Includes bibliographical references (pages 303-317) and index.
Smugglers needed. Options in exile ; Seeking asylum : rights and privileges ; Smuggler or savior -- Smugglers Inc. A transnational crime ; The business model of human smuggling -- Structure and design. In on the ground floor ; The logisticians ; Moving money ; Forging a new identity -- Routes. Central Mediterranean route ; Aegean route through Turkey -- Libya : out of Africa. Criminal economies in Libya and the greater Sahara ; Syrian dollars on Libyan shores ; Mare Nostrum changes the game ; Extortion and abuse -- Egypt : the north coast. The long trip to Italy ; Cooperation and complicity -- Desert highway : Agadez and the Sahel. Understanding the Sahel ; Niger, Agadez, and the West ; New masters ; Everybody is eating -- Turkey : the crossroads. Izmir ; The mob : criminal markets consolidation ; The $6 billion question -- Schengen and beyond. Cracks in the fortress ; Greek tragedy ; Balkan odyssey ; Dead ends of Europe -- The world we live in ; Postcards from the front ; Wider ramifications ; Closing an industry : supply and demand ; Messaging to the market ; Diplomatic solutions ; Vested interests ; On the demand side