Mindsets That Promote Resilience: When Students Believe That Personal Characteristics Can Be Developed

Author / Creator
Yeager, David Scott; Dweck, Carol S.
Part of
Educational psychologist, 2012-10, Vol.47 (4), p.302-314
  • Because challenges are ubiquitous, resilience is essential for success in school and in life. In this article we review research demonstrating the impact of students' mindsets on their resilience in the face of academic and social challenges. We show that students who believe (or are taught) that intellectual abilities are qualities that can be developed (as opposed to qualities that are fixed) tend to show higher achievement across challenging school transitions and greater course completion rates in challenging math courses. New research also shows that believing (or being taught) that social attributes can be developed can lower adolescents' aggression and stress in response to peer victimization or exclusion, and result in enhanced school performance. We conclude by discussing why psychological interventions that change students' mindsets are effective and what educators can do to foster these mindsets and create resilience in educational settings.



  • Academic Ability
  • Academic Achievement
  • Adolescents
  • Aggression
  • Aggressiveness
  • Behavior modification
  • Bullying
  • Cognitive ability
  • Cognitive Restructuring
  • Educational Environment
  • Educational psychology
  • Individual Characteristics
  • Intelligence
  • Interpersonal Competence
  • Intervention
  • Mathematics Education
  • Personality Traits
  • Resilience (Psychology)
  • Self Concept
  • Stress
  • Stress Variables
  • Students
  • Teenagers
  • Therapy
  • Transitions
  • Victims

Additional Information