The war on terror did not start after 9/11, rather its origins must be traced back much further to the Reagan administration and the 1980s. Utilizing recently declassified archival resources, Toaldo offers an in-depth analysis of how ideas and threat perceptions were shaped both by traditional US policy in the Middle East during the Cold War and by the cooperation with the Israeli right. The book examines two case studies of American intervention in the region and of its reactions to terrorism: Lebanon between 1982 and 1984 and Libya from 1981 to 1986. The first encounter with Hizbullah and
Cover; The Origins of the Us War on Terror: Lebanon, Libya and American Intervention in the Middle East; Copyright; Contents; Acknowledgements; Introduction: Revolutions; 1979, Revolutions and Invasions in the Greater Middle East; America's Strategic Shift; Carter's Revival of the Cold War; The Reagan Revolution; Reagan's Global Cold War; 1. Crucial Relations; US Policy in the Middle East During the Cold War; The Roots of the Lebanese Civil War and of US Intervention; Modernization Theories and the Rise of Qadhafi; The US-Israel Special Relationship; 2. Lebanon, Attack and Withdrawal
The Beginning of the US Involvement in LebanonThe Missing Red Light; The Invasion; The Slippery Slope; 3. Defining the Fight Against Terrorism; Facing New Enemies; Retaliation?; The Road to Withdrawal; The Shultz Doctrine and Nsdd 138; Enters Benjamin Netanyahu; 1985, the Annus Horribilis; The Bush Task Force on Combating Terrorism; 4. Libya: Pre-Strikes and Regime Change; Terrorism as Part of the Global Cold War; The First Confrontation in 1981 and 1982; The Flower Plan: Regime Change in Libya?; Christmas Shootings (And Military Planning); The Model Strike; The Last Attempt at Regime Change
Conclusions: Between the Cold War and the Global War on TerrorContinuities with US Policy in the Middle East During the Cold War; A Changed World: Political Islam, New Wars and the 'Age of Risk'; The Reagan Legacy and Bush's War on Terror; Making Sense of the Present Through the Past; Notes; References; Index
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