Protest and Division

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  • The Renaissance led to a period of cultural greatness for the Church, but it also reached a pit of spiritual degradation. This film examines the reign of Pope Alexander VI, the Borgia pope. Despite rampant nepotism on behalf of his seven known children, Alexander is said by some to have gotten a bad rap. Known for his patronage of the arts - Raphael and Michelangelo both worked for him - it was also said that he purchased the job of pope for himself. Wherever the truths lie, his Papacy led directly to the Reformation, the Counter-Reformation, and plunged Europe into religious wars.


  • Encoded with permission for digital streaming by Films Media Group on September 08, 2013.
  • Films on Demand is distributed by Films Media Group for Films for the Humanities & Sciences, Cambridge Educational, Meridian Education, and Shopware.
  • Mode of access: Internet.
  • System requirements: FOD playback platform.


  • Rome's Decay and Transformation (2:12) -- Unscrupulous Renaissance Rome (3:16) -- Ideology Behind Sistine Chapel (2:41) -- Papacy and the Renaissance (1:45) -- Erasmus (2:22) -- Luther (0:59) -- Luther and Indulgences (3:07) -- Charles V Sacks Rome (2:53) -- Henry VIII Breaks with Rome (2:39) -- Rome and the New World (1:52) -- Reason for Council of Trent (2:07) -- Loyola (0:59) -- Reign of Terror under Paul IV (1:18) -- Council of Trent's Results (2:01) -- Sixtus VI (2:31) -- Philip II of Spain (3:16) -- Philip II on World Stage (0:43) -- Philippines Converted (1:54) -- Papacy's Attitude Toward Astronomy (2:39) -- Polarization of Church and Science (2:01) -- Weakening Papacy (2:01) -- Church-State Power Struggle (1:53) -- Destruction of Jesuits and State Supremacy (1:26) -- Credits: Protest and Division: Saints and Sinners- The History of the Popes (1:12)
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