Urban areas are now home to more than half the population of OECD countries. Megacities like Tokyo with more than 35 million people and Mexico with about 18.5 million, and large agglomerations such as Montreal, Helsinki, Madrid and Stockholm are often called 'engines of national growth'. They represent an important part of the national economy (up to 50% for Budapest, Seoul and Helsinki) and feature higher GDP per capita and productivity levels than their country's average. But there is also an urban paradox as cities also harbour large pockets of unemployment and poverty and suffer from probl
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