"E-Learning by Design provides a comprehensive, detailed look at the concepts and processes of developing, creating and implementing a successful e-Learning program. Horton's practical, down-to-earth approach offers clear information and instruction without over simplifying. Readers will learn to build customized e-Learning programs from scratch, building on core principles of instructional design to:[bullet] develop meaningful activities and lessons[bullet] create and administer online tests and assessments[bullet] design learning games and simulations, and[bullet] effectively implement an individualized program. The second edition will feature chapter-by-chapter revisions and add new sections and updates that address: new delivery technologies, including social networking, mobile learning, and the use of other new mobile devices; learning from available content; repurposing content; setting and following quality Standards, a revised Catalyst Model and Examples, How We Will Learn Model and Examples, and designing for International and Multi-cultural Audiences, as well as all-new contemporary case studies, examples, and activities. New edition will also include two free online resources: a downloadable instructor's manual, and a premium content site featuring additional examples and case studies, tools and resources"--Provided by publisher.
Machine generated contents note: 1.Designing e-learning -- What is e-learning? -- Definition of e-learning -- Varieties of e-learning -- What is e-learning design? -- Start with good instructional design -- Apply design to all units of e-learning -- Design quickly and reliably -- Identify your underlying goal -- Analyze learners' needs and abilities -- Identify what to teach -- Set learning objectives -- Identify prerequisites -- Pick the approach to meet each objective -- Decide the teaching sequence of your objectives -- Create objects to accomplish objectives -- Create tests -- Select learning activities -- Choose media -- Then redesign again and again -- Re-design but do not repeat -- Not your sequential ADDIE process -- Make steady progress -- In closing ... -- Summary -- For more ... -- 2.Absorb-type activities -- About Absorb activities -- Common types of Absorb activities -- When to feature Absorb activities -- Presentations -- About presentations -- Types of presentations -- Best practices for presentations -- Extend presentation activities -- Readings -- About reading activities -- Assign individual documents -- Create an online library -- Rely on Internet resources -- Best practices for reading activities -- Extend reading activities -- Stories by a teacher -- About sharing stories -- Tell stories that apply to learners -- Best practices for stories by a teacher -- Extend stories by a teacher -- Field trips -- About field trips -- Guided tours -- Virtual museums -- Best practices for field trips -- Extend field-trip activities -- In closing ... -- Summary -- Pick Absorb activities to accomplish objectives -- For more ... -- 3.Do-type activities -- About Do activities -- Common types of Do activities -- When to feature Do activities -- Practice activities -- About practice activities -- Drill-and-practice activities -- Hands-on activities -- Guided-analysis activities -- Best practices for practice activities -- Extend practice activities -- Discovery activities -- About discovery activities -- Virtual-laboratory activities -- Case studies -- Best practices for discovery activities -- Extend discovery activities -- Games and simulations -- Use games as single activities -- Extend game activities -- In closing ... -- Summary -- Pick Do activity to accomplish learning objective -- For more ... -- 4.Connect-type activities -- About Connect activities -- Common types of Connect activities -- When to feature Connect activities -- Ponder activities -- About ponder activities -- Rhetorical questions -- Meditation activities -- Cite-example activities -- Evaluation activities -- Summary activities -- Extend ponder activities -- Questioning activities -- Why use questioning activities? -- Encourage learners to ask the right people -- Encourage good questions -- Insist on good answers -- Best practices in questioning activities -- Mechanism for asking questions -- Enable questioning at the right time -- Assess learners and learning -- Extend questioning activities -- Stories by learners -- Have learners tell stories -- Good stories are hard to tell -- Evaluate storytelling fairly -- Best practices for storytelling activities -- Extend storytelling activities -- Job aids -- About job aids -- Glossaries -- Calculators -- E-consultants -- Best practices for job aids -- Extend job aids -- Research activities -- About research activities -- Scavenger hunts -- Guided research -- Best practices for research activities -- Extend research activities -- Original-work activities -- About original-work activities -- Decision activities -- Work-document activities -- Journal activities -- Best practices for original-work activities -- Extend original-work activities -- In closing ... -- Summary -- Pick Connect activities to accomplish learning objectives -- For more ... -- 5.Tests -- Decide why you are testing -- When are formal tests needed? -- Why are you testing? -- What do you hope to accomplish? -- What do you want to measure? -- Measure accomplishment of objectives -- Select the right type of "question" -- Consider the type question you need -- Common types of test questions -- True/false questions -- Pick-one questions -- Pick-multiple questions -- Fill-in-the-blanks questions -- Matching-list questions -- Sequence-type questions -- Composition questions -- Performance questions -- Pick type question by type objective -- Write effective questions -- Follow the standard question format -- Ask questions simply and directly -- Make answering meaningful -- Challenge test-takers -- Combine questions effectively -- Ask enough questions -- Make sure one question does not answer another -- Sequence test questions effectively -- Vary the form of questions and answers -- Give significant feedback -- Report test scores simply -- Provide complete information -- Gently correct wrong answers -- Avoid wimpy feedback -- Give feedback at the right time -- Advance your testing -- Hint first -- Use advanced testing capabilities -- Monitor results -- Make tests fair to all learners -- Test early and often -- Set the right passing score -- Define a scale of grades -- Pre-test to propel learners -- Explain the test -- Prepare learners to take the test -- Keep learners in control -- Consider alternatives to formal tests -- Use more than formal, graded tests -- Help learners build portfolios -- Have learners collect tokens -- Adapt testing to social learning -- Adapt testing to mobile learning -- In closing ... -- Summary -- For more ... -- 6.Topics -- What are topics? -- Topics are learning objects -- Examples of topics -- Anatomy of a topic -- Design the components of the topic -- Title the topic -- Introduce the topic -- Test learning in the topic -- Specify learning activities for the topic -- Summarize the topic -- Link to related material -- Write metadata -- Design components logically and economically -- Design reusable topics -- Craft recombinant building blocks -- Design consistent topics -- Avoid the "as-shown-above" syndrome -- Integrate foreign modules -- Example of a docking module -- What to include in a docking module -- In closing ... -- Summary -- Templates for topics -- For more ..
-- 7.Games and simulations -- Games and simulations for learning -- Example of a learning game -- How are games, tests, and simulations related? -- Do you call it a game or a simulation? -- Demos are not true simulations -- How do games and simulations work? -- What do we mean design? -- Why games? -- What can games do for us? -- When to use games -- Types of learning games -- Quiz-show games -- Word games -- Jigsaw puzzles -- Branching scenarios -- Task simulations -- Personal-response simulations -- Environmental simulations -- Immersive role-playing games -- Design games for learning -- Design to accomplish learning objectives -- Express the goal as a specific task -- Pick the right sized game -- Emphasize learning, not just doing -- Specify challenge and motivation -- Manage competitiveness -- Provide multiple ways to learn -- Create a micro-world -- Specify the game's world -- Specify characters and important objects -- Create a storyline -- Create a back story -- Specify the game structure -- Assign the learner's role -- Make the game meaningfully realistic -- Specify rules of the game -- Design a rich, realistic environment -- Provide a deep, unifying challenge -- Define indicators of game state and feedback -- Specify the details -- Sketch out the user interface -- Write the words -- Specify the graphical style -- Specify other media -- Engage learners -- Hook the learner -- Ask learners to suspend disbelief -- Set the context -- Provide real-world prompting and support -- Present solvable problems -- Adapt to the learner's needs -- Challenge with time limits -- Let learners try multiple strategies -- Program variety into the game -- Involve the learner -- Teach through feedback -- Provide intrinsic feedback -- Inject educational feedback where needed -- Provide continual feedback -- But give crucial feedback immediately -- Confront bad behavior and choices -- Defer lengthy feedback -- Anticipate feedback (feedforward?) -- Enable learning through a variety of experiences -- Provide complete, detailed feedback -- Help learners correct mistakes -- Offer abundant practice -- Acknowledge achievement -- Progressively challenge learners -- Challenge learners -- Ratchet up the challenge -- Give closure between phases -- Control the rhythm of difficulty -- Require consolidating small steps -- Manage game complexity -- Beware combinatorial explosion -- Menu excursions -- Mission-sequential structure -- Short-leash strategy -- Safari structure -- Breakthrough structure -- Simplify learning the game -- Guide actions with instructions -- Explain the game clearly -- Start with training wheels -- Assist when needed -- Show solution after a few attempts -- Let learners request assistance -- Include pertinent hints -- Simplify the display for quick response -- Minimize distractions -- Accept all successful actions -- Design coached task simulations -- Plan progressive interactivity -- Architecture of coach-me activities -- Let the learner control coaching -- Design branching-scenario games -- Harvest storyline ideas -- Pick a situation -- Map objectives to scenes -- Derive specific objectives to teach -- Translate objectives to a story -- Specify each scene -- Thread together the scenes -- Add context-setting scenes -- Use games as e-learning courses -- In closing ... -- Summary -- For more ... -- 8.Social learning -- What is social learning? -- A definition, sort of -- So what? -- Consider the varieties of social learning -- What is not social learning? -- What is the group? -- How do we "design" social learning? -- What do we mean by design? -- The role of the designer -- Decide where and when to use social learning -- Make learning more reliable -- Make learning more enjoyable -- Teach difficult subjects
Note continued: Implement learning quickly and inexpensively -- Build a network to support the learning in the future -- What social learning requires -- What is required of learners -- What is required of the organization -- Patterns of interaction -- The elements of social learning -- Combine patterns for complete activities -- Social capabilities of software -- Send targeted messages -- Meet real-time -- Discuss asynchronously -- Broadcast sporadic messages -- Post message sequences -- Collaboratively create documents -- Share creations -- Vote and rate -- Filter messages -- Establish a point of contact -- Set up and administer a team or other group -- Facilitate rather than teach -- Define the duties of the facilitator -- Establish a code of conduct -- Intervene in cases of bad behavior -- Grade fairly in social learning -- Assess against objectives -- Use available evidence -- Ways to assess learners -- Set criteria for messages and posts -- Or, forego individual assessment -- Extend conventional activities for social learning -- Extend Absorb activities for social learning -- Extend Do activities for social learning -- Extend Connect activities for social learning -- Use proven social activities -- Share what you learn -- Back channel for presentations -- Brainstorming activities -- Team-task activities -- Role-playing scenarios -- Comparison activities -- Group-critique activities -- Encourage meaningful discussions -- Design discussion activities -- Ensure learners have necessary skills -- Moderate discussion activities -- Perform message maintenance -- Promote team learning -- Meet the requirements of a successful team -- Form a team from individuals -- Align goals of team members -- Learn who can do what -- Adopt team roles -- Pick a leader, at least to start -- Team processes -- Set norms of behavior -- Team warm-up activities -- Fade out support -- Design activities for teams -- Engage in open inquiry -- In closing ... -- Summary -- For more ... -- 9.Mobile learning -- What is mobile learning? -- Start with worthy goals -- Learn from the whole world -- Take advantage of teachable moments -- Teach in the context of application -- Teach "outdoor" subjects -- Make learning healthier -- Learn more of the time -- Enable virtual attendance -- Reduce infrastructure costs -- Prepare for an increasingly mobile world -- Adapt existing learning for mobile learners -- Enable participation in classroom learning -- Accommodate mobile learners in the virtual classroom -- Let mobile learners take standalone e-learning -- Make social learning mobile -- Performance support -- Use the capabilities of the device -- Design for the learner, environment, and device -- Design for the mobile learner -- Design for the environment where learning occurs -- Design for the mobile device -- Design guidelines for overcoming limitations -- Design for easy reading -- Maintain contact with learners -- Design for the devices learners already have -- Use learners' time efficiently -- Fit text and graphics to the display -- Provide low-bandwidth alternatives -- Design for imperfect network connections -- Enable "download and go" -- Simplify entering text -- Follow established user-interface guidelines -- Remember, paper is a mobile device -- Reuse existing content -- Real mobile learning -- Mobile discovery learning -- Distance apprenticeship program -- Architecture tour -- Inject mobile activities into other forms of learning -- Extend conventional activities for mobile learning -- Extend Absorb activities for mobile learning -- Extend Do activities for mobile learning -- Extend Connect activities for mobile learning -- In closing ... -- Summary -- For more ... -- 10.Design for the virtual classroom -- Create a virtual classroom -- Why create a virtual classroom? -- What are Webinars and virtual-classroom courses? -- Decide whether you need a live meeting -- Select and use collaboration tools -- Select your collaboration tools -- Slide shows -- Breakout rooms -- Conduct online meetings -- Plan the meeting -- Prepare for the meeting -- Announce the meeting -- Manage the live online meeting -- Activate meetings -- Include follow-up activities -- Design Webinars -- When to use Webinars -- Pick activities to teach -- Design virtual-classroom courses -- Select a qualified teacher -- Teach the class, don't just let it happen -- Plan predictable learning cycles -- Respond to learners -- Provide complete instructions -- Simplify tasks for learners -- Deal with problem learners -- Follow up after the course -- In closing ... -- Summary -- For more ... -- 11.Conclusion -- How we will learn -- Where we are headed -- How we will get there -- What has to happen -- Secrets of e-learning design -- Just the beginning -- APPENDIX ESSENTIALISM -- Essential essentialism -- Set up the test -- Supervise the test -- The role of test subjects -- The role of the expert -- Role of the test conductor -- Analyze test results -- Record needed learning -- Identify the learning approach -- Infer design principles -- Make testing better -- Overcome the Hawthorne effect -- Leave the lab-coat behind -- Test a twosome -- Provide all real resources -- Reassure test subjects -- Watch the video fully -- Conduct enough tests -- Pick valid test subjects -- Recap: Master the essentials of essentialism
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