The book contributes to answering the questions raised by mayors, governors, and federal government officials in Brazil: "What can cities do to improve economic performance and create jobs?" The question is approached through a review of theories and policy options for city competitiveness, preliminary benchmarking of Brazilian cities.The book concludes that to become and stay competitive, cities need to strive to reduce the cost of doing business by improving services, infrastructure, and reducing bureaucracies. But for a middle-income country like Brazil, which needs to be economically compete
Contents; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; Executive Summary; Figure 1 Key Drivers of City Competitiveness and Their Interlinkages; Figure 2 Cariri Footwear Cluster; Figure 3 The Cluster Working Group Process; Chapter 1 What Makes Cities Competitive? A Selective Review of Theories and International Experiences; Figure 1.1 Key Drivers of City Competitiveness and Their Interlinkages; Table 1.1 Mechanisms for the Transmission of Knowledge Spillovers; Figure 1.2 Channels of Human Capital Contribution to a City's Competitive Advantage
Figure 1.3 Theoretical Relationships between Local Competition and Competitive Advantage Figure 1.4 Primary Determinants of Cluster Competitiveness in Developing and Developed Countries; Table 1.2 Different Forms of Investment and Their Relationship to City Competitiveness; Chapter 2 What Can Cities Do to Enhance Competitiveness? Local Policies and Actions for Innovation; Figure 2.1 Detecting Local Economic Clusters: Using Location Quotient and Employment Growth Rate; Figure 2.2 The Napa Wine Cluster; Table 2.1 Different Policies for Different Cluster Types
Figure 2.3 The Cluster Working Group Process Box 2.1 Marketing and Branding Geographically Based Products: Chianti Classico, Siena, Italy; Box 2.2 Value Chain Integration: The Electronics Industry in Guadalajara, Mexico; Box 2.3 Linking Small Enterprises into Existing Supply Chains: Footwear Development in Rio Grande do Sul; Box 2.4 Creating State Entrepreneurship Centers in the United States; Box 2.5 Technology Centers; Box 2.6 R&D-The Helsinki Culminatum, Finland; Box 2.7 Skills Training-The Jane Addams Resource Corporation, Illinois, United States; Box 2.8 Strategic Plan of Turin, Italy
Box 2.9 Agency for Economic Development of the Greater ABC Region, São Paulo, Brazil Chapter 3 Benchmarking the Competitiveness of Brazilian Cities; Figure 3.1 Four Dimensions of the Competitiveness Index; Table 3.1 Variables Used for the Four Dimensions of the Competitiveness Index; Box 3.1 Principal Component Analysis; Table 3.2 Competitiveness Index for Large Brazilian Cities in 2000; Table 3.3 Competitiveness Index for Medium Brazilian Cities in 2000; Table 3.4 Competitiveness Index for Small Brazilian Cities in 2000
Figure 3.2 Comparison of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Porto Alegre along the Four Dimensions of Competitiveness Figure 3.3 Comparison of Teresina between 1991 and 2000 for Three Dimensions of the Competitiveness Index; Chapter 4 The Cariri Region of Ceará and the Footwear Cluster; Table 4.1 Formal Employment Share and Growth in Cariri, 1995-2005; Table 4.2 Formal Employment for the Cariri Region, Barbalha, Crato, and Juazeiro do Norte, 2005; Table 4.3 Formal Employment and Schooling in the Cariri Region, 2005; Figure 4.1 Location Quotient and Employment Growth
Table 4.4 LQ and Employment Growth: Sectors in Each Quadrant in the Cariri Region
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