Questions concerning free will are intertwined with issues in almost every area of philosophy, from metaphysics to philosophy of mind to moral philosophy, and are also informed by work in different areas of science (principally physics, neuroscience and social psychology). Free will is also a perennial concern of serious thinkers in theology and in non-western traditions. Because free will can be approached from so many different perspectives and has implications for so many debates, a comprehensive survey needs to encompass an enormous range of approaches. This book is the first to draw together leading experts on every aspect of free will, from those who are central to the current philosophical debates, to non-western perspectives, to scientific contributions and to those who know the rich history of the subject. Its 61 chapters, commissioned especially for this volume from the world's leading researchers, are framed by a General Introduction and briefer introductions for each of the six sections. A list of References, an annotated Suggested Reading list, and a short list of Related Topics are included at the end of each chapter.
Section I : major positions in the free will debate. Semicompatibilism / John Martin Fischer ; Identificationist views / Agnieszka Jaworska ; Reasons-responsive theories of freedom / Michael McKenna ; Classical compatibilism / Bernard Berofsky ; Dispositional compatibilism / Kadri Vihvelin ; Event-causal libertarianism / Laura W. Ekstrom ; Agent causation / Meghan Griffith ; Non-causal libertarianism / Hugh J. McCann ; Free will and moral sentiments : Strawsonian theories / Paul Russell ; Revisionism / Kelly McCormick ; Skeptical views about free will / Derk Pereboom ; Nonstandard views / Saul Smilansky -- Section II : major arguments. The consequence argument / Joe Campbell ; The manipulation argument / Kristin Mickelson ; Frankfurt-style examples / Carolina Sartorio ; Logical fatalism / Alicia Finch ; The luck and mind arguments / Christopher Evan Franklin ; Leeway vs. Sourcehood conceptions of free will / Kevin Timpe -- Section III : historical figures. Aristotle / Karen Margrethe Nielsen ; The stoics on fate and freedom / Tim O'Keefe ; Augustine on Hippo / Jesse Couenhoven ; Anselm of Caterbury / Sandra Visser ; Thomas Aquinas / Harm Goris ; John Duns Scotus / Thomas Williams ; Rene Descartes / C.P. Ragland ; Gottfried Leibniz / Julia Jorati ; Thomas Hobbes and John Bramhall / A.P. Martinich ; John Locke / Antonia Lolorado ; David Hume / John Bricke ; Thomas Reid / Terence Cuneo and Randall Harp ; Immanuel Kant / Benjamin Vilhauer ; Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel / Christopher Yeomans ; Friedrich Nietzsche / Mattia Riccardi ; Chinese perspectives on free will / Kai Marchal and Christian Helmut Wenzel ; Free will and freedom in Indian philosophies / Arindam Chakrabarti -- Section IV : empirical and scientific work. Situationism, social psychology, and free will / Christian B. Miller ; Neuroscientific threats to free will / Joshua Shepherd ; Empirical perspectives on consciousness and its relationship to free will and moral responsibility / Neil Levy ; Willpower, freedom, and responsibility / Chandra Sripada ; Addiction / Hanna Pickard ; Folk intuitions / Adam Feltz ; Born free? : Children's intuitions about choice / Adam Bear and Paul Bloom -- Section V : free will and theology. Free will and the problem of evil / Daniel Speak ; Free will and theological fatalism / David P. Hunt ; Free will and theological determinism / Leigh Vicens ; Free will and substance dualism / Stewart Goetz ; Free will and grace / Timothy Pawl ; Free will and providence / Ken Perszyk ; Divine free will / T.J. Mawson -- Section VI : special topics. Self-control and akrasia / Christiane Tappolet ; Free will and criminal law / Erin Kelly ; Deliberation / E.J. Coffman ; Blame / Dana Kay Nelkin ; The relationship between moral responsibility and freedom / Benjamin Rossi and Ted A. Warfield ; A feminist approach to moral responsibility / Marina Oshana ; Free will and the phenomenology of agency / Tim Bayne ; Mental causation / Rebekah L.H. Rice ; Marginal agents and responsibility pluralism / David Shoemaker ; Determinism / Charlotte Werndl ; Free will and time travel / Neal A. Tognazzini