Part I: The walls go up (900-1325). Urban legacies and early medieval trends up to 1100 -- Lords and towns (1100-1225) -- Capetian expansion and new urbanism, 1225-1325 -- Part II: The walls move outward (1325-1600). Bonnes villes and the Hundred Years' War -- Royal rulers and bastioned towns -- Walled towns during the wars of religion -- Part III: The walls come down (1600-1750) -- State building and urban fortifications -- Opening towns, closing frontiers -- Conclusion: Palimpsests and modern trajectories
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