
the ducks are replaced by cockerels, resembling 
                                               some on plates in this collection
(nos. D138-D140),L and large, waisted vases 
 
                                               near flower baskets."
Above the cockerels is the overlapping V motif (see also 
                                               no. D138), seen here above
the standing duck. On the bowl interiors the Vs alter- 
                                               nate with Chinese elements
to border boldly painted flowers. The striated-dot 
                                    Mflowers and fernlike motifs by the standing
duck on the Longridge bowl do not 
                                               recur on the other examples.

D311. PUNCH BOWL 
Probably London 
c. 1730 
 
H.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); 
Diam.: 9" (22.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Somewhat runny bluish 
white. Overall, excluding footrim edge. 
Some thin glaze patches within footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom with tall, 
nearly cylindrical footrim, tapering 
slightly inward on interior. 
DECORATION: Painted. Exterior bears 
standing duck and its perched mate 
amid flowering plants and grasses. Exte-                                
          .... 
rior borders composed of horizontal 
lines. Interior bears trefoil leaf with 
leafy appendages, bordered by overlap- 
ping V and wavy-line motifs. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                               1. Grigsby, Chipstone, no.
28; Archer, V&A,  3. See Britton, Bristol, nos. 13.13 13.14, for 
                                               no. 1.13; Rackham, Glaisher,
vol. 2, pl. 124A.  vases, flower baskets, and cockerels on circa 
                                               2. See Britton, Bristol, nos.
14.5-14.7, for other  1730 plates attributed to Bristol. 
                                               plates of this type. Such
plates are attributed to 
                                               london based on shape ((Grigslby.
Chipstone, 
                                               no, 28). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 343 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
D E L F T W A R E I Beverage Wares 
 
 
H.: 6 3/8" (16.2 cm): 
Diam.: 12 1/4" (31.1 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly runny bluish 
white with blue and gray speckling. 
 
 
Overall, excluding footrim edge. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom with tall, 
slightly flaring footrim echoed in shape 
on interior. 
DECORATION: Painted. Interior bears 
 
 
he polychrorne, kakiemon-inspired ornament on this unusually fine bowl 
differs in details but is distinctly similar in flavor to that on a 1742
dated puz- 
zle jug also in this collection (no. D300).' This stylistic similarity and
the close- 
ness of the two vessels in date may indicate that they were made at the same

factory. The flying bird on the bowl compares to a somewhat less delicately

painted bird with trailing feathers on a "banded-hedge" pattern,
cylindrical 
mug (see also no. D300).1 A bowl inscribed "Confusion to the Pretender/1746"
on 
the interior (see also no. D313) bears exterior floral motifs after the same
tradi- 
tion as those on the bowl shown here., The final initial on the bottom of
the 
bowl may be a combination of two letters. 
 
 
owl at center and rim inscription 
"SINCE DRINKING HAS POWER, TO 
 
GIVE US RELIEF. COME FILL UP THE 
BOWL, & A POX ON ALL GRIEF IF THAT 
 
WON'T DO, WE'LL HAVE SUCH 
ANOTHER. & SO WE'LL PROCEED, 
FROM ONE BOWL TO [THE] OTHER:." 
Exterior bears perched and flying pea- 
 
cocks or phoenixes and an insect amid 
 
 
flowering plants. Borders composed of 
trelliswork band and horizontal lines. 
Bottom inscribed "WKA/1740" within 
 
 
concentric circles. 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft- 
ware, no. 1102; Grigsby, Dated Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, pp. 884-885, pl. IZ 
Exhibited: Art Treasures Exhibition, Christies 
(1932), no. 821. 
Ex calls.: W. F Fiske;J. M. Furniss; T G. Burn, 
Rous Lench. 
 
 
1. See Ayers, Impey, and Mallet, Palaces, no. 94,  2. Austin, Delft, no.
101. For English porcelain 
for a 1670-1690 polychrome bowl with a         with related motifs, see Spero,
Worcester, no. 5, 
phoenix and long, wavy-branched flowering      col. pl. 5; Adams and Redstone,
Bow, col. pl. B, 
trees.                                     p. 123, fig. 47B; Gabszewicz and
Freeman, Bow, 
                                           nos. 52-54, 55-58, 59; Rice, Derby,
no. 125. 
                                           3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware,
no. 1115. 
 
 
344 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D312. PUNCH BOWL 
 
 
London 
Dated 1740 
 
 
Punch Bowls 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                  14' 7 
 
r                        2 
 
 
                                                                        
'VI 
 
 
 
 
 
                                ~0-1 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 345 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D313. PUNCH BOWL 
 
 
Liverpool or London 
Dated 1746 
 
 
H.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); 
Diam.: 8 5/8" (21.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with scat- 
tered pits and, on exterior, large "dry" 
brown patch. Overall, excluding portion 
 
 
of footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom with 
nearly cylindrical footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Interior bears 
 
 
laurel-wreathed male head and inscrip- 
tion "No Pretender/]746." Exterior bears 
three similar scrolling floral motifs 
alternating with repeated reserves of a 
cock mounting a hen, a bug, and plants. 
Orange-brown upper rim. 
 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dared Delft- 
ware, no. 116. 
Ex colt.: L L. Lipsk4 
 
 
This is one of two 1746 dated bowls with laurel-wreathed heads centered on

the interior; the other shows the head above the inscription "Confusion
to the 
Pretender/1746" and has on the exterior ornament somewhat similar to
that on 
another bowl in this collection (no. D312).1 Based on their dates, both examples

celebrate the victory over the Jacobite forces at Culloden, as do plates
(some of 
them also dated 1746) clearly commemorating the Duke of Cumberland (see 
no. D54).1 Two, rather than three, reserves depict the same cock-mounting-a-

hen scene separated by flowers on an undated bowl that has on the interior
a 
laurel-wreathed head with the inscription "Long Live/The King."'
This inscrip- 
tion supports the theory that the wreathed heads in all of the bowls represent

George II (see Time Line, pp. 17-18) rather than Cumberland. Presumably,
the 
copulating-birds scenes had some meaning relevant to the uprising. 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1115 
(British Museum collection). 
2. Ibid., no. 489, for a plate inscribed 
"(1746)/Duke William/for Ever." 
3. Austin, Delft, no. 46. For a plate inscribed 
"King/George Defender/but no Pretender/1715," 
commemorating George I (r. 1714-1727), see Lip- 
ski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 276. 
 
 
346 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L FT WARE iBeverage Wares 
 
 
Punch Bowls 
 
 
D314. PUNCH BOWL 
Liverpool 
Dated "27:June 1749" 
 
 
H.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); Diam.: 9"(22.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white with 
blue and gray speckling. Overall, 
excluding footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown Flat bottom with tall, 
slightly flaring footrim, nearly cylindri- 
 
 
  his piece, probably commissioned while the ship was at port in Liverpool
in 
 
June 1749,' is among the earliest dated punch bowls depicting large, more-or-

less realistic ships on their interiors. This bowl is unusual for the simplicity
of 
its exterior decoration.2 The ship's ensign is of the type used by the East
India 
Company from April 17, 1707, to January 1, 1801,.2 and it is reasonable to
assume 
that Partridge was in their employ. For fairly realistic depictions of ships
on 
delftware plates, see numbers D98-D100. 
 
 
cal on interior. 
D EC O RAT I O N: Painted. Interior bears 
sailing ship with inscription "Win 
Partridge ÷/Liverpool, 27:June 1749." Bor- 
der composed of circle and trelliswork 
band. Exterior bears trelliswork bands, 
one with floral reserves, the other with 
 
 
flower-and-scroll reserves. 
 
 
Published. Wortney, Jackson, p. 133, fig. 33. 
 
 
1. For Liverpool porcelain ship howls, sonie with 
nsotits relating to those ont delftware examples, 
see Watney and Roberts. liverpool Ship Bowls. 
2. See ILipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1117 1217 passlim. br examples with dates 
lIron 1747 to 1779, Watney, lackson, for other 
delltware examples. 
.3 Archer comments 11998) state the India Office 
Library does niot bind William Partridge in their 
current indices. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 347 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D315. PUNCH BOWL 
 
 
Probably London 
Dated 1752 
 
 
H.: 6 1/4" (159 cm): 
Diam.: 10 1/2" (26.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with slight blue 
and gray speckling, Overall, excluding 
footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Bottom roughly 
echoes exterior profile and is hollow up 
to bottom of bowl. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
 
Interior bears drinking scene of women, 
men, female servant with baby, and dog 
and tankard on floor near broken pipe 
 
 
fragments. Interior bears borders com- 
 
posed of interconnected arcs and 
meanders. Bowl exterior depicts land- 
 
 
scape with people, trees, carriage, 
 
tavern, and other buildings. Base 
inscribed "IBM/1752" within cartouche 
flowers and insects. Stem waist bears 
 
 
horizontal lines. 
 
 
Published. Lipski and Archer, Doted Delft- 
ware, no. 1131. 
Ex coils.: T G. Burn, Rous Lenchj. P Kosse- 
bourm 
 
 
he comparatively fluid painting style of the exterior scene on this bowl,
like 
that ornamenting a 1754 dated mug in this collection (no. D267), differentiates

it from types typically associated with Bristol (see no. D318). This general
style, 
the strong blue of the decoration, and the glaze quality of this example
instead 
are associated more often with London. (For other delftware with related

European landscapes, see nos. D269, D270, D423.) High-footed bowls are less

common than low-based ones by this late period. One example that is compar-

atively similar in profile to the Longridge bowl is dated 1746 and bears
floral 
decoration.' 
   Although the view on the interior of the bowl shown here superficially

resembles "Midnight Modern Conversation" scenes,' and dogs and
vessels on 
the floor sometimes do bear related symbolism, the figures in this image
are 
comparatively sedate and well mannered.' The servant who presents a baby
may 
indicate that the scene commemorates a christening, and the inscription "The

Plough" on the tavern sign (see bowl exterior) also may have some significance

relating to the vessel's ownership. (The bowl's initials have not yet been
linked 
to any particular persons.) The particular painting style of the bowl's interior

and exterior scenes are closely paralleled on a 1753 bowl depicting a landscape

(with different sponging) and, on the interior, a butcher's yard scene.'

 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 1114. 
2. Manchester, Greg Collection, no. 82; 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delttware, 
no. 1119. 
3. See Lipski and Archer, Dated Delltware, 
no. 1091, for a somewhat similar interior 
with a drinking scene in a 1734 bowl that 
also depicts the lower of London; see 
no. 1107 for a drinking scene in a 1743 
dated bowl. 
4. Ibid., no, 1138. 
 
 
348 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
VI 
 
lI 
 
 
t==% c:X 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D316. PUNCH BOWL 
Possibly Liverpool 
c. 17~55                                                                
            , < 
H.: 3 1/2' (8.9 cm); 
Diam.: 8 7/8" (22 5 cm)                                            
                               . .... 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff, 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white with 
blue and gray speckling. Overall, 
excluding footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom with tall, 
nearly cylindrical footrim, similarly 
shaped on interior. 
DECORATION: Painted. European fig- 
ures in landscapes with fences and 
buildings. 
1, For a c~olnparable bowl, see Brilton, 
Bristol, no. 8.9. 
Archer, V&A, nos. B.245  B.246 ...... 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                   i)though relatively uncommon
on punch bowls,' figures very much like 
                                                these are painted in the
same strong colors on several plates and dishes.2 The 
                                                cut-and-paste approach to
such designs is demonstrated on this bowl by the 
                                                lady, who is shown alone
on the interior and with a male companion on the 
______________________                          exterior. Other examples
display differences in landscape details, such as the 
     -, ....................... i             painting of foliage and the
inclusion of distant castlelike structures rather than 
                    ..... {{{ ................   "the low, concave-roofed
buildings seen on the bowl. Ornament of this general 
__color range typically is associated with Liverpool, but the stylistic differences
of 
                                                the landscapes may indicate
that the bowls are from a different potting center. 
 
 
350 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
Punch Bowls 
 
 
D317. PUNCH BOWL 
Liverpool 
1765-1770 
 
 
H.: 4" (10.2 cm); Diam.: 10" (25.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white with 
gray and blue speckling. Overall, 
 
 
excluding footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom with tall, 
nearly cylindrical footrim, tapering 
slightly inward on interior. 
DECORATION: Painted. Interior 
 
 
depicts man shoveling dirt into plant 
box (or perhaps making bricks), with 
well and brick wall nearby. Inscribed 
"Succefs to lohn Harvey." Borders 
composed of lobed concentric circles 
and trelliswork band with floral 
reserves. Exterior bears large and small 
floral sprays. 
 
 
This unusual punch bowl fits into a group of five inscribed examples 
datable from around 1765 to 1770 and, perhaps, made at a single Liverpool

factory. Three of the five have the pairs of distinctive lobed circles (the
other 
bowls have a single one) seen on the interior of this bowl. All five share
the same 
quirky lettering style (compare the S, s, and t), and four display variations
on the 
same exterior floral motif. Three of the five bowls also depict unusual figural

scenes; in one, a woman is portrayed in an interior and an inscription identi-

fies the owner as Ann Couch and provides her 1755 birth date.' (Although

versions of the Couch bowl's unusual inner border are found on a 1737 dated

plate and a 1754 dated ship bowl, other bowls with it are dated 1770.)' Bowls
in 
the group dated 1766 and 1770 portray ships rather than figures, and the
latter 
has a different exterior motif. The final bowl, dated 1767, has an interior
scene 
that shares design features with the Couch view but shows men drinking at
a 
table. The inner border of that example is very like the type seen here,
and its 
exterior flowers are painted in "Fazackerley-type" colors.' 
 
 
1. Austin, Delift, no. 68, also illustrated in 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Dlelftware, 
no. 1160. 
2. Compare bowl borders in Watney, lack- 
son, p. 124, fig. 7 (1754). lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 418 (1737 
plate). 1206, 1208 (bowls, both 1770). 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1198, 1208, 1202; no. 1210 for a relat- 
ed floral pattern on a 1772 dated bowl. 
See Archer, V&A, no. F42, for the use of 
other criteria to link the 1766 bowl to a 
dififrent delftware group. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 351 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Punch Bowls 
 
 
D318. PUNCH BOWL 
Bristol 
 
c. 1765 
 
 
H.: 8 1/4" (21 cm); Diam.: 18 118" (46 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained pale 
 
buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white with 
 
small poorly adhered patches. Overall, 
 
excluding footrim edge. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom with tall, 
 
slightly tapering footrim, nearly cylin- 
 
drical on interior. 
 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
 
Interior bears ship scene nested in 
 
foliate scrollwork with flowers. Border 
 
composed of trelliswork band with 
 
floral reserves. Exterior bears landscape 
 
with buildings, figures, haystacks, cows, 
 
hills, and sponged trees. 
 
 
S    everal bianco-sopra-bianco bowls of this shap bear related decoicition
and 
dates mostly from the 1760s. One (1765) has a sailing ship encircled by a
Swedish 
inscription commemorating time spent by the Wigelantia, from Stockholm, at

port in Bristol. The exterior's landscape is very similar in style and shares
motifs 
with the scene on the bowl shown here. Another bianco-sopra-bianco example,

dated 1766, has a stylistically similar landscape and, on the interior, the
inscrip- 
tion "JOHN and SUSANNA MAYS" and a ship-on-stocks scene over scrollwork.'
A 
1764 dated bowl in the group has a Chinese landscape on the exterior and,
on 
the interior, a ship floating on water supported by a scrollwork swag. The

inscription again is in Swedish.' Lacking an identifying inscription and
bianco- 
sopra-bianco decoration, it is likely the Longridge bowl was made at Bristol
for 
the English market. For another ship supported on scrollwork, see the Diadem

plate (no. D98). 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1196  2. Lipski and Archer, Dated
Delftware, no. 1194. 
117651, 1200 (1766); for these and other Swedish-  The bianco-sopra-bianco
bowls and tiles with 
inscribed pieces, see Charleston, Bristol and   related ornament are linked
to Richard Frank's 
Sweden, pls. 212a 213a (1765, 1757, bowls       pottery in Bristol through
archaeological 
with landscape), 215 (1762, plate with couple in  evidence (Horne comments
[October 1998]). 
landscape), 216a (1764 bowl with ship over 
scrollwork). For haystack clusters on a stand 
painted by a different hand, see Sotheby's (L), 
Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, lot 168. 
 
 
352 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
44! 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 353 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D319. PUNCH BOWL 
 
 
London 
c. 1775 
 
 
H.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); 
Diam.: 9 1/2" (24.1 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise. Overall, 
excluding footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom with tall, 
slightly tapering footrim with nearly 
vertical interior wall. 
DECORATION: Painted and pow- 
 
 
dered. Interior bears five fish. Exterior 
of walls and footrim in powdered man- 
 
 
ganese (small amount of speckling 
within footrim). 
 
 
his punch bowl is one of several examples of powdered manganese delft- 
ware in this collection (see nos. D94, D128, D327), including a soup plate
with 
different fish forming the border (see no. D94). Wares of this type not only
were 
popular among consumers in Britain but were exported to the colonies in some

quantity. Fragments of powdered manganese punch bowls with fish motifs 
have been found at home, shop, trade, and tavern sites in Williamsburg, Vir-

ginia, and at the Hart-Shortridge site in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.' (Fish
on 
punch bowls appear, at least sometimes, to have been a reference to drinking.)2

The shallow, open profile of the bowl shown here indicates that it dates
to 
around the third quarter of the eighteenth century. 
 
 
1. Austin, Delft, pp. 82, 95; Unearthing 
New England's Past, no. 215. 
 
 
2. See Archer, V&A, no. B.78, for a powdered 
bowl with fish and citation of c. 1780 
creamware bowls inscribed, respectively, "Keep 
me swimming" and "A toast to British fisheries." 
 
 
354 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
D320. TEAPOT 
 
 
London, probably Lambeth 
Probably Jonathan Chilwell Ill, Vauxhall 
(owner, 1712-1721) 
Probably 1712-1720 
 
 
H.: 3 1/2' (8.9 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4" (10.2 cm); 
Diam. (handle-spout): 7"(17.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise-white, 
 
 
slightly transparent (especially on lid). 
Overall, excluding bottom edges of lid 
and footrim. 
SHAE: Thrown. Handle of circular 
 
 
section with curled lower terminal. Tri 
 
 
angular arrangement of three strainer 
holes (point up) at base of spout. Steam 
hole (pierced before firing) at base of 
finial. Bottom of pot recessed to create 
 
 
narrow footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese pavil. 
ion under cloud and flanked by grasses 
and asterisk-leaved trees, repeated on 
either side of body. Handle and spout 
bear scrollwork; spout also bears gradu- 
ated curves. Lid bears pavilion and 
 
 
cloud motifs, concentric circles, and, on 
 
 
finial, radiating lines. 
 
 
    Of the five basic teapot shapes,' this is one often recorded tapered
exam- 
 
ples: it and one other one have a loop handle; six have more compressed loops;

and two have wishbone handles; The tapered pots all have similar flattened

tops, but on this and one other example, the mouth rim turns downward slight-

ly,' so that the edge of the flat cover does not project above shoulder level.
The 
others have properly formed rebates. The body shape probably imitates con-

temporary silver, which itself was influenced by circa 1700 Japanese (Arita)

porcelain.4 
    A similar type of knop occurs on a Shand Kydd collection teapot, and
the 
hatched cornucopia ornamenting the spout and handle of the Longridge pot

appears in the border of a blue and white plate' with the same "banner"
design 
as the Shand Kydd pot. The double-scroll motif (divided in two on the cover)

derives flom the carved head of the Chinese scepter in Buddhist art known
as 
ruyi (expressing the concept "what one wants" when presented as
a gift), and 
the scroll lines rising from it derive from lotus stems and tendrils.' The
star 
foliage on the trees appears to be unique to the pot.v One matching piece
is 
known, a sugar pot with a flat cover, a shape that occurs with motifs used

before circa 1720 at Vauxhall pottery," then owned by Jonathan Chilwell
III. 
Based on this similarity, it is likely that the Longridge teapot also was
made 
 
 
there at around the same time. 
 
 
1. Globular, tapelred, peatr-shape, peatch-shape. 
and tcylindrical eapots ( Isee Mac hiulanoe, T1in- 
glazed Teaware, p3. 2611). 
2. Privatle toilectlion (loop])1 F1 flattened loop, 
see IEmmersnn, Teapots, pl1 18, no 22, Garnetr 
atnd Arc her, Delftware, p1. 7313; Artcher antd Mor 
gan, tChina l)ishes, no. 67 (now tIIampshire 
(Countiy C touncil Muiseuims0 Strvi ce colletc ltio at 
the Allen Galltry, Aluum), prwalte colmlectiton; 
Sotheby's (1,), October 17 18, 1988, lot 504: 
I omne. Collet iIon, pt. 13, no. 361 (ste 11) 218). 
lor wishbone, see Chartleston anti Towner , l1n- 
glish (Ceratmits, pl. 9, Austin, elftll, no. 118. 
 
 
4. tlayward, Illugtenot Silver, pl1 4413 (teapot by 
James Simith, l~ondon. 1719). See Menhhausen, 
Zwinger. p1. 46, lot t. 1700 "Teekanne. 
5. (hailes ton antd Ilowner, Enoglish (Ceramitcs, 
 
6. Iberhard,. Symhols, p. 258. 
7. Maularlane. Tin-glazed "Ieaware, p. 659. 
8. (hrilste's (NY), (insbuirg sale, Ottober 14 15, 
1983. lot 171. 
 
 
9. lot relatied examples. ste Austin. l)elfl, 
no. 126; lwidwrds, Vatuxhall Pottery, pls. 52ai, 53e. 
 
 
3. lon nterson, T eaipoits. 11 18. no. 22; pr ivate tctl- 
 
 
lection. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 355 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                                        
                  DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
D321. TEAPOT                                                            
                  Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
 
London, probably Lambeth 
Probably Vauxhall 
1725-1730 
 
H.: 4 1/4" (10.8 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 3/8" (1].] cm); 
Diam. (handle-spout): 7 7/8" (20 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained light buff 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
Overall, excluding bottom edges of lid 
 
and footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat strap handle 
(restored) with curled lower terminal. 
Triangular arrangement of three strainer 
holes (point up) at base of spout. Steam 
hole (pierced before firing) at base of 
finial Bottom recessed to create nar- 
row footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Three near- 
repeats of flower and insect motifs. 
Borders composed of crosses, horizon- 
 
tal lines, and (on lid) circles. Handle and 
spout bear concentric ovals; spout also 
bears graduated curves. Knop topped 
with flower. 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 16, no. 452. 
 
 
his teapot shape, not refined and like a jar, has parallels in Chinese export

porcelain.' Unlike that of the pot in the previous entry (no. D320), the
cover is 
raised above the curve of the shoulder. The straight, tapered spout, also
occur- 
ring on Dutch teapots, is derived from those on Chinese ewers ancestral to
the 
export porcelain teaware. 
    When trying to vary the rhythm of the bold floral decoration, the decorator

reversed the direction of the middle butterfly but forgot to add a saltire
to one 
quatrefoil (shown) to match that on the other side of the pot. Thle dual-color

scheme for trellis-diaper borders and the lobes on the knop are unknown on

other teapots; the borders' iron-red dashes are an effective lightweight
foil to 
the heavy horizontal emphasis of the dark design between them. A similar
com- 
bination but in reverse-with double red slashes between four blue 
dashes-occurs on a saucer with flower heads between three blue spots, attrib-

uted to Vauxhall pottery around 1720 to 1730.1 Similar spots along the edges
of 
the handle are arranged like the annulets on another teapot,' but by compari-

son are large and solid like the dashes on each side of the spout. 
 
 
1. Tokyo, Chinese Ceramics, pt. 2, p. 164, no. 
644, also with prunus blossom decoration. 
2. Phillips (L), June 5-6, 1991, lot 147 (Dutch 
teapot); Lo Collection, Hong Kong, pp. 23-24, 
pls. 4-5 (ewers). 
3. Horne, Collection, pt. 16, no. 452. 
4. Atkins, Exhibition (1998), pp. 14-15, no. 29. 
5. Garner and Archer, Delftware, pl. 73B (Man- 
chester City Art Gallery, Greg collection). 
 
 
356 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D322. TEAPOT 
 
 
Probably London 
1745-1750 
 
 
H.: 4" (10.2 cm); 
Diam. (body): 4 3/8" (11.2 cm); 
Diam. (handle-spout): 71/2" (19.1 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall, 
excluding bottom edges of lid and 
footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle of circular 
section with curled lower terminal. Tri- 
angular arrangement of three strainer 
holes (point down) at base of spout. 
Steam hole (pierced before firing) at 
base of finial. Bottom of pot recessed 
to create narrow footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
European figures in landscape with hills, 
trees, plants, and, on one side, fence 
and buildings. Scene borders composed 
of straight and undulating lines. Shoul- 
der bears additional scroll motifs (one 
echoed under spout). Handle and spout 
bear scrollwork bands. Lid bears circle 
border and flower-topped finial. 
 
 
Published. Home, Collection, pt. 13, no. 361. 
 
 
(r111 
 
 
I 
 
 
The cover and shoulders of this teapot together form a (nearly) flat plane,

demonstrating a close relationship with contemporary silver. The symmetrical

scrolled ornaments near the lid (aligned with the spout and handle) resemble

some on the handle of a circa 1750 tankard depicting haymakers in a hilly
land- 
scape with sponged trees. A similar outline that uses elaborate acanthus-leaf

scrolls to emphasize the loop handle occurs on a 1748 dated tankard.' 
    On English delftware figures are often contrasted with front and back
views 
shown in the same scene;' here, the cloaked figure seen from the rear is
male 
and clearly European. The other male strikes an Oriental attitude, but his
knee- 
length smock and pointed hat evoke not so much China as eighteenth-century

English laborers., Cloaked figures like these are familiar from tiles, although
the 
accompanying trees are generally rendered in other ways.' A similar type
of 
farm gate (more crudely drawn) appears in reverse between sponged trees on
a 
plate attributed to London, and several other pieces display somewhat similar

trees, distant buildings, and figures in rolling landscapes.6 These examples
are 
attributable to London around 1745 to 1750. 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. C.19. 
2. lipski aind Archer, ]iated D)elftware, no. 830. 
3. Ray, Warren, pl. 21, no. 57. 
4. Britton, Bristol, no. 18.40: Lipski and Archeir 
Daeld Delftware, no. 943. 
5. Ray, Tiles, pp. 144 145, p1. 16, nos. 161 162. 
For a ginger iar with it bare-headed figure wear 
ing a long gown wilh a \V-shaped collar and 
sianding between similar 'ices, seu AI her, 
V&A, no. (.8 (right). 
 
 
6. Archer, V&A, nos. 13.29 (farm gat-e plate), 
11.210 B.211, F.29. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 357 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D323. TEABOWL 
 
 
London, probably Lambeth 
Probably Jonathan Chilwell II, Vauxhall 
 
(owner, 1697-1712) 
 
Dated 1712 
 
 
H.: 2" (5.1 cm); Diam.: 3" (7.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise-white, 
somewhat transparent. Overall, exclud- 
 
 
ing footrim bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Molded, or possibly thrown 
 
 
and ribbed by hand. Turned, narrow 
 
 
edged, tall, cylindrical footrim. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowering 
 
 
plants and grasses. Interior inscribed 
 
"I:S/J7J2 [1712]" with dot clusters. Bor- 
 
 
ders composed of horizontal lines. 
 
 
Ex coll.: K. Hammitt. 
 
 
1. Macfarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, 
pp. 236 243. 
2. Sotheby's (I,), l.ipski sale (3), March 1, 
1983, lot 421/2 and 3 (floral design); Ray, 
Warren, pl. 73, no. 144, p. 204 (paneled); 
Southampton collection, Quilter's Vault, 
no. SOU.116-18, 116 53 (bowl fragments). 
:3. Edwards, Vauxhall Pottery, p. 52, pl. 53e. 
4. See Christie's (Amsterdam), Septem- 
ber 24, 1985, lot 6, for De Griecksche "A" 
factory, Delft, c. 1700 1725 teabowls and 
saucers; Rackhani, Glaisher, vol. 1, col. 
pl. 29, no. 272.3 (teapot). 
5. For the other example, see Goldweitz, 
Collection, p. 11 (not illus.). Private collec- 
tion ('E, 13" pieces); Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delliware, nos. 1534, 1535 (teapot 
and jug, each now in a different private 
colleciion). 
6. Gooder, Temple Balsall, pp. 159 160, 
fig. 4, no. 30 (excavated bowl). For the 
motif on other examples, see Sotheby's (L), 
October 17-18, 1988, lot 506 (polychrome 
punch bowl); Christie's (I), June 13, 1983, 
lot 39a (chanmber pot); Phillips (L), May 7, 
1995, lot 145 Oar); Sotheby's (L), Moorwood 
sale, May 15, 1979, lot 30 (covered flower 
bowl), 
7. Watney, Vauxhall China Works, pl. 214. 
8. Britton, London, p. 66 n. 5: p. 65. 
 
 
Compared with the number of surviving plain teabowls, those with mold- 
ed, vertical flutes are quite scarce:' two have a variation of this asymmetric

floral design; one has a matching saucer with fan-shaped panels enclosing
a 
symmetrical sprig; and four incomplete bowls, excavated at Southampton, have

alternately reversed sprigs., The first three vessels are rendered in blue,
red, and 
green, the sherds in blue. 
   Fluting is generally associated with silver, but no parallels in English
metal- 
work are known for this form of teabowl. Three fluted delftware bowls (H.:
2.3" 
17.2 cm]; Diam.: 4.3" [11 cm]) were excavated from a circa 1715 sealed
structure 
at the Vauxhall pottery site in Lambeth.' Probably too large to have been

teabowls, these vessels have around their narrower, higher feet a double-line

border comparable with that on the 1712 teabowl. (Tin-glazed, fluted teapots,

teabowls, and saucers also were made in the Netherlands.)4 
   This teabowl, apparently, is one of a pair, or perhaps is from a set,
no others 
are recorded with both initials and a date, though a small blue, red, and
green 
teabowl and matching saucer are inscribed "E, B," and the bases
of a small 
teapot and matching cream jug are each inscribed "C S/1772."' The
painted 
design on the 1712 teabowl was very popular and exploited with many varia-

tions until around 1730, e.g., on a fluted bowl (Diam.: 5 1/4" 113.3
cm]), excavated 
at Temple Balsall, Warwickshire, from a circa 1728 context, and on sherds
of 
plain teabowls found at the Southampton site mentioned above, which also

yielded fluted sherdsi Two plain saucers with a (late) version of this design
were 
excavated at the site of a pothouse where John Sanders made delftware, but
pro- 
duction began there only in 1743.1 
   The teabowl's date and the fluted ware excavated at the site of the Vauxhall

pottery, which was owned by the Chilwell family, indicate that the vessel
more 
likely was made there. The year 1712 was crucial for the Chilwells, because
dur- 
ing it Jonathan 11( 1656-1712) died at the age of fifty-six, leaving two
sons, 
Jonathan III and the young William 1. So Jonathan III, recently free of his

apprenticeship, took on the business with Henry Hodgson as his manager until

1721. The combination of a high foot with molding, an early delftware tech-

nique associated with Southwark, suggests that the teabowl was among the
last 
pieces manufactured by Jonathan Chilwell II, who had probably been appren-

ticed at Montague Close, Southwark, where his father had been a potter.'

 
 
Detail of interior 
 
 
Actual size 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                                        
                  DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
D324. COFFEE CUP                                                        
                  Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
 
London, probably Lambeth 
Probably Norfolk House 
 
1700-1720 
 
 
H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 2 3/8" (6 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 31/4" (8.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, somewhat 
transparent. Overall, excluding footrim 
 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handle somewhat 
flattened on interior, rounded on exte- 
rior, with curled and flattened lower 
 
terminal. Slightly splayed footrim with 
 
narrow edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Scrollwork 
with foliate elaborations. Borders com- 
posed of horizontal lines. Handle bears 
horizontal slashes (running in glaze). 
 
 
 
1. See Maclarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, 
pp. 293-299. 
2. Believed to have been found in Lambeth 
by Garner and acquired by Lipski (Sothe- 
by's Il,], Lipski sale 131, March 1, 198:3, 
lot 421/4, now in a private collection). 
3. For a two-handled polychromne jar 
(c. 1480 1500), see Watson, Majolica, 
pp. 62-63, no. 20. 
4. Bloice, Norfolk Ilouse, p. 132, fig. 57, 
nos. 39, 53, 71. At this time the pottery 
was owned by Ann Barston. Later it was 
owned by her brother-in-law, Jonathan 
Chilwell Ill, previously at Vauxhall pottery. 
 
 
n-i andled coffee cups can be roughly divided into two groups according to

height, i.e., high or low, and this measurement is generally a good indication
of 
an early or late date. This particular cup meets the criteria for the early
series: 
2 3/4 inches (7 cm) or more high, gently tapering toward a slightly splayed

footring, an out-turned rim, and a compressed loop handle flattened against

the body at its lower end, which is turned up. Pieces in the low series are
gen- 
erally about 2 1/8 inches (5.4 cm) to 2 1/2 inches (6.4 cm) high with vertical
sides 
and rims that do not turn out:, their date is later. 
   The complete pattern on the Longridge cup has not been seen on any other

tin-glazed teaware form. The central, crescentic motif, in which the cusped

scrolls and outer penciled curve are set high and low alternately in pairs,
does, 
however, occur on one of the earliest-known carinated beakers (made about

1680),2 and the motif can be traced back to floral scrolls on fifteenth-century
Flo- 
rentine maiolica." The hooklike ornaments attached to the top row of
scrolls 
also occur on the feet of a salver (no. D343) in this collection, strongly
suggest- 
ing that the cup also may have been made at Norfolk House pottery in Lambeth,

not later than circa 1720 to 1725.1 The thin, light brown line painted around
the 
rim is a new departure at this time, although it was being used on plates.

 
 
Actual size 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 359 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
D325. TEABOWL and SAUCER 
 
 
Probably London 
Possibly Vauxha[l 
1715-1725 
 
 
Bowl H.: 13/8" (3.5 cm); 
Diam.: 2 7/8" (73 cm) 
Saucer H.: 3/4" (1.9 cm); 
Diam.: 4 3/8" (11.1 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white. 
Overall, excluding edges of footrims. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Tapering, low, cylin- 
 
 
drical footrims. 
DECORATION: Painted. (Bowl and 
 
 
saucer) Single repeats of cockerel with 
flowering plants, vase, and basket. Bor- 
ders composed of (cup) horizontal lines 
 
 
and (saucer) concentric circles. 
 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt, 19, no. 558. 
 
 
360 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
he palette and combination of a cockerel, a vase, and a basket with flowers

derive from Kangxi (1662-1722) hard-paste porcelain, and versions of the
design 
also occur on other English tin glaze.' (On Chinese wares, cockerels sometimes

are emblematic of literary success, but Western consumers probably chose
such 
designs for their decorative merit alone.)' 
   A circa 1715 spiked bowl (see no. D187 for type) excavated at the Vauxhall

(London) production site bears one version of the motifs shown here.' More
like 
the Longridge pieces in painting style is a blue and white plate that depicts
the 
cockerel-vase-and-basket motif and bears a mark (the number 8) and under-rim

markings (naughts and crosses). Such features typically are associated with

Bristol, but under-rim markings also occur on some London delftware. An 
unmarked polychrome plate without under-rim markings also shows a gener-

ally similar approach to the layout of the design.' A rare and apparently

unpublished small stand with three bracket feet (see no. D343) for approximate

shape) bears the same motifs in blue with different details.' The tail feathers
of 
the cockerels on these three pieces and the Longridge teabowl and saucer
are 
drawn in a more free-flowing, calligraphic style than those of the similarly

posed cockerels on London "farm series" plates (nos. D138-D140)
in this collec- 
tion.' 
 
 
1. Horne, Collection, pt. 19, no. 558. For versions 
of the motifs on probably London delt punch 
bowls, see Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 28; Archer, 
V&A, no. 1.13, pl. 190, noting a Royal Scottish 
Museum dish (no. RSM 1957.563) also with the 
motif: Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 124A, 
no. 1473. 
2. Howard and Ayers, China, vol. 1, pl. 137. 
3. Britton, London, p. 71, fig. 12J (spiked bowl), 
and, for a bowl interior and plates with cock- 
erels, p. 70, fig. 11H; Edwards, Vauxhall Pottery, 
pls. 56c -56d. 
 
 
4. Britton, Bristol, nos. 13.13, 13.14 (marked). 
5. .. and V. Hawes collection. 
6. For a cockerel with swirling tail feathers on a 
posset pot sharing the Longridge teaware 
palette, see Allen, Dolz Collection, p. 859, pl. 4. 
 
 
kl;ý ý'9996ý_ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE !Beverage Wares 
 
Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
 
London, probably Lambeth 
 
Probably c. 1733 
 
 
H.: 15/8" (4.1 cm); 
Diam.: 2 3/4" (7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Very pale turquoise- 
white. Overall, excluding footrim 
 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Narrow-edged, cylin- 
 
 
drical footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Exterior bears 
 
stylized flowers, fang, and abstract 
 
 
motifs. Interior and exterior borders 
 
composed of horizontal lines. 
 
 
Ex coll.: A. F Britton. 
 
 
1. Eberhard, Syml)ols, pp. 280-281 (wan)ý 
Williams, Symbolisni, p. 257 (lotus). 
2. Christie's (Amsterdam), April 7 8, 1992, 
lot 752, c. 1690 (poppegoed); private 
collection (sugar pot). 
3. Coppack, Lincolnshire Archaeology, 
pp. 118, 122, fig. 2, no. 22, c. 17:30 1740 
(saucer); Sandon, Cof(le Pots and teapots, 
pp. 12-13, pl. 8 (teapot); Britton, Bristol, 
no. 8.4 (punch bowl); private collection 
(plate). 
4. Atkins, Exhibition l199:1), no. 26, 
5. Austin, D)elft, p. 125, coffee cup excavat- 
ed at the Scrivener Store and Alexander 
Craig House; small mug at the William 
Finnie I louse. 
6. lipski and Archer, D)ated l)elltware, 
no. 371. 
7. Sherds found by Garner (V&A colleci- 
ion); Britton, LIondon, pp. 55, 57. 
 
 
Most distinctive of the motifs on this teabowl is the device often inaccu-

rately referred to as a "swastika." In fact this is an archaic
form of the Chinese 
character fang, meaning "the four regions of the world" and, later,
"ten thou- 
sand" (wan), symbolizing infinity. The central lotus bud symbolizes
purity and 
perfection, sacred to Buddhists and Daoists,' and the back-to-back scrolls
linked 
by an oval (also on Dutch market poppegoed Itoy vases] recovered from the
wreck 
of the Vungtao) occur with similar wan on a tin-glazed sugar pot. Although
no 
other teabowl is known, the design occurs with four different borders and
in 
two distinct palettes on other shapes: it is in blue and white on a saucer
frag- 
ment excavated in Lincoln; a teapot with a cash border; a punch bowl (with

atypical banner insignia) with a demifloret and crosshatched, four-dot diaper

border; and a plate with cornucopias in a similar border.' There is a similar

punch bowl painted in iron-red with blue concentric lines., Sherds of another

blue and white punch bowl and part of a coffee cup and a small mug with a
dou- 
ble-line border were excavated at Williamsburg, Virginia. Throughout, the

decoration is penciled with a fine brush that in Holland is called a trekker

(Trekken means to draw), and only the lotus leaves are hatched. Based on
a dated 
plate, this style suggests a date of about 1733.6 The teabowl's blue and
white 
design duplicates that on a small mug with rare red decoration found at Lam-

beth that perhaps is from the High Street pottery, established there in 1732
by 
Henry Hodgson and Henry Forster of Stamford, Lincolnshire. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 361 
 
 
D326. TEABOWL 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D327. TEABOWL 
 
Probably London 
 
c. 1735 
 
 
H.: 5/8" (4.1 cm); Diam.: 3" (7.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff, 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise. Overall, 
 
excluding footrim bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Narrow-edged, cylin- 
 
drical footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted and pow- 
 
dered. Exterior bears three similar floral 
reserves set against powdered ground. 
 
Yellow-brown rim. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Pountney, Bristol, p, 84 (liquid tech- 
nique); Britton, Bristol, p. 234 (three dry 
techniques). 
2. Manganese, 1245" C.; cobalt, 1495" C. 
3. For London, see Ray, files, p. 99, 
figs. 26c-26g; pp. 130 131, pl. 10, nos. 103 
106; for Bristol, p. 101, figs. 29a, 29c, 29d; 
pl. 50, nos. 494 496, pp. 214-215; lbr Liver- 
pool, p. 104, figs. 33h 33i; ppý 160-161, 
pl. 24, no. 241. 
4. Macfarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, 
pp. 121 123. 
5. Sotheby's (L), l.ipski sale (1), March 10, 
1981, lot 158; and for sherd (too small to 
be properly diagnostic) lound by Lipski, 
see Lipski, Teaware, no. 98. 
6. Garner and Archer, Delftware, pls. 93A, 
124B; Archer, V&A, 11.50; Britton, Bristol, 
no. 15.28 (three plates dated 1739); Garner 
and Archer, Delftware, pls. 125C-125D 
(leaves in lozenges). 
7. Archer, V&A, nos. B.54 B.55, B.61. 
8. Austin, Delft, no. 45; Archer, V&A, 
no. B.52; Garner and Archer, Delftware, 
p. 33. 
9. Austin, Delft, nos. 272, 278; Britton, 
Bristol, no. 10.137 (dated 1736). 
10. Garner and Archer, Delftware, p. 30. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
 
                                                                      Actual
size 
 
 
he white reserves on this teabowl were created by placing a template against

the unfired tin glaze, sprinkling on the manganese, and then removing the
tem- 
plate so that the flower sprig and outline could be penciled. (It has been

suggested that liquid color, flicked from a brush, was used for some speckled

effects, but the precise appearance of the teabowl indicates that diy oxide
was 
sprinkled over the surface.)' The hazy purple at the rim, irregular "tide-line,"

denser color just above the foot, and uneven color on the footring formed

because manganese oxide melts at a lower temperature than cobalt/ and the

fluxing properties of the lead in the glaze dispersed the granules in a downward

direction. 
   Powdered purple grounds (see also nos. D94, D128, D319) with blue outlines

and central decoration frequently are found on tiles made in London, Bristol,

and, to a lesser extent, Liverpool' but are very rare on teaware." There
are only 
three comparable examples: a teabowl, its matching saucer, and a saucer frag-

ment unearthed at Wincanton in Somerset.' All have curved reserves like this

one, but the sprigs and leaves on them differ. 
   Tableware in this palette is often attributed to Wincanton or Bristol,
but 
petal-shaped reserves on such pieces have straight or concave lower edges,
the 
rims are painted manganese purple or left plain, and tapered, fernlike leaves

are rare and used only within lozenges." Convex-sided reserves, however,
do 
occur on powdered plates made in Lambeth at Vauxhall pottery and Griffith's

High Street pottery with lobed flowers like these! Powdered purple footrings

are also typical of London," and tapered, fernlike leaves occur on Lambeth

plates, including one inscribed "TWs/1736.'I Pale turquoise glaze and
yellow- 
brown rims too are London characteristics."' 
 
 
362 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D328. TEABOWL and SAUCER 
Probably Liverpool 
1755-1770 
 
Teabowl H.: 15/8" (4.1 cm), 
Diam.: 31/8" (79 cm) 
Saucer H.: 7/8" (2.2 cm); 
Diam.: 5" (12.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Blue-grayish white. Over- 
all, excluding footrim edges. 
S HAP E: Thrown. Footrims of V-shaped 
section with narrow, flat edges. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers. 
 
 
                                                                     Actual
size 
 
 
This matching teabowl and saucer are two of six Longridge collection pieces

(or sets of pieces) that bear floral ornament in the so-called Fazackerley
style (see 
also nos. D169, D329 D331, D388). The pattern on the teaware shown here does

not occur on any other examples in this collection but is very like that
on a 
smallish bowl (4 1/2 inches [11.4 cm] in diameter) in another collection.
The 
same style of leaves and a (differently detailed) set of blue flowers, to
the right 
of center, also occur on a 1767 dated punch bowl bearing a romantic rhyme
and 
the name Joseph Peteru. 
   Decoration in so-called Fazackerley colors also appears on delftware produced

for the export market. Fazackerley flowers (in patterns not matching those
on 
the teabowl and saucer shown here) occur on punch bowl, plate, and other
frag- 
ments excavated at public and domestic sites in Williamsburg, Virginia.'

 
 
 
1. Ray, Warren. pl. 57, no. 113. 
2. lipski and Archer, Dated D)elftware. no. 1202 
(Liverpool Museum, no. 50.60,24). 
33. For punch bowls, see Austin, Delft, pp. 90 
(lames (Geddy Workshop and Kit hen), 92 (Public 
Hfospital), 94 (Timberlake and D)ana site, Chris- 
tiana Campbell's Tavern); ior a plate, p. 181 
(Roscow C-ole House). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 363 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D329, D330. COFFEE CUP, 
TEABOWL, and SAUCERS 
(D329) Liverpool 
1755-1768 
(D330) Possibly Bristol 
1755-1766 
 
(D329) Cup H.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm); 
Diam. (body): 2 1/4" (5.7 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 3 1/8" (7.9 cm) 
Saucer H.: 1" (2.5 cm): 
Diam.: 4 3/4" (12.1 cm) 
(D330) Teabowi H.:. 5/8" (4.1 cm); 
Diam.: 31/8" (7.9 cm) 
Saucer H.: 3/4" (4.4 cm); 
Diam.: 4 5/8" (11.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish to turquoise- 
white. Overall, excluding bottoms of 
footrims. 
SHAPE: Thrown. (D329, coffee cup) 
Extruded handle, flat on interior and 
concave on exterior. (All) Narrow, flat- 
edged, cylindrical footrims. 
DECORATION: Painted, Flowers and 
leaves, (D330) with fences. 
 
Published: (D329) Garner and Archer, Delft- 
ware, pl. 104B; Garner, Delftware, pl. 84B. 
Ex coils.; (D329) E. Pitts Curtis. (D330) L. L Lip 
ski, L. Gautier 
 
 
                                          DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
                                          Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
 
 
 
 
 
hese four items are standard in shape and size and share a similar type of

polychrome decoration. Grooved loop handles like that on the cofiibe cup
(D329) 
were introduced around 1750 by Warmstry House porcelain factory at Worces-

ter, were copied on Liverpool porcelain coffee cups from around 1755 at 
William Reid & Co.'s Brownlow Hill works, and, it seems, neighboring
delftware 
factories copied them as well.' 
   This sort of floral decoration, with black details added over the five
oxide col- 
ors, was a new departure for the delftware industry that first emerged around

1756, as indicated by a small inkpot inscribed "RW 1756" (no. D388)
and deco- 
rated with characteristic flower sprigs.' On the coffee cup and saucer (D329)

shown here, the yellow is bright and clear, the red a warm brick tone, the
mixed 
green opaque olive, as one would expect from a successful firing, whereas
the 
yellow on the teabowl and its matching saucer (D330) varies from dull gold
to 
muddy, the leaves are very somber (with more blue than yellow in their make-

up), and the small buds have hardly developed any color, clearly indicating
that 
the kiln temperature was not high enough to mature all the oxides. 
   Of the more than twenty different "Fazackerley"-type floral
designs known 
on tin-glazed teaware (see also nos. D331, D337),' two are illustrated here:
the 
tightly organized horizontal spray on the coffee cup and triangular group
on 
one saucer (D329); and, treated in a very abstract way, the ornament on the

teabowl and its matching saucer (D330). 
   A 1757 and a 1758 dated Fazackerley mug have a history linked to Liverpool

since 1854,' but there is no explanation for the origin of this beautiful,
innova- 
tive style, which so suddenly emerged fully realized in Liverpool without

apparent experimentation. The concept may have anticipated the polychrome

enameling of wood-block tile prints introduced by John Sadler in 1756 and
fired 
in Samuel Gilbody's kiln on Shaws Brow. Alternatively, the quality of pattern

construction, the indented shapes of the leaves and buds, which are overlaid

with black at their bases, may look to contemporary Chinese Imari export

porcelain for inspiration, and the palette is a creditable reinterpretation
of 
famille verte enamels.' 
   The exceptional yellow of the coffee cup (D329) perhaps was obtained from

the color mill of Lawrence Harrison, a partner at Brownlow Hill, who was

renowned for this pigment. Fazackerley-style sherds (not wasters) were found
at 
Button Street (known as Lord Street pothouse, founded by Alderman Josiah

Poole) and Trueman Street, between Alderman Thomas Shaw's Friendship pot-

house and Samuel Poole's pothouse;1 a properly conducted archaeological 
excavation is needed to be certain which enterprise produced the ware. Some

Bristol decorators combined similar floral sprays and "lobster claw"
detached 
buds in darker colors with various under-rim marks. These unusual buds are

present on this teabowl and saucer, which suggests that they may have been

made in Bristol.' The style possibly was tried in Dublin"' but was not
employed 
in London, and the relatively small amount surviving, especially in teaware,

indicates that it was not a long-lived fashion. 
 
 
364 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1. Sandon, Worcester, pl. 14; Watney. Liverpool, 
p. 64, figs. 246, 247; Atkins. Exhibition (1998), 
no. 19 (coflee cup). 
 
2. Also illustrated in 1,ipski and Archer, Dated 
Delltware, no. 1584. 
 
3. Macfarlane, I'in-glazed Teaware, pp. 7:34-736, 
class 13, lists 14 (now updated to 19) earthen- 
ware designs; p. 751 lists 2 more on stoneware. 
For related motil s on tea- and coflee ware, see 
Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981. 
 
 
lot 156: Garner sale (2), March 2, 1965, lot 92 
(now Birmingham Museum collection); Garner 
sale (3), June 1, 1965, lot 53 (now private collec- 
tion); Archer, V&A. col. p1s. 219 220, nos. H.7-H.8 
(latter with crucilorm fence). 
 
4. Britton, Bristol, p. 269, col. pl. p. 38; Archer, 
V&A, pp. 300-301. 
 
5. CfI Ray, Tiles, pp. 70, 77, col. pl. G, no. 612, 
 
6. Cf. Reichel, Porzellan, p. 150, pl. 58, "1721 
vorhanden" (Dresden collection): Jorg, Rijksmu- 
scumi, nos. 224, 198, 
 
 
7. Adams, Insurance,. p. 95, Sun Company Policy 
No. 150228, dated December 31, 1755; Britton, 
Bristol, p. 16. 
 
8. Fragments found by Peter Entwistle. See 
Garner, LIiverpool, pp. 70-71, pl. 64. 
 
9. Britton, Bristol, nos. 17.6, 17.13, 17.14; Archer, 
V&A, no. H.7. 
 
10. For a pair of small 10-sided plates, see Sothe- 
by's (L), December 15, 1964, lot 36 (now private 
collection). 
 
 
D330 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E ý Beverage Wares 
 
 
D331. JUG                                                               
                Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
Tin-glazed stoneware 
 
 
Liverpool 
 
1755-1768 
 
 
H.: 3" (7.6 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 2 1/8" (5.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 2 5/8" (6.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff 
 
(stoneware). 
TIN GLAZE: Paleturquoise with 
 
brown speckling. Overall, excluding 
 
footrim bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Extruded handLe of 
 
flattened oval section. Flaring, flat- 
 
edged footrim. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Floral sprig. 
Border composed of scrollwork and 
 
horizontal line. 
 
Published: Garner, Delftware, pl. 84B; Garner 
and Archer, Delftware, pl. 104B. 
Ex call: E. Pitts Curtis, 
 
 
M ore than twenty items of teaware with Fazackerley-style floral designs

have been recorded now, but only three are cream jugs, and this is the only

example painted on tin-glazed stoneware (see no. D332). Its baluster-shaped

body and loop handle are similar to salt-glazed, white stoneware cream jugs

made in Staffordshire.' Two others in tin-glazed stoneware are known; both

are decorated with chinoiserie landscapes painted in cobalt blue, and both

have a hatched scroll border like the one on this jug. The border also occurs

on tin-glazed earthenware, including a polychrome cream jug, two blue and

white jugs, and a pair of small blue and white vases.4 Tin-glazed earthenware

tiles with Fazackerley-style flowers have been found in Liverpool, and others
of 
the type have large central flower heads with yellow centers, like this one,

crosshatched in black. Tin-glazed stoneware sherds with a geometric tree
very 
like that on one of the blue and white tin-glazed stoneware jugs were found
on 
the site of Alderman Thomas Shaw's pottery, offTrueman Street, where sherds

with Fazackerley-style decoration also were discovered.' The only other tin-

glazed stoneware items with Fazackerley-style flowers are a teapot with an

appropriate crabstock handle and spout and a coffee can, which make them

some of the rarest of English delftware made in Liverpool around 1757 (see

nos. D329, D330). 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
1. Macfarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, app. 3, 5, 6. 
2. D. M. & P Manheim advertisement, The Antique 
Collector 33, no. 3 Uune 1962), p. lvii. 
3. Garner, Liverpool, p. 72, pl. 72; Stoke-on- 
Trent, Stonewares, p. 51, pl. 42, no. 49b. 
4. Austin, Delft, no. 123 (polychrome jug); Rack- 
ham, Glaisher, vol. 1, no. 1554, and Sotheby's 
(L), Moorwood sale, May 15, 1979, lot 23 (blue 
and white jugs); Atkins, Exhibition (1998), 
no. 20 (vases). 
 
 
5. Ray, Tiles, pp. 204-205, pl. 45, fig. 52, 
nos. 451, 458, col. pl. D. 
6. Garner, Liverpool, pp. 70-72, pl. 72. Sherds 
found by Peter Entwistle, 
7. Sotheby's (LL, Garner sale (2), March 2, 1965, 
lot 98; Wills, Pottery and Porcelain, p. 64, fig. 60 
(Plymouth Museum collection). 
 
 
366 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D332. COFFEE CUP 
Tin-glazed stoneware 
 
Liverpool, probably Shaw's Brow 
Probably Richard Chaffers and Company 
 
c. 1765 
 
 
H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); 
 
Diam. (body): 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); 
Diam. (with handle): 3" (7.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff 
 
(stoneware). 
TIN GLAZE: Light turquoise, some- 
what transparent and runny. Somewhat 
matt and, in places, finely wrinkled on 
 
interior and part of upper portion of 
 
exterior. Overall, excluding bottom 
 
edge of footrim. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Extruded handle 
(through shaped template) with length- 
wise rib on exterior and curled and 
 
pinched lower terminal. 
DECORATION: Painted. Classical ruins 
 
in landscape with buildings, plants, 
 
water, and boat. 
 
Published and exhibited: Stoke-on-Trent, 
Stonewares, no. 50: Brown and Lockett, 
Liverpool, no. 47 
Published: Alan Smith, 'An Enamelled Tin 
Glazed Mug at Temple Newsam," Leeds Arts 
Calendar, 1978, pl. 4. 
Ex coil.: E. N. Stretton (no. S57), 
 
 
D E L F T W ARE [Beverage Wares 
 
Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
 
                                                                        Actual
size 
 
 
The stoneware body (see also no. D331) of this cup is composed of pipeclay,

calcined flint, and sand, a mixture that can be thrown and turned to produce
a 
thinner-walled, lighterweight body than its earthenware counterpart and is

fired to a higher temperature.' Although this process should result in a
harder, 
more durable piece, the cup's largish rim chips may indicate that the propor-

tions of the raw materials or the biscuit-firing temperature (or both) still

required adjusting. 
    The ribbed cross section of the handle was created with the aid of a
template 
inserted in a dod-box (dod means handle), and the lower end of the strip
is 
pinched and twisted like many on Staffordshire, salt-glazed, white stoneware

coffee cups.i This rare technical feature in tin-glazed stoneware teaware
other- 
wise is found only on cream jugs (see no. D331), coffee cans, and coffee
pots,, 
and is unknown in tin-glazed earthenware. No matching tin-glazed stoneware

saucer of this pattern is known. 
   The cup's apparently unique landscape design is at center front and fans
out, 
yet leaves wide areas of glaze empty at either side without a recto complementary

scene. The ruin and distant tower are entirely European, but the bullet-headed

boatman is common in chinoiserie landscapes., Other versions of this design
are 
used on a phosphatic porcelain mug and a steatitic mug, both attributed to

Richard Chaffers and Company, Shaws Brow, Liverpool, around 1754/5 to 1765,1

which suggests that the coffee cup could have been made there at the same
time. 
 
 
1. Burton, Earthenware and Stoneware, pp. 92, 93. 
2. Some other tin-glazed stoneware, such as 
teapots and cofutIe pots, have thin bases that 
have cracked, and the glaze has a characteristic 
pattern of very fine crazing due to the impervi- 
ous body and dilterential cooling coelficient. 
3. For a template used 1796 1828, see Sintth, 
Hterculaneum, )P. 42, pl 118; loit a complete box, 
IHamer and ttamer, 1)ict ionary, p. 104. For coilee 
cup, see Mountdcrd, Salt-glazed Stoneware, pl. 98. 
 
 
4. Archer, V&A, no. 1I.10 (cream jug); Wills, Pot- 
tery and Porcelain, p, 64, fig. 60 (colce can); 
Sotheby's (L), lipski sale t1), March 10, 1981, 
lot 202 (coflee pot). 
5. Compare the scene on a tin-glazed earthen- 
ware cup (Austin, Djelit, no. 139). 
6. Ibid., nos. 123, 144, 145. 
7. Waitney, Liverpool, p. 12, fig. 6a (with a sailing 
boat): p. 18, fig. 39 (more foliage). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 367 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
 
D333, D334. SPOON TRAYS 
(D333) London 
Possibly Vauxhall 
c. 1745 
(D334) Probably Liverpool 
c. 1760 
 
(D333) H,: 1" (2.5 cm): 
L.: 5 3/4" (14.6 cm); 
W.: 3 7/8" (9.8 cm) 
(D334) H.: 3/4" (1.9 cm): 
L.: 6" (15.2 cm); 
W.: 3 1/2" (8.9 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, (D333) more 
pale. Overall, excluding bottoms of 
(D333) footrim and (D334) low feet. 
SHAPE: Molded. Flat bottoms, 
(D333) with low, nearly ova[ footrim, 
(D334) with four crescent-shaped ridges 
forming feet. 
DECORATION: Painted. (D333) Large 
reserves bear pavilions and plants; small 
reserve bears insect. Border composed 
of outline, brown edge. (D334) Buildings 
in landscape with trees. Border com- 
posed of trelliswork with floral reserves. 
 
Ex coil: (D334) Mr. and Mrs. W F Knauer, 
"Man Full of Trouble" Tavern. 
 
 
                                           Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Spoon trays are an entirely Western invention resulting from the use of 
sugar to sweeten coffee and tea; once it was found that lumps of loaf sugar
dis- 
solved more quickly if beverages were stirred, two novel accessories arrived
on 
the tea table.' One was the teaspoon, which had an oval bowl small enough
to 
go into an average teabowl, coffee cup, or capuchine. The other was a small
tray 
on which the spoons could be laid before and after use, which prevented dam-

age either to cloth or table. 
   In keeping with the costly refreshments they accompanied, the earliest

spoon trays were of silver,2 and, when seen with the teaspoons, they were
a bril- 
liantly satisfying indication of the owner's wealth and social status. Once
cheap 
Chinese teawares flooded the London market, however, it became fashionable

to order porcelain spoon trays en suite with a tea service., This practice
probably 
accounts for the paucity of surviving tin-glazed examples, none of which,
so far, 
are known to match any other delft teaware. The Longridge trays illustrate
two 
types produced by English potters, and their size, about 6 inches (15.2 cm)
wide, 
also relates to the average length of contemporary teaspoons. 
   The earlier of the two pieces shown here is the example with pavilion

reserves (D333). Its simple, controlled hexagonal shape, pointed at both
ends, 
closely resembles the Chinese trapezoid porcelain "boats" that
it, and Worcester, 
copy. The reserved design occurs on two polychrome plates dated 1746 and
a 
small blue and white mug.4 They all have a brown painted edge like the one
on 
this spoon tray, which suggests a London origin, and a sherd with similar
feath- 
ery branches was found at the Vauxhall pottery site.' 
   On the second Longridge tray (D334), the sinuous, rococo outline betrays
its 
derivation from silver antecedents. Crescentic feet only occur on trays of
this 
form..6 Two of them have somewhat similar landscape designs and the same
sort 
of floret and diaper border on the cavetto that occurs on a water bottle
deco- 
rated in Fazackerley palette, suggesting that this spoon tray could have
been 
made in Liverpool about 1757-1760. The shape is also found in white salt-glazed

stoneware, solid agateware, and red earthenware with stained lead glazes
and 
cream sprigs., 
 
 
D333   D334 
 
 
368 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/A0 
 
 
D333 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
I)D334 
 
 
Actual size 
 
1. liser, Jouirney to Paris, p. 165: "1he daily use 
o1 (of tee with stigar as with us in london, " 
[Nahum Tatel, Poemn, p. 44 (sweetening of tea). 
 
 
2. The earliest example noted was hallmarked at 
london, 1706/7 (see lGriinwadej, Assheton Ben- 
nett Collection, p. 21, no. 176). 
 
 
3. The form, unknown in dmnestic market 
Kangxi porcelain, must have been specially cre- 
ated from aI pattern supplied by the Fast India 
Comipany. In 1710, the directors in London 
ordered " 12,000 boats for lhe teaspoons" (the 
evocative lerm suggests that lhe "boats" were 
 
 
oval uitensils pointed at both ends), and the term 
was still in use in 1769 in catalogs o[tWorcester 
porcelain at Christie's London (see (Godden, 
Export Porcelain, p. 119; Nightingale, History, 
pp. 97-98). For, respectively. Chinese export and 
Clhelsea spoon frays in services, see' lHoward, 
Armnorial, p. 62; Austin., Chelsea, app., p. 12. 
 
 
4. lipski and Archer, I)ated Delftware, nos. 504, 
504A (plates), private collection filug). 
 
 
5. U inpublished. 
 
 
7. For two with floret and diaper horder, see 
Austin, Delft, no. 131: Sotheby's (L), July 21, 
1981, lot 23. Ior water bottle, see Rackhain, 
(;laisher, vol. 1, p. 214, no, 1724, col. pl. 16. 
 
 
8. plain while and polychrome enameled salt 
glaze, respectively. Mountlord, Salt-glazed Store- 
ware, pl. 103: 1(orne, Collection, pt. 17, no. 503. 
Christie's (NY), Ginsburg sale, October 14, 1983, 
lot 97 (agateware) [aile, Collection, p. 27, 
no. 33A (red earthenware). 
 
 
6. Five other exaiiples, Maciarlane. Tin-glazed 
as .aware, pp. :379 381. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 369 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D335. TEA CANISTER 
 
 
London, probably Lambeth 
 
1735-1740 
 
 
H.: 4 7/8" (12.4 cm); 
 
W.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); 
 
Depth: 2 1/4" (5.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained light buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, slightly 
 
transparent and runny. Overall, exclud- 
 
ing where bottom wiped virtually clean. 
 
SHAPE: Press-molded. Flat bottom. 
 
DECORATION: Painted (blue and 
 
white with detailing in manganese 
 
wash). One primary panel depicts Cain 
 
and Abel scene; other portrays couple 
 
 
with dog. End panels and shoulder bear 
 
different floral vines. Curved corners 
 
bear three different diaper motifs. 
 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt 18, no. 519 
 
 
1. Of 16 pieces recorded so far, 8 show the 
Crucifixion, 5 have Old Testament scenes, 
3 have New Testament scenes, and 1 has 
an Apocryphal scene (Macfarlane research 
11991-1999 (ongoing)l). 
2. For Hampshire County Council Muse- 
ums Service collection (no. DA1980.60) 
canister, see Horne, Tiles, p. 80, fig. 15; 
p. 95, fig. 17 Gen. 29:10 (Rachel and 
Fliezer); Matt. 2:9 (Wise Men). 
3. For country scene with saintly figure 
and Crucifixion on flower urn, see Brit- 
ton, Bristol, no. 7.5. 
4. Mactaggart, Chargers, pp. 58-63. 
5. Merian, Iconun Biblicarum, pt. 1, (v,) VI, 
Genes. (ch.) IV; p. 4 (AVB Press introduc- 
tion), states 3 of perhaps only 300 copies 
originally published survive today. 
6. Horne, Tiles, no. 443 (London); Ray, 
Tiles, pp. 116-117, no. 21 (Liverpool). 
7. Pluis, Bijbeltegels, p. 244, no. 315 (Rot- 
terdam tiles with altars, 1725-1750); 
no. 314 (Harlingen [Friesland] tiles with- 
out altars, like this canister, 1650-1675). 
8. Macfarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, 
pp. 348-349. 
9. Austin, Delft, no. 129 (dated 1757); 
Sotheby's (L), Bryant sale, July 10, 1965, 
lot 92; Home, Collection, pt. 8, no. 201. 
10. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1516 1517; Austin, Delft, no. 129. 
11. Roscoe, Statues, pp. 38, 42. 
 
 
les and chargers (see nos. D5, D63-D68) apart, biblical scenes are seldom

seen on English tin glaze,, and where teaware is concerned, are confined
to tea 
canisters; the only other biblical canister, a plain, rectangular vessel
painted in 
dark blue, combines scenes from the Old Testament "Rachel and Eliezer
at the 
well" with the "Three Wise Men" from the New Testament., On
the canister 
shown here, "Cain slaying his brother Abel," also from the Old
Testament 
(Gen. 4:8), is contrasted with a secular subject.)' The pale manganese shading
of 
the sprigs on top of the canister is a rare feature. 
   In spite of symbolizing the triumph of evil over good, the murder of Abel
is 
perceived as of far less religious significance than the Fall (see nos. D65-D67)4

and so is seldom illustrated in art. Consequently, though only a few copies
of the 
book were printed and the original plate is unlikely to have been available
to 
English delftware decorators, Matthias Merian's engraving of the scene for
Icones 
Biblicarum (Frankfurt, 1630)' could be extremely relevant here. A similar
image 
of the horrific assault appears in reverse on London and Liverpool tiles
(the lat- 
ter with burnt offerings smoking on the two altars, as in the engraving).'
Dutch 
tiles also depict the scene,' and immigrant Friesland workmen may have 
brought such designs to a London pottery engaged in the manufacture of tiles

as well as teaware. 
   Twelve other canisters of this shape are known (see also nos. D336, D337);8

three of them have diapered ornament on their convex corners, and one, dated

1757, has quatrefoil diaper designs relating to one corner panel on the Long-

ridge canister.' Based on dated examples, this shape was produced from at
least 
1737 to 1757,0 but the canister's relationship to London tiles and "Cain
and 
Abel" baroque garden sculpture sold (1708-1737) by Andries Carpenti~re
of Por- 
tugal Row" indicates that it probably was made around 1735 to 1740 nearby,
in 
Lambeth. 
 
 
370 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
~4. 
 
 
;1 - 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
lines and, on top, outline. 
 
Probably published. Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1518 (not illustrated, but 
description matches). 
 
Probably ex coil: M. L. Clarke (based on 
Christies [L], April 5, 1934, lot 22). 
 
 
1. See immerson, Teapots, col pl. 3, for 
lady (right) in somewhat similar dress in 
c. 1740 tea-drinking conversation piece 
(anon.). For 1635 1644 Chinese porcelain 
versions, see Kilburn, Transitional Wares, 
p. 86, pl 47; p. 100, no. 41. llampshire 
County Council Museums Service collec- 
tion (no. DA 1979.75/l33). 
2. Yule and Burnell, I lobson-Jobson, p. 710. 
 
:3. See Lo Collection, Hong Kong. p. 25, for 
woodblock illustrating Yixing ware. 
 
4. Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 1; Bonhams (I.), 
September 14, 1990. 
 
5. Kilburn, Transitional Wares, pp. 92 9:3, 
no. 91. 
 
 
English gentlewoman is in an oriental landscape, and overhead the oblique
lines 
cut off by the canister's top edge are Chinese in manner and suggest pendant

branches, a device also used on a blue and white tin-glazed slop basin.,
The thin 
 
Chinese end figure has a partly shaved head with hair twisted into a pigtail.
This 
is a Manchu, Qing custom among those of lower class2 and is contemporary
with 
the date of the canister. The globular teapot's long bail handle is derived
from 
Chinese ewers originally used for boiling water to pour over powdered tea
in a 
bowl.' Somewhat similar pots occur on a polychrome, chinoiserie tin-glazed

 
teapot of 1695 to 1710 and a circa 1700 posset pot.4 On the reverse, the
woman 
holds two indeterminate objects: one likely is a beaker-shaped vase (see
also the 
Chinese end figures) with a central band, a form found in Transitional period
Chi- 
nese porcelain' and common enough in English homes at this time. 
 
    Six other canisters of this shape have initials and dates: 1737 (two),
1738, 
1750 (a pair), and 1757.1 The style of decoration varies a great deal within
the 
group, which also includes seven undated pieces with chinoiserie landscapes.7

 
(Only the 1757 canister depicts a European figure, and she stands empty-hand-

ed and differently dressed, without an apron.) The powdered blue ground on
the 
 
1750 canisters and a pair of blue and white plates with the same spear-carrying

 
Chinaman as on the 1738 canister are linkable to chinoiserie patterned sherds

found in Liverpool, suggesting that this 1743 tea canister also was made
there., 
 
The identity of "ES" is unknown. 
 
 
6. For 1737, see Sotheby's (1), Lipski sale (1), 
March 10, 1981, lot 144; and Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, nos. 1516 1517. For 1738, see 
ttorne, Collection, pt. 8, no. 201. For 1750, see 
Sotheby's (L, lipski sale (1), March 10, 1981, lot 
114; Austin, l)ellft no. 128; LIipski and Archer, 
Dlated Delftware, nos. 1520 1520A. For 1757, see 
Sotheby's (1., Weston sale, April 15, 1958, lot 17; 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no, 1522; 
Austin, Delft, no. 129. 
 
 
7. Sotheby's (I.), ILipski sale (2), November 17, 
1981, lot 275; Scholes sale, January 16, 1962, 
lot 4. July 10, 1965, lot 92, Ray, Warren, pl. 81, 
no. 160; Sotheby's (NY), October 15, 1982, lot 73; 
April 13, 1984, lot 455, Home, Collection, pt. 6, 
no. 138. 
 
8. Plates with concentric rings on the backs (in 
private collections) match sherds bound by Peter 
Entwistle (see Garner, Liverpool, p. 71, pl. 63). 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
,f~ 
 
 
I 
 
 
D337. TEA CANISTER 
 
 
Liverpool 
c. 1760 
 
 
H.: 5 1/4" (13.3 cm); 
W.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm): 
Depth: 2 3/4" (7 cm) 
 
 
I 
 
 
I 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Very pale turquoise. 
Overall, excluding bottom (wiped 
 
 
clean). 
S H A P E: Press-molded. (Later japanned 
metal lid.) Flat bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Pastoral 
 
 
scenes, one with couple by tree, fence 
to the left, and distant ships to the 
right; the other with sleeping lady, 
building, and tree. Narrow ends and 
shoulder bear flowers and leaves. Bor- 
ders composed of trelliswork. 
 
 
1. For toy services, see Austin, Delft, 
no. 149. See also Christie's (L), October 22, 
1975, lot 17; H oward, Armorial, p. 225, 
no. 1)10 (part tea service, c. 1730). 
2. Maclarlane research (1991 1999 
longoingl). 
3. Ray, Tiles, pp. 148 149, pl. 18, no. 185 
(manganese). For blue, see Home, 'riles, 
no. 173; Archer, V&A, no. N.144 N.145: 
Austin, IDelft, no. 672. For 1757 bowl, 
see Itpski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 1167. 
4. Compare Rackhatm, Glaisher, vol. 2, 
pl. 1 IIC, no. 1598 (with insects on top). 
For a blue trellis border on a 1774 dated 
tea canister, see lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1528. 
5. For similar flowers on plates, see 
Hampshire County Council Museums 
Service collection (no. DA1979.75/58); 
Britton, Bristol, no. 17.12, col. pl. p. 38. 
6. Watney, Liverpool, pp. 121-122, col. 
pls. 1, 2d, 2f* 
7. One original delftware canister lid has 
survived (see Ray, Warren, pls. 52h, 52d, 
no. 101). 
 
 
Surviving toy (meaning small) tea services (no standard size service is known)

indicate that English delft tea canisters were not made en snite. (Chinese
export 
porcelain canisters, however, could be ordered as part of English private
trade 
armorial tea services.)' This practice may explain why, as is true of ornament
on 
more than ninety recorded delftware tea canisters (dating from about 1705
to 
1774),' the genre subjects on the example shown here do not appear on other

teaware shapes. Tin-glazed tiles, however, decorated in the same painted
colors 
within blue-penciled outlines and imitating the doucai technique of IKangxi-
and 
Yongzheng-period Chinese porcelain, do bear closely related motifs (for the
same 
couple and related reclining ladies [in groups], see nos. D428, D429). The
tiles are 
wider than the canister sides, explaining the unusual device of extending
the pat- 
tern onto the rounded corners of the canister. The reclining woman on the

canister appears with different details on several monochrome tiles: one,
painted 
in dark manganese, shows her within a circle and has corner motifs; three
bor- 
derless variations are painted in blue; and a similar woman is depicted in
reverse 
on a punch bowl dated 1757.1' The figures on both sides of the canister probably

imitate published images based on French designs (see nos. D428, D429). 
   The penciled, leaf-and-line trellis side borders, like the small sprigs
on top, 
are rare features on tea canisters." The spray of lobed flowers has
black details 
like those on mugs made for Thomas and Catherine Fazackerley of Liverpool
in 
1757 and 1758, respectively.' This characteristic suggests that the canister
was 
also made in that city, possibly by Richard Chaffers and Company at Shaws

Brow, around 1757, when the pottery was making the transition from delftware

and decorating much of its early porcelain with green "island"
landscapes like 
this." The black, japanned tin lid on this canister is a typical nineteenth-century

replacement for the missing delftware original. No tin-glazed stoneware tea

canisters have been encountered. 
 
 
I 
 
 
li1 
 
 
I it 
 
 
Ito 
a 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
 
D338. TEA CANISTER                                                      
                    Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
London 
 
c. 1785 
 
 
H.: 5" (12.7 cm); 
 
W.: 3 1/2" (8.9 cm); 
 
Depth: 2 3/4" (7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white. Overall, 
 
excluding bottom (wiped clean). 
 
S H A P E: Press-molded. Flat bottom. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Panels bear 
 
slightly different Chinese scenes of 
 
bridges, willows, and figures. Narrow 
 
ends bear different floral sprays. Cham- 
 
fered corners bear four different 
 
trelliswork patterns. Top bears scrolling 
 
foliage and flattened, V-shaped "bars." 
 
Published and exhibited: Lipski, Teaware, 
no, 58. 
Ex coal: 0. Van Oss. 
 
 
                                                                        
Actual size 
 
 
      Ithough this tea canister is a very rare shape, six other examples
(all also 
in blue and white) are known, including a pair and one canister that is especially

 
 
tztzpy i.UIndVe. 11e chiiiiiiserli  1 t iles on Me canister snown nere appear
to De 
unrecorded and do not occur on any other tin-glazed teaware form. All four
dia- 
per patterns are different (see also no. D335), which also is unusual;, one,
con- 
sisting of a quatrefoil ornament at the crossing point of the lattice, is
also pre- 
sent on three other concave canisters.' 
   The canister's acanthus leaf border is clumsily painted, compared with
the 
rest of the decoration, and perhaps is by another hand. Its deliberate, shadowed

effect, along with the budlike lobes in one floral panel (to the right of
the dou- 
ble-figure Chinese scene), indicate that this is a late piece. Such features
also 
occur on Lambeth delftware with the "grass" edge border popular
around 1785.4 
 
 
1. Most recorded canisters are oblong octago-   3. Cecil Higgins Museumn
collection (no. C. 140); 
oals with canted corners (see Maclrarlane,      Hlorne, Collection, pt. 6,
no. 137; Sotheby's (NY), 
Tin-glazed ITeaware, p. 354, type IV). For pair, see  Vizcarra sale, April
13, 1984, lot 443. 
Ray, Warren, no. 1603 Sotheby's (NY), Baker sale, 
                                           4. For romparable examples, see
Garner and 
Ortober 15, 1982, lot 73. I or deeply conc ave 
                                           Archer, D)elflware, pl. 119B (bowl):
Sotheby's (I.), 
exa mple , see  Archer, V&A,  to.  1 .i1.       ILipski sale  (4), Decem
ber 6, 198:3, lot 741/7 
2. Compare Archer, V&A, no. H.11, canister with  (plate). 
live dillI rent diapers. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 373 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
D E L F T W A R E 1 Beverage Wares 
 
 
                      D339.SUGA  POTTea- and Coffee Wares 
D339. SUGAR POT 
 
London, probably Lambeth 
17flf 171C 
 
 
H.: 3" (7.6 cm); Diam.: 4" (10.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White with gray to blue 
 
speckling. Overall, excluding footrim 
 
bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. (Originally with lid.) 
 
Bottom more concave near center and 
 
recessed to form narrow footrim. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Dancing 
 
Chinese boys with arrows(?), baskets of 
 
flowers, leafy sprigs, and asterisks. 
 
Borders composed of horizontal lines. 
 
Ex coils.: F H. Gorner; E. Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
1. Private collection. 
2. Macfiarlane, Fin-glazed Teaware, 
pp. 218-222, now updated. 
3. For scroll-handled, bulbous examples, 
see Britton, Bristol, no. 11.22; Atkins, 
Exhibition (1998), no. 18. For toy exam- 
pies, see Christie's (L), October 22, 1979, 
lot 17, pl. 2. 
4. For the only other known example, see 
Austin, Delft, no. 126. 
5. The "arrows" object is more like a shut- 
tlecock. See Archer, V&A, no. B.197, col. pl. 
140, for a c. 1713 dish with "golf clubs." 
6. Ibid., no. 1.15, col. pl. 224. 
7. Austin, DelIt, no. 126 (sugar pot). Lipski 
and Archer, Dated Delitware, nos. 232, 
250, 253 (asterisks on plates dated 1703, 
1707, 1708). 
8. Archer, V&A, no F1.15. 
 
 
nD 
D    ased on the only surviving complete toy tea service,' pots of this general

 
shape were used as sugar containers. More than forty sugar pots have been
record- 
ed to date,' and all but two have plain rims and vertical sides.' This sugar
pot 
would have had a disk-shaped, flat cover similar to that of number D340,
with a 
tazza-shaped knop and a blue-banded edge to match the mouth of the bowl.4

   No comparable strange "arrows" appear to have been recorded,
but they are 
akin to the motifs known to delftware collectors as "golf clubs"
(sic), which usu- 
ally are found in pairs and often associated with a "jumping Chinaman."'
The 
main components of the sugar pot's design are reminiscent of those on another

four-color example,t on which a differently garbed Chinaman leans forward
in 
the same relationship to a pedestal urn with a larger, veined central ornament

and two looped handles. This urn is also filled with a triangular arrangement
of 
flowers interspersed with ferns; a small "gridiron" replaces the
fringed asterisk. 
    A covered, smaller sugar pot of this form is decorated with a blue-banded
rim, 
large rosettes, cusped and spiral sprigs typical of Vauxhall pottery and
Norfolk 
House in Lambeth, and asterisks, which were a popular early eighteenth-century

motif (see no. D255).1 This decoration, coupled with the comparable sugar
pot 
design already referred to,' which is also known at both these potteries,
indicates 
that the Longridge pot was made in Lambeth around 1700 to 1715. 
 
 
374 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D340. SUGAR POT 
London, probably Lambeth 
 
Probably Vauxhall 
Number "2" on lid interior 
1715-1720 
 
 
H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm); Diam.: 3 1/8" (7.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White with gray to blue 
 
speckling. Overall, excluding bottom 
 
edges of lid and footrim. 
S H A P E: Thrown, Bottom recessed to 
 
 
form narrow footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Four repeats 
(three repeats on lid) of two types of 
 
flowers with dot-cluster filler ornament, 
Borders composed of scrollwork, V 
 
 
motifs, leaves, horizontal lines, and (on 
 
 
lid) circles. Lid interior bears number "2." 
 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pr. 16, no, 453. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
I 
 
 
l)et ail of lid interior 
 
 
1. Sotheby's (L), December 20, 1977, 
lot 18, pl. 2. 
2. Austin, Delft, no. 126, comments. 
3. For 1628 1644 and 1644-1661 Chinese 
examples, see Little, Chinese Ceramics, 
pp. 68 69, no. 22 (roli'ageri); pp. 92-93, 
no. 40 (dish). See Edwards, Vauxhall 
pottery, pl. 50b, nos. 1-3 (nnig). 
4. Edwards, Vauxhall Pottery, pl. 54. 
5. Cockell, Vauxhall Cross, pl 128; 
Edwards, Vauxhall Pottery, phs. 50-56. 
6. Lipski and Archer. Dated Ilelfltware, 
no. 804. 
 
 
his pot, unlike number D339, retains its matching cover, which has a low,

hollow knop on a thick stem. (These pots should not be confused with another

cylindrical type with a flat base and cover, the latter having an integral
cylin- 
drical compartment, deeper and wider than this knop, rising vertically and

fitted with a small, disk-shaped cover with a button knop.), There is no
evidence 
that the Longridge cover's knop ever was intended to be a receptacle.' 
   The design on the pot does not appear to have been recorded before. The

large flower was probably adapted from a Chinese peony as depicted on export

porcelain, and the upper petal is penciled with horizontal red lines in typical

Vauxhall pottery style, also derived from Transitional porcelain. (Chinese
porce- 
lain teabowls were recovered from the pottery site.)4 The spiral sprigs and
their 
position at each side of the flower, circles of small dots, and ruyi border
are typ- 
ical of Vauxhall delftware as well, but the tulips with Vandyke points like
lace 
are a new and interesting addition to the published repertoire of its motifs.
The 
wavelike border round the lower edge occurs on a blue-banded tankard dated

1720. 
 
 
   Though like number D341, this sugar pot has a blue 2 mark, it may not
have 
been decorated by the same man. The two pieces are over a decade apart, and

workmen are likely to have moved between various potteries once they were
out 
of their apprenticeships and had gained experience as journeymen until they

obtained employment as a chargehand, foreman, or manager. The pot shown 
here probably also was produced by the Vauxhall pottery. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 375 
 
 
I 
 
 
) 
 
 
t 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D341. SUGAR POT 
 
 
London, probably Lambeth 
Red number "2" on lid interior; blue 
number "2" on bowl interior; asterisk 
on bottom of bowl 
1730-1735 
 
 
H.: 5" (12.7 cm); Diam.: 3 7/8" (9.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly greenish white. 
Overall, excluding bottom edges of lid 
and footrim. (Glaze appears worn away 
 
 
on bowl rim.) 
SHAPE: Thrown. Cylindrical, narrow- 
edged footrim. 
DECORATION: Painted. Three repeats 
of flower sprays with insects and aster- 
isks. Lid decoration echoes that on 
body. Borders composed of fretwork 
 
 
bands with floral and foliate reserves, 
horizontal lines, and (on lid) circles. Red 
number "2" on lid interior, blue number 
"2" on bowl interior, and asterisk cen- 
 
 
tered on bottom of bowl. 
 
 
Ex coil.: J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
ý ron-red decoration with blue-line borders is more often found than
the red on 
its own, particularly on teaware. (The latter type of ornament occurs on
sherds 
found at Lambeth High Street.)' Decoration of the type shown here is reminis-

cent of embroidery and penciled, asymmetric flower sprigs with vertically

hatched petals, but fewer obliquely hatched leaves occur, sometimes with
other 
filler motifs, in iron-red on a sugar pot, in blue and white on a saucer,
and in 
blue and white on a coffee cup.' Narrow borders much like those on the pot

shown here occur on this teaware, a blue and white 1733 dated punch bowl
with 
closely related primary motifs, and the full border, in red, is on a plate
with an 
urn of hatched, red flowers.' Sherds of a blue and red plate with this style
of 
obliquely hatched sprigs were recovered from Vauxhall Cross,, which suggests

that this sugar pot was also made at the Vauxhall pottery, Lambeth. 
   Although decorators' marks are comparatively rare on English delftware,

they occur on twelve other sugar pots (see no. D340)2 The same type of two-

tiered knop as on this pot is found more often on examples with completely

convex covers (without flaring rims)., 
 
 
1. For red and blue, see Atkins, Exhibition 
(1993), nos. 26 28. Red sherds in V&A, Garner 
collection. 
2. For sugar pot, see Austin, Delft, no. 127. Wool- 
ley and Wallis (Salisbury, Wilts.), june 1985 sale, 
now in a private collection (saucer); Sotheby's 
(L), July 27, 1982, lot 301/1 (coffee cup). 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delltware, no. 1089 
(bowl); Atkins, Exhibition (1993), no. 28 (plate). 
 
 
4. Cockell, Vauxhall Cross, pl. 124C. 
5. Macfarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, pp. 218-222, 
now updated, including others marked "2" in 
iron-red inside pot and under the cover, and in 
blue inside pot and under the cover (both in a 
private collection). 
6. Austin, Delft, no. 127; Garner and Archer, 
Delftware, pl. 72B right. 
 
 
l)etail of lid interior       Detail of bottoim of bowl 
 
 
<4 
 
 
Detail of bowl interior 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D342. SUGAR POT 
 
Probably London 
Dated 1736 
 
H.: 2 3/4" (7 cm); Diam.: 3 7/8" (9.8 cm) 
 
 
B O D Y C LAY: Medium-grained buff to 
 
orange-buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Light blue-grayish white 
with blue speckling on interior. Overall, 
 
excluding rim (glaze worn away) and 
 
footrim (see below). 
SHAPE: Thrown. Low footrim (possibly 
slightly ground edge). Bowl bottom 
 
very slightly concave. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese figure 
 
in reserve flanked by bird, fence, pavil- 
 
ion, flower, and insect motifs, all 
repeated on both sides. Borders com- 
 
posed of horizontal lines and, near rim, 
trelliswork band with two similar 
 
Chinese-symbol reserves alternating 
 
with insect reserves, Interior bottom 
 
dated 1736. 
 
Published., Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no, f550: Horne, Collection, pt 9, no. 559 
 
 
Detail of bowl interior 
 
 
DELFTWARE Beverage Wares 
 
Tea- and Coffee Wares 
 
 
                                                                        
Actual size 
 
 
his vessel, like those in the immediately preceding entries, originally had
a 
low lid and is among pots sometimes thought to have been used as trinket
or 
wig-powder holders.' Although such usage cannot be ruled out altogether,
a 
1744 painting by G. Knapton that portrays Sir Bouchier Wray serving punch

onboard ship depicts an overturned bowl of this general type spilling out
lump 
sugar.' (Though not identical, the cupped knop on the bowl's lid is somewhat

like that of the lid to number D340.) Punch recipes commonly included sugar
as 
an ingredient, explaining the not unreasonable crossover use of a vessel
that 
probably more often formed a part of tea equipage. 
    The example shown here is one of only two recorded sugar pots with dates.

The other, inscribed "Sally Taylor 1755," depicts European figures
in a landscape. 
The figure on the Longridge vessel perhaps represents an actor, based on
the cur- 
tain at the top of the reserve (see also the interior of punch bowl no. D307).
The 
asymmetrical approach toward the design, like the superimposing of a reserve

against a contrasting scene, probably was inspired by Japanese porcelain

designs. 
 
 
1. Au stin, Delft, no. 126: l1ipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, nos. 1550 1551 
2. Wray was a member of the Society of Dilet- 
tanti. See Archer, V&A, p. 355, fig. 49, for 
reproductions of the painting (Society of I ilet- 
tanti collection); Hlorne, Collection, pt. 19, 
no 559, cites Margaret Macfarlane's discovery 
that the painting depicted such a bowl. 
3. See Brown, Iot liquors, p. 21 (and detail, 
p. 77), fbr a c. 1705 painting (unknown English 
artist) ofk GA'oitlteu's eli'a-Party, showing a page 
boy taking a lump froom a sugar bowl (probably 
Chinese export porcelain) with the lid leaning 
against the rim. 
 
 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1551. 
5. For reserves against more complex ornament 
on a 1690 1720 Japanese porcelain tfish, 
see Ayers, [inpey, and Mallet, Palaces, p. 223, 
no. 2:36. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 377 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D343. STAND or SALVER 
London, probably Lambeth 
Probably Vauxhall or Norfolk House 
c. 1715-1725 
 
 
F4 
 
 
H.:1 3/4" (4.4 cm); Diam.: 5 7/8" (14.9 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall. 
 
 
excluding bottoms of feet. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flanges of three feet 
 
 
cut to shape. 
DECORATION: Painted. Landscape 
 
 
with buildings and plants. Borders com- 
posed of (top) filled "leaves," concentric 
circles, and (bottom of saucer edge) 
horizontal lines. Feet flanges bear 
 
 
scrolls, ovals, and dots. 
 
 
Ex coils.: F H. Garner J. P Kosseboum, 
 
 
1. Oman, Silver, p. 40, quoting Thomas 
Blount, Glossographia, 2nd ed. (1661), "a 
new fashioned piece of wrought plate." 
2. Thornton, Seventeenth Century, pp. 
284 285, pl. 276 (silver). See LipskM and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1553, for 
1686 dated stand, probably for use with a 
1685 posset pot and cover (no. 914) with 
the same initials. 
3. Macfarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, 
pp. 444 449, diameter range: 4 114" 
(10.8 cm) 5 3/4" (14.6 cm). For exceptions, 
see Sotheby's (I), Lipski sale (2), Novem- 
ber 17, 1981, lot 332 (paw feet): Lipski sale 
(3), March 1, 1983, lot 430 (contintous 
pierced foot). 
4. Austin, Delft, no. 122 (beaded); Sothe- 
by's (L), I tpski sale (1), March 10, 1981, lot 
129 (flat rim). 
5. Private collection. 
6. Rinaldi, Kraak, p. 107, pl. 99; Kilburn, 
Transitional Wares, p. 29, fig. 9. 
7. llue, red, mixed green, and yellow; blue, 
red, and yellow; blue and white; red, green, 
and yellow. 
8. Macfarlane, Tin-glazed Teaware, 
pp. 444 449 (both palettes). For poly- 
chrome, see also Home, Collection, pt. 15, 
no. 423; L. and V. tfawes collection; and 
one other (private collection). For blue 
and white, see Sotheby's (L), Garner sale 
(2), March 2, 1965, lot 90/3; and two oth- 
ers with dealers in 1997. 
9. Emmerson, Teapots, pl. 18, no. 22 
(teapot matching Longridge stand); for 
matching pieces now in private collec- 
tions, see Sotheby's (L), Garner sale (3), 
 
 
Tie first salvers were silver and introduced in England around 1661' to pre-

vent furniture getting damaged by hot or greasy substances spilled from ale

pots, tankards, posset pots, and porringers. Some were used as "waiters"
to 
bring glasses of wine to guests at table, and cheaper delftware versions
were 
produced from around 1685 onward. 
   The stand or salver shown here is, in size and foot style, typical of
more than 
forty known stands.' Several have either a raised, bead edge or a fiat rim,,
but the 
majority are like this one, with a narrow, concave rim, and all have three
sym- 
metrically curved bracket feet akin to those on Japanese porcelain chocolate
cup 
stands made for the Western market (c. 1690-1710), but the cusped scroll
motif 
is simpler on bead-edge salvers, and a ruyi is used on the flat-rimmed type.

    The Longridge stand's central design and stiff leaf border probably derive
from 
motifs on blue and white Chinese Transitional porcelain dishes with European

buildings and spiky foliage made at Jingdezhen for the Dutch market (c. 1635-

1645).1 It is found with minor variations in four different color combinations'
on a 
wide variety of Lambeth delftware shapes and is the pattern most frequently

encountered on tin-glazed salvers (always on this standard form): currently
ten 
salvers are known in this four-color palette and four in blue and white."

    Although no teabowls or saucers patterned like this stand have been record-

ed, an existing teapot, two sugar pots, one coffee cup and coffee can, all
in blue, 
red, and yellow, suggest some standard-type salvers could have been used
as 
accompanying teapot stands, too. (Other examples where teapots match salvers

include a bead-rim stand [probably Lambeth, c. 17201, which has a blue and
white 
landscape with birds and rocks; and a standard salver with a cockerel and
vase 
pattern [c. 1715-17201, a design excavated at Vauxhall pottery in Lambeth.)"
The 
Longridge salver pattern is painted in the same colors on bowls found in
Lam- 
beth at Vauxhall Cross and is in blue, red, and yellow, on circa 1725 fragments

from the Norfolk House pottery site,"' and the salver is likely to have
been made 
at one of those factories at about that time." In its color range and
border motifs, 
this piece resembles a mug in this collection (no. D255). 
 
 
June 1, 1965, lot 56/1 (sugar pots); Lipski sale (1),  11. Garner mentions
finding "part of a teapot 
lot 131 (coffee can); coffee cup; and other     stand" (Garner, Lambeth,
p. 56) but unfortunate- 
teapots and stands.                        ly does not describe it, and it
does not appear to 
10. Cockell, Vauxhall Cross, p. 231, pl. 129d;  be among his sherds attributed
to the Lambeth's 
Bloice, Norfolk House, p. 132, fig. 57, no. 40  High Street pottery (V&A
collection, box no. 153). 
(Norfolk House). 
 
 
I 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
6 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E Figures and Figure-Shaped Vessels 
 
 
D344. BOTTLE 
London 
 
 
H.: 4 1/4" (10.8 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with dense 
black speckling. Overall, excluding 
footrim bottom. 
SHAPE: Press-molded. (Mostly new) 
rolled handle. Unevenly concave bot- 
tom with medium-width edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Head details 
picked out, with flower reserve on fore- 
head. Borders composed of vertical 
stripes on neck and pseudofluting on 
base. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
his extremely rare small bottle or flask, probably intended to hold scent,

may have been modeled directly after an ancient Roman vessel, perhaps one

made of glass,' or may imitate a Renaissance container in the neoclassical
style. 
The slightly flaring mouth of the Longridge piece resembles that on a larger,

circa 1660 Montelupo (Italy) maiolica bottle in the shape of double hip-length

figures of a man and woman.' Pseudogadrooning, such as that on the Longridge

bottle base, also is a feature of Italian tin glaze (see also nos. D393,
D394). The 
painting style and glaze quality of the piece, however, indicate that it
was man- 
ufactured in London. 
 
1. For 3rd- to 5th-century molded Roman glass 
head flasks with narrow necks, see Harden, 
Glass of the Caesars, pp. 172, no. 93: 174-175, 
nos. 95 Uantus-type), 96 (most like Longridge 
version, with pinched loop handle). 
2. Vydrova, Italian Majolica, no. 56. 
 
 
380 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D345. FIGURES 
Probably London 
1670-1690 
 
 
H. (average): 3 5/8" (9.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Light orange-buff to 
pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, with much pitting. 
Overall, excluding lower edges (glaze 
worn away?). 
SHAPE: Press-molded (two-part mold). 
Bottoms uneven at edges and covered 
with thin slabs, unevenly concave on 
inner portions. There are no firing 
holes. As a result, small holes opened in 
fabric during firing. 
DECORATION: Painted. Details 
(slightly different on each) of faces, hair, 
and clothing. Blue with manganese 
detailing. 
 
Ex coil.: Mr. ond Mrs. C AalI. 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
he two busts shown here at first appear to be an identical pair, but, although

they are from the same mold, they have differences in clothing details. The
fig- 
ures perhaps were intended to represent a particular, now-unidentified person.

(It has been suggested that the S motif on the figures' jackets refers to
clergy- 
man Dr. Henry Sacheverell, whose life spanned 16741?I to 1724 [see no. D421,
but 
the busts probably are a bit too early in date, and the S scroll is more
likely just 
a popular textile motif.) 
   The number of tin-glazed figures produced in northern Europe is much 
larger than in England, but, based partly on the painting style, the Longridge

examples are thought to have originated in London., The somewhat rough, 
uneven finishing of the bottom of the figures resembles the bottoms of a
Lon- 
don seated-man salt (no. D212) and a small "angel" salt or dish
(no. D210). The 
two latter pieces are unlikely to be much different in date than the figures

shown here. 
 
 
I. An Eniglish attribultion trF he 
figures is supported by Michael 
Archer and Jonathan Horrne 
(ftorne correspondence to the 
autihor, January 28, 1999). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 381 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E I Figures and Figure-Shaped Vessels 
 
 
D346, D347. FIGURES 
Probably London 
1670-1685 
 
 
(D346) H.: 4 5/8" (11.7 cm) 
 
(D347) H. (excluding wooden base): 
 
5 1/8" (13 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, slightly 
transparent. Overall, excluding bottoms. 
SHAPE: Press-molded in shapes of 
lovers, the women holding fans. Flat 
 
bottoms, (D347) with glued-on modern 
 
wooden base. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. 
 
Ex coils.: (D347) L. L. Lipski; old collection 
number pointed in white on wooden base, 
"EUR.CER/1244/A." 
 
 
These two figures clearly derive from the same design source-probably a 
print or illustration, perhaps one showing well-known contemporary stage
fig- 
ures-but they differ considerably in detail and were made in different molds.

The better-modeled coat on one of the men (D347) has buttons down the front,

along the back and side openings, and edging the low, horizontal pockets.
This 
new garment for men, recently (1660s) introduced from France by Charles II,

replaced the doublet worn earlier in the century. A waistcoat was normally

worn with the coat but was sometimes left off, as seems to be the case in
this 
figure. The second man (D346) wears a cloak over a buttoned garment. Both

men wear typically long and curly hairstyles and shirts with cravats tied
at the 
neck. The breeches of the man in blue (D347) can be seen; at this date, such
gar- 
ments still were fairly full in cut. 
   The delftware women wear boned bodices with long waists, pointed front

and back. Their petticoats open down the front and, as was usual, are worn

pulled away and pinned up at the center back. (On textile counterparts, this

style showed off another, contrasting petticoat underneath.) The woman in
blue 
and yellow (D347) most clearly wears a fashionable hairstyle that features
a cen- 
ter part from which the hair was swept back and up at the back of the head.

This hairstyle, like both women's costumes, dates from the late 1670s to
the 
mid-1680s. After about 1685, the skirts of men's coats become fuller and

women start to wear the mantua.l 
   The purple figure group (D346) appears to be unique in modeling, but an-

other identical to the better-modeled, blue-painted one (D347) is known in
blues 
and purple. Two excavated fragments of this model consist of the upper part
of 
the figures and are painted in the same colors as the second Longridge example

(236): one was found "in Southwark"; the other is from a landfill
site at the 
Wilkinson Bacldot in Boston, Massachusetts) The popularity of this group
is fur- 
ther confirmed by an example (from another mold) excavated in Greek Street,

Soho (London), which differs from the others in being glazed only in dark
blue. 
Here, as on number D346, the male wears a long cloak over a buttoned coat.4
A 
pipeclay version of the group was found at an unknown site, probably in Exeter,

and a similar style is illustrated by a figurine (also in pipeclay) of a
single man 
with a baton excavated from a domestic site at Aldgate in London.' 
 
 
1. Michael Archer provided much inforrmation 
for this entry and is deeply indebted to Susan 
North of the Textiles and Dress Department of 
the Victoria and Albert Museum fnr the descrip- 
tion of the costumes and estimated date. For a 
crudely modeled figure of a man in a related 
costume, see Britton, Bristol, no. 9.5. 
2. Home, Collection, pt. 16, no. 449. 
3. Britton, London, no. 112 (L1ondon example). 
For Boston example, see Beandry, Figurine, 
pp. 21-23; Austin, Delft, pp. 17 18, fig. 10. 
 
 
4. Horne, Collection, pt. 1, no. 3 (now Gardner 
Museum collection, Torontou; Morley-Fletcher 
and Mcllroy, Pictorial History, pp. 248-249, 
no. 12. 
5. Allan, Exeter, p. 291, fig. 162, no. CP.103, 
p. 293 (probably Exeter). Thompson, Grew, and 
Schofield, Aldgate Excavations, p. 122, fig. 60 
(Aldgate). See Archer, V&A, p. 399, for late 17th- 
century, white, pipeclay figures excavated in 
London, Exeter, Williamsburg, and Port Royal in 
Jamaica. 
 
 
382 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1)34b, 1).34/ Dotl actual SIZe 
 
 
D)346, D)347 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 383 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E Figures and Figure-Shaped Vessel! 
 
 
D348. FLOWER CONTAINERS 
Southwark, London 
Perhaps Montague Close 
c. 1685 
 
H. (approximate): 6 3/8" (16.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
bottom edges. 
SHAPE: Press-molded and pierced. 
Recessed, flat bottoms with medium- 
width lower edges. 
DECORATION: Painted. Details and 
hair of boys' heads. Border (lower edge) 
composed of tiny irregular arcs and 
horizontal line. 
 
Ex col. j P Kasseboum. 
 
 
These two heads are not, strictly speaking, a pair, since they were both
made 
in the same mold. (Pairs of similar-subject figures typically were mirror
images.) 
Two other heads from the same mold are inscribed "TCE11685" on
the under- 
sides and are decorated in blue, with some facial features and beadlike borders

around the bases in ocher.' The same initials appear with a 1684 date on
one 
puzzle cup and perhaps identify as the owners Thomas Corbett and Elizabeth

Allestree, who were married on July 25, 1684, at Saint Mary Overies, not
far 
from the Montague Close pottery. The Corbetts' first child was baptized on

June 9, 1685, and the pair of children's heads may mark the event.' By analogy

with flower bricks, the holes in the tops of all of the heads probably indicate

that they were intended for real or artificial flowers.' The delft heads
do not 
identically match the so-called Chelsea Boy's Head, sculpted by Franqois

Duquesnoy (I1 Fiammingo," 1596-1643), but stylistic similarities may
indicate 
that some other sculpture of about the same period inspired their design.'

 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1747- 1747A; see also Sotheby's (IL), 
October 11, 1977, lots 87-88. 
2. See Archer, V&A, no. D.4, for the cup and 
Frank Britton's remarks regarding ownership 
and factory attribution. 
3. A discussion of flower containers is ibid., 
pp. 360-363. 
4. See Htodgson, Chelsea Boy's Head. 
 
 
384 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L FT WA RE Figures and Figure-Shaped Vessels 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 385 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D349. CAT JUG 
London 
Probably c. 1660 
 
H.: 6 7/8" (17.5 cm); 
L. (paws to back): 4 1/8" (10.5 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, slightly orange 
peel-textured. Overall, excluding under 
feet and on flat edge of bottom. 
SHAPE: Press-molded. Probably hand- 
modeled pouring lip. Bottom flattened 
at edge and under feet, concave under 
cat's body.                                                             
                              V 
DECORATION: Painted. Features and 
fur details, (diminutive) base mound 
solidly colored. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                Delftware cat jugs and one
figure (with a sealed head and no pouring lip), dif- 
 
                                                fering comparatively little
from this piece in shape, bear dates from 1657 to 1676. 
                                                Most display initials on
their breasts; the cat most like the Longridge example in 
                                                modeling and painted face
details is inscribed "WLI/1659." Painted decoration dif- 
                                                fers from one cat to another:
horizontal stripes occur on dated examples from 
                                                1659 to 1676; two others
dated 1657 and 1669, respectively, are left primarily in 
                                                white; a 1674 example is
sponged.1 Fragments of related cats have been excavated 
                                                in association with Southwark's
Montague Close (Winchester Palace site) and Pick- 
                                                leherring factories and the
Vauxhall factory in Lambeth (Vauxhall Bridgefoot site). 
                                                The export of such pieces
is evidenced by a cat jug (or figure) from the William 
                                                Drummond plantation site
(seventeenth-century context) near Williamsburg, Vir- 
                                                ginia.' An extremely rare,
circa 1700 slipware cat jug with trailed and dotted 
                                                decoration has a T on its
breast and, though of different proportions, resembles 
                                                the delftware jugs in pose
and pouring lip placement.:, 
 
                                                1. Lipski and Archer, Dated
Delftware, nos. 1001-  2. Montague Close and Vauxhall remarks from 
                                                1008 (1657 1676 jugs); Archer,
V&A, no. D.1  Museum of London Archaeological Service, 
                                                (1676 jug); Austin, Delft,
no. 716 (16[??] jug);  when commenting in 1992 on the Chipstone 
                                                Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 82
(1672 figure). Pat  figure (Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 82); for Pickle- 
                                                Halfpenny, in 1992 comments
on the Chipstone  herring, Stephenson comments (September 
                                                figure, stated that an English
collection has an  1998); for Williamsburg fragment, see Austin, 
                                                undated delft cat without
a pouring lip. For  Delft, no. 716, p. 17. 
                                                indated cat jugs with striped
fur, see Horne,  3. Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pl. 20c, no. 234. 
                                                Collection, pt. 5, no. 116
(also Morley-Fletcher 
                                                and Mcllroy, Pictorial History,
p. 248, no, 5); 
                                                Britton, London, no. 79.

 
 
386 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D350, D351. MONEY BANK 
and FIGURE 
(D350) Brislington 
George Adlum (or Adlam) I 
Inscribed "GEORGE ADLVM" on collar 
 
c. 1717 
(D351) Brislington, Bristol, or London 
1715-1725 
 
(D350) H.: 6 1/4" (15.9 cm) 
(D351) H.: 6 3/8" (8.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: (D350) Medium-grained 
light red. (D351) Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, (D351) with 
occasional deep pits. Overall, excluding 
bottom edges. (D351) Glazed on interior. 
S H A P E: Press-molded. Hand-formed 
(partly new) tails. (D350) Flat bottom. 
(D351) Hollow interior. 
DECORATION: Painted. (D350) Collar 
inscribed "GEORGE ADLVM." 
 
Published: (D350) Home, Collection, pt. r, 
no. 7 
 
 
A dog bank from the same mold and with painted decoration very like that

of the one shown here on the left (D350) is inscribed 'ANN:WYJTEN 1717"
on the 
collar and, under the base, "Ann Witten was Born ye 14 of w october
1717 JW."' 
Presumably, then, Ann was the owner of the bank, and "JW" may refer
to some 
relative who gave it to her as a gift. Although potters' signatures are rare
on Eng- 
lish delftware, the name on the Longridge bank matches that of Brislington
potter 
George Adlum (or Adlam) I, who has been documented as being active there
from 
1719/20 to at least 1737, and perhaps died in 1756.2 Although very similar
in shape 
and probably dating to the same period, the white dog (D351) is slightly
larger and 
must be from a different mold. The painting of the dogs' faces resembles
that of 
London-made cat jugs from the late 1600s (see no. D349). 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dlated Delftware, 
no. 1756. 
2. Jackson, Jackson, and Price, Bristol, 
pp. 51-52. William Adlum (son of George 
Adlum I) was apprenticed in 1719/20 and 
died in 1729, aged about 23; George 
Adlum Il's documented dates are too late 
for the dogs. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 387 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E L F T W A R E Figures and Figure-Shaped Vessels 
 
 
352. FIGURE 
Bristol, Brislington, or London 
1710-1730 
 
 
H.: 4 1/8" (10.5 cm); 
L. (paws to back): 2 7/8" (7.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly bluish white 
with occasional deep pits. Bottom edge 
wiped clean. Glazed on interior. 
 
SHAPE: Press-molded. Hollow interior. 
DECORATION: Painted. Face and 
other details picked out, Dot-cluster 
filler ornament. Base solidly colored. 
 
Ex coil.: Old collection number painted in 
black on interior. "EUR CER11220IA." 
 
 
he painted concentric curves on the haunches, the type of base mound, the

deep blue painting (slightly cloudy on the base), and the quality of the
glaze of 
this piece have close parallels on the blue and white dog (1)351) in the
previous 
entry. Conceivably, both pieces may have originated at the same fhctory.
Dot 
clusters resembling the type shown here also occur in this collection on
a 1723 
dated London punch bowl with the Cordwainers' Company Arms (no. D)310) and

are recorded on other dated delftware from at least 1697 to 1733.' Although
no 
other example of this particular cat model has been identified, one crouching

animal is inscribed "Cat/i am Ms Oliver/1713," and other delftware
seated cats 
are known.' 
 
 
Actual size 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 937, 
939-940, 953, 1024, 1074. 
2. Ibid., no. 1755 (1713 cat); Horne, Collection, 
pt. 5, no. 118 (also Morley-Fletcher and Mcllroy, 
Pictorial History, p. 248, no. 6); Archer, Rijksmnu- 
seum, no. 51; Taggart, Burnap, no. 104. 
 
 
388 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
40 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
09 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                 6 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                             BOOK-SHAPED HAND WARMERS 
 
      pinions about the use of the rarely seen objects in this section have
var- 
ied. Starting with Hodgkin in 1891 and followed by Hobson (1903) and Glaisher

(1914), they were classed as "a flower vase (or flower holder) in the
shape of a 
book." Possibly influenced by Hudig's (1929) illustration of the Rijksmuseum's

example inscribed "ANNO 1651," which he described as "einem
Handwdirmer in 
Buchform" (a hand warmer in book form), Rackham (1935) unhesitatingly
iden- 
tified the Glaisher pieces as "hand-warmers."2 Ray (1968) mentions
a Faenza 
"book" that Dehlinger (1938) calls a "hand-warmer" and
the possibility that they 
may have been used as flasks or spill vases, but discounts the Ashmolean
exam- 
ple's having been used as a vase because the inscription would be the wrong
way 
up (see also no. D354).1 Assuming delft books were employed as hand warmers,

they may sometimes have been used as an alternative to muffs that, from about

1600 to 1800, were carried by Englishmen and -women of most classes., The

scarcity of the books, their likelihood to spill, vulnerability to hot water,
small 
size, and thick walls, however, throw doubt on their ability to transmit
suffi- 
cient heat to warm cold fingers for any length of time. Perhaps, instead,
they 
served their most important function as tokens of affection. A circa 1725
small 
(2" [5.1 cm] tall) salt-glazed, white stoneware, book-shaped vessel
with a thread- 
ed hole for a stopper may have been filled with perfume or, alternatively,
with 
wool soaked in aromatic vinegar to ward off fevers or to revive one who felt

faint.' 
    Dates on the twelve known dated English delft books range from 1658 to

1710 6 from the Commonwealth to the reign of Queen Anne, and at least ten

more are uninscribed.1 England was neither the earliest nor the only producer

of delft books, however, and those made there and on the Continent vary wide-

ly in shape, decoration, and size. The "ANNO 1651" example is 9
5/8 inches 
(24.4 cm) high and undoubtedly is Dutch, as it is decorated with Amsterdam's

city arms.' The Longridge pieces are English and range in size from 3 3/4
inches 
(9.5 cm) for number D354, the smallest delft book known, to 6 1/16 inches

(15.4 cm) for number D355, the largest. (These sizes are roughly half that
of a 
Crown Octavo and a Royal Quarto bound book.) Whilst these are all demon-

strably English, the existence of an Italian book and the fact that the Dutch
item 
predates them by seven years does suggest that the idea originated from the

Continent through migrant workers. 
 
 
 
 
1. Hodgkin and Hodgkin, Dated Pottery,  5. Horne, collection, pt. 4, no.
90. 
nos. 298, 318, 359, 436; Hobson, British Museum,  6. lOngridge no. )355 plus
Lipski and Archer, 
p. 129, no. El, pl. 11; Burlington (1914), nos. D37,  Dated Delftware, nos.
1762-1772. 
D40, D67, D69. 
                                        7. Macfarlane research (November
1998). See 
 2. Hudig, Fayence, pp. 87, 170, abb. 74; Rackham, 
 Glaisher, vol. 1, nos. 1326, 1428, 1429, 1446, 1451. 
 3. lDehlinger, laenza, pl. 22; Ray, Warren, p. 147,  8. Hudig, Fayence,
pp. 87, 170, abb. 74 (Rijksmu- 
                                        seum collection). 
 no. 45. 
 
 4. Cunnington, Seventeenth Century, pp. 78, 168 
 and pp. 191-192, citing Dr. James Smith, "Pene- 
 lope & Ulysses, the Burse of Reformation" 
 (c. 1655): "Here is an English conny furr/Rushia 
 hath no such stuffe/Which for to keep your fin- 
 gers warme/Excells your sable muife." 
 
 
390 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D353. BOOK 
Probably Southwark, London 
Dated 1665 
 
 
H.: 5" (12.7 cm); 
L. (clasp-spine): 3 5/8" (9.2 cm); 
W. (cover-cover): 1 5/8" (4.1 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
 
 
bottom edge and interior edge of small 
circular hole. 
S H A P E: Molded and slab-constructed. 
Book with applied double clasp. Large 
 
 
hole at top of spine gives access to 
smaller opening (near opposite end) 
through septum wall. Small hole in one 
cover, pierced after firing. (Area around 
 
 
hole indented, presumably before 
 
 
firing.) 
DECORATION: Painted. Book details. 
 
 
lines. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft- 
wore, no. 1766 (mistakenly shows different 
object as side one). 
Ex coll.: E. Pitts Curtis. 
 
 
1. 1 ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1764. 
2. Ibid., nos. 1768, 1771; and no. 1769, for a 1688 
example similar to the ILongridge book in the 
layout of its date. 
3. For soimewhat similar scenes on delfiware, see 
ftorne, Tiles, p. 28, fig. 5 and no. 81 (c. 1750 
flower brick and tile). For textiles, see Arthur, 
Burrell Collection, p. 103, pL 77. 
4. Archer, V&A, no. A.58, col. pl. 38. 
 
 
                                                                       Actual
size 
 
 
his is the earliest of the book-shaped vessels in the Longridge collection.
The 
yellow-painted imitation clasps, like those on number D354, probably represent

gilt brass and are narrow with indented edges. Shaped clasps also occur on
a 1663 
dated delft book that, although differently decorated, is in the same colors
as are 
shown here. Uniquely, on this example the blue "page" edges are
overpainted 
green, and the front cover has a mitered border, each section of which contains
a 
laurel leaf sprig that on a leather binding would have been tooled in gold
leaf. The 
corner ornaments in the cover's central panel resemble motifs on some tiles
and 
flank typical seventeenth-century paraphs. The central diamond-shaped reserve

with fleur-de-lis points top and bottom resembles types on 1672 and 1693
dated 
delft books and an undated Longridge example (no. D354).2 Needlework and
tapes- 
try scenes relating to the design on the backboard of the book shown here
were 
popular from about 1650 to 1700 and may have inspired this, the only known
pic- 
torial design on a delft book.i The unusual geometric pattern on the spine
is likely 
to be based on blind-stamping or gilding on a real book. 
   The inclusion of so many colors on the delft book would have been expen-

sive, and the triangular arrangement of the initials suggests that this example

was specially created as a present for a married couple. The particular palette

of copper green smudged over blue penciled outlines is reminiscent of that
on 
some blue dash chargers (see nos. D65, D66). The tree resembles those on
a large 
16(65?) dated dish that depicts the Sacrifice of Isaac and, based in part
on its 
initials, may have been made in Southwark: 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
D E L F T W A R E Book-Shaped Vessels 
 
 
D354. BOOK 
London 
1660-1675 
 
 
H.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm); 
L. (edge-spine): 3" (7.6 cm); 
W, (cover cover): 13/4" (4.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with dense speck- 
ling. Overall, excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Molded and slab-constructed. 
Book. Large hole at bottom(?) of spine 
gives access to smaller opening (near 
opposite end) through septum wall. 
Small hole pierced in exterior wall 
before firing. 
DECORATION: Painted. "RS" flanks 
scrolled lozenges on either cover, with 
further scrollwork and dots on spine. 
Edge inscribed "EXSEPT OF THIS MY 
HART WITHAL/MY LOVE IS GREAT 
THOE THIS BE SMAL," with inscription 
interrupted by two pseudoclasps. 
 
 
his is the smallest of the five book-shaped vessels in the Longridge collec-

tion. Like number D353 it has imitation gilt brass clasps; the spots on the
exam- 
ple shown here probably represent pierced decoration.' The yellow ornament

elsewhere on the book probably represents gilt leather. Lozenge motifs relating

to those on the front and back boards also imitate designs on "real"
books, and 
related ornament occurs on a 1665 dated Longridge book (no. D353) and on

examples dated, respectively, 1663, 1672 (with the motif most like the Long-

ridge type), and 1693.' Borders of partly filled semicircles also occur on
a blue 
and white book with a relief diamond-shaped panel on the front and back covers)

   Inscriptions on delft books rarely occur on the edge of the "pages,"'
and no 
comparable rhyme to the Longridge type is so-located. The ligaturing of letters

in the words "HART" and "WITHAL" does, however, have
a parallel in the word 
"HEAD" on a mid-seventeenth-century boot in this collection (no.
D358). The 
"RS" on the book's covers is upside down on both boards in relation
to the 
D-shaped hole but is upright when the book is inverted after it has been
filled. 
A color palette similar to that on the Longridge book is frequently used
on 
caudle cups commemorating King Charles II, whose reign lasted from 1660 to

1685 (see no. D239 and Time Line, pp. 12-13). 
 
 
1. Of 11 books in Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft-  3. Phillips (L), June
3-4, 1998, lot 326, col. pl. 15. 
ware, only 2 Inos. 1762, 17701 show no signs of 
                                         4. For exceptions with initials
and dates (respec- 
having had clasps.                       tively, 1659 and 1710) on the edges,
see l~ipski 
2. Ibid., nos. 1765, 1768, 1771; nos. 1763, 1769,  and Archer, Dated Delftware,
nos. 1763, 1772. 
and longridge no. D355, foir dark blue, rather 
than yellow, edged boards. 
 
 
392 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D EL F T W A RE jBook-Shaped Vessels 
 
 
D355. BOOK 
London 
Dated 1693 
 
 
H.: 4 3/4" (12.1 cm), 
L. (edge-spine): 2 7/8"(7.3 cm); 
W. (cover-cover): 1 7/8' (4.8 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
bottom edge and interior edge of small 
 
 
circular hole. 
SHAPE: Molded and slab-constructed. 
Book. Large hole at top of spine gives 
access to smaller opening near oppo- 
site end through septum wall. Small 
hole in one cover, pierced after firing. 
(Area around hole indented, presum- 
ably before firing.) 
DECORATION: Painted. Book details 
with insects(?) on spine. Slightly differ- 
ently spelled, similar rhyme on either 
cover, "The Gift Is small/Good will Is 
AII/1693." 'Page edges" indicated by par- 
allel lines. 
 
 
Published" Home. Collecrion, pr. 14. no. 389. 
 
 
Actuail sile 
 
 
1, See I ipski aind Aircher l)atled D)elftware, 
no~. 17681, f'o ai 1672 dite d book withi pan- 
eled borders on tlhe covers. 
2. Ibid., no. 1769. 
 
 
7. IFor s i~i1lar sentime005 nt (Idaled 'lip- 
war e see I odgkmn dod 1tlodgkin, 1Dated 
Pott1ery, no's. 25 (Melr opolita ,i ar i  a~t ed 
1650), 215 (Somerset sgraiffto 0loddling cup 
(daled 17301; V&A collection, no0 575-1898 
(Mel ropolita juO (g dated 16667; 1 hbsoit, 
British Museum., p. 123, no) 1)118 7sgrafhito 
fuiddling cup dat ed 17901: Rac khaii, 
Glai~sheir, vol. 1, p. 28, no. 167 (sgrathilo 
floddling cuip (dated 1792). 
4. Iipskldoad Ar cher, I Xaied I )elf twarie, 
no. 1769. 
 
 
5. [or relat ed motifs (10 the spitno ofa 
1651 dat1ed1 l)ti Ieh btook dt I the RI 'itkmt 
setim, seeO 111dig, Fayence, pp. 87, 170, 
dhh. 74 (dlist Kori; Majlolica 1, 7)l. 12). 
 
 
  Ehe paneled decoration outlined on the front and back boards of this delft-

 
ware book is very like that ot a real, leather-bound example. The Longridge

book shown here most resembles a blue and yellow one that in its side panels

bears the same rhyme in a similar calligraphic style. (Similarly worded inscrip-

tions also occur on 1650 to 1792 dated slipware Isee no. $871,: and much
the 
same sentiment is recorded on another delft book in this collection [no.
D354J.) 
L~arge fleurs-de-lis, rather than diamonds, form the decorative motifs in
the 
compared book's border, which is ftirther inscribed "16/SS/88."'
Like the Long- 
ridge book, the spine of the 1688 example has four raised bands painted dark

blue and a version of the insectlike motif' Unlike the book showni here,
how- 
ever, the 1688 example has yellow pseudoclasps. Although the early dates

indicate that both books probably were made in London, no obvious features

allow either example to be attributed confidently to a specific pottery.

 
 
The Longridge Collection 393 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D356, D357. BOOKS 
 
 
Probably London 
1675-1700 
 
 
(D356) H.: 6" (15.2 cm); 
L. (edge-spine): 3 7/8" (9.8 cm); 
 
W. (cover-cover): 2 3/4" (7 cm) 
 
(D357) H.: 6" (15.2 cm); 
 
L. (edge-spine): 3 7/8" (9.8 cm); 
 
W. (cover-cover): 2 5/8" (6.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall, 
(D357) excluding lower edge. 
 
SHAPE: Molded and slab-constructed. 
Books. (D356) Large holes at top and 
 
bottom of spine give access to two 
 
 
interior wells with curved walls. 
(D357) Large hole at top of spine gives 
access to smaller opening near oppo- 
 
site end through septum wall. 
DECORATION: Painted. Book details, 
 
(D356) with raised rectangles on covers 
and painted flowers and birds on edges, 
 
(D357) with flowers and leafy arabesques 
 
on (smooth) covers and, on pseudopage 
 
edges, more or less parallel lines. 
 
 
Ex coils.: (D356)j. P Kosseboum. 
(D357)j. R. H. Boone. 
 
 
D356, D357 
 
 
These two pieces are virtually the same in size and are the largest of the
five 
books in the Longridge collection. Unlike on the others, here the book spines
are 
blank rather than bearing ornaments based on usually gilded motifs on leather-

bound books. The first example shown here (D356) is the only known single
book 
that has two tanks. (Two rare double books have a hole in each component.)'

    On the second book (D357), the tufted corner ornaments of the covers

resemble the "ox heads" found on tin-glazed earthenware tiles.'
(Like the bor- 
ders and central rose,3 they are partly penciled Itrekked] in black.)4 The
ox heads 
suggest that the book may have been made at a pottery that also manufactured

tiles and, based on the likely period of the piece, that factory probably
was in 
London. The best contender on stylistic grounds would be the Copthall (Lam-

beth) factory, where Dutch immigrant Jan Ariens van Hamme5 was granted a

patent in 1676 to "exercise his art of makeing tiles and porcelane and
other 
earthenwares after the way practised in Holland."6 The ornament on such
wares 
would have included both "trek" and "ossenkop" (ox-head)
motifs. 
   The large, black-outlined, variegated tulips on the fore edge of the other

book (D356) also look to Holland for inspiration. The flowers on the top
and bot- 
tom probably represent a carnation and a rose and resemble motifs on blue

dash chargers with dates from 1663 to 1676 and on undated examples until

perhaps about 1685.1 Although that dating agrees with the blue tone of the

glaze, which was popular around 1680, tumbling birds of this kind are gener-

ally found on various delft tablewares and drinking vessels from about 1690
to 
1697.' The flattopped, rectangular borders molded in relief on both covers
are 
not found on real books of the period. 
 
 
1. Burlington (1914), pl. 30: Horne, Collection, 
pt. 15, no. 414 (also Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 72). 
2. For later examples, see Horne, Tiles, nos. 72 
74 (London tiles, about 1720-1750). 
3. Probably sweetbrier (eglantine), which has 
5 heart-shaped petals, not 8 as depicted 
(Hutchinson, Wild Flowers, vol. 1, p. 35 [Rosa 
lubiginosa 1I-). 
4. A touch of cobalt added to manganese will 
produce black when fired. It was used to pro- 
duce fine lines like a drawing but rarely occurs 
after 1700 on English delftware. 
 
 
5. van Hamme was a member of the Guild of 
Saint Lucas, which regulated the tin-glazed ware 
industry in Delft, Holland, his former home, and 
to which all potters and decorators were obliged 
to belong (Montias, Artists, pp. 359 363). 
6. Ray, Tiles, p. 35. 
7. Archer, Chargers, pls. 53f, 55a, 55d. 
8. Lipski and Archer, Dated DelfItware, nos. 185, 
209 (plates); nos. 796, 802 (mug, tankard): nos. 
929, 932 (posset pots): no. 1040 (wassail bowl). 
 
 
394 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D356, 1)357 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
I 
 
 
F 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE : BootandShoes 
 
 
D358. BOOT 
 
Southwark, London 
 
Possibly Rotherhithe 
If Rotherhithe, c. 1650-c. 1663 
 
 
H.: 6 7/8" (17.5 cm): 
 
L (toe-spur): 4 3/4" (12.1 cm): 
 
W.: 2 3/8" (6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff, 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish-white, somewhat 
 
transparent. Overall, excluding footrim 
 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Molded. Recessed bottom. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Inscribed 
 
"OH.MY.HEAD" Details of boot picked 
 
out. Straight and curvilinear ornament 
 
on uppers. 
 
Published: Home. Collection, pt. 12. no. 322ý 
Grigsby. Dated Longridge Delftware and Slip- 
wore, pp. 882-883, pl. 13. 
 
 
 
1. Much of the inlfrmation in this entry 
was provided by Michael Archer. 
2. Two 18th-century postilion boots with 
two thicknesses of leather and platfuo'm 
soles were sold at Christie's (SK), July 2. 
1997, lot 68. See also Cunnington. Seven- 
teenth Century, p. 155, pls. 74a, 74c, 
Cromnwellian riding boots. 
3. As on classical Roman mnonumnents and 
in printing. (T. shoe inscribed "17 MB 18" 
with ligatured initials, Itpski and Archer, 
Dated l)elltware, no. 1726, and Longridge 
book-shaped hand warmer no. D)354. 
4. See Rasmussen, Italienische Mtjolika, 
no. 171, pp. 256 257, for ancient Greek 
example and the maioltca btoo, both in 
the Museum fur Kunst und tewerbe col- 
lection, Hamburg. 
5. Honey, Glass, pp. 74-124. 
6. Nailer comments (September 1998). 
7. Cuinington, Seventeenth Century, 
pls, 22a, 22c; pp. 82, 83 (boot stockings). 
Iipski and Archer. Dated Delftware, 
nos. 727, 729 (cups). 
 
 
his vessel is quite close to the typically wide shape of a seventeenth- or
eigh- 
teenth-century postilion's jackboot, which was made in black leather with
a 
thick sole.' Such boots were very heavy and stiff to protect the legs of
postil- 
ions,2 who spent long hours in the saddle controlling the four or six horses
used 
to pull a coach or carriage. A short spur was attached to the jackboot with
a 
buckled strap, which also had a band of thicker material to protect the ankle

from the stirrup. The buckle tang on the Longridge "boot" points
to the right, 
indicating that it is for the right leg. 
   The inscription on the boot provides two interesting examples of ligatured

(conjoined) lettering' and probably refers to the danger of overindulgence
in 
strong liquor, an ironic reference to the boot's purpose as a drinking vessel.

Ceramic jugs and drinking vessels in the form of footwear are known from
very 
early times, and a circa 1700 maiolica version, probably from Faenza, Italy,
also 
is recorded.' Vessels in the form of boots are more common in glass: some
calf- 
high and other knee-high and leg-shaped examples were made at glasshouses

in Germany, the Netherlands, and Italy in the seventeenth century and in
En- 
gland in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.- 
    The dating and (tentative) attribution of the Longridge delftware boot
is 
aided by a recent find of fr-agments of another delftware example during
exca- 
vations at the Platform Wharf site at Rotherhithe (Southwark).' Though perhaps

not fr-om the same mold, the boot has at the ankle a very similar concentric
Vs 
motif with striated edging and similar small scrolls forming one of its border

patterns. The geometric decoration on the fronts and backs of the legs of
the 
boots probably was inspired by the embroidery on the stockings worn below

real boots. On the Longridge example, the motifs are closely comparable to

repeating, concentric semicircles alternating with groups of three strokes
on 
two mugs dated, respectively, 1647 and 1650.7 
 
 
396 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 397 
 
 
Actual siye 
 
  

					
				
				
 
1. Brears, Folk Art, pp. 103 107. 
2. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, pp. 409 
414, records 35 items. That number has been 
updated to 44 (9 additions dated 1683-1760 plus 
17 not dated, totalling 61 shoes) (Macfarlane 
research INovember 1998]). Of these, 30 have two 
initials and were probably made for a single per- 
son and 11 have a triangular group of three 
initials, as on 17th-century trade tokens, and 
were probably given to a married couple as a 
wedding or betrothal present. The stoneware 
shoes are not inscribed. 
3. For many examples of small porcelain shoes 
with explicit good-luck mottoes and symbols, 
see Andrews, Crested China. 
4. Cunnington, Seventeenth Century, p. 187, 
pl. 86. 
5. Some 19 single shoes plus 3 pairs have square 
toes; 30 single shoes plus 9 pairs have pointed 
toes. 
6. For stoneware, see Horne, Collection, pt. 16, 
no. 463; Grigsby, Weldon, no. 64; Sotheby's (L), 
September 15, 1992, lot 188. For agateware, see 
Goldweitz, Collection, p. 18, pl. 25(b). 
7. Coloring as follows: blue, 39 items (two are 
trekked); blue and yellow, 10; blue and red, 2; 
blue and manganese purple, 1; blue, red, and 
green, 4; blue, red, mixed green, and yellow, 4. 
No powdered ground has been seen. The com- 
bined technical limitations of the oxides used as 
pigments, tin-glazed medium, and molded form 
meant that customers were unable to commis- 
sion a replica of a particular fashion shoe that 
had sentimental significance for the recipient. 
8. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1721 
(dated 1710), has leaves reserved on a central 
strip that also occur on no. 804, a tankard dated 
1720, and a cream jug (not dated, private collec- 
tion). 
9. Cunnington, Eighteenth Century, pp. 391-393, 
pls. 146, 147(a), showing high French and 
narrow, waisted Italian heels. 
10. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1735, 1738, 1738A. 
11. Goffin comments (September 1998); Nailer 
comments (September 1998). 
 
 
                                                            DELFTWARE SHOES

 
        ld shoes have long been regarded as having magic power to bestow
good 
 luck and were sometimes placed in chimneys as amulets to ward off evil.'
The 
 gift of a model ceramic shoe was also judged to convey good fortune on the

 recipient. More than sixty English delftware shoes are known: two-thirds
of 
 these are inscribed with a date and initials,' confirming that the custom
was 
 popular from about 1654 to 1768. (The superstition lingers on,' and, even
today, 
 shoes are tied to the car bearing a bride and groom off on their honeymoon.)

 Inscriptions with three initials almost certainly represent a husband and
wife; 
 those with only two initials, presumably, are for a single individual. 
    From 1625 until after the English Civil War (1642-1649), women's shoe
fash- 
 ions did not change, largely because their feet were hidden by long skirts.

 Square-toed shoes with high, sloping heels were introduced in the 1650s,
and 
 the earliest dated tin-glazed shoes (see no. D359) copied this shape at
about the 
 same time. In the 1680s, when pointed toes and high Louis heels became the

 rage, perceptive potters responded, and ceramic-shoe shapes were changed

 again.4 Square-toed delftware shoes are known bearing dates from 1654 to
1707, 
 and examples with pointed toes (a shape twice as commonly surviving as 
 square-toed types) bear 1686 to 1768 dates.' (Salt-glazed stoneware shoes
are 
 rare but include both pointed and square-toed types, and one very pointed,

 short-toed, solid agateware shoe is known.)6 From the onset blue-often in
sev- 
 eral tones-was the most popular color for decorating delftware shoes, and

 some have dark, trekked outlines. Polychrome shoes are much rarer, though

 examples in two, three, or even four colors are known, and one is in the
Fa- 
 zackerley palette. Floral designs on delft shoes are often in the same style
as 
 motifs on other delftware shapes of much the same date, but their comparative

 rarity today suggests that the shoes formed only a small part of decorators'
nor- 
 mal output. Although under French and Italian influences, wearable shoe

 fashions in England multiplied rapidly after 1770,1 the dearth of ceramic
exam- 
 ples made after 1750/1 indicates that there were few purchasers from that
time 
 on. Would-be patrons, no doubt, had switched to English porcelain, so the
cost 
 of creating new molds for earthenware presumably was unjustified. This devel-

 opment may explain why there are no recorded delft shoes dated after 1768.11

   Delftware shoes, made in relatively small numbers, apparently are not

recorded in seventeenth- or eighteenth-century documents. Evidence for them

also is extremely rare among archaeological material, all of which seems
to be 
from London: a probably seventeenth-century shoe was excavated on the north

side of the Thames, near Saint Paul's; boot fragments were found in Southwark

at Platform Wharf, Rotherhithe (see also nos. D358, D359).1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
2. Goffin comments (September 1998). 
3. Cunnington, Seventeenth Century, 
p. 187; square-toed delfitware shoes have 
dates from 1654 to 1707. 
4. Ibid., pp. 54, 56; p. 188, pl. 86a, tor 
lady's square-toed shoe with open sides, 
very high heel, and two ribbon bows. 
5. See c. 1613 portrait of Richard Sackville, 
3rd Earl of Dorset, by(?) William Lakin 
Jackson-Stops, Treasure Houses, pl. 54). 
 
 
                                                                   Actual
size 
 
 
Tlfhree intact single shoes of this early shape are known: the Longridge
shoe 
and one initialed "IHE'E are very similar to one another overall, and
both are 
dated 1654; a differently modeled, undated example has another type of rosette

ornamenting the area above the heel.' Polychrome-painted shoe fragments exca-

vated from Number 1 Poultry site (City of London) are from a low-heeled shoe

of yet another model, but, based on the large, striped bow and (more modest)

dashed rosette above the heel, the piece may date similarly to the 1654 exam-

ples.2 This mid-century date implies that such shoes are likely to have been

made in Southwark at Pickleherring, Montague Close, or Rotherhithe. (Regard-

ing a delftware boot excavated at Rotherhithe, see no. D358.) 
   The importance of the 1654 shoes rests in their documented, mid-century
date 
and the transitional nature of their styling that, Januslike, looks both
backward 
and forward. By about 1635 the square toe was the characteristic shoe shape
for 
men and women, and it would remain so until about 1700.1 The tongue of the

delft shoes is the round-arched Elizabethan type, and the heels' lack of
height, 
acute-angled and low, sloping profile as well as the bulging upper all belong
to the 
early seventeenth century. Also the triangular patches of blue (above the
arches) 
demonstrate that they copy real shoes of that period that had open sides
over 
which the narrow latchets were fastened with strings. (The example shown
here 
probably represents a man's shoe, unlike the other Longridge shoes, which
imi- 
tate women's fashions.) Such shoes, worn by the well-to-do when in full dress,

originally had uppers in silk or satin bound round the top edge with silk
braid that 
matched the multiple bows (common on shoes from the 1640s), tassels, as on
this 
shoe, and, sometimes, a rosette around a central diamond.' The daisylike
rings of 
dots on the delft shoes represent embroidered flower heads, which were some-

times carried out in colored silks or thread wrapped with gold tinsel. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 399 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE BootandShoes 
 
 
D360, D361. SHOES 
 
Probably Lambeth, London 
 
(D360) Dated 1712 
 
(D361) Dated 1722 
 
 
(Both) H.: 4 1/2" (11A4 cm); 
 
L. (toe-heel): 6 1/2" (16.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
 
(D361) possibly more pale. 
TIN GLAZE: White, (D360) with a 
 
kwoort, (D361) possibly with a kwoart. 
 
Overall, excluding majority of flat 
 
bottoms of heels and toes. 
 
SHAPE: Molded. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers, shoe 
 
details, including buckles, (D360) band 
 
of tiny ovals above heel, (D361) leafy 
 
bands and heel. (D360) Inscribed 
"IW/1712." (D361) Inscribed "TAp/1722.' 
 
Published. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft- 
ware, nos. 1723 (D360), 1727(D361). (Both) 
Grigsby, Doted Longridge Delftware and 
Slipware, pp. 882-883, pl. 13, 
Ex coil.: (Both) E. Pitts Curtis, 
 
 
hese two shoes are exactly the same in form, height, and length, although

they are ten years apart in date. Though both shoes have relief-molded imi-

tation oval' buckles set with red stones, the earlier example (D360) has
a 
round-ended strap with no visible bar nor tang; the later one (D361) has
a point- 
ended strap, and the bar and tang are indicated. Both straps face outwards,'

indicating that each shoe is for the right foot. Although similar in coloration,

the decoration of the shoes is quite different in style. On the 1712 shoe
(t)360), 
the overall pattern is similar to those on English domestic embroideries
of this 
period.' The 1722 shoe (D361) is much more elaborate, with a richly decorated,

uniquely broad T-shaped panel, borders and heel motifs (the latter imitating

long- and short-stitch embroidery) composed of overlapped leaves, and floral-

and-insect uppers probably influenced by embroidered fabrics imported from

India,4 based on printed and dyed floral chintzes. 
   The attribution of the Longridge shoes is based on decoration. The band
of 
flowers, stems, and leaves reserved against dark blue ground on the 1722
shoe 
(D361) are in a general style associated with Lambeth delftware., The blue
out- 
lines of the sprigs partially filled with color on both shoes and the leaves

resembling bulrushes' indicate that both probably were made at the Vauxhall

pottery (Lambeth). 
 
 
1. for shoes with rectangular buckles, see Long- 
ridge nos. D362, D363; home, Collection, pt. 9, 
no. 224 (dated 1709); pt. 11, no. 296 (dated 1711). 
2. For other examples (all left shoes), see Long- 
ridge no3 D362 (pointed end); Horne, Collection, 
pt. 2, no. 35 (dated 1710, rounded end); pt. 11, 
no. 296 (dated 1711, pointed end). 
3. English Embroideries, pis. 19, 20 (Queen Anne 
bedspread and curtain). 
4. Guy and Shallow, eds., Arts of India, p. 164, 
 
 
pl. 141 (embroidered palampore, Cambay, India, 
c. 1725). 
5. Cockell, Vauxhall Cross, plate 122(b), bottom 
right, pl. 126, no. 4a. Cf ILipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1070 (punch bowl dated 1725). 
6. See Edwards, Vauxhall Pottery, pbs. 52f 52h, 
56a-56b; Christie's (L), October 10, 1983, lot 36, 
for an oval plaque inscribed "ALM 1716" that 
has much in common with Longridge 
no. D421. 
 
 
400 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE lBootand Shoes 
 
 
1)360, 1)361 
 
 
D)360, 1)D361 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 401 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D362. SHOE 
Probably Lambeth, London 
1710-1720 
 
H.: 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); 
L. (toe-heel): 6 1/2" (16.5 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
flat bottoms of heel and toe. 
SHAPE: Molded. 
DECORATION: Painted. Stripes with 
bands of floral scrollwork. Bottom 
undecorated. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                        
                                          Actual size 
 
 
                                             This shoe is the same shape
as those in the previous entry (nos. D360, D361), 
                                             except that its buckde is rectangular.
As if it were a real fashion shoe, the exam- 
                                             ple shown here displays simulated
stitching to "secure" the edge of the strap to 
                                             the heel covering and around
the edges of the pointed sole and heel.' The direc- 
                                             tion of the pointed strap end
indicates that the piece is a left shoe. 
                                                The Longridge shoe has broad
and narrow stripes representing ticking, or 
                                             "ticken," a heavy,
closely woven linen or cotton fabric, usually with this type of 
                                             stripe, also used for pillowcases
and mattress covers (see the mattress on a 1635 
                                             fecundity dish [no. D1]). From
about 1700 to 1750, such fabric also was used 
                                             for shoe uppers.4 (In contrast
a square-toed shoe with a stiff ribbon bow and 
                                             the inscription "AH/[16192"
displays blue, evenly striped decoration, probably 
                                             imitating a white shoe decorated
with applied strips of silk braid.)' The trailing 
                                             flowers in the vertical strips
on the Longridge shoe's front and above the heel 
                                             resemble types on a pair of
blue and white shoes inscribed "MS/1711 "I and the 
                                             border of a 1716 dated Longridge
plaque (no. D421). The "bulrush" leaves are like 
                                             those on the Longridge shoe
in number D360, dated 1712. The shoe shown here 
                                             probably is contemporary with
that group and was made at Vauxhall pottery 
                                             in Lambeth. 
 
                                             1. See also Longridge no. D363;
Home, Collec-  4. Cunnington, Eighteenth Century, p. 174. 
                                             tion, pt. 9, no. 224 (dated
1709); pt. 11, no. 296 
                                             (dated 1711).              
             5. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1710 
                                                                        
             (delft shoes); Cunnington, Seventeenth Century, 
                                             2. Compare the other Longridge
shoes and also  p. 190, pls. 87a-87b, 1660-1680 (shoes with 
                                             Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware,
nos. 1725-  applied silk braid). 
                                             172SA. 
                                                                        
             6. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
                                             3. Like ED 309, Horne, Collection,
pt. 2, no. 35;  nos. 1722-1722A. 
                                             pt. 11, no. 296. 
 
 
402 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
UDsb. FIULE 
Probably Lambeth, London 
1710-1725 
 
 
(Both) H.: 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); 
L. (toe-heel): 6 3/8" (16.2 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall, 
excluding edges of bottoms (wiped 
 
off). 
SHAPE: Molded. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers and 
stripes. Bottoms undecorated. 
 
 
A     lthough in shape these shoes are very like the one in the previous
entry 
(no. D362) and they also have rectangular, jeweled buckles, the stitching
to 
"secure" the straps to the heels is more decorative and consists
of a row of small 
chevrons., The toes have alternating broad and narrow, straight-edged bands,

reflecting a late seventeenth-century tradition of applying horizontal bands
of 
braid across the toes of shoes.' On the Longridge shoes, the bands are divided
by 
a vertical strip of alternating triangular motifs enclosing a flower head
and imi- 
tating picot-edged silk braid.:, (A shorter version of the strip is on the
back, above 
the heel.) The tongues of delftware shoes are normally decorated with flower

sprigs, but this pair has a band of alternating, hatched triangles following
the 
angular shape of the tongue. A zigzag pattern also appears on the strips
of "rick- 
rack braid" ornamenting a 1713 dated pair of shoes and forms the rim
border on 
a circa 1725 cistern.4 The broad-leaved flowers on the example shown here
resem- 
ble those on number D360, dated 1712, and another pair of shoes (no. D364)
in the 
same colors with chevrons on the heels, indicating that this pair may also
have 
been made in Lambeth. 
 
 
1. See alsott Horne, Collection, pt. 9, no. 224 
("ES 1709"); and, for examples having two rows 
of chevrons, Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1731-1731A, 1733-1733A (both pairs dated 
1729). 
2. For earlier dated shoes showing the inspira- 
lions for such bands, see Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Dlelftware, nos. 1705 1709, 1712. 
 
 
3. For a shoe with flower sprays and, on the 
square toe, broad, horizontal, picot-edged 
bands of"braid" in blue, see Sotheby's (1L), June 
1989, lot 197. 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 1725 
1725A (shoes); Sotheby's (L), November 2, 1998, 
lot 58 (cistern). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 403 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A 
 
 
D364. SHOES 
Probably Lambeth, London 
1725-1730 
 
 
(Both) H.: 4 1/4" (10.8 cm); 
L. (toe-heel): 6 1/8" (15.6 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall, 
excluding bottoms of heels and soles. 
SHAPE: Molded. 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers and 
 
 
scrollwork. Bottoms undecorated. 
 
 
On these examples, the decorator closely imitated the construction of real

shoes and techniques used to solve the problem of covering stiff linings
with 
patterned fabric: the floral motifs are laid out carefully to fit the shapes
of the 
uppers, tapered heel straps, tongues, and toes. The vertical strips dividing
the 
uppers into two halves-from tongue top to toe and above the heel-simulate

lengths of metal openwork braid known as "lace," and thick yellow
bands copy 
the thread that "stitches" the curved lower edges of the straps
to the upper for 
additional strength. The red heels imitate scarlet leather-covered heels
and red- 
edged soles on shoes fashionable with full dress worn at court through the
end 
of the eighteenth century.' On the delft shoes the refractory iron oxide
used for 
the red has not fired well, so this is a rare but good example of art not
being 
able to emulate craft. (The heels of similar delftware shoes normally are
paint- 
ed dark blue [see nos. D360, D3621.) The chevrons edging the top and sides
of 
the Longridge shoe heels may represent pinked fabric or leather and are unusual

but do occur on a 1729 dated blue and white example with a basically similar

oval buckle and stylistically related vertical floral strips.' The shaded
leaves and 
groups of tiny dots also appear on a reunited pair of blue shoes dated 1727
and 
suggest a London origin, perhaps the Vauxhall pottery in Lambeth.' 
 
 
1. Cunnington, Eighteenth Century. p. 172, 
pl. 55c; p. 54, 
2. lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1732. 
3. Ibid., nos. 1730-1730A 11729 shoes). See Cock- 
ell, Vauxhall Cross, pl. 120d, for large Vauxhall 
dish fragment with blue-painted flowers. 
 
 
404 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
'i 
 
 
W', 
.7 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Flower Containers 
 
 
D365. FLOWER VASE or JAR 
Probably London 
 
c. 1675 
 
 
H.: 12" (30.5 cm); 
 
Diam.: 10 3/8" (26.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: White, possibly under a 
 
kwoart. Overall, excluding bottom. 
 
Chipping of glaze at bottom edge may 
indicate piece adhered to kiln during 
 
firing. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Nearly flat bottom 
with fine, shallow markings, perhaps 
 
from wire used during removal from 
 
wheel. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers, birds, 
 
and insects. Borders composed of hori- 
 
zontal lines and, at rim, three-brick 
 
motifs. 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 19, no. 555. 
 
 
This unusually large and well-painted flower vase or jar probably originally

had a domed lid. Its painted ornament is derived from 1620 to 1680 Ming Tran-

sitional porcelain motifs, and related designs also appear on five other

Longridge pieces, some bearing London Company arms and dates from the late

1660s to the 1680s (see nos. D3, D84, D208, D240, D244, 1)275). None of these

pots match the vase exactly in details of flowers, insects, or birds, and
it is very 
likely that such ornament was being created at more than one factory. (Perhaps

closest to the Longridge vase in ornament among English vessels is a 1678
dated 
posset pot in another collection.y Such flowers also occur on some Dutch
tin- 
glazed earthenware (several examples of which formerly were attributed to

Frankfurt am Main in Germany).' Vessels of similar shape to the Longridge
vase 
also are known in Northern European tin glaze, and some bear the same "stylized

lotus-petal" upper border.' Unlike that on the Longridge vase, the Continental

examples typically bear ornament divided into widish shoulder and base pan-

els, with even wider central bands bearing Chinese designs. 
 
 
1. For 1674-1678 dated posset pots with such 
ornament, see Rackham, Glaisher, vol. 1, 
no. 1333; Crellin, Wellcome, fig. 375: Lipski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 907, 905 (lid). For 
undated pieces, see Crellin, Wellcome, no. 375 
(posset pot); Horne, Collection, pt. 10, no. 251 
(dish). 
2 Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 908. 
3. See van Dam, Gedateerd Delfts, no. 12; Rack- 
ham, Glaisher, vol. 2, pls. 222B (Dutch plate with 
notably similar ornament to that on the Long- 
ridge vase), 223 (vase), 224B-244C, 225B; Crellin, 
Wellcome, no. 386. 
 
 
4. Ayers, Impey, and Mallet, Palaces, p. 36, fig, 5, 
Dutch jar with similar upper border in painting 
of interior with slave boy and lutel?) by Cornelis 
de Man (1621-1706); no. 182, Dutch jar (1670 
1680) with Chinese figures in landscape; no. 273, 
Dutch jar (1670-16801 with closely related upper 
border and panels with Chinese figures and 
flowers. The last two vases and another with 
Chinese figures in a landscape and the upper 
border (Carswell, Chinese Porcelain, no. 102) 
have leafy lower borders resembling that on 
Longridge no. D297. See also Rackham, Glaisher, 
vol. 2, pl. 223. 
 
 
406 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
/  I 
 
ih  14 
 
 
'7 
 
 
ii 
 
 
-I 
 
 
7 jT rr, 
 
 
4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
              D366. FLOWER BowL 
              Probably London 
              c. 1695                                                   
                         i 
 
              H.: 31/2" (8.9 cm); 
              Diam.: 6 1/2" (16.5 cm) 
 
              BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
              TIN GLAZE: Pale bluish white. Overall, 
  ~excluding footrim edge. 
~SHAPE: Thrown and pierced. Domed 
              upper portion made as one piece with 
              bowl. Narrow-edged, cylindrical footrim 
 ~~D ECO 0R AT IO0N: Painted. Trek Chinese 
 ~rocks, birds, and flowers. Bowl borders 
              composed of band of concentric arcs 
              and horizontal lines. Top surface bears 
              concentric bands of arcs, bands of 
              foliage with wavy lines, and circles. 
~~Published: Home, Collection, pr. 8, no. 196. 
 
S1" tor datted examples, see l'ipsMi and                           
                                            -. 
~Archer, IDated 1)elftware, nos. 927, 929, 
~~~~Delit. no. 406; Archer and Murgan. China                            
    ..... 
I~Dishes, nos. 31 32. For an undated 
 
Collecton.pi.4, noo81 
~~2. Archer, V&A, no. 1.5, Britton. Blristol,                       
                                                   ' 
~no. 7.24. 
~3. See Austin, Delft, nos. 628 631: Archer, 
~V&A, nos. 1.4 1.6; Sotheby's (Ll, lipski sale 
121. November 17, 1981, lot 255, Kassebacim 
~sale (1), October 1, 1991, lot 43; B~ritton, 
              Bristol. no. 7.24, and, for examples with 
              European motifs, nos. 7.22 -7.23. 
                                                               he dating
of this flower bowl is based on its painted trek decoration, derived 
 
                                                               from a Dutch
tin-glaze painting style. Somewhat similar birds and flowers also 
                                                               occur on dated
posset pots, punch bowls, and jars from the 1690s.' Flower con- 
                                                               tainers of
this type typically have attached tops, but on a few, separate lids 
                                                               create the
same general profile.2 (A Longridge collection lid [not illustrated] lacks

                                                               its bowl but
is similar in shape and decoration to the top of the pot shown here.) 
                 ~Chinese motifs are particularly comlnon on the form and
usually include fig- 
                                                              ures or buildings
in landscapes, symbols, flowers, or abstract patterns.:' The 
                                                              majority of
flower bowls predate the mid-1700s. (For a covered butter dish of 
       -      .   . I_ ...                                    approximately
the same profile, see no. D187.) 
 
 
408 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E LF T WA R E Flower Containers 
 
 
D367. FLOWER VASE or 
CACHEPOT 
 
 
London 
1690-1710 
 
 
H.: 71I/8"(18.1 cm); 
L.: 51I/4"(13.3 cm), 
W,: 51I/4"(13.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale greenish white, 
slightly transparent with open crazing 
and, on interior, gray speckling. Overall, 
partially excluding bottoms of feet. 
S HA PE: Slab-constructed body. Press- 
 
 
molded winged masks on two opposing 
sides. Rope borders shaped by hand. 
Thrown finials (replaced) and feet. 
DECORATION: Painted. Matched pairs 
 
 
of opposing panels, one set with winged 
masks among flowers, the other with 
flowers and foliage. Roping reliefs picked 
out. Finials and feet bear solidly colored 
ends and runny horizontal lines. 
 
 
1. Raclkhamr, (Glaisher, vol. 1, p, 185. 
no. 1459 (la~rger vase); Christie 's (L, 
F ebruairy 28, 1994. lot 9 (smallIer vdse). 
2. Ray, Wairren, col. pl. C, pl1 63, no. 124 
l(coffleepo);iI Aust in, Delfit, no. 611 (urn); 
Archer, V&A, no. A.65 (dish, fl'agiuents). 
3. I'hill1ips (I), June 8. 1994. lot 159. 
 
 
  his object may have been a flower vase or, more probably, was a cachepot,
serv- 
ing as a decorative container for a more utilitarian receptacle that held
the earth 
for a growing plant. Painting of the same type and period occurs on one larger
and 
one smaller piece of this shape: the first has similar butt not identical
molded 
winged heads of putti on opposing sides and is decorated with floral sprays
and 
birds; the second is without molded heads, and the fotur sides have painted
sim- 
ple flower sprays and dotted leaves.' Based on their similar shapes, rope-twist

edges, squat feet (missing on the largest vase), and acorn finials (replaced
on the 
Longridge vase), all three vessels are likely to have come from the same
pottery. 
Fragments of hatched flower heads like those on the L~ongridge vase were
found 
in Lambeth and occur on a coffee pot dated 1705 as well as on a mnagnificent
urn 
and a molded dish fr'om about 1695 to 1705. Another container is similar
to the 
ILongridge example but is squatter in form and is closed with a flat top
from which 
a circular nozzle protrudes. Instead of putti heads, all four sides have
molded 
masks similar to those on the borders of "fecundity" dishes.' 
 
 
The Longr dge Collection 409 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9 
 
 
D368. FLOWER CONTAINERS 
 
 
Probably London 
1670-1690 
 
 
H. (both): 5 112" (14 cm); 
 
 
Diam. (body, both): 3 1/2" (8.9 cm); 
Diam. (scroll-handles): 4 3/4" (12.1 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff, 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, excluding 
bottoms. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with wavy edge and 
 
 
nozzles. Hand-rolled and curled scrolls. 
Slightly concave bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. On primary 
 
 
A~lthough these two rare flower containers are uninscribed, vessels of 
approximately this form are known with dates of 1650, 1661 (with a cartouche

much like that of Longridge goblet no. D237), and 1683.' The Longridge pots
and 
the 1683 dated example bear horizontal, wide, and narrow lines on the waisted

portion of the base and have bands of Chinese cloud scrolls around the lower

edge. Rather than figural and foliate motifs derived from Italian maiolica

designs, the primary ornament on the 1683 flower container depicts (in blue

and purple) a Chinese figure in a landscape. 
   Fragments of vessels of this general form have been excavated in London.

Some were found among 1680 to 1690 factory waste excavated at the Pickle-

herring factory site in Southwark;2 others were unearthed from a 1670 to
1700 
context at the 129 Lambeth Road site.' In America a probably originally bleu
per- 
san decorated vase was excavated at Newington Plantation in North Carolina,

and another vase was unearthed in Virginia at Jamestown Island.4 
 
 
sides, winged heads against grounds of 
scrolling, foliate vines; on secondary 
sides, bird and a full-length angel, 
respectively, against grounds of 
scrolling, foliate vines. Scrolls bear 
horizontal slashes; nozzles bear foliate 
motifs. Upper border composed of 
horizontal lines and band of vertical 
 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
nos. 1564-1565, 1567. 
2. Museum of London, Southwark and 
Lambeth, pp. 314-315, fig. 133, 
nos. 1319-1321 (Mark Brown's 
Wharf site). 
3. Ibid., p. 170, table 86; p. 353, 
fig. 154, no. 1611; p. 355. 
4. Austin, Delft, p. 18, fig. 13, no. 599. 
 
 
slashes. Lower border composed of 
 
 
horizontal lines and row of dots above 
wider band with Chinese cloud scrolls. 
 
 
r 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D369. FLOWER VASE or 
FLOWER POT 
 
 
London or Bristol 
1750-1 765 
 
 
H.: 6 114' (15.9 cm), 
Diam. (body): 4 3/4"(12.1 cm); 
Diam. (handles): 4 7/8' (12.4 cm) 
 
 
v 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale turquoise, somewhat 
transparent. Overall, excluding lower, 
chamfered edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Handles (partially 
new) shaped by hand. Bottom of bowl 
 
 
interior has hole opening into base. 
Bottom of base has no opening and is 
concave. Upper rim has what may be 
 
 
triangular arrangement of peg marks. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Landscapes (repeated on either side) 
with mountains, fence, church, trees, 
 
 
and plants. Handles bear horizontal 
slashes. Base bears three repeats of 
leaf-and-wavy tendril motif, 
 
 
  lower containers of this form sometimes are referred to as cam pana vases,

 
from the Italian for bell. The Longridge vase is one of a group of examples
that 
vary in size and proportions but typically have flattened, double-scroll
pseudo- 
handles, distinctly widened lower portions of the bowls, and domed bases.

(Trumpet-shaped bases are more common on similarly shaped vases with relief

masks Isee no. D370] and, often, sketchily painted and darkly sponged land-

scapes.)' Decoration on scroll-handled vases most often includes European
or 
Chinese flowers or landscapes, the latter sometimes with figures. Eastern
and 
Western designs are juxtaposed on the Longridge pot, which displays a dec-

orative style and dense blue ornament typical of London tin glazei The hole
that 
opens the upper region of the Longridge bowl into the hollow base (with a

sealed bottom) may indicate that the vessel was for potting plants; if this
sup- 
position is true, the lower well acted as a container for excess water. 
 
 
1. Austin, D~elft, no. 616: Archer, V&A, no. 1.17. 
2. Brittun, Bristol. nos. 7.4 75.5 18.21 Iflowers, 
Cirucifixinon, figur e in handsc ape). and, for a 
slightly differeni shape, nos. 7.67.8, Austin. 
lxelii nus. 614 615 (flowers, figure in landscape): 
Ilorne, Collect ion, pt. 1, no. 6 Ipair with figur es 
in latndscapes); hirigsb~y, Chipstone, no. 79 (sin- 
gle-sc roll lhtndles aindl Chinese ligutre in a 
garden): Sotheby's (t1.) I ipski saile (1), March 10, 
1981, lot1 198. 
 
 
3. tor at 1 ondon-e'xcavated vase with lion masks, 
flowers, and, on the base, different (:hinese sym- 
bols, see Britton, london, no() 142 (Bank of" 
Englandl site), 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 411 
 
  

					
				
				
 
II 
 
 
D370. FLOWER VASE 
London or possibly Bristol 
1750-1765 
 
H.: 7 1/8" (18.1 cm); 
Diam.: 5 3/4" (14.6 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, slightly 
transparent on interior, with occasional 
pits, Overall, excluding footrim edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Press-molded and 
applied lion masks. Hollow base. 
DECORATION: Painted and sponged. 
Landscapes with trees, plants, moun- 
tains, and two differently posed ladies, 
one (not shown) near small building. 
Sponged lion masks. Base border com- 
posed of scrollwork. 
 
 
U     nlike scroll-handled "campana vases" (see no. D369) that
in several in- 
stances bear Chinese subjects, the vast majority of lion-masked vases depict

European landscapes with figures and sponged foliage. The ornament on vessels

in the group varies somewhat in style, indicating that more than one maker
pro- 
duced them, but most show the dense blue and types of trees and figures 
associated with London.' Base ornament typically is composed of flowers and

scrollwork, but abbreviated landscapes also occur occasionally.' Fragments
of 
one vase with flowers rather than a landscape and, on the base, Chinese sym-

bols, were found at the Bank of England site (London), and a lion mask was

found in Bristol.' 
1. For a probably London tile depicting a similar  3. Britton, London, no.
142. For a biscuit vase 
woman, see Homee, Tiles, no. 151.         with four masks excavated at the
129 Lambeth 
2. For examples of vases, see Britton, Bristol,  Road site (London), see
Museum of London, 
                                          Southwark and Lambeth, p. 351,
fig. 152, 
nnos 18.22 18.24; Archer, V&A, nos. 1.15 117 
 
 
(no. 1.16 with Laun, rather than lion masks);       n.. 
Austin, Delft, nos. 616-617; Garner and Archer, 
Delftware, no. 97: Allen, Dolz Collection, p. 860, 
fig. 5. 
 
 
412 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
t 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D371, D372. FLOWER BRICK and 
FLOWER VASES 
Probably Liverpool 
1750-1 765 
 
 
(D371) H.. 3 112" (8.9 cm); L. 6 318' 
(16,2 cm); W. 2 5/8' (6.7 cm) 
(D372, both) H. (approximate): 
6 1/4"(15.9 cm); Diam.: 3 1/2" (8.9 cm) 
 
 
I) 371 1)372 
 
 
  he type of ornament on these vessels is comparatively rare onl English
delft- 
 
ware and is found (differing in details) on only a few other flower containers.'

Included among them are a blue-painted brick with the same pattern of pierc-

ing; a deeply waisted, cylindrical vase painted in blue and manganese; and
a 
blue-painted baluster vase similar to the Longridge ones in profile.- The
decora- 
tive motifs on all of these are of Chinese origin, but their semi-trek style
may 
indicate that the designs were brought to England on Dutch deift. Some vases

resembling the Longridge examples (D372) in profile have European building-in-

landscape scenes associated with liverpoolJ 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff, 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, Overall, 
excluding (D371, D372 [center]) lower 
edge, (D372 [right]) bottom. 
SHAPE: (D371) Slab-constructed and 
pierced. Three rows of small holes and 
larger central hole in recessed top. Sim- 
ilarly recessed bottom. (D372) T hrown. 
 
 
Slightly concave bottoms, one vase 
(center) with narrow, flattened edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese fig- 
 
 
S)ide two of 1) 371  S ide two of 1)372 
 
 
ures with plants, rocks, dots, and starlike 
floral))) motifs, )D37]) with repeated end 
panel motifs. (D371) Recessed top bears 
rectangular edge outline and radiating 
slashes around central hole. 
 
 
1. Bas ed Ott it, phiered paiteten 0. hte loongridge 
brik at  )3711 is imoire likely to have been inttended 
as at Ibowet holler t han ain itnkst and. 
2. Sot heby's III, 1 ipski sale Ill, Maricht 10, 1981, 
lot 141. ltpski sale 2), November 17, 1981, lot 
278:1 [ipski satle (3) Martch 1, 1981, lot 543. 
3. Archter, V& A, no. 1.19. 
 
 
Published: Home, Collectioo. pt. 16, 
nos. 4550 & b. 456. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 413 
 
 
p! 
 
 
a- 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D ELF TWA RE Flower Containers 
 
 
D373. FLOWER BRICK 
 
 
London 
Dated 1737 
 
 
H.: 3 1/2" (8.9 cm); 
L.: 6 1/4" (15.9 cm); 
W.: 2 3/4" (7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with portion 
of bottom discolored and with blow 
holes and pits from overfiring. Overall, 
excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Slab-constructed and pierced. 
Three rows of piercings on slightly 
 
recessed top. Similarly recessed bot- 
tom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Trelliswork 
 
ground with, on long sides, superim- 
posed flowers and reserves enclosing 
identical vases. One narrow end reserve 
 
bears small flowering plant; the other is 
initialed "E" and dated 1737. Upper sur- 
 
face bears holes edged in small, curved 
dashes; trelliswork with crosses at inter- 
sections of lines. 
 
Published (one of pair): Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no, 1591. 
Ex coil.: J. P Kassebaum. 
 
 
This flower container originally was one of an identical pair (for another
pair, 
see no. D374), and evidence suggests that sets of two vessels of this type
were 
not uncommon.' The bricks display a type of Chinese trelliswork-composed
of 
diagonal lines with superimposed narrow lozenges and sets of four dashes

filling the voids-that was popular on English delftware throughout much of
the 
eighteenth century (see nos. D335, D338).1 No exact match has been found,
but 
the flower vases on the bricks are somewhat like those on 1735 to 1750 tin-

glazed tiles attributed to London.' The floral end panels are somewhat similar

in shape and painting style (especially the foliage) to reserves on 1739
dated 
plates.' No other dated brick of this shape is recorded. 
 
 
1. The pair is illustrated in Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, nos. 1591-1591A. For sets and 
usage of bricks, see Archer and Morgan, China 
Dishes, no. 64; Archer, V&A, pp. 360 361; Austin, 
Delft, no. 634. 
2. For dated pieces, see ILipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 1522, 1528 (1757, 1774 tea canis- 
ters); no. 1775 (1768 watch stand). See also 
Archer, V&A, no. 1.7 (c. 1735 brick); Ray, Warren, 
pl 52, no. 100 (c. 1765 tea canister). 
3. Archer, V&A, col. pl. 292, nos. N.259-N.262. 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 
447 447A: and, for foliage only, no. 449. 
 
 
414 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D EL F T WA R E iFlower Containers 
 
 
D374. FLOWER BRICK 
Bristol 
c. 1740 
 
 
H.: 3 1/2"(8.9 cm); 
L,: 6 1/8"(15.6 cm); 
w.: 2 5/8' (6.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly blue-grayish 
white. Overall, excluding lower edge. 
S HA PE: Slab-constructed and pierced. 
Joining marks visible along interior 
intersections of walls and bottom. Two 
 
 
rows of three circular holes flank large 
square hole in recessed top. Similarly 
recessed bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted, Long sides 
bear nearly identical scenes of castle or 
fort on shore, with flying birds and four 
distant ships. Both ends bear similar 
flowering plants and, at corners, raylike 
motifs. Borders composed of single, 
 
 
11ll 
 
 
F 
 
 
large rectangles. Top bears trellis form- 
ing squares with V or X motifs at 
 
 
intersections and slashes across sides; 
 
 
scrolls run along two sides of square 
 
 
hole. 
 
 
Published (one of pair). Archer and Morgan, 
China Dishes, no. 63. 
Ex coil! B. and MI. Morgan. 
 
 
  Chis flower brick, like the one in the previous entry (no. D373), originally

formed part of a pair.' A variation on the scene shown here occurs on a Long-

ridge dish with decoration associating it with Bristol, and, in both cases,
the 
view is likely to represent a battle in the West Indies at which Vice Admiral

Vernon took Fort Chagres (see no. D97). The fort scene on the pair of bricks
is 
closest in style and details to one recurring in octagonal reserves on 1740
dated 
Bristol plates with initials and manganese powder grounds. The octagonal

reserve also occurs on a manganese powder ground flower brick that is similar

to the Longridge one in body shape and has similar piercing and painted pat-

terns on the top) (Square holes flanked by rows of round holes also appear
on1 
tops of other Bristol bricks but probably were not exclusive to that delftware

center.)4 Circular reserves showing the fort and ships are known on manganese

powder ground tiles.5 Flowering plants nmuch like those on the Longridge
brick 
ends are found on some plates that also probably are of Bristol origin.'

 
 
1. So4thebys (l), Morgan sale. (1), Novembe.r 20, 
1979, lot 22. 
2. 1I~pski and Archer, D~ated Delftware, nos. 465 
467A (see also Ray, Wartren, p1. 25, no0. 63-64). 
For undated plaites, see Aust in, I )eltt , no. 261, 
(,hristie's 11,.1 Glover sale. lone 14. 1988, lot 15 
lpixri. 
3I Austin, D)elft, no. 614. 
 
 
4. 1 kr Bristol, see Archers, V&AX, nos. 1.7- 1.8, 1.10 
1.11: Ibr Bristol and other centers. see Austin, 
eilft, nos. 634 635, 637, 640 641, 643, 652. 
5. Ray. Tiles. pp. 158 159, p1. 23, no. 226. 
6. See Britton, Blristol, no. 14.26. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 415 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
D E L F T W A R E I Flower Containers 
 
 
D375. FLOWER BRICK 
 
Probably Bristol 
 
c. 1740 
 
 
H.: 3 5/8" (9.2 cm): 
 
L.: 6 1/4" (15.9 cm); 
 
W.: 2 3/4" (7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff                                         ,  
   - 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with blue 
 
speckling. Overall, excluding bottom 
 
edge. 
 
SHAPE: Slab-constructed and pierced. 
 
Three rows of piercings in slightly 
 
recessed top. Similarly recessed bottom. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Long sides 
 
bear similar scenes of interior with ket- 
 
tIe heating at hearth, woman drawing 
 
drape and seated at table with 
 
teabowls and saucers, and servant 
 
bringing her wineglass. Short ends 
 
depict similar boats. Top bears rectan- 
 
gle filled with quatrefoil motifs, crosses, 
 
and holes edged in dots. 
 
Ex colt: K. Hommitt. 
 
 
 
                                                 o pieces with decoration
closely paralleling that on the walls of this 
                                                flower brick are recorded.'
Based on the costumes of the figures, the scenes 
                                                probably derive from types
on Chinese export porcelain, and the ships on the 
                                                brick ends also are of oriental
design. Sunray motifs, one version of which 
                                                appears at the top of the
large scene on the Longridge brick, are a not uncom- 
                                                mon feature of mid-eighteenth-century
English delftware. (The ship on the ends 
                                                perhaps derives from a motif
on a Dutch tile.)' The piercing of the top of this 
                                                piece is similar in pattern
and hole-border motifs to no. D373, but crosses and 
                                                quatrefoil motifs have replaced
the grid ornament.' The painting style of the 
                                                brick shown here is, perhaps,
closest to that on Bristol delftware. 
 
                                                1. See Grigsby, Chipstone,
no. 191, for somewhat  3. lor l)utch examples, see Plots, Dutch Tile, 
                                                similarly shaped forge forming
part of relief  p. 125, col. pl. 24; pp. 384 385. 
                                                scene with blacksmiths on
1736 dated salt- 
                                                                        
                 4. For the same piercing and hole borders lwith- 
                                               glazed brown stoneware tankard.

                                                                        
                 out filling of the vwids) on a probably London 
                                               2. Ibid., no. 13 (1752 dated
mug with Black-  brick, see Archer, V&A, no. 1.13. 
                                               smith's Company arms): Britton,
Bristol, no. 7.13 
                                               (wall pocket with Chinese
pavilion), bottom of 
                                               p. 84. 
 
 
416 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D E LF TWA RE Flower Containers 
 
 
D376. FLOWER BRICK 
 
Bristol or Liverpool 
 
1750-1770 
 
 
H.: 3 1/8" (7.9 cm); 
 
L: 6" (15.2 cm); 
 
W.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, somewhat 
 
runny and transparent. Overall, exclud- 
 
ing bottommost edges. 
 
SHAPE: Slab-constructed and pierced. 
Three rows of small piercings and larger 
 
central hole in recessed top. More 
 
deeply recessed bottom has cut wavy 
 
edge. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Long sides 
 
bear similar landscapes of trees, build- 
 
ings, and fences to either side of hill. 
 
Short ends bear similar single houses 
 
with trees and fences. Voids between 
 
holes on top filled with asterisks. 
 
Published' Honey, 1948 ECC Exhibition, p1. 5, 
no. 32; Garner, Delftware, pl. 63C; Garner and 
Archer, pl 87C 
Ex coils.: F H. Garner; J. P Kosseboum. 
 
 
Scenes of buildings (usually houses without any castlelike structures) flank-

ing a central hill or cliff in arrangements resembling that of the type shown

here occur on Bristol bianco-sopra-bianco and other delftware plates, some

dated 1761 to 1767, and fragments with such ornament have been excavated
at 
Williamsburg, Virginia., Variations on the land- and waterscapes also occur
on 
at least three blue and white bricks.' The painting style and colors shown
here, 
like the trimming of the brick's base to a wavy shape, sometimes are associat-

ed with Liverpool,, and similar pierced patterns also occur on some Liverpool

bricks., 
 
 
1. For plates and fragments, see Austin, Delft, 
nos. 304, 345 346, p. 183 (bottom); I tpski and 
Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 620-621, 650; 
Archer, V&A, nos. B.92 B.94, B.254 B.256; Brit- 
ton, Bristol, nos. 16.9 16.17; 18.46-18.47, For 
tiles, see Horne, Tiles, no. 319; Ray, Tiles, 
pp. 164 165, pl. 26, no. 259. 
2. Britton, Bristol, no. 7.28 (probably Liverpool); 
no. 7.39 (probably Bristol); Sotheby's (L), Lipski 
sale (3), March 1, 19813, lot 426. 
 
 
3. Garner and Archer, Delftware, pp. 32, 43; for 
wavy-edged bottoms, see Britton, Bristol, 
nos. 7.29-7.31, 17.17. For related buildings and 
fences on a blue and white Liverpool brick 
(c. 1760), see Brown and Lockett, Liverpool, 
p. 54, no. 9. (See Archer, V&A, col. pl. 89, 
no. B.103, for somewhat similar colors and 
painting style on a Bristol plate.) 
4. For this pierced pattern, see Archer, V&A, 
no. 1.14; Austin, Delft, nos. 639, 650, and, for an 
example attributed to Delftfield (Glasgow), 
no. 653. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 417 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D377. FLOWER HORN, 
 
CORNUCOPIA, or WALL POCKET 
Probably Liverpool 
 
Dated 1748 
 
 
L.: 8" (20.3 cm); 
 
W.: 5 5/8" (14.3 cm); 
 
D.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, somewhat 
 
transparent on raised areas, darker on 
 
back near holes. Overall. 
 
SHAPE: Press-molded. Relief flowers 
 
(near rim) above fluting. Two hanging 
 
holes pierced in back before firing 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers, three 
in relief (near rim). Horn tip solidly 
 
painted and bearing lines radiating 
 
upward, echoing ribbing pattern. Bor- 
 
ders composed of hatched band and 
way lines. On reverse, upper portion 
 
inscribed '17 IG148 [1748]" with scroll 
 
and floral motifs; lower portion bears 
 
floral vine much like that centered on 
front. 
 
Published: Tilley, Twiss Posset Pot, p. 181, 
figs. 8-9; Lipski and Archer, Doted Delftware, 
no. 1568. 
Ex coils.: L.L. Lipski;J. P Kasseboum. 
 
 
                                              D E L F T W A R E Flower Containers

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
An entry for "1 doz flour horns" appears in a 1757 list of goods
shipped to 
Maryland from "Delf House," i.e., Glasgow's Delftfield Pottery,
and the factory 
advertised such vessels in a Glasgow Courant of the same year.' December
18, 
1770, entries in the crate books of Thomas and John Wedgwood's Big House,

Burslem (Staffordshire), factory include: 
 
 
8 Large Faces 
6 Midle 
 
 
2 least 
8 Flower Horns 
 
 
21p. pair      1.4.02 
 
 
   These vessels and those from William Greatbatch's molds for "1 pr
Cornu 
Copias," created in 1764 for Josiah Wedgwood, were made in creamware
or salt- 
glazed stoneware? (Delftware was not produced in Staffordshire.) The "Faces"

possibly resembled in form another Longridge wall pocket (no. D378).4 
    Several delftware models of wall pockets with fluting surmounted by a
plain 
band with three relief flowers were made. Such vessels seem typically to
have 
been made in mirror-image pairs (for an exception, see no. D379), and painted

ornament on them varies widely.' Staffordshire salt-glazed stoneware blocks
for 
fluted, cornucopia-shaped wall pockets have relief floral vines near the
rims,6 
and other fluted models were made in Worcester soft-paste porcelain.7 Period

illustrations of wall pockets are rare, but Robert Sayer's 1762 design book,
The 
Ladies Amusement (London), shows a fluted example filled with flowers.' The

delftware pocket illustrated here and the following one (no. D378) are the
only 
recorded examples bearing dates. 
 
 
1. Austin, Delft, p. 16, citing "Daybooks of Mary- 
land Concern," Scottish Record Office, Currie- 
Dal. Miscellaneous, Bundle 20, Box 2, p. 13. 
Kinghorn and Quail, Delftfield, p. 24, "flower- 
horns" in advertisement reproduced from 
May 2-9, 1757, Courant issue. 
2. Mountford, Thesis, app. 4, p. 21. 
3. Barker, Greatbatch, pp. 95, 113, 192, pl. 56. 
Mountford, Salt-glazed Stoneware, p. 56, cites 
Simeon Shaw (History of the Staffordshire Potteries 
118291), who refers to "cornucopiae" made in the 
county in the mid-1700s. See Spero, Worcester, 
no. 201, for "two sizes of Cornucopia" sold whole- 
sale by Worcester in the late 1750s. 
4. For faces on Staffordshire wall pockets, see 
Mountford, Salt-glazed Stoneware, nos. 153 155; 
Grigsby, Weldon, no. 60; Barker, Greatbatch, p. 95. 
 
 
5. Austin, Delft, no. 622; Garner and Archer, 
Delftware, no. 86C; Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (3), 
March 1, 1983, lot 451; Atkins, Exhibition 
(1993), no. 30 (undecorated); Sotheby's (NY), 
April 15, 1996, lots 334 and (salt glaze) 335; 
October 20, 1997, lots 187, 191, (salt glaze) 227. 
For one with a human mask substituted for the 
central relief flower, see Garner, Lambeth, Bris- 
tol or Liverpool, pl. 81d. For other fluted types, 
see Britton, Bristol, nos. 7.13-7.16. 
6. Mountford, Salt-glazed Stoneware, no. 34; 
Luxmoore, Saltglazed Earthenware, pls. 48, 55. 
7. Spero, Worcester, no. 201. 
8. Reproduced in Archer, V&A, p. 362, fig. 51. 
 
 
418 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 419 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D ELF TWA RE Flower Containers 
 
 
D378. WALL POCKET 
Liverpool 
Dated 1769 
 
 
L.: 8 3/8" (21.3 cm); 
W.: 6 7/8" (17.5 cm); 
D.: 3 3/4" (9.5 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white, somewhat 
transparent on raised areas and runny. 
Overall. 
SHAPE: Press-molded front. Flat slab 
back pierced before firing with two 
holes for hanging. 
DECORATION: Painted. Detailing of 
primary reliefs (bearded dolphin and 
satyr's masks, scrolls, but excluding 
barely visible relief leaves above satyr 
and scrolls flanking dolphin), floral and 
foliate motifs. Center of reverse 
inscribed "PM/1769" in large characters. 
 
Published.- Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft- 
ware, no, 1570. 
Ex coils.: W Edkins; F H. Garner, T G. Burn, 
Rous Lench; J P Kassebaum. 
 
 
his flower container is one of only two recorded delftware wall pockets with

dates (see no. D149) and also is an extremely rare model in tin glaze. Vessels
of 
more or less the same form were, however, made in some quantity in Stafford-

shire creamware (typically decorated in colored oxides) and salt-glazed 
stoneware (most often left in the white). The mold for the Longridge example

possibly was acquired from that region or, alternatively, a mold may have
been 
made off of a finished Staffordshire pocket.' Besides the 1,ongridge delftware

pocket, a few other unusual examples of the same general model were made:

one is composed of a front portion in tortoiseshell creamware set against
a red- 
ware slab back with applied relief flowers;' another is in salt-glazed blackish

brown and white agate stoneware with cobalt blotches.' 
 
 
 
1. Mountford, Salt-glazed Stoneware, nos. 153 
154 (salt-glazed stoneware block and pockets); 
Grigsby, Weldon, nos. 60, 135 (salt-glazed and 
crearnware examples). 
2. Mountford, Salt-glazed Stoneware, no. 154. 
3. Taggart, Burnap, no. 418. 
 
 
Detail of reverse 
 
 
420 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
The Longridge Collection 421 
 
 
l\t+ t LtdJ IL" 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D379. WALL POCKETS 
Liverpool 
c. 1765 
 
L. (average): 7 7/8" (20 cm); 
W.: 5" (12.7 cm); 
D.: 2 5/8" (6.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall. 
SHAPE: Press-molded and slab-con- 
structed. Flat backs pierced before 
firing with two holes for hanging. 
Reverse of each has three peg marks (at 
each lower tip and upper corner). 
DECORATION: Painted. Details of 
relief fish with seaweed flanking heads. 
 
Published: Chorley collection, p. 184, no. 7 
Ex coils.: F L. Dickson; J. and K. Chorley. 
 
 
U nlike other asymmetrical delft wall pockets, the fish type appears not
to 
have been made with mirror-image mates (see no. D377). The few recorded 
examples are painted in more or less the same way and perhaps came from a

single factory. Based on the pockets' glaze, colors, and painting style,
it is likely 
that factory was in Liverpool. With the exception of the model shown here,

overt references to the sea on delftware wall pockets tend to be limited
to the 
inclusion of dolphin masks (see no. D378).2 
 
 
 
1. For single examples, see Austin, D)elft, 
no. 625; lor one in the Liverpool Museum collec- 
tion, see Brown and Lockett, Liverpool, p. 59, 
no. 22 (also Archer, Rijksmuseun, no. 150). 
2. For c. 1760 Bow soil-paste porcelain pockets 
in the forms of conch shells, see Gabszewicz 
and Freemrian, fBow, no. 147. 
 
 
422 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
                                                   4 -- 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Lighting 
 
 
D380. CANDLESTICK 
Southwark, London 
Dated 1653 
 
 
H.: 9 3/4" (24.8 cm); 
Diam.: 7 3/4" (19.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale greenish white, 
slightly transparent and runny. Some 
 
open crazing and, on base, large patch 
of rough pits. Glazed inside columnar 
portion of base. Much of underside 
wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with socket and 
saucer undulations and base fluting. 
Hollow base. 
DECORATION: Fluted by hand, paint- 
ed. Cartouche inscribed "1IT/1653 [1653]," 
with dot-cluster filler ornament. 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Doted Delft- 
ware, no, 1560: Grigsby, Doted Longridge 
Delftware and Slipware, pp. 880-881, pl. 9 
Ex coll.: T G. Burn, Rous Lench. 
 
 
his important candlestick and others of somewhat similar form, with large

drip pans and wide feet, base their designs on seventeenth-century metalwork.

One delft example has a flat socket flange, drip pan, and domed foot that
are 
trimmed in a lobe-and-dart pattern characteristic of metalwork examples.

Painted in blue on its foot are the Fishmongers' arms and the inscription

WW E /1648" (the earliest date on a delft stick). The initials have
been associat- 
 
ed with William Withers and Elizabeth Snelling of Saint Olave's parish, 
Southwark, where the Pickleherring factory was active.' Unlike the 1648 exam-

ple and the one shown here, the majority of candlesticks of this general
form 
are left in white, often ornamented with raised bosses or fluting (see nos.
D235, 
D236, D273, D274).2 Candlesticks of somewhat similar form have been exca-

vated in Southwark, as have later examples in Lambeth.' 
    Fluting also occasionally occurs on other primarily white delftware forms

of about this date. A nearly cylindrical posset pot in the Longridge collection

(no. D273) displays such relief ornament on the walls of the body but has
bosses 
forming the lid decoration. A few squat, globular posset pots also bear related

ornament.4 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, no. G.3. 
2. Garner and Archer, l)elftware, pl. 29A; 
Manchester, Greg Collection, no. 46; 
Fisher, St. Louis Collection, p. 627, fig. 1; 
Sotheby's (L), Moor Wood sale, May 15, 
1979, lot 5. 
3. Archer, V&A, no. G.4. 
4. Sotheby's (L), Lipski sale (1), March 10, 
1981, lot 10, noting a coverless "somewhat 
similar posset pot ... Sold 30th January 
1979, lot 8"; February 25, 1986, lot 43. 
 
 
424 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D381. CANDLESTICK 
London or Holland 
c. 1675 
 
 
H.: 11 3/8" (28.9 cm); 
 
 
L. (sides of base): 6 3/8" (16.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White. Overall, including 
column interior and excluding under- 
side of well and where bottom edge 
 
 
wiped clean. 
SHAPE: Molded flanges of rim and 
column, "clustered column" portion of 
shaft, and base. Thrown shaft of circular 
 
 
section. 
DECORATION: Painted. Shaft bears 
bands of flowering plants and band 
with circles and pendant pointed 
motifs. Flanges bear linear outlines and 
foliate corners. Base ornament com- 
posed of well with flowers and borders 
 
 
composed of circle, winged angel's- 
head corner motifs, trelliswork, and 
 
 
concentric squares. 
 
 
1. Phillips (L), June 7, 1989, lot 238 n., 
illustrating a 1674 London silver candle- 
stick. 
2. For related flowers on mid-17th-century 
Ming Transitional porcelain, see Carswell, 
Chinese Porcelain, no. 63. See Scholten, 
van Drecht, no. 110, for 1660-1680 Dutch 
jug with related double-leaved floral 
motif; Erkelens, Delfts Porcelijn, pp. 63, 
67 68, for the motif on 1685/6 De Griexe 
A fiactory marked vases formerly belong- 
ing to Queen Mary II. 
 
 
M etalwork "clustered column" candlesticks were popular on the
Conti- 
nent and in England before and during the third quarter of the seventeenth

century, and the form undoubtedly was the inspiration for the candlestick

shown here. Stepping of the base is a feature of some English metalwork ver-

sions, and, although usually a Continental metalwork feature, sunken circular

wells also are known on English silver.' The Longridge candlestick's decorative

motifs, including the double-paired-leaf floral motif derived from Chinese
Tran- 
sitional porcelain after Japanese Arita porcelain, are typical of designs
on Dutch 
tin glaze. The somewhat uneven quality and color of the glaze, however, is

more like that of English delftware. Conceivably, this piece could represent
the 
work of a Dutch decorator in London. 
 
 
426 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
A 
 
 
I 
 
 
-IV 
Ir4 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEL FT WARE [Lighting 
 
 
D382. CANDLESTICK 
 
 
Brislington or London 
1670-1690 
 
 
H.: 5 7/8"(14.9 cm); 
Diam.: 5 1/8"(13cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white with blue 
speckling. Overall, excluding bottom 
edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown, with socket rim undu- 
lations shaped by hand. Hollow base. 
DECORATION: Painted. Chinese fig- 
ure among plants and grasses on base, 
with similar foliage on saucer section. 
Borders composed of graduated Vs and 
 
 
horizontal lines. 
 
 
Ex coil.: T G. Burn, Roos Lench. 
 
 
L ike the examples in the two previous entries, this candlestick takes its

shape from period metalwork. The decoration--pointed motifs pendant from
a 
narrow moldingion the shaft resembles similarly placed motifs on a larger

(9 1/4' 123.5 cml), blue and white candlestick with a high-domed foot that
is 
inscribed "IAM/1685" and also depicts Chinese figures in a landscape.
A some- 
what smaller (7 1/2' (19.1 Cml]) stick painted in polychrome is more like
this one 
in shape and shows densely packed Chinese figural scenes that cover the major-

ity of the surface.2 Although the glaze color and painting style of the Longridge

candlestick are of types often associated with Brislington, examples of some-

what similar shapes have been excavated in London.: 
 
 
11. lipski arid Archer, Dated Delttware. no. 1561. 
For a related border on a 1660-1680 Dutch delft 
bottle, see Ayers. hnpey, and Mallet, P'alaces. 
no. 180. See C arswell, C htnese P~orcelain, no. 87, 
fur a mid- to late 17th-century Japanese lArita) 
porcelain bottle with anl upper border of con-l 
centric Vs described as "a ring of plantains" 
2. Set Manchester. Greg C ollection. no. 47, and 
Archer, Rijksmciseumn. tt 58. fThe candlesttck's 
uipper rim p~erhaps has been damaged and 
reduced.I For an all-white candlcestick of about 
the same shape, see Wills. Pottery and Porce- 
 
 
lain, p. 47, pl. 6. Fur a porringer resembling the 
ILongrtdge candlestick in glaze color and paint- 
tng style, see Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 65. 
3. Noel ttcume, Itondon and Vtrginia, p. 67, fig. 6, 
no, 16 (btscuit, found near l'ickleherrtng); p. 71, 
fig. 7, no. 3 (glazed, unrecorded site); and p. 70 
n. 15 (bisecuit, Montague (lose site). For other 
(pctssible) candlestick fragments fr'om Pickle- 
herrtng IMark Brown's Wharf site), see Museum 
of ILoncdon, Southwark and Lambeth, p. 314, 
fig. 133, nos. 1339-1340. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D383. CANDLESTICK 
 
Henry Delamain's factory 
c. 1755-1760                                                            
      i 
 
H.. 9 1/4" (23 5 cm): Diam: 5 (12.7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall,                                       
          i 
excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Turned collars and 
spiral relief of shaft. Hollow base 
pierced at top to open into hollow 
shaft. 
DECORATION: Painted. Floral sprays. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                 Chis candlestick is virtially
identical, even in its dimensions, to opaque, 
                       ..... . g :white-glass candlesticks, somne in pairs,
probably made in South Staffordshire.' 
                              ~Where the glass examnples have spirally twisted
stems, the Longridge delftware 
            ";Icandlestick has surface decoration copying this technique
and showing that the 
            ~former type was the exemplar. A further pair of delftware candlesticks2
are of 
                        ~exactly the same shape and size and have decoration
by the same hand. This 
                    ! o rnamentation consists of sprays of flowers and leaves
painted in amost 
                                              unusual range of colors. Both
the painting style and palette are found on a num- 
            ~ber of pieces that can be shown to have been made in Ireland
at the Dublin 
                                               factory of Henry Delamain.;
A bowl dated 1756 has the same distinctive deco- 
                                               ration and colors and the
crest of the Vernor family of County Armogh.4 
                                               1. Rackham, Schreiber, vol.
3, no. 421 (pairn:  2. Archer comments 119981, citing example at 
                                               Charleston, Gilding the l~ily,
p. 7 and p. 22, 110 1  the Minneapolis Museum of Art. Steiner collec- 
                                               (pair); Co1lonial Williamlsburg
collection, tion. Mr. Archer provided much ol the 
                                               no. 1955-208 (stogie, tf.:
9" 22.9 cmli. For porte-  information lor this entry. 
                                               lain timitatting NorthI St
allordshttre enameled 
                                                                        
                 3. Archer, V&A, no. GU.1 
                                               white glass, see Rice, l)eirby.
no. 130. 
                                                                        
                 4. Rackhatm, Glaiisher, vol. t, 01). 1752. The howl 
                                                                        
                 wats sold Ii uom an Irish collectton to 1921. 
 
 
428 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
				
				
 
D384. BUTTON 
London 
Dated 1667 
 
Diam.: 1 3/4" (4.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly pinkish white. 
Probably overall originally. 
SHAPE: Probably shaped on wheel. 
Reverse now lacks its shank. 
DECORATION: Painted. Inscribed 
".T./j667 [1667]" within octagonal 
reserve. Border composed of graduated 
curves and foliate motifs. 
 
Published. Home, Collection, pt. 16, no. 447; 
Grigsby, Dated Longridge Delftware and Slip- 
ware, pp. 882-883, pl. 13. 
Excavated: Tooley Street, Southwark. 
 
 
D E L F T W A R E Miscellaneous and 
               Writing-Related Objects 
 
 
                                                                       Actual
size 
 
 
 [Delftware buttons may have been a less costly alternative to metalwork

 
 ones and, as they bear dates, perhaps were intended to indicate membership
or 
 grant the wearer admittance to places or meetings during a particular year.
The 
 Longridge button (not a waster) was recovered at Tooley Street, near South-

 wark's Pickleherring factory, and is one of only three recorded in English

 delftware., Another, painted in polychrome, is inscribed "1651(?)/IH"
and displays 
 a well-drawn lion rampant.2 The third was excavated to the north of the
Tower of 
 London (8-11 The Crescent EC3 site) and depicts a crowned queen's head,
perhaps 
 in reference to the Mercers' Company, whose arms include a related motif.3
The 
border on the button shown here closely resembles those around inscriptions

on a goblet dated 1655 and three porringers dated 1673 (see nos. D181, D182),

all probably from London.' 
 
 
I . For late 18th-century Lieges tin-glazed but- 
tons, see Cook, Buttons, p. 175, fig. 1. 
2. Archer, V&A, no. L.7 (also Lipski and Archer, 
Dated Delftware, no. 1773)1 
 
 
3. Horne, Collection, pt. 16, no. 447. 
4. Austin, Delft, p. 54, col. pl. 29, no. 81 (goblet); 
Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1235 (a 
third porringer), and, for a variation on a 1644 
dated bottle, no. 1286. 
 
 
430 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
DEL F TWA RE Miscellaneous and 
              Writing-Related Objects 
 
 
D385. CLOCKFACE 
Britain 
c. 1745 
 
 
H.: 3/8" (1 cm); 
Diam.: 7 5/8" (19.4 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly purplish white. 
Overall on front; reverse unglazed. 
SHAPE: Shaped (convex) slab with 
shallow rings on reverse from carving 
away, on the wheel, of excess material. 
DECORATION: Painted. Clockface 
with holes (off-center one cut after 
 
 
firing) for hands and winding. 
 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 16, no. 454. 
 
 
1. Horne, Collection, pt. 16, no. 454; Horne 
comments (January 1999). 
2. Atkins, Exhibition (1999), no. 24. 
3. Francis, Irish Creamware, pp. 404-405, 
no. 2. 
4. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
no. 1754; de Jonge, Dutch Tiles, pl. 11 5c 
(Utrecht, Central Museum). 
 
 
The example shown here is one of only two recorded British delftware dials

for working mechanical clocks; this one is for a shelf clock. The fact that
the 
lower hole was created after the Longridge dial was finished may indicate
that 
the piece originally was fitted to a twenty-four- or forty-eight-hour clock
(wound 
by weights) and later was used with a key-wound eight-day clock. The layout
of 
the numbers helps to date the dial fairly precisely to about 1745; later
dials typ- 
ically are more open in design and have fifteen-minute (rather than five-minute)

intervals indicated in the outer circle.1 Such a format is illustrated on
the sec- 
ond of the recorded delft dials, an arabic-numbered example that probably
dates 
to around 1800.2 
   The closest cousin to these dials may be a square tile that has the features
of 
a sundial painted in manganese and is inscribed "For lames Reily of
Carrickfer- 
gus 1765." The tile, attributed to Belfast in Ireland, is drilled for
the perpendicular 
mounts necessary to make the sundial usable. (Brass sundials of similar char-

acter also were made in Belfast at around the same date.)" A small delftware

model of a pocket watch is dated 1696, and a Dutch six-tile depiction of
a brack- 
et clock, painted in manganese with an hourglass, snakes, a bone, and a scythe,

is inscribed "UTRECHT A: TUREL 1775."1 
 
 
S/ 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 431 
 
 
I 
 
 
/ 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DEL F TWA RE Miscellaneous and 
              Writing-Related Objects 
 
 
D386. GAMING DISH 
London or Liverpool 
1750-1770 
 
 
H.: 1" (2.5 cm); 
Diam.: 10 1/4" (26 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Light turquoise. Pits and 
small poorly adhered patches on 
reverse. Overall, 
SHAPE: Probably thrown, with slab- 
constructed walls. Flat bottom without 
footrim. Triangular arrangement of 
small peg marks on upper edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Playing cards. 
Inscribed "Game." 
 
 
This dish, used to play a game called "Pope Joan," is one of two
delftware 
pieces in this collection that depict playing cards. (The other dish [no.
D1791 is 
for food service.) Another delftware Pope Joan dish resembles the one shown

here in shape and depicts in polychrome the same cards-including the "pope

card," or the nine of diamonds-against a bluish white ground.' Earlier
versions 
of the game were played on circular boards with eight, rather than six, sections;

the extra two were inscribed, respectively, "Intrigue" and "Matrimony."
A card 
deck of fifty-one (with the eight of diamonds removed) was used for the game.

The object was to win the most counters or chips.' English delftware game-relat-

ed wares are extremely rare and include a checkerboard inscribed "TS/1723."I

 
 
 
1. Hobson, British Museum, p. 146, fig. 110, 
no. E.145. 
2. Sotheby's iStimmers Place), March 19, 1997, 
lot 603. 
3. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 1774. 
For c. 1710 Dutch Delft gaming boards, see 
Pluis, Dutch Tile, p. 622. 
 
 
432 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
				
				
 
                                                                        
       DEL FTWA RE Miscellaneous and 
                                                                        
                    Writing-Related Objects 
D 3 8 7 . P O U N C E P O T                                             
        .. .. . ..... ............. . ...... 
 
London, Liverpool, or Bristol 
1730-1760 
H.: 2 1/2' (6.4 cm); Diam.: 2 7/8" (7.3 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pinkish to bluish white... 
Overall, excluding bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown and pierced. Deeply 
concave bottom..... 
DECORATION: Painted. Flowers and 
bird. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                        
                               Actual size 
 
               L'.nce, composed of ground fish bone, was sprinkled on paper
to prepare it 
                                         for smooth writing.1 Only two dated
delftware pounce pots are recorded: one is 
                                         of deeply waisted form with floral
and abstract borders and is inscribed 
                                         "WARE'HOUSE* 1728," presumably
to prevent its removal to other work sites 
                                         (just as the workers' modern counterparts
might abscond with pencils). The 
                                         other example, cylindrical and inscribed
"AG/1761," depicts a Chinese landscape 
                                         with buildings) The Longridge pounce
pot's ornament derives from earlier (sev- 
                                         enteenth-century) oriental designs;
the top's symmetrical flowers ultimately are 
                                         after Middle Eastern motifs and
relate to types on Chinese and Japanese porce- 
                         ~lain.) The painted ornament, its color, and the
vessel's shape indicate that the 
                         ~Longridge pounce pot is early in comparison to
examples of similar but more 
                         ~narrowly proportioned form.4 
                                         1. Ray, Warren, p. 174, no. 95.
           4. For examples depicting houses in landscapes, 
                                                  2. LpskiandArchr, DtedDelfcwar,
ns. 179, see Ray, Warren, p1. 49, no. 95; Sotheby's (I), Lip- 
                                                  2.kiLipski and Archer,0,
a9edDlott1ar.,Fnos.n1579, 
                                         1585. For ai probably Liverpool,
c. 1750 'Sandbox sksae1.Mrc1019,lo12.Frnewt 
                                                  S a n d C as erl "
  w   A t stin   D e~ t, n o. 6 5 9fl o w e rs,  se e  H o mn e ,  C o lle
c tio n ,  p t.  15 ,  n o .  4 3 0 . 
                                         3. Wilcoxen, Tulip Plate, p. 9,
fig. 2 IChinese 
                                         dish);: Ayers, hnpey, and Mallet,
Palaces, nos. 136, 
                                         154 (japanese vase and jar). 
 
 
434 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
                                                                        
                   DELFTWARE Miscellaneous and 
                                                                        
                                  Writing-Related Objects 
D388. "INK STAND" 
Probably Liverpool 
 
 
H.: 2 3/8" (6 cm); Diam.: 2 3/4" (7 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale greenish white with 
a few poorly adhered patches. Overall, 
excluding wide, uneven band around 
bottom edge. 
SHAPE: Thrown and pierced. Very 
slightly concave bottom with flattened 
edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Floral sprays. 
Inscribed "RW/J756 [1756]." 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Doted Delft- 
ware, no. 1584. 
 
 
Ex call: T G. Burn, Rous Lench.                                         
                                             Actual size 
 
 
                                               T  ho rlnrcrtinn nn this inlttnA
nknrc it nqnnna "qn7rlrnrln, -hmno" ,Arroc              n 
 
 
          la~                            ~ 6LX L              _a xXXLLX ,L
o Lx~x, LLC ~ zy ly vtt, It 
group that is well represented in this collection (see nos. D169, D329 D331).

Comparatively few Fazackerley-type pieces are dated, and these all bear floral

motifs. Two cylindrical mugs are inscribed, respectively, "T,F, 1757"
and 
"CF/1758," and two large baluster jugs, respectively, "RCI/1757"
and "William 
Rowland/1763." Punch bowls with 1757 to 1770 dates bear more elaborate
ded- 
ications.' 
   The earliest dated delft vessel resembling the Longridge one in shape
(but of 
lower proportions) is in blue and white and is inscribed "Mr Gilbert
Sale his Ink 
stand Novem ye 6 1751" in script.' Among other dated ceramic stands
made 
around this time are at least two Bow soft-paste porcelain ones inscribed
"MADE 
 
 
AT NEW CANTON 1750."' Dated, salt-glazed, white stoneware examples include

a fluted inkstand with a screw lid and, in scratch-brown, "Alex:Ready/Esq.r

1745"; scratch-blue square and cylindrical stands inscribed, respectively,
"S:C 
1760" and "WM 1761"; and an undated (1760s) enameled cylindrical
one depict- 
ing a man writing at a table. The bottom of a salt-glazed brown stoneware

version of tapering cylindrical form is incised "Feb,y 2th/1761/[G?]B,"
and the 
outer wall of a rare, double-walled tortoiseshell creamware example of rounded

form has the pierced inscription "April 16 1769."1 
 
1. lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 8:39  3. Palmer, Fisher Collection,
pl. 235 (1750 Bow); 
840 (mugs); tbr jugs, nos, 994, 996; lir bowls,  Tail, Bow, pl. 189b (1750
Bow); Gabszewicz and 
nos. 1165 1166 (one with a lady), 1169, 1181;   Freeman, Bow, no. 62 (undated
Bow): Honey, 
exterior view misnumhbered 1186 probably actu-  1948 ICC ( xhibiiion, pl.
109, nos. 475, 486 (Low- 
ally applies to entry no. 1207 (see also Brown  estofl); Brown and Lockett,
Iiverpool, no. 138 
and Lockelt, 1Liverpool, no. 13).         (Seth Peningion). 
2. Austin, Dlellf. no. 654. For an undated inkstand  4. colonial Williamsburg
collection, no. 1976-357 
depicting a Chinese tisherman, see Sotheby's (),l  (man at writing table);
1lorne, Collection, pt. 7, 
Lipski sale (2), November 17, 1981, lot 333.  no. 175 (1745, salt glaze):
pt. 19, no. 564 11761, 
                                          salt glaze); Grigsby, Weldon, nos,
63 (1760, salt 
                                          glaze), 134 (1769, creantware);
Atkins, Exhibition 
                                          (1999), no. 4 (1761 salt glaze
Ibrownl). 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 435 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                        
                DELFTWARE Miscellaneous and 
                                                                        
                               Writing-Related Objects 
D389. "INK STAND" 
 
Liverpool or perhaps Lancaster 
 
Dated 1764 
 
 
H.: 2 1/2" (6.4 cm); 
 
Diam.: 3 1/4" (8.3 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: Bluish white. Overall, 
 
excluding bottom edge, 
 
SHAPE: Thrown and pierced. Very 
slightly concave bottom with flattened 
edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Inscribed 
 
"William Whenett Lancafter J764 
 
[1764]." Borders composed of trellis and 
 
asterisk band with flowers and overlap- 
 
ping wavy lines. 
 
 
                                                                      Actual
size 
 nD 
 Dased on its glaze and painting style, this piece probably was produced
in 
 
 Liverpool, but there also is some evidence for delftware production at Lancaster-

 the placename on the Longridge inkstand-at about this time.' The lettering

 shows some similarity to that on a 1763 dated mug in this collection (no.
D268) 
 and is especially close to that on a small Liverpool jug. The jug is inscribed
"Suc- 
 cess to Sir William Meredith/And all his Plumpers Elizabeth Ormes 1761"
and 
 shows the very same type of W, i, and overstruck I in "William."
A heavily painted 
version of the overlapping wavy lines encircles at midheight a differently
shaped 
inkstand inscribed "S..B/August/26/1761."' The Longridge inkstand
is the latest 
dated delftware example yet recorded. 
 
 
1. Archer, V&A, p. 568. 
2. Brown and Lockett, Liverpool, no, 12. 
3. lipski and Archer, l)ated D)elftware, no. 1586. 
 
 
436 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
I . 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
--------- 
 
  

				
      
      
				
				
 
Apothecary and 
I Hygiene-Related Wares 
 
 
D390, D391, D392. STORAGE POTS 
 
(D390) Probably Netherlands 
 
1570-1620 
 
(D391) London or Netherlands 
 
1625-1650 
 
(D392) London 
 
1650-1700 
 
 
(D390) H.: 4 3/8" (11.1 cm); 
 
Diam.: 3" (7.6 cm) 
 
(D391) Hm: 5 1/8" (13 cm); 
 
Diam. (approximate): 3 5/8" (9.2 cm) 
 
(D392) H.: 5 1/4" (13.3 cm); 
 
Diam.: 6 1/2" (16.5 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Buff. (D390, D391) Fine- 
grained, (D391) with inclusions, (D392) 
 
medium-grained with inclusions. 
 
TIN GLAZE: (D390) Grayish white 
 
with speckling. (D391) Tannish white 
with brown-stained cracks and blue 
 
speckling; interior has small poorly 
 
adhered patches, especially near rim. 
 
(D392) White with greenish gray speck- 
 
ling. (All) Overall, excluding majorities 
of bottoms and chamfered rims and 
 
bases. 
 
S H A P E: Thrown, (D390, D391) Bottoms 
 
with curved, linear indications (more dis- 
 
tinct on D390) of removal from wheel 
 
with a wire. (D392) Clearly identifiable 
 
throwing rings on interior. Slightly con- 
 
cave bottom with roughly finished edge. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. (D390) Over- 
 
lapping zigzags. (D391) Diagonal lines 
with voids filled with graduated curves. 
 
(D392) "Eye" motifs and graduated 
 
curves. (All) Borders variously composed 
 
of horizontal lines and rows of dots. 
 
Published- Home, Collection, ptr 12, 
nos. 319-320. 
Excavated: (D390, D397) "These . were 
found in the vicinity of Little Britain, an area 
just outside the city walls at Aldersgate"' 
 
 
                                              Storage, Apothecary, Syrup,
and Ointment Pots 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Storage vessels of the type shown here sometimes were referred to in the
sev- 
enteenth and eighteenth centuries as gcllipots. They have origins traceable
to 
medieval Middle Eastern drug pots and have long been associated with apothe-

cary use, though there is no reason to suppose they did not also do service
as 
containers fbr other materials. Such pots were made in many sizes and appear

typically to have been sealed with leather, bound and shrunk to shape, or
with 
cloth, parchment, or paper coated with wax. 
    Many early English pots in this group are so like the Netherlandish ones
that 
inspired them as to make them difficult to attribute (see D390, D391). Waisted

versions, like the first example shown here (D390), have been excavated at
Lon- 
don consumer sites but are rare at production sites there, perhaps indicating

that many jars of this form were imported from the Continent." Tallish,
straight- 
sided small pots (see D391) often postdate the waisted ones and, like them,
display 
a broad range of geometric motifs. Such vessels have been found at several
Lon- 
don production and consumer sites. The bottom of one example froin the 
Pickleherring (Southwark) site is initialed "EB."' Waisted and
straight-sided early 
pots also occur among archaeological material from colonial sites in America.'

   The largest vessel shown here (D392) resembles versions illustrated arranged

on shelves in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century apothecary shop views.
Such 
pots may represent a type identified as "stall jars" in contemporary
documents.' 
In the 1700s, jars somewhat like this one (D392) also occasionally are depicted
in 
non-drug-related contexts.' The same form-widish with a waisted mouth and

base-has been widely excavated at production and domestic sites in London."
The 
"eye" motif on the Longridge pot (D392) is a somewhat less common
motif than 
the sets of graduated curves and bordering rows of dashes interspersed with
hor- 
izontal lines. The latter types of ornament are found on seventeenth- and

eighteenth-century pots of various profiles excavated in London and the colonies."

 
 
1. As per Horne, Collection, pt. 12, nos. 319 320. 
2. See Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 91; Drey, Apothecary 
Jars, pp. 22 23, pis. IC, ID (13th- or 14th-century 
Syrian albarelli). For 17th- and 18th-century 
English delft apothecary wares, see Crellin, Well- 
come, pp. 7-49; Archer, V&A, pp. 377-380, 
3. Ray, Warren, p. 11 n. 27, cites A New Collection 
of the Most Easy and Approved Methods of Preparing 
Baths, Essences... (London, 1787), p. 63: "cold 
cream or pomatumn for the collection [should be 
kept in a] large gallipot tied over with a blad- 
der." For (late) creamware or whiteware pots 
with paper or parchment covers, see Crellin, 
Wellcome, no. 204. 
 
 
4. Stephenson comments (September 1998). For a 
rare biscuit example (1571-1600) from the 
Aldgate production site, see Noel Hume, London 
and Virginia, p. 115, fig. XIX, no. 5. For waist dec- 
orations, see Crellin, Wellcome, p. 12, fig. 2. See 
Austin, Dellt, no. 415, fbr tour examples resem- 
bling Longridge no. 164 but excavated at Farm 
Street, Aldermanster (London). 
5. For examples from London sites, see Noel 
Hume, London and Virginia, pp. 59-66, 115, 
fig. XIX, nos. 6-7; Archer, V&A, no. J.2; Britton, 
London, nos. 18-24 (various profiles, nos. 21 and 
24 resembling Longridge no. D391 in border 
motifs). For other waisted and straight-sided 
examples, see Archer, V&A, nos. J.1, J.3-J.5; 
Grigsby, Chipstone, no. 91; Austin, Delft, 
nos. 416 417; Crellin, Wellcome, nos. 3, 186-188. 
 
 
438 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
6. For closest Pickleherring/Mark Brown's Wharf 
site examples, see Museum of London, South- 
wark and Lambeth, p. 325, fig. 138, no. 1370; 
p. 3:34, fig. 144, no. 1254 (initialed "F B.") 
 
7. Noel Hume, London and Virginia, col. pl. opp. 
p. 21; pp. 26-27, pls. 14-15 (Virginia sites); 
Austin, Delft, p. 17, fig. 8 (North Carolina site). 
 
8. Britton, Pickleherring, p. 91, in an analysis of 
the 1699 Pickleherring inventory refers to "stall 
jar" entries, stating that the name comes from the 
Dutch stallen, meaning "to put away" or to store. 
 
9. Charleston, English Glass, p. 99, pl. b (fron- 
tispiece from Tlie Workes of that famots Chimtrgion 
Amnbrose l'arev... [London, 16341); Archer, V&A, 
pp. 379 380, figs. 54 55 (c. 1788 painting of 
Thomias Dowland; Johann Zoffany's 1772 por- 
trait of lens maker "John Cuff and an Assistant"). 
See Burke and Caldwell, flogarth, no. 195, for a 
Marriage a la Mode scene (1745) of an apothe- 
cary's shop with wet and dry delft apothecary 
pots bearing painted simple ribbon labels. 
 
 
10. Britton, London, p. 68, figs. 9A (Vauxhall site, 
somewhat convex in profile), 22 23 (other London 
sites); Bloice, Norfolk House, p. 128, fig. 55, 
nos. 81-83, and p. 134, fig. 58, no. 75 (Norfolk 
House, Lambeth, the last example with the "eye" 
motif); Musenm of London, Southwark and LIam- 
beth, p. 354, fig. 155, nos. 1612 (129 Lambeth Road 
site); Thompson, Grew, and Schofield, Aldgate 
Excavations, p. 53, fig. 24, no. 105 (Aldgate Icon- 
sumer sitel). Archer, V&A, nos. J.6-J.7; Noel Hume, 
London and Virginia, p. 60, fig. Ill; p. 65, fig. V. A 
very late biscuit waster fragment with an 
impressed "Fortnum and Mason" mark was exca- 
vated at the Mortlake (near london) kiln site 
(ftorne comments )January 1999]). 
 
11. For pots from Pickleherring (Mark Brown's 
Wharf site), see Museum of London, Southwark 
and Lambeth, p. 322, fig. 135, nos. 1360-1361; 
p. :1325, fig. 138, nos. 1377 1378. Bloice, Norfolk 
House, p. 134, fig. 58 (Norfolk Hlouse, Lambeth). 
For pots excavated in Virginia, see Noel I tume, 
London and Virginia, col. pl. opp. p. 21; pp. 26- 
27, pls. 13-14; Austin, Delft, col. pl. p. 34; 
pp. 210 211. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 439 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D393. STORAGE POT 
 
 
Probably London 
If London, probably Aldgate or 
 
Southwark 
1600-1640 
 
H.: 10 1/4" (26 cm); 
Diam.: 7 1/4" (18.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, somewhat trans- 
 
parent and with bluish cast on interior. 
Overall, excluding upper edge and 
 
bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Concave bottom with 
narrow, flattened edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Scrolling vine 
with flowers, fruit, and leaves, Borders 
 
composed of (painted) fluting, horizon- 
tal lines, and rows of dots. 
 
Published. Archer and Morgan, China Dishes, 
no. 3. 
Ex colt.: B. and M Morgan. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Apothecary and 
               Hygiene-Related Wares 
 
Storage. Apothecary, Syrup. and Ointment Pots 
 
 
he scrolling floral vine on this boldly painted pot is derived from motifs
on Ital- 
ian tin-glazed earthenware that, in turn, had received decorative inspiration
from 
Iznik pottery. Such ornament, sometimes with the addition of pseudofluting,
also 
occurs on Netherlandish tin-glazed apothecary pots and other vessels.' A
closely 
related vine occurs on a jug that, based on its shape, has been associated
with the 
Aldgate factory.' The same bold painting style is demonstrated on a 1644
dated 
cylindrical tankard that was found in Southwark in Borough High Street.'
Pseu- 
dofluting occurs with a scrolling floral vine on an important "clapmash"
dish in 
the Longridge collection (no. D63). On that example the central reserve depicts

a boldly and competently painted scene of "Saint George and the Dragon"
with 
the inscription "IOHN AYERS/1637." (For simplified pseudofluting
on the base of 
a small, head-shaped flask, see no. D344.) 
    More softly colored vines occur with pseudofluting on several slightly
later 
large pots bearing Society of Apothecaries' arms, including one dated 1656
in 
the Longridge collection (no. D394). Like those vessels, the pot shown here
may 
originally have been used to store medicines. 
 
 
1. Archer and Morgan, China D)ishes, no. 3: I)rey, 
Apothecary jars, p. 36, pl. 8C (Montelupo, 16th 
century): p. 120, pls. 611361C (Htolland, 17th cen- 
tury). For Netherlandish examples, see Scholten, 
van llrechi, nos. 21 23; Korf, Majolica 1, pe 49, 
no. 11t l turst, Neal, and van Beuiningen, Pottery, 
p. 125, pl. 20, right (Netherlands pharmaceutical 
jog dated 1579). 
 
 
2. Noel Huome, london and Virginia, p. 113, 
pl 58 (Glaisher collection, no. 1291). 
3. Britton, London, no. 34. 
 
 
440 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
I 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Apothecaryand 
              Hygiene-Related Wares 
 
Storage, Apothecary, Syrup, and Ointment Pots 
 
 
H.: 14" (35.6 cm); 
Diam.: 12" (30.5 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White, with scattered 
pitting and yellowish glaze splashes 
(from another object during firing); 
slightly transparent on interior and with 
dense gray speckling. Overall, excluding 
upper edge and bottom. 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Arms of the 
Worshipful Society of Apothecaries 
with unicorn supporters and motto 
(dated) "OPI FER QVE PER ORBEM 
DICOR 1656" in reserve set against 
scrolling vine with flowers, fruit, and 
foliage. Borders composed of (painted) 
fluting, horizontal lines, and bands with 
dot clusters and lozenges. 
 
Probobly published' Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, no. 1593 ("Ownership unknown'). 
Ex colls.: Mrs. Radford, J. V Vizcarro; J, P 
Kassebaum. 
 
 
A 1617 Charter of Incorporation created the "Society of Apothecaries,"
one 
of only a few London guilds chartered as societies rather than companies,
and 
separated the London apothecaries from the Grocers' Company. The society
also 
was given the exclusive right (within seven miles of the city) to "make,
mix, com- 
pound, prepare, give, apply or administer any medicines." The College
of 
Heralds granted armorial bearings to the society in 1617, but it was not
until 
1620 that the apothecaries actually paid for them. The original grant reads:

 
      In a Shield azure, Apollo, the inventor of phisique, proper, with his

      heade Radiant, holding in his left hand a bowe and in his right 
      hande an Arow dor, supplanting a serpent argent, above the Shield 
      an Helme theruppon a mantle gules, doubled Argent, and for their 
      Creast uppon a Wreath of their Colours, a Rhynoceros [derived 
      from Albrecht Durer's 1515 woodcut] proper, supported by too 
      Unicorns or, armed and ungulated argent, uppon a Compartiment 
      to make the Atchievement compleat the motto, Opiferque per 
      orbem dicor.' 
 
   The motto is drawn from Ovid's Metamorphosis, in which Apollo describes

himself to Daphne: 
 
      The art of medicine is my discovery. I am called Help-Bringer through-

      out the world, and all the potency of herbs is given unto me.2 
 
   Large delftware pots with apothecaries' arms as well as apothecary tiles
bear- 
ing the arms (see no. D411) perhaps were used as shop signs: "2 window
potts" 
are listed with trade-related vessels in a 1666 London apothecary's shop
inven- 
tory.? The 1699 Pickleherring inventory includes an entry for "7 fine
window 
potts" under "White and Painted Perfect Ware." (Apothecary
wares make up 28 
percent of the total delftware in the inventory.)' 
   The vine and pseudofluting on the apothecary pot shown here have Conti-

nental origins and are conceptually similar to more boldly painted motifs
on an 
earlier storage pot also in this collection (see no. D393). Variations on
the vine 
occur on two other ovoid apothecaries' arms pots: the earliest is dated 1647
and 
has pseudofluted upper and lower banding but is without any border around
the 
arms; one dated 1663 lacks pseudofluting, but the arms are in a lobed reserve.,

The 1656 dated Longridge pot is most like the 1647 apothecaries' arms pot
in 
shape and decoration, and one undated pot (without arms) is similar in shape
and 
displays related flowers, fruit, pseudofluting, and other border motifs.6
The 1663 
apothecaries' arms pot and one dated 1658 (with floral and figural motifs
and 
pseudofluting) are without flaring bases.' Pseudofluting occurs on a 1632
dated 
mug or jug and on dishes with dates from the 1640s to 1660s.1 
 
 
D394. APOTHECARY POT 
 
 
London 
Dated 1656 
 
  

					
				
				
 
smaller. F or a discus'sion of size' antd usage of 
delffware apothecary vessels, see also Crellin, 
Medical Ceramlcks, pp. 192 196. 
 
 
4. ritiiton, l'ickleheirring, p. 70: Bl'it tol, Invento- 
ries, p. 61. 
 
 
5. For 1647 pot, see' 1,tthian, Pharimaceuctical 
Society, pls. la1 lb (Lipskt and Aircheir, Dated 
l)elltwate, no. 1592. neglectis io show the arms}. 
(,rigsby, ( hipstone, n00 92 (1663 pct). 
 
 
6. Austin, l)elft, n00 409. 
 
 
7. 1 ipski andl Archer, Dated D~elftware, no. 1594 
(dated 1658): no. 1669, for a 1724 dated examople 
with the arms hot otherwise in white. For 
undatedi apothec aries' arms pots difteirent in 
foirn andI dec orat ion, see IHoward, l)rug Jars, 
ront ispiec e, no. 7A; 1 oth ian, Arimorial, 
pp. 21--22, nos. 2a 2b, 3. 
 
 
8. I~tpski and Aichei, l)atecd Delftware, nos. 14 
(possibly Dlutch), 15, 30, 46, 710. 1(o1 a pseudo- 
finted plate dlepicting "Tohias and the Angel," 
see Grigshy, C'hipstone, not. 37. 
 
 
I! 
 
 
t 
 
 
1 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE Apothecary and 
               Hygiene-Related Wares 
 
 
Storage. Apothecary, Syrup, and Ointment Pots 
 
 
H.: 11 3/4"(29.8cm); 
Diam.. 101 12" (26.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained pale buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with slightly bluish 
cast, more pronounced on interior. 
Overall, excluding bottom. (Upper rim 
now glazeless, perhaps from wear.) 
SHAPE: Thrown. Flat bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted. Arms of the 
Society of Apothecaries with unicorn 
supporters and motto "OPIFER QuE 
PER:ORBEM DICOR" set among dragons, 
birds, flowering plants, vase of flowers, 
insects, asterisks. arabesques, and other 
curvilinear motifs. Borders composed 
of horizontal lines and decorative 
bands. flowers and leaves with asterisks, 
dots, and curvilinear motifs; scrollwork; 
and asterisks. 
 
 
  Che cheerfidlly painted decoration on this large alpothecary 1pot appears
to have 
 
no close parallels on vessels of this type and was drawn from a broad range
of 
seemingly unrelated design sources. Other inverted baluster-shaped pots that
bear 
the arms of the Society of Apothecaries include examples with Chinese figural

scenes and one that is blank, with the exception of the armns.' Based on
its colors 
the l~ongridge pot probably dates to the late seventeenth or early eighteenth

century. Although the palette is more typical of Bristol, it also was used
in L~ondon, 
and the arms (more crudely drawn than usual) are those of a London society.

 
 
1. I Iovvai (I, 1)rug J.n ~, IronilNpLec no 7A 
I ot hian, Armorial, pp 21 22, no~ 2 3, 5, 
An~nn ISili no 964 
2 I viden U I IJ( king toi ,pot hec~ii les' ~O let lC~ 
or COIt1I)d1IIU', Otlidde ondon 
 
 
444 The Longridge Collection 
 
 
D395. APOTHECARY POT 
Probably London 
1695-1715 
 
  

					
				
				
 
g 
 
 
'2/ 
 
 
o 
 
 
P 
 
  

					
				
				
 
DELFTWARE :Apothecary and 
               Hygiene-Related Wares 
 
Storage, Apothecary, Syrup, and Ointment Pots 
 
 
D396. SYRUP POT 
Probably London 
1620-1650 
 
 
H.: 6 3/4" (17.1 cm): 
Diam, (body): 4 5/8" (11.7 cm); 
Diam. (handle-spout): 71/4" (18.4 cm) 
 
BODY CLAY: Fine-grained medium 
buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Pale grayish blue with 
dense speckling, thinner on interior. 
Overall, excluding much of bottom 
(large, off-center glazed patch). 
SHAPE: Thrown (modern portions of 
nozzle and handle). Original handle 
probably was nearly flat with scrolled 
lower terminal. Bottom slightly concave 
and flattened near edge. 
DECORATION: Painted. Inscription 
"0 SAMPSVCHINVM" in cartouche with 
scrolls, ogee and bearded mask motifs, 
and rounded elements. 
 
Published: Home, Collection, pt. 16, no. 448. 
Excovoted: "Somewhere in Englond.' 
 
 
Apothecary pots of so nearly cylindrical form are mnuch less conmnon 
among English seventeenth-century delftware than Dutch tin glaze of the peri-

od. The bearded mask and scrolled cartouche combination also is known on

Dutch vessels, as is the type of ornament at the ends of the Longridge pot's

inscribed label.2 The surviving portion of the original handle on the vessel,
how- 
ever, is of a fairly typical English form, and the pot has a history of excavation

in England. Possibly it was made in London by one of the many immigrant 
craftsmen active there. 
   A more crudely drawn but related masked cartouche is a feature of a confi-

dently English apothecary pot of conventional "dry" (unspouted,
for ointments 
or dry medicines) form, cylindrical with rounded shoulders and base. That

vessel is possibly a waster) The group of English pots with the most closely

related ornament to the type shown here have "smoker" masks (see
no. D397), 
rather than lobing, at the ends of the cartouches. 
 
 
1. Horne, Collection, pt. 16, no. 448.         3. Horne comments January
1999); Horne to 
2. For English cylindrical pots, see Crellin, Well-  the author,January 28,
1999. 
come, nos. 27, 39 42 ("Apollo" and "songbird");  4. Britton,
London, no. 82. Horne notes that a 
Lothian, Apothecary Vessels, p. 7, nos. 38a 39  very similar cartouche to
the Britton type 
"sun" and "shell-and-cupid"). For Dutch invert-  occurs
on an apothecary pot with a high-waist- 
ed-baluster and cylindrical pots with bearded  ed foot and, probably, originally
a spout. The 
masks in scrolled cartouches, see Drey. Apothe-  pot, now in the Thackery
Medical Museum, 
cary Jars, p. 119, pls. 60C-60D. For late English  Leeds, was found near
Liverpool Street Station 
cylindrical examples, see Archer, V&A, no. K.11;  in London (Horne comments
[January 1999]). 
Austin. Delft, no. 303. 
 
 
446 The Longridge Collection 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D397. APOTHECARY POT 
London 
 
c. 1660 
 
 
H.: 8 3/8" (21.3 cm); 
Diam.: 5 1/8" (13 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
TIN GLAZE: Slightly pinkish white 
with gray speckling. Overall, exluding 
 
upper rim and bottom. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. Slightly concave bot- 
 
 
tom. 
DECORATION: Painted. "Pipe-smoker" 
 
pattern label. Inscribed "C:CICHOREI." A 
 
 
probably unintentional swipe curves 
 
 
across a portion of the right side of the 
 
 
label. 
 
 
Published: Atkins, Exhibition (1999), no. 17 
 
 
III 
 
 
he painted "pipe-smoker" motif on this apothecary jar is named
for the pipe- 
shaped, protruding tongue of masks of the type seen here at either end of
the 
inscribed panel. Versions of the masks also occur on several dated pieces:
mugs 
from, respectively, 1634, 1645, 1647, 1650, and 1658; a 1653 posset pot;
a 1655 
goblet; and apothecary pots from 1652 and 1665. Quite a number of undated

examples also are known, and an apothecary jar fragment with a striped version

of the pipe-smoker mask was excavated at Rotherhithe.) Based on its profile,
the 
Longridge pot dates to around 1660. A bearded mask and upper and lower 
border motifs comparable to those shown here also edge the inscribed band
of 
another Longridge apothecary jar (see no. D396) and are derived from Conti-

nental tin-glaze designs. 
    Conserva Chicorei, also known as confection of chicory, was a mild laxative

made by mixing the juice of the plant's leaves and root with sugar.' 
 
 
1. For mugs, see 1 ipski and Archer, Dated DeIt- 
ware, nos. 714, 724, 727, 729, 739; posset pot, 
no. 892. goblet, no. 870; apothecary pots, 
nos. 1595, 1612. See also 1)rey, Apothecary Jars, 
p. 131, pl. 67A; Lothian, Apothecary Vessels, p. 2, 
nos. 5 6 (one undated). 
 
 
2. Archer, V&A, no. K.I. See also undated 
versions in Austin, Delft. nos. 437 439; Crellin, 
Wellcome, nos. 10 12: lDrey, Apothecary Jars, 
p. 131, pl. 67B;, Howard, l)rug lars, pls. 1 2, 
nos. 2 3. 5s 
3.1 ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, p. 395. 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 447 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D398, D399, D400. SYRUP POT 
 
and APOTHECARY POTS 
 
Probably London 
 
(D398) Dated 1666 
 
(D399) Dated 1675 
 
(D400) Dated 1722 
 
 
(D398) H.: 6 5/8" (16.8 cm). 
 
Diam, (body): 5 3/4" (14.6 cm); 
 
Diam. (handle-spout): 7 1/2" (19.1 cm) 
 
(D399) H.: 3 5/8" (9.2 cm); 
 
Diam.: 3 1/8" (7.9 cm) 
 
(D400) H.: 8" (20.3 cm); 
 
Diam.: 6 3/8" (16.2 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained buff. 
 
TIN GLAZE: (D398) White with large 
 
patches of brown speckling and, on spout 
 
and handle tops, small wrinkled patches. 
 
Overall, excluding upper edge and bot- 
 
tom. (D399) White, slightly transparent 
 
with medium crazing. Overall, excluding 
 
bottom, (D400) White with slight blue 
 
and gray speckling and open crazing. 
 
Patches of pits where glaze poorly 
adhered. Overall, excluding bottom edge. 
 
SHAPE: Thrown. (D398) Annulated 
 
spout and handle, nearly flat on interior 
 
and concave with shoulder bump on 
 
exterior. (D398) Wide, nearly flat slab 
 
on bottom opens into hollow interior 
 
of base. (D399) Slightly concave bottom. 
 
(D400) Slightly concave bottom with 
 
flattened edge. 
 
DECORATION: Painted. Angel's head 
 
with outspread wings over double- 
 
folded ribbon with "crab-claw" ends. 
 
(D398) Inscribed "S:DE:PRASSIO," "J666 
 
[1666]," over paraph. (D399) Inscribed 
 
"T'ALHANDAL," "EP/J675 [1675]." (D400) 
 
Inscribed "u:NERVIN," "HM/J722 [1722]." 
 
Published. (All) Lipski and Archer, Dated 
Delftware, nos. 1615B, l636A, 1667 
(D398) Scott, Apothecaryjars, p. 55, fig. 4. 
(D399) Howard, Drug jars, pl. 6, no. 17 
Exhibited: (D400) Leeds Art Galleries, Leeds 
(Harding Loan). 
Ex cOlls.: (D399) T Boynton; G. E. Howard, 
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; 
T G. Burn, Rous Lench. (D400) W A. H. Hard 
ing j P Kassebaum. 
 
 
DELFTWARE Apothecary and 
               Hygiene-Related Wares 
 
Storage, Apothecary, Syrup, and Ointment Pots 
 
 
The "angel" motif-a wigged head between outspread wings, typically
above a 
double-folded ribbon label-was among the most popular decorations on English

delft apothecary pots and is known on examples with dates from 1660 to 1726.1

(For an unusual, undated angel salt'?), see no. D210.) The motif perhaps
derives 
from types on Italian maiolica that may have reached England on D)utch tin

glaze? Angels on English delft apothecary pots are painted in several very
diflfr- 
ent styles, indicating that they were made at more than one factory. Like

examples bearing other motifs, angel pots were made both for domestic and

export markets; a blue and white "dry" pot was excavated in Williamsburg,
Vir- 
ginia, behind the Scrivener Store and Alexander Craig House. 
    The 1666 dated pot (D398) is one of four similarly dated and decorated
exam- 
ples (each bearing a different drug name) that probably originally formed
a set. 
"S:DE'PRASSIO" is an abbreviation of Syrupus de Prassio, or syrup
of horehound, 
named for a leaf that was combined with licorice, spices, raisins, honey,
and 
other ingredients. The mixture was used to medicate sore throats and bronchi-

tis. This pot is of the same date as a London apothecary inventory that,
along 
with entries for glass vessels and storage boxes, includes "severall
syrlup) potts 
& juggs ... thirteen syr bottles in the counter ... twenty oyntmt potts
... oyle 
potts ... 124) pill pots."' The author of the 1657 tract Renodeus his
dispensatory, con- 
taining the whole body of pharmacy, recommends as syrup containers "capruncles

all of potters clay white and smooth within, with a handle on one side and
a 
tube on the other ... adorned with various colors and shapes."' 
   The small pill pot shown here (D399) is inscribed "T:ALHANDAL,"
for a purga- 
tive called Trochisci Alhandalae (or colocynth lozenges). The inscription
"u:NERVIN" 
on the 1722 jug (D400) is an abbreviation of Unguentum Nervinum, an ointment

applied to fortify the nerves.7 The inscriptions on these pots support the
theory 
that spouts are included on vessels intended for 'Wet" medicaments and
not on 
those intended to contain "dry," or nonliquid, materials. 
   Two very rare slipware angel apothecary pots, probably from a single set,
are 
dated 1692 and show the angel's head supported on a winged, skinny neck.
The 
inscribed panels are in a geometric, rather than a ribbon, format. Unlike
the 
slipware angel pots, the existence of a large number of delftware examples

painted in different styles indicates that several factories produced them.

 
 
1. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, nos. 1599 
1667 passim; Christie's (L), February 10, 1986, 
lot 7 For many examples painted in several 
styles, see Lothian, Angels; Lothian, Apothecary 
Vessels, pp. 2 5, nos. 8, 9c, 14 22a, 23 24c. 
2. For winged heads above labels on apothecary 
jars, see lrey, Apothecary Jars, p. 41, pl. 12B 
(probably Deruta, dated 1524); pp. 92-93, 
pis. 44A&C (France, c. 1700); pp. 118 119, 
pls. 60C 601) (probably Holland, 1st and 2nd 
quarters 17th century); Crellin, Wellcome, 
no- 157 (lHolland, 17th century). 
3. Austin, Djelft, p. 213 lexcavated angel pot): 
nos. 441-458 (other angel pots); pp. 209 -211, 
213, 218, 227 228 (other Willianmsbutrg-excavated 
apothecary pots). 
 
 
4. l~ipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, no. 161513, 
p. 309. Fromn ancient times through at least the 
17th century, prassio (or prassium) also was 
known as iiainitium. 
5. Crellin, Medical Ceramics, p. 194 n. 1. 
6. Lewis and Boorman, Winchester Pharmacy, 
p. 135. 
7. Lipski and Archer, Dated Delftware, 
pp. 401--402. 
 
8. Grigsby, Weldon, no. 77 (":V:NICOTIANA:/1692"), 
also illustrating one ("V:RVB:DESIC'C:/1692") frtom 
the lioresham Museum Society and the Hore- 
sham Museum, West Sussex. 
 
  

					
				
				
 
D)398, I)399, 1400 
 
 
D)398, ID399, D)400 
 
 
The Longridge Collection 449 
 
  

					
				
				
 
 
 
 
DELFTWARE Apothecary and 
               Hygiene- Relate.d Wares 
 
Storage, Apothecary, Syrup, and Ointment Pots 
 
 
D401. APOTHECARY POT 
 
London 
 
Dated 1662 
 
 
H.: 7 5/8" (19.4 cm); 
 
Diam.: 5 3/8" (13.7 cm) 
 
 
BODY CLAY: Medium-grained pinkish 
 
buff. 
TIN GLAZE: White with open crazing, 
 
interior with dense gray speckling. Dur- 
 
ing firing, wall lost large glaze patch and 
 
acquired large drip. Overall, excluding 
 
most of rim and all of bottom, 
SHAPE: Thrown. Slightly concave 
 
bottom. 
DECORATION: Painted, Twice-folded 
ribbon inscribed "V:AREGON" over 
 
"HH/1662." Bottom bears blue slashes, 
 
perhaps from cleaning brush, 
 
Published: Lipski and Archer, Dated Delft- 
wore, no. 1605D. 
Ex coils.: Mrs. Radford,;J. V. Vizcorrao J P 
Kasseboum. 
 
 
 
1. Charleston, English Glass, p. 99, pl. b 
(frontispiece from The Workes oj'that.famous 
Chirurgion Ambrose Parey ... lLondon, 16341); 
Lothian, Ar